WorldWideScience

Sample records for cardiac muscle tissue

  1. Tissue-specific and substrate-specific mitochondrial bioenergetics in feline cardiac and skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Dela, Flemming; Koch, Jørgen;

    2015-01-01

    No studies have investigated the mitochondrial function in permeabilized muscle fiber from cats. The aim of this study was to investigate tissue-specific and substrate-specific characteristics of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in feline permeabilized oxidative muscle...... fibers. Biopsies of left ventricular cardiac muscle and soleus muscle, a type I-rich oxidative skeletal muscle, were obtained from 15 healthy domestic cats. Enzymatic activity of citrate synthase (CS), a biomarker of mitochondrial content, was measured. Mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity with various kinds of...... non-fatty-acid substrates and fatty-acid substrate in permeabilized muscle fiber was measured by using high-resolution respirometry. CS activity in the heart was 3 times higher than in the soleus muscle. Mitochondrial state 3 respiration, ADP-stimulated respiration, with complex I-linked and complex I...

  2. Cardiac Meets Skeletal: What's New in Microfluidic Models for Muscle Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visone, Roberta; Gilardi, Mara; Marsano, Anna; Rasponi, Marco; Bersini, Simone; Moretti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years microfluidics and microfabrication technique principles have been extensively exploited for biomedical applications. In this framework, organs-on-a-chip represent promising tools to reproduce key features of functional tissue units within microscale culture chambers. These systems offer the possibility to investigate the effects of biochemical, mechanical, and electrical stimulations, which are usually applied to enhance the functionality of the engineered tissues. Since the functionality of muscle tissues relies on the 3D organization and on the perfect coupling between electrochemical stimulation and mechanical contraction, great efforts have been devoted to generate biomimetic skeletal and cardiac systems to allow high-throughput pathophysiological studies and drug screening. This review critically analyzes microfluidic platforms that were designed for skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue engineering. Our aim is to highlight which specific features of the engineered systems promoted a typical reorganization of the engineered construct and to discuss how promising design solutions exploited for skeletal muscle models could be applied to improve cardiac tissue models and vice versa. PMID:27571058

  3. Simultaneous measurement of cerebral and muscle tissue parameters during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Reyhaneh; Ramadeen, Andrew; Hu, Xudong; Woldemichael, Ermias; Kim, Siwook; Dorian, Paul; Toronov, Vladislav

    2015-03-01

    In this series of animal experiments on resuscitation after cardiac arrest we had a unique opportunity to measure hyperspectral near-infrared spectroscopy (hNIRS) parameters directly on the brain dura, or on the brain through the intact pig skull, and simultaneously the muscle hNIRS parameters. Simultaneously the arterial blood pressure and carotid and femoral blood flow were recorded in real time using invasive sensors. We used a novel hyperspectral signalprocessing algorithm to extract time-dependent concentrations of water, hemoglobin, and redox state of cytochrome c oxidase during cardiac arrest and resuscitation. In addition in order to assess the validity of the non-invasive brain measurements the obtained results from the open brain was compared to the results acquired through the skull. The comparison of hNIRS data acquired on brain surface and through the adult pig skull shows that in both cases the hemoglobin and the redox state cytochrome c oxidase changed in similar ways in similar situations and in agreement with blood pressure and flow changes. The comparison of simultaneously measured brain and muscle changes showed expected differences. Overall the results show feasibility of transcranial hNIRS measurements cerebral parameters including the redox state of cytochrome oxidase in human cardiac arrest patients.

  4. Isoproterenol directs hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells to differentiate in vitro to cardiac muscle cells which can be induced to form beating heart-muscle tissue sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Aiko; Yashiro, Masateru; Mii, Sumiyuki; Aki, Ryoichi; Hamada, Yuko; Arakawa, Nobuko; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Hoffman, Robert M; Amoh, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Nestin-expressing hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area of the follicle. Previous studies have shown that HAP stem cells can differentiate to neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. HAP stem cells effected nerve and spinal cord regeneration in mouse models. Recently, we demonstrated that HAP stem cells differentiated to beating cardiac muscle cells. The differentiation potential to cardiac muscle cells was greatest in the upper part of the follicle. The beat rate of the cardiac muscle cells was stimulated by isoproterenol. In the present study, we observed that isoproterenol directs HAP stem cells to differentiate to cardiac muscle cells in large numbers in culture compared to HAP stem cells not supplemented with isoproterenol. The addition of activin A, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and basic fibroblast growth factor, along with isoproternal, induced the cardiac muscle cells to form tissue sheets of beating heart muscle cells. These results demonstrate that HAP stem cells have great potential to form beating cardiac muscle cells in tissue sheets. PMID:27104748

  5. Nanomaterials for Cardiac Myocyte Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Amezcua; Ajay Shirolkar; Carolyn Fraze; David A. Stout

    2016-01-01

    Since their synthesizing introduction to the research community, nanomaterials have infiltrated almost every corner of science and engineering. Over the last decade, one such field has begun to look at using nanomaterials for beneficial applications in tissue engineering, specifically, cardiac tissue engineering. During a myocardial infarction, part of the cardiac muscle, or myocardium, is deprived of blood. Therefore, the lack of oxygen destroys cardiomyocytes, leaving dead tissue and possib...

  6. [Time costs cardiac muscle tissue--prehospital therapy of acute myocardial infarct--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenburg, G; Pappert, D; Ohlmeier, H

    2003-01-01

    Symptoms of an acute myocardial infarction are a common reason for calling the emergency physician. Pre-hospital mortality caused by cardiac infarction is constantly high. The main potential for decreasing infarction mortality lies in the pre-hospital period. The problems and prospects of treatment in the early period are described in the case of a 73-year-old patient with an acute anterior infarction. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach is shown and discussed in this concrete case, taking into consideration the guidelines for diagnostics and therapy of acute myocardial infarction in the pre-hospital period of the German Society for Cardiology. A particular focus is the management of pre-hospital thrombolysis, the preconditions, realization and risks of which are described. In this context, the experience and competence of the emergency physician is prerequisite for the exact diagnosis and therapy. Furthermore, the importance of a smooth transition from pre-hospital therapy to intensive care is emphasized. PMID:12666508

  7. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Hyngstrom, John R; Garten, Ryan S; Diakos, Nikolaos A; Ives, Stephen J; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Drakos, Stavros; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-01-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial function. Therefore, this study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in the smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscle. Cardiac, skele...

  8. Cardiac tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILICA RADISIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that clinically sized (1-5 mm thick,compact cardiac constructs containing physiologically high density of viable cells (~108 cells/cm3 can be engineered in vitro by using biomimetic culture systems capable of providing oxygen transport and electrical stimulation, designed to mimic those in native heart. This hypothesis was tested by culturing rat heart cells on polymer scaffolds, either with perfusion of culture medium (physiologic interstitial velocity, supplementation of perfluorocarbons, or with electrical stimulation (continuous application of biphasic pulses, 2 ms, 5 V, 1 Hz. Tissue constructs cultured without perfusion or electrical stimulation served as controls. Medium perfusion and addition of perfluorocarbons resulted in compact, thick constructs containing physiologic density of viable, electromechanically coupled cells, in contrast to control constructs which had only a ~100 mm thick peripheral region with functionally connected cells. Electrical stimulation of cultured constructs resulted in markedly improved contractile properties, increased amounts of cardiac proteins, and remarkably well developed ultrastructure (similar to that of native heart as compared to non-stimulated controls. We discuss here the state of the art of cardiac tissue engineering, in light of the biomimetic approach that reproduces in vitro some of the conditions present during normal tissue development.

  9. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation...... systems of muscle have been visualized in their full complexity, including the ‘neglected' lymphatic capillaries at the level of the endomysium. These findings serve to remind us that muscle contraction is not only about force generation and transmission, but also about nutrient supply and waste removal...

  10. Distilling complexity to advance cardiac tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Brenda M; Bursac, Nenad; Domian, Ibrahim; Huang, Ngan F; Menasché, Philippe; Murry, Charles E; Pruitt, Beth; Radisic, Milica; Wu, Joseph C; Wu, Sean M; Zhang, Jianyi; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-06-01

    The promise of cardiac tissue engineering is in the ability to recapitulate in vitro the functional aspects of a healthy heart and disease pathology as well as to design replacement muscle for clinical therapy. Parts of this promise have been realized; others have not. In a meeting of scientists in this field, five central challenges or "big questions" were articulated that, if addressed, could substantially advance the current state of the art in modeling heart disease and realizing heart repair. PMID:27280684

  11. Biomimetic material strategies for cardiac tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular disease precedes many serious complications including myocardial infarction (MI) and it remains a major problem for the global community. Adult mammalian heart has limited ability to regenerate and compensate for the loss of cardiomyocytes. Restoration of cardiac function by replacement of diseased myocardium with functional cardiomyocytes is an intriguing strategy because it offers a potential cure for MI. Biomaterials are fabricated in nanometer scale dimensions by combining the chemical, biological, mechanical and electrical aspects of material for potential tissue engineering (TE) applications. Synthetic polymers offer advantageous in their ability to tailor the mechanical properties, and natural polymers offer cell recognition sites necessary for cell, adhesion and proliferation. Cardiac tissue engineering (TE) aim for the development of a bioengineered construct that can provide physical support to the damaged cardiac tissue by replacing certain functions of the damaged extracellular matrix and prevent adverse cardiac remodeling and dysfunction after MI. Electrospun nanofibers are applied as heart muscle patches, while hydrogels serve as a platform for controlled delivery of growth factors, prevent mechanical complications and assist in cell recruitment. This article reviews the applications of different natural and synthetic polymeric materials utilized as cardiac patches, injectables or 3D constructs for cardiac TE. Smart organization of nanoscale assemblies with synergistic approaches of utilizing nanofibers and hydrogels could further advance the field of cardiac tissue engineering. Rapid innovations in biomedical engineering and cell biology will bring about new insights in the development of optimal scaffolds and methods to create tissue constructs with relevant contractile properties and electrical integration to replace or substitute the diseased myocardium.

  12. Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    MILICA RADISIC; GORDANA VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that clinically sized (1-5 mm thick),compact cardiac constructs containing physiologically high density of viable cells (~108 cells/cm3) can be engineered in vitro by using biomimetic culture systems capable of providing oxygen transport and electrical stimulation, designed to mimic those in native heart. This hypothesis was tested by culturing rat heart cells on polymer scaffolds, either with perfusion of culture medium (physiologic interstitial velocity, supplementation of p...

  13. Distilling complexity to advance cardiac tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Brenda M.; Bursac, Nenad; Domian, Ibrahim; Huang, Ngan F; Menasché, Philippe; Murry, Charles; Pruitt, Beth; Radisic, Milica; Wu, Joseph C; Wu, Sean M; Zhang, Jianyi; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    The promise of cardiac tissue engineering is in the ability to recapitulate in vitro the functional aspects of healthy heart and disease pathology as well as to design replacement muscle for clinical therapy. Parts of this promise have been realized; others have not. In a meeting of scientists in this field, five central challenges or “big questions” were articulated that, if addressed, could substantially advance the current state-of-the-art in modeling heart disease and realizing heart repair. PMID:27280684

  14. Changes in arginase activity and AST enzyme levels in the cardiac andskeletal muscle and liver of lambs with white muscle disease

    OpenAIRE

    HANEDAN, Başak; ERİŞİR, MİNE; KANDEMİR, FATİH MEHMET; ÖZKARACA, MUSTAFA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate arginase activity and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in the tissues of the cardiac and skeletal muscle and liver of lambs with white muscle disease (WMD). The cardiac and skeletal muscle and liver tissues were obtained from 8 lambs with WMD and 9 apparently healthy lambs. The diagnosis of WMD was made with the detection of hyaline degeneration upon histopathological examination. A significant increase in arginase activity in the cardiac and skele...

  15. A modular approach to cardiac tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brendan M; Sefton, Michael V

    2010-10-01

    Functional cardiac tissue was prepared using a modular tissue engineering approach with the goal of creating vascularized tissue. Rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC) were seeded onto submillimeter-sized modules made of type I bovine collagen supplemented with Matrigel™ (25% v/v) embedded with cardiomyocyte (CM)-enriched neonatal rat heart cells and assembled into a contractile, macroporous, sheet-like construct. Modules (without RAEC) cultured in 10% bovine serum (BS) were more contractile and responsive to external stimulus (lower excitation threshold, higher maximum capture rate, and greater en face fractional area changes) than modules cultured in 10% fetal BS. Incorporating 25% Matrigel in the matrix reduced the excitation threshold and increased the fractional area change relative to collagen only modules (without RAEC). A coculture medium, containing 10% BS, low Mg2+ (0.814mM), and normal glucose (5.5mM), was used to maintain RAEC junction morphology (VE-cadherin) and CM contractility, although the responsiveness of CM was attenuated with RAEC on the modules. Macroporous, sheet-like module constructs were assembled by partially immobilizing a layer of modules in alginate gel until day 8, with or without RAEC. RAEC/CM module sheets were electrically responsive; however, like modules with RAEC this responsiveness was attenuated relative to CM-only sheets. Muscle bundles coexpressing cardiac troponin I and connexin-43 were evident near the perimeter of modules and at intermodule junctions. These results suggest the potential of the modular approach as a platform for building vascularized cardiac tissue. PMID:20504074

  16. Elasticity of developing cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkut, Stephanie; Swift, Joe; Krieger, Christine; Discher, Dennis

    2011-03-01

    Proper development and function of the heart from the tissue to cellular scale depends on a compliant ECM. Here we study the maturation of embryonic cardiac tissue mechanics in parallel with the effects of extracellular mechanics on individual cardiomyocyte function throughout early development. We used micropipette aspiration to measure local and bulk elastic moduli (E) of embryonic avian heart tissue from days 2-12. We observe stiffening of the early heart tube from E = 1 kPa at day 1 to E = 2 kPa at day 4, reaching neonatal values by day 12. Treating heart tubes with blebbistatin led to 30% decrease in E, indicating a significant but partial actomyosin contribution to mechanics at these stages. We performed a proteomic analysis of intact and decellularized 2-4 day heart tubes by mass spectrometry to quantify the ECM present at these stages. Isolated cardiomyocytes from 2-4 day chick embryos were cultured on collagen-coated PA gels of various stiffnesses. Beating magnitude was modulated by substrates with E = 1-2 kPa, similar to physiological E at those stages.

  17. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in cardiac tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, C; Doubell, A F

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has recently emerged as a prominent role player in intracellular signalling in the ventricular myocyte with attention being focussed on its possible role in the development of ventricular hypertrophy. It is becoming clear that MAPK is also active in other cells of cardiac origin such as cardiac fibroblasts and possible functions of this signalling pathway in the heart have yet to be explored. In this report the mammalian MAPK pathway is briefly outlined, before reviewing current knowledge of the MAPK pathway in cardiac tissue (ventricular myocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac fibroblasts). New data is also presented on the presence and activity of MAPK in two additional cardiac celltypes namely atrial myocytes and vascular endothelial cells from the coronary microcirculation. PMID:8739228

  18. Cardiac tissue engineering in magnetically actuated scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac tissue engineering offers new possibilities for the functional and structural restoration of damaged or lost heart tissue by applying cardiac patches created in vitro. Engineering such functional cardiac patches is a complex mission, involving material design on the nano- and microscale as well as the application of biological cues and stimulation patterns to promote cell survival and organization into a functional cardiac tissue. Herein, we present a novel strategy for creating a functional cardiac patch by combining the use of a macroporous alginate scaffold impregnated with magnetically responsive nanoparticles (MNPs) and the application of external magnetic stimulation. Neonatal rat cardiac cells seeded within the magnetically responsive scaffolds and stimulated by an alternating magnetic field of 5 Hz developed into matured myocardial tissue characterized by anisotropically organized striated cardiac fibers, which preserved its features for longer times than non-stimulated constructs. A greater activation of AKT phosphorylation in cardiac cell constructs after applying a short-term (20 min) external magnetic field indicated the efficacy of magnetic stimulation to actuate at a distance and provided a possible mechanism for its action. Our results point to a synergistic effect of magnetic field stimulation together with nanoparticulate features of the scaffold surface as providing the regenerating environment for cardiac cells driving their organization into functionally mature tissue. (paper)

  19. Studies of the voltage-sensitive calcium channels in smooth muscle, neuronal, and cardiac tissues using 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists and activators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the investigation of the voltage-sensitive Ca+ channels in vascular and intestinal smooth muscle, chick neural retina cells and neonatal rat cardiac myocytes using 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonists and activators. In rat aorta, the tumor promoting phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) produced Ca2+-dependent contractile responses. The responses to TPA were blocked by the Ca2+ channel antagonists. The effects of the enantiomers of Bay K 8644 and 202-791 were characterized in both rat tail artery and guinea pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle preparations using pharmacologic and radioligand binding assays. The (S)-enantiomers induced contraction and potentiated the responses to K+ depolarization. The (R)-enantiomers inhibited the tension responses to K+. All the enantiomers inhibited specific [3H]nitrendipine binding. The pharmacologic activities of both activator and antagonist ligands correlated on a 1:1 basis with the binding affinities. In chick neural retina cells the (S)-enantiomers of Bay K 8644 and 202-791 enhanced Ca2+ influx. In contrast, the (R)-enantiomers inhibited Ca2+ influx. The enantiomers of Bay K 8644 and 202-791 inhibited specific [3H]PN 200-110 binding competitively. Binding of 1,4-dihydropyridines was characterized in neonatal rat heart cells

  20. In utero undernutrition programs skeletal and cardiac muscle metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany eBeauchamp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In utero undernutrition is associated with increased risk for insulin resistance, obesity, and cardiovascular disease during adult life. A common phenotype associated with low birth weight is reduced skeletal muscle mass. Given the central role of skeletal muscle in whole body metabolism, alterations in its mass as well as its metabolic characteristics may contribute to disease risk. This review highlights the metabolic alterations in cardiac and skeletal muscle associated with in utero undernutrition and low birth weight. These tissues have high metabolic demands and are known to be sites of major metabolic dysfunction in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research demonstrates that mitochondrial energetics are decreased in skeletal and cardiac muscles of adult offspring from undernourished mothers. These effects apparently lead to the development of a thrifty phenotype, which may represent overall a compensatory mechanism programmed in utero to handle times of limited nutrient availability. However, in an environment characterized by food abundance, the effects are maladaptive and increase adulthood risks of metabolic disease.

  1. Mechanostimulation Protocols for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Govoni; Claudio Muscari; Emanuele Giordano; Carlo Guarnieri

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the inability of self-replacement by a damaged myocardium, alternative strategies to heart transplantation have been explored within the last decades and cardiac tissue engineering/regenerative medicine is among the present challenges in biomedical research. Hopefully, several studies witness the constant extension of the toolbox available to engineer a fully functional, contractile, and robust cardiac tissue using different combinations of cells, template bioscaffolds, and biophysic...

  2. Controlling the structural and functional anisotropy of engineered cardiac tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to control the degree of structural and functional anisotropy in 3D engineered cardiac tissues would have high utility for both in vitro studies of cardiac muscle physiology and pathology as well as potential tissue engineering therapies for myocardial infarction. Here, we applied a high aspect ratio soft lithography technique to generate network-like tissue patches seeded with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Fabricating longer elliptical pores within the patch networks increased the overall cardiomyocyte and extracellular matrix alignment within the patch. Improved uniformity of cell and matrix alignment yielded an increase in anisotropy of action potential propagation and faster longitudinal conduction velocity (LCV). Cardiac tissue patches with a higher degree of cardiomyocyte alignment and electrical anisotropy also demonstrated greater isometric twitch forces. After two weeks of culture, specific measures of electrical and contractile function (LCV = 26.8 ± 0.8 cm s−1, specific twitch force = 8.9 ± 1.1 mN mm−2 for the longest pores studied) were comparable to those of neonatal rat myocardium. We have thus described methodology for engineering of highly functional 3D engineered cardiac tissues with controllable degree of anisotropy. (paper)

  3. Recombinant proteins secreted from tissue-engineered bioartificial muscle improve cardiac dysfunction and suppress cardiomyocyte apoptosis in rats with heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Shu-ling; WANG Yong-jin; WANG Xiao-lin; LU Yong-xin; WU Yin; LIU Qi-yun; MI Shao-hua; XU Yu-lan

    2010-01-01

    Background Tissue-engineered bioartificial muscle-based gene therapy represents a promising approach for the treatment of heart diseases. Experimental and clinical studies suggest that systemic administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) protein or overexpression of IGF-1 in the heart exerts a favorable effect on cardiovascular function. This study aimed to investigate a chronic stage after myocardial infarction (MI) and the potential therapeutic effects of delivering a human IGF-1 gene by tissue-engineered bioartificial muscles (BAMs) following coronary artery ligation in Sprague-Dawley rats.Methods Ligation of the left coronary artery or sham operation was performed. Primary skeletal myoblasts were retrovirally transduced to synthesize and secrete recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1), and green fluorescent protein (GFP), and tissue-engineered into implantable BAMs. The rats that underwent ligation were randomly assigned to 2 groups: MI-IGF group (n=6) and MI-GFP group (n=6). The MI-IGF group received rhIGF-secreting BAM (IGF-BAMs) transplantation, and the MI-GFP group received GFP-secreting BAM (GFP-BAMs) transplantation. Another group of rats served as the sham operation group, which was also randomly assigned to 2 subgroups: S-IGF group (n=6)and S-GFP group (n=6). The S-IGF group underwent IGF-1-BAM transplantation, and S-GFP group underwent GFP-BAM transplantation. IGF-1-BAMs and GFP-BAMs were implanted subcutaneously into syngeneic rats after two weeks of operation was performed. Four weeks after the treatment, hemodynamics was performed. IGF-1 was measured by radioimmunoassay, and then the rats were sacrificed and ventricular samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to examine the mRNA expression of bax and Bcl-2. TNF-α and caspase 3 expression in myocardium was examined by Western blotting.Results Primary rat myoblasts were retrovirally transduced to

  4. Muscle-derived stem cells isolated as non-adherent population give rise to cardiac, skeletal muscle and neural lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cells with the ability to differentiate in specialized cell types can be extracted from a wide array of adult tissues including skeletal muscle. Here we have analyzed a population of cells isolated from skeletal muscle on the basis of their poor adherence on uncoated or collagen-coated dishes that show multi-lineage differentiation in vitro. When analysed under proliferative conditions, these cells express stem cell surface markers Sca-1 (65%) and Bcrp-1 (80%) but also MyoD (15%), Neuronal β III-tubulin (25%), GFAP (30%) or Nkx2.5 (1%). Although capable of growing as non-attached spheres for months, when given an appropriate matrix, these cells adhere giving rise to skeletal muscle, neuronal and cardiac muscle cell lineages. A similar cell population could not be isolated from either bone marrow or cardiac tissue suggesting their specificity to skeletal muscle. When injected into damaged muscle, these non-adherent muscle-derived cells are retrieved expressing Pax7, in a sublaminar position characterizing satellite cells and participate in forming new myofibers. These data show that a non-adherent stem cell population can be specifically isolated and expanded from skeletal muscle and upon attachment to a matrix spontaneously differentiate into muscle, cardiac and neuronal lineages in vitro. Although competing with resident satellite cells, these cells are shown to significantly contribute to repair of injured muscle in vivo supporting that a similar muscle-derived non-adherent cell population from human muscle may be useful in treatment of neuromuscular disorders

  5. Engineering skeletal muscle tissue in bioreactor systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Yang; Li Dong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To give a concise review of the current state of the art in tissue engineering (TE) related to skeletal muscle and kinds of bioreactor environment.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and guidelines.Study selection A total of 106 articles were selected from several hundred original articles or reviews.The content of selected articles is in accordance with our purpose and the authors are authorized scientists in the study of engineered muscle tissue in bioreactor.Results Skeletal muscle TE is a promising interdisciplinary field which aims at the reconstruction of skeletal muscle loss.Although numerous studies have indicated that engineering skeletal muscle tissue may be of great importance in medicine in the near future,this technique still represents a limited degree of success.Since tissue-engineered muscle constructs require an adequate connection to the vascular system for efficient transport of oxygen,carbon dioxide,nutrients and waste products.Moreover,functional and clinically applicable muscle constructs depend on adequate neuromuscular junctions with neural calls.Third,in order to engineer muscle tissue successfully,it may be beneficial to mimic the in vivo environment of muscle through association with adequate stimuli from bioreactors.Conclusion Vascular system and bioreactors are necessary for development and maintenance of engineered muscle in order to provide circulation within the construct.

  6. Targeting of gene expression to skeletal and cardiac muscle of trangenic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, A T; DeMayo, F; Lei, X; Schwartz, R J

    1991-01-01

    The tissue restricted and developmental potentiation of transcription by chicken alpha-skeletal actin promoter regions fused to the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) were characterized in transgenic mice. Six of eight expressing transgenic mouse lines containing the chicken alpha-skeletal actin promoter fused to CAT resulted in preferential transgene transcription in skeletal muscle tissue, similar to the endogenous mouse alpha-skeletal actin gene. Two of the eight lines departed from the preferred pattern of skeletal muscle expression with primary expression of the transgene in the heart, a tissue containing primarily cardiac actin isoforms. Developmentally, a transition from embryonic heart to fetal and neonatal skeletal muscle expression was produced by the transgene promoter, a pattern of regulation similar to that of the endogenous alpha-skeletal actin gene. Instances of departure of transgene expression from the endogenous gene implied the existance of higher order muscle gene regulatory mechanisms. PMID:1367249

  7. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase efficiently phosphorylates serine 15 of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Matthew P.; Sikkink, Laura A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Penheiter, Alan R. [Molecular Medicine Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Burghardt, Thomas P., E-mail: burghardt@mayo.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Ajtai, Katalin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) is phosphorylated at S15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a widely believed that MYL2 is a poor substrate for smMLCK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In fact, smMLCK efficiently and rapidly phosphorylates S15 in MYL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation kinetics measured by novel fluorescence method without radioactivity. -- Abstract: Specific phosphorylation of the human ventricular cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) modifies the protein at S15. This modification affects MYL2 secondary structure and modulates the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of contraction in cardiac tissue. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase prevalent in uterus and present in other contracting tissues including cardiac muscle. The recombinant 130 kDa (short) smMLCK phosphorylated S15 in MYL2 in vitro. Specific modification of S15 was verified using the direct detection of the phospho group on S15 with mass spectrometry. SmMLCK also specifically phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain S15 in porcine ventricular myosin and chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (S20 in smooth muscle) but failed to phosphorylate the myosin regulatory light chain in rabbit skeletal myosin. Phosphorylation kinetics, measured using a novel fluorescence method eliminating the use of radioactive isotopes, indicates similar Michaelis-Menten V{sub max} and K{sub M} for regulatory light chain S15 phosphorylation rates in MYL2, porcine ventricular myosin, and chicken gizzard myosin. These data demonstrate that smMLCK is a specific and efficient kinase for the in vitro phosphorylation of MYL2, cardiac, and smooth muscle myosin. Whether smMLCK plays a role in cardiac muscle regulation or response to a disease causing stimulus is unclear but it should be considered a potentially significant

  8. Development of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in cardiac and skeletal muscles from harp and hooded seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J M; Skomp, N; Bishop, N; Lestyk, K; Hammill, M

    2010-03-01

    In diving animals, skeletal muscle adaptations to extend underwater time despite selective vasoconstriction include elevated myoglobin (Mb) concentrations, high acid buffering ability (beta) and high aerobic and anaerobic enzyme activities. However, because cardiac muscle is perfused during dives, it may rely less heavily on Mb, beta and anaerobic pathways to support contractile activity. In addition, because cardiac tissue must sustain contractile activity even before birth, it may be more physiologically mature at birth and/or develop faster than skeletal muscles. To test these hypotheses, we measured Mb levels, beta and the activities of citrate synthase (CS), beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HOAD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in cardiac and skeletal muscle samples from 72 harp and hooded seals, ranging in age from fetuses to adults. Results indicate that in adults cardiac muscle had lower Mb levels (14.7%), beta (55.5%) and LDH activity (36.2%) but higher CS (459.6%) and HOAD (371.3%) activities (all Pseals had significantly lower [Mb] (44.7%) beta (80.7%) and LDH activity (89.5%) than adults (all Pseal hearts do not exhibit unique adaptations to the challenges of an aquatic existence. PMID:20154189

  9. Endogenous L-Carnosine Level in Diabetes Rat Cardiac Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Yali Liu; Dan Su; Ling Zhang; Shaofeng Wei; Kuangyi Liu; Mi Peng; Hanyun Li; Yonggui Song

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for quantitation of cardiac muscle carnosine levels using HPLC-UV is described. In this simple and reliable method, carnosine from the rat cardiac muscle and the internal standard, thymopentin, were extracted by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The method was linear up to 60.96 μg·mL−1 for L-carnosine. The calibration curve was linear in concentration ranges from 0.5 to 60.96 μg·mL−1. The relative standard deviations obtained for intra- and interday precision were lower...

  10. cap alpha. -skeletal and. cap alpha. -cardiac actin genes are coexpressed in adult human skeletal muscle and heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, P.; Ponte, P.; Blau, H.; Kedes, L.

    1983-11-01

    The authors determined the actin isotypes encoded by 30 actin cDNA clones previously isolated from an adult human muscle cDNA library. Using 3' untranslated region probes, derived from ..cap alpha.. skeletal, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin cDNAs and from an ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genomic clone, they showed that 28 of the cDNAs correspond to ..cap alpha..-skeletal actin transcripts. Unexpectedly, however, the remaining two cDNA clones proved to derive from ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin mRNA. Sequence analysis confirmed that the two skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin cDNAs are derived from transcripts of the cloned ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin gene. Comparison of total actin mRNA levels in adult skeletal muscle and adult heart revealed that the steady-state levels in skeletal muscle are about twofold greater, per microgram of total cellular RNA, than those in heart. Thus, in skeletal muscle and in heart, both of the sarcomeric actin mRNA isotypes are quite abundant transcripts. They conclude that ..cap alpha..-skeletal and ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genes are coexpressed as an actin pair in human adult striated muscles. Since the smooth-muscle actins (aortic and stomach) and the cytoplasmic actins (..beta.. and ..gamma..) are known to be coexpressed in smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells, respectively, they postulate that coexpression of actin pairs may be a common feature of mammalian actin gene expression in all tissues.

  11. Endogenous L-Carnosine Level in Diabetes Rat Cardiac Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yali; Su, Dan; Zhang, Ling; Wei, Shaofeng; Liu, Kuangyi; Peng, Mi; Li, Hanyun; Song, Yonggui

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for quantitation of cardiac muscle carnosine levels using HPLC-UV is described. In this simple and reliable method, carnosine from the rat cardiac muscle and the internal standard, thymopentin, were extracted by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The method was linear up to 60.96 μg·mL−1 for L-carnosine. The calibration curve was linear in concentration ranges from 0.5 to 60.96 μg·mL−1. The relative standard deviations obtained for intra- and interday precision were lower than 12% and the recoveries were higher than 90% for both carnosine and internal standard. We successfully applied this method to the analysis of endogenous carnosine in cardiac muscle of the diabetes rats and healthy control rats. The concentration of carnosine was significantly lower in the diabetes rats group, compared to that in the healthy control rats. These results support the usefulness of this method as a means of quantitating carnosine and illustrate the important role of L-carnosine in cardiac muscle.

  12. Endogenous L-Carnosine Level in Diabetes Rat Cardiac Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yali; Su, Dan; Zhang, Ling; Wei, Shaofeng; Liu, Kuangyi; Peng, Mi; Li, Hanyun; Song, Yonggui

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for quantitation of cardiac muscle carnosine levels using HPLC-UV is described. In this simple and reliable method, carnosine from the rat cardiac muscle and the internal standard, thymopentin, were extracted by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The method was linear up to 60.96 μg·mL(-1) for L-carnosine. The calibration curve was linear in concentration ranges from 0.5 to 60.96 μg·mL(-1). The relative standard deviations obtained for intra- and interday precision were lower than 12% and the recoveries were higher than 90% for both carnosine and internal standard. We successfully applied this method to the analysis of endogenous carnosine in cardiac muscle of the diabetes rats and healthy control rats. The concentration of carnosine was significantly lower in the diabetes rats group, compared to that in the healthy control rats. These results support the usefulness of this method as a means of quantitating carnosine and illustrate the important role of L-carnosine in cardiac muscle. PMID:27190533

  13. Endogenous L-Carnosine Level in Diabetes Rat Cardiac Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for quantitation of cardiac muscle carnosine levels using HPLC-UV is described. In this simple and reliable method, carnosine from the rat cardiac muscle and the internal standard, thymopentin, were extracted by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The method was linear up to 60.96 μg·mL−1 for L-carnosine. The calibration curve was linear in concentration ranges from 0.5 to 60.96 μg·mL−1. The relative standard deviations obtained for intra- and interday precision were lower than 12% and the recoveries were higher than 90% for both carnosine and internal standard. We successfully applied this method to the analysis of endogenous carnosine in cardiac muscle of the diabetes rats and healthy control rats. The concentration of carnosine was significantly lower in the diabetes rats group, compared to that in the healthy control rats. These results support the usefulness of this method as a means of quantitating carnosine and illustrate the important role of L-carnosine in cardiac muscle.

  14. Changes in the cardiac muscle electric activity as a result of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajek, Magdalena; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Kalawski, Ryszard; Kulczak, Mariusz

    2008-01-01

    Many bioelectric signals have a complex internal structure that can be a rich source of information on the tissue or cell processes. The structure of such signals can be analysed in detail by applying digital methods of signal processing. Therefore, of substantial use in diagnosis of the coronary arterial disease is the method of digital enhancement of increasing signal resolution ECG (NURSE-ECG), permitting detection of temporary changes in the electric potentials in the cardiac muscle in the process of depolarisation. Thanks to the application of NURSE-ECG it has become possible to detect relatively small changes in the electric activity of particular fragments of the cardiac muscle undetectable by the standard ECG method, caused by ischemia, the effect of a drug or infarct. The aim of this study was to identify and analyse changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle as a result of the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) operation. In this study the method of NURSE-ECG has been applied in order to identify and analyse changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle as a result of the CABG operation. In the study performed in cooperation of the Institute of Physics Adam Mickiewicz University and the Strus Hospital, Cardiac Surgery Ward, 37 patients with advanced coronary arterial disease were asked to participate. The patients were examined prior to the operation, on the day after the operation and two months after the operation and a year after the operation. The ECG recordings were subjected to a numerical procedure of resolution enhancement by a NURSE-ECG program to reveal the tentative changes in the electric potential of the cardiac muscle on its depolarisation. Results of the study have shown that the NURSE ECG method can be applied to monitor changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle occurring as a result of CABG operation. One the second day after the operation in the majority of patients (70%) a rapid decrease of the total

  15. Effect of HIV-1-related protein expression on cardiac and skeletal muscles from transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidot David M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection and the consequent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has protean manifestations, including muscle wasting and cardiomyopathy, which contribute to its high morbidity. The pathogenesis of these myopathies remains partially understood, and may include nutritional deficiencies, biochemical abnormalities, inflammation, and other mechanisms due to viral infection and replication. Growing evidence has suggested that HIV-1-related proteins expressed by the host in response to viral infection, including Tat and gp120, may also be involved in the pathophysiology of AIDS, particularly in cells or tissues that are not directly infected with HIV-1. To explore the potentially independent effects of HIV-1-related proteins on heart and skeletal muscles, we used a transgenic rat model that expresses several HIV-1-related proteins (e.g., Tat, gp120, and Nef. Outcome measures included basic heart and skeletal muscle morphology, glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress, and gene expressions of atrogin-1, muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF-1 and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGFβ1, three factors associated with muscle catabolism. Results Consistent with HIV-1 associated myopathies in humans, HIV-1 transgenic rats had increased relative heart masses, decreased relative masses of soleus, plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles, and decreased total and myosin heavy chain type-specific plantaris muscle fiber areas. In both tissues, the levels of cystine (Cyss, the oxidized form of the anti-oxidant cysteine (Cys, and Cyss:Cys ratios were significantly elevated, and cardiac tissue from HIV-1 transgenic rats had altered glutathione metabolism, all reflective of significant oxidative stress. In HIV-1 transgenic rat hearts, MuRF-1 gene expression was increased. Further, HIV-1-related protein expression also increased atrogin-1 (~14- and ~3-fold and TGFβ1 (~5-fold and ~3-fold in heart and

  16. One enhancer mediates mafK transcriptional activation in both hematopoietic and cardiac muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuoka, Fumiki; Motohashi, Hozumi; Onodera, Ko; Suwabe, Naruyoshi; Engel, James Douglas; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    Members of the small Maf family of transcription factors play important roles in hematopoiesis. Using transgenic assays, we discovered a tissue-specific enhancer 3′ to the mafK gene. This enhancer directs mafK transcription in hematopoietic as well as in developing cardiac muscle cells, and was thus designated the hematopoietic and cardiac enhancer of mafK (HCEK). Only two of four GATA consensus motifs identified within HCEK contributed to enhancer activity, and both of these sites were requi...

  17. Cardiac cachexia and muscle wasting: definition, physiopathology, and clinical consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoshi MP

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marina P Okoshi,1 Fernando G Romeiro,1 Paula F Martinez,1,2 Silvio A Oliveira Jr,1,2 Bertha F Polegato,1 Katashi Okoshi11Internal Medicine Department, Botucatu Medical School, Sao Paulo State University, UNESP, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 2School of Physiotherapy, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, BrazilAbstract: Cachexia and muscle wasting are frequently observed in heart failure patients. Cachexia is a predictor of reduced survival, independent of important parameters such as age, heart failure functional class, and functional capacity. Muscle and fat wasting can also predict adverse outcome during cardiac failure. Only more recently were these conditions defined in International Consensus. Considering that heart failure is an inflammatory disease, cardiac cachexia has been diagnosed by finding a body weight loss >5%, in the absence of other diseases and independent of other criteria. Muscle wasting has been defined as lean appendicular mass corrected for height squared of 2 standard deviations or more below the mean for healthy individuals between 20 years and 30 years old from the same ethnic group. The etiology of heart failure-associated cachexia and muscle wasting is multifactorial, and the underlying physiopathological mechanisms are not completely understood. The most important factors are reduced food intake, gastrointestinal alterations, immunological activation, neurohormonal abnormalities, and an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic processes. Cachexia and muscle wasting have clinical consequences in several organs and systems including the gastrointestinal and erythropoietic systems, and the heart, previously affected by the primary disease. We hope that a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in their physiopathology will allow the development of pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies to effectively prevent and treat heart failure-induced cachexia and muscle wasting before significant body

  18. Interpreting Biomagnetic Fields of Planar Wave Fronts in Cardiac Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Rodrigo Weber; Koch, Hans

    2005-01-01

    The recent results of Holzer and co-workers reveal the existence of net currents that flow along the front of a planar wave propagating through cardiac tissue. This is an important contribution toward the better understanding of the physics of biomagnetic fields. However, although the authors claim their results reveal particular bidomain properties, we show in this short letter that the results allow multiple interpretations. For instance, cardiac anisotropy by itself may also explain the ex...

  19. Differentiation of troponin in cardiac and skeletal muscles in chicken embryos as studied by immunofluorescence microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    The differentiation of troponin (TN) in cardiac and skeletal muscles of chicken embryos was studied by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Serial sections of embryos were stained with antibodies specific to TN components (TN-T, -I, and -C) from adult chicken cardiac and skeletal muscles. Cardiac muscle began to be stained with antibodies raised against cardiac TN components in embryos after stage 10 (Hamburger and Hamilton numbering, 1951, J. Morphol. 88:49-92). It reacted also with antis...

  20. Cardiac autoimmunity in HIV related heart muscle disease

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, P; Goldman, J; Caforio, A; Jacob, A.; Baig, M.; Brettle, R; Haven, A; Boon, N.; McKenna, W

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To assess the frequency of circulating cardiac specific autoantibodies in HIV positive patients with and without echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular dysfunction.
Subjects—74 HIV positive patients including 28 with echocardiographic evidence of heart muscle disease, 52 HIV negative people at low risk of HIV infection, and 14 HIV negative drug users who had all undergone non-invasive cardiac assessment were studied along with a group of 200 healthy blood donors.
Results—Car...

  1. Biomaterial based cardiac tissue engineering and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyer, Locke Davenport; Montgomery, Miles; Zhao, Yimu; Xiao, Yun; Conant, Genevieve; Korolj, Anastasia; Radisic, Milica

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide, necessitating the development of effective treatment strategies. A myocardial infarction involves the blockage of a coronary artery leading to depletion of nutrient and oxygen supply to cardiomyocytes and massive cell death in a region of the myocardium. Cardiac tissue engineering is the growth of functional cardiac tissue in vitro on biomaterial scaffolds for regenerative medicine application. This strategy relies on the optimization of the complex relationship between cell networks and biomaterial properties. In this review, we discuss important biomaterial properties for cardiac tissue engineering applications, such as elasticity, degradation, and induced host response, and their relationship to engineered cardiac cell environments. With these properties in mind, we also emphasize in vitro use of cardiac tissues for high-throughput drug screening and disease modelling. PMID:25989939

  2. Calsequestrins in skeletal and cardiac muscle from adult Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Sandra; Mosole, Simone; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Argenton, Francesco; Volpe, Pompeo; Nori, Alessandra

    2016-04-01

    Calsequestrin (Casq) is a high capacity, low affinity Ca(2+)-binding protein, critical for Ca(2+)-buffering in cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. All vertebrates have multiple genes encoding for different Casq isoforms. Increasing interest has been focused on mammalian and human Casq genes since mutations of both cardiac (Casq2) and skeletal muscle (Casq1) isoforms cause different, and sometime severe, human pathologies. Danio rerio (zebrafish) is a powerful model for studying function and mutations of human proteins. In this work, expression, biochemical properties cellular and sub-cellular localization of D. rerio native Casq isoforms are investigated. By quantitative PCR, three mRNAs were detected in skeletal muscle and heart with different abundances. Three zebrafish Casqs: Casq1a, Casq1b and Casq2 were identified by mass spectrometry (Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002455). Skeletal and cardiac zebrafish calsequestrins share properties with mammalian Casq1 and Casq2. Skeletal Casqs were found primarily, but not exclusively, at the sarcomere Z-line level where terminal cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum are located. PMID:26585961

  3. Muscle and bone, two interconnected tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Camille; Wittrant, Yohann; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Walrand, Stéphane; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-05-01

    As bones are levers for skeletal muscle to exert forces, both are complementary and essential for locomotion and individual autonomy. In the past decades, the idea of a bone-muscle unit has emerged. Numerous studies have confirmed this hypothesis from in utero to aging works. Space flight, bed rest as well as osteoporosis and sarcopenia experimentations have allowed to accumulate considerable evidence. Mechanical loading is a key mechanism linking both tissues with a central promoting role of physical activity. Moreover, the skeletal muscle secretome accounts various molecules that affect bone including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-15, myostatin, osteoglycin (OGN), FAM5C, Tmem119 and osteoactivin. Even though studies on the potential effects of bone on muscle metabolism are sparse, few osteokines have been identified. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and Wnt3a, which are secreted by osteocytes, osteocalcin (OCN) and IGF-1, which are produced by osteoblasts and sclerostin which is secreted by both cell types, might impact skeletal muscle cells. Cartilage and adipose tissue are also likely to participate to this control loop and should not be set aside. Indeed, chondrocytes are known to secrete Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and adipocytes produce leptin, adiponectin and IL-6, which potentially modulate bone and muscle metabolisms. The understanding of this system will enable to define new levers to prevent/treat sarcopenia and osteoporosis at the same time. These strategies might include nutritional interventions and physical exercise. PMID:25804855

  4. Incretin attenuates diabetes-induced damage in rat cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdElmonem Elbassuoni, Eman

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), as a member of the incretin family, has a role in glucose homeostasis, its receptors distributed throughout the body, including the heart. The aim was to investigate cardiac lesions following diabetes induction, and the potential effect of GLP-1 on this type of lesions and the molecular mechanism driving this activity. Adult male rats were classified into: normal, diabetic, 4-week high-dose exenatide-treated diabetic rats, 4-week low-dose exenatide-treated diabetic rats, and 1-week exenatide-treated diabetic rats. The following parameters were measured: in blood: glucose, insulin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB), and CK-MB relative index; in cardiac tissue: lipid peroxide (LPO) and some antioxidant enzymes. The untreated diabetic group displayed significant increases in blood level of glucose, LDH, and CK-MB, and cardiac tissue LPO, and a significant decrease in cardiac tissue antioxidant enzymes. GLP-1 supplementation in diabetic rats definitely decreased the hyperglycemia and abolished the detrimental effects of diabetes on the cardiac tissue. The effect of GLP-1 on blood glucose and on the heart also appeared after a short supplementation period (1 week). It can be concluded that GLP-1 has beneficial effects on diabetes-induced oxidative cardiac tissue damage, most probably via its antioxidant effect directly acting on cardiac tissue and independent of its hypoglycemic effect. PMID:25011640

  5. Bioactive polymers for cardiac tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Samuel Thomas

    2007-05-01

    Prevalent in the US and worldwide, acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) can cause ischemic injuries to the heart that persist and lead to progressive degradation of the organ. Tissue engineering techniques exploiting biomaterials present a hopeful means of treating these injuries, either by mechanically stabilizing the injured ventricle, or by fostering cell growth to replace myocytes lost to damage. This thesis describes the development and testing of a synthetic extracellular matrix for cardiac tissue engineering applications. The first stage of this process was using an advanced finite element model of an injured ovine left ventricle to evaluate the potential benefits of injecting synthetic materials into the heart. These simulations indicated that addition of small amounts non-contractile material (on the order of 1--5% total wall volume) to infarct border zone regions reduced pathological systolic fiber stress to levels near those found in normal remote regions. Simulations also determined that direct addition to the infarct itself caused increases in ventricle ejection fraction while the underlying performance of the pump, ascertained by the Starling relation, was not improved. From these theoretical results, biomaterials were developed specifically for injection into the injured myocardium, and were characterized and tested for their mechanical properties and ability to sustain the proliferation of a stem cell population suitable for transplantation. Thermoresponsive synthetic copolymer hydrogels consisting of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylic acid, p(NIPAAm-co-AAc), crosslinked with protease degradable amino acid sequences and modified with integrin binding ligands were synthesized, characterized in vitro, and used for myocardial implantation. These injectable materials could maintain a population of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in both two dimensional and three dimensional culture, and when tested in vivo in a murine infarct model they

  6. Tissue engineering skeletal muscle for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payumo, Francis C.; Kim, Hyun D.; Sherling, Michael A.; Smith, Lee P.; Powell, Courtney; Wang, Xiao; Keeping, Hugh S.; Valentini, Robert F.; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    With current technology, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle analogues (bioartificial muscles) generate too little active force to be clinically useful in orthopaedic applications. They have been engineered genetically with numerous transgenes (growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor-1, erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor), and have been shown to deliver these therapeutic proteins either locally or systemically for months in vivo. Bone morphogenetic proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily are osteoinductive molecules that drive the differentiation pathway of mesenchymal cells toward the chondroblastic or osteoblastic lineage, and stimulate bone formation in vivo. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells endogenously expressing bone morphogenetic proteins might serve as a vehicle for systemic bone morphogenetic protein delivery in vivo, proliferating skeletal myoblasts (C2C12) were transduced with a replication defective retrovirus containing the gene for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (C2BMP-6). The C2BMP-6 cells constitutively expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 and synthesized bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, based on increased alkaline phosphatase activity in coincubated mesenchymal cells. C2BMP-6 cells did not secrete soluble, bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, but retained the bioactivity in the cell layer. Therefore, genetically-engineered skeletal muscle cells might serve as a platform for long-term delivery of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins locally.

  7. Pharyngeal mesoderm regulatory network controls cardiac and head muscle morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Itamar; Maezawa, Yoshiro; Avraham, Roi; Rinon, Ariel; Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Cross, Joe W.; Leviatan, Noam; Hegesh, Julius; Roy, Achira; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Rechavi, Gideon; Carvajal, Jaime; Tole, Shubha; Kioussi, Chrissa; Quaggin, Susan; Tzahor, Eldad

    2012-01-01

    The search for developmental mechanisms driving vertebrate organogenesis has paved the way toward a deeper understanding of birth defects. During embryogenesis, parts of the heart and craniofacial muscles arise from pharyngeal mesoderm (PM) progenitors. Here, we reveal a hierarchical regulatory network of a set of transcription factors expressed in the PM that initiates heart and craniofacial organogenesis. Genetic perturbation of this network in mice resulted in heart and craniofacial muscle defects, revealing robust cross-regulation between its members. We identified Lhx2 as a previously undescribed player during cardiac and pharyngeal muscle development. Lhx2 and Tcf21 genetically interact with Tbx1, the major determinant in the etiology of DiGeorge/velo-cardio-facial/22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Furthermore, knockout of these genes in the mouse recapitulates specific cardiac features of this syndrome. We suggest that PM-derived cardiogenesis and myogenesis are network properties rather than properties specific to individual PM members. These findings shed new light on the developmental underpinnings of congenital defects. PMID:23112163

  8. Development and progress of engineering of skeletal muscle tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, GQ; Liao, H.

    2009-01-01

    Engineering skeletal muscle tissue remains still a challenge, and numerous studies have indicated that this technique may be of great importance in medicine in the near future. This article reviews some of the recent findings resulting from tissue engineering science related to the contractile behavior and the phenotypes of muscle tissue cells in different three-dimensional environment, and discusses how tissue engineering could be used to create and regenerate skeletal muscle, as well as the...

  9. Living cardiac tissue slices: an organotypic pseudo two-dimensional model for cardiac biophysics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ken; Terrar, Derek; Gavaghan, David J; Mu-U-Min, Razik; Kohl, Peter; Bollensdorff, Christian

    2014-08-01

    Living cardiac tissue slices, a pseudo two-dimensional (2D) preparation, have received less attention than isolated single cells, cell cultures, or Langendorff-perfused hearts in cardiac biophysics research. This is, in part, due to difficulties associated with sectioning cardiac tissue to obtain live slices. With moderate complexity, native cell-types, and well-preserved cell-cell electrical and mechanical interconnections, cardiac tissue slices have several advantages for studying cardiac electrophysiology. The trans-membrane potential (Vm) has, thus far, mainly been explored using multi-electrode arrays. Here, we combine tissue slices with optical mapping to monitor Vm and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). This combination opens up the possibility of studying the effects of experimental interventions upon action potential (AP) and calcium transient (CaT) dynamics in 2D, and with relatively high spatio-temporal resolution. As an intervention, we conducted proof-of-principle application of stretch. Mechanical stimulation of cardiac preparations is well-established for membrane patches, single cells and whole heart preparations. For cardiac tissue slices, it is possible to apply stretch perpendicular or parallel to the dominant orientation of cells, while keeping the preparation in a constant focal plane for fluorescent imaging of in-slice functional dynamics. Slice-to-slice comparison furthermore allows one to assess transmural differences in ventricular tissue responses to mechanical challenges. We developed and tested application of axial stretch to cardiac tissue slices, using a manually-controlled stretching device, and recorded Vm and [Ca(2+)]i by optical mapping before, during, and after application of stretch. Living cardiac tissue slices, exposed to axial stretch, show an initial shortening in both AP and CaT duration upon stretch application, followed in most cases by a gradual prolongation of AP and CaT duration during stretch maintained

  10. Arginine metabolism by macrophages promotes cardiac and muscle fibrosis in mdx muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Wehling-Henricks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common, lethal disease of childhood. One of 3500 new-born males suffers from this universally-lethal disease. Other than the use of corticosteroids, little is available to affect the relentless progress of the disease, leading many families to use dietary supplements in hopes of reducing the progression or severity of muscle wasting. Arginine is commonly used as a dietary supplement and its use has been reported to have beneficial effects following short-term administration to mdx mice, a genetic model of DMD. However, the long-term effects of arginine supplementation are unknown. This lack of knowledge about the long-term effects of increased arginine metabolism is important because elevated arginine metabolism can increase tissue fibrosis, and increased fibrosis of skeletal muscles and the heart is an important and potentially life-threatening feature of DMD. METHODOLOGY: We use both genetic and nutritional manipulations to test whether changes in arginase metabolism promote fibrosis and increase pathology in mdx mice. Our findings show that fibrotic lesions in mdx muscle are enriched with arginase-2-expressing macrophages and that muscle macrophages stimulated with cytokines that activate the M2 phenotype show elevated arginase activity and expression. We generated a line of arginase-2-null mutant mdx mice and found that the mutation reduced fibrosis in muscles of 18-month-old mdx mice, and reduced kyphosis that is attributable to muscle fibrosis. We also observed that dietary supplementation with arginine for 17-months increased mdx muscle fibrosis. In contrast, arginine-2 mutation did not reduce cardiac fibrosis or affect cardiac function assessed by echocardiography, although 17-months of dietary supplementation with arginine increased cardiac fibrosis. Long-term arginine treatments did not decrease matrix metalloproteinase-2 or -9 or increase the expression of utrophin, which have

  11. Phosphorylation of Titin Modulates Passive Stiffness of Cardiac Muscle in a Titin Isoform-dependent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Norio; Wu, Yiming; Nair, Preetha; Granzier, Henk L.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of protein kinase A (PKA) on passive force in skinned cardiac tissues that express different isoforms of titin, i.e., stiff (N2B) and more compliant (N2BA) titins, at different levels. We used rat ventricular (RV), bovine left ventricular (BLV), and bovine left atrial (BLA) muscles (passive force: RV > BLV > BLA, with the ratio of N2B to N2BA titin, ∼90:10, ∼40:60, and ∼10:90%, respectively) and found that N2B and N2BA isoforms can both be phosphorylated by PKA. Und...

  12. Skeletal muscle tissue in movement and health: positives and negatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, Stan L

    2016-01-01

    The history of muscle physiology is a wonderful lesson in 'the scientific method'; our functional hypotheses have been limited by our ability to decipher (observe) muscle structure. The simplistic understanding of how muscles work made a large leap with the remarkable insights of A. V. Hill, who related muscle force and power to shortening velocity and energy use. However, Hill's perspective was largely limited to isometric and isotonic contractions founded on isolated muscle properties that do not always reflect how muscles function in vivo. Robert Josephson incorporated lengthening contractions into a work loop analysis that shifted the focus to dynamic muscle function, varying force, length and work done both by and on muscle during a single muscle work cycle. It became apparent that muscle is both a force generator and a spring. Titin, the missing filament in the sliding filament model, is a muscle spring, which functions very differently in cardiac versus skeletal muscle; its possible role in these two muscle types is discussed relative to their contrasting function. The good news for those of us who choose to work on skeletal muscle is that muscle has been reluctant to reveal all of its secrets. PMID:26792329

  13. Smooth muscle strips for intestinal tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Walthers

    Full Text Available Functionally contracting smooth muscle is an essential part of the engineered intestine that has not been replicated in vitro. The purpose of this study is to produce contracting smooth muscle in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle organization. We employed intact smooth muscle strips and compared them to dissociated smooth muscle cells in culture for 14 days. Cells isolated by enzymatic digestion quickly lost maturity markers for smooth muscle cells and contained few enteric neural and glial cells. Cultured smooth muscle strips exhibited periodic contraction and maintained neural and glial markers. Smooth muscle strips cultured for 14 days also exhibited regular fluctuation of intracellular calcium, whereas cultured smooth muscle cells did not. After implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds, smooth muscle strip constructs expressed high levels of smooth muscle maturity markers as well as enteric neural and glial cells. Intact smooth muscle strips may be a useful component for engineered intestinal smooth muscle.

  14. Determination of cardiac output, tissue blood flow, volume and lipid content in Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One critical aspect of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development is the choice of values for organ blood flows, cardiac output and tissue volumes for input into models. These values vary depending upon the strain, size, age, and sex of animal for which a PBPK model is being developed. Tissue blood flows, cardiac output, tissue volume, and lipid content were determined in male S-D rats, (350-375 g, N=8). A radiolabel microsphere method utilizing Scandium (46Sc), Tin (113Sn),and Gadolinium (153Gd) was used to determine blood flow. Each rat received 3 radiolabeled injections. After the third injection, animals were sacrificed, and radioactivity in each tissue was determined in a 3-channel gamma counter. Tissues sampled include brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen, pancreas, adrenals, stomach, intestines, colon, testis, bone and skeletal muscle. Cardiac output was 142 ml/min. Blood flow values for eliminating organs were 0.49 (liver), 16.52 (kidney), and 1.77 (lung) ml/min/g tissue. Tissues which had significantly increased blood flow during the dark cycle included femur, abdonimal fat, triceps brachii and abdominal muscles, stomach, spleen and lung. Dissectable fat, organ volume, and organ lipid content were determined in a separate group of rats (N= 8). Volume and lipid content were determined for the same tissues as blood flow. Body fat was 7.35% of bw and extractable lipid content of eliminating organs was 42.3 (liver), 43.4 (kidney), and 35.9 (lung) mg/g tissue. Precise measurements should improve the accuracy of PBPK model predictions, and therfore help in reducing uncertainites in risk assessment of volatile organics and other pollutnats

  15. Effects of growth hormone on morphology of cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle and hormone levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effects of growth hormone (GH) on morphology of cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle and hormone levels in Wistar rats. Methods: The GH was given with subcutaneous injection for 15 days, the level of serum GH was determined by radiation-immune method; the body weight and the ratio of organ weight to body weight were determined; the cell appearances of cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle were observed under microscope. the control group was set up. Results; The level of serum GH and rat body weight in experimental group were obviously higher than that in the control group, but the ratio of organ weight to body weight was not obviously different in two groups; musculature hypertrophy and cell nucleolus increasing were observed under microscopy, there were no capillary vessel hyperplasia and inflammatory soakage. Conclusion: GH can induce hypertrophy of cardiac muscle cells and skeletal muscle cells but not interstitial proliferation. (authors)

  16. Force Transmission between Synergistic Skeletal Muscles through Connective Tissue Linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huub Maas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic view of skeletal muscle is that force is generated within its muscle fibers and then directly transmitted in-series, usually via tendon, onto the skeleton. In contrast, recent results suggest that muscles are mechanically connected to surrounding structures and cannot be considered as independent actuators. This article will review experiments on mechanical interactions between muscles mediated by such epimuscular myofascial force transmission in physiological and pathological muscle conditions. In a reduced preparation, involving supraphysiological muscle conditions, it is shown that connective tissues surrounding muscles are capable of transmitting substantial force. In more physiologically relevant conditions of intact muscles, however, it appears that the role of this myofascial pathway is small. In addition, it is hypothesized that connective tissues can serve as a safety net for traumatic events in muscle or tendon. Future studies are needed to investigate the importance of intermuscular force transmission during movement in health and disease.

  17. Epicardial adipose tissue and its role in cardiac physiology and disease 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacper Toczyłowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue secretes a number of cytokines, referred to as adipokines. Intensive studies conducted over the last two decades showed that adipokines exert broad effects on cardiac metabolism and function. In addition, the available data strongly suggests that these cytokines play an important role in development of cardiovascular diseases. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT has special properties that distinguish it from other deposits of visceral fat. Overall, there appears to be a close functional and anatomic relationship between the EAT and the cardiac muscle. They share the same coronary blood supply, and there is no structure separating the adipose tissue from the myocardium or coronary arteries. The role of EAT in osierdziocardiac physiology remains unclear. Its putative functions include buffering coronary arteries against the torsion induced by the arterial pulse wave and cardiac contraction, regulating fatty acid homeostasis in the coronary microcirculation, thermogenesis, and neuroprotection of the cardiac autonomic ganglia and nerves. Obesity (particularly the abdominal phenotype leads to elevated EAT content, and the available data suggests that high amount of this fat depot is associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease, cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. The mass of EAT is small compared to other fat deposits in the body. Nevertheless, its close anatomic relationship to the heart suggests that this organ is highly exposed to EAT-derived adipokines which makes this tissue a very promising area of research. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the role of EAT in cardiac physiology and development of heart disease.

  18. Evaluation of peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Kelli Maria Souza Santos; Manoel Luiz de Cerqueira Neto; Vitor Oliveira Carvalho; Valter Joviniano Santana Filho; Walderi Monteiro da Silva Junior; Amaro Afrânio Araújo Filho; Telma Cristina Fontes Cerqueira; Lucas de Assis Pereira Cacau

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Peripheral muscle strength has been little explored in the literature in the context of cardiac rehabilitation. Objective: To evaluate the peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods: This was a longitudinal observational study. The peripheral muscle strength was measured using isometric dynamometry lower limb (knee extensors and flexors) at three different times: preoperatively (M1), the day of discharge (M2) and hospital discharge (M...

  19. Construction of cardiac tissue rings using a magnetic tissue fabrication technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hirokazu; Ito, Akira; Sato, Masanori; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2010-01-01

    Here we applied a magnetic force-based tissue engineering technique to cardiac tissue fabrication. A mixture of extracellular matrix precursor and cardiomyocytes labeled with magnetic nanoparticles was added into a well containing a central polycarbonate cylinder. With the use of a magnet, the cells were attracted to the bottom of the well and allowed to form a cell layer. During cultivation, the cell layer shrank towards the cylinder, leading to the formation of a ring-shaped tissue that possessed a multilayered cell structure and contractile properties. These results indicate that magnetic tissue fabrication is a promising approach for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:21152282

  20. Construction of Cardiac Tissue Rings Using a Magnetic Tissue Fabrication Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Kamihira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we applied a magnetic force-based tissue engineering technique to cardiac tissue fabrication. A mixture of extracellular matrix precursor and cardiomyocytes labeled with magnetic nanoparticles was added into a well containing a central polycarbonate cylinder. With the use of a magnet, the cells were attracted to the bottom of the well and allowed to form a cell layer. During cultivation, the cell layer shrank towards the cylinder, leading to the formation of a ring-shaped tissue that possessed a multilayered cell structure and contractile properties. These results indicate that magnetic tissue fabrication is a promising approach for cardiac tissue engineering.

  1. Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ► Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ► Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ► Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [3H]glucose and 2-deoxy[14C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats

  2. Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Fukushima, Yuji; Kaneki, Masao [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra, E-mail: jmartyn@partners.org [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ► Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ► Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ► Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [{sup 3}H]glucose and 2-deoxy[{sup 14}C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats.

  3. Proteomic responses of skeletal and cardiac muscle to exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burniston, Jatin G.; Hoffman, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Regular exercise is effective in the prevention of chronic diseases and confers a lower risk of death in individuals displaying risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Thus, knowledge of the molecular responses to exercise provides a valuable contrast for interpreting investigations of disease and can highlight novel therapeutic targets. While exercise is an everyday experience and can be conceptualized in simple terms, exercise is a complex physiological phenomena and investigation of exercise responses requires sophisticated analytical techniques and careful standardization of the exercise stimulus. Proteomic investigation of exercise is in its infancy but the ability to link changes in function with comprehensive changes in protein expression and post-translational modification holds great promise for advancing physiology. This review highlights recent pioneering work investigating the effects of exercise in skeletal and cardiac muscle that has uncovered novel mechanisms underling the benefits of physical activity. PMID:21679117

  4. Inclusion body myositis, muscle blood vessel and cardiac amyloidosis, and transthyretin Val122Ile allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askanas, V; Engel, W K; Alvarez, R B; Frangione, B; Ghiso, J; Vidal, R

    2000-04-01

    Typical of sporadic inclusion body myositis muscle biopsies are vacuolated muscle fibers containing intracellular amyloid deposits and accumulations of "Alzheimer-characteristic" proteins. There is no muscle blood vessel or cardiac amyloidosis. We report on a 70-year-old African-American man homozygous for the transthyretin Val122Ile allele who has both sporadic inclusion body myositis and cardiac amyloidosis. His unique pathological features included transthyretin immunoreactivity in prominent muscle blood vessel amyloid and congophilic amyloid deposits within vacuolated muscle fibers. PMID:10762172

  5. Transgenic overexpression of LARGE induces α-dystroglycan hyperglycosylation in skeletal and cardiac muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Brockington

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: LARGE is one of seven putative or demonstrated glycosyltransferase enzymes defective in a common group of muscular dystrophies with reduced glycosylation of α-dystroglycan. Overexpression of LARGE induces hyperglycosylation of α-dystroglycan in both wild type and in cells from dystroglycanopathy patients, irrespective of their primary gene defect, restoring functional glycosylation. Viral delivery of LARGE to skeletal muscle in animal models of dystroglycanopathy has identical effects in vivo, suggesting that the restoration of functional glycosylation could have therapeutic applications in these disorders. Pharmacological strategies to upregulate Large expression are also being explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to asses the safety and efficacy of long term LARGE over-expression in vivo, we have generated four mouse lines expressing a human LARGE transgene. On observation, LARGE transgenic mice were indistinguishable from the wild type littermates. Tissue analysis from young mice of all four lines showed a variable pattern of transgene expression: highest in skeletal and cardiac muscles, and lower in brain, kidney and liver. Transgene expression in striated muscles correlated with α-dystroglycan hyperglycosylation, as determined by immunoreactivity to antibody IIH6 and increased laminin binding on an overlay assay. Other components of the dystroglycan complex and extracellular matrix ligands were normally expressed, and general muscle histology was indistinguishable from wild type controls. Further detailed muscle physiological analysis demonstrated a loss of force in response to eccentric exercise in the older, but not in the younger mice, suggesting this deficit developed over time. However this remained a subclinical feature as no pathology was observed in older mice in any muscles including the diaphragm, which is sensitive to mechanical load-induced damage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work shows that

  6. Cardiac tissue engineering and regeneration using cell-based therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrefai MT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad T Alrefai,1–3 Divya Murali,4 Arghya Paul,4 Khalid M Ridwan,1,2 John M Connell,1,2 Dominique Shum-Tim1,2 1Division of Cardiac Surgery, 2Division of Surgical Research, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA Abstract: Stem cell therapy and tissue engineering represent a forefront of current research in the treatment of heart disease. With these technologies, advancements are being made into therapies for acute ischemic myocardial injury and chronic, otherwise nonreversible, myocardial failure. The current clinical management of cardiac ischemia deals with reestablishing perfusion to the heart but not dealing with the irreversible damage caused by the occlusion or stenosis of the supplying vessels. The applications of these new technologies are not yet fully established as part of the management of cardiac diseases but will become so in the near future. The discussion presented here reviews some of the pioneering works at this new frontier. Key results of allogeneic and autologous stem cell trials are presented, including the use of embryonic, bone marrow-derived, adipose-derived, and resident cardiac stem cells. Keywords: stem cells, cardiomyocytes, cardiac surgery, heart failure, myocardial ischemia, heart, scaffolds, organoids, cell sheet and tissue engineering

  7. Biomimetic Polymers for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is a morbid disorder characterized by progressive cardiomyocyte (CM) dysfunction and death. Interest in cell-based therapies is growing, but sustainability of injected CMs remains a challenge. To mitigate this, we developed an injectable biomimetic Reverse Thermal Gel (RTG) specifically engineered to support long-term CM survival. This RTG biopolymer provided a solution-based delivery vehicle of CMs, which transitioned to a gel-based matrix shortly after reaching body temperature. In this study we tested the suitability of this biopolymer to sustain CM viability. The RTG was biomolecule-functionalized with poly-l-lysine or laminin. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) and adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVM) were cultured in plain-RTG and biomolecule-functionalized-RTG both under 3-dimensional (3D) conditions. Traditional 2D biomolecule-coated dishes were used as controls. We found that the RTG-lysine stimulated NRVM to spread and form heart-like functional syncytia. Regarding cell contraction, in both RTG and RTG-lysine, beating cells were recorded after 21 days. Additionally, more than 50% (p value < 0.05; n = 5) viable ARVMs, characterized by a well-defined cardiac phenotype represented by sarcomeric cross-striations, were found in the RTG-laminin after 8 days. These results exhibit the tremendous potential of a minimally invasive CM transplantation through our designed RTG-cell therapy platform. PMID:27073119

  8. Biomimetic Polymers for Cardiac Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Brisa; Martinelli, Valentina; Jeong, Mark; Bosi, Susanna; Lapasin, Romano; Taylor, Matthew R G; Long, Carlin S; Shandas, Robin; Park, Daewon; Mestroni, Luisa

    2016-05-01

    Heart failure is a morbid disorder characterized by progressive cardiomyocyte (CM) dysfunction and death. Interest in cell-based therapies is growing, but sustainability of injected CMs remains a challenge. To mitigate this, we developed an injectable biomimetic Reverse Thermal Gel (RTG) specifically engineered to support long-term CM survival. This RTG biopolymer provided a solution-based delivery vehicle of CMs, which transitioned to a gel-based matrix shortly after reaching body temperature. In this study we tested the suitability of this biopolymer to sustain CM viability. The RTG was biomolecule-functionalized with poly-l-lysine or laminin. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) and adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVM) were cultured in plain-RTG and biomolecule-functionalized-RTG both under 3-dimensional (3D) conditions. Traditional 2D biomolecule-coated dishes were used as controls. We found that the RTG-lysine stimulated NRVM to spread and form heart-like functional syncytia. Regarding cell contraction, in both RTG and RTG-lysine, beating cells were recorded after 21 days. Additionally, more than 50% (p value < 0.05; n = 5) viable ARVMs, characterized by a well-defined cardiac phenotype represented by sarcomeric cross-striations, were found in the RTG-laminin after 8 days. These results exhibit the tremendous potential of a minimally invasive CM transplantation through our designed RTG-cell therapy platform. PMID:27073119

  9. Cardiomyocytes induce endothelial cells to trans-differentiate into cardiac muscle: implications for myocardium regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condorelli, G; Borello, U; De Angelis, L; Latronico, M; Sirabella, D; Coletta, M; Galli, R; Balconi, G; Follenzi, A; Frati, G; Cusella De Angelis, M G; Gioglio, L; Amuchastegui, S; Adorini, L; Naldini, L; Vescovi, A; Dejana, E; Cossu, G

    2001-09-11

    The concept of tissue-restricted differentiation of postnatal stem cells has been challenged by recent evidence showing pluripotency for hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and neural stem cells. Furthermore, rare but well documented examples exist of already differentiated cells in developing mammals that change fate and trans-differentiate into another cell type. Here, we report that endothelial cells, either freshly isolated from embryonic vessels or established as homogeneous cells in culture, differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes and express cardiac markers when cocultured with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes or when injected into postischemic adult mouse heart. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells also differentiate into cardiomyocytes under similar experimental conditions and transiently coexpress von Willebrand factor and sarcomeric myosin. In contrast, neural stem cells, which efficiently differentiate into skeletal muscle, differentiate into cardiomyocytes at a low rate. Fibroblast growth factor 2 and bone morphogenetic protein 4, which activate cardiac differentiation in embryonic cells, do not activate cardiogenesis in endothelial cells or stimulate trans-differentiation in coculture, suggesting that different signaling molecules are responsible for cardiac induction during embryogenesis and in successive periods of development. The fact that endothelial cells can generate cardiomyocytes sheds additional light on the plasticity of endothelial cells during development and opens perspectives for cell autologous replacement therapies. PMID:11535818

  10. Molecular Cloning, Structural Analysis and Tissue Expression of Protein Phosphatase 3 Catalytic Subunit Alpha Isoform (PPP3CA Gene in Tianfu Goat Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, plays a critical role in controlling skeletal muscle fiber type. However, little information is available concerning the expression of calcineurin in goat. Therefore, protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha isoform (PPP3CA gene, also called calcineurin Aα, was cloned and its expression characterized in Tianfu goat muscle. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR analyses revealed that Tianfu goat PPP3CA was detected in cardiac muscle, biceps femoris muscle, abdominal muscle, longissimus dors muscle, and soleus muscle. High expression levels were found in biceps femoris muscle, longissimus muscle and abdominal muscle (p < 0.01, and low expression levels were seen in cardiac muscle and soleus muscle (p > 0.05. In addition, the spatial-temporal mRNA expression levels showed different variation trends in different muscles with the age of the goats. Western blotting further revealed that PPP3CA protein was expressed in the above-mentioned tissues, with the highest level in biceps femoris muscle, and the lowest level in soleus muscle. In this study, we isolated the full-length coding sequence of Tianfu goat PPP3CA gene, analyzed its structure, and investigated its expression in different muscle tissues from different age stages. These results provide a foundation for understanding the function of the PPP3CA gene in goats.

  11. Dynamics of wave fronts and filaments in anisotropic cardiac tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Dierckx, Hans J F M

    2015-01-01

    The heartbeat is mediated between cardiac cells by waves of electrical depolarisation. During cardiac arrhythmias, electrical activity was found to be organised in scroll waves which rotate around a dynamical filament curve. In this thesis, a curved-space approach is used to mathematically capture anisotropy of wave propagation. We derive for the first time the covariant laws of motion for traveling wave fronts and scroll wave filaments in anisotropic excitable media such as cardiac tissue. We show that locally varying anisotropy yields non-zero Riemann tensor components, which may alter the stability of scroll wave filaments. The instability of scroll wave filaments has been linked to transition from ventricular tachycardia to fibrillation.

  12. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promotes cardiac muscle cell proliferation, hypertrophy, and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Hidemasa; Taffet, George E.; Youker, Keith A.; Entman, Mark L.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Michael, Lloyd H.; Schneider, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle regeneration after injury is limited by “irreversible” cell cycle exit. Telomere shortening is one postulated basis for replicative senescence, via down-regulation of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT); telomere dysfunction also is associated with greater sensitivity to apoptosis. Forced expression of TERT in cardiac muscle in mice was sufficient to rescue telomerase activity and telomere length. Initially, the ventricle was hypercellular, with increased myocyte density an...

  13. The vascular smooth muscle alpha-actin gene is reactivated during cardiac hypertrophy provoked by load.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, F M; Packer, S E; Parker, T G; Michael, L H; Roberts, R; R J Schwartz; Schneider, M D

    1991-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy triggered by mechanical load possesses features in common with growth factor signal transduction. A hemodynamic load provokes rapid expression of the growth factor-inducible nuclear oncogene, c-fos, and certain peptide growth factors specifically stimulate the "fetal" cardiac genes associated with hypertrophy, even in the absence of load. These include the gene encoding vascular smooth muscle alpha-actin, the earliest alpha-actin expressed during cardiac myogenesis; howeve...

  14. Optical control of excitation waves in cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Rebecca A. B.; Klimas, Aleksandra; Ambrosi, Christina M.; Tomek, Jakub; Corbett, Alex; Entcheva, Emilia; Bub, Gil

    2015-12-01

    In nature, macroscopic excitation waves are found in a diverse range of settings including chemical reactions, metal rust, yeast, amoeba and the heart and brain. In the case of living biological tissue, the spatiotemporal patterns formed by these excitation waves are different in healthy and diseased states. Current electrical and pharmacological methods for wave modulation lack the spatiotemporal precision needed to control these patterns. Optical methods have the potential to overcome these limitations, but to date have only been demonstrated in simple systems, such as the Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical reaction. Here, we combine dye-free optical imaging with optogenetic actuation to achieve dynamic control of cardiac excitation waves. Illumination with patterned light is demonstrated to optically control the direction, speed and spiral chirality of such waves in cardiac tissue. This all-optical approach offers a new experimental platform for the study and control of pattern formation in complex biological excitable systems.

  15. Forearm soft tissue mass caused by an accessory muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Milena, G.; Ruiz Santiago, F.; Canadillas Barea, L. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Chamorro Santos, C. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Granada (Spain)

    2001-08-01

    We present a case of forearm soft tissue mass caused by an accessory muscle, distal and deep to flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. Imaging studies, mainly magnetic resonance and ultrasound, allow a specific diagnosis, and obviate unnecessary surgery. In this case, the symptoms associated with ulnar compression led to surgery and confirmed the preoperative diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Current opportunities and challenges in skeletal muscle tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Merel; Harmsen, Martin C; van Luyn, Marja J A; Werker, Paul M N

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give a concise review of the current state of the art in tissue engineering (TE) of skeletal muscle and the opportunities and challenges for future clinical applicability. The endogenous progenitor cells of skeletal muscle, i.e. satellite cells, show a high pronenes

  17. Design of Electrical Stimulation Bioreactors for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, N.; Marsano, A.; Cannizzaro, C; Voldman, J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has been shown to improve functional assembly of cardiomyocytes in vitro for cardiac tissue engineering. Carbon electrodes were found in past studies to have the best current injection characteristics. The goal of this study was to develop rational experimental design principles for the electrodes and stimulation regime, in particular electrode configuration, electrode ageing, and stimulation amplitude. Carbon rod electrodes were compared via electrochemical impedance s...

  18. Construction of Cardiac Tissue Rings Using a Magnetic Tissue Fabrication Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Masamichi Kamihira; Akira Ito; Yoshinori Kawabe; Masanori Sato; Hirokazu Akiyama

    2010-01-01

    Here we applied a magnetic force-based tissue engineering technique to cardiac tissue fabrication. A mixture of extracellular matrix precursor and cardiomyocytes labeled with magnetic nanoparticles was added into a well containing a central polycarbonate cylinder. With the use of a magnet, the cells were attracted to the bottom of the well and allowed to form a cell layer. During cultivation, the cell layer shrank towards the cylinder, leading to the formation of a ring-shaped tissue that pos...

  19. Endurance training prevents negative effects of the hypoxia mimetic dimethyloxalylglycine on cardiac and skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Francois B; Britto, Florian A; Ponçon, Benjamin; Begue, Gwenaelle; Chabi, Beatrice; Reboul, Cyril; Meyer, Gregory; Py, Guillaume

    2016-02-15

    Hypoxic preconditioning is a promising strategy to prevent hypoxia-induced damages to several tissues. This effect is related to prior stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α via inhibition of the prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), which are responsible for its degradation under normoxia. Although PHD inhibition has been shown to increase endurance performance in rodents, potential side effects of such a therapy have not been explored. Here, we investigated the effects of 1 wk of dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) treatment (150 mg/kg) on exercise capacity, as well as on cardiac and skeletal muscle function in sedentary and endurance-trained rats. DMOG improved maximal aerobic velocity and endurance in both sedentary and trained rats. This effect was associated with an increase in red blood cells without significant alteration of skeletal muscle contractile properties. In sedentary rats, DMOG treatment resulted in enhanced left ventricle (LV) weight together with impairment in diastolic function, LV relaxation, and pulse pressure. Moreover, DMOG decreased maximal oxygen uptake (state 3) of isolated mitochondria from skeletal muscle. Importantly, endurance training reversed the negative effects of DMOG treatment on cardiac function and restored maximal mitochondrial oxygen uptake to the level of sedentary placebo-treated rats. In conclusion, we provide here evidence that the PHD inhibitor DMOG has detrimental influence on myocardial and mitochondrial function in healthy rats. However, one may suppose that the deleterious influence of PHD inhibition would be potentiated in patients with already poor physical condition. Therefore, the present results prompt us to take into consideration the potential side effects of PHD inhibitors when administrated to patients. PMID:26679609

  20. Approximate analytical solutions for excitation and propagation in cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, D'Artagnan; Shiferaw, Yohannes

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that a variety of cardiac arrhythmias are initiated by a focal excitation in heart tissue. At the single cell level these currents are typically induced by intracellular processes such as spontaneous calcium release (SCR). However, it is not understood how the size and morphology of these focal excitations are related to the electrophysiological properties of cardiac cells. In this paper a detailed physiologically based ionic model is analyzed by projecting the excitation dynamics to a reduced one-dimensional parameter space. Based on this analysis we show that the inward current required for an excitation to occur is largely dictated by the voltage dependence of the inward rectifier potassium current (IK 1) , and is insensitive to the detailed properties of the sodium current. We derive an analytical expression relating the size of a stimulus and the critical current required to induce a propagating action potential (AP), and argue that this relationship determines the necessary number of cells that must undergo SCR in order to induce ectopic activity in cardiac tissue. Finally, we show that, once a focal excitation begins to propagate, its propagation characteristics, such as the conduction velocity and the critical radius for propagation, are largely determined by the sodium and gap junction currents with a substantially lesser effect due to repolarizing potassium currents. These results reveal the relationship between ion channel properties and important tissue scale processes such as excitation and propagation.

  1. Functional coupling with cardiac muscle promotes maturation of hPSC-derived sympathetic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yohan; Cho, Gun-Sik; Li, Zhe; Hong, Ingie; Zhu, Renjun; Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Yong Jun; Tampakakis, Emmanouil; Tung, Leslie; Huganir, Richard; Dong, Xinzhong; Kwon, Chulan; Lee, Gabsang

    2016-01-01

    Summary Neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are powerful tools for studying human neural development and diseases. Robust functional coupling of hPSC-derived neurons with target tissues in vitro is essential for modeling intercellular physiology in a dish and to further translational studies, but has proven difficult to achieve. Here, we derive sympathetic neurons from hPSCs and show they can form physical and functional connections with cardiac muscle cells. Using multiple hPSC reporter lines, we recapitulated human autonomic neuron development in vitro and successfully isolated PHOX2B:eGFP+ neurons that exhibit sympathetic marker expression and electrophysiological properties, and norepinephrine secretion. Upon pharmacologic and optogenetic manipulation, PHOX:eGFP+ neurons controlled beating rates of cardiomyocytes, and the physical interactions between these cells increased neuronal maturation. This study provides a foundation for human sympathetic neuron specification and for hPSC-based neuronal control of organs in a dish. PMID:27320040

  2. Tissue Engineered Strategies for Skeletal Muscle Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umile Giuseppe Longo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle injuries are common in athletes, occurring with direct and indirect mechanisms and marked residual effects, such as severe long-term pain and physical disability. Current therapy consists of conservative management including RICE protocol (rest, ice, compression, and elevation, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and intramuscular corticosteroids. However, current management of muscle injuries often does not provide optimal restoration to preinjury status. New biological therapies, such as injection of platelet-rich plasma and stem-cell-based therapy, are appealing. Although some studies support PRP application in muscle-injury management, reasons for concern persist, and further research is required for a standardized and safe use of PRP in clinical practice. The role of stem cells needs to be confirmed, as studies are still limited and inconsistent. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms involved in muscle regeneration and in survival, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells.

  3. Preservation of and DNA Extraction from Muscle Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNevin, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    As well as protecting DNA for subsequent analysis, tissue preservation methods ideally should be safe, readily available, and easy to transport at relatively low cost. Formalin (formaldehyde solution), used extensively to preserve medical and museum specimens, irreparably damages DNA. We have found four tissue preservatives (solid salt, salt-saturated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-EDTA solution, ethanol solution, and ethanol-EDTA solution) that preserved muscle tissue at 35 °C for up to 1 month: full short tandem repeat (STR) profiles were obtained after preservation. In addition, salt-saturated DMSO-EDTA solution yielded full STR profiles from aliquots of the liquid preservative surrounding muscle tissue. PMID:27259730

  4. Scaling functional patterns of skeletal and cardiac muscles: New non-linear elasticity approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kokshenev, Valery B

    2009-01-01

    Responding mechanically to environmental requests, muscles show a surprisingly large variety of functions. The studies of in vivo cycling muscles qualified skeletal muscles into four principal locomotor patterns: motor, brake, strut, and spring. While much effort of has been done in searching for muscle design patterns, no fundamental concepts underlying empirically established patterns were revealed. In this interdisciplinary study, continuum mechanics is applied to the problem of muscle structure in relation to function. The ability of a powering muscle, treated as a homogenous solid organ, tuned to efficient locomotion via the natural frequency is illuminated through the non-linear elastic muscle moduli controlled by contraction velocity. The exploration of the elastic force patterns known in solid state physics incorporated in activated skeletal and cardiac muscles via the mechanical similarity principle yields analytical rationalization for locomotor muscle patterns. Besides the explanation of the origin...

  5. Cardiac tissue slices: preparation, handling, and successful optical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ken; Lee, Peter; Mirams, Gary R; Sarathchandra, Padmini; Borg, Thomas K; Gavaghan, David J; Kohl, Peter; Bollensdorff, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac tissue slices are becoming increasingly popular as a model system for cardiac electrophysiology and pharmacology research and development. Here, we describe in detail the preparation, handling, and optical mapping of transmembrane potential and intracellular free calcium concentration transients (CaT) in ventricular tissue slices from guinea pigs and rabbits. Slices cut in the epicardium-tangential plane contained well-aligned in-slice myocardial cell strands ("fibers") in subepicardial and midmyocardial sections. Cut with a high-precision slow-advancing microtome at a thickness of 350 to 400 μm, tissue slices preserved essential action potential (AP) properties of the precutting Langendorff-perfused heart. We identified the need for a postcutting recovery period of 36 min (guinea pig) and 63 min (rabbit) to reach 97.5% of final steady-state values for AP duration (APD) (identified by exponential fitting). There was no significant difference between the postcutting recovery dynamics in slices obtained using 2,3-butanedione 2-monoxime or blebistatin as electromechanical uncouplers during the cutting process. A rapid increase in APD, seen after cutting, was caused by exposure to ice-cold solution during the slicing procedure, not by tissue injury, differences in uncouplers, or pH-buffers (bicarbonate; HEPES). To characterize intrinsic patterns of CaT, AP, and conduction, a combination of multipoint and field stimulation should be used to avoid misinterpretation based on source-sink effects. In summary, we describe in detail the preparation, mapping, and data analysis approaches for reproducible cardiac tissue slice-based investigations into AP and CaT dynamics. PMID:25595366

  6. Electropharmacological effects of berberine on canine cardiac Purkinje fibres and ventricular muscle and atrial muscle of the rabbit.

    OpenAIRE

    Riccioppo Neto, F.

    1993-01-01

    1. Conventional microelectrode techniques were used for intracellular recordings of the transmembrane electrical potentials, the effects of berberine were studied on canine cardiac Purkinje and ventricular muscle fibres and on rabbit atrial fibres. 2. Berberine (3-30 microM) increased in a concentration-dependent manner, the action potential duration (APD) in canine Purkinje and ventricular muscle without affecting other parameters of the action potential. 3. The berberine-induced enlargement...

  7. Optimal iodine staining of cardiac tissue for X-ray computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Butters

    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography (XCT has been shown to be an effective imaging technique for a variety of materials. Due to the relatively low differential attenuation of X-rays in biological tissue, a high density contrast agent is often required to obtain optimal contrast. The contrast agent, iodine potassium iodide ([Formula: see text], has been used in several biological studies to augment the use of XCT scanning. Recently I2KI was used in XCT scans of animal hearts to study cardiac structure and to generate 3D anatomical computer models. However, to date there has been no thorough study into the optimal use of I2KI as a contrast agent in cardiac muscle with respect to the staining times required, which has been shown to impact significantly upon the quality of results. In this study we address this issue by systematically scanning samples at various stages of the staining process. To achieve this, mouse hearts were stained for up to 58 hours and scanned at regular intervals of 6-7 hours throughout this process. Optimal staining was found to depend upon the thickness of the tissue; a simple empirical exponential relationship was derived to allow calculation of the required staining time for cardiac samples of an arbitrary size.

  8. Open-Loop Control of Oxidative Phosphorylation in Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Mitochondria by Ca(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnakota, Kalyan C; Singhal, Abhishek; Van den Bergh, Françoise; Bagher-Oskouei, Masoumeh; Wiseman, Robert W; Beard, Daniel A

    2016-02-23

    In cardiac muscle, mitochondrial ATP synthesis is driven by demand for ATP through feedback from the products of ATP hydrolysis. However, in skeletal muscle at higher workloads there is an apparent contribution of open-loop stimulation of ATP synthesis. Open-loop control is defined as modulation of flux through a biochemical pathway by a moiety, which is not a reactant or a product of the biochemical reactions in the pathway. The role of calcium, which is known to stimulate the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenases, as an open-loop controller, was investigated in isolated cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria. The kinetics of NADH synthesis and respiration, feedback from ATP hydrolysis products, and stimulation by calcium were characterized in isolated mitochondria to test the hypothesis that calcium has a stimulatory role in skeletal muscle mitochondria not apparent in cardiac mitochondria. A range of respiratory states were obtained in cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria utilizing physiologically relevant concentrations of pyruvate and malate, and flux of respiration, NAD(P)H fluorescence, and rhodamine 123 fluorescence were measured over a range of extra mitochondrial calcium concentrations. We found that under these conditions calcium stimulates NADH synthesis in skeletal muscle mitochondria but not in cardiac mitochondria. PMID:26910432

  9. Structure and function of the cytoskeleton in cardiac and skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Balogh, Johanna

    2004-01-01

    We have examined the functional and structural roles of the cytoskeletal protein desmin in cardiac and skeletal muscles using a genetically modified mouse (Des-/-) with the desmin gene ablated. Desmin forms filaments at the Z-disks in the striated muscle sarcomere, have connections to the sarcolemma and most likely align sarcomeres and whole cells. We have shown a decreased contractile function of heart (study I) and skeletal muscle (study II) from Des-/- mice, indicating an important functio...

  10. Effect of Cerium on Cardiac Muscle of Rat and Guinea Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effect of Ce3+ on cardiac muscle of rat and guinea pig was studied. In vitro, 0.05 mmol.L-1 solution of Ce3+ inhibited the contraction of guinea pig atria. The change of action potential duration(APD) of guinea pig papillary muscle exposed to 0.4 mmol·L-1 Ce3+ was significant, and those exposed to 0.1 and 0.2 mmol·L-1 Ce3+ were not significant. In vivo, compared with the control group, the APD for rat cardiac muscle after long-term feed on Ce3+ was significantly delayed in high dose, and that was not significantly delayed in low dose. The results suggest that Ce3+ with long-term high dose intake might affect the influx of Ca2+, Na+ and outflow of K+ for rat cardiac muscle.

  11. Methods for the Organogenesis of Skeletal Muscle in Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman; Shansky, Janet; DelTatto, Michael; Chromiak, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Skeletal muscle structure is regulated by many factors, including nutrition, hormones, electrical activity, and tension. The muscle cells are subjected to both passive and active mechanical forces at all stages of development and these forces play important but poorly understood roles in regulating muscle organogenesis and growth. For example, during embryogenesis, the rapidly growing skeleton places large passive mechanical forces on the attached muscle tissue. These forces not only help to organize the proliferating mononucleated myoblasts into the oriented, multinucleated myofibers of a functional muscle but also tightly couple the growth rate of muscle to that of bone. Postnatally, the actively contracting, innervated muscle fibers are subjected to different patterns of active and passive tensions which regulate longitudinal and cross sectional myofiber growth. These mechanically-induced organogenic processes have been difficult to study under normal tissue culture conditions, resulting in the development of numerous methods and specialized equipment to simulate the in vivo mechanical environment.These techniques have led to the "engineering" of bioartificial muscles (organoids) which display many of the characteristics of in vivo muscle including parallel arrays of postmitotic fibers organized into fascicle-like structures with tendon-like ends. They are contractile, express adult isoforms of contractile proteins, perform directed work, and can be maintained in culture for long periods. The in vivo-like characteristics and durability of these muscle organoids make them useful for long term in vitro studies on mechanotransduction mechanisms and on muscle atrophy induced by decreased tension. In this report, we described a simple method for generating muscle organoids from either primary embrionic avain or neonatal rodent myoblasts.

  12. Cardiac Time Intervals by Tissue Doppler Imaging M-Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Mogelvang, Rasmus; de Knegt, Martina Chantal;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To define normal values of the cardiac time intervals obtained by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) M-mode through the mitral valve (MV). Furthermore, to evaluate the association of the myocardial performance index (MPI) obtained by TDI M-mode (MPITDI) and the conventional method of obtaining...... MPI (MPIConv), with established echocardiographic and invasive measures of systolic and diastolic function. METHODS: In a large community based population study (n = 974), where all are free of any cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac time intervals, including isovolumic...... relaxation time (IVRT), isovolumic contraction time (IVCT), and ejection time (ET) were obtained by TDI M-mode through the MV. IVCT/ET, IVRT/ET and the MPI ((IVRT+IVCT)/ET) were calculated. We also included a validation population (n = 44) of patients who underwent left heart catheterization and had the...

  13. Biologically improved nanofibrous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanofibrous structure developed by electrospinning technology provides attractive extracellular matrix conditions for the anchorage, migration and differentiation of stem cells, including those responsible for regenerative medicine. Recently, biocomposite nanofibers consisting of two or more polymeric blends are electrospun more tidily in order to obtain scaffolds with desired functional and mechanical properties depending on their applications. The study focuses on one such an attempt of using copolymer Poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly (ε-caprolactone) (PLACL), silk fibroin (SF) and Aloe Vera (AV) for fabricating biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. SEM micrographs of fabricated electrospun PLACL, PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV nanofibrous scaffolds are porous, beadless, uniform nanofibers with interconnected pores and obtained fibre diameter in the range of 459 ± 22 nm, 202 ± 12 nm and 188 ± 16 nm respectively. PLACL, PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV electrospun mats obtained at room temperature with an elastic modulus of 14.1 ± 0.7, 9.96 ± 2.5 and 7.0 ± 0.9 MPa respectively. PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers have more desirable properties to act as flexible cell supporting scaffolds compared to PLACL for the repair of myocardial infarction (MI). The PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers had a contact angle of 51 ± 12° compared to that of 133 ± 15° of PLACL alone. Cardiac cell proliferation was increased by 21% in PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers compared to PLACL by day 6 and further increased to 42% by day 9. Confocal analysis for cardiac expression proteins myosin and connexin 43 was observed better by day 9 compared to all other nanofibrous scaffolds. The results proved that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AV nanofibrous scaffolds have good potentiality for the regeneration of infarcted myocardium in cardiac tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds are porous, beadless and uniform structures. • PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers improve the

  14. Biologically improved nanofibrous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaarathy, V. [Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Department of Nanoscience and Technology, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 138673 (Singapore); Venugopal, J., E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Gandhimathi, C. [Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Ponpandian, N.; Mangalaraj, D. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ramakrishna, S. [Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-11-01

    Nanofibrous structure developed by electrospinning technology provides attractive extracellular matrix conditions for the anchorage, migration and differentiation of stem cells, including those responsible for regenerative medicine. Recently, biocomposite nanofibers consisting of two or more polymeric blends are electrospun more tidily in order to obtain scaffolds with desired functional and mechanical properties depending on their applications. The study focuses on one such an attempt of using copolymer Poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly (ε-caprolactone) (PLACL), silk fibroin (SF) and Aloe Vera (AV) for fabricating biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. SEM micrographs of fabricated electrospun PLACL, PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV nanofibrous scaffolds are porous, beadless, uniform nanofibers with interconnected pores and obtained fibre diameter in the range of 459 ± 22 nm, 202 ± 12 nm and 188 ± 16 nm respectively. PLACL, PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV electrospun mats obtained at room temperature with an elastic modulus of 14.1 ± 0.7, 9.96 ± 2.5 and 7.0 ± 0.9 MPa respectively. PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers have more desirable properties to act as flexible cell supporting scaffolds compared to PLACL for the repair of myocardial infarction (MI). The PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers had a contact angle of 51 ± 12° compared to that of 133 ± 15° of PLACL alone. Cardiac cell proliferation was increased by 21% in PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers compared to PLACL by day 6 and further increased to 42% by day 9. Confocal analysis for cardiac expression proteins myosin and connexin 43 was observed better by day 9 compared to all other nanofibrous scaffolds. The results proved that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AV nanofibrous scaffolds have good potentiality for the regeneration of infarcted myocardium in cardiac tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds are porous, beadless and uniform structures. • PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers improve the

  15. APC is required for muscle stem cell proliferation and skeletal muscle tissue repair

    OpenAIRE

    Parisi, Alice; Lacour, Floriane; Giordani, Lorenzo; Colnot, Sabine; Maire, Pascal; Le Grand, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a crucial regulator of many stem cell types. In constantly cycling stem cells of fast turnover tissues, APC loss results in the constitutive activation of a Wnt target gene program that massively increases proliferation and leads to malignant transformation. However, APC function in skeletal muscle, a tissue with a low turnover rate, has never been investigated. Here we show that conditional genetic disruption of APC in adult muscle ste...

  16. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mental stress [a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)] increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation

  17. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.; Juhlin-Dannfelt, A.

    1989-01-01

    Mental stress (a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)) increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation.

  18. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering: strategies for volumetric constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Cittadella Vigodarzere, Giorgio; Mantero, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue is characterized by high metabolic requirements, defined structure and high regenerative potential. As such, it constitutes an appealing platform for tissue engineering to address volumetric defects, as proven by recent works in this field. Several issues common to all engineered constructs constrain the variety of tissues that can be realized in vitro, principal among them the lack of a vascular system and the absence of reliable cell sources; as it is, the only succes...

  19. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering: strategies for volumetric constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio eCittadella Vigodarzere; Sara eMantero

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue is characterized by high metabolic requirements, defined structure and high regenerative potential. As such, it constitutes an appealing platform for tissue engineering to address volumetric defects, as proven by recent works in this field.Several issues common to all engineered constructs constrain the variety of tissues that can be realized in vitro, principal among them the lack of a vascular system and the absence of reliable cell sources; as it is, the only success...

  20. Encapsulation of cardiomyocytes in a fibrin hydrogel for cardiac tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan Ye, Kathy; Sullivan, Kelly Elizabeth; Black, Lauren Deems

    2011-01-01

    contraction force under electrical pacing conditions (6). As part of this protocol, we also describe methods for analyzing the tissue engineered myocardium after the culture period including functional analysis of the active force generated by the cardiac muscle construct upon electrical stimulation, as well as methods for determining final cell viability (Live-Dead assay) and immunohistological staining to examine the expression and morphology of typical proteins important for contraction (Myosin Heavy Chain or MHC) and cellular coupling (Connexin 43 or Cx43) between myocytes. PMID:21968517

  1. Tissue Engineering of Muscles and Cartilages Using Polyelectrolyte Hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Hyuck Joon Kwon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalent nature of osteoarthritis that causes the erosion of joint surfaces and loss of mobility and muscle dystrophy that weakens the musculoskeletal system and hampers locomotion underlies the importance of developing functional replacement or regeneration of muscle and cartilage tissues. Polyelectrolyte gels have high potential as cellular scaffolds due to characteristic properties similar to biological matrixes. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that polyelectroly...

  2. Tissue-Mimicking Geometrical Constraints Stimulate Tissue-Like Constitution and Activity of Mouse Neonatal and Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarczyk, Götz; Raulf, Alexandra; Gunkel, Manuel; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Lemor, Robert; Hausmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The present work addresses the question of to what extent a geometrical support acts as a physiological determining template in the setup of artificial cardiac tissue. Surface patterns with alternating concave to convex transitions of cell size dimensions were used to organize and orientate human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hIPSC)-derived cardiac myocytes and mouse neonatal cardiac myocytes. The shape of the cells, as well as the organization of the contractile apparatus recapitulates the anisotropic line pattern geometry being derived from tissue geometry motives. The intracellular organization of the contractile apparatus and the cell coupling via gap junctions of cell assemblies growing in a random or organized pattern were examined. Cell spatial and temporal coordinated excitation and contraction has been compared on plain and patterned substrates. While the α-actinin cytoskeletal organization is comparable to terminally-developed native ventricular tissue, connexin-43 expression does not recapitulate gap junction distribution of heart muscle tissue. However, coordinated contractions could be observed. The results of tissue-like cell ensemble organization open new insights into geometry-dependent cell organization, the cultivation of artificial heart tissue from stem cells and the anisotropy-dependent activity of therapeutic compounds. PMID:26751484

  3. Impact of aging on mitochondrial function in cardiac and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepple, R T

    2016-09-01

    Both skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle are subject to marked structural and functional impairment with aging and these changes contribute to the reduced capacity for exercise as we age. Since mitochondria are involved in multiple aspects of cellular homeostasis including energetics, reactive oxygen species signaling, and regulation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways, defects in this organelle are frequently implicated in the deterioration of skeletal and cardiac muscle with aging. On this basis, the purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence that aging causes dysfunction in mitochondria in striated muscle with a view towards drawing conclusions about the potential of these changes to contribute to the deterioration seen in striated muscle with aging. As will be shown, impairment in respiration and reactive oxygen species emission with aging are highly variable between studies and seem to be largely a consequence of physical inactivity. On the other hand, both skeletal and cardiac muscle mitochondria are more susceptible to permeability transition and this seems a likely cause of the increased recruitment of mitochondrial-mediated pathways of apoptosis seen in striated muscle. The review concludes by examining the role of degeneration of mitochondrial DNA versus impaired mitochondrial quality control mechanisms in the accumulation of mitochondria that are sensitized to permeability transition, whereby the latter mechanism is favored as the most likely cause. PMID:27033952

  4. Hydatid Cyst in the Cardiac Papillary Muscle of the Tricuspid Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Joorabian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatid cyst is an uncommon lesion, mostly caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Humans are infected by contaminated dogs during their childhood or contaminated uncooked vegetables in sheep-raising areas of the world such as South America, Australia, New Zealand, Philippines, China, Arabia, Eastern Europe, and the Mediterranean coast. We report a case of hydatid cyst in the papillary muscle of the tricuspid valve. To the best of our knowledge, hydatid cyst in the papillary muscles has not been reported and the present case is the first case reported."nKeywords: Cardiac hydatid cyst, Echinococcus granulosus, Tricuspid valve

  5. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  6. Thermodynamics of calmodulin binding to cardiac and skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor ion channels

    OpenAIRE

    Meissner, Gerhard; Pasek, Daniel A.; Yamaguchi, Naohiro; Ramachandran, Srinivas; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Tripathy, Ashutosh

    2009-01-01

    The skeletal muscle (RyR1) and cardiac muscle (RyR2) ryanodine receptor calcium release channels contain a single, conserved calmodulin (CaM) binding domain, yet are differentially regulated by CaM. Here, we report that high-affinity [35S]CaM binding to RyR1 is driven by favorable enthalpic and entropic contributions at Ca2+ concentrations from

  7. Hydatid Cyst in the Cardiac Papillary Muscle of the Tricuspid Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Joorabian; Jamal Hossin; Ahmad Takrity

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac hydatid cyst is an uncommon lesion, mostly caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Humans are infected by contaminated dogs during their childhood or contaminated uncooked vegetables in sheep-raising areas of the world such as South America, Australia, New Zealand, Philippines, China, Arabia, Eastern Europe, and the Mediterranean coast. We report a case of hydatid cyst in the papillary muscle of the tricuspid valve. To the best of our knowledge, hydatid cyst in the papillary muscles has no...

  8. Cardiac and skeletal muscle abnormality in taurine transporter-knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ito Takashi; Oishi Shohei; Takai Mika; Kimura Yasushi; Uozumi Yoriko; Fujio Yasushi; Schaffer Stephen W; Azuma Junichi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Taurine, a sulfur-containing β-amino acid, is highly contained in heart and skeletal muscle. Taurine has a variety of biological actions, such as ion movement, calcium handling and cytoprotection in the cardiac and skeletal muscles. Meanwhile, taurine deficiency leads various pathologies, including dilated cardiomyopathy, in cat and fox. However, the essential role of taurine depletion on pathogenesis has not been fully clarified. To address the physiological role of taurine in mamma...

  9. Design of a Novel Composite H2 S-Releasing Hydrogel for Cardiac Tissue Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauretti, Arianna; Neri, Annalisa; Kossover, Olga; Seliktar, Dror; Nardo, Paolo Di; Melino, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    The design of 3D scaffolds is a crucial step in the field of regenerative medicine. Scaffolds should be degradable and bioresorbable as well as display good porosity, interconnecting pores, and topographic features; these properties favour tissue integration and vascularization. These requirements could be fulfilled by hybrid hydrogels using a combination of natural and synthetic components. Here, the mechanical and biological properties of a polyethylene glycol-fibrinogen hydrogel (PFHy) are improved in order to favour the proliferation and differentiation of human Sca-1(pos) cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs). PFHys are modified by embedding air- or perfluorohexane-filled bovine serum albumin microbubbles (MBs) and characterized. Changes in cell morphology are observed in MBs-PFHys, suggesting that MBs could enhance the formation of bundles of cells and influence the direction of the spindle growth. The properties of MBs as carriers of active macromolecules are also exploited. For the first time, enzyme-coated MBs have been used as systems for the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S)-releasing scaffolds. Novel H2 S-releasing PFHys are produced, which are able to improve the growth of hCPCs. This novel 3D cell-scaffold system will allow the assessment of the effects of H2 S on the cardiac muscle regeneration with its potential applications in tissue repair. PMID:26857526

  10. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-06-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, freestanding electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function.

  11. Smooth Muscle-Mediated Connective Tissue Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecham, Robert P.; Whitehouse, Loren A.; Wrenn, David S.; Parks, William C.; Griffin, Gail L.; Senior, Robert M.; Crouch, Edmond C.; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Voelkel, Norbert F.

    1987-07-01

    Abnormal accumulation of connective tissue in blood vessels contributes to alterations in vascular physiology associated with disease states such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Elastin synthesis was studied in blood vessels from newborn calves with severe pulmonary hypertension induced by alveolar hypoxia in order to investigate the cellular stimuli that elicit changes in pulmonary arterial connective tissue production. A two- to fourfold increase in elastin production was observed in pulmonary artery tissue and medial smooth muscle cells from hypertensive calves. This stimulation of elastin production was accompanied by a corresponding increase in elastin messenger RNA consistent with regulation at the transcriptional level. Conditioned serum harvested from cultures of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells isolated from hypertensive animals contained one or more low molecular weight elastogenic factors that stimulated the production of elastin in both fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells and altered the chemotactic responsiveness of fibroblasts to elastin peptides. These results suggest that connective tissue changes in the pulmonary vasculature in response to pulmonary hypertension are orchestrated by the medial smooth muscle cell through the generation of specific differentiation factors that alter both the secretory phenotype and responsive properties of surrounding cells.

  12. Tissue specific phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins isolated from rat liver, heart muscle, and skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Steffen; León, Ileana R; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard;

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins in a variety of biological processes is increasingly being recognized and may contribute to the differences in function and energy demands observed in mitochondria from different tissues such as liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. Here, we used a combination...... of TiO2 phosphopeptide-enrichment, HILIC fractionation, and LC-MS/MS on isolated mitochondria to investigate the tissue-specific mitochondrial phosphoproteomes of rat liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. In total, we identified 899 phosphorylation sites in 354 different mitochondrial proteins including...... enrichment for phosphoproteins involved in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism in liver mitochondria, whereas heart and skeletal muscle were enriched for phosphoproteins involved in energy metabolism, in particular, tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Multiple tissue...

  13. Comparison of skeletal muscle strength between cardiac patients and age-matched healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Baum, U. Hildebrandt, K. Edel, R. Bertram, H. Hahmann, F.J. Bremer, S. Böhmen, C. Kammerlander, M. Serafin, Th. Rüther, E. Miche

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare muscular strength of knee extensors and arm flexor muscles of cardiac patients (n = 638 and healthy controls (n = 961 in different age groups. Isometric torques were measured in a sitting position with the elbow, hip, and knee flexed to 900. For statistical analysis, age groups were pooled in decades from the age of 30 to 90 years. Additionally, the influence of physical lifestyle prior to disease on muscular strength was obtained in the patients. For statistical analysis three-way ANOVA (factors age, gender, and physical activity level was used. Both in patients and in controls a significant age-dependent decline in maximal torque could be observed for arm flexors and knee extensors. Maximal leg extensor muscle showed statistically significant differences between healthy controls and cardiac patients as well as between subgroups of patients: Physically inactive patients showed lowest torques (male: 148 ± 18 Nm; female: 82 ± 25 Nm while highest values were measured in control subjects (male: 167 ± 16 Nm; female: 93 ± 17 Nm. In contrast, arm flexor muscles did not show any significant influence of health status or sports history. This qualitative difference between weight-bearing leg muscles and the muscle group of the upper extremity suggest that lower skeletal muscle strength in heart patients is mainly a consequence of selective disuse of leg muscles rather than any pathological skeletal muscle metabolism. Since a certain level of skeletal muscle strength is a prerequisite to cope with everyday activities, strength training is recommended as an important part of cardiac rehabilitation.

  14. Ryanodine modification of cardiac muscle responses to potassium-free solutions. Evidence for inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    To test whether ryanodine blocks the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac muscle, we examined its effects on the aftercontractions and transient depolarizations or transient inward currents developed by guinea pig papillary muscles and voltage-clamped calf cardiac Purkinje fibers in potassium-free solutions. Ryanodine (0.1-1.0 microM) abolished or prevented aftercontractions and transient depolarizations by the papillary muscles without affecting any of the other sequ...

  15. Cellular models and viral vectors for skeletal and cardiac muscle research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neshati, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal and cardiac muscle disorders are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Despite many improvements in the medical and surgical management of these disorders, development of effective treatments has proven to be challenging. This is because of the limited suitability of existing

  16. The morphological development of the locomotor and cardiac muscles of the migratory barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishop, CM; Butler, PJ; ElHaj, AJ; Egginton, S; Loonen, MJJE

    1996-01-01

    The masses of the locomotor and cardiac muscles of wild barnacle goose goslings, from a migratory population, were examined systematically during development and their values compared to those of pre-migratory geese. Pre-flight development was typified by approximately linear increases of body, leg,

  17. Optical reflectance in fibrous tissues and skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghesagara, Janaka C.

    We studied two biological tissues with optically anisotropic structures: high moisture soy protein extrudates and skeletal muscles. High moisture extrusion has been used to produce vegetable meat analogs that resemble real animal meat and have significant health benefits. Since visual and textural properties are key factors for consumer acceptance, assessing fiber formation in the extruded soy protein product is important for quality control purpose. A non-destructive method based on photon migration was developed to measure fiber formation in extruded soy proteins. The measured fiber formation index in intact samples showed good agreement with that obtained from image analysis on peeled samples. By implementing this new method in a fast laser scanning system, we have acquired two dimensional mappings of fiber formation and orientation in the entire sample in real time. In addition to fibrous structures, skeletal muscles have a unique periodic sarcomere structure which produces strong light diffractions. However, inconsistent experimental results have been reported in single fiber diffraction studies. By applying the three-dimensional coupled wave theory in a physical sarcomere model, we found that a variety of experimental observations can be explained if inhomogeneous muscle morphological profiles are considered. We also discovered that the sarcomere structure produced a unique optical reflectance pattern in whole muscle. None of the existing light propagation theories are able to describe this pattern. We developed a Monte Carlo model incorporating the sarcomere diffraction effect. The simulated results quantitatively resemble the unique patterns observed in experiments. We used a set of parameters to quantify the optical reflectance profiles produced by a point incident light in whole muscle. Two parameters, q and B, were obtained by numerically fitting the equi-intensity contours of the reflectance pattern. Two spatial gradients were calculated along the

  18. Engineered Biomaterials to Enhance Stem Cell-Based Cardiac Tissue Engineering and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Anwarul; Waters, Renae; Roula, Boustany; Dana, Rahbani; Yara, Seif; Alexandre, Toubia; Paul, Arghya

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. Since adult cardiac cells are limited in their proliferation, cardiac tissue with dead or damaged cardiac cells downstream of the occluded vessel does not regenerate after myocardial infarction. The cardiac tissue is then replaced with nonfunctional fibrotic scar tissue rather than new cardiac cells, which leaves the heart weak. The limited proliferation ability of host cardiac cells has motivated investigators to research the potential cardiac regenerative ability of stem cells. Considerable progress has been made in this endeavor. However, the optimum type of stem cells along with the most suitable matrix-material and cellular microenvironmental cues are yet to be identified or agreed upon. This review presents an overview of various types of biofunctional materials and biomaterial matrices, which in combination with stem cells, have shown promises for cardiac tissue replacement and reinforcement. Engineered biomaterials also have applications in cardiac tissue engineering, in which tissue constructs are developed in vitro by combining stem cells and biomaterial scaffolds for drug screening or eventual implantation. This review highlights the benefits of using biomaterials in conjunction with stem cells to repair damaged myocardium and give a brief description of the properties of these biomaterials that make them such valuable tools to the field. PMID:26953627

  19. Effects of protein-calorie restriction on mechanical function of hypertrophied cardiac muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Cicogna

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of food restriction (FR on hypertrophied cardiac muscle in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. METHODS: Isolated papillary muscle preparations of the left ventricle (LV of 60-day-old SHR and of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats were studied. The rats were fed either an unrestricted diet or FR diet (50% of the intake of the control diet for 30 days. The mechanical function of the muscles was evaluated through monitoring isometric and isotonic contractions. RESULTS: FR caused: 1 reduction in the body weight and LV weight of SHR and WKY rats; 2 increase in the time to peak shortening and the time to peak developed tension (DT in the hypertrophied myocardium of the SHR; 3 diverging changes in the mechanical function of the normal cardiac muscles of WKY rats with reduction in maximum velocity of isotonic shortening and of the time for DT to decrease 50% of its maximum value, and increase of the resting tension and of the rate of tension decline. CONCLUSION: Short-term FR causes prolongation of the contraction time of hypertrophied muscles and paradoxal changes in mechanical performance of normal cardiac fibers, with worsening of the shortening indices and of the resting tension, and improvement of the isometric relaxation.

  20. Phthalate Exposure Changes the Metabolic Profile of Cardiac Muscle Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Posnack, Nikki Gillum; Swift, Luther M.; Kay, Matthew W.; Lee, Norman H; Sarvazyan, Narine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are common plasticizers present in medical-grade plastics and other everyday products. They can also act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and have been linked to the rise in metabolic disorders. However, the effect of phthalates on cardiac metabolism remains largely unknown. Objectives: We examined the effect of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) on the metabolic profile of cardiomyocytes because alterations in metabolic processes can lead to cell dysfunction. Methods: N...

  1. Muscle Articulations: Flexible Jaw Joints Made of Soft Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeno, T A; Clark, A J

    2015-08-01

    This study surveys animals that use soft tissues rather than rigid links to build jaw joints. Hard biting elements are useful; they are used in piercing or shearing during feeding and interactive behaviors and can directly impact survival and reproduction. The best understood biting systems include biting elements that are mounted on rigid jaw links that form a joint capable of transmitting the bite reaction forces. As such, jaws must incorporate joints that resist compression. Many jaw joints are "sliding joints", in which jaw links come into direct contact and the shape of the sliding contact surfaces dictates possible motions. There are, however, organisms that have biting elements on jaws that are made of flexible muscle and connective tissues. If arranged as a muscular hydrostat, in which multiple orientations of the muscle fibers may co-contract to provide turgid skeletal support, the multifunctional joint not only (a) provides the force to move the biting elements, but also (b) creates repositionable pivots and (c) transmits bite reaction forces. Such flexible joints, termed "muscle articulations", may be important to a number of soft-bodied animals. In this survey, we review the function of previously described muscle articulations: the joints found between inarticulate brachiopods' valves, cephalopods' beaks, the hooks of kalyptorhynch flatworms, and errant polychaetes' jaws. We also review the morphology, physiology, and feeding behaviors of the hagfish as a putative muscle articulation in an effort to understand how this jawless craniate is capable of biting with surprising force, seemingly without the benefit of any obvious method of opposing the force of the dental plate that is used to remove portions of food. Initial analysis suggests that a muscle articulation may be a key feature in coordinating head and body movements to provide the leverage needed for strong "bites". PMID:25912361

  2. Algorithms for muscle oxygenation monitoring corrected for adipose tissue thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraskin, Dmitri; Platen, Petra; Franke, Julia; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

    2007-07-01

    The measurement of skeletal muscle oxygenation by NIRS methods is obstructed by the subcutaneous adipose tissue which might vary between muscle haemoglobin / myoglobin concentrations. First, we demonstrate by comparison with ultrasound imaging that the optical lipid signal peaking at 930 nm is a good predictor of the adipose tissue thickness (ATT). Second, the algorithm is based on measurements of the wavelength dependence of the slope ΔA/Δρ of attenuation A with respect to source detector distance ρ and Monte Carlo simulations which estimate the muscle absorption coefficient based on this slope and the additional information of the ATT. Third, we illustrate the influence of the wavelength dependent transport scattering coefficient of the new algorithm by using the solution of the diffusion equation for a two-layered turbid medium. This method is tested on experimental data measured on the vastus lateralis muscle of volunteers during an incremental cycling exercise under normal and hypoxic conditions (corresponding to 0, 2000 and 4000 m altitude). The experimental setup uses broad band detection between 700 and 1000 nm at six source-detector distances. We demonstrate that the description of the experimental data as judged by the residual spectrum is significantly improved and the calculated changes in oxygen saturation are markedly different when the ATT correction is included.

  3. Cardiac supporting device using artificial rubber muscle: preliminary study to active dynamic cardiomyoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Goto, Takeshi; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic cardiomyoplasty is a surgical treatment that utilizes the patient's skeletal muscle to support circulation. To overcome the limitations of autologous skeletal muscles in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, we studied the use of a wrapped-type cardiac supporting device using pneumatic muscles. Four straight rubber muscles (Fluidic Muscle, FESTO, Esslingen, Germany) were used and connected to pressure sensors, solenoid valves, a controller and an air compressor. The driving force was compressed air. A proportional-integral-derivative system was employed to control the device movement. An overflow-type mock circulation system was used to analyze the power and the controllability of this new device. The device worked powerfully with pumped flow against afterload of 88 mmHg, and the beating rate and contraction/dilatation time were properly controlled using simple software. Maximum pressure inside the ventricle and maximum output were 187 mmHg and 546.5 ml/min, respectively, in the setting of 50 beats per minute, a contraction/dilatation ratio of 1:2, a preload of 18 mmHg, and an afterload of 88 mmHg. By changing proportional gain, contraction speed could be modulated. This study showed the efficacy and feasibility of a pneumatic muscle for use in a cardiac supporting device. PMID:26253252

  4. Ca2+-dependent proteolysis of junctophilin-1 and junctophilin-2 in skeletal and cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R M; Dutka, T L; Horvath, D; Bell, J R; Delbridge, L M; Lamb, G D

    2013-02-01

    Excessive increases in intracellular [Ca(2+)] in skeletal muscle fibres cause failure of excitation-contraction coupling by disrupting communication between the dihydropyridine receptors in the transverse tubular system and the Ca(2+) release channels (RyRs) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), but the exact mechanism is unknown. Previous work suggested a possible role of Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in this uncoupling process but found no proteolysis of the dihydropyridine receptors, RyRs or triadin. Junctophilin-1 (JP1; ∼90 kDa) stabilizes close apposition of the transverse tubular system and SR membranes in adult skeletal muscle; its C-terminal end is embedded in the SR and its N-terminal associates with the transverse tubular system membrane. Exposure of skeletal muscle homogenates to precisely set [Ca(2+)] revealed that JP1 undergoes Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis over the physiological [Ca(2+)] range in tandem with autolytic activation of endogenous μ-calpain. Cleavage of JP1 occurs close to the C-terminal, yielding a ∼75 kDa diffusible fragment and a fixed ∼15 kDa fragment. Depolarization-induced force responses in rat skinned fibres were abolished following 1 min exposure to 40 μm Ca(2+), with accompanying loss of full-length JP1. Supraphysiological stimulation of rat skeletal muscle in vitro by repeated tetanic stimulation in 30 mm caffeine also produced marked proteolysis of JP1 (and not RyR1). In dystrophic mdx mice, JP1 proteolysis is seen in limb muscles at 4 and not at 10 weeks of age. Junctophilin-2 in cardiac and skeletal muscle also undergoes Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis, and junctophilin-2 levels are reduced following cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion. Junctophilin proteolysis may contribute to skeletal muscle weakness and cardiac dysfunction in a range of circumstances. PMID:23148318

  5. Amphibian ryanodine receptor isoforms are related to those of mammalian skeletal or cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, F A; Liu, Q Y; Xu, L; el-Hashem, A; Kramarcy, N R; Sealock, R; Meissner, G

    1992-08-01

    The ryanodine receptor (RyR)-Ca2+ release channels of frog skeletal muscle have been purified as 30S protein complexes comprised of two high molecular weight polypeptides. The upper and lower bands of the frog doublet comigrated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacylamide gels with the mammalian skeletal and cardiac RyR polypeptides, respectively. Immunoblot analysis showed that a polyclonal antiserum to the rat skeletal RyR preferentially cross-reacted with the upper band, whereas monoclonal antibodies to the canine cardiac RyR preferentially cross-reacted with the lower band of the frog receptor doublet. Immunoprecipitation studies indicated the presence of two homooligomer 30S RyR complexes comprised of either the lower or upper polypeptide band of the frog doublet, and immunocytochemical staining revealed their colocalization in frog gastrocnemius muscle. After planar lipid bilayer reconstitution of the 30S frog RyR, single-channel currents were observed that exhibited a Na+ and Ca2+ conductance and pharmacological characteristics similar to those of the mammalian skeletal and cardiac Ca2+ release channels. These results suggest that amphibian skeletal muscle expresses two distinct RyR isoforms that share epitopes in common with the mammalian skeletal or cardiac RyR. PMID:1325114

  6. Effects of ACE2 deficiency on physical performance and physiological adaptations of cardiac and skeletal muscle to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Santos, Daisy; Dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Oliveira, Marilene; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Poglitsch, Marko; Mosienko, Valentina; Kappes Becker, Lenice; Campagnole-Santos, Maria Jose; M Penninger, Joseph; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is related to physiological adaptations induced by exercise. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is a major regulator of the RAS in tissues, as it metabolizes angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang-(1-7). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ACE2 deficiency on physical performance and physiological adaptations induced by voluntary running. Physical performance, body composition and plasma angiotensin levels, as well as tissue morphology and gene expression of RAS components in the left ventricle (LV) and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius), were evaluated in ACE2-deficient (ACE2(-/y)) and wild-type (ACE2(+/y)) mice after 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running. ACE2(-/y) mice run less than ACE2(+/y) mice (19±4.7 vs. 26±12.6 revolutions per day × 100, Pmuscle mass (76.6±1.6%) after 6 weeks of voluntary running compared with the sedentary control group (fat mass: 18.3±2.1%; muscle mass: 72.7±2.2). However, no change in body composition was observed in ACE2(-/y) mice after exercise. Heart and skeletal muscle hypertrophy was observed only in trained ACE2(+/y) mice. Besides a small decrease in Ang I in ACE2(-/y) mice, plasma levels of angiotensin peptides remained unchanged by exercise or ACE2 deficiency. In the LV of trained animals, AT2 gene expression was higher in ACE2(+/y) compared with ACE2(-/y) mice. ACE2 deficiency leads to an increase in AT1 gene expression in skeletal muscle. ACE expression in soleus was increased in all exercised groups. ACE2 deficiency affects physical performance and impairs cardiac and skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise. PMID:27053009

  7. Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Organoids for Reversible Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman; DelTatto, Michael; Shansky, Janet; Lemaire, Julie; Chang, Albert; Payumo, Francis; Lee, Peter; Goodyear, Amy; Raven, Latasha

    1996-01-01

    Genetically modified murine skeletal myoblasts were tissue engineered in vitro into organ-like structures (organoids) containing only postmitotic myofibers secreting pharmacological levels of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). Subcutaneous organoid Implantation under tension led to the rapid and stable appearance of physiological sera levels of rhGH for up to 12 weeks, whereas surgical removal led to its rapid disappearance. Reversible delivery of bioactive compounds from postimtotic cells in tissue engineered organs has several advantages over other forms of muscle gene therapy.

  8. Tissue and Animal Models of Sudden Cardiac Death

    OpenAIRE

    Sallam, Karim; Li, Yingxin; Sager, Philip T.; Steven R. Houser; Wu, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) is a common cause of death in patients with structural heart disease, genetic mutations or acquired disorders affecting cardiac ion channels. A wide range of platforms exist to model and study disorders associated with SCD. Human clinical studies are cumbersome and are thwarted by the extent of investigation that can be performed on human subjects. Animal models are limited by their degree of homology to human cardiac electrophysiology including ion channel expressi...

  9. Electron-microscopic study of the restoration of irradiated muscle under the influence of regenerating muscle tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors determine whether the development of satellite cells and their transformation into myoblasts under the influence of regenerating muscle tissue occurs in irradiated muscle. In the control series seven days after surgery, degenerative changes occurred over a considerable extent in the muscle fibers of the proximal stump: a loosening, fragmentation, and disappearance of myofibrils, the vesiculation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondrial swelling and breakdown. The stimulation of the processes of postradiational repair occurs under the influence of transplanted regenerating muscle tissue into irradiated traumatized muscle. This results in the restoration of its capacity for regeneration by both myosymplastic and myoblastic means

  10. Fatty acid oxidation in skeletal and cardiac muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biochemical investigations described in this thesis deal with two aspects of fatty acid oxidation in muscle: a comparison of the use of cell-free and cellular systems for oxidation measurements, and studies on the assay and the role of the fatty acid binding protein in fatty acid metabolism. The fatty acid oxidation rates are determined radiochemically by the sum of 14CO2 and 14C-labeled acid-soluble products formed during oxidation of [14C]-fatty acids. A radiochemical procedure for the assay of fatty acid binding by proteins is described. (Auth.)

  11. Effect of xinmailong on ischemic cardiac muscle during hemorrhagic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Xinmailong injection solution was invented at 1988 by prof. Li Shunan in Dali medical college. It was made from the material which has high biological activeness to the cardiac and vascular system. During the experimental shock caused by excessive loss of blood in monkey and dog, it was found by ECG that the T-wave of anterion lead on left chest elevated and became high and sharp after acute blood loss. Arterial blood pressure dropped to 8-5.3 kPa for dog and 8-5.3-2.7 kPa for monkey, changes of T-wave all recovered to near normal level after xinmailong solution was injected intravenously (0.05-0.2 mL/kg). These Results implied that xinmailong might improve the ischemia of myocardium induced by hemorrhagic shock.

  12. Immunolocalization of meta-vinculin in human smooth and cardiac muscles

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Meta-vinculin, a vinculin-related protein, has been isolated from human uterus smooth muscle. Specific antibodies to meta-vinculin, which distinguish between meta-vinculin and vinculin, were prepared by absorption of anti-meta-vinculin serum on vinculin coupled to nitrocellulose. Meta-vinculin specific antibody demonstrates only smooth and cardiac muscle specificity and is able to cross-react with a small 21-kD fragment of the meta-vinculin polypeptide chain. This antibody does not interact w...

  13. Verification of cardiac tissue electrophysiology simulators using an N-version benchmark

    OpenAIRE

    Niederer, Steven A.; Kerfoot, Eric; Benson, Alan P.; Bernabeu, Miguel O.; Bernus, Olivier; Bradley, Chris; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Clayton, Richard; Fenton, Flavio H.; Garny, Alan; Heidenreich, Elvio; Land, Sander; Maleckar, Mary; Pathmanathan, Pras; Plank, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing developments in cardiac modelling have resulted, in particular, in the development of advanced and increasingly complex computational frameworks for simulating cardiac tissue electrophysiology. The goal of these simulations is often to represent the detailed physiology and pathologies of the heart using codes that exploit the computational potential of high-performance computing architectures. These developments have rapidly progressed the simulation capacity of cardiac virtual physio...

  14. Effects of ischaemia-reperfusion and cyclosporin-A on cardiac muscle ultrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    JURADO, F.; Bellón, J.M.; J. A. Pareja; Golittsin, A.; Millán, L.; Pascual, G.; Buján, J.

    1998-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects on the cardiac muscle cell of two of the determining factors for the success of organ transplant; ischaemia-perfusion and immunosuppressive treatment with cyclosporin-A (CsA). To this end an abdominal, heterotopic heart transplant model in singenic Sprague-Dawley rats was employed. Three study groups were established: Group I (control, n=15) animals undergoing heart transplant without treatment; Group I1 (n=15) ani...

  15. Methods for demonstration of enzyme activity in muscle fibres at the muscle/bone interface in demineralized tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Vilmann, H

    1981-01-01

    A method for demonstration of activity for ATPase and various oxidative enzymes (succinic dehydrogenase, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and lactic dehydrogenase) in muscle/bone sections of fixed and demineralized tissue has been developed. It was found that it is possible to preserve...... with the aid of a mapping of presence of phosphomonoesterases on bone surfaces, the method may be used to study possible biochemical interactions between bone and muscle tissue at the muscle/bone interface....

  16. Muscle LIM Protein: Master regulator of cardiac and skeletal muscle functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafiadaki, Elizabeth; Arvanitis, Demetrios A; Sanoudou, Despina

    2015-07-15

    Muscle LIM Protein (MLP) has emerged as a key regulator of striated muscle physiology and pathophysiology. Mutations in cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3), the gene encoding MLP, are causative of human cardiomyopathies, whereas altered expression patterns are observed in human failing heart and skeletal myopathies. In vitro and in vivo evidences reveal a complex and diverse functional role of MLP in striated muscle, which is determined by its multiple interacting partners and subcellular distribution. Experimental evidence suggests that MLP is implicated in both myogenic differentiation and myocyte cytoarchitecture, although the full spectrum of its intracellular roles still unfolds. PMID:25936993

  17. Irisin and Myonectin Regulation in the Insulin Resistant Muscle: Implications to Adipose Tissue: Muscle Crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gamas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myokines are peptides produced and secreted by the skeletal muscle, with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine actions. Many of them are overexpressed during physical exercise and appear to contribute to the benefits of exercise to metabolic homeostasis. Irisin, resulting from the cleavage of the membrane protein FNDC5, was shown to induce adipocyte browning, with increased lipid oxidation and thermogenesis. Myonectin was only recently discovered and initial studies revealed a role in fatty acid uptake and oxidation in adipose tissue and liver. However, the mechanisms of their regulation by exercise are not entirely established. Impaired secretion and action of myokines, such as irisin and myonectin, may have a role in the establishment of insulin resistance. On the other hand, several studies have shown that insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle may change myokines expression and secretion. This may have consequences on lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue and lead to a vicious cycle between impaired myokines production and insulin resistance. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the influence of skeletal muscle insulin resistance on the secretion of irisin and myonectin, as well as its impact on adipose tissue metabolism.

  18. Role of paracrine factors in stem and progenitor cell mediated cardiac repair and tissue fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burchfield Jana S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new era has begun in the treatment of ischemic disease and heart failure. With the discovery that stem cells from diverse organs and tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord blood, and vessel wall, have the potential to improve cardiac function beyond that of conventional pharmacological therapy comes a new field of research aiming at understanding the precise mechanisms of stem cell-mediated cardiac repair. Not only will it be important to determine the most efficacious cell population for cardiac repair, but also whether overlapping, common mechanisms exist. Increasing evidence suggests that one mechanism of action by which cells provide tissue protection and repair may involve paracrine factors, including cytokines and growth factors, released from transplanted stem cells into the surrounding tissue. These paracrine factors have the potential to directly modify the healing process in the heart, including neovascularization, cardiac myocyte apoptosis, inflammation, fibrosis, contractility, bioenergetics, and endogenous repair.

  19. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering: strategies for volumetric constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio eCittadella Vigodarzere

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle tissue is characterized by high metabolic requirements, defined structure and high regenerative potential. As such, it constitutes an appealing platform for tissue engineering to address volumetric defects, as proven by recent works in this field.Several issues common to all engineered constructs constrain the variety of tissues that can be realized in vitro, principal among them the lack of a vascular system and the absence of reliable cell sources; as it is, the only successful tissue engineering constructs are not characterized by active function, present limited cellular survival at implantation and possess low metabolic requirements.Recently, functionally competent constructs have been engineered, with vascular structures supporting their metabolic requirements. In addition to the use of biochemical cues, physical means, mechanical stimulation and the application of electric tension have proven effective in stimulating the differentiation of cells and the maturation of the constructs; while the use of co-cultures provided fine control of cellular developments through paracrine activity. This review will provide a brief analysis of some of the most promising improvements in the field, with particular attention to the techniques that could prove easily transferable to other branches of tissue engineering.

  20. Molecular cloning and in silico analysis of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos MEF2A gene cDNA and its expression profile in muscle tissues during fetal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehe Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of myogenic enhancer transcription factor 2a (MEF2A in avian muscle during fetal development is unknown. In this work, we cloned the duck MEF2A cDNA sequence (GenBank accession no. HM460752 and examined its developmental expression profiles in cardiac muscle, non-vascular smooth muscle and skeletal muscle. Duck MEF2A cDNA comprised 1479 bp encoding 492 amino acid residues. In silico analysis showed that MEF2A contained MADS (MCM1, AGAMOUS, DEFICIENS and SRF -serum response factor, MEF2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK transcription domains with high homology to related proteins in other species. Modified sites in these domains were conserved among species and several variants were found. Quantitative PCR showed that MEF2A was expressed in all three muscles at each developmental stage examined, with the expression in smooth muscle being higher than in the other muscles. These results indicate that the conserved domains of duck MEF2A, including the MADS and MEF2 domains, are important for MEF2A transcription factor function. The expression of MEF2A in duck smooth muscle and cardiac muscle suggests that MEF2A plays a role in these two tissues.

  1. Human Cardiac Tissue Engineering: From Pluripotent Stem Cells to Heart Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Christopher P.; Shadrin, Ilya Y.; Carlson, Aaron L.; Bursac, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Engineered cardiac tissues hold great promise for use in drug and toxicology screening, in vitro studies of human physiology and disease, and as transplantable tissue grafts for myocardial repair. In this review, we discuss recent progress in cell-based therapy and functional tissue engineering using pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and we describe methods for delivery of cells into the injured heart. While significant hurdles remain, notable advances have been made in the methods to derive large numbers of pure human cardiomyocytes, mature their phenotype, and produce and implant functional cardiac tissues, bringing the field a step closer to widespread in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:25599018

  2. DETECTION OF LEPTIN IN MUSCLE TISSUES AND ORGANS OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was detection of gene leptin in muscles, liver and kidneys from pigs of breed Large White. Using Real time PRC method, we determined the Ct values of leptim gene in muscle, liver, kidney. The body weight of pigs ranged from 100 kg to 103 kg. The average body weight was 101.6 kg. The thickness of backfat ranged from 10 to 20 mm, average backfat thickness was 16 mm. The minimal Ct value of leptin gene in liver was 24.05 and the maximal value was 25.79. Average Ct value of leptin gene was 24.84. The minimal Ct value of leptin gene in muscle tissue was 25.83 and the maximal value was 27.05. Average Ct value of leptin gene was 26.41. The Ct value of leptin gene in liver ranged from 24.05 to 25.79. Average Ct value of leptin gene was 24.84. Leptin gene is expressed by porcine preadipocytes and leptin gene expression is highly dependent on dexamethasone induced preadipocyte differentiation. Hormonally driven preadipocyte recruitment and subsequent fat cell size may regulate leptin gene expression in the pig.

  3. Measurements of pericardial adipose tissue using contrast enhanced cardiac multidetector computed tomography—comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elming, Marie Bayer; Lønborg, Jacob; Rasmussen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) located in close vicinity to the epicardial coronary arteries may play a role in the development of coronary artery disease. PAT has primarily been measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) or with non......-contrast cardiac multidetector computered tomography (MDCT) images. The aim of this study was to validate contrast MDCT derived measures of total PAT volume by a comparison to CMRI. In 52 patients, aged 60 years (34-81 years), Body Mass Index 28 kg/m(2) (18-39), and with stable ischemic heart disease, paired MDCT...

  4. Contribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to adrenaline-induced thermogenesis in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Stallknecht, Bente; Bülow, J

    subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism was investigated. In both series Fick's principle was applied. Intravenous infusion increased blood flow, glucose uptake and oxygen uptake in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. It is concluded that skeletal muscle contributes about 40% and adipose tissue about 5% of...

  5. Mercury concentrations in muscle and liver tissue of fish from marshes along the Magdalena River, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Santiago; Kolok, Alan S; Jimenez, Luz Fernanda; Granados, Carlos; Palacio, Jaime A

    2012-10-01

    The present research determined the total mercury concentrations in muscle and liver tissue in fish collected from the Magdalena River watershed. A total of 378 muscle samples and 102 liver samples were included in the analysis. The highest mean mercury level in muscle tissue was found in the noncarnivore, Pimelodus blochii. However, as a group, carnivores had significantly higher (p < 0.05) mercury levels in their muscle tissue than noncarnivores. A significant correlation (p < 0.05) was obtained between fish mass and mercury concentrations in muscle or liver in four species. No differences were observed in total mercury concentration based either on species or gender. PMID:22923139

  6. Regulation of Cardiac Hypertrophy: the nuclear option

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.D. Kuster (Diederik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCardiac hypertrophy is the response of the heart to an increased workload. After myocardial infarction (MI) the surviving muscle tissue has to work harder to maintain cardiac output. This sustained increase in workload leads to cardiac hypertrophy. Despite its apparent appropriateness, c

  7. Early remodeling of rat cardiac muscle induced by swimming training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verzola R.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of acute swimming training with an anaerobic component on matrix metallopeptidase (MMP activity and myosin heavy chain gene expression in the rat myocardium. Animals (male Wistar rats, weighing approximately 180 g were trained for 6 h/day in 3 sessions of 2 h each for 1 to 5 consecutive days (N = 5 rats per group. Rats swam in basins 47 cm in diameter and 60 cm deep filled with water at 33 to 35ºC. After the training period a significant increase (P < 0.05 was observed in the heart weight normalized to body weight by about 22 and 35% in the groups that trained for 96 and 120 h, respectively. Blood lactate levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05 in all groups after all training sessions, confirming an anaerobic component. However, lactate levels decreased (P < 0.05 with days of training, suggesting that the animals became adapted to this protocol. Myosin heavy chain-ß gene expression, analyzed by real time PCR and normalized with GAPDH gene expression, showed a significant two-fold increase (P < 0.01 after 5 days of training. Zymography analysis of myocardium extracts indicated a single ~60-kDa activity band that was significantly increased (P < 0.05 after 72, 96, and 120 h, indicating an increased expression of MMP-2 and suggesting precocious remodeling. Furthermore, the presence of MMP-2 was confirmed by Western blot analysis, but not the presence of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Taken together, our results indicate that in these training conditions, the rat heart undergoes early biochemical and functional changes required for the adaptation to the new physiological condition by tissue remodeling.

  8. Physical model of facial tissue and muscle articulation derived from computer tomography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Keith

    1992-09-01

    A facial tissue model, articulated by synthetic muscles, provides a tool for observing, analyzing, and predicting soft tissue mobility on the face. A geometric model of facial tissue extracted from CT data improves the skin tissue simulation by using accurate skin tissue depths. This paper suggests that the ability to control the model resolution, muscle placement and activity requires an integrated modeling and animation system.

  9. Generation of eX vivo-vascularized Muscle Engineered Tissue (X-MET)

    OpenAIRE

    Carosio, Silvia; Barberi, Laura; Rizzuto, Emanuele; Nicoletti, Carmine; Prete, Zaccaria Del; Musarò, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The object of this study was to develop an in vitro bioengineered three-dimensional vascularized skeletal muscle tissue, named eX-vivo Muscle Engineered Tissue (X-MET). This new tissue contains cells that exhibit the characteristics of differentiated myotubes, with organized contractile machinery, undifferentiated cells, and vascular cells capable of forming "vessel-like" networks. X-MET showed biomechanical properties comparable with that of adult skeletal muscles; thus it more closely mimic...

  10. Neonatal epicardial-derived progenitors aquire myogenic traits in skeletal muscle, but not cardiac muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte C; Jensen, Charlotte H; Skovrind, Ida;

    2016-01-01

    , in contrast to the adult heart. METHODS: Highly purified mouse EPDCs were transplanted into damaged neonatal and adult myocardium as well as regenerating skeletal muscle. Co-cultures with skeletal myoblasts were used to distinguish fusion independent myogenic conversion. RESULTS: No donor EPDC...... EPDCs may be more myogenic than previously anticipated. But, the heart may lack factors for induction of myogenesis of EPDCs, a scenario that should be taken into consideration when aiming for repair of damaged myocardium by stem cell transplantation....

  11. Chiral recognition of pinacidil and its 3-pyridyl isomer by canine cardiac and smooth muscle: Antagonism by sulfonylureas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.I.; Wiest, S.A.; Zimmerman, K.M.; Ertel, P.J.; Bemis, K.G.; Robertson, D.W. (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Pinacidil, a potassium channel opener (PCO), relaxes vascular smooth muscle by increasing potassium ion membrane conductance, thereby causing membrane hyperpolarization. PCOs also act on cardiac muscle to decrease action potential duration (APD) selectively. To examine the enantiomeric selectivity of pinacidil, the stereoisomers of pinacidil (a 4-pyridylcyanoguanidine) and its 3-pyridyl isomer (LY222675) were synthesized and studied in canine Purkinje fibers and cephalic veins. The (-)-enantiomers of both pinacidil and LY222675 were more potent in relaxing phenylephrine-contracted cephalic veins and decreasing APD than were their corresponding (+)-enantiomers. The EC50 values for (-)-pinacidil and (-)-LY222675 in relaxing cephalic veins were 0.44 and 0.09 microM, respectively. In decreasing APD, the EC50 values were 3.2 microM for (-)-pinacidil and 0.43 microM for (-)-LY222675. The eudismic ratio was greater for the 3-pyridyl isomer than for pinacidil in both cardiac (71 vs. 22) and vascular (53 vs. 17) tissues. (-)-LY222675 and (-)-pinacidil (0.1-30 microM) also increased 86Rb efflux from cephalic veins to a greater extent than did their respective optical antipodes. The antidiabetic sulfonylurea, glyburide (1-30 microM), shifted the vascular concentration-response curve of (-)-pinacidil to the right by a similar extent at each inhibitor concentration. Glipizide also antagonized the response to (-)-pinacidil, but was about 1/10 as potent with a maximal shift occurring at 10 and 30 microM. Glyburide antagonized the vascular relaxant effects of 0.3 microM (-)-LY222675 (EC50, 2.3 microM) and reversed the decrease in APD caused by 3 microM (-)-LY222675 (EC50, 1.9 microM). Nitroprusside did not alter 86Rb efflux, and vascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was unaffected by sulfonylureas.

  12. Chiral recognition of pinacidil and its 3-pyridyl isomer by canine cardiac and smooth muscle: Antagonism by sulfonylureas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinacidil, a potassium channel opener (PCO), relaxes vascular smooth muscle by increasing potassium ion membrane conductance, thereby causing membrane hyperpolarization. PCOs also act on cardiac muscle to decrease action potential duration (APD) selectively. To examine the enantiomeric selectivity of pinacidil, the stereoisomers of pinacidil (a 4-pyridylcyanoguanidine) and its 3-pyridyl isomer (LY222675) were synthesized and studied in canine Purkinje fibers and cephalic veins. The (-)-enantiomers of both pinacidil and LY222675 were more potent in relaxing phenylephrine-contracted cephalic veins and decreasing APD than were their corresponding (+)-enantiomers. The EC50 values for (-)-pinacidil and (-)-LY222675 in relaxing cephalic veins were 0.44 and 0.09 microM, respectively. In decreasing APD, the EC50 values were 3.2 microM for (-)-pinacidil and 0.43 microM for (-)-LY222675. The eudismic ratio was greater for the 3-pyridyl isomer than for pinacidil in both cardiac (71 vs. 22) and vascular (53 vs. 17) tissues. (-)-LY222675 and (-)-pinacidil (0.1-30 microM) also increased 86Rb efflux from cephalic veins to a greater extent than did their respective optical antipodes. The antidiabetic sulfonylurea, glyburide (1-30 microM), shifted the vascular concentration-response curve of (-)-pinacidil to the right by a similar extent at each inhibitor concentration. Glipizide also antagonized the response to (-)-pinacidil, but was about 1/10 as potent with a maximal shift occurring at 10 and 30 microM. Glyburide antagonized the vascular relaxant effects of 0.3 microM (-)-LY222675 (EC50, 2.3 microM) and reversed the decrease in APD caused by 3 microM (-)-LY222675 (EC50, 1.9 microM). Nitroprusside did not alter 86Rb efflux, and vascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was unaffected by sulfonylureas

  13. MR muscle tractography study on VX2 soft-tissue tumor in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine if diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and muscle fiber tracts of muscle disease are feasible. Methods: Twenty Newzealand white rabbits were implanted with 0.2 ml VX2 tumor tissue suspension in the right proximal thighs. MRI and DTI were performed on these rabbits and DTI of muscle fiber tracts in the muscles around the lesions were reconstructed. The fractional anisotropy(FA) and volume ratio anisotropy(VrA) of the tumor and the normal muscle were analyzed. The correlation study between MRI and pathological findings was done. Results: All experimental animal models of rabbit VX2 soft tissue tumors were successfully established. The difference of FA between the central parenchyma area and the necrosis area, the peripheral area of the tumor, the adjacent and contralateral normal muscle was statistically significant (P0.05). The difference of FA and VrA between the adjacent and contralateral normal muscle was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The arrangement of normal muscle was regular on DTI of muscle tract. The muscle around the tumor lesions was infiltrated and destructed, which demonstrated irregular and interrupted muscle fiber on muscle tractography. Conclusion: DTI is advantageous to demonstrate the structure of soft tissue tumors and its border, which should be helpful in the structure and function research of muscle, as well as in the diagnosis of muscle diseases. (authors)

  14. Physical basis of SATRO - a new method for analysis of the cardiac muscle depolarisation

    CERN Document Server

    Janicki, J S

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the model of the current flow through a single fibre, changes in the electric charge density over the myocardium are described. With the use of relevant analytic formulae, supported with numerical calculations, the distribution and time dependencies of electric potentials on the surface of the thorax have been determined. The results obtained are compared with empirical data. A strong correlation between the theoretical predictions and the experimental data has been obtained. The model in question permits examination of instantaneous potentials resulting from electrical activation of particular segments of the cardiac muscle.

  15. Evaluation of cardiac functions of cirrhotic children using serum brain natriuretic peptide and tissue Doppler imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Aya M Fattouh; El-Shabrawi, Mortada H; Enas H Mahmoud; Wafaa O Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM) is described as the presence of cardiac dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. In children with chronic liver disease, CCM has been very rarely investigated. The Aim of the Study: Is to evaluate the cardiac function of cirrhotic children to identify those with CCM. Patients and Methods: Fifty-two cirrhotic patients and 53 age and sex matched controls were assessed using serum brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), conventional echocardiography, and tissue...

  16. Sensitivity and Specificity of Cardiac Tissue Discrimination Using Fiber-Optics Confocal Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Huang; Sachse, Frank B.; Hitchcock, Robert W.; Kaza, Aditya K.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances of the cardiac conduction system constitute a major risk after surgical repair of complex cases of congenital heart disease. Intraoperative identification of the conduction system may reduce the incidence of these disturbances. We previously developed an approach to identify cardiac tissue types using fiber-optics confocal microscopy and extracellular fluorophores. Here, we applied this approach to investigate sensitivity and specificity of human and automated classification in d...

  17. In Vivo Measurement of Levofloxacin Penetration into Lung Tissue after Cardiac Surgery†

    OpenAIRE

    Hutschala, Doris; Skhirtladze, Keso; Zuckermann, Andreas; Wisser, Wilfried; Jaksch, Peter; Mayer-Helm, Bernhard Xaver; Burgmann, Heinz; Wolner, Ernst; Müller, Markus; Tschernko, Edda M.

    2005-01-01

    Nosocomial pneumonia is a severe complication after cardiac surgery (CS). Levofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, qualifies for the therapy of postoperative pneumonia. However, penetration properties of levofloxacin into the lung tissue could be substantially affected by CS: atelectasis, low cardiac output after CS, high volume loads, and inflammatory capillary leak potentially influence drug distribution. The aim of our study was to gain information on interstitial antibiotic concentrations in lung...

  18. Role of matricellular proteins in cardiac tissue remodeling after myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yutaka; Matsui; Junko; Morimoto; Toshimitsu; Uede

    2010-01-01

    After onset of myocardial infarction(MI),the left ventricle(LV) undergoes a continuum of molecular,cellular,and extracellular responses that result in LV wall thinning,dilatation,and dysfunction.These dynamic changes in LV shape,size,and function are termed cardiac remodeling.If the cardiac healing after MI does not proceed properly,it could lead to cardiac rupture or maladaptive cardiac remodeling,such as further LV dilatation and dysfunction,and ultimately death.Although the precise molecular mechanisms in this cardiac healing process have not been fully elucidated,this process is strictly coordinated by the interaction of cells with their surrounding extracellular matrix(ECM) proteins.The components of ECM include basic structural proteins such as collagen,elastin and specialized proteins such as fibronectin,proteoglycans and matricellular proteins.Matricellular proteins are a class of non-structural and secreted proteins that probably exert regulatory functions through direct binding to cell surface receptors,other matrix proteins,and soluble extracellular factors such as growth factors and cytokines.This small group of proteins,which includesosteopontin,thrombospondin-1/2,tenascin,periostin,and secreted protein,acidic and rich in cysteine,shows a low level of expression in normal adult tissue,but is markedly upregulated during wound healing and tissue remodeling,including MI.In this review,we focus on the regulatory functions of matricellular proteins during cardiac tissue healing and remodeling after MI.

  19. Differential response of rat cardiac and skeletal muscle glycogen to glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, J L; Poland, J W; Honey, R N

    1982-05-01

    Though glucocorticoids were previously implicated in the support of myocardial glycogen supercompensation after exercise, it was unclear why skeletal muscle glycogen did not simultaneously supercompensate since it was also exposed to the exercise-induced glucocorticoid increases. The current study shows that glucocorticoids differentially affect cardiac and skeletal muscle glycogen. Following dexamethasone administration (400 micrograms i.p.) myocardial glycogen peaked at 6 h while glycogen in the soleus, red vastus lateralis, and white vastus lateralis increased more slowly and reached the highest values 17 h postinjection. Concurrently, blood glucose, insulin, and glucagon remained at control levels. Liver glycogen increased within 2 h and continued to rise with a peak value at 17 h. Plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels increased and remained high throughout the 26-h experimental period. High FFA levels inhibit glycogenolysis and thus could be partially responsible for glucocorticoid-induced glycogen increases. It is postulated that glycogen supercompensation does not readily occur in skeletal muscles after exercise because of the brevity of the corticosterone and FFA increases and the slowness of the skeletal muscle glycogen response to glucocorticoids. PMID:7104851

  20. Temporal effects of mechanical loading on deformation-induced damage in skeletal muscle tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Loerakker, S Sandra; Stekelenburg, A Anke; Strijkers, GJ Gustav; Rijpkema, JJM Koo; Baaijens, FPT Frank; Bader, DL Dan; Nicolaij, K Klaas; Oomens, CWJ Cees

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical loading of soft tissues covering bony prominences can cause skeletal muscle damage, ultimately resulting in a severe pressure ulcer termed deep tissue injury. Recently, by means of an experimental-numerical approach, it was shown that local tissue deformations cause tissue damage once a deformation threshold is exceeded. In the present study, the effects of load exposure time and intermittent load relief on the development of deformation-induced muscle damage were investigated. The...

  1. Myostatin Inhibition in Muscle, but Not Adipose Tissue, Decreases Fat Mass and Improves Insulin Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Tingqing; Jou, William; Chanturiya, Tatyana; Portas, Jennifer; Gavrilova, Oksana; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2009-01-01

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn−/− mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn−/− mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscl...

  2. Application of biospeckles for assessment of structural and cellular changes in muscle tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymenko, Oleksandr P.; Muravsky, Leonid I.; Berezyuk, Mykola I.

    2015-09-01

    A modified spatial-temporal speckle correlation technique for operational assessment of structural changes in muscle tissues after slaughtering is considered. Coefficient of biological activity as a quantitative indicator of structural changes of biochemical processes in biological tissues is proposed. The experimental results have shown that this coefficient properly evaluates the biological activity of pig and chicken muscle tissue samples. Studying the degradation processes in muscle tissue during long-time storage in a refrigerator by measuring the spatial-temporal dynamics of biospeckle patterns is carried out. The reduction of the bioactivity level of refrigerated muscle tissue samples connected with the initiation of muscle fiber cracks and ruptures, reduction of sarcomeres, nuclei deformation, nuclear chromatin diminishing, and destruction of mitochondria is analyzed.

  3. Application of biospeckles for assessment of structural and cellular changes in muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymenko, Oleksandr P; Muravsky, Leonid I; Berezyuk, Mykola I

    2015-09-01

    A modified spatial-temporal speckle correlation technique for operational assessment of structural changes in muscle tissues after slaughtering is considered. Coefficient of biological activity as a quantitative indicator of structural changes of biochemical processes in biological tissues is proposed. The experimental results have shown that this coefficient properly evaluates the biological activity of pig and chicken muscle tissue samples. Studying the degradation processes in muscle tissue during long-time storage in a refrigerator by measuring the spatial-temporal dynamics of biospeckle patterns is carried out. The reduction of the bioactivity level of refrigerated muscle tissue samples connected with the initiation of muscle fiber cracks and ruptures, reduction of sarcomeres, nuclei deformation, nuclear chromatin diminishing, and destruction of mitochondria is analyzed. PMID:26359810

  4. Positive Inotropic Effects of Low dATP/ATP Ratios on Mechanics and Kinetics of Porcine Cardiac Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Schoffstall, Brenda; Clark, Amanda; Chase, P. Bryant

    2006-01-01

    Substitution of 2′-deoxy ATP (dATP) for ATP as substrate for actomyosin results in significant enhancement of in vitro parameters of cardiac contraction. To determine the minimal ratio of dATP/ATP (constant total NTP) that significantly enhances cardiac contractility and obtain greater understanding of how dATP substitution results in contractile enhancement, we varied dATP/ATP ratio in porcine cardiac muscle preparations. At maximum Ca2+ (pCa 4.5), isometric force increased linearly with dAT...

  5. A hybrid stimulation strategy for suppression of spiral waves in cardiac tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Simulation of a cardiac tissue by a modified 2D FitzHugh-Nagumo model. → Stimulation of monophasic impulsions from a grid of electrodes to the cardiac tissue. → Propose a method by modifying the tissue's sodium channels and electrical stimulation. → The method leading to suppress spiral waves without generating new ones. → Optimal parameters of a successful suppression of spiral waves are investigated. - Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia whose mechanisms are thought to be mainly due to the self perpetuation of spiral waves (SW). To date, available treatment strategies (antiarrhythmic drugs, radiofrequency ablation of the substrate, electrical cardioversion) to restore and to maintain a normal sinus rhythm have limitations and are associated with AF recurrences. The aim of this study was to assess a way of suppressing SW by applying multifocal electrical stimulations in a simulated cardiac tissue using a 2D FitzHugh-Nagumo model specially convenient for AF investigations. We identified stimulation parameters for successful termination of SW. However, SW reinduction, following the electrical stimuli, leads us to develop a hybrid strategy based on sodium channel modification for the simulated tissue.

  6. A hybrid stimulation strategy for suppression of spiral waves in cardiac tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Binbin, E-mail: xubinbin@hotmail.fr [LE2I, CNRS UMR 5158, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); Jacquir, Sabir, E-mail: sjacquir@u-bourgogne.fr [LE2I, CNRS UMR 5158, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); Laurent, Gabriel; Bilbault, Jean-Marie [LE2I, CNRS UMR 5158, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); Binczak, Stephane, E-mail: stbinc@u-bourgogne.fr [LE2I, CNRS UMR 5158, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Simulation of a cardiac tissue by a modified 2D FitzHugh-Nagumo model. > Stimulation of monophasic impulsions from a grid of electrodes to the cardiac tissue. > Propose a method by modifying the tissue's sodium channels and electrical stimulation. > The method leading to suppress spiral waves without generating new ones. > Optimal parameters of a successful suppression of spiral waves are investigated. - Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia whose mechanisms are thought to be mainly due to the self perpetuation of spiral waves (SW). To date, available treatment strategies (antiarrhythmic drugs, radiofrequency ablation of the substrate, electrical cardioversion) to restore and to maintain a normal sinus rhythm have limitations and are associated with AF recurrences. The aim of this study was to assess a way of suppressing SW by applying multifocal electrical stimulations in a simulated cardiac tissue using a 2D FitzHugh-Nagumo model specially convenient for AF investigations. We identified stimulation parameters for successful termination of SW. However, SW reinduction, following the electrical stimuli, leads us to develop a hybrid strategy based on sodium channel modification for the simulated tissue.

  7. Evaluation of skeletal and cardiac muscle function after chronic administration of thymosin beta-4 in the dystrophin deficient mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Spurney

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tbeta4 is a ubiquitous protein with many properties relating to cell proliferation and differentiation that promotes wound healing and modulates inflammatory mediators. We studied the effects of chronic administration of Tbeta4 on the skeletal and cardiac muscle of dystrophin deficient mdx mice, the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Female wild type (C57BL10/ScSnJ and mdx mice, 8-10 weeks old, were treated with 150 microg of Tbeta4 twice a week for 6 months. To promote muscle pathology, mice were exercised for 30 minutes twice a week. Skeletal and cardiac muscle function were assessed via grip strength and high frequency echocardiography. Localization of Tbeta4 and amount of fibrosis were quantified using immunohistochemistry and Gomori's tri-chrome staining, respectively. Mdx mice treated with Tbeta4 showed a significant increase in skeletal muscle regenerating fibers compared to untreated mdx mice. Tbeta4 stained exclusively in the regenerating fibers of mdx mice. Although untreated mdx mice had significantly decreased skeletal muscle strength compared to untreated wild type, there were no significant improvements in mdx mice after treatment. Systolic cardiac function, measured as percent shortening fraction, was decreased in untreated mdx mice compared to untreated wild type and there was no significant difference after treatment in mdx mice. Skeletal and cardiac muscle fibrosis were also significantly increased in untreated mdx mice compared to wild type, but there was no significant improvement in treated mdx mice. In exercised dystrophin deficient mice, chronic administration of Tbeta4 increased the number of regenerating fibers in skeletal muscle and could have a potential role in treatment of skeletal muscle disease in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  8. Zebrafish Heart Regeneration as a Model for Cardiac Tissue Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Robert J.; Poss, Kenneth D.

    2007-01-01

    Heart disease remains the leading cause of mortality throughout the world. Mammals have an extremely limited capacity to repair lost or damaged heart tissue, thus encouraging biologists to seek out models for heart regeneration. Zebrafish exhibit a robust regenerative capacity in a variety of tissues including the fin, spinal cord, retina, and heart, making it the sole regenerative vertebrate organism currently amenable to genetic manipulation. Future studies will utilize functional approache...

  9. Regulation of Cardiac Hypertrophy: the nuclear option

    OpenAIRE

    Kuster, Diederik

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCardiac hypertrophy is the response of the heart to an increased workload. After myocardial infarction (MI) the surviving muscle tissue has to work harder to maintain cardiac output. This sustained increase in workload leads to cardiac hypertrophy. Despite its apparent appropriateness, cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure and is therefore called pathological hypertrophy. That hypertrophy is not bad per se, is illustrated by the hyp...

  10. Scroll-wave dynamics in human cardiac tissue: lessons from a mathematical model with inhomogeneities and fiber architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupamanjari Majumder

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrhythmias, such as ventricular tachycardia (VT and ventricular fibrillation (VF, are among the leading causes of death in the industrialized world. These are associated with the formation of spiral and scroll waves of electrical activation in cardiac tissue; single spiral and scroll waves are believed to be associated with VT whereas their turbulent analogs are associated with VF. Thus, the study of these waves is an important biophysical problem. We present a systematic study of the combined effects of muscle-fiber rotation and inhomogeneities on scroll-wave dynamics in the TNNP (ten Tusscher Noble Noble Panfilov model for human cardiac tissue. In particular, we use the three-dimensional TNNP model with fiber rotation and consider both conduction and ionic inhomogeneities. We find that, in addition to displaying a sensitive dependence on the positions, sizes, and types of inhomogeneities, scroll-wave dynamics also depends delicately upon the degree of fiber rotation. We find that the tendency of scroll waves to anchor to cylindrical conduction inhomogeneities increases with the radius of the inhomogeneity. Furthermore, the filament of the scroll wave can exhibit drift or meandering, transmural bending, twisting, and break-up. If the scroll-wave filament exhibits weak meandering, then there is a fine balance between the anchoring of this wave at the inhomogeneity and a disruption of wave-pinning by fiber rotation. If this filament displays strong meandering, then again the anchoring is suppressed by fiber rotation; also, the scroll wave can be eliminated from most of the layers only to be regenerated by a seed wave. Ionic inhomogeneities can also lead to an anchoring of the scroll wave; scroll waves can now enter the region inside an ionic inhomogeneity and can display a coexistence of spatiotemporal chaos and quasi-periodic behavior in different parts of the simulation domain. We discuss the experimental implications of our study.

  11. Monitoring of Physicochemical Changes in Frozen Fish Muscle Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Ježek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to monitor physicochemical parameters (pH, nitrogen trimethylamine N-TMA, total volatile basic nitrogen TVBN, free fatty acids FFA, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid assay TBA of postmortal changes in muscle tissue of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix during a period of storage at -18°C. Fresh silver carp samples and samples aft er three, six, nine and 12 months of storage were tested. The degree of acidification during the experiment was insignificant (P > 0.05. Proteolytic changes were almost stopped and TVBN levels remained unchanged (P > 0.05, while N-TMA levels fluctuated significantly (P < 0.01 between months 3 and 12. The essential were lipid hydrolysis and oxidation, which caused a significant increase in FFA values (5.89 ± 0.99% total lipids as oleic acid, peroxides (9.90 ± 2.83 mekv O2.kg-1 and TBA values (50.76 ± 31.52 mg MDA.kg-1. The shelf life recommended for silver carp was set at three months.

  12. Monitoring of Physicochemical Changes in Frozen Fish Muscle Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Ježek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to monitor physicochemical parameters (pH, nitrogen trimethylamine N-TMA, total volatile basic nitrogen TVBN, free fatty acids FFA, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid assay TBA of postmortal changes in muscle tissue of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix during a period of storage at -18°C. Fresh silver carp samples and samples aft er three, six, nine and 12 months of storage were tested. The degree of acidification during the experiment was insignificant (P > 0.05. Proteolytic changes were almost stopped and TVBN levels remained unchanged (P > 0.05, while N-TMA levels fluctuated significantly (P < 0.01 between months 3 and 12. The essential were lipid hydrolysis and oxidation, which caused a significant increase in FFA values (5.89 ± 0.99% total lipids as oleic acid, peroxides (9.90 ± 2.83 mekv O2.kg-1 and TBA values (50.76 ± 31.52 mg MDA.kg-1. The shelf life recommended for silver carp was set at three months.

  13. Determining bruise etiology in muscle tissue using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kevin; Sharpe, Wyatt; Schulz, Alexandra; Tam, Edric; Grosse, Ian; Tis, John; Cullinane, Dennis

    2014-03-01

    Bruising, the result of capillary failure, is a common physical exam finding due to blunt trauma and, depending on location and severity, a potential indicator of abuse. Despite its clinical relevance, few studies have investigated the etiology of capillary failure. The goal of this study was to determine whether capillaries primarily fail under shear stress or hydraulic-induced tensile stress. An arteriole bifurcating into four capillaries was modeled using ANSYS 14.0 (®) . The capillaries were embedded in muscle tissue and a pressure of 20.4 kPa was applied. Any tensile stress exceeding 8.4 × 10(4)  Pa was considered failure. Results showed that failure occurred directly under the impact zone and where capillaries bifurcated, rather than along the line of greatest shear stress, indicating that internal tensile stress is likely the primary mode of capillary failure in bruising. These results are supported by the concept that bruising can occur via blunt trauma in which no shearing lacerations occur. PMID:24313678

  14. Ultra-rapid manufacturing of engineered epicardial substitute to regenerate cardiac tissue following acute ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpooshan, Vahid; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Considering the impaired regenerative capacity of adult mammalian heart tissue, cardiovascular tissue engineering aims to create functional substitutes that can restore the structure and function of the damaged cardiac tissue. The success of cardiac regenerative therapies has been limited mainly due to poor control on the structure and properties of the tissue substitute, lack of vascularization, and immunogenicity. In this study we introduce a new approach to rapidly engineer dense biomimetic scaffolds consisting of type I collagen, to protect the heart against severe ischemic injury. Scaffold biomechanical properties are adjusted to mimic embryonic epicardium which is shown to be optimal to support cardiomyocyte contractile work. Moreover, the designed patch can serve as a delivery device for targeted, controlled release of cells or therapeutic macromolecules into the lesion area. PMID:25173173

  15. Mast cell deficient W/Wv mice have lower serum IL-6 and less cardiac tissue necrosis than their normal littermates following myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, K; Farwell, K; Huang, M; Kempuraj, D; Donelan, J; Papaliodis, D; Vasiadi, M; Theoharides, T C

    2007-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury complicates all forms of coronary artery revascularization. Circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been implicated in cell death following a variety of stimuli. Macrophages, platelets, neutrophils and the endothelium have been shown to release IL-6 after IR injury. Cardiac mast cells have been implicated in IR; however, their involvement has never been quantified. In this randomized, prospective study, we compared cardiac tissue susceptibility and serum IL-6 changes between mast cell deficient (W/Wv) mice and their normal littermates (+/+). Twenty-eight male W/Wv mice (n=14) and their +/+ littermates (n=14) were anaesthetized with 2.5% isoflurane. The left coronary artery (LCA) was ligated for 30 minutes or a sham procedure was performed. After 6 hours of reperfusion, the animals were sacrificed. The muscle viability was assessed on fresh whole-mount slices by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) histochemical assay and serum IL-6 concentrations measured by ELISA. Cardiac muscle viability was significantly higher in W/Wv mice than the +/+ mice. Serum IL-6 levels were higher in the +/+ sham mice (465 +/- 32 pg/ml, n=6) than the W/Wv mice (185 +/- 31 pg/ml, n=6), p injury. Furthermore, there is an attenuation in the inflammatory response, as measured by serum IL-6 levels, following this local insult. This finding entertains the prospect of developing prophylactic therapy--targeting selective inhibition of cardiac mast cell activation, in clinical situations involving medical or surgical myocardial revascularization. PMID:17346429

  16. Real time assessment of RF cardiac tissue ablation with optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Sharareh, S

    2008-03-20

    An optical spectroscopy approach is demonstrated allowing for critical parameters during RF ablation of cardiac tissue to be evaluated in real time. The method is based on incorporating in a typical ablation catheter transmitting and receiving fibers that terminate at the tip of the catheter. By analyzing the spectral characteristics of the NIR diffusely reflected light, information is obtained on such parameters as, catheter-tissue proximity, lesion formation, depth of penetration of the lesion, formation of char during the ablation, formation of coagulum around the ablation site, differentiation of ablated from healthy tissue, and recognition of micro-bubble formation in the tissue.

  17. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle Flap for Soft Tissue Reconstruction after Total Elbow Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Syunro Okamoto; Kaoru Tada; Hachinota Ai; Hiroyuki Tsuchiya

    2014-01-01

    The soft tissue at the tip of the olecranon is very thin, leading to the frequent occurrence of wound complications after total elbow arthroplasty. To cover a soft tissue defect of the elbow, the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap is thought to be appropriate for reconstruction of the elbow with regard to its size, location, and blood supply. We got positive clinical results, so we report our experiences of using a flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap for soft tissue reconstruction after total elbo...

  18. Engineered skeletal muscle tissue for soft robotics: fabrication strategies, current applications, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Rebecca M; Feinberg, Adam W

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a scalable actuator system used throughout nature from the millimeter to meter length scales and over a wide range of frequencies and force regimes. This adaptability has spurred interest in using engineered skeletal muscle to power soft robotics devices and in biotechnology and medical applications. However, the challenges to doing this are similar to those facing the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields; specifically, how do we translate our understanding of myogenesis in vivo to the engineering of muscle constructs in vitro to achieve functional integration with devices. To do this researchers are developing a number of ways to engineer the cellular microenvironment to guide skeletal muscle tissue formation. This includes understanding the role of substrate stiffness and the mechanical environment, engineering the spatial organization of biochemical and physical cues to guide muscle alignment, and developing bioreactors for mechanical and electrical conditioning. Examples of engineered skeletal muscle that can potentially be used in soft robotics include 2D cantilever-based skeletal muscle actuators and 3D skeletal muscle tissues engineered using scaffolds or directed self-organization. Integration into devices has led to basic muscle-powered devices such as grippers and pumps as well as more sophisticated muscle-powered soft robots that walk and swim. Looking forward, current, and future challenges include identifying the best source of muscle precursor cells to expand and differentiate into myotubes, replacing cardiomyocytes with skeletal muscle tissue as the bio-actuator of choice for soft robots, and vascularization and innervation to enable control and nourishment of larger muscle tissue constructs. PMID:24319010

  19. Virtual electrodes in cardiac tissue: a common mechanism for anodal and cathodal stimulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Wikswo, J.P.; Lin, S F; Abbas, R A

    1995-01-01

    Traditional cable analyses cannot explain complex patterns of excitation in cardiac tissue with unipolar, extracellular anodal, or cathodal stimuli. Epifluorescence imaging of the transmembrane potential during and after stimulation of both refractory and excitable tissue shows distinctive regions of simultaneous depolarization and hyperpolarization during stimulation that act as virtual cathodes and anodes. The results confirm bidomain model predictions that the onset (make) of a stimulus in...

  20. Selenium concentrations in the razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus): Substitution of non-lethal muscle plugs for muscle tissue in contaminant assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, B.; May, T.

    1995-01-01

    A single muscle plug was collected from each of 25 live razorback suckers inhabiting the Colorado River basin and analyzed for selenium by instrumental neutron activation. Eight fish from Ashley Creek and three from Razorback Bar exhibited selenium concentrations exceeding 8 μg/g, a level associated with reproductive failure in fish. Concentrations of selenium in eggs and milt were significantly correlated with selenium concentrations in muscle plugs and together indicate a possible explanation for the decline of this species in the Colorado River basin. Muscle plugs (<50mg) and muscle tissue (20 g) were collected from dorsal, anterior, and posterior areas of common carp, flannelmouth sucker, and an archived razorback sucker and analyzed for selenium. Concentrations of selenium in muscle plugs were significantly correlated with selenium concentrations in muscle tissue from the same location and fish (r=0.97). Coefficients of variation for selenium concentrations in each fish were <6.5% for muscle tissue, but ranged from 1.5 to 32.4% for muscle plugs. Increased variation in muscle plugs was attributed to lower selenium concentrations found in the anterior muscle plugs of flannelmouth suckers. Mean selenium concentrations in muscle plugs and tissue from dorsal and posterior areas and muscle tissue from the anterior area were not significantly different. The non-lethal collection of a muscle plug from dorsal and posterior areas of the razorback sucker and other fish species may provide an accurate assessment of selenium concentrations that exist in adjacent muscle tissue.

  1. NK4 antagonizes Tbx1/10 to promote cardiac versus pharyngeal muscle fate in the ascidian second heart field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The heart and head muscles share common developmental origins and genetic underpinnings in vertebrates, including humans. Parts of the heart and cranio-facial musculature derive from common mesodermal progenitors that express NKX2-5, ISL1, and TBX1. This ontogenetic kinship is dramatically reflected in the DiGeorge/Cardio-Velo-Facial syndrome (DGS/CVFS, where mutations of TBX1 cause malformations in the pharyngeal apparatus and cardiac outflow tract. Cardiac progenitors of the first heart field (FHF do not require TBX1 and segregate precociously from common progenitors of the second heart field (SHF and pharyngeal muscles. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern heart versus pharyngeal muscle specification within this lineage remain elusive. Here, we harness the simplicity of the ascidian larva to show that, following asymmetric cell division of common progenitors, NK4/NKX2-5 promotes GATAa/GATA4/5/6 expression and cardiac specification in the second heart precursors by antagonizing Tbx1/10-mediated inhibition of GATAa and activation of Collier/Olf/EBF (COE, the determinant of atrial siphon muscle (ASM specification. Our results uncover essential regulatory connections between the conserved cardio-pharyngeal factor Tbx1/10 and muscle determinant COE, as well as a mutual antagonism between NK4 and Tbx1/10 activities upstream of GATAa and COE. The latter cross-antagonism underlies a fundamental heart versus pharyngeal muscle fate choice that occurs in a conserved lineage of cardio-pharyngeal progenitors. We propose that this basic ontogenetic motif underlies cardiac and pharyngeal muscle development and evolution in chordates.

  2. Autophagic signaling and proteolytic enzyme activity in cardiac and skeletal muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats following chronic aerobic exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott M McMillan

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a cardiovascular disease associated with deleterious effects in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Autophagy is a degradative process essential to muscle health. Acute exercise can alter autophagic signaling. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the effects of chronic endurance exercise on autophagy in skeletal and cardiac muscle of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR were assigned to a sedentary condition or 6 weeks of treadmill running. White gastrocnemius (WG of hypertensive rats had higher (p<0.05 caspase-3 and proteasome activity, as well as elevated calpain activity. In addition, skeletal muscle of hypertensive animals had elevated (p<0.05 ATG7 and LC3I protein, LAMP2 mRNA, and cathepsin activity, indicative of enhanced autophagic signaling. Interestingly, chronic exercise training increased (p<0.05 Beclin-1, LC3, and p62 mRNA as well as proteasome activity, but reduced (p<0.05 Beclin-1 and ATG7 protein, as well as decreased (p<0.05 caspase-3, calpain, and cathepsin activity. Left ventricle (LV of hypertensive rats had reduced (p<0.05 AMPKα and LC3II protein, as well as elevated (p<0.05 p-AKT, p-p70S6K, LC3I and p62 protein, which collectively suggest reduced autophagic signaling. Exercise training had little effect on autophagy-related signaling factors in LV; however, exercise training increased (p<0.05 proteasome activity but reduced (p<0.05 caspase-3 and calpain activity. Our results suggest that autophagic signaling is altered in skeletal and cardiac muscle of hypertensive animals. Regular aerobic exercise can effectively alter the proteolytic environment in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, as well as influence several autophagy-related factors in skeletal muscle of normotensive and hypertensive rats.

  3. Two-photon induced collagen cross-linking in bioartificial cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuetemeyer, Kai; Kensah, George; Heidrich, Marko; Meyer, Heiko; Martin, Ulrich; Gruh, Ina; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2011-08-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering is a promising strategy for regenerative therapies to overcome the shortage of donor organs for transplantation. Besides contractile function, the stiffness of tissue engineered constructs is crucial to generate transplantable tissue surrogates with sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the high pressure present in the heart. Although several collagen cross-linking techniques have proven to be efficient in stabilizing biomaterials, they cannot be applied to cardiac tissue engineering, as cell death occurs in the treated area. Here, we present a novel method using femtosecond (fs) laser pulses to increase the stiffness of collagen-based tissue constructs without impairing cell viability. Raster scanning of the fs laser beam over riboflavin-treated tissue induced collagen cross-linking by two-photon photosensitized singlet oxygen production. One day post-irradiation, stress-strain measurements revealed increased tissue stiffness by around 40% being dependent on the fibroblast content in the tissue. At the same time, cells remained viable and fully functional as demonstrated by fluorescence imaging of cardiomyocyte mitochondrial activity and preservation of active contraction force. Our results indicate that two-photon induced collagen cross-linking has great potential for studying and improving artificially engineered tissue for regenerative therapies.

  4. Electrical stimulation as a biomimicry tool for regulating muscle cell behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ahadian, Samad; Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Kaji, Hirokazu; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need to understand muscle cell behaviors and to engineer muscle tissues to replace defective tissues in the body. Despite a long history of the clinical use of electric fields for muscle tissues in vivo, electrical stimulation (ES) has recently gained significant attention as a powerful tool for regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro. ES aims to mimic the electrical environment of electroactive muscle cells (e.g., cardiac or skeletal muscle cells) by helping to regulate ...

  5. Effect of Hypoxia on Ca2+ Concentration in Broiler's Cardiac Muscle Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of hypoxia on the Ca2+ concentration in broiler's cardiac muscle cells (CMCs). The concentration of Ca2+ in the CMC was observed using a laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). The results showed that hypoxia could significantly increase intracellular Ca2+ (normal oxygen, 99.3 ± 13.1; hypoxia, 129.4±24.3, P<0.01) in CMCs. The Ca2+ antagonist (nifedipine, verapamil) could significantly restrain the Ca2+ influx across the cell membrane of CMC treated by hypoxia (CMC: hypoxia + verapamil, 100.9 ± 28.2; hypoxia + nifedipine, 107.6± 27.7;P < 0.01). The results showed hypoxia could increase intracellular Ca2+ concentration of CMC, and the Ca2+ antagonist could restrain the Ca2+ influx across the cell membrane of CMC treated by hypoxia.

  6. The human cardiac muscle ryanodine receptor-calcium release channel: identification, primary structure and topological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunwell, R E; Wickenden, C; Bertrand, B M; Shevchenko, V I; Walsh, M B; Allen, P D; Lai, F A

    1996-09-01

    Rapid Ca2+ efflux from intracellular stores during cardiac muscle excitation-contraction coupling is mediated by the ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel, a large homotetrameric complex present in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. We report here the identification, primary structure and topological analysis of the ryanodine receptor-calcium release channel from human cardiac muscle (hRyR-2). Consistent with sedimentation and immunoblotting studies on the hRyR-2 protein, sequence analysis of ten overlapping cDNA clones reveals an open reading frame of 14901 nucleotides encoding a protein of 4967 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 564 569 Da for hRyR-2. In-frame insertions corresponding to eight and ten amino acid residues were found in two of the ten cDNAs isolated, suggesting that novel, alternatively spliced transcripts of the hRyR-2 gene might exist. Six hydrophobic stretches, which are present within the hRyR-2 C-terminal 500 amino acids and are conserved in all RyR sequences, may be involved in forming the transmembrane domain that constitutes the Ca(2+)-conducting pathway, in agreement with competitive ELISA studies with a RyR-2-specific antibody. Sequence alignment of hRyR-2 with other RyR isoforms indicates a high level of overall identity within the RyR family, with the exception of two important regions that exhibit substantial variability. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the RyR-2 isoform diverged from a single ancestral gene before the RyR-1 and RyR-3 isoforms to form a distinct branch of the RyR family tree. PMID:8809036

  7. Serial block face scanning electron microscopy for the study of cardiac muscle ultrastructure at nanoscale resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinali, Christian; Kitmitto, Ashraf

    2014-11-01

    Electron microscopy techniques have made a significant contribution towards understanding muscle physiology since the 1950s. Subsequent advances in hardware and software have led to major breakthroughs in terms of image resolution as well as the ability to generate three-dimensional (3D) data essential for linking structure to function and dysfunction. In this methodological review we consider the application of a relatively new technique, serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM), for the study of cardiac muscle morphology. Employing SBF-SEM we have generated 3D data for cardiac myocytes within the myocardium with a voxel size of ~15 nm in the X-Y plane and 50 nm in the Z-direction. We describe how SBF-SEM can be used in conjunction with selective staining techniques to reveal the 3D cellular organisation and the relationship between the t-tubule (t-t) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) networks. These methods describe how SBF-SEM can be used to provide qualitative data to investigate the organisation of the dyad, a specialised calcium microdomain formed between the t-ts and the junctional portion of the SR (jSR). We further describe how image analysis methods may be applied to interrogate the 3D volumes to provide quantitative data such as the volume of the cell occupied by the t-t and SR membranes and the volumes and surface area of jSR patches. We consider the strengths and weaknesses of the SBF-SEM technique, pitfalls in sample preparation together with tips and methods for image analysis. By providing a 'big picture' view at high resolutions, in comparison to conventional confocal microscopy, SBF-SEM represents a paradigm shift for imaging cellular networks in their native environment. PMID:25149127

  8. Structural and functional aspects of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthu, Priya; Wang, Li; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Huang, Wenrui; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kawai, Masataka; Irving, Thomas C.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta (IIT); (Iowa); (Miami-MED)

    2012-04-02

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structural component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, but its function is poorly understood, especially the role of the cardiac specific N-terminal extension in modulating actomyosin interaction. Here, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the A57G (alanine to glycine) mutation in the cardiac ELC known to cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). The function of the ELC N-terminal extension was investigated with the Tg-{Delta}43 mouse model, whose myocardium expresses a truncated ELC. Low-angle X-ray diffraction studies on papillary muscle fibers in rigor revealed a decreased interfilament spacing ({approx} 1.5 nm) and no alterations in cross-bridge mass distribution in Tg-A57G mice compared to Tg-WT, expressing the full-length nonmutated ELC. The truncation mutation showed a 1.3-fold increase in I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}, indicating a shift of cross-bridge mass from the thick filament backbone toward the thin filaments. Mechanical studies demonstrated increased stiffness in Tg-A57G muscle fibers compared to Tg-WT or Tg-{Delta}43. The equilibrium constant for the cross-bridge force generation step was smallest in Tg-{Delta}43. These results support an important role for the N-terminal ELC extension in prepositioning the cross-bridge for optimal force production. Subtle changes in the ELC sequence were sufficient to alter cross-bridge properties and lead to pathological phenotypes.

  9. Contribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to adrenaline-induced thermogenesis in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Stallknecht, B; Bülow, J

    1993-01-01

    Elevated plasma adrenaline is known to increase whole body energy expenditure. We studied the thermogenic effect and the effects on substrate utilization in man during infusion of adrenaline. Two series were performed: in one series skeletal muscle metabolism was investigated and in another series...... subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism was investigated. In both series Fick's principle was applied. Intravenous infusion increased blood flow, glucose uptake and oxygen uptake in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. It is concluded that skeletal muscle contributes about 40% and adipose tissue about 5...

  10. Non-invasive measurement of glucose uptake of skeletal muscle tissue models using a glucose nanobiosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón, Raquel; Ahadian, Samad; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Chen, Luyang; Fujita, Takeshi; Shiku, Hitoshi; Chen, Mingwei; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2013-12-15

    Skeletal muscle tissues play a significant role to maintain the glucose level of whole body and any dysfunction of this tissue leads to the diabetes disease. A culture medium was created in which the muscle cells could survive for a long time and meanwhile it did not interfere with the glucose sensing. We fabricated a model of skeletal muscle tissues in vitro to monitor its glucose uptake. A nanoporous gold as a high sensitive nanobiosensor was then successfully developed and employed to detect the glucose uptake of the tissue models in this medium upon applying the electrical stimulation in a rapid, and non-invasive approach. The response of the glucose sensor was linear in a wide concentration range of 1-50 mM, with a detection limit of 3 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.0. The skeletal muscle tissue was electrically stimulated during 24 h and glucose uptake was monitored during this period. During the first 3 h of stimulation, electrically stimulated muscle tissue consumed almost twice the amount of glucose than counterpart non-stimulated sample. In total, the glucose consumption of muscle tissues was higher for the electrically stimulated tissues compared to those without applying the electrical field. PMID:23856563

  11. Cardiac dysfunction among soft tissue sarcoma patients in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Shantakumar S; Olsen M; Vo TT; Nørgaard M; Pedersen L

    2016-01-01

    Sumitra Shantakumar,1 Morten Olsen,2 Thao T Vo,3 Mette Nørgaard,2 Lars Pedersen,21Worldwide Epidemiology Department, GlaxoSmithKline Pte Ltd, Singapore; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Worldwide Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithkline, Research Triangle Park, USA Purpose: Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients may experience post-treatment cardiotoxicity, yet no population-based data exist. We examined the incidence of left ventricular ejection fr...

  12. Subcutaneous Tissue Thickness is an Independent Predictor of Image Noise in Cardiac CT

    OpenAIRE

    Staniak, Henrique Lane; Sharovsky, Rodolfo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; de Castro, Cláudio Campi; Isabela M. Benseñor; Paulo A Lotufo; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer

    2014-01-01

    Background Few data on the definition of simple robust parameters to predict image noise in cardiac computed tomography (CT) exist. Objectives To evaluate the value of a simple measure of subcutaneous tissue as a predictor of image noise in cardiac CT. Methods 86 patients underwent prospective ECG-gated coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and coronary calcium scoring (CAC) with 120 kV and 150 mA. The image quality was objectively measured by the image noise in the aorta in the car...

  13. Culturing Mouse Cardiac Valves in the Miniature Tissue Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruithof, Boudewijn P T; Lieber, Samuel C; Kruithof-de Julio, Marianna; Gaussin, Vincian; Goumans, Marie José

    2015-01-01

    Heart valve disease is a major burden in the Western world and no effective treatment is available. This is mainly due to a lack of knowledge of the molecular, cellular and mechanical mechanisms underlying the maintenance and/or loss of the valvular structure. Current models used to study valvular biology include in vitro cultures of valvular endothelial and interstitial cells. Although, in vitro culturing models provide both cellular and molecular mechanisms, the mechanisms involved in the 3D-organization of the valve remain unclear. While in vivo models have provided insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying valvular development, insight into adult valvular biology is still elusive. In order to be able to study the regulation of the valvular 3D-organization on tissue, cellular and molecular levels, we have developed the Miniature Tissue Culture System. In this ex vivo flow model the mitral or the aortic valve is cultured in its natural position in the heart. The natural configuration and composition of the leaflet are maintained allowing the most natural response of the valvular cells to stimuli. The valves remain viable and are responsive to changing environmental conditions. This MTCS may provide advantages on studying questions including but not limited to, how does the 3D organization affect valvular biology, what factors affect 3D organization of the valve, and which network of signaling pathways regulates the 3D organization of the valve. PMID:26555276

  14. Muscle Tissue Engineering Using Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells Encapsulated in Alginate Hydrogels Containing Multiple Growth Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sahar; Chen, Chider; Xu, Xingtian; Annabi, Nasim; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Wu, Benjamin M; Khademhosseini, Ali; Shi, Songtao; Moshaverinia, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    Repair and regeneration of muscle tissue following traumatic injuries or muscle diseases often presents a challenging clinical situation. If a significant amount of tissue is lost the native regenerative potential of skeletal muscle will not be able to grow to fill the defect site completely. Dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in combination with appropriate scaffold material, present an advantageous alternative therapeutic option for muscle tissue engineering in comparison to current treatment modalities available. To date, there has been no report on application of gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) in three-dimensional scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering. The objectives of the current study were to develop an injectable 3D RGD-coupled alginate scaffold with multiple growth factor delivery capacity for encapsulating GMSCs, and to evaluate the capacity of encapsulated GMSCs to differentiate into myogenic tissue in vitro and in vivo where encapsulated GMSCs were transplanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. The results demonstrate that after 4 weeks of differentiation in vitro, GMSCs as well as the positive control human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) exhibited muscle cell-like morphology with high levels of mRNA expression for gene markers related to muscle regeneration (MyoD, Myf5, and MyoG) via qPCR measurement. Our quantitative PCR analyzes revealed that the stiffness of the RGD-coupled alginate regulates the myogenic differentiation of encapsulated GMSCs. Histological and immunohistochemical/fluorescence staining for protein markers specific for myogenic tissue confirmed muscle regeneration in subcutaneous transplantation in our in vivo animal model. GMSCs showed significantly greater capacity for myogenic regeneration in comparison to hBMMSCs (p < 0.05). Altogether, our findings confirmed that GMSCs encapsulated in RGD-modified alginate hydrogel with multiple growth factor delivery capacity is a promising

  15. Fluorescence of muscle and connective tissue from cod and salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Wold, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Autofluorescence of salmon and cod muscle was measured and compared with autofluorescence of collagen type I and type V. Similarities between fluorescence of fish muscle and collagen were found in that the same peaks were obtained around 390, 430, and 480 nm, These similarities are supported by...... a scale from 0 to 5. There was no relation between texture and fluorescence spectra. Fluorescence of fish muscle could be related to the storage time. However, this relation seemed not to be induced by changes in collagen....

  16. Functional interaction between charged nanoparticles and cardiac tissue: a new paradigm for cardiac arrhythmia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Shevchuk, Andrew I; Korchev, Yuri E; Lab, Max J; Tetley, Teresa D; Gorelik, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of surface charge of therapeutic nanoparticles on sarcolemmal ionic homeostasis and the initiation of arrhythmias. Materials & methods Cultured neonatal rat myocytes were exposed to 50 nm-charged polystyrene latex nanoparticles and examined using a combination of hopping probe scanning ion conductance microscopy, optical recording of action potential characteristics and patch clamp. Results Positively charged, amine-modified polystyrene latex nanoparticles showed cytotoxic effects and induced large-scale damage to cardiomyocyte membranes leading to calcium alternans and cell death. By contrast, negatively charged, carboxyl-modified polystyrene latex nanoparticles (NegNPs) were not overtly cytotoxic but triggered formation of 50–250-nm nanopores in the membrane. Cells exposed to NegNPs revealed pro-arrhythmic events, such as delayed afterdepolarizations, reduction in conduction velocity and pathological increment of action potential duration together with an increase in ionic current throughout the membrane, carried by the nanopores. Conclusion The utilization of charged nanoparticles is a novel concept for targeting cardiac excitability. However, this unique nanoscopic investigation reveals an altered electrophysiological substrate, which sensitized the heart cells towards arrhythmias. PMID:23140503

  17. The role of Wnt regulation in heart development, cardiac repair and disease: A tissue engineering perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahnke, Aric; Conant, Genna; Huyer, Locke Davenport; Zhao, Yimu; Feric, Nicole; Radisic, Milica

    2016-05-01

    Wingless-related integration site (Wnt) signaling has proven to be a fundamental mechanism in cardiovascular development as well as disease. Understanding its particular role in heart formation has helped to develop pluripotent stem cell differentiation protocols that produce relatively pure cardiomyocyte populations. The resultant cardiomyocytes have been used to generate heart tissue for pharmaceutical testing, and to study physiological and disease states. Such protocols in combination with induced pluripotent stem cell technology have yielded patient-derived cardiomyocytes that exhibit some of the hallmarks of cardiovascular disease and are therefore being used to model disease states. While FDA approval of new treatments typically requires animal experiments, the burgeoning field of tissue engineering could act as a replacement. This would necessitate the generation of reproducible three-dimensional cardiac tissues in a well-controlled environment, which exhibit native heart properties, such as cellular density, composition, extracellular matrix composition, and structure-function. Such tissues could also enable the further study of Wnt signaling. Furthermore, as Wnt signaling has been found to have a mechanistic role in cardiac pathophysiology, e.g. heart attack, hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, and aortic stenosis, its strategic manipulation could provide a means of generating reproducible and specific, physiological and pathological cardiac models. PMID:26626076

  18. Concentration levels of heavy metals in muscle tissue of european hake (Merluccius merluccius)

    OpenAIRE

    ENKELEDA OZUNI; LULJETA DHASKALI; EGON ANDONI

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and monitor the concentration level of heavy metals namely, Hg, Pb, Cd and Cr in muscle tissue of Merluccius merluccius (European hake) species. The concentration level of heavy metals in muscle tissue was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The result of the investigation revealed that heavy metals are present in Merluccius merluccius at different concentration values. The distribution of metals followed this order: Cd>Cr>Hg>Pb....

  19. Defining the mid-diastolic imaging period for cardiac CT – lessons from tissue Doppler echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otton James M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggressive dose reduction strategies for cardiac CT require the prospective selection of limited cardiac phases. At lower heart rates, the period of mid-diastole is typically selected for image acquisition. We aimed to identify the effect of heart rate on the optimal CT acquisition phase within the period of mid-diastole. Methods We utilized high temporal resolution tissue Doppler to precisely measure coronary motion within diastole. Tissue-Doppler waveforms of the myocardium corresponding to the location of the circumflex artery (100 patients and mid-right coronary arteries (50 patients and the duration and timing of coronary motion were measured. Using regression analysis an equation was derived for the timing of the period of minimal coronary motion within the RR interval. In a validation set of 50 clinical cardiac CT examinations, we assessed coronary motion artifact and the effect of using a mid-diastolic imaging target that was adjusted according to heart rate vs a fixed 75% phase target. Results Tissue Doppler analysis shows the period of minimal cardiac motion suitable for CT imaging decreases almost linearly as the RR interval decreases, becoming extinguished at an average heart rate of 91 bpm for the circumflex (LCX and 78 bpm for the right coronary artery (RCA. The optimal imaging phase has a strong linear relationship with RR duration (R2 = 0.92 LCX, 0.89 RCA. The optimal phase predicted by regression analysis of the tissue-Doppler waveforms increases from 74% at a heart rate of 55 bpm to 77% at 75 bpm. In the clinical CT validation set, the optimal CT acquisition phase similarly occurred later with increasing heart rate. When the selected cardiac phase was adjusted according to heart rate the result was closer to the optimal phase than using a fixed 75% phase. While this effect was statistically significant (p  Conclusion High temporal resolution imaging of coronary motion can be used to predict the optimal

  20. Calprotectin is released from human skeletal muscle tissue during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Andersen, Kasper; Fischer, Christian;

    2008-01-01

    skeletal muscle following IL-6 infusion compared to controls. Furthermore, S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA levels were up-regulated 5-fold in human skeletal muscle following cycle ergometer exercise for 3 h at approximately 60% of in young healthy males (n = 8). S100A8 and S100A9 form calprotectin, which is known...... as an acute phase reactant. Plasma calprotectin increased 5-fold following acute cycle ergometer exercise in humans, but not following IL-6 infusion. To identify the source of calprotectin, healthy males (n = 7) performed two-legged dynamic knee extensor exercise for 3 h with a work load of...... approximately 50% of peak power output and arterial-femoral venous differences were obtained. Arterial plasma concentrations for calprotectin increased 2-fold compared to rest and there was a net release of calprotectin from the working muscle. In conclusion, IL-6 infusion and muscle contractions induce...

  1. Intramuscular pressure, tissue oxygenation and EMG fatigue measured during isometric fatigue-inducing contraction of the multifidus muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, M.; Dehner, C; Hartwig, E; Völker, H. U.; Sterk, J; Elbel, M.; Weikert, E.; Gerngroß, H; Kinzl, L.; Willy, C

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of intramuscular pressure (IMP), tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO2) and EMG fatigue parameters in the multifidus muscle during a fatigue-inducing sustained muscular contraction. The study investigated the following hypotheses: (1) Increases in IMP result in tissue hypoxia; (2) Tissue hypoxia is responsible for loss of function in the musculature. The nutrient supply to muscle during muscle contraction is still not fully understood. It is assumed that muscle contract...

  2. Intermuscular Adipose Tissue Is Muscle Specific and Associated with Poor Functional Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori J. Tuttle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. People with obesity, diabetes, and peripheral neuropathy have high levels of intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT volume which has been inversely related to physical function. We determined if IMAT is muscle specific, if calf IMAT is different between a healthy obese group (HO, a group with diabetes mellitus (D, and a group with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy (DN, and if IMAT volume or the ratio of IMAT/muscle volume is related to physical function in these groups. Methods. 10 healthy obese people, 11 with type 2 diabetes, 24 with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy, had assessments of muscle morphology, physical function and muscle performance. Results. The gastrocnemius muscle had a higher ratio of IMAT/muscle volume than any other muscle or compartment. There were no differences between groups in calf muscle or IMAT volumes. Calf IMAT was inversely related to physical performance on the 6-minute walk test (r=−0.47 and physical performance test (r=−0.36. IMAT/muscle volume was inversely related to physical performance (PPT, r=−0.44; 6 MW r=−0.48; stair power, r=−0.30. Conclusions. IMAT accumulation varies in calf muscles, is highest in the gastrocnemius muscle, and is associated with poor physical performance.

  3. OPTOGENETICS: A NOVEL APPROACH IN PACING HAERT TISSUE AND ENGENDER PROPAGATING CARDIAC IMPULSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasam Naga Abhinay

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The cardiac pacemaker controls the rhythmicity of heart contractions and these can be substituted by battery-operated devices as last resource. Optogenetics involves insertion of light-sensitive proteins into human embryonic stem cell to encode DNA making mammalian tissues light-sensitive. The first discovered protein of this type is Channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2, which is widely used in neuroscience. The limitation of electrical stimulation of heart, a standard technique can be overcome by using ChR2.The various methods involved in optogenetics and energy needs were discussed in this section. Initially, optogenetics is confined only to neuronal system, later on extended to heart and other organs. This method involves precise localized stimulation and constant prolonged depolarization of cardiomyocytes and cardiac tissue resulting in alterations of pacemaking, Ca2+ homeostasis, electrical coupling and arrhythmogenic spontaneous extra beats.

  4. Quantitative ultrasound tissue characterization in shoulder and thigh muscles – a new approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Jensen, B.R.; Darvann, Tron Andre;

    2006-01-01

    method for characterization of ultrasound images of the supraspinatus muscle, and the vastus lateralis muscle. Methods: Computerized texture analyses employing first-order and higher-order grey-scale statistics were developed to objectively characterize ultrasound images of m. supraspinatus and m. vastus......Background: The echogenicity patterns of ultrasound scans contain information of tissue composition in muscles. The aim was: ( 1) to develop a quantitative ultrasound image analysis to characterize tissue composition in terms of intensity and structure of the ultrasound images, and ( 2) to use the...

  5. OCT Study of Optical Clearing of Muscle Tissue in vitro with 40% Glucose Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Kozintseva, M. D.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The technique of -optical clearing of biological tissues- is aimed at improving the quality of visualization of structures hidden deep in tissue. In this study, we measured the diffusion coefficient of glucose in bovine skeletal muscle tissue by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in vitro and determined changes that took place in the imaging contrast of muscle fibers, the optical depth of coherent probing, and detection under the influence of aqueous 40% solution of glucose. It was shown that, within 90 min, when the depth of coherent probing increased by 14%, the contrast of OCT images increased fourfold and the depth of coherent detection of structural elements of the tissue increased by 2.4 times. The diffusion coefficient of glucose in the muscle tissue was (2.98 ± 0.94) × 10-6 cm2/s.

  6. Direct Tissue Evaluation via Immunofluorescence: in the Diagnosis of Hereditary Transthyretin Cardiac Amyloidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fradley, Michael G.; Thakuria, Joseph V.; Collins, A. Bernard; Moore, Stephanie A.; Stone, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple precursor proteins have been shown to cause cardiac amyloidosis. The most common forms are due either to immunoglobulin light chains or to transthyretin proteins (either wild-type or mutant forms). Correct subclassification of the amyloid is paramount because treatment differs in accordance with the type of amyloidosis. Indirect diagnostic methods, including serologic analysis, can lead to misdiagnosis. Definitive diagnosis often requires analysis of amyloid in the tissue. We present...

  7. A model of cardiac tissue as a conductive system with interacting pacemakers and refractory time

    OpenAIRE

    Loskutov, Alexander; Rybalko, Sergei; Zhuchkova, Ekaterina

    2002-01-01

    A model of the heart tissue as a conductive system with two interacting pacemakers and a refractory time, is proposed. In the parametric space of the model the phase locking areas are investigated in detail. Obtained results allow us to predict the behaviour of excitable systems with two pacemakers depending on the type and intensity of their interaction and the initial phase. Comparison of the described phenomena with intrinsic pathologies of cardiac rhythms is presented.

  8. Gene expression in cardiac tissues from infants with idiopathic conotruncal defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofland Gary K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF is the most commonly observed conotruncal congenital heart defect. Treatment of these patients has evolved dramatically in the last few decades, yet a genetic explanation is lacking for the failure of cardiac development for the majority of children with TOF. Our goal was to perform genome wide analyses and characterize expression patterns in cardiovascular tissue (right ventricle, pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery obtained at the time of reconstructive surgery from 19 children with tetralogy of Fallot. Methods We employed genome wide gene expression microarrays to characterize cardiovascular tissue (right ventricle, pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery obtained at the time of reconstructive surgery from 19 children with TOF (16 idiopathic and three with 22q11.2 deletions and compared gene expression patterns to normally developing subjects. Results We detected a signal from approximately 26,000 probes reflecting expression from about half of all genes, ranging from 35% to 49% of array probes in the three tissues. More than 1,000 genes had a 2-fold change in expression in the right ventricle (RV of children with TOF as compared to the RV from matched control infants. Most of these genes were involved in compensatory functions (e.g., hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and cardiac dilation. However, two canonical pathways involved in spatial and temporal cell differentiation (WNT, p = 0.017 and Notch, p = 0.003 appeared to be generally suppressed. Conclusions The suppression of developmental networks may represent a remnant of a broad malfunction of regulatory pathways leading to inaccurate boundary formation and improper structural development in the embryonic heart. We suggest that small tissue specific genomic and/or epigenetic fluctuations could be cumulative, leading to regulatory network disruption and failure of proper cardiac development.

  9. Short-term immobilization and recovery affect skeletal muscle but not collagen tissue turnover in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt; Dyrberg, Eva; Aagaard, Per;

    2008-01-01

    6% (5,413 to 5,077 mm(2)) in cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps surae muscles and a mean decrease of 9% (261 to 238 N.m) in strength of the immobilized calf muscles. Two weeks of recovery resulted in a 6% increased in CSA (to 5,367 mm(2)), whereas strength remained suppressed (240 N.m). No...... muscle size and strength, while tendon size and collagen turnover were unchanged. While recovery resulted in an increase in muscle size, strength was unchanged. No significant difference in tendon size could be detected between the two legs after 2 wk of recovery, although collagen synthesis was...... increased in the previously immobilized leg. Thus 2 wk of immobilization are sufficient to induce significant changes in muscle tissue, whereas tendon tissue seems to be more resistant to short-term immobilization....

  10. Expression of protocadherin gamma in skeletal muscle tissue is associated with age and muscle weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Fazelzadeh, P.; Tieland, C.A.B.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Timmons, James; Verdijk, L.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Müller, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    The skeletal muscle system plays an important role in the independence of older adults. In this study we examine differences in the skeletal muscle transcriptome between healthy young and older subjects and (pre-)frail older adults. Additionally, we examine the effect of resistance-ty

  11. Cardiac tissue enriched factors serum response factor and GATA-4 are mutual coregulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaguli, N. S.; Sepulveda, J. L.; Nigam, V.; Charron, F.; Nemer, M.; Schwartz, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Combinatorial interaction among cardiac tissue-restricted enriched transcription factors may facilitate the expression of cardiac tissue-restricted genes. Here we show that the MADS box factor serum response factor (SRF) cooperates with the zinc finger protein GATA-4 to synergistically activate numerous myogenic and nonmyogenic serum response element (SRE)-dependent promoters in CV1 fibroblasts. In the absence of GATA binding sites, synergistic activation depends on binding of SRF to the proximal CArG box sequence in the cardiac and skeletal alpha-actin promoter. GATA-4's C-terminal activation domain is obligatory for synergistic coactivation with SRF, and its N-terminal domain and first zinc finger are inhibitory. SRF and GATA-4 physically associate both in vivo and in vitro through their MADS box and the second zinc finger domains as determined by protein A pullout assays and by in vivo one-hybrid transfection assays using Gal4 fusion proteins. Other cardiovascular tissue-restricted GATA factors, such as GATA-5 and GATA-6, were equivalent to GATA-4 in coactivating SRE-dependent targets. Thus, interaction between the MADS box and C4 zinc finger proteins, a novel regulatory paradigm, mediates activation of SRF-dependent gene expression.

  12. The role of the N-terminus of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Xu, Yuanyuan; Jones, Michelle; Guzman, Georgianna; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kerrick, W. Glenn L.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2009-01-01

    To study the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by the myosin essential light chain (ELC) and the physiological significance of its N-terminal extension, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice partially replacing the endogenous mouse ventricular ELC with either the human ventricular ELC wild type (Tg-WT) or its 43 amino acid N-terminal truncation mutant (Tg-Δ43) in the murine hearts. The mutant protein is similar in sequence to the short ELC variant present in skeletal muscle and the ELC pro...

  13. DETECTION OF LEPTIN IN MUSCLE TISSUES AND ORGANS OF PIGS

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Kunová; Miroslava Kačániová Juraj Čuboň; Peter Haščík; Ľubomír Lopašovský

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was detection of gene leptin in muscles, liver and kidneys from pigs of breed Large White. Using Real time PRC method, we determined the Ct values of leptim gene in muscle, liver, kidney. The body weight of pigs ranged from 100 kg to 103 kg. The average body weight was 101.6 kg. The thickness of backfat ranged from 10 to 20 mm, average backfat thickness was 16 mm. The minimal Ct value of leptin gene in liver was 24.05 and the maximal value was 25.79. Average Ct value of ...

  14. Subcutaneous Tissue Thickness is an Independent Predictor of Image Noise in Cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staniak, Henrique Lane; Sharovsky, Rodolfo [Hospital Universitário - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Alexandre Costa [Hospital das Clínicas - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Castro, Cláudio Campi de; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A. [Hospital Universitário - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer, E-mail: msbittencourt@mail.harvard.edu [Hospital Universitário - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Few data on the definition of simple robust parameters to predict image noise in cardiac computed tomography (CT) exist. To evaluate the value of a simple measure of subcutaneous tissue as a predictor of image noise in cardiac CT. 86 patients underwent prospective ECG-gated coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and coronary calcium scoring (CAC) with 120 kV and 150 mA. The image quality was objectively measured by the image noise in the aorta in the cardiac CTA, and low noise was defined as noise < 30HU. The chest anteroposterior diameter and lateral width, the image noise in the aorta and the skin-sternum (SS) thickness were measured as predictors of cardiac CTA noise. The association of the predictors and image noise was performed by using Pearson correlation. The mean radiation dose was 3.5 ± 1.5 mSv. The mean image noise in CT was 36.3 ± 8.5 HU, and the mean image noise in non-contrast scan was 17.7 ± 4.4 HU. All predictors were independently associated with cardiac CTA noise. The best predictors were SS thickness, with a correlation of 0.70 (p < 0.001), and noise in the non-contrast images, with a correlation of 0.73 (p < 0.001). When evaluating the ability to predict low image noise, the areas under the ROC curve for the non-contrast noise and for the SS thickness were 0.837 and 0.864, respectively. Both SS thickness and CAC noise are simple accurate predictors of cardiac CTA image noise. Those parameters can be incorporated in standard CT protocols to adequately adjust radiation exposure.

  15. Subcutaneous Tissue Thickness is an Independent Predictor of Image Noise in Cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few data on the definition of simple robust parameters to predict image noise in cardiac computed tomography (CT) exist. To evaluate the value of a simple measure of subcutaneous tissue as a predictor of image noise in cardiac CT. 86 patients underwent prospective ECG-gated coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and coronary calcium scoring (CAC) with 120 kV and 150 mA. The image quality was objectively measured by the image noise in the aorta in the cardiac CTA, and low noise was defined as noise < 30HU. The chest anteroposterior diameter and lateral width, the image noise in the aorta and the skin-sternum (SS) thickness were measured as predictors of cardiac CTA noise. The association of the predictors and image noise was performed by using Pearson correlation. The mean radiation dose was 3.5 ± 1.5 mSv. The mean image noise in CT was 36.3 ± 8.5 HU, and the mean image noise in non-contrast scan was 17.7 ± 4.4 HU. All predictors were independently associated with cardiac CTA noise. The best predictors were SS thickness, with a correlation of 0.70 (p < 0.001), and noise in the non-contrast images, with a correlation of 0.73 (p < 0.001). When evaluating the ability to predict low image noise, the areas under the ROC curve for the non-contrast noise and for the SS thickness were 0.837 and 0.864, respectively. Both SS thickness and CAC noise are simple accurate predictors of cardiac CTA image noise. Those parameters can be incorporated in standard CT protocols to adequately adjust radiation exposure

  16. Attenuation of skeletal muscle wasting with recombinant human growth hormone secreted from a tissue-engineered bioartificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Del Tatto, M.; Shansky, J.; Goldstein, L.; Russell, K.; Genes, N.; Chromiak, J.; Yamada, S.

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is a significant problem in elderly and debilitated patients. Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic growth factor for skeletal muscle but is difficult to deliver in a therapeutic manner by injection owing to its in vivo instability. A novel method is presented for the sustained secretion of recombinant human GH (rhGH) from genetically modified skeletal muscle implants, which reduces host muscle wasting. Proliferating murine C2C12 skeletal myoblasts stably transduced with the rhGH gene were tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (C2-BAMs) containing organized postmitotic myofibers secreting 3-5 microg of rhGH/day in vitro. When implanted subcutaneously into syngeneic mice, C2-BAMs delivered a sustained physiologic dose of 2.5 to 11.3 ng of rhGH per milliliter of serum. rhGH synthesized and secreted by the myofibers was in the 22-kDa monomeric form and was biologically active, based on downregulation of a GH-sensitive protein synthesized in the liver. Skeletal muscle disuse atrophy was induced in mice by hindlimb unloading, causing the fast plantaris and slow soleus muscles to atrophy by 21 to 35% ( < 0.02). This atrophy was significantly attenuated 41 to 55% (p < 0.02) in animals that received C2-BAM implants, but not in animals receiving daily injections of purified rhGH (1 mg/kg/day). These data support the concept that delivery of rhGH from BAMs may be efficacious in treating muscle-wasting disorders.

  17. Short-term inspiratory muscle training potentiates the benefits of aerobic and resistance training in patients undergoing CABG in phase II cardiac rehabilitation program

    OpenAIRE

    Hermes, Bárbara Maria; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; Gomes, Tiago José Nardi; dos Santos, Tamires Daros; Vicente, Marília Severo; Pereira, Sérgio Nunes; Barbosa, Viviane Acunha; de Albuquerque, Isabella Martins

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficiency of short-term inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined aerobic and resistance exercise on respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in the phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. Methods A prospective, quasi-experimental study with 24 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and were randomly assigned to two groups in the Phase II cardiac rehabi...

  18. Squalene Modulates Radiation-Induced Structural, Ultrastructural And Biochemical Changes In Cardiac Muscles Of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The failing heart represents an enormous clinical problem and is a major cause of death throughout the world. Hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress have been shown to contribute to heart failure. Squalene is a remarkable bioactive substance that belongs to a class of antioxidants called isoprenoids, which neutralize the harmful effect of excessive free radicals production in the body.The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of squalene against oxidative cardiac muscle damage induced by gamma irradiation.Rats were treated daily by gavage with 0.4 ml/kg squalene for 42 days before whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy and continued until animals were sacrificed 3 days post irradiation.Histological examination of cardiac muscles sections by using light and electron microscopes showed that exposure of rats to ionizing radiation has provoked a severe architecture damage such as necrotic nuclei, nuclei located at the periphery, alteration in chromatin distribution, ruptured cell and mitochondrial membranes, cristae of mitochondria disappeared, sticking mitochondria and ruptured myofibers. Structural and ultra-structural changes were associated with severe oxidative stress. Significant increase of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde) (MDA) along with reduction in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalse (CAT), and glutathione content (GSH), were recorded.Treatment of rats with squalene has significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in cardiac muscle which was substantiated by a significant amelioration in the activity of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Furthermore, administration of squalene to rats has adjusted the radiation-induced increase in plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Based on these results, it

  19. Connective tissue growth factor induces extracellular matrix in asthmatic airway smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Peter R A; Burgess, Janette K; Ge, Qi; Poniris, Maree; Boustany, Sarah; Twigg, Stephen M; Black, Judith L

    2006-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and connective tissue growth factor may be implicated in extracellular matrix protein deposition in asthma. We have recently reported that TGF-beta increased connective tissue growth factor expression in airway smooth muscle cells isolated from patients with ast

  20. Post-exercise adipose tissue and skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulla, N A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2000-01-01

    One purpose of the present experiments was to examine whether the relative workload or the absolute work performed is the major determinant of the lipid mobilization from adipose tissue during exercise. A second purpose was to determine the co-ordination of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue lipid...

  1. 131I-activity in man's thyroid and 137Cs-activity in muscle tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I- and 137Cs-activities in milk and salad on one hand, and in thyroid - and muscle tissues of deceased persons on the other hand were determined in the days and weeks after the Chernobyl accident around Graz, Austria. The values listed in the tables are intended to investigate radionuclides migration from the food chain to human tissues. 4 tabs. (qui)

  2. Infectivity of Trichinella spp. recovered from decaying mouse and fox muscle tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Koller, J.; Kapel, C.M.O.; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2001-01-01

    The tolerance to degradation processes in meat of nine Trichinella genotypes was studied in mouse and fox tissue, respectively. Minced muscle tissue with Trichinella larvae of different age was stored at room temperature at 100 % relative humidity. During storage weekly sub samples of the minced...

  3. Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap for soft tissue reconstruction after total elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Syunro; Tada, Kaoru; Ai, Hachinota; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The soft tissue at the tip of the olecranon is very thin, leading to the frequent occurrence of wound complications after total elbow arthroplasty. To cover a soft tissue defect of the elbow, the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap is thought to be appropriate for reconstruction of the elbow with regard to its size, location, and blood supply. We got positive clinical results, so we report our experiences of using a flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap for soft tissue reconstruction after total elbow arthroplasty. PMID:25400974

  4. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle Flap for Soft Tissue Reconstruction after Total Elbow Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syunro Okamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The soft tissue at the tip of the olecranon is very thin, leading to the frequent occurrence of wound complications after total elbow arthroplasty. To cover a soft tissue defect of the elbow, the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap is thought to be appropriate for reconstruction of the elbow with regard to its size, location, and blood supply. We got positive clinical results, so we report our experiences of using a flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flap for soft tissue reconstruction after total elbow arthroplasty.

  5. Ontogenesis of muscle and adipose tissues and their interactions in ruminants and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, M; Cassar-Malek, I; Chilliard, Y; Picard, B

    2010-07-01

    The lean-to-fat ratio, that is, the relative masses of muscle and adipose tissue, is a criterion for the yield and quality of bovine carcasses and meat. This review describes the interactions between muscle and adipose tissue (AT) that may regulate the dynamic balance between the number and size of muscle v. adipose cells. Muscle and adipose tissue in cattle grow by an increase in the number of cells (hyperplasia), mainly during foetal life. The total number of muscle fibres is set by the end of the second trimester of gestation. By contrast, the number of adipocytes is never set. Number of adipocytes increases mainly before birth until 1 year of age, depending on the anatomical location of the adipose tissue. Hyperplasia concerns brown pre-adipocytes during foetal life and white pre-adipocytes from a few weeks after birth. A decrease in the number of secondary myofibres and an increase in adiposity in lambs born from mothers severely underfed during early pregnancy suggest a balance in the commitment of a common progenitor into the myogenic or adipogenic lineages, or a reciprocal regulation of the commitment of two distinct progenitors. The developmental origin of white adipocytes is a subject of debate. Molecular and histological data suggested a possible transdifferentiation of brown into white adipocytes, but this hypothesis has now been challenged by the characterization of distinct precursor cells for brown and white adipocytes in mice. Increased nutrient storage in fully differentiated muscle fibres and adipocytes, resulting in cell enlargement (hypertrophy), is thought to be the main mechanism, whereby muscle and fat masses increase in growing cattle. Competition or prioritization between adipose and muscle cells for the uptake and metabolism of nutrients is suggested, besides the successive waves of growth of muscle v. adipose tissue, by the inhibited or delayed adipose tissue growth in bovine genotypes exhibiting strong muscular development. This

  6. Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingqing Guo

    Full Text Available Myostatin (Mstn is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn(-/- mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn(-/- mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, Mstn(-/- mice had no change in the rate of whole body lipid oxidation. In contrast, Mstn(-/- mice had increased glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity as measured by indirect calorimetry, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. To determine whether these metabolic effects were due primarily to the loss of myostatin signaling in muscle or adipose tissue, we compared two transgenic mouse lines carrying a dominant negative activin IIB receptor expressed specifically in adipocytes or skeletal muscle. We found that inhibition of myostatin signaling in adipose tissue had no effect on body composition, weight gain, or glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet. In contrast, inhibition of myostatin signaling in skeletal muscle, like Mstn deletion, resulted in increased lean mass, decreased fat mass, improved glucose metabolism on standard and high-fat diets, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that Mstn(-/- mice have an increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and that the reduction in adipose tissue mass in Mstn(-/- mice is an indirect result of metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. These data suggest that increasing muscle mass by administration of myostatin antagonists may be a promising therapeutic target for treating patients with obesity or diabetes.

  7. Leucine Supplementation Accelerates Connective Tissue Repair of Injured Tibialis Anterior Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G. Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of leucine supplementation on the skeletal muscle regenerative process, focusing on the remodeling of connective tissue of the fast twitch muscle tibialis anterior (TA. Young male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine (1.35 g/kg per day; then, TA muscles from the left hind limb were cryolesioned and examined after 10 days. Although leucine supplementation induced increased protein synthesis, it was not sufficient to promote an increase in the cross-sectional area (CSA of regenerating myofibers (p > 0.05 from TA muscles. However, leucine supplementation reduced the amount of collagen and the activation of phosphorylated transforming growth factor-β receptor type I (TβR-I and Smad2/3 in regenerating muscles (p < 0.05. Leucine also reduced neonatal myosin heavy chain (MyHC-n (p < 0.05, increased adult MyHC-II expression (p < 0.05 and prevented the decrease in maximum tetanic strength in regenerating TA muscles (p < 0.05. Our results suggest that leucine supplementation accelerates connective tissue repair and consequent function of regenerating TA through the attenuation of TβR-I and Smad2/3 activation. Therefore, future studies are warranted to investigate leucine supplementation as a nutritional strategy to prevent or attenuate muscle fibrosis in patients with several muscle diseases.

  8. Expression of anti-SRP19 antibody in muscle tissues from patients with autoimmune necrotizing myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Duan, F; Liu, P; Wang, P F; Wang, M X

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of anti-SRP19 antibody in muscle tissues of patients with autoimmune necrotizing myopathy. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to determine the expression of anti-SRP19 antibodies in muscle tissues of autoimmune necrotizing myopathy patients. Results demonstrated that anti-SRP19 antibody was expressed in 71.4% (20/28) of muscle tissue specimens from patients with autoimmune necrotizing myopathy. Anti-SRP19 antibody expression was mainly localized in cytoplasm of necrotic muscle fibers surrounding the small blood vessels and interstitial cells. There were no significant differences in the age, course of disease, muscle, and creatine kinase levels between patients with positive or negative expression of anti-SRP19 antibodies. The expression levels of anti-SRP19, serum anti-nuclear antibodies, as well as anti-Ro-52, anti- SSA, anti-Sm, and anti-Jo-1 antibodies were not significantly different among groups. This study demonstrates that anti-SRP19 antibody is highly expressed in muscle tissues of patients with autoimmune necrotizing myopathy, and suggests that this protein may be involved in the origin and progression of the disease. PMID:27525944

  9. Development of endothermy and concomitant increases in cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in the precocial Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsat, Sarah K G; Sirsat, Tushar S; Faber, Alan; Duquaine, Allison; Winnick, Sarah; Sotherland, Paul R; Dzialowski, Edward M

    2016-04-15

    Attaining endothermic homeothermy occurs at different times post-hatching in birds and is associated with maturation of metabolic and aerobic capacity. Simultaneous measurements at the organism, organ and cellular levels during the transition to endothermy reveal means by which this change in phenotype occurs. We examined development of endothermy in precocial Pekin ducks ( ITALIC! Anas platyrhynchos domestica) by measuring whole-animal O2consumption ( ITALIC! V̇O2 ) as animals cooled from 35 to 15°C. We measured heart ventricle mass, an indicator of O2delivery capacity, and mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized skeletal and cardiac muscle to elucidate associated changes in mitochondrial capacities at the cellular level. We examined animals on day 24 of incubation through 7 days post-hatching. ITALIC! V̇O2  of embryos decreased when cooling from 35 to 15°C; ITALIC! V̇O2  of hatchlings, beginning on day 0 post-hatching, increased during cooling with a lower critical temperature of 32°C. Yolk-free body mass did not change between internal pipping and hatching, but the heart and thigh skeletal muscle grew at faster rates than the rest of the body as the animals transitioned from an externally pipped paranate to a hatchling. Large changes in oxidative phosphorylation capacity occurred during ontogeny in both thigh muscles, the primary site of shivering, and cardiac ventricles. Thus, increased metabolic capacity necessary to attain endothermy was associated with augmented metabolic capacity of the tissue and augmented increasing O2delivery capacity, both of which were attained rapidly at hatching. PMID:26896549

  10. An unusual case of undifferentiated connective tissue disease presenting as cardiac tamponade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Pawan; Kondur, Ashok; Manickam, Palaniappan; Afonso, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade as an initial manifestation of undifferentiated connective tissue diseases (UCTD) is extremely rare, with only one case reported in literature thus far. We describe here, a case of a middle-aged man who presented with symptoms of fatigue, exertional dyspnea and orthopnea. His physical exam was significant for anasarca, elevated JVP and pulsus paradoxus. Chest X-ray showed pleural effusions and cardiomegaly, electrocardiogram revealed electrical alternans and a transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrated massive pericardial effusion with hemodynamic compromise. There was clear evidence of tamponade on right heart catheterization. All common causes of pericardial effusion were assiduously excluded before working up the patient for connective tissue disorders, which revealed a high antinuclear antibody titer (1:160), grossly elevated SSA, SSB antibodies and increased C-reactive protein levels (13.04 mg/dl). Patient had no signs or symptoms suggestive of systemic sclerosis (xerophthalmia or xerostomia) and did not meet criteria for any other known connective tissue diseases. He was therefore diagnosed with UCTD, and successfully treated with colchicine after emergency pericardiocentesis. This case presents UCTD as a rare cause of cardiac tamponade and large pericardial effusions and suggests that colchicine can be used to treat UCTD-associated effusions. These patients once diagnosed, are at risk of developing known connective tissue diseases within 5 years of disease onset and should be followed up in clinic periodically. PMID:20013265

  11. Histologic Analysis of Pig Muscle Tissue after Wounding with a High-Velocity Projectile - Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Korać, Želimir; Crnica, Suad; Demarin, Vida

    2006-01-01

    Terminal ballistics of high-velocity projectiles is focused primarily on evaluation of the effects of penetrating projectiles on tissue simulants, but there is always a question of their similarity with live tissue. Ethical problems related to using live animals in terminal ballistic researches have resulted in a reduced number of these experiments. The aim of this study was to analyze histologic effects of high-velocity missiles in swine muscle tissue. The hypothesis was that a penetrating p...

  12. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, R; Langberg, Henning; Green, Stefan Mathias; Skovgaard, D; Bulow, J; Kjaer, M

    1. Circulation around tendons may act as a shunt for muscle during exercise. The perfusion and oxygenation of Achilles' peritendinous tissue was measured in parallel with that of calf muscle during exercise to determine (1) whether blood flow is restricted in peritendinous tissue during exercise...... output by dye dilution, arterial pressure by an arterial catheter-transducer, and muscle and peritendinous O2 saturation by spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS). 3. Calf blood flow rose 20-fold with exercise, reaching 44 +/- 7 ml (100 g)-1 min-1 (mean +/- s.e.m. ) at 9 W, while Achilles' peritendinous...... flow increased (7-fold) to 14 +/- 4 ml (100 g)-1 min-1, which was 18 % of the maximal flow established during reactive hyperaemia. SRS-O2 saturation fell both in muscle (from 66 +/- 2 % at rest to 57 +/- 3 %, P <0.05) and in peritendinous regions (58 +/- 4 to 52 +/- 4 %, P <0.05) during exercise along...

  13. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, H; Green, Sara Marie Ehrenreich;

    2000-01-01

    1. Circulation around tendons may act as a shunt for muscle during exercise. The perfusion and oxygenation of Achilles' peritendinous tissue was measured in parallel with that of calf muscle during exercise to determine (1) whether blood flow is restricted in peritendinous tissue during exercise...... output by dye dilution, arterial pressure by an arterial catheter-transducer, and muscle and peritendinous O2 saturation by spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS). 3. Calf blood flow rose 20-fold with exercise, reaching 44 +/- 7 ml (100 g)-1 min-1 (mean +/- s.e.m. ) at 9 W, while Achilles' peritendinous...... with a rise in leg vascular conductance and microvascular haemoglobin volume, despite elevated systemic vascular resistance. 4. The parallel rise in calf muscle and peritendinous blood flow and fall in O2 saturation during exercise indicate that blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism in both...

  14. Global coupling in excitable media provides a simplified description of mechanoelectrical feedback in cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Lacalle, E.; Echebarria, B.

    2009-03-01

    Cardiac mechanoelectric feedback can play an important role in different heart pathologies. In this paper, we show that mechanoelectric models which describe both the electric propagation and the mechanic contraction of cardiac tissue naturally lead to close systems of equations with global coupling among the variables. This point is exemplified using the Nash-Panfilov model, which reduces to a FitzHugh-Nagumo-type equation with global coupling in the linear elastic regime. We explain the appearance of self-oscillatory regimes in terms of the system nullclines and describe the different dynamical attractors. Finally, we study their basin of attraction in terms of the system size and the strength of the stretch-induced currents.

  15. Comparison of the calcium release channel of cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum by target inactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum which triggers muscle contraction in excitation-contraction coupling has recently been isolated. The channel has been found to be morphologically identical with the feet structures of the junctional face membrane of terminal cisternae and consists of an oligomer of a unique high molecular weight polypeptide. In this study, the authors compare the target size of the calcium release channel from heart and skeletal muscle using target inactivation analysis. The target molecular weights of the calcium release channel estimated by measuring ryanodine binding after irradiation are similar for heart (139,000) and skeletal muscle (143,000) and are smaller than the monomeric unit (estimated to be about 360,000). The target size, estimated by measuring polypeptide remaining after irradiation, was essentially the same for heart and skeletal muscle, 1,061,000 and 1,070,000, respectively, indicating an oligomeric association of protomers. Thus, the calcium release channel of both cardiac and skeletal muscle reacts uniquely with regard to target inactivation analysis in that (1) the size by ryanodine binding is smaller than the monomeric unit and (2) a single hit leads to destruction of more than one polypeptide, by measuring polypeptide remaining. The target inactivation analysis studies indicate that heart and skeletal muscle receptors are structurally very similar

  16. Intermuscular Adipose Tissue Is Muscle Specific and Associated with Poor Functional Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tuttle, Lori J; Sinacore, David R.; Mueller, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. People with obesity, diabetes, and peripheral neuropathy have high levels of intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volume which has been inversely related to physical function. We determined if IMAT is muscle specific, if calf IMAT is different between a healthy obese group (HO), a group with diabetes mellitus (D), and a group with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy (DN), and if IMAT volume or the ratio of IMAT/muscle volume is related to physical function in these groups. Met...

  17. Insights into the molecular mechanism of glucose metabolism regulation under stress in chicken skeletal muscle tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wuyi; Zhao, Jingpeng

    2014-01-01

    As substantial progress has been achieved in modern poultry production with large-scale and intensive feeding and farming in recent years, stress becomes a vital factor affecting chicken growth, development, and production yield, especially the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle mass. The review was aimed to outline and understand the stress-related genetic regulatory mechanism, which significantly affects glucose metabolism regulation in chicken skeletal muscle tissues. Progress in curr...

  18. Electrical stimulation directs engineered cardiac tissue to an age-matched native phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Lasher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying structural features of native myocardium in engineered tissue is essential for creating functional tissue that can serve as a surrogate for in vitro testing or the eventual replacement of diseased or injured myocardium. We applied three-dimensional confocal imaging and image analysis to quantitatively describe the features of native and engineered cardiac tissue. Quantitative analysis methods were developed and applied to test the hypothesis that environmental cues direct engineered tissue toward a phenotype resembling that of age-matched native myocardium. The analytical approach was applied to engineered cardiac tissue with and without the application of electrical stimulation as well as to age-matched and adult native tissue. Individual myocytes were segmented from confocal image stacks and assigned a coordinate system from which measures of cell geometry and connexin-43 spatial distribution were calculated. The data were collected from 9 nonstimulated and 12 electrically stimulated engineered tissue constructs and 5 postnatal day 12 and 7 adult hearts. The myocyte volume fraction was nearly double in stimulated engineered tissue compared to nonstimulated engineered tissue (0.34 ± 0.14 vs 0.18 ± 0.06 but less than half of the native postnatal day 12 (0.90 ± 0.06 and adult (0.91 ± 0.04 myocardium. The myocytes under electrical stimulation were more elongated compared to nonstimulated myocytes and exhibited similar lengths, widths, and heights as in age-matched myocardium. Furthermore, the percentage of connexin-43-positive membrane staining was similar in the electrically stimulated, postnatal day 12, and adult myocytes, whereas it was significantly lower in the nonstimulated myocytes. Connexin-43 was found to be primarily located at cell ends for adult myocytes and irregularly but densely clustered over the membranes of nonstimulated, stimulated, and postnatal day 12 myocytes. These findings support our hypothesis and reveal

  19. Impact of detubulation on force and kinetics of cardiac muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrantini, Cecilia; Coppini, Raffaele; Sacconi, Leonardo; Tosi, Benedetta; Zhang, Mei Luo; Wang, Guo Liang; de Vries, Ewout; Hoppenbrouwers, Ernst; Pavone, Francesco; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Tesi, Chiara; Poggesi, Corrado; ter Keurs, Henk E D J

    2014-06-01

    Action potential-driven Ca(2+) currents from the transverse tubules (t-tubules) trigger synchronous Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiomyocytes. Loss of t-tubules has been reported in cardiac diseases, including heart failure, but the effect of uncoupling t-tubules from the sarcolemma on cardiac muscle mechanics remains largely unknown. We dissected intact rat right ventricular trabeculae and compared force, sarcomere length, and intracellular Ca(2+) in control trabeculae with trabeculae in which the t-tubules were uncoupled from the plasma membrane by formamide-induced osmotic shock (detubulation). We verified disconnection of a consistent fraction of t-tubules from the sarcolemma by two-photon fluorescence imaging of FM4-64-labeled membranes and by the absence of tubular action potential, which was recorded by random access multiphoton microscopy in combination with a voltage-sensitive dye (Di-4-AN(F)EPPTEA). Detubulation reduced the amplitude and prolonged the duration of Ca(2+) transients, leading to slower kinetics of force generation and relaxation and reduced twitch tension (1 Hz, 30°C, 1.5 mM [Ca(2+)]o). No mechanical changes were observed in rat left atrial trabeculae after formamide shock, consistent with the lack of t-tubules in rodent atrial myocytes. Detubulation diminished the rate-dependent increase of Ca(2+)-transient amplitude and twitch force. However, maximal twitch tension at high [Ca(2+)]o or in post-rest potentiated beats was unaffected, although contraction kinetics were slower. The ryanodine receptor (RyR)2 Ca-sensitizing agent caffeine (200 µM), which increases the velocity of transverse Ca(2+) release propagation in detubulated cardiomyocytes, rescued the depressed contractile force and the slower twitch kinetics of detubulated trabeculae, with negligible effects in controls. We conclude that partial loss of t-tubules leads to myocardial contractile abnormalities that can be rescued by enhancing and accelerating the

  20. Low-intensity infrared lasers alter actin gene expression in skin and muscle tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biostimulative effect of low-intensity lasers is the basis for treatment of diseases in soft tissues. However, data about the influence of biostimulative lasers on gene expression are still scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of low-intensity infrared lasers on the expression of actin mRNA in skin and muscle tissue. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats was exposed to low-intensity infrared laser radiation at different fluences and frequencies. One and 24 hours after laser exposure, tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and evaluation of actin gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The data obtained show that laser radiation alters the expression of actin mRNA differently in skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats depending of the fluence, frequency and time after exposure. The results could be useful for laser dosimetry, as well as to justify the therapeutic protocols for treatment of diseases of skin and muscle tissues based on low-intensity infrared laser radiation. (paper)

  1. Low-intensity infrared lasers alter actin gene expression in skin and muscle tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, A. S.; Mencalha, A. L.; Campos, V. M. A.; Ferreira-Machado, S. C.; Peregrino, A. A. F.; Magalhães, L. A. G.; Geller, M.; Paoli, F.

    2013-02-01

    The biostimulative effect of low-intensity lasers is the basis for treatment of diseases in soft tissues. However, data about the influence of biostimulative lasers on gene expression are still scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of low-intensity infrared lasers on the expression of actin mRNA in skin and muscle tissue. Skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats was exposed to low-intensity infrared laser radiation at different fluences and frequencies. One and 24 hours after laser exposure, tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and evaluation of actin gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The data obtained show that laser radiation alters the expression of actin mRNA differently in skin and muscle tissue of Wistar rats depending of the fluence, frequency and time after exposure. The results could be useful for laser dosimetry, as well as to justify the therapeutic protocols for treatment of diseases of skin and muscle tissues based on low-intensity infrared laser radiation.

  2. The anisotropic mechanical behaviour of passive skeletal muscle tissue subjected to large tensile strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaza, Michael; Moerman, Kevin M; Gindre, Juliette; Lyons, Garry; Simms, Ciaran K

    2013-01-01

    The passive mechanical properties of muscle tissue are important for many biomechanics applications. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the three-dimensional tensile response of passive skeletal muscle tissue to applied loading. In particular, the nature of the anisotropy remains unclear and the response to loading at intermediate fibre directions and the Poisson's ratios in tension have not been reported. Accordingly, tensile tests were performed along and perpendicular to the muscle fibre direction as well as at 30°, 45° and 60° to the muscle fibre direction in samples of Longissimus dorsi muscle taken from freshly slaughtered pigs. Strain was measured using an optical non-contact method. The results show the transverse or cross fibre (TT') direction is broadly linear and is the stiffest (77 kPa stress at a stretch of 1.1), but that failure occurs at low stretches (approximately λ=1.15). In contrast the longitudinal or fibre direction (L) is nonlinear and much less stiff (10 kPa stress at a stretch of 1.1) but failure occurs at higher stretches (approximatelyλ=1.65). An almost sinusoidal variation in stress response was observed at intermediate angles. The following Poisson's ratios were measured: VLT=VLT'=0.47, VTT'=0.28 and VTL=0.74. These observations have not been previously reported and they contribute significantly to our understanding of the three dimensional deformation response of skeletal muscle tissue. PMID:23127635

  3. Effect of nuclear factor antisense oligonucleotide on cardiac muscle myosin isoenzymes and cytokines in rat models of chronic heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) antisense oligonucleotide (AS-ON) on cardiac muscle myosin isoenzymes (MI) and serum cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, Fas) expressions in rat models of chronic heart failure. Methods: Wistar rat models of chronic heart failure were prepared with abdominal aorta constriction. Half of the models were treated with intrapericardial injection of 0.5ml AS-ON at the time of model preparation. Control rats were given intrapericardial injection of normal saline. Non-invasive echocardiographic study or invasive hemodynamic studies with sacrifice of the animal and procurement of left ventricular cardiac muscle for examination of myosin isoenzymes with SDS-PAGE were performed on 10 models each eveny two weeks until six months after establishment of the models. Inner canthus blood aspiration for determination of serum cytokines (TNF -α and IL-1β with RIA and Fas with ELISA) were done at the same time. Results: In the models without AS-ON treatment, cardiac function was deterioated somewhat at 3 months and frank cardiac failure was apparent at 6 months. In the AS-OD treated models, carbiac function parameters were much better, with lower TNF-α, IL-1β and Fas levels as well as less V1→V3 shift in myosin isoenzymes. Conclusion: Intrapericardial injection of AS-ON was of great benefit in prevention of development of cardiac failure in the rat models with abdominal aorta constriction, probably throngh maintainence of normal cytokines network as well as inbibition of V1 →V3 shift of myosin isoenzymes. (authors)

  4. Cardiac arrhythmogenesis in urban air pollution: Optical mapping in a tissue-engineered model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Harold H.

    Recent epidemiological evidence has implicated particulate matter air pollution in cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that inflammatory mediators released from lung macrophages after exposure to particulate matter predisposes the heart to disturbances in rhythm. Using a rational design approach, a fluorescent optical mapping system was devised to image spatiotemporal patterns of excitation in a tissue engineered model of cardiac tissue. Algorithms for automated data analysis and characterization of rhythm stability were developed, implemented, and verified. Baseline evaluation of spatiotemporal instability patterns in normal cardiac tissue was performed for comparison to an in-vitro model of particulate matter air pollution exposure. Exposure to particulate-matter activated alveolar macrophage conditioned media resulted in paradoxical functional changes more consistent with improved growth. These findings might be indicative of a "stress" response to particulate-matter induced pulmonary inflammation, or may be specific to the animal model (neonatal rat) employed. In the pursuit of elucidating the proposed pathway, we have also furthered our understanding of fundamental behaviors of arrhythmias in general and established a model where further testing might ultimately reveal the mechanism for urban air pollution associated cardiovascular morbidity.

  5. Atrogin-1/muscle atrophy F-box inhibits calcineurin-dependent cardiac hypertrophy by participating in an SCF ubiquitin ligase complex

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui-Hua; Kedar, Vishram; Zhang, Chunlian; McDonough, Holly; Arya, Ranjana; Wang, Da-Zhi; Patterson, Cam

    2004-01-01

    Calcineurin, which binds to the Z-disc in cardiomyocytes via α-actinin, promotes cardiac hypertrophy in response to numerous pathologic stimuli. However, the endogenous mechanisms regulating calcineurin activity in cardiac muscle are not well understood. We demonstrate that a muscle-specific F-box protein called atrogin-1, or muscle atrophy F-box, directly interacts with calcineurin A and α-actinin-2 at the Z-disc of cardiomyocytes. Atrogin-1 associates with Skp1, Cul1, and Roc1 to assemble a...

  6. Propagation velocity profile in a cross-section of a cardiac muscle bundle from PSpice simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperelakis Nicholas

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of depth on propagation velocity within a bundle of cardiac muscle fibers is likely to be an important factor in the genesis of some heart arrhythmias. Model and methods The velocity profile of simulated action potentials propagated down a bundle of parallel cardiac muscle fibers was examined in a cross-section of the bundle using a PSpice model. The model (20 × 10 consisted of 20 chains in parallel, each chain being 10 cells in length. All 20 chains were stimulated simultaneously at the left end of the bundle using rectangular current pulses (0.25 nA, 0.25 ms duration applied intracellularly. The simulated bundle was symmetrical at the top and bottom (including two grounds, and voltage markers were placed intracellularly only in cells 1, 5 and 10 of each chain to limit the total number of traces to 60. All electrical parameters were standard values; the variables were (1 the number of longitudinal gap-junction (G-j channels (0, 1, 10, 100, (2 the longitudinal resistance between the parallel chains (Rol2 (reflecting the closeness of the packing of the chains, and (3 the bundle termination resistance at the two ends of the bundle (RBT. The standard values for Rol2 and RBT were 200 KΩ. Results The velocity profile was bell-shaped when there was 0 or only 1 gj-channel. With standard Rol2 and RBT values, the velocity at the surface of the bundle (θ1 and θ20 was more than double (2.15 × that at the core of the bundle (θ10, θ11. This surface:core ratio of velocities was dependent on the values of Rol2 and RBT. When Rol2 was lowered 10-fold, θ1 increased slightly and θ2decreased slightly. When there were 100 gj-channels, the velocity profile was flat, i.e. the velocity at the core was about the same as that at the surface. Both velocities were more than 10-fold higher than in the absence of gj-channels. Varying Rol2 and RBT had almost no effect. When there were 10 gj-channels, the cross-sectional velocity profile

  7. Preparation of a porous conductive scaffold from aniline pentamer-modified polyurethane/PCL blend for cardiac tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Nafiseh; Yeganeh, Hamid; Ai, Jafar; Gharibi, Reza; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Azami, Mahmoud; Vahdat, Sadaf; Baharvand, Hossein

    2015-10-01

    A novel biodegradable electroactive polyurethane containing aniline pentamer (AP) was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL). The prepared blend (PB) and PCL were further fabricated in to scaffolds using a mixture of poly(ethylene glycol) and salt particles in a double porogen particulate leaching and compression molding methodology. Scaffolds held open and interconnected pores having pore size ranging from several μm to 150 µm. PB scaffolds had compression modulus and strength of 4.1 and 1.3 MPa, respectively. The conductivity of the scaffold was measured as 10(-5) ± 0.09 S .cm(-1) and preserved for at least 100 h post fabrication. Scaffolds supported neonatal cardiomyocytes adhesion and growth with PB showing more extensive effect on the expression of the cardiac genes involved in muscle contraction and relaxation (troponin-T) and cytoskeleton alignment (actinin-4). Our results highlight the potential of incorporation of AP as an electroactive moiety for induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation and repair of damaged heart tissue. PMID:25765879

  8. Trace metal concentrations in edible muscle tissues of some locally marketed fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edible muscle tissues of five fish species marketed in Multan, i.e., Rohu (Labeo rohita). (Labeo calhasu). Mori (cirrina inrigala). Ichagga (Rita rita) and Singliaree (mystus (osteobagrus) nor) have been analyzed quantitatively for trace elements, essential as well as toxic, using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Dry ashing procedure has been employed to prepare sample solutions. Result indicate that edible muscle tissue of these fish, in general, contain higher amounts of potassium, calcium, sodium and magnesium, moderate quantities of zinc and iron and lessor amounts of copper and manganese. However, cadmium and lead were found to be below the limit of detection. (author)

  9. Determination of Magnesium in Needle Biopsy Samples of Muscle Tissue by Means of Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnesium has been determined by means of neutron-activation analysis in needle biopsy samples of the order of magnitude 1 mg dry weight. The procedure applied was to extract the Mg-27 activity from irradiated muscle tissue with concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by a fast hydroxide precipitation and gamma-spectrometric measurements. The Mg activity was recovered in the muscle tissue samples to (97 ± 2) per cent. The sensitivity for the magnesium determination is estimated as 0.3 μg

  10. Visualization of spiral and scroll waves in simulated and experimental cardiac tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heart is a nonlinear biological system that can exhibit complex electrical dynamics, complete with period-doubling bifurcations and spiral and scroll waves that can lead to fibrillatory states that compromise the heart's ability to contract and pump blood efficiently. Despite the importance of understanding the range of cardiac dynamics, studying how spiral and scroll waves can initiate, evolve, and be terminated is challenging because of the complicated electrophysiology and anatomy of the heart. Nevertheless, over the last two decades advances in experimental techniques have improved access to experimental data and have made it possible to visualize the electrical state of the heart in more detail than ever before. During the same time, progress in mathematical modeling and computational techniques has facilitated using simulations as a tool for investigating cardiac dynamics. In this paper, we present data from experimental and simulated cardiac tissue and discuss visualization techniques that facilitate understanding of the behavior of electrical spiral and scroll waves in the context of the heart. The paper contains many interactive media, including movies and interactive two- and three-dimensional Java applets .

  11. Automated segmentation of muscle and adipose tissue on CT images for human body composition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Howard; Cobzas, Dana; Birdsell, Laura; Lieffers, Jessica; Baracos, Vickie

    2009-02-01

    The ability to compute body composition in cancer patients lends itself to determining the specific clinical outcomes associated with fat and lean tissue stores. For example, a wasting syndrome of advanced disease associates with shortened survival. Moreover, certain tissue compartments represent sites for drug distribution and are likely determinants of chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity. CT images are abundant, but these cannot be fully exploited unless there exist practical and fast approaches for tissue quantification. Here we propose a fully automated method for segmenting muscle, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, taking the approach of shape modeling for the analysis of skeletal muscle. Muscle shape is represented using PCA encoded Free Form Deformations with respect to a mean shape. The shape model is learned from manually segmented images and used in conjunction with a tissue appearance prior. VAT and SAT are segmented based on the final deformed muscle shape. In comparing the automatic and manual methods, coefficients of variation (COV) (1 - 2%), were similar to or smaller than inter- and intra-observer COVs reported for manual segmentation.

  12. Immunohistochemical and Morphofunctional Studies of Skeletal Muscle Tissues with Electric Nerve Stimulation by In Vivo Cryotechnique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, morphological and immunohistochemical alterations of skeletal muscle tissues during persistent contraction were examined by in vivo cryotechnique (IVCT). Contraction of gastrocnemius muscles was induced by sciatic nerve stimulation. The IVCT was performed immediately, 3 min or 10 min after the stimulation start. Prominent ripples of muscle fibers or wavy deformation of sarcolemma were detected immediately after the stimulation, but they gradually diminished to normal levels during the stimulation. The relative ratio of sarcomere and A band lengths was the highest in the control group, but it immediately decreased to the lowest level and then gradually recovered at 3 min or 10 min. Although histochemical intensity of PAS reaction was almost homogeneous in muscle tissues of the control group or immediately after the stimulation, it decreased at 3 min or 10 min. Serum albumin was immunolocalized as dot-like patterns within some muscle fibers at 3 min stimulation. These patterns became more prominent at 10 min, and the dots got larger and saccular in some sarcoplasmic regions. However, IgG1 and IgM were immunolocalized in blood vessels under nerve stimulation conditions. Therefore, IVCT was useful to capture the morphofunctional and metabolic changes of heterogeneous muscle fibers during the persistent contraction

  13. Castration differentially alters basal and leucine-stimulated tissue protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Qianning; Pruznak, Anne M.; Huber, Danuta; Vary, Thomas C; Lang, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced testosterone as a result of catabolic illness or aging is associated with loss of muscle and increased adiposity. We hypothesized that these changes in body composition occur because of altered rates of protein synthesis under basal and nutrient-stimulated conditions that are tissue specific. The present study investigated such mechanisms in castrated male rats (75% reduction in testosterone) with demonstrated glucose intolerance. Over 9 wk, castration impaired body weight gain, which...

  14. Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA within murine cardiac tissue sections by in situ polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Lane

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of in situ techniques to detect DNA and RNA sequences has proven to be an invaluable technique with paraffin-embedded tissue. Advances in non-radioactive detection systems have further made these procedures shorter and safer. We report the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, via indirect and direct in situ polymerace chain reaction within paraffin-embedded murine cardiac tissue sections. The presence of three T. cruzi specific DNA sequences were evaluated: a 122 base pair (bp sequence localized within the minicircle network, a 188 bp satellite nuclear repetitive sequence and a 177 bp sequence that codes for a flagellar protein. In situ hybridization alone was sensitive enough to detect all three T. cruzi specific DNA sequences.

  15. Carbon Nanohorns Promote Maturation of Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes and Inhibit Proliferation of Cardiac Fibroblasts: a Promising Scaffold for Cardiac Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yujing; Shi, Xiaoli; Li, Yi; Tian, Lei; Bai, Rui; Wei, Yujie; Han, Dong; Liu, Huiliang; Xu, Jianxun

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) has developed rapidly, but a great challenge remains in finding practical scaffold materials for the construction of engineered cardiac tissues. Carbon nanohorns (CNHs) may be a potential candidate due to their special structure and properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of CNHs on the biological behavior of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) for CTE applications. CNHs were incorporated into collagen to form growth substrates for NRVMs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations demonstrated that CNHs exhibited a good affinity to collagen. Moreover, it was found that CNH-embedded substrates enhanced adhesion and proliferation of NRVMs. Immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis, and intracellular calcium transient measurements indicated that the addition of CNHs significantly increased the expression and maturation of electrical and mechanical proteins (connexin-43 and N-cadherin). Bromodeoxyuridine staining and a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that CNHs have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. These findings suggest that CNHs can have a valuable effect on the construction of engineered cardiac tissues and may be a promising scaffold for CTE. PMID:27263018

  16. Carbon Nanohorns Promote Maturation of Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes and Inhibit Proliferation of Cardiac Fibroblasts: a Promising Scaffold for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yujing; Shi, Xiaoli; Li, Yi; Tian, Lei; Bai, Rui; Wei, Yujie; Han, Dong; Liu, Huiliang; Xu, Jianxun

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) has developed rapidly, but a great challenge remains in finding practical scaffold materials for the construction of engineered cardiac tissues. Carbon nanohorns (CNHs) may be a potential candidate due to their special structure and properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of CNHs on the biological behavior of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) for CTE applications. CNHs were incorporated into collagen to form growth substrates for NRVMs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations demonstrated that CNHs exhibited a good affinity to collagen. Moreover, it was found that CNH-embedded substrates enhanced adhesion and proliferation of NRVMs. Immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis, and intracellular calcium transient measurements indicated that the addition of CNHs significantly increased the expression and maturation of electrical and mechanical proteins (connexin-43 and N-cadherin). Bromodeoxyuridine staining and a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that CNHs have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts. These findings suggest that CNHs can have a valuable effect on the construction of engineered cardiac tissues and may be a promising scaffold for CTE.

  17. Infectivity of Trichinella spp. recovered from decaying mouse and fox muscle tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Von Köller J.; Kapel C.M.O.; Enemark H.L.; Hindsbo O.

    2001-01-01

    The tolerance to degradation processes in meat of nine Trichinella genotypes was studied in mouse and fox tissue, respectively. Minced muscle tissue with Trichinella larvae of different age was stored at room temperature at 100 % relative humidity. During storage weekly sub samples of the minced meat were digested and released larvae were inoculated in mice to evaluate the Reproductive Capacity Index (RCI). The RCI decreased with the length of storage, but the larvae from older infections app...

  18. Plasma tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1): an independent predictor of poor response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Tolosana, Jose María; Mont, Lluís; Sitges, Marta; Berruezo, Antonio; Delgado, Victoria; Vidal, Bàrbara; Tamborero, David; Morales, Manel; Batlle, Montserrat; Roig, Eulalia; Castel, M. Angeles; Pérez-Villa, Félix; Godoy, Miguel; Brugada, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Aims Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) play a role in left ventricular structural remodelling. The aim of our study was to analyse MMP-2 and TIMP-1 levels as predictors of poor response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods and results A cohort of 42 CRT patients from our centre was prospectively evaluated at baseline and after 12-month follow-up. MMP-2 and TIMP-1 assays were performed prior to CRT implant. Cardiac resynchronization therapy res...

  19. Feasibility of a nanomaterial-tissue patch for vascular and cardiac reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostdiek, Allison M; Ivey, Jan R; Hansen, Sarah A; Gopaldas, Raja; Grant, Sheila A

    2016-04-01

    Vascular and cardiac reconstruction involves the use of biological patches to treat trauma and defects. An in vivo study was performed to determine the remodeling and biologic effects of novel nanostructured vascular patches with and without gold nanoparticles. Porcine vascular tissue was decellularized and conjugated with gold nanoparticles to evaluate if integration would occur while avoiding rupture and stenosis. Swine underwent a bilateral patch angioplasty of the carotid arteries with experimental patches on the right and control patches of bovine pericardium on the left. Animals were sacrificed after surgery and at 3 and 9 weeks. Ultrasound was performed during surgery, every 3 weeks, and before euthanasia. Endothelial regeneration was examined using Evans Blue dye and histology using Trichrome and H&E. There was a 100% success rate of implantation with 0% mortality. All patches were patent on ultrasound. At 3 weeks, experimental patches had regenerating endothelial cell growth and normal healing responses. At 9 weeks, the experimental patches demonstrated excellent integration. Histology demonstrated cellular in-growth into the experimental patches and no major immune reactions. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate the feasibility of nanomaterial-tissue patches for vascular and cardiac reconstruction. PMID:25891427

  20. Electrically conductive gold nanoparticle-chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels for cardiac tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baei, Payam; Jalili-Firoozinezhad, Sasan; Rajabi-Zeleti, Sareh; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Baharvand, Hossein; Aghdami, Nasser

    2016-06-01

    Injectable hydrogels that resemble electromechanical properties of the myocardium are crucial for cardiac tissue engineering prospects. We have developed a facile approach that uses chitosan (CS) to generate a thermosensitive conductive hydrogel with a highly porous network of interconnected pores. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were evenly dispersed throughout the CS matrix in order to provide electrical cues. The gelation response and electrical conductivity of the hydrogel were controlled by different concentrations of GNPs. The CS-GNP hydrogels were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cultivated for up to 14days in the absence of electrical stimulations. CS-GNP scaffolds supported viability, metabolism, migration and proliferation of MSCs along with the development of uniform cellular constructs. Immunohistochemistry for early and mature cardiac markers showed enhanced cardiomyogenic differentiation of MSCs within the CS-GNP compared to the CS matrix alone. The results of this study demonstrate that incorporation of nanoscale electro-conductive GNPs into CS hydrogels enhances the properties of myocardial constructs. These constructs could find utilization for regeneration of other electroactive tissues. PMID:27040204

  1. Direct Mechanical Stimulation of Stem Cells: A Beating Electromechanically Active Scaffold for Cardiac Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmi, Amy; Cieslar-Pobuda, Artur; de Muinck, Ebo; Los, Marek; Rafat, Mehrdad; Jager, Edwin W H

    2016-06-01

    The combination of stem cell therapy with a supportive scaffold is a promising approach to improving cardiac tissue engineering. Stem cell therapy can be used to repair nonfunctioning heart tissue and achieve myocardial regeneration, and scaffold materials can be utilized in order to successfully deliver and support stem cells in vivo. Current research describes passive scaffold materials; here an electroactive scaffold that provides electrical, mechanical, and topographical cues to induced human pluripotent stem cells (iPS) is presented. The poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) fiber scaffold coated with conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) is capable of delivering direct electrical and mechanical stimulation to the iPS. The electroactive scaffolds demonstrate no cytotoxic effects on the iPS as well as an increased expression of cardiac markers for both stimulated and unstimulated protocols. This study demonstrates the first application of PPy as a supportive electroactive material for iPS and the first development of a fiber scaffold capable of dynamic mechanical actuation. PMID:27126086

  2. The muscle-enriched gene SYNPO2L is associated with cardiac remodeling%新基因SYNPO2L参与心肌重构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓建; 甄一松; 王继征; 苏明; 祝领; 王长鑫; 俞莉萍; 刘继斌; 惠汝太

    2012-01-01

    目的 肌肉富集表达基因在心肌重构的发生发展中发挥重要的作用.为了深入理解心肌重构的分子机制、为临床提供治疗和干预的靶点,我们需要寻找参与心肌重构的新基因.方法和结果 我们使用自主研发的CardiacScan对多个人源组织表达谱数据库进行扫描,发现了一个新的肌肉富集表达基因——SYNPO2L.RT-PCR显示,SYNPO2L在小鼠的心脏和骨骼肌高表达.实时荧光定量PCR显示,在跑步训练诱导的小鼠生理性心肌重构模型中,SYNPO2L的表达下降为对照组的0.6倍(P<0.05).在主动脉缩窄手术诱导的病理性心肌重构中,SYNPO2L的表达逐渐升高,并在术后9周(心功能失代偿阶段)升高为对照组的2.4倍(P<0.0001).结论 SYNPO2L是一个新的在肌肉富集表达的基因,参与了多种不同形式的心肌重构过程,可能在心肌重构中发挥重要的作用.%Purpose Muscle-enriched gene play an improtant role in the development of cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Up to date, however, the number of muscle-enriched gene is limited. Therefore, we need to clone more muscle-enriched genes. Methods and Results To explore novel muscle-enriched genes, we scaned three human multiple-tissue transcriptional databases using self-developed program Card iacScan. SYNPO2L was identified as novlc muslce-enriched gene. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that expression of SYNPO2L was down-regulated by 0.6 fold (P<0.0S) in physiological cardiac hypertrophy induced by treadmill training, but up-regulated by 2.4 fold(P<0.0001) in heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction surgery. Conclusion SYNPO2L is a novle muscle-enriched gene which is involved in cardiac remodeling.

  3. Quantification of 16 QT-prolonging Drugs and Metabolites in Human Postmortem Blood and Cardiac Tissue Using UPLC–MS-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Christian Reuss; Jornil, Jakob; Vukelic Andersen, Ljubica; Banner, Jytte; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo

    2016-01-01

    quantification of 16 QT-prolonging drugs (QTD) and metabolites in postmortem whole blood and postmortem cardiac tissue. Samples were prepared by protein precipitation and quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Deuterated internal standards were used...... blood and cardiac tissue. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this article presents the first fully validated method for quantification of QTD in cardiac tissue....

  4. A DIC Based Technique to Measure the Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle Engineered Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosio, Silvia; Faraldi, Martina; Pisu, Simona; Musarò, Antonio; Del Prete, Zaccaria

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary science based on the application of engineering approaches to biologic tissue formation. Engineered tissue internal organization represents a key aspect to increase biofunctionality before transplant and, as regarding skeletal muscles, the potential of generating contractile forces is dependent on the internal fiber organization and is reflected by some macroscopic parameters, such as the spontaneous contraction. Here we propose the application of digital image correlation (DIC) as an independent tool for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of engineered muscle tissue spontaneous contraction. To validate the proposed technique we referred to the X-MET, a promising 3-dimensional model of skeletal muscle. The images acquired through a high speed camera were correlated with a custom-made algorithm and the longitudinal strain predictions were employed for measuring the spontaneous contraction. The spontaneous contraction reference values were obtained by studying the force response. The relative error between the spontaneous contraction frequencies computed in both ways was always lower than 0.15%. In conclusion, the use of a DIC based system allows for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of biological tissues' spontaneous contraction, in addition to the measurement of tissue strain field on any desired region of interest during electrical stimulation. PMID:27034612

  5. The Dynamic Behaviour and Shock Recovery of a Porcine Skeletal Muscle Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgeroth, James; Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth

    2011-06-01

    Modern-day ballistic armours provide a high degree of protection to the individual. However, the effects of non-penetrating projectiles, blast, and high-energy blunt impact events may still cause severe tissue trauma/remote injury. The energies corresponding to such events allow for the formation and transmission of shock waves within body tissues. Consequently, the nature of trauma inflicted upon such soft tissues is likely to be intimately linked to their interaction with the shock waves that propagate through them. Notably, relatively little is known about the effect of shock upon the structure of biological materials, such as skeletal muscle tissue. In this study plate-impact experiments have been used to interrogate the dynamic response of a porcine skeletal muscle tissue under one-dimensional shock loading conditions. Additionally, development of a soft-capture system that has allowed recovery of shocked skeletal muscle tissue specimens is discussed and comparison made between experimental diagnostics and hydrocode simulations of the experiment.

  6. Cloning and analysis of differentially expressed ESTs in swine muscle tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Chongsheng; CHEN; Yaosheng; WANG; Chong; LI; Jiaqi

    2006-01-01

    The obvious difference in muscle growth and meat quality traits exists between Chinese indigenous pig and exotic pigs. In order to study the reason of these phenotypic differences and search the potential gene related to growth and meat quality traits, silver-stained mRNA differential display technique was used to detect the difference with mRNA of loin-eye muscle tissue from maturity pigs of Lantang in Guangdong Province and Large Yorkshire. One of the newly discovered expressed sequence tag (ESTsp3) was analyzed by using bioinformatic technique. The results showed: (1) nearly 2000 cDNA fragments were detected with 30 primer pairs, and 6 differentially expressed ESTs in the loin-eye muscle tissues from the two breeds were isolated and obtained. The differential fragments were cloned and sequenced. The all sequences were recorded in the GenBank. (2) The 786 bp fragment of ESTsp3 was obtained with in silico elongation system, the ORF analysis revealed that it existed as an 83 aa complete open reading frame, and the elongation sequences were verified by RT-PCR. The analysis of in silico expression profile showed that ESTsp3 is expressed in various growth stages and in most tissues and organs, such as soft tissue, skin, skeletal muscle and kidney, but with variant expression quantity.

  7. Evaluation of Copper Concentration in Subclinical Cases of White Muscle Disease and Its Relationship with Cardiac Troponin I

    OpenAIRE

    Forough Ataollahi; Mehrdad Mohri; Hesam A Seifi; Belinda Pingguan-Murphy; Wan Abu Bakar Wan Abas; Noor Azuan Abu Osman

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the serum level of copper (Cu) in lambs suffering from subclinical forms of white muscle disease (WMD) and its relationship with cardiac troponin I (cTn-I) as a novel biomarker of cardiovascular disorders. Ten milliliters of jugular blood were taken from 200 lambs less than one year old to measure serum concentrations of Cu, selenium (Se), and cTn-I. The subjects were divided into 2 groups, namely, the deficient group which included 36 lambs, and the control...

  8. Cardiac conduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals ... to contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle ...

  9. Evaluation of several techniques to modify denatured muscle tissue to obtain a scaffold for peripheral nerve regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; den Dunnen, WFA; Schakenraad, JM; Robinson, PH

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) evaluate the effect of several preparation techniques of denatured muscle tissue to obtain an open three-dimensional structure, and (2) test if this scaffold is suitable for peripheral nerve regeneration. Four samples (A-D) of muscle tissue specimens were evaluated u

  10. Influence of different fixation protocols on the preservation and dimensions of cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hołda, Mateusz K; Klimek-Piotrowska, Wiesława; Koziej, Mateusz; Piątek, Katarzyna; Hołda, Jakub

    2016-08-01

    Recent extensive progress in invasive cardiac procedures has triggered a wave of dozens of heart morphometric anatomical studies that are carried out largely using autopsied samples fixed in formaldehyde solution prior to observations and measurements. In reality, very little is known about changes in heart tissue dimensions during fixation. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate how fixation affects the dimensions of cardiac tissue, and if different types and concentrations of reagents affect this phenomenon. A total of 40 pig heart samples were investigated, and seven different measuring sites were permanently marked in every heart prior to fixation. Four study groups (n = 10 each) were assembled that differed only in concentration and the type of fixative: (i) 2% formaldehyde solution; (ii) 4% formaldehyde solution (formalin); (iii) 10% formaldehyde solution; (iv) alcoholic formalin. The samples were measured before and after fixation at the following time points: 24 h, 72 h and 168 h. It was found that different fixatives significantly affected different parameters. Almost all of the heart dimensions that were measured stabilized after 24 h; later changes were statistically insignificant in the point-to-point comparison. Change in the length of the interatrial septum surface was not altered significantly in any of the fixatives after 24 h of preservation. It was found that 10% formaldehyde increased the thickness of muscular tissue only after 24 h; this thickening was reduced after 72 h and was insignificant at 168 h. Other heart parameters in this group do not present significant changes over the entire fixation time duration. In conclusion, the 10% formaldehyde phosphate-buffered solution appeared to be the best fixative among the fixatives that were studied for cardiac morphometric purposes; this solution caused the smallest changes in tissue dimensions. Measurements should be obtained at least after 1 week of preservation

  11. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  12. Increased Reliance on Muscle-based Thermogenesis upon Acute Minimization of Brown Adipose Tissue Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Naresh C; Maurya, Santosh K; Singh, Sushant; Wehrens, Xander H T; Periasamy, Muthu

    2016-08-12

    Skeletal muscle has been suggested as a site of nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) besides brown adipose tissue (BAT). Studies in birds, which do not contain BAT, have demonstrated the importance of skeletal muscle-based NST. However, muscle-based NST in mammals remains poorly characterized. We recently reported that sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) cycling and that its regulation by SLN can be the basis for muscle NST. Because of the dominant role of BAT-mediated thermogenesis in rodents, the role of muscle-based NST is less obvious. In this study, we investigated whether muscle will become an important site of NST when BAT function is conditionally minimized in mice. We surgically removed interscapular BAT (iBAT, which constitutes ∼70% of total BAT) and exposed the mice to prolonged cold (4 °C) for 9 days. The iBAT-ablated mice were able to maintain optimal body temperature (∼35-37 °C) during the entire period of cold exposure. After 4 days in the cold, both sham controls and iBAT-ablated mice stopped shivering and resumed routine physical activity, indicating that they are cold-adapted. The iBAT-ablated mice showed higher oxygen consumption and decreased body weight and fat mass, suggesting an increased energy cost of cold adaptation. The skeletal muscles in these mice underwent extensive remodeling of both the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, including alteration in the expression of key components of Ca(2+) handling and mitochondrial metabolism. These changes, along with increased sarcolipin expression, provide evidence for the recruitment of NST in skeletal muscle. These studies collectively suggest that skeletal muscle becomes the major site of NST when BAT activity is minimized. PMID:27298322

  13. Reentry produced by small-scale heterogeneities in a discrete model of cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sergio; Bär, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Reentries are reexcitations of cardiac tissue after the passing of an excitation wave which can cause dangerous arrhythmias like tachycardia or life-threatening heart failures like fibrillation. The heart is formed by a network of cells connected by gap junctions. Under ischemic conditions some of the cells lose their connections, because gap junctions are blocked and the excitability is decreased. We model a circular region of the tissue where a fraction of connections among individual cells are removed and substituted by non-conducting material in a two-dimensional (2D) discrete model of a heterogeneous excitable medium with local kinetics based on electrophysiology. Thus, two neighbouring cells are connected (disconnected) with a probability ϕ (1 – ϕ). Such a region is assumed to be surrounded by homogeneous tissue. The circular heterogeneous area is shown to act as a source of new waves which reenter into the tissue and reexcitate the whole domain. We employ the Fenton-Karma equations to model the action potential for the local kinetics of the discrete nodes to study the statistics of the reentries in two dimensional networks with different topologies. We conclude that the probability of reentry is determined by the proximity of the fraction of disrupted connections between neighboring nodes (“cells”) in the heterogeneous region to the percolation threshold.

  14. A Cycling Movement Based System for Real-Time Muscle Fatigue and Cardiac Stress Monitoring and Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szi-Wen Chen

    Full Text Available In this study, we defined a new parameter, referred to as the cardiac stress index (CSI, using a nonlinear detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA of heart rate (HR. Our study aimed to incorporate the CSI into a cycling based fatigue monitoring system developed in our previous work so the muscle fatigue and cardiac stress can be both continuously and quantitatively assessed for subjects undergoing the cycling exercise. By collecting electrocardiogram (ECG signals, the DFA scaling exponent α was evaluated on the RR time series extracted from a windowed ECG segment. We then obtained the running estimate of α by shifting a one-minute window by a step of 20 seconds so the CSI, defined as the percentage of all the less-than-one α values, can be synchronously updated every 20 seconds. Since the rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale is considered as a convenient index which is commonly used to monitor subjective perceived exercise intensity, we then related the Borg RPE scale value to the CSI in order to investigate and quantitatively characterize the relationship between exercise-induced fatigue and cardiac stress. Twenty-two young healthy participants were recruited in our study. Each participant was asked to maintain a fixed pedaling speed at a constant load during the cycling exercise. Experimental results showed that a decrease in DFA scaling exponent α or an increase in CSI was observed during the exercise. In addition, the Borg RPE scale and CSI were positively correlated, suggesting that the factors due to cardiac stress might also contribute to fatigue state during physical exercise. Since the CSI can effectively quantify the cardiac stress status during physical exercise, our system may be used in sports medicine, or used by cardiologists who carried out stress tests for monitoring heart condition in patients with heart diseases.

  15. Multisite Tissue Oxygenation Monitoring Indicates Organ-Specific Flow Distribution and Oxygen Delivery Related to Low Cardiac Output in Preterm Infants With Clinical Sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Michelle E; Roofthooft, Marc; Fries, Marian W A; Schat, Trijntje E; Bos, Arend F; Berger, Rolf M F; Kooi, Elisabeth M W

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cardiac output may be compromised in preterm infants with sepsis. Whether low cardiac output is associated with low tissue oxygen supply in these patients is unclear. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between cardiac output, assessed by echocardiography, and tiss

  16. Mechanic effect of pulsed focused ultrasound in tumor and muscle tissue evaluated by MRI, histology, and microarray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, Walter, E-mail: walter.hundt@web.de [Lucas MRS Research Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305-5488 (United States); Department of Radiology, Philipps University Marburg (Germany); Yuh, Esther L. [Lucas MRS Research Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305-5488 (United States); Steinbach, Silke [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Technical University of Dresden (Germany); Bednarski, Mark D.; Guccione, Samira [Lucas MRS Research Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305-5488 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to tumor and muscle tissue. Pulsed HIFU was applied to tumor and muscle tissue in C3H/Km mice. Three hours after HIFU treatment pre- and post-contrast T1-wt, T2-wt images and a diffusion-wt STEAM-sequence were obtained. After MR imaging, the animals were euthenized and the treated tumor and muscle was taken out for histology and functional genomic analysis. In the tumor tissue a slight increase of the diffusion coefficient could be found. In the muscle tissue T2 images showed increased signal intensity and post-contrast T1 showed a decreased contrast uptake in the center and a severe contrast uptake in the surrounding muscle tissue. A significant increase of the diffusion coefficient was found. Gene expression analysis revealed profound changes in the expression levels of 29 genes being up-regulated and 3 genes being down-regulated in the muscle tissue and 31 genes being up-regulated and 15 genes being down-regulated in the SCCVII tumor tissue. Seven genes were up-regulated in both tissue types. The highest up-regulated gene in the tumor and muscle tissue encoded for Mouse histone H2A.1 gene (FC = 13.2 {+-} 20.6) and Apolipoprotein E (FC = 12.8 {+-} 27.4) respectively MHC class III (FC = 83.7 {+-} 67.4) and hsp70 (FC = 75.3 {+-} 85.0). Immunoblot confirmed the presence of HSP70 protein in the muscle tissue. Pulsed HIFU treatment on tumor and muscle tissue results in dramatic changes in gene expression, indicating that the effect of pulsed HIFU is in some regard dependent and also independent of the tissue type.

  17. Low-level lasers affect uncoupling protein gene expression in skin and skeletal muscle tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, K. S.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Paoli, F.; Mencalha, A. L.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses of biological tissues to low-level lasers. Free radicals are involved in these responses acting as second messengers in intracellular signaling processes. Irradiated cells present defenses against these chemical species to avoid unwanted effects, such as uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which are part of protective mechanisms and minimize the effects of free radical generation in mitochondria. In this work UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA gene relative expression in the skin and skeletal muscle tissues of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers was evaluated. Samples of the skin and skeletal muscle tissue of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and the evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA expression was differently altered in skin and skeletal muscle tissues exposed to lasers in a wavelength-dependent effect, with the UCP3 mRNA expression dose-dependent. Alteration on UCP gene expression could be part of the biostimulation effect and is necessary to make cells exposed to red and infrared low-level lasers more resistant or capable of adapting in damaged tissues or diseases.

  18. Enhanced insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue following gastric bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Peter H; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten;

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of RYGB on expression and regulation of proteins involved in regulation of peripheral glucose metabolism. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies from glucose...... and glycogen synthase activity were enhanced 12 months post-surgery. In adipose tissue, protein expression of GLUT4, Akt2, TBC1D4 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), phosphorylated levels of AMP-activated protein kinase and ACC as well as insulin-induced changes in phosphorylation of Akt and TBC1D4 were...... enhanced 12 months post-surgery. Adipose tissue from glucose tolerant subjects was the most responsive to RYGB compared to type 2 diabetic patients, whereas changes in skeletal muscle were largely similar in these two groups. In conclusion, an improved molecular insulin sensitive phenotype of skeletal...

  19. Bioreactor perfusion system for the long-term maintenance of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle organoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromiak, J. A.; Shansky, J.; Perrone, C.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional skeletal muscle organ-like structures (organoids) formed in tissue culture by fusion of proliferating myoblasts into parallel networks of long, unbranched myofibers provide an in vivo-like model for examining the effects of growth factors, tension, and space flight on muscle cell growth and metabolism. To determine the feasibility of maintaining either avian or mammalian muscle organoids in a commercial perfusion bioreactor system, we measured metabolism, protein turnover. and autocrine/paracrine growth factor release rates. Medium glucose was metabolized at a constant rate in both low-serum- and serum-free media for up to 30 d. Total organoid noncollagenous protein and DNA content decreased approximately 22-28% (P protein synthesis rates could be determined accurately in the bioreactors for up to 30 h and total protein degradation rates could be measured for up to 3 wk. Special fixation and storage conditions necessary for space flight studies were validated as part of the studies. For example, the anabolic autocrine/paracrine skeletal muscle growth factors prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) could be measured accurately in collected media fractions, even after storage at 37 degrees C for up to 10 d. In contrast, creatine kinase activity (a marker of cell damage) in collected media fractions was unreliable. These results provide initial benchmarks for long-term ex vivo studies of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle.

  20. Bioreactor perfusion system for the long-term maintenance of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle organoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromiak, J. A.; Shansky, J.; Perrone, C.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional skeletal muscle organ-like structures (organoids) formed in tissue culture by fusion of proliferating myoblasts into parallel networks of long, unbranched myofibers provide an in vivo-like model for examining the effects of growth factors, tension, and space flight on muscle cell growth and metabolism. To determine the feasibility of maintaining either avian or mammalian muscle organoids in a commercial perfusion bioreactor system, we measured metabolism, protein turnover. and autocrine/paracrine growth factor release rates. Medium glucose was metabolized at a constant rate in both low-serum- and serum-free media for up to 30 d. Total organoid noncollagenous protein and DNA content decreased approximately 22-28% (P < 0.05) over a 13-d period. Total protein synthesis rates could be determined accurately in the bioreactors for up to 30 h and total protein degradation rates could be measured for up to 3 wk. Special fixation and storage conditions necessary for space flight studies were validated as part of the studies. For example, the anabolic autocrine/paracrine skeletal muscle growth factors prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) could be measured accurately in collected media fractions, even after storage at 37 degrees C for up to 10 d. In contrast, creatine kinase activity (a marker of cell damage) in collected media fractions was unreliable. These results provide initial benchmarks for long-term ex vivo studies of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle.

  1. Bioreactor perfusion system for the long-term maintenance of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle organoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromiak, J. A.; Shansky, J.; Perrone, C.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional skeletal muscle organ-like structures (organoids) formed in tissue culture by fusion of proliferating myoblasts into parallel networks of long, unbranched myofibers provide an in vivo-like model for examining the effects of growth factors, tension, and space flight on muscle cell growth and metabolism. To determine the feasibility of maintaining either avian or mammalian muscle organoids in a commercial perfusion bioreactor system, we measured metabolism, protein turnover. and autocrine/paracrine growth factor release rates. Medium glucose was metabolized at a constant rate in both low-serum- and serum-free media for up to 30 d. Total organoid noncollagenous protein and DNA content decreased approximately 22-28% (P bioreactors for up to 30 h and total protein degradation rates could be measured for up to 3 wk. Special fixation and storage conditions necessary for space flight studies were validated as part of the studies. For example, the anabolic autocrine/paracrine skeletal muscle growth factors prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) could be measured accurately in collected media fractions, even after storage at 37 degrees C for up to 10 d. In contrast, creatine kinase activity (a marker of cell damage) in collected media fractions was unreliable. These results provide initial benchmarks for long-term ex vivo studies of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle.

  2. Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in the branchial plate and muscle tissue of mobulid rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Branchial plate and muscle tissue from mobulid rays were analysed for certain metals. • Mean concentrations of cadmium in Mobula japanica were above the EC ML. • Mean inorganic arsenic concentration in Mobula japanica muscle equalled the FSANZ ML. • Mean concentration of lead in Manta alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. • There were significant correlations between the types of tissues for some metals. - Abstract: Mobulid rays are targeted in fisheries for their branchial plates, for use in Chinese medicine. Branchial plate and muscle tissue from Mobula japanica were collected from fish markets in Sri Lanka, and muscle tissue biopsies from Manta alfredi in Australia. These were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury and compared to maximum levels (MLs) set by Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ), European Commission (EC) and Codex Alimentarius Commission. The estimated intake for a vulnerable human age group was compared to minimal risk levels set by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The mean inorganic arsenic concentration in M. japanica muscle was equivalent to the FSANZ ML while cadmium exceeded the EC ML. The mean concentration of lead in M. alfredi muscle tissue exceeded EC and Codex MLs. There were significant positive linear correlations between branchial plate and muscle tissue concentrations for arsenic, cadmium and lead

  3. Chemical elements in the muscle tissues of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from selected lakes in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudovica, Vita; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2015-10-01

    Fish is a significant source of essential nutrients, as well as toxic elements in the human diet. Concentration of 17 elements was determined in muscles of eels (Anguilla anguilla) collected from five fishing lakes in the territory of Latvia. The concentration of main elements determined in muscle tissues varied within the following ranges: for Pb, 0.019-0.047; Cd, 0.0051-0.011; Hg, 0.13-0.36; Cu, 0.76-0.92; Zn, 28-42; and As, 0.13-0.23 mg kg(-1) wet weight. A positive correlation was revealed between the concentration of Hg in muscles and fish length in inland lakes. Concentration of metals in muscle tissues of eels from brackish coastal and inland lakes was without statistically significant difference. This research demonstrated that the elemental content of Cd and Pb in muscles of the examined fish was lower than the maximum allowed threshold set by the European Union legislation. Mercury content was over the threshold limit for all the analyzed eels if to compare with the Water Framework Directive Environmental Quality Standards. On other side, only 7% of analyzed fish have indicated values that are over threshold limits for mercury established by the European Union food legislation. The current study contributes to the implementation of Water Framework Directive in Latvia by collection of information necessary for the further protection measures of waters. To our knowledge, this study provides the first data on multielemental bioaccumulation in muscle tissues of European eels collected from fishing lakes of Latvia. PMID:26334326

  4. Tolerance to low temperatures of domestic and sylvatic Trichinella spp. in rat muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakauskas, Alvydas; Kapel, Christian M O

    2003-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the tolerance to low temperatures of 9 Trichinella isolates in rat muscle tissue. Nine groups of 24 rats were infected with encapsulated Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella nativa, Trichinella britovi, Trichinella murrelli, Trichinella T6, Trichinella nelsoni, and 3 nonencapsulated Trichinella pseudospiralis strains. Six rats from each of the groups were necropsied at 5, 10, 20, and 40 wk postinfection (wpi). Muscle tissues containing Trichinella larvae were exposed to temperatures of -18, -5, and 5 C for 1 or 4 wk, and afterward the reproductive capacity index (RCI) in mice was determined for the 9 individual Trichinella isolates. Only T. nativa muscle larvae were infective after freezing at a temperature of -18 C. At 5 wpi all encapsulated isolates, except for the tropical species T. nelsoni, remained infective after exposure to a temperature of -5 C for both 1 and 4 wk, whereas nonencapsulated T. pseudospiralis survived only 1 wk of exposure. All Trichinella spp. remained infective after exposure to a temperature of 5 C. Muscle larvae for all investigated species remained infective as long as they persisted in live rats during the experiment. Analysis of variance showed a significant effect of age on the temperature tolerance of encapsulated T. spiralis and nonencapsulated T. pseudospiralis. In addition, significant interaction between age of muscle larvae and length of exposure was found. In general Trichinella muscle larvae of medium age (10 and 20 wpi) tolerated freezing better than early and late stages of infection (5 and 40 wpi). This is the first study to demonstrate such a relationship between age of infection and temperature tolerance of Trichinella spp. muscle larvae. PMID:14533685

  5. MANGANESE CONTENT IN THE MUSCLE TISSUE OF THE TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA IN SOME RIVERS OF ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Selami

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioaccumulation and magnification is capable of leading to toxic level of these metals in fish even when exposure is low. The presence of metal pollutant in fresh water is known to disturb the delicate balance of the aquatic systems. Fishes are notorious for their ability to concentrate heavy metals in their muscles and since they play an important role in human nutrition, they need to be carefully screened to ensure that unnecessary high levels of some toxic trace metals are not being transferred to man through fish consumption. This study evaluates the content of the manganese element (Mn in the muscle tissue of the trout (Rainbow trout, caught upstream and downstream in some rivers of Albania, such as: Vjosa, Buna, Drini. A total of 60 Salmo trutta samples were analyzed in the Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Food Safety at the Institute of Food and Veterinary Safety in Tirana. The average value of manganese concentration in the trout’s muscle tissue caught in the Vjosa river was 0.45 mg/kg of the upstream samples and 0.90 mg/kg of the downstream samples. In the muscle tissue of the trout caught in the Buna river, the average value of manganese concentration was 1.65 mg/kg in the upstream samples and 0.75 mg/kg in the downstream samples. In the muscle tissue of the trout caught in the Drini river the average value of manganese concentration was 0.55 mg/kg in the upstream samples and 0.80 mg/kg in the downstream samples.

  6. Pathologic bladder microenvironment attenuates smooth muscle differentiation of skin derived precursor cells: implications for tissue regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Tolg

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle cell containing organs (bladder, heart, blood vessels are damaged by a variety of pathological conditions necessitating surgery or organ replacement. Currently, regeneration of contractile tissues is hampered by lack of functional smooth muscle cells. Multipotent skin derived progenitor cells (SKPs can easily be isolated from adult skin and can be differentiated in vitro into contractile smooth muscle cells by exposure to FBS. Here we demonstrate an inhibitory effect of a pathologic contractile organ microenvironment on smooth muscle cell differentiation of SKPs. In vivo, urinary bladder strain induces microenvironmental changes leading to de-differentiation of fully differentiated bladder smooth muscle cells. Co-culture of SKPs with organoids isolated from ex vivo stretched bladders or exposure of SKPs to diffusible factors released by stretched bladders (e.g. bFGF suppresses expression of smooth muscle markers (alpha SMactin, calponin, myocardin, myosin heavy chain as demonstrated by qPCR and immunofluorescent staining. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR signalling, previously observed to prevent bladder strain induced de-differentiation of fully differentiated smooth muscle cells in vitro, inhibits FBS-induced smooth muscle cell differentiation of undifferentiated SKPs. These results suggest that intended precursor cell differentiation may be paradoxically suppressed by the disease context for which regeneration may be required. Organ-specific microenvironment contexts, particularly prevailing disease, may play a significant role in modulating or attenuating an intended stem cell phenotypic fate, possibly explaining the variable and inefficient differentiation of stem cell constructs in in vivo settings. These observations must be considered in drafting any regeneration strategies.

  7. Comparative cardiac pathological changes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affected with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) and pancreas disease (PD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Skjødt, Karsten;

    2013-01-01

    The heart is considered the powerhouse of the cardiovascular system. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) and pancreas disease (PD) are cardiac diseases of marine farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) which commonly affect the heart in addition to the skeletal...... muscle, liver and pancreas. The main findings of these diseases are necrosis and inflammatory cells infiltrates affecting different regions of the heart. In order to better characterize the cardiac pathology, study of the inflammatory cell characteristics and cell cycle protein expression was undertaken...

  8. Effective atomic numbers for photon energy-absorption and photon interaction of some human organs and tissues such as blood-whole, adipose tissue, brain-grey/white matter, tissue-soft (four-component), lung tissue and muscle skeletal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work aims at the accurate calculation of ZPEAeff values for some human organs and tissues such as blood-whole, adipose tissue, brain-grey/white matter, tissue-soft(four-component), lung tissue and muscle-skeletal in the energy region of 1 keV-20 MeV. The ZPEAeff values are compared with ZPIeff and the effective atomic number calculated using the program XMuDat and is denoted here by ZXMUDATeff

  9. Design considerations for an integrated microphysiological muscle tissue for drug and tissue toxicity testing

    OpenAIRE

    Truskey, George A.; Achneck, Hardean E.; Bursac, Nenad; Chan, Hon Fai; Cheng, Cindy S.; Fernandez, Cristina; Hong, Sungmin; Jung, Youngmee; Koves, Tim; Kraus, William E.; Leong, Kam; Madden, Lauran; Reichert, William M.; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2013-01-01

    Microphysiological systems provide a tool to simulate normal and pathological function of organs for prolonged periods. These systems must incorporate the key functions of the individual organs and enable interactions among the corresponding microphysiological units. The relative size of different microphysiological organs and their flow rates are scaled in proportion to in vivo values. We have developed a microphysiological three-dimensional engineered human skeletal muscle system connected ...

  10. Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcotte, Christopher D.; Grigoriev, Roman O. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals.

  11. ELECTROACTIVE AND NANOSTRUCTURED POLYMERS AS SCAFFOLD MATERIALS FOR NEURONAL AND CARDIAC TISSUE ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Conducting polymer, polyaniline (PANI), has been studied as a novel electroactive and electrically conductive material for tissue engineering applications. The biocompatibility of the conductive polymer can be improved by (I) covalently grafting various adhesive peptides onto the surface of prefabricated conducting polymer flms or into the polymer structures during the synthesis, (ii) co-electrospinning or blending with natural proteins to form conducting nanofibers or films, and (iii) preparing conducting polymers using biopolymers, such as collagen, as templates. In this paper, we mainly describe and review the approaches of covalently attaching oligopeptides to PANI and electrospinning PANI-gelatin blend nanofibers. The employment of such modified conducting polymers as substrates for enhanced cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation has been investigated with neuronal PC-12 cells and H9c2 cardiac myoblasts. For the electrospun PANIgelatin fibers, depending on the concentrations of PANI, H9c2 cells initially displayed different morphologies on the fibrous substrates, but after one week all cultures reached confluence of similar densities and morphologies. Furthermore, we observed, that conductive PANI, when maintained in an aqueous physiologic environment, retained a significant level of electrical conductivity for at least 100 h, even though this conductivity was decreasing over time. Preliminary data show that the application of micro-current stimulates the differentiation of PC-12 cells. All the results demonstrate the potential for using PANI as an electroactive polymer in the culture of excitable cells and open the possibility of using this material as an electroactive scaffold for cardiac and/or neuronal tissue engineering applications that require biocompatibility of conductive polymers.

  12. LOCALISED MUSCLE TISSUE OXYGENATION DURING DYNAMIC EXERCISE WITH WHOLE BODY VIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Robbins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing use of whole body vibration during exercise an understanding of the exact role of vibration and the supporting physiological mechanisms is still limited. An important aspect of exercise analysis is the utilisation of oxygen, however, there have been limited studies considering tissue oxygenation parameters, particularly during dynamic whole body vibration (WBV exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding WBV during heel raise exercises and assessing changes in tissue oxygenation parameters of the lateral gastrocnemius using Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS. Twenty healthy subjects completed ten alternating sets of 15 heel raises (vibration vs. no vibration. Synchronous oxygenation and motion data were captured prior to exercise to determine baseline levels, for the duration of the exercise and 20 sec post exercise for the recovery period. Both vibration and no vibration conditions elicited a characteristic increase in deoxyhaemoglobin and decreases in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index and normalised tissue haemoglobin index which are indicative of local tissue hypoxia. However, the addition of vibration elicited significantly lower (p < 0. 001 depletions in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, normalised tissue haemoglobin index but no significant differences in deoxyhaemoglobin. These findings suggest that addition of vibration to exercise does not increase the cost of the exercise for the lateral gastrocnemius muscle, but does decrease the reduction in local muscle oxygenation parameters, potentially resulting from increased blood flow to the calf or a vasospastic response in the feet. However, further studies are needed to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings

  13. Post-Mortem Stability of RNA in Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue and the Tissue-Specific Expression of Myostatin, Perilipin and Associated Factors in the Horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Philippa K.; Bing, Chen; Harris, Patricia A.; Maltin, Charlotte A.; Grove-White, Dai; Argo, Caroline McG.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, a major concern for equine welfare, is highly prevalent in the leisure horse population. Skeletal-muscle and adipose tissues are important determinants of maintenance energy requirements. The myostatin and perilipin pathways play key roles in the regulation of muscle mass and lipolysis respectively and have both been associated with obesity predisposition in other mammalian species. High quality samples, suitable for molecular biology, are an essential prerequisite for detailed investigations of gene and protein expression. Hence, this study has evaluated a) the post-mortem stability of RNA extracted from skeletal-muscle and adipose-tissues collected under commercial conditions and b) the tissue-specific presence of myostatin, the moystatin receptor (activin receptor IIB, ActRIIB), follistatin and perilipin, genes and proteins across a range of equine tissues. Objectives were addressed using tissues from 7 Thoroughbred horses presented for slaughter at a commercial abattoir; a) samples were collected at 7 time-points from Masseter muscle and perirenal adipose from 5 minutes to 6 hours post-mortem. Extracted RN was appraised by Optical Density analysis and agarose-gel electrophoresis. b) Quantitative real time PCR and Western Blotting were used to evaluate gene and protein expression in anatomically-defined samples collected from 17 tissues (6 organs, 4 skeletal muscles and 7 discrete adipose depots). The results indicate that, under the present collection conditions, intact, good quality RNA could be extracted from skeletal-muscle for up to 2 hours post-mortem. However, RNA from adipose tissue may be more susceptible to degradation/contamination and samples should be collected no later than 30 minutes post-mortem. The data also show that myostatin and ActRIIB genes and proteins were almost exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle. The follistatin gene showed a more diverse gene expression profile, with expression evident in several organs, adipose tissue

  14. Short-term inspiratory muscle training potentiates the benefits of aerobic and resistance training in patients undergoing CABG in phase II cardiac rehabilitation program

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Maria Hermes; Dannuey Machado Cardoso; Tiago José Nardi Gomes; Tamires Daros dos Santos; Marília Severo Vicente; Sérgio Nunes Pereira; Viviane Acunha Barbosa; Isabella Martins de Albuquerque

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the efficiency of short-term inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined aerobic and resistance exercise on respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in the phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. Methods: A prospective, quasi-experimental study with 24 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and were randomly assigned to two groups in the Phase II c...

  15. In vitro construction and in vivo regeneration of esophageal bilamellar muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Gong, Changfeng; Zhu, Yabin

    2016-04-01

    In order to induce esophageal muscle cells' orientation, the silicon wafer with prototype 1 and prototype 2 was designed. Prototype 1 has micro-channels of 200 µm width and 30 µm depth with 30 µm wide wall as the interval. Prototype 2 has channels of 100 µm width and 30 µm depth with a discontinuous wall which has 30 µm gap for each 100 µm channel. The poly(ester urethane) scaffolds with pattern prototype 1 and prototype 2 were fabricated using solution casting method and abbreviated as PU1 and PU2, respectively. Silk fibroin was grafted individually on PU1 and PU2 surface (PU1-SF, PU2-SF) using our previous protocol, aiming at improving scaffolds' biocompatibility. The primary esophageal smooth muscle cell was seeded to evaluate the scaffolds' cytocompatibility in vitro. Characterizations like MTT assay, immunocytochemistry, scanning electron microscope, and Western blotting were applied. After that, poly(ester urethane) scaffolds with double patterns, prototype 1 on the exterior, and prototype 2 in the lumen were implanted into the rabbit esophagous to test the regeneration of the muscle tissue. Results from these preliminary tests showed that the growth and differentiation of primary smooth muscle cells were promoted, but also the muscle tissue with endocircular and exolongitudinal architecture was in regenerating, against non-constitution in the animals without the patterned scaffold or with poly(ester urethane) plane membrane at the defaulted sites. This micro-channel pattern together with silk fibroin grafting and vascular endothelial growth factor coating greatly promoted the regeneration of esophageal muscle with normal histological structure. PMID:26823400

  16. Regulation of Connective Tissue Growth Factor and Cardiac Fibrosis by an SRF/MicroRNA-133a Axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Angelini

    Full Text Available Myocardial fibrosis contributes to the remodeling of heart and the loss of cardiac function leading to heart failure. SRF is a transcription factor implicated in the regulation of a large variety of genes involved in cardiac structure and function. To investigate the impact of an SRF overexpression in heart, we developed a new cardiac-specific and tamoxifen-inducible SRF overexpression mouse model by the Cre/loxP strategy. Here, we report that a high level overexpression of SRF leads to severe modifications of cardiac cytoarchitecture affecting the balance between cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts and also a profound alteration of cardiac gene expression program. The drastic development of fibrosis was characterized by intense sirius red staining and associated with an increased expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin, procollagen type 1α1 and type 3α1 and especially connective tissue growth factor (CTGF. Furthermore miR-133a, one of the most predominant cardiac miRNAs, is strongly downregulated when SRF is overexpressed. By comparison a low level overexpression of SRF has minor impact on these different processes. Investigation with miR-133a, antimiR-133a and AdSRF-VP16 experiments in H9c2 cardiac cells demonstrated that: 1-miR-133a acts as a repressor of SRF and CTGF expression; 2-a simultaneous overexpression of SRF by AdSRF-VP16 and inhibition of miR-133a by a specific antimiR increase CTGF expression; 3-miR-133a overexpression can block the upregulation of CTGF induced by AdSRF-VP16. Taken together, these findings reveal a key role of the SRF/CTGF/miR-133a axis in the regulation of cardiac fibrosis.

  17. Electrical Resistance as A Measure of Soft Tissue Injuryfrom Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy Hui; Jerrold Petrofsky; Iman Akef Khowailed

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of muscle damage relies commonly on subjective sensation of pain. The purpose of this research was to test thevalidity of microcurrent conductance on skin over injured tissue to quantify soft tissue injury and recovery following heavy exercisecompared to other indexes of muscle soreness. A randomized, controlled, single-blinded, 1-week trial on 60 subjects.Setting-University Interventions: Subjects did 3 sets of squats for 5 min each. There were 3 groups of 20 subjects. One did nothing andone had heat applied for 8 h post exercise. The final group had heat 24 h after exercise. Tissue resistance and muscle strength force tomove the knee, analog visual pain scale. In the control group, microcurrent continually decreased, eventually decreasing 32% by thethird day post exercise. When heat was given immediately following exercise, microcurrent was 26% greater (P 〈 0.001). The painscale rose to 3.1/10 as opposed to 5.4/10 for controls. Strength and muscle elasticity stayed mostly constant after heat as opposed to a28% decrease in strength and increase in stiffness in the control subjects. For 24 h delayed heat, microcurrent was 14% greater(P 〈 0.02), and was unchanged for the first 24 h when no therapy was given. Pain scale rose to 4.8/10. Stiffness was unchanged whilemuscle strength decreased the same as controls. Microcurrent shows agreement with loss of strength, and stiffness from DOMS but notthe subjective pain measure. It appears that microcurrent is a good measure of muscle damage.

  18. Enteric, hepatic and muscle tissue development of goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, D B; Nordi, W M; Lima, A L; Pauletti, P; Machado-Neto, R

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the development of the enteric, hepatic and muscle tissues in goat kids fed with lyophilized bovine colostrum in the transition period of passive immunity to early active immunity. At 0, 7 and 14 h of life, 15 male newborns received 5% of their body weight of lyophilized bovine colostrum and 14 male newborns received goat colostrum, both with 55 mg/ml of IgG. Samples of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver and muscle were collected at 18, 36 and 96 h of life to quantify total protein, DNA and RNA contents. In the jejunum and ileum, the highest levels of total protein and higher protein/RNA ratio were observed at 18 h (p 0.05). At 96 h, maximum levels of RNA were observed in the jejunum and ileum (p < 0.05) and higher RNA/DNA ratio in the three intestinal segments (p < 0.05), showing increased ability to synthesize intracellular RNA and proteins. The LBC group showed higher protein content and higher protein/DNA and protein/RNA ratios in the jejunum, a higher DNA content in the liver (p < 0.05) and a higher protein/RNA ratio in the muscle tissue (p < 0.05). In the muscle, higher protein and DNA levels were also found at 96 h (p < 0.05). Indicators of cellular activity suggest greater absorption of proteins from lyophilized bovine colostrum and increased cell maturity in the enteric and muscle tissues in the first hours of goat kids' life. PMID:23432513

  19. Histomorphological Evaluation of Fresh Ovarian Tissue Transplanted Into Back Muscles of Balb/C Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Amiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available & objectives: Today, different methods for maintaining reproductive capability in young women with cancer are being considered. One of the most prominent of these methods is ovarian tissue transplant. Despite the relative success of this method, the appropriate location and methods of transplantation is still a matter of discussion. The present study evaluated the histomorphology of fresh ovarian tissue transplantation by two methods, inter muscular and intra muscular, in Balb/C mice. Methods & Materials: The study was conducted at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Fresh ovarian tissues from 12-14 day old Balb/C mice were transplanted into back muscles of ovarectomized 6 week old Balb/C mice both intermuscularly and intramuscularly. All transplanted mice received intra-peritoneal injections of a unit of rFSH for 4 weeks, every other day. At the end of the tenth week, all transplant recipient mice were killed and the transplanted ovarian tissues were removed. All samples were assessed for the angiogenesis and viability of follicles. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, using independent t- test. Results: In intermuscular transplanted group, the transplanted tissues were rejected in two cases. In the sections prepared from the other cases, in spite of the presence of some small necrotic areas, the majority of ovarian tissues had a healthy appearance within the primordial, primary, secondary and antral follicles. Apart from a significant reduction in the number of follicles and smaller size of follicles in the transplanted tissue in comparison with control group, no other major differences in morphology, histology, and the process of maturation of ovarian follicles were observed between the transplanted and control groups. Conclusion: Fresh ovarian tissue transplantation into muscles of the back area without basic vascular pedicle has new angiogenesis capabilities, appropriate survival and development of primordial follicles and

  20. Bioreactor perfusion system for the long-term maintenance of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle organoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromiak, J. A.; Shansky, J.; Perrone, C.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional skeletal muscle organ-like structures (organoids) formed in tissue culture by fusion of proliferating myoblasts into parallel networks of long, unbranched myofibers provide an in vivo-like model for examining the effects of growth factors, tension, and space flight on muscle cell growth and metabolism. To determine the feasibility of maintaining either avian or mammalian muscle organoids in a commercial perfusion bioreactor system, we measured metabolism, protein turnover. and autocrine/paracrine growth factor release rates. Medium glucose was metabolized at a constant rate in both low-serum- and serum-free media for up to 30 d. Total organoid noncollagenous protein and DNA content decreased approximately 22-28% (P IGF-1) could be measured accurately in collected media fractions, even after storage at 37 degrees C for up to 10 d. In contrast, creatine kinase activity (a marker of cell damage) in collected media fractions was unreliable. These results provide initial benchmarks for long-term ex vivo studies of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle.

  1. Mechanical Dyssynchrony by Tissue Doppler Cross-Correlation is Associated with Risk for Complex Ventricular Arrhythmias after Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayal, Bhupendar; Gorcsan, John; Delgado-Montero, Antonia;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue Doppler cross-correlation analysis has been shown to be associated with long-term survival after cardiac resynchronization defibrillator therapy (CRT-D). Its association with ventricular arrhythmia (VA) is unknown. METHODS: From two centers 151 CRT-D patients (New York Heart As...

  2. Concentration levels of heavy metals in muscle tissue of european hake (Merluccius merluccius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENKELEDA OZUNI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate and monitor the concentration level of heavy metals namely, Hg, Pb, Cd and Cr in muscle tissue of Merluccius merluccius (European hake species. The concentration level of heavy metals in muscle tissue was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. The result of the investigation revealed that heavy metals are present in Merluccius merluccius at different concentration values. The distribution of metals followed this order: Cd>Cr>Hg>Pb. Moreover the result also indicate that the concentration level of Cd (0.3 mg/kg w w in this specie exceeded the maximum permitted level for human consumption set by EC legislation. The data of this investigation indicate that Merluccius merluccius mast be object of further investigation, with the finality to safeguard the consumers health.

  3. Metabolic Disturbance in PCOS: Clinical and Molecular Effects on Skeletal Muscle Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Silva Dantas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex hormonal disorder affecting the reproductive and metabolic systems with signs and symptoms related to anovulation, infertility, menstrual irregularity and hirsutism. Skeletal muscle plays a vital role in the peripheral glucose uptake. Since PCOS is associated with defects in the activation and pancreatic dysfunction of β-cell insulin, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in PCOS. Studies of muscle tissue in patients with PCOS reveal defects in insulin signaling. Muscle biopsies performed during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp showed a significant reduction in glucose uptake, and insulin-mediated IRS-2 increased significantly in skeletal muscle. It is recognized that the etiology of insulin resistance in PCOS is likely to be as complicated as in type 2 diabetes and it has an important role in metabolic and reproductive phenotypes of this syndrome. Thus, further evidence regarding the effect of nonpharmacological approaches (e.g., physical exercise in skeletal muscle of women with PCOS is required for a better therapeutic approach in the management of various metabolic and reproductive problems caused by this syndrome.

  4. Use of flow, electrical, and mechanical stimulation to promote engineering of striated muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Rangarajan, Swathi; Madden, Lauran; Bursac, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    The field of tissue engineering involves design of high-fidelity tissue substitutes for predictive experimental assays in vitro and cell-based regenerative therapies in vivo. Design of striated muscle tissues, such as cardiac and skeletal muscle, has been particularly challenging due to a high metabolic demand and complex cellular organization and electromechanical function of the native tissues. Successful engineering of highly functional striated muscles may thus require creation of biomime...

  5. Identification of Genes Related to Growth and Lipid Deposition from Transcriptome Profiles of Pig Muscle Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiu Wang

    Full Text Available Transcriptome profiles established using high-throughput sequencing can be effectively used for screening genome-wide differentially expressed genes (DEGs. RNA sequences (from RNA-seq and microRNA sequences (from miRNA-seq from the tissues of longissimus dorsi muscle of two indigenous Chinese pig breeds (Diannan Small-ear pig [DSP] and Tibetan pig [TP] and two introduced pig breeds (Landrace [LL] and Yorkshire [YY] were examined using HiSeq 2000 to identify and compare the differential expression of functional genes related to muscle growth and lipid deposition. We obtained 27.18 G clean data through the RNA-seq and detected that 18,208 genes were positively expressed and 14,633 of them were co-expressed in the muscle tissues of the four samples. In all, 315 DEGs were found between the Chinese pig group and the introduced pig group, 240 of which were enriched with functional annotations from the David database and significantly enriched in 27 Gene Ontology (GO terms that were mainly associated with muscle fiber contraction, cadmium ion binding, response to organic substance and contractile fiber part. Based on functional annotation, we identified 85 DEGs related to growth traits that were mainly involved in muscle tissue development, muscle system process, regulation of cell development, and growth factor binding, and 27 DEGs related to lipid deposition that were mainly involved in lipid metabolic process and fatty acid biosynthetic process. With miRNA-seq, we obtained 23.78 M reads and 320 positively expressed miRNAs from muscle tissues, including 271 known pig miRNAs and 49 novel miRNAs. In those 271 known miRNAs, 20 were higher and 10 lower expressed in DSP-TP than in LL-YY. The target genes of the 30 miRNAs were mainly participated in MAPK, GnRH, insulin and Calcium signaling pathway and others involved cell development, growth and proliferation, etc. Combining the DEGs and the differentially expressed (DE miRNAs, we drafted a network of 46

  6. CT evaluation of soft tissue and muscle infection and inflammation: A systematic compartmental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchamp, N.J. Jr. [Dept. of Radiology, and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Scott, W.W. Jr. [Dept. of Radiology, and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Gottlieb, L.M. [Dept. of Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fishman, E.K. [Dept. of Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-07-01

    This essay presents a systematic approach to the evaluation of soft tissue and muscle infection by defining the various pathologic processes and then illustrating them through a series of CT studies with corresponding schematic diagrams. The specific processes discussed are cellulitis, lymphangitis/lymphedema, necrotizing fascitis, myositis/myonecrosis, and abscess. Key points in the differential diagnosis of these entities are discussed and illustrated. The clinical management of the specific pathologic processes is also discussed. (orig./MG)

  7. Computed tomography, ultrasonography and plain radiography in the detection of foreign bodies in pork muscle tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the possibility to detect foreign bodies in superficial soft tissue a comparative study including computed tomography, ultrasonography and plain radiography, is presented. Nine different materials, ranging in size from 2x3 to 3x10 mm, were inserted into pork muscle. All foreign bodies were detected and exact location was achieved using computed tomography and ultrasonography. In plain radiography wood was not visualised and exact location of all foreign bodies was not obtained. According to our results computed tomography and ultrasonography is useful in detecting foreign bodies in superficial soft tissue. (orig.)

  8. Application of exogenous enzymes to beef muscle of high and low-connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, G A; Calkins, C R

    2010-08-01

    Exogenous enzymes tenderize meat through proteolysis. Triceps brachii and Supraspinatus were randomly assigned to the seven enzyme treatments, papain, ficin, bromelain, homogenized fresh ginger, Bacillus subtilis protease, and two Aspergillus oryzae proteases or control to determine the extent of tenderization (Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory evaluation) and mode of action (myofibrillar or collagen degradation). Sensory evaluation showed improvement (Ptenderness and connective tissue component and all except ginger had a lower shear force than the control (Ptenderness via myofibrillar and collagenous protein degradation with no difference among high and low-connective tissue muscles. PMID:20416788

  9. Infectivity of Trichinella spp. recovered from decaying mouse and fox muscle tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Köller J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The tolerance to degradation processes in meat of nine Trichinella genotypes was studied in mouse and fox tissue, respectively. Minced muscle tissue with Trichinella larvae of different age was stored at room temperature at 100 % relative humidity. During storage weekly sub samples of the minced meat were digested and released larvae were inoculated in mice to evaluate the Reproductive Capacity Index (RCI. The RCI decreased with the length of storage, but the larvae from older infections appeared better adapted to tolerate the degradation processes. The African species T. nelsoni had a relative higher tolerance to elevated temperature during storage and the unencysted species T. pseudospiralis was the most vulnerable genotype.

  10. Enantioselective gas chromatographic separation of methylsulfonyl PCBs in seal blubber, pelican muscle and human adipose tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasek, L.; Rosmus, J. [Veterinary Institute Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Chemistry; Hajslova, J. [Institute of Chemical Technology (Czech Republic). Dept. of Food Chemistry and Analysis; Huehnerfuss, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie

    2004-09-15

    Methyl sulfone derivatives are known to represent primary metabolic products of PCBs (MeSO2- CB) and DDE (MeSO2-DDE). These metabolites are formed via mercapturic acid pathway and belong to persistent, lipophilic compounds which accumulate in the adipose, lung, liver and kidney tissues of mammals exposed to PCBs. In 1976 Jenssen and Jansson reported the identification of PCB methyl sulfones as metabolites of PCBs in Baltic grey seal blubber. Methyl sulfones are moderately polar compounds that are only slightly less hydrophobic than the parent PCBs, and their partition coefficients fulfill the requirements for bioaccumulation. The highest concentrations have been found in kidney and lung tissues of seals, otters, beluga whales, polar bears, fishes and in human tissues. In the present investigation two samples of seal blubber, two pelican muscles and eleven human adipose tissue samples were analysed with regard to their concentrations of PCB parent compounds as well as to the respective chiral methylsulfonyl metabolites.

  11. Human umbilical cord stem cell encapsulation in novel macroporous and injectable fibrin for muscle tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Xu, Hockin H K; Zhou, Hongzhi; Weir, Michael D; Chen, Qianming; Trotman, Carroll Ann

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on the seeding of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) in three-dimensional scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering. The objectives of this study were: (i) to seed hUCMSCs in a fibrin hydrogel containing fast-degradable microbeads (dMBs) to create macropores to enhance cell viability; and (ii) to investigate the encapsulated cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation for muscle tissue engineering. Mass fractions of 0-80% of dMBs were tested, and 35% of dMBs in fibrin was shown to avoid fibrin shrinkage while creating macropores and promoting cell viability. This construct was referred to as "dMB35". Fibrin without dMBs was termed "dMB0". Microbead degradation created macropores in fibrin and improved cell viability. The percentage of live cells in dMB35 reached 91% at 16 days, higher than the 81% in dMB0 (pACTN3). Elongated, multinucleated cells were formed with positive staining of myogenic specific proteins including myogenin, MYH, ACTN and actin alpha 1. Moreover, a significant increase in cell fusion was detected with myogenic induction. In conclusion, hUCMSCs were encapsulated in fibrin with degradable microbeads for the first time, achieving greatly enhanced cell viability and successful myogenic differentiation with formation of multinucleated myotubes. The injectable and macroporous fibrin-dMB-hUCMSC construct may be promising for muscle tissue engineering applications. PMID:22902812

  12. Skeletal muscle regeneration via engineered tissue culture over electrospun nanofibrous chitosan/PVA scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmandi, Mahsa; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Ghiaseddin, Ali; Ganji, Fariba

    2016-07-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue shows a remarkable potential in regeneration of injured tissue. However, in some of chronic and volumetric muscle damages, the native tissue is incapable to repair and remodeling the trauma. In the same condition, stem-cell therapy increased regeneration in situations of deficient muscle repair, but the major problem seems to be the lack of ability to attachment and survive of injected cells on the exact location. In this study, chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibrous scaffold was studied to promote cell attachment and provide mechanical support during regeneration. Scaffold was characterized using scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and tensile test. Degradation and swelling behavior of scaffold were studied for 20 days. The cell-scaffold interaction was characterized by MTT assay for 10 days and in vivo biocompatibility of scaffold in a rabbit model was evaluated. Results showed that cells had a good viability, adhesion, growth, and spread on the scaffold, which make this mat a desirable engineered muscular graft. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1720-1727, 2016. PMID:26945909

  13. Muscle-derived Stem Cell Sheets Support Pump Function and Prevent Cardiac Arrhythmias in a Model of Chronic Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiya, Naosumi; Tobita, Kimimasa; Beckman, Sarah; Okada, Masaho; Gharaibeh, Burhan; Sawa, Yoshiki; Kormos, Robert L.; Huard, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Direct intracardiac cell injection for heart repair is hindered by numerous limitations including: cell death, poor spreading of the injected cells, arrhythmia, needle injury, etc. Tissue-engineered cell sheet implantation has the potential to overcome some of these limitations. We evaluated whether the transplantation of a muscle-derived stem cell (MDSC) sheet could improve the regenerative capacity of MDSCs in a chronic model of myocardial infarction. MDSC sheet-implanted mice displayed a r...

  14. Minimally invasive injectable short nanofibers of poly(glycerol sebacate) for cardiac tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Reddy Venugopal, Jayarama; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-09-01

    Myocardial tissue lacks the ability to appreciably regenerate itself following myocardial infarction (MI) which ultimately results in heart failure. Current therapies can only retard the progression of disease and hence tissue engineering strategies are required to facilitate the engineering of a suitable biomaterial to repair MI. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro properties of an injectable biomaterial for the regeneration of infarcted myocardium. Fabrication of core/shell fibers was by co-axial electrospinning, with poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) as core material and poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) as shell material. The PLLA was removed by treatment of the PGS/PLLA core/shell fibers with DCM:hexane (2:1) to obtain PGS short fibers. These PGS short fibers offer the advantage of providing a minimally invasive injectable technique for the regeneration of infarcted myocardium. The scaffolds were characterized by SEM, FTIR and contact angle and cell-scaffold interactions using cardiomyocytes. The results showed that the cardiac marker proteins actinin, troponin, myosin heavy chain and connexin 43 were expressed more on short PGS fibers compared to PLLA nanofibers. We hypothesized that the injection of cells along with short PGS fibers would increase cell transplant retention and survival within the infarct, compared to the standard cell injection system.

  15. Inappropriate shocks delivered by implantable cardiac defibrillators during oversensing of activity of diaphagmatic muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuty, D; Fauchier, L; Cosnay, P

    1999-01-01

    Two cases are reported (both men, one 72 and one 54 years old) of inappropriate shocks delivered by an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) device, which oversensed the myopotentials induced by deep breathing and Valsalva manoeuvre. No damage to leads was associated with the oversensing of myopotentials. The mechanism of the inappropriate shocks was determined using real time electrograms. Modification of the duration of ventricular detection and decrease in sensitivity made it possible to avoid the oversensing of myopotentials and to deliver ICD treatment.

 Keywords: implantable cardiac defibrillator;  inappropriate shocks;  myopotentials PMID:10220554

  16. Development and Implementation of Discrete Polymeric Microstructural Cues for Applications in Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinney, James Richardson

    Chronic fibrosis caused by acute myocardial infarction (MI) leads to increased morbidity and mortality due to cardiac dysfunction. Despite care in the acute setting of MI, subsequent development of scar tissue and a lack of treatments for this maladaptive response lead to a poor prognosis. This has increased burdens on the cost of healthcare due to chronic disability. Here a novel therapeutic strategy that aims to mitigate myocardial fibrosis by utilizing injectable polymeric microstructural cues to attenuate the fibrotic response and improve functional outcomes is presented. Additionally, applications of integrated chemical functionalizations into discrete, micro-scale polymer structures are discussed in the realm of tissue engineering in order to impart enhancements in in vivo localization, three-dimensional manipulation and drug delivery. Polymeric microstructures, termed "microrods" and "microcubes", were fabricated using photolithographic techniques and studied in three-dimensional culture models of the fibrotic environment and by direct injection into the infarct zone of adult Sprague-Dawley rats. In vitro gene expression and functional and histological results were analyzed, showing a dose-dependent down-regulation fibrotic indicators and improvement in cardiac function. Furthermore, iron oxide nanoparticles and functionalized fluorocarbons were incorporated into the polymeric microdevices to promote in situ visualization by magnetic resonance imaging as well as to facilitate the manipulation and alignment of microstructural cues in a tissue-realistic environment. Lastly, successful encapsulation of native MGF peptide within microrods is demonstrated with release over two weeks as a proof of concept in the ability to locally deliver myogenic or supportive pharmacotherapeutics to the injured myocardium. This work demonstrates the efficacy and versatility of discrete microtopographical cues to attenuate the fibrotic response after MI and suggests a novel

  17. Recipient origin of neointimal vascular smooth muscle cells in cardiac allografts with transplant arteriosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrands, JL; van den Hurk, BMH; Klatter, FA; Popa, ER; Nieuwenhuis, P; Rozing, J

    2000-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease is today's most important post-heart transplantation problem after the first perioperative year. Histologically, coronary artery disease is characterized by transplant arteriosclerosis. The current view on this vasculopathy is that vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cel

  18. Relationship between adductor pollicis muscle thickness and subjective global assessment in a cardiac intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Karst, Fernanda Pickrodt; Vieira, Renata Monteiro; Barbiero, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective To verify the relationship between the adductor pollicis muscle thickness test and the subjective global assessment and to correlate it with other anthropometric methods. Methods This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in the intensive care unit of a cardiology hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The hospitalized patients underwent subjective global assessment and adductor pollicis muscle thickness tests on both hands, along with measurement of the rig...

  19. The utility of magnetic resonance imaging in cardiac tissue regeneration trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Valentin; Sanz, Javier; Viles-Gonzalez, Juan F; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2006-03-01

    The past decade has seen the emergence of paradigm shifts in concepts involving cardiovascular tissue regeneration, including the idea that adult stem cells originate in hematopoietic or bone marrow cells, the belief that even adult organs, such as the heart and nervous system, are capable of post-mitotic regeneration, and the concept of inherent plasticity in cells that have undergone limited lineage differentiation. There has consequently been a flurry of proposed regenerative strategies, and safety and limited efficacy data from both animal and limited human trials have been presented. The drive to push these advances from the bench to the bedside has created a unique environment where the therapeutic agents, delivery approaches, and methods of measuring efficacy (often imaging technology) are evolving practically in parallel. The encouraging results of recent cell-therapy trials should therefore be assessed cautiously and in consonance with an understanding of the advantages and limitations of delivery strategies and end points. Arguably, the use of imaging technologies to evaluate surrogate end points might help overcome the difficulty posed by large sample sizes required for hard end point trials in cardiovascular therapeutics. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is one of the most sensitive techniques available to assess spatial and temporal changes following local or systemic therapies, and the availability of a bevy of complementary techniques enables interrogation of physiology, morphology, and metabolism in one setting. We contend that cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is ideally suited to assess response to myocardial regeneration therapy and can be exploited to yield valuable insights into the mechanism of action of myocardial regeneration therapies. PMID:16501625

  20. NON-INVASIVE ESTIMATION OF METABOLIC FLUX AND BLOOD FLOW IN WORKING MUSCLE: EFFECT OF BLOOD-TISSUE DISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Nicola; Saidel, Gerald M.; Iorio, Matthew; Cabrera, Marco E.

    2009-01-01

    Muscle oxygenation measurements by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are frequently obtained in humans to make inferences about mechanisms of metabolic control of respiration in working skeletal muscle. However, these measurements have technical limitations that can mislead the evaluation of tissue processes. In particular, NIRS measurements of working muscle represent oxygenation of a mix of fibers with heterogeneous activation, perfusion and architecture. Specifically, the relative volume d...

  1. Healthy older humans exhibit augmented carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity with aspirin during muscle mechanoreflex and metaboreflex activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Rachel C; Blaha, Cheryl A; Herr, Michael D; Stocker, Sean D; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2015-10-01

    Low-dose aspirin inhibits thromboxane production and augments the sensitivity of carotid baroreflex (CBR) control of heart rate (HR) during concurrent muscle mechanoreflex and metaboreflex activation in healthy young humans. However, it is unknown how aging affects this response. Therefore, the effect of low-dose aspirin on carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during muscle mechanoreflex with and without metaboreflex activation in healthy older humans was examined. Twelve older subjects (6 men and 6 women, mean age: 62 ± 1 yr) performed two trials during two visits preceded by 7 days of low-dose aspirin (81 mg) or placebo. One trial involved 3 min of passive calf stretch (mechanoreflex) during 7.5 min of limb circulatory occlusion (CO). In another trial, CO was preceded by 1.5 min of 70% maximal voluntary contraction isometric calf exercise (mechanoreflex and metaboreflex). HR (ECG) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; Finometer) were recorded. CBR function was assessed using rapid neck pressure application (+40 to -80 mmHg). Aspirin significantly decreased baseline thromboxane B2 production by 83 ± 4% (P aspirin, CBR-HR maximal gain and operating point gain were significantly higher during stretch with metabolite accumulation compared with placebo (maximal gain: -0.23 ± 0.03 vs. -0.14 ± 0.02 and operating point gain: -0.11 ± 0.03 vs. -0.04 ± 0.01 beats·min(-1)·mmHg(-1) for aspirin and placebo, respectively, P aspirin augments CBR-HR sensitivity during concurrent muscle mechanoreflex and metaboreflex activation in healthy older humans. This increased sensitivity appears linked to reduced thromboxane sensitization of muscle mechanoreceptors, which consequently improves CBR-HR control. PMID:26371168

  2. Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT): key regulator of cardiac hypertrophy and skeletal muscle adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourajjaj, M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, heart failure is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrial countries. Sustained cardiac hypertrophy, which is defined as an increase in heart size resulting from an increase in cardiomyocyte

  3. Animal models of cardiac cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Francesca; Malara, Natalia; Mollace, Vincenzo; Rosano, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Elisabetta

    2016-09-15

    Cachexia is the loss of body weight associated with several chronic diseases including chronic heart failure (CHF). The cachectic condition is mainly due to loss of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue depletion. The majority of experimental in vivo studies on cachexia rely on animal models of cancer cachexia while a reliable and appropriate model for cardiac cachexia has not yet been established. A critical issue in generating a cardiac cachexia model is that genetic modifications or pharmacological treatments impairing the heart functionality and used to obtain the heart failure model might likely impair the skeletal muscle, this also being a striated muscle and sharing with the myocardium several molecular and physiological mechanisms. On the other hand, often, the induction of heart damage in the several existing models of heart failure does not necessarily lead to skeletal muscle loss and cachexia. Here we describe the main features of cardiac cachexia and illustrate some animal models proposed for cardiac cachexia studies; they include the genetic calsequestrin and Dahl salt-sensitive models, the monocrotaline model and the surgical models obtained by left anterior descending (LAD) ligation, transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and ascending aortic banding. The availability of a specific animal model for cardiac cachexia is a crucial issue since, besides the common aspects of cachexia in the different syndromes, each disease has some peculiarities in its etiology and pathophysiology leading to cachexia. Such peculiarities need to be unraveled in order to find new targets for effective therapies. PMID:27317993

  4. Greater adenosine A2A receptor densities in cardiac and skeletal muscle in endurance-trained men: a [11C]TMSX PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the densities of adenosine A2A receptors in cardiac and skeletal muscles between untrained and endurance-trained subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and [7-methyl-11C]-(E)-8-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine ([11C]TMSX), a newly developed radioligand for mapping adenosine A2A receptors. Five untrained and five endurance-trained subjects participated in this study. The density of adenosine A2A receptors was evaluated as the distribution volume of [11C]TMSX in cardiac and triceps brachii muscles in the resting state using PET. The distribution volume of [11C]TMSX in the myocardium was significantly greater than in the triceps brachii muscle in both groups. Further, distribution volumes [11C]TMSX in the trained subjects were significantly grater than those in untrained subjects (myocardium, 3.6±0.3 vs. 3.1±0.4 ml g-1; triceps brachii muscle, 1.7±0.3 vs. 1.2±0.2 ml g-1, respectively). These results indicate that the densities of adenosine A2A receptors in the cardiac and skeletal muscles are greater in the endurance-trained men than in the untrained men

  5. The Effect of Fructose-1,6-diphosphate and HTK Solution on Protecting Primary Cardiac Muscle Cells of Rat with Cold Preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiaofeng; CHENG Jun; XIA Suisheng

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In this study we tried to investigate the effect of fructose-1,6-diphosphate and HTK solution on protecting primary cardiac muscle cells of rat with cold preservation. The primary cardiac muscle cells of rat were cultured in vitro with four preservation solutions respectively: 0.9 % sodium chloride solution (group A), FDP (group B), HTK solution (group C) and a mixture of FDP and HTK solution (group D). The cells were preserved for 6, 8 and 10 h at 0-4 ℃. The values of AST and LDH-L and the Na+-K+ ATPase activity in cardiac muscle cells were detected, and the survival rate of cardiac muscle cells was detected with trypan blue staining. The values of AST and LDH-L in group C and group D were remarkable lower those in group A and group B (P<0.001), while the Na+-K+ ATPase activity and the survival rate of cells in group C and group D were much higher than those in group A and group B (P<0.001). The values of AST and LDH-L after 6 hours in group D decreased much more than those in group C (P<0.01), while the Na+-K+ ATPase activity and the survival rate of cells in group D improved more than those in group C (P<0.01). Both of the HTK solution and the mixture of HTK and FDP solution have an evident effect on protecting the primary cardiac muscle cells of rat in vitro with cold preservation, Compared with the HTK solution, the mixture solution has a better short-term protective effect.

  6. Comparison of Metabolic Network between Muscle and Intramuscular Adipose Tissues in Hanwoo Beef Cattle Using a Systems Biology Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun-Jeong Lee; Hye-Sun Park; Woonsu Kim; Duhak Yoon; Seongwon Seo

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationship between muscle and adipose tissues plays a major role in determining the quality of carcass traits. The objective of this study was to compare metabolic differences between muscle and intramuscular adipose (IMA) tissues in the longissimus dorsi (LD) of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) using the RNA-seq technology and a systems biology approach. The LD sections between the 6th and 7th ribs were removed from nine (each of three cows, steers, and bulls) Hanwoo beef cattle (carc...

  7. Automated quantification of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in whole-body MRI data for epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Diana; Teucher, Birgit; Dinkel, Julien; Kaaks, Rudolf; Delorme, Stefan; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

    2012-03-01

    The ratio between the amount of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue is an important determinant of metabolic health. Recent developments in MRI technology allow whole body scans to be performed for accurate assessment of body composition. In the present study, a total of 194 participants underwent a 2-point Dixon MRI sequence of the whole body. A fully automated image segmentation method quantifies the amount of adipose and skeletal muscle tissue by applying standard image processing techniques including thresholding, region growing and morphological operators. The adipose tissue is further divided into subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue by using statistical shape models. All images were visually inspected. The quantitative analysis was performed on 44 whole-body MRI data using manual segmentations as ground truth data. We achieved 3.3% and 6.3% of relative volume difference between the manual and automated segmentation of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, respectively. The validation of skeletal muscle tissue segmentation resulted in a relative volume difference of 7.8 +/- 4.2% and a volumetric overlap error of 6.4 +/- 2.3 %. To our knowledge, we are first to present a fully automated method which quantifies adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in whole-body MRI data. Due to the fully automated approach, results are deterministic and free of user bias. Hence, the software can be used in large epidemiological studies for assessing body fat distribution and the ratio of adipose to skeletal muscle tissue in relation to metabolic disease risk.

  8. Monoclonal antibodies against troponin I for the detection of rendered muscle tissues in animal feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Hsieh, Y-H Peggy; Bridgman, Roger C

    2002-12-01

    Regulatory controls to prevent the spread of BSE have prohibited the use of certain animal proteins in feed in several countries. Accurate analytical methods for detecting prohibited material in feedstuffs are needed to ensure compliance with the new regulations. Six IgG class monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against troponin I (TnI), a thermostable marker protein, have been developed for the detection and differentiation of rendered muscle tissue in animal feed. MAbs 1F9, 2G3 and 7F7 reacted to TnI of all species, including mammalian, poultry and fish, while MAbs 7A12 and 8A12 recognized only mammalian TnI (porcine, bovine, ovine, equine, and deer). MAb 2A8 was able to differentiate TnI of ruminant origin (bovine, ovine and deer) from other species. Three indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) employing these MAbs were developed for the determination of animal muscle, mammalian muscle or ruminant muscle in animal feeds. PMID:22061747

  9. Measurement of smooth muscle function in the isolated tissue bath-applications to pharmacology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Brian; Tykocki, Nathan R; Watts, Stephanie W; Cobbett, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Isolated tissue bath assays are a classical pharmacological tool for evaluating concentration-response relationships in a myriad of contractile tissues. While this technique has been implemented for over 100 years, the versatility, simplicity and reproducibility of this assay helps it to remain an indispensable tool for pharmacologists and physiologists alike. Tissue bath systems are available in a wide array of shapes and sizes, allowing a scientist to evaluate samples as small as murine mesenteric arteries and as large as porcine ileum - if not larger. Central to the isolated tissue bath assay is the ability to measure concentration-dependent changes to isometric contraction, and how the efficacy and potency of contractile agonists can be manipulated by increasing concentrations of antagonists or inhibitors. Even though the general principles remain relatively similar, recent technological advances allow even more versatility to the tissue bath assay by incorporating computer-based data recording and analysis software. This video will demonstrate the function of the isolated tissue bath to measure the isometric contraction of an isolated smooth muscle (in this case rat thoracic aorta rings), and share the types of knowledge that can be created with this technique. Included are detailed descriptions of aortic tissue dissection and preparation, placement of aortic rings in the tissue bath and proper tissue equilibration prior to experimentation, tests of tissue viability, experimental design and implementation, and data quantitation. Aorta will be connected to isometric force transducers, the data from which will be captured using a commercially available analog-to-digital converter and bridge amplifier specifically designed for use in these experiments. The accompanying software to this system will be used to visualize the experiment and analyze captured data. PMID:25650585

  10. Metformin and resveratrol ameliorate muscle insulin resistance through preventing lipolysis and inflammation in hypoxic adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjun; Li, Aiyun; Feng, Xin; Hou, Ting; Liu, Kang; Liu, Baolin; Zhang, Ning

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of metformin and resveratrol on muscle insulin resistance with emphasis on the regulation of lipolysis in hypoxic adipose tissue. ICR mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 10days with administration of metformin, resveratrol, or intraperitoneal injection of digoxin. Adipose hypoxia, inflammation and cAMP/PKA-dependent lipolysis were investigated. Moreover, lipid deposition and insulin resistance were examined in the muscle. Metformin and resveratrol attenuated adipose hypoxia, inhibited HIF-1α expression and inflammation in the adipose tissue of HFD-fed mice. Metformin and resveratrol inhibited lipolysis through prevention of PKA/HSL activation by decreasing the accumulation of cAMP via preserving PDE3B. Metformin and resveratrol reduced FFAs influx and DAG accumulation, and thus improved insulin signaling in the muscle by inhibiting PKCθ translocation. This study presents a new view of regulating lipid metabolism to ameliorate insulin resistance and provides the clinical guiding significance for obesity and type 2 diabetes with metformin and resveratrol treatment. PMID:27343375

  11. THE CONTENT OF SOME COMPONENTS OF METABOLISM IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF BREAM ABRAMIS BRAMA (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Flerova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Physiological condition is one of the most important characteristic used for evaluating single individuals, populations and fish stocks in general. The data on a number of physiological indicators of bream the Gorky water reservoir were presented. Amount of moisture, dry matter in the muscular tissue was determined of using two-stage determination of total moisture. Simple lipids were determined by extraction with petroleum-ether. The analysis of the results suggests that the indices of water, dry matter and simple lipids content in muscular tissue of mature males, females and juvenile individuals of bream were close. Decrease of water amount in the muscle tissue, increase of dry matter end lipids takes place along with bream ageing.

  12. p53 increases caspase-6 expression and activation in muscle tissue expressing mutant huntingtin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E; Skotte, Niels H; Ladha, Safia;

    2014-01-01

    as in muscle tissues from two different HD mouse models. p53, a transcriptional activator of caspase-6, is upregulated in neuronal cells and tissues expressing mutant huntingtin. Activation of p53 leads to a dramatic increase in levels of caspase-6 mRNA, caspase-6 activity and cleavage of lamin A....... Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from YAC128 mice, we show that this increase in caspase-6 activity can be mitigated by pifithrin-α (pifα), an inhibitor of p53 transcriptional activity, but not through the inhibition of p53's mitochondrial pro-apoptotic function. Remarkably, the p53-mediated...... increase in caspase-6 expression and activation is exacerbated in cells and tissues of both neuronal and peripheral origin expressing mutant huntingtin (Htt). These findings suggest that the presence of the mutant Htt protein enhances p53 activity and lowers the apoptotic threshold, which activates caspase...

  13. Validation of Continuously Tagged MRI for the Measurement of Dynamic 3D Skeletal Muscle Tissue Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Moerman, Kevin M; Simms, Ciaran K; Lamerichs, Rolf M; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J

    2016-01-01

    A SPAMM tagged MRI methodology is presented allowing continuous (3.3-3.6 Hz) sampling of 3D dynamic soft tissue deformation using non-segmented 3D acquisitions. The 3D deformation is reconstructed by the combination of 3 mutually orthogonal tagging directions, thus requiring only 3 repeated motion cycles. In addition a fully automatic post-processing framework is presented employing Gabor scale-space and filter-bank analysis for tag extrema segmentation and triangulated surface fitting aided by Gabor filter bank derived surface normals. Deformation is derived following tracking of tag surface triplet triangle intersections. The dynamic deformation measurements were validated using indentation tests (~20 mm deep at 12 mm/s) on a silicone gel soft tissue phantom containing contrasting markers which provide a reference measure of deformation. In addition, the techniques were evaluated in-vivo for dynamic skeletal muscle tissue deformation measurement during indentation of the biceps region of the upper arm in a ...

  14. Cardiac cell proliferation assessed by EdU, a novel analysis of cardiac regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bin; Tong, Suiyang; Ren, Xiaofeng; Xia, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that mammalian hearts maintain the capacity for cardiac regeneration. Rapid and sensitive identification of cardiac cellular proliferation is prerequisite for understanding the underlying mechanisms and strategies of cardiac regeneration. The following immunologically related markers of cardiac cells were analyzed: cardiac transcription factors Nkx2.5 and Gata 4; specific marker of cardiomyocytes TnT; endothelial cell marker CD31; vascular smooth muscle marker smooth muscle myosin IgG; cardiac resident stem cells markers IsL1, Tbx18, and Wt1. Markers were co-localized in cardiac tissues of embryonic, neonatal, adult, and pathological samples by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining. EdU was also used to label isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro. EdU robustly labeled proliferating cells in vitro and in vivo, co-immunostaining with different cardiac cells markers. EdU can rapidly and sensitively label proliferating cardiac cells in developmental and pathological states. Cardiac cell proliferation assessed by EdU is a novel analytical tool for investigating the mechanism and strategies of cardiac regeneration in response to injury. PMID:25480318

  15. Effect of silymarin on sodium fluoride-induced toxicity and oxidative stress in rat cardiac tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M. Nabavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to evaluate the protective effect of silymarin on sodium fluoride-induced oxidative stress in rat cardiac tissues. Animals were pretreated with silymarin at 20 and 10 mg/kg prior to sodium fluoride consumption (600 ppm through drinking water. Vitamin C at 10 mg/kg was used as standard antioxidant. There was a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level (59.36 ± 2.19 nmol MDA eq/g tissue along with a decrease in antioxidant enzymes activity (64.27 ± 1.98 U/g tissue for superoxide dismutase activity and 29.17 ± 1.01 µmol/min/mg protein for catalase activity and reduced glutathione level (3.8 ± 0.15 µg/mg protein in the tissues homogenates of the sodium fluoride-intoxicated rats. Silymarin administration to animals before sodium fluoride consumption modified the levels of biochemical parameters.Este estudo objetiva avaliar o efeito protetor da silimarina em fluoreto de sódio induzida por estresse oxidativo em tecido cardíaco de ratos. Os animais foram pré-tratados com silimarina a 20 e 10 mg/kg antes do consumo de fluoreto de sódio (600 ppm através da água de beber. A vitamina C a 10 mg/kg foi utilizada como antioxidante padrão. Houve um aumento significativo no nível de substâncias tiobarbitúrico reativo de ácido (59,36 ± 2.19 nmol MDA eq/g tecido, juntamente com uma diminuição da atividade de enzimas antioxidantes (64,27 ± 1,98 U/g tecido para a atividade de superóxido dismutase e 29,7 ± 1,01 mmol/min/mg de proteína para a atividade da catalase e nível de glutationa reduzida (3,8 ± 0,15 mg/mg de proteína nos homogeneizados de tecidos dos fluoreto de sódio-intoxicados ratos. Administração de silimarina a animais, antes do consumo de fluoreto de sódio modifou os níveis de parâmetros bioquímicos.

  16. In Vivo Imaging of Far-red Fluorescent Proteins after DNA Electrotransfer to Muscle Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Jens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract DNA electrotransfer to muscle tissue yields long-term, high levels of gene expression; showing great promise for future gene therapy. We want to characterize the novel far-red fluorescent protein Katushka as a marker for gene expression using time domain fluorescence in vivo imaging. Highly efficient transgenic expression was observed after DNA electrotransfer with 100-fold increase in fluorescent intensity. The fluorescent signal peaked 1 week after transfection and returned to background level within 4 weeks. Katushka expression was not as stable as GFP expression, which was detectable for 8 weeks. Depth and 3D analysis proved that the expression was located in the target muscle. In vivo bio-imaging using the novel Katushka fluorescent protein enables excellent evaluation of the transfection efficacy, and spatial distribution, but lacks long-term stability.

  17. In Vivo Imaging of Far-red Fluorescent Proteins after DNA Electrotransfer to Muscle Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojman Pernille

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract DNA electrotransfer to muscle tissue yields long-term, high levels of gene expression; showing great promise for future gene therapy. We want to characterize the novel far-red fluorescent protein Katushka as a marker for gene expression using time domain fluorescence in vivo imaging. Highly efficient transgenic expression was observed after DNA electrotransfer with 100-fold increase in fluorescent intensity. The fluorescent signal peaked 1 week after transfection and returned to background level within 4 weeks. Katushka expression was not as stable as GFP expression, which was detectable for 8 weeks. Depth and 3D analysis proved that the expression was located in the target muscle. In vivo bio-imaging using the novel Katushka fluorescent protein enables excellent evaluation of the transfection efficacy, and spatial distribution, but lacks long-term stability.

  18. Turning on Myogenin in Muscle: A Paradigm for Understanding Mechanisms of Tissue-Specific Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herve Faralli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expression of the myogenin (Myog gene is restricted to skeletal muscle cells where the transcriptional activator turns on a gene expression program that permits the transition from proliferating myoblasts to differentiating myotubes. The strict temporal and spatial regulation on Myog expression in the embryo makes it an ideal gene to study the developmental regulation of tissue-specific expression. Over the last 20 years, our knowledge of the regulation of Myog expression has evolved from the identification of the minimal promoter elements necessary for the gene to be transcribed in muscle, to a mechanistic understanding of how the proteins that bind these DNA elements work together to establish transcriptional competence. Here we present our current understanding of the developmental regulation of gene expression gained from studies of the Myog gene.

  19. Global transcriptional profiling of longissimus thoracis muscle tissue in fetal and juvenile domestic goat using RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y H; Zhang, C L; Plath, M; Fang, X T; Lan, X Y; Zhou, Y; Chen, H

    2015-12-01

    Domestic goats are important meat production animals; however, data from transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle tissue in goat have thus far been scarce. We used comparative transcriptional profiling based on RNA sequencing of longissimus thoracis muscle tissue obtained from fetal goat muscle tissue (27 512 850 clean cDNA reads) and 6-month-old goat muscle tissue (27 582 908 reads) to identify genes that are differentially expressed, novel transcript units and alternative splicing events. Gene annotation revealed that 15 960 and 14 981 genes were expressed in the fetal and juvenile libraries respectively. We detected 6432 differentially expressed genes and, when considering GO terms, found 34, 27 and 55 terms to be significantly enriched in molecular function, cellular component and biological process categories respectively. Pathway analysis revealed that larger numbers of differentially expressed genes were enriched in fetal myogenesis or cell proliferation and differentiation-related pathways (such as Wnt), genes involved in the cell cycle and the Notch signaling pathway, and most of the differentially expressed genes involved in these pathways were downregulated in the juvenile goat library. These genes may be involved in various regulation mechanisms during muscle tissue differentiation between the two development stages examined herein. The identified novel transcript units, including both non-coding and coding RNA, as well as alternative splicing events increase the level of complexity of regulation mechanisms during muscle tissue formation and differentiation. Our study provides a comparative transcriptome analysis on goat muscle tissue, which will provide a valuable genomic resource for future studies investigating the molecular basis of skeletal muscle development. PMID:26364974

  20. Regulation and function of FTO mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Louise G; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Groop, Leif; Vaag, Allan; Poulsen, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Common variants in FTO (the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene) associate with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The regulation and biological function of FTO mRNA expression in target tissue is unknown. We investigated the genetic and non-genetic regulation of FTO mRNA in skeletal muscle......-32 years) and elderly (58-66 years) non-diabetic twins examined by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp including indirect calorimetry. FTO mRNA expression was determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue (n=226) and skeletal muscle biopsies (n=158). Results. Heritability of FTO expression in both tissues was...... low, and FTO expression was not influenced by FTO rs9939609 genotype. FTO mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was regulated by age and sex, whereas age and BMI were predictors of adipose tissue FTO mRNA expression. FTO mRNA expression in adipose tissue was associated with an atherogenic lipid profile...

  1. Analysis of electrode configurations for measuring cardiac tissue conductivities and fibre rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Barbara M; Johnston, Peter R; Kilpatrick, David

    2006-06-01

    : This paper describes a multi-electrode grid, which could be used to determine cardiac tissue parameters by direct measurement. A two pass process is used, where potential measurements are made, during the plateau phase of the action potential, on a subset of these electrodes and these measurements are used to determine the bidomain conductivities. In the first pass, the potential measurements are made on a set of 'closely-spaced' electrodes and the parameters are fitted to the potential measurements in an iterative process using a bidomain model and a solver based on a modified Shor's r-algorithm. This first pass yields the extracellular conductivities. The second pass is similar except that a 'widely-spaced' electrode set is used and this time the intracellular conductivities are recovered. In addition, it is possible to determine the fibre rotation throughout the tissue, since the bidomain model used here is able to include the effects of fibre rotation. In the simulation studies presented here, the model is solved with known conductivities, on each of the two subsets of electrodes, to generate two sets of 'measured potentials.' Conductivities are then recovered by solving an inverse problem based on the measured potentials, to which various levels of noise are added. For example, simulations in the first pass are performed using an electrode spacing of 500 mum, for a situation where the longitudinal and transverse space constants are 769 and 308 mum, respectively. These give very accurate average percentage relative errors for the longitudinal and transverse extracellular conductivities, over five simulations with 1% noise added, of 0.3 and 0.2%. Twenty-five second pass simulations, on a 1 mm grid, yield average percentage relative errors of 3.8, 2.6 and 1.4% for the corresponding intracellular values and the fibre rotation angle, respectively. PMID:16783654

  2. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy with muscle, vitreous, leptomeningeal, and cardiac involvement: Phenotypic, pathological, and MRI description

    OpenAIRE

    Prashantha D; Taly Arun; Sinha Sanjib; Yasha T; Gayathri Narayanappa; Kovur J. M. E; Vijayan Joy

    2010-01-01

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAN type 1) is a rare systemic disease that causes severe and disabling peripheral neuropathy. We describe the phenotypic, radiological, and pathological characteristics of a patient with familial amyloid polyneuropathy type 1 who had evidence of motor-sensory-autonomic neuropathy, ocular vitreous deposits, diffuse leptomeningeal involvement, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Muscle involvement, an infrequently reported feature, was also observed. Early rec...

  3. Effect of sildenafil on skeletal and cardiac muscle in Becker muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Kruuse, Christina; Nyhuus, Bo;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy lack neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). nNOS mediates physiological sympatholysis, thus ensuring adequate blood supply to working muscle. In mice lacking dystrophin, restoration of nNOS effects by a...

  4. Anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulatory activities of caffeic acid and ellagic acid in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Cheng-chin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caffeic acid (CA and ellagic acid (EA are phenolic acids naturally occurring in many plant foods. Cardiac protective effects of these compounds against dyslipidemia, hypercoagulability, oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic mice were examined. Methods Diabetic mice were divided into three groups (15 mice per group: diabetic mice with normal diet, 2% CA treatment, or 2% EA treatment. One group of non-diabetic mice with normal diet was used for comparison. After 12 weeks supplement, mice were sacrificed, and the variation of biomarkers for hypercoagulability, oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice were measured. Results The intake of CA or EA significantly increased cardiac content of these compounds, alleviated body weight loss, elevated plasma insulin and decreased plasma glucose levels in diabetic mice (p p p p p p p Conclusion These results support that CA and EA could provide triglyceride-lowering, anti-coagulatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory protection in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice. Thus, the supplement of these agents might be helpful for the prevention or attenuation of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  5. Insulin action in muscle and adipose tissue in type 2diabetes: The significance of blood flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Under normal metabolic conditions insulin stimulatesmicrovascular perfusion (capillary recruitment) ofskeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue andthus increases blood flow mainly after meal ingestionor physical exercise. This helps the delivery of insulinitself but also that of substrates and of other signallingmolecules to multiple tissues beds and facilitatesglucose disposal and lipid kinetics. This effect is impairedin insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes early in thedevelopment of metabolic dysregulation and reflectsearly-onset endothelial dysfunction. Failure of insulinto increase muscle and adipose tissue blood flowresults in decreased glucose handling. In fat depots, ablunted postprandial blood flow response will result inan insufficient suppression of lipolysis and an increasedspill over of fatty acids in the circulation, leading toa more pronounced insulin resistant state in skeletalmuscle. This defect in blood flow response is apparenteven in the prediabetic state, implying that it is afacet of insulin resistance and exists long before overthyperglycaemia develops. The following review intendsto summarize the contribution of blood flow impairmentto the development of the atherogenic dysglycemia anddyslipidaemia.

  6. How Can Nanotechnology Help to Repair the Body? Advances in Cardiac, Skin, Bone, Cartilage and Nerve Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Marchal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologists have become involved in regenerative medicine via creation of biomaterials and nanostructures with potential clinical implications. Their aim is to develop systems that can mimic, reinforce or even create in vivo tissue repair strategies. In fact, in the last decade, important advances in the field of tissue engineering, cell therapy and cell delivery have already been achieved. In this review, we will delve into the latest research advances and discuss whether cell and/or tissue repair devices are a possibility. Focusing on the application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering research, this review highlights recent advances in the application of nano-engineered scaffolds designed to replace or restore the followed tissues: (i skin; (ii cartilage; (iii bone; (iv nerve; and (v cardiac.

  7. Bimodal distribution of RNA expression levels in human skeletal muscle tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakoff Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many human diseases and phenotypes are related to RNA expression, levels of which are influenced by a wide spectrum of genetic and exposure-related factors. In a large genome-wide study of muscle tissue expression, we found that some genes exhibited a bimodal distribution of RNA expression, in contrast to what is usually assumed in studies of a single healthy tissue. As bimodality has classically been considered a hallmark of genetic control, we assessed the genome-wide prevalence, cause, and association of this phenomenon with diabetes-related phenotypes in skeletal muscle tissue from 225 healthy Pima Indians using exon array expression chips. Results Two independent batches of microarrays were used for bimodal assessment and comparison. Of the 17,881 genes analyzed, eight (GSTM1, HLA-DRB1, ERAP2, HLA-DRB5, MAOA, ACTN3, NR4A2, and THNSL2 were found to have bimodal expression replicated in the separate batch groups, while 24 other genes had evidence of bimodality in only one group. Some bimodally expressed genes had modest associations with pre-diabetic phenotypes, of note ACTN3 with insulin resistance. Most of the other bimodal genes have been reported to be involved with various other diseases and characteristics. Association of expression with cis genetic variation in a subset of 149 individuals found all but one of the confirmed bimodal genes and nearly half of all potential ones to be highly significant expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL. The rare prevalence of these bimodally expressed genes found after controlling for batch effects was much lower than the prevalence reported in other studies. Additional validation in data from separate muscle expression studies confirmed the low prevalence of bimodality we observed. Conclusions We conclude that the prevalence of bimodal gene expression is quite rare in healthy muscle tissue (cis-polymorphisms, indicating that such bimodal genes are, for the most part, eQTL. The

  8. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of indigenous Caribbean goats under varying nutritional densities

    OpenAIRE

    Limea, Leticia

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a concentrate diet on growth, carcass fat, and fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle (supraspinatus), perirenal, and intermuscular adipose tissues of Creole goats (n = 32) were evaluated. Goats were fed a tropical green forage Digitaria decumbens ad libitum with no concentrate (G0) or 1 of 3 levels of concentrate: 140 (G100), 240 (G200), and 340 g∙d−1 (G300), respectively. Goats were slaughtered according to the standard procedure at the commercial BW (22 to 24 kg of BW). Goats...

  9. Incorporation and effects of punicic acid on muscle and adipose tissues of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Illana Louise Pereira de MELO; de Oliveira e Silva, Ana Mara; Eliane Bonifácio Teixeira de CARVALHO; Luciana Tedesco YOSHIME; Sattler, José Augusto Gasparotto; Jorge MANCINI-FILHO

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effect of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) supplementation, rich in punicic acid (55 %/C18:3-9c,11 t,13c/CLNA), on the lipid profile and on the biochemical and oxidative parameters in the gastrocnemius muscle and adipose tissues of healthy rats. Linseed oil (LO), rich in linolenic acid (52 %/C18:3-9c12c15c/LNA) was used for comparison. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 56) were distributed in seven groups: control (water); LNA 1 %, 2 % and 4 % (treated with LO); CLNA...

  10. Assessment of muscle strength and soft tissue tightness in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Akarcali, Inci; Tugay, Nazan; Erden, Zafer; Atay, Ahmet; Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Leblebicioglu, Gursel

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate soft tissue tightness, muscle strength and activities giving rise to pain in patients with patellofemoral pain. Methods: Tightness of the iliotibial band, hamstring, rectus femoris and gastro-soleus was tested in 172 knees of 142 patients (82 females, 60 males; mean age 35.52±9.84 years; range 15-45 years) . The strength of the quadriceps and hamstring was tested using the Lowett’s method. Severity of pain was evaluated using visual analogue scale. Activities pro...

  11. Angiotensin II (AT1) Receptor Blockade Reduces Vascular Tissue Factor in Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiac Vasculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik N Müller; Mervaala, Eero M A; Dechend, Ralf; Fiebeler, Anette; Park, Joon-Keun; Schmidt, Folke; Theuer, Jürgen; Breu, Volker; Mackman, Nigel; Luther, Thomas; Schneider, Wolfgang; Gulba, Dietrich; Ganten, Detlev; Haller, Hermann; Luft, Friedrich C.

    2000-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF), a main initiator of clotting, is up-regulated in vasculopathy. We tested the hypothesis that chronic in vivo angiotensin (ANG) II receptor AT1 receptor blockade inhibits TF expression in a model of ANG II-induced cardiac vasculopathy. Furthermore, we explored the mechanisms by examining transcription factor activation and analyzing the TF promoter. Untreated transgenic rats overexpressing the human renin and angiotensinogen genes (dTGR) feature hypertension and severe left...

  12. Tissue depletion of taurine accelerates skeletal muscle senescence and leads to early death in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ito

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid is found in milimolar concentrations in mammalian tissues. One of its main functions is osmoregulation; however, it also exhibits cytoprotective activity by diminishing injury caused by stress and disease. Taurine depletion is associated with several defects, many of which are found in the aging animal, suggesting that taurine might exert anti-aging actions. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the hypothesis that taurine depletion accelerates aging by reducing longevity and accelerating aging-associated tissue damage. Tissue taurine depletion in taurine transporter knockout (TauTKO mouse was found to shorten lifespan and accelerate skeletal muscle histological and functional defects, including an increase in central nuclei containing myotubes, a reduction in mitochondrial complex 1 activity and an induction in an aging biomarker, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor A (p16INK4a. Tissue taurine depletion also enhances unfolded protein response (UPR, which may be associated with an improvement in protein folding by taurine. Our data reveal that tissue taurine depletion affects longevity and cellular senescence; an effect possibly linked to a disturbance in protein folding.

  13. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy with muscle, vitreous, leptomeningeal, and cardiac involvement: Phenotypic, pathological, and MRI description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashantha D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAN type 1 is a rare systemic disease that causes severe and disabling peripheral neuropathy. We describe the phenotypic, radiological, and pathological characteristics of a patient with familial amyloid polyneuropathy type 1 who had evidence of motor-sensory-autonomic neuropathy, ocular vitreous deposits, diffuse leptomeningeal involvement, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Muscle involvement, an infrequently reported feature, was also observed. Early recognition of the disease has significant therapeutic implications.

  14. Energetics of Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange in resting cardiac muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce-Hornos, J E; Philipson, K D; Bonazzola, P; Langer, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    The energetic effect of extracellular Na(+) removal and readmission (in a nominally Ca(2+)-free perfusate) in Langendorff-perfused ventricles of transgenic mice (TM), which overexpress the sarcolemmal Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger; normal mice (NM); young (7-12 days old) rats (YR); and older (13-20 days old) rats (OR) was studied. In all heart muscles, extracellular Na(+) removal induced an increase in heat production (H(1)). Na(+) readmission further increased heat production to a peak value (H(2))...

  15. Aspirin augments carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during muscle mechanoreflex and metaboreflex activation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Rachel C; Muller, Matthew D; Blaha, Cheryl A; Mast, Jessica L; Herr, Michael D; Stocker, Sean D; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2013-10-15

    Muscle mechanoreflex activation decreases the sensitivity of carotid baroreflex (CBR)-heart rate (HR) control during local metabolite accumulation in humans. However, the contribution of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) toward this response is unknown. Therefore, the effect of inhibiting TXA2 production via low-dose aspirin on CBR-HR sensitivity during muscle mechanoreflex and metaboreflex activation in humans was examined. Twelve young subjects performed two trials during two visits, preceded by 7 days' low-dose aspirin (81 mg) or placebo. One trial involved 3-min passive calf stretch (mechanoreflex) during 7.5-min limb circulatory occlusion (CO). In another trial, CO was preceded by 1.5 min of 70% maximal voluntary contraction isometric calf exercise to accumulate metabolites during CO and stretch (mechanoreflex and metaboreflex). HR (ECG) and mean arterial pressure (Finometer) were recorded. CBR function was assessed using rapid neck pressures ranging from +40 to -80 mmHg. Aspirin significantly decreased baseline thromboxane B2 production by 84 ± 4% (P aspirin, stretch with metabolite accumulation significantly augmented maximal gain (GMAX) and operating point gain (GOP) of CBR-HR (GMAX; -0.71 ± 0.14 vs. -0.37 ± 0.08 and GOP; -0.69 ± 0.13 vs. -0.35 ± 0.12 beats·min(-1)·mmHg(-1) for aspirin and placebo, respectively; P aspirin and placebo during stretch with metabolite accumulation. In conclusion, these findings suggest that low-dose aspirin augments CBR-HR sensitivity during concurrent muscle mechanoreflex and metaboreflex activation in humans. This increased sensitivity appears linked to reduced TXA2 production, which likely plays a role in metabolite sensitization of muscle mechanoreceptors. PMID:23970529

  16. Suppression of skeletal muscle signal using a crusher coil: A human cardiac 31p‐MR spectroscopy study at 7 tesla

    OpenAIRE

    Schaller, Benoit; Clarke, William T.; Neubauer, Stefan; Robson, Matthew D.; Rodgers, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The translation of sophisticated phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P‐MRS) protocols to 7 Tesla (T) is particularly challenged by the issue of radiofrequency (RF) heating. Legal limits on RF heating make it hard to reliably suppress signals from skeletal muscle that can contaminate human cardiac 31P spectra at 7T. We introduce the first surface‐spoiling crusher coil for human cardiac 31P‐MRS at 7T. Methods A planar crusher coil design was optimized with simulations and its performance was ...

  17. Evidence for a direct action of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on the cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A L; Fontoura, B F; Freire-Maia, L; Machado, C R; Camargos, E R; Teixeira, M M

    2001-05-01

    The ability of toxins to activate the cardiovascular system plays an important role in the morbidity and lethality of the Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenoming. Most of the actions of the scorpion toxins are indirect and due to the release of adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmitters. Accordingly, treatment following envenoming is targeted towards inhibition of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors. Here, we have sought evidence for a direct action of T. serrulatus venom on the isolated rat heart (Langendorff's method). We show that the bradycardia induced by T. serrulatus venom was completely blocked by atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Similarly, the increase in heart rate that follows the venom-induced bradycardia was totally inhibited by a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist or by chemical sympathetic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine. In contrast to these findings, the venom-induced increase in contractile force was not modified by beta(1)-adrenoceptor blockade or by chemical sympathetic denervation. The results clearly demonstrate that the chronotropic effects of T. serrulatus are dependent on neurotransmitter release, but the inotropic effects are not. The neurotransmitter-independent increase in contractility seems to be a direct action of the venom on cardiomyocytes. We suggest that this direct effect on cardiac fibers may play a role in the development of cardiac arrhythmias and contractility defects following envenoming with T. serrulatus scorpion. PMID:11072050

  18. Long-term stability of RNA in post-mortem bovine skeletal muscle, liver and subcutaneous adipose tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Olaf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recovering high quality intact RNA from post-mortem tissue is of major concern for gene expression studies in animals and humans. Since the availability of post-mortem tissue is often associated with substantial delay, it is important that we understand the temporal variation in the stability of total RNA and of individual gene transcripts so as to be able to appropriately interpret the data generated from such studies. Hence, the objective of this experiment was to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the integrity of total and messenger RNA extracted from bovine skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver stored at 4°C at a range of time points up to 22 days post-mortem. These conditions were designed to mimic the environment prevailing during the transport of beef from the abattoir to retail outlets. Results The 28S and 18S rRNA molecules of total RNA were intact for up to 24 h post-mortem in liver and adipose tissues and up to 8 days post-mortem in skeletal muscle. The mRNA of housekeeping genes (GAPDH and ACTB and two diet-related genes (RBP5 and SCD were detectable up to 22 days post-mortem in skeletal muscle. While the mRNA stability of the two housekeeping genes was different in skeletal muscle and liver, they were similar to each other in adipose tissue. After 22 days post-mortem, the relative abundance of RBP5 gene was increased in skeletal muscle and in adipose tissue and decreased in liver. During this period, the relative abundance of SCD gene also increased in skeletal muscle whereas it decreased in both adipose tissue and liver. Conclusion Stability of RNA in three tissues (skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver subjected to long-term post-mortem storage at refrigeration temperature indicated that skeletal muscle can be a suitable tissue for recovering biologically useful RNA for gene expression studies even if the tissue is subjected to post-mortem storage for weeks, whereas

  19. Muscle tissue saturation in humans studied with two non-invasive optical techniques: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharin, Alfi; Krite Svanberg, Emilie; Ellerström, Ida; Subash, Arman Ahamed; Khoptyar, Dmitry; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Åkeson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    Muscle tissue saturation (StO2) has been measured with two non-invasive optical techniques and the results were compared. One of the techniques is widely used in the hospitals - the CW-NIRS technique. The other is the photon timeof- flight spectrometer (pTOFS) developed in the Group of Biophotonics, Lund University, Sweden. The wavelengths used in both the techniques are 730 nm and 810 nm. A campaign was arranged to perform measurements on 21 (17 were taken for comparison) healthy adult volunteers (8 women and 13 men). Oxygen saturations were measured at the right lower arm of each volunteer. To observe the effects of different provocations on the oxygen saturation a blood pressure cuff was attached in the upper right arm. For CW-NIRS, the tissue saturation values were in the range from 70-90%, while for pTOFS the values were in the range from 55-60%.

  20. Tissue healing response following hyperthermic vapor ablation in the porcine longissimus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, John T.; Grisez, Brian T.; Famoso, Justin; Hoey, Michael; Dixon, Chris; Coad, James E.

    2015-03-01

    As the use of hyperthermic ablation technologies has increased, so too has the need to understand their effects on tissue and their healing responses. This study was designed to characterize tissue injury and healing following hyperthermic vapor ablation in the in vivo porcine longissimus muscle model. The individual ablations were performed using the NxThera Vapor Delivery System (NxThera Inc., Minneapolis, MN). To assess the vapor ablation's evolution, the swine were euthanized post-treatment on Day 0, Day 3, Day 7, Day 14, Day 28, Day 45 and Day 90. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride viability staining (TTC staining) was used to macroscopically assess the extent of each vapor ablation within the tissue. The ablation associated healing responses were then histologically evaluated for acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, foreign body reaction and fibrosis. Two zones of tissue injury were initially identified in the ablations: 1) a central zone of complete coagulative necrosis and 2) an outer "transition zone" of viable and non-viable cells. The ablations initially increased in size from Day 0 to Day 7 and then progressively decreased in size though Day 45. The initial Day 3 healing changes originated in the transition zone with minimal acute and chronic inflammation. As time progressed, granulation tissue began to form by Day 7 and peaked around Day 14. Collagen formation, deposition and remodeling began in the adjacent healthy tissue by Day 28, replaced the ablation site by Day 45 and reorganized by Day 90. In conclusion, this vapor ablation technology provided a non-desiccating form of hyperthermic ablation that resulted in coagulative necrosis without a central thermally/heat-fixed tissue component, followed a classical wound healing pathway, and healed with minimal associated inflammation.

  1. Evaluation of human muscle hardness after dynamic exercise with ultrasound real-time tissue elastography: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To assess the feasibility of ultrasound real-time tissue elastography (RTE) for measuring exercise-induced changes in muscle hardness and to compare the findings of RTE with those of a tissue hardness meter for semi-quantitative assessment of the hardness of exercised muscles. Materials and methods: Nine male participants performed an arm-curl exercise. RTE measurements were performed by manually applying repetitive compression with the transducer on the scan position before exercise, immediately after exercise, and at 30 min after exercise; strain ratios between muscle and a reference material (hydrogel) were calculated (muscle strain/material strain). A tissue hardness meter was also used to evaluate muscle hardness. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the three repeated measurements at each measurement time were calculated to evaluate the intra-observer reproducibility of each technique. Results: Immediately after exercise, the strain ratio and the value obtained using the tissue hardness meter significantly decreased (from 1.65 to 1.35) and increased (from 51.8 to 54.3), respectively. Both parameters returned to their pre-exercise value 30 min after exercise. The ICCs of the RTE (and the ICCs of the muscle hardness meter) were 0.971 (0.816) before exercise, 0.939 (0.776) immediately after exercise, and 0.959 (0.882) at 30 min after exercise. Conclusion: Similar to the muscle hardness meter, RTE revealed the exercise-induced changes of muscle hardness semi-quantitatively. The intra-observer reproducibility of RTE was very high at each measurement time. These findings suggest that RTE is a clinically useful technique for assessing hardness of specific exercised muscles.

  2. The effect of exercise training on hormone-sensitive lipase in rat intra-abdominal adipose tissue and muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Langfort, J;

    2001-01-01

    1. Adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis in adipose tissue may increase with training. The rate-limiting step in adipose tissue lipolysis is catalysed by the enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). We studied the effect of exercise training on the activity of the total and the activated form of HSL......, referred to as HSL (DG) and HSL (TG), respectively, and on the concentration of HSL protein in retroperitoneal (RE) and mesenteric (ME) adipose tissue, and in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles in rats. 2. Rats (weighing 96 +/- 1 g, mean +/- S.E.M.) were either swim trained (T, 18 weeks......, n = 12) or sedentary (S, n = 12). Then RE and ME adipose tissue and the EDL and soleus muscles were incubated for 20 min with 4.4 microM adrenaline. 3. HSL enzyme activities in adipose tissue were higher in T compared with S rats. Furthermore, in RE adipose tissue, training also doubled HSL protein...

  3. Digital image analysis of striated skeletal muscle tissue injury during reperfusion after induced ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero Salazar, Doris Haydee; Salazar Monsalve, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Conditions such as surgical procedures or vascular diseases produce arterial ischemia and reperfusion injuries, which generate changes in peripheral tissues and organs, for instance, in striated skeletal muscle. To determine such changes, we conducted an experimental method in which 42 male Wistar rat were selected, to be undergone to tourniquet application on the right forelimb and left hind limb, to induce ischemia during one and three hours, followed by reperfusion periods starting at one hour and it was prolonged up to 32 days. Extensor carpi radialis longus and soleus respectively, were obtained to be processed for histochemical and morphometric analysis. By means of image processing and detection of regions of interest, variations of areas occupied by muscle fibers and intramuscular extracellular matrix (IM-ECM) throughout reperfusion were observed. In extensor carpi radialis longus, results shown reduction in the area occupied by muscle fibers; this change is significant between one hour and three hours ischemia followed by 16 hours, 48 hours and 32 days reperfusión (p˂0.005). To compare only periods of reperfusión that continued to three hours ischemia, were found significant differences, as well. For area occupied by IM-ECM, were identified increments in extensor carpi radialis longus by three hours ischemia and eight to 16 days reperfusion; in soleus, was observed difference by one hour ischemia with 42 hours reperfusion, and three hours ischemia followed by four days reperfusion (p˂0.005). Skeletal muscle develops adaptive changes in longer reperfusion, to deal with induced injury. Descriptions beyond 32 days reperfusion, can determine recovering normal pattern.

  4. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of organic and conventional Blanca Andaluza suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De la Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of autochthonous breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat (meat breed, raised under grazing-based management, has recently increased among Spanish farmers. A study of the possibilities of transformation to organic production needs to analyze the quality of their products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid (FA composition of muscle and adipose tissues of Blanca Andaluza goat kids under organic and conventional grazing–based management system. Twenty-four twin kids (12 males, 12 females were selected from each system. The FA profile was determined in the longissimus thoracis muscle, kidney and pelvic fat. The percentages of C17:0, C17:1, C20:1, C20:4 n-6, C22:2 and several n-3 FAs were higher in organic meat; C12:0, C18:1 trans-11, CLA and C20:5 n-3 were lower in organic meat. The fat depots from the conventional kids showed lower percentages of C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:3 n-3 and atherogenicity index, and higher percentage of C18:0. In the pelvic fat, the conventional kids displayed lower percentages of C16:0, C18:2 n-6 cis, PUFA, n-3 and n-6 FAs, and greater percentages of C18:1 n-9 cis and MUFA. The conventional kids displayed a major n6:n3 ratio in the kidney fat. No gender differences were observed. Significant differences were found only in some FA percentages of muscle and adipose tissues of suckling kids raised in organic and conventional livestock production systems, and due to this reason conventional grazing–based management farms could easily be transformed into organic production.

  5. A micromethod for assay of lipoprotein lipase activity in needle biopsy samples of human adipose tissue and skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and simple procedure for assay of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in small amounts of human adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is described and validated. The enzyme is eluted from tissues with heparin and the activity is determined from the eluate by measuring the release of [14C]oleic acid from a gum arabic stabilized emulsion of glycerol-tri[14C]oleate in a Tris-buffer medium containing albumin and pooled normal human serum. Reproducible results are obtained with amounts of tissue ranging from 2 to 25 mg. The Ksub(m) values of the adipose tissue and skeletal muscle LPL for the triolein substrate were 0.74 +- 0.06 and 0.77 +- 0.05 mmol/l, respectively. The standard radioactive triolein emulsion was hydrolyzed by adipose tissue LPL at a rate closely similar to rat VLDL-triglyceride labeled in vivo with [1-14C]palmitic acid, suggesting that the experimental substrate behaved in a similar manner to the natural substrate. The LPL activity was much higher in adipose tissue than in muscle. In adipose tissue the LPL activity was 2-4 times higher in women than in men whereas no sex difference was present in the LPL activity of muscle. (Auth.)

  6. Human Engineered Cardiac Tissues Created Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Reveal Functional Characteristics of BRAF-Mediated Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Cashman

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is a leading cause of sudden cardiac death that often goes undetected in the general population. HCM is also prevalent in patients with cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS, which is a genetic disorder characterized by aberrant signaling in the RAS/MAPK signaling cascade. Understanding the mechanisms of HCM development in such RASopathies may lead to novel therapeutic strategies, but relevant experimental models of the human condition are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop the first 3D human engineered cardiac tissue (hECT model of HCM. The hECTs were created using human cardiomyocytes obtained by directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a patient with CFCS due to an activating BRAF mutation. The mutant myocytes were directly conjugated at a 3:1 ratio with a stromal cell population to create a tissue of defined composition. Compared to healthy patient control hECTs, BRAF-hECTs displayed a hypertrophic phenotype by culture day 6, with significantly increased tissue size, twitch force, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP gene expression. Twitch characteristics reflected increased contraction and relaxation rates and shorter twitch duration in BRAF-hECTs, which also had a significantly higher maximum capture rate and lower excitation threshold during electrical pacing, consistent with a more arrhythmogenic substrate. By culture day 11, twitch force was no longer different between BRAF and wild-type hECTs, revealing a temporal aspect of disease modeling with tissue engineering. Principal component analysis identified diastolic force as a key factor that changed from day 6 to day 11, supported by a higher passive stiffness in day 11 BRAF-hECTs. In summary, human engineered cardiac tissues created from BRAF mutant cells recapitulated, for the first time, key aspects of the HCM phenotype, offering a new in vitro model for studying intrinsic mechanisms and

  7. Human Engineered Cardiac Tissues Created Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Reveal Functional Characteristics of BRAF-Mediated Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Timothy J; Josowitz, Rebecca; Johnson, Bryce V; Gelb, Bruce D; Costa, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a leading cause of sudden cardiac death that often goes undetected in the general population. HCM is also prevalent in patients with cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS), which is a genetic disorder characterized by aberrant signaling in the RAS/MAPK signaling cascade. Understanding the mechanisms of HCM development in such RASopathies may lead to novel therapeutic strategies, but relevant experimental models of the human condition are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop the first 3D human engineered cardiac tissue (hECT) model of HCM. The hECTs were created using human cardiomyocytes obtained by directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a patient with CFCS due to an activating BRAF mutation. The mutant myocytes were directly conjugated at a 3:1 ratio with a stromal cell population to create a tissue of defined composition. Compared to healthy patient control hECTs, BRAF-hECTs displayed a hypertrophic phenotype by culture day 6, with significantly increased tissue size, twitch force, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) gene expression. Twitch characteristics reflected increased contraction and relaxation rates and shorter twitch duration in BRAF-hECTs, which also had a significantly higher maximum capture rate and lower excitation threshold during electrical pacing, consistent with a more arrhythmogenic substrate. By culture day 11, twitch force was no longer different between BRAF and wild-type hECTs, revealing a temporal aspect of disease modeling with tissue engineering. Principal component analysis identified diastolic force as a key factor that changed from day 6 to day 11, supported by a higher passive stiffness in day 11 BRAF-hECTs. In summary, human engineered cardiac tissues created from BRAF mutant cells recapitulated, for the first time, key aspects of the HCM phenotype, offering a new in vitro model for studying intrinsic mechanisms and screening new

  8. Expression of calsequestrin in skeletal and cardiac muscles of hypothyroid rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr; Škajeva, Maria; Marková, Vladimíra; Sulimenko, Vadym; Soukup, Tomáš

    Leeds: University of Leeds, 2008. s. 25-25. [Alternative muscle club meeting /26./. 23.07.2008-25.07.2008, Leeds] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Grant ostatní: Myores(XE) 511978 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : spr2 * calsequestrin * hypothyroid * rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  9. Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and Slow, Bi-directional Perfusion Enhance the Formation of Tissue-Engineered Cardiac Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo; Engelmayr, George C.; Freed, Lisa E.

    2008-01-01

    Biochemical and mechanical signals enabling cardiac regeneration can be elucidated using in vitro tissue-engineering models. We hypothesized that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF) and slow, bi-directional perfusion could act independently and interactively to enhance the survival, differentiation, and contractile performance of tissue-engineered cardiac grafts. Heart cells were cultured on three-dimensional porous scaffolds in medium with or without supplemental IGF and in the presence or ab...

  10. The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Danielsen, J H; Søndergård, Stine Dam;

    2015-01-01

    on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity, mitochondrial substrate sensitivity (Km (app) ), and mitochondrial content were measured in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in healthy overweight subjects before and after 6 weeks...... of HIT (three times per week at 298 ± 21 W). HIT significantly increased VO2peak from 2.9 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.2 L/min. No differences were seen in maximal fat oxidation in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. Km (app) for octanoyl carnitine or palmitoyl carnitine were similar after training in skeletal...... muscle and adipose tissue. Maximal OXPHOS capacity with complex I- and II-linked substrates was increased after training in skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue. In conclusion, 6 weeks of HIT increased VO2peak . Mitochondrial content and mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity were increased in skeletal...

  11. Dynamics of cross-bridge cycling, ATP hydrolysis, force generation, and deformation in cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Shivendra G; Bugenhagen, Scott M; Palmer, Bradley M; Beard, Daniel A

    2016-07-01

    Despite extensive study over the past six decades the coupling of chemical reaction and mechanical processes in muscle dynamics is not well understood. We lack a theoretical description of how chemical processes (metabolite binding, ATP hydrolysis) influence and are influenced by mechanical processes (deformation and force generation). To address this need, a mathematical model of the muscle cross-bridge (XB) cycle based on Huxley's sliding filament theory is developed that explicitly accounts for the chemical transformation events and the influence of strain on state transitions. The model is identified based on elastic and viscous moduli data from mouse and rat myocardial strips over a range of perturbation frequencies, and MgATP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations. Simulations of the identified model reproduce the observed effects of MgATP and MgADP on the rate of force development. Furthermore, simulations reveal that the rate of force re-development measured in slack-restretch experiments is not directly proportional to the rate of XB cycling. For these experiments, the model predicts that the observed increase in the rate of force generation with increased Pi concentration is due to inhibition of cycle turnover by Pi. Finally, the model captures the observed phenomena of force yielding suggesting that it is a result of rapid detachment of stretched attached myosin heads. PMID:25681584

  12. Short-term inspiratory muscle training potentiates the benefits of aerobic and resistance training in patients undergoing CABG in phase II cardiac rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Maria Hermes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To investigate the efficiency of short-term inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined aerobic and resistance exercise on respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in the phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. Methods: A prospective, quasi-experimental study with 24 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and were randomly assigned to two groups in the Phase II cardiac rehabilitation program: inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined training (aerobic and resistance group (GCR + IMT, n=12 and combined training with respiratory exercises group (GCR, n=12, over a period of 12 weeks, with two sessions per week. Before and after intervention, the following measurements were obtained: maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (PImax and PEmax, peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2 and quality of life scores. Data were compared between pre- and post-intervention at baseline and the variation between the pre- and post-phase II cardiac rehabilitation program using the Student's t-test, except the categorical variables, which were compared using the Chi-square test. Values of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Compared to GCR, the GCR + IMT group showed larger increments in PImax (P<0.001, PEmax (P<0.001, peak VO2 (P<0.001 and quality of life scores (P<0.001. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the addition of inspiratory muscle training, even when applied for a short period, may potentiate the effects of combined aerobic and resistance training, becoming a simple and inexpensive strategy for patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in phase II cardiac rehabilitation.

  13. Tissue specificity in rat peripheral nerve regeneration through combined skeletal muscle and vein conduit grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tos, P; Battiston, B; Geuna, S; Giacobini-Robecchi, M G; Hill, M A; Lanzetta, M; Owen, E R

    2000-01-01

    Diffusible factors from the distal stumps of transected peripheral nerves exert a neurotropic effect on regenerating nerves in vivo (specificity). This morphological study was designed to investigate the existence of tissue specificity in peripheral nerve fiber regeneration through a graft of vein filled with fresh skeletal muscle. This tubulization technique demonstrated experimental and clinical results similar to those obtained with traditional autologous nerve grafts. Specifically, we used Y-shaped grafts to assess the orientation pattern of regenerating axons in the distal stump tissue. Animal models were divided into four experimental groups. The proximal part of the Y-shaped conduit was sutured to a severed tibial nerve in all experiments. The two distal stumps were sutured to different targets: group A to two intact nerves (tibial and peroneal), group B to an intact nerve and an unvascularized tendon, group C to an intact nerve and a vascularized tendon, and group D to a nerve graft and an unvascularized tendon. Morphological evaluation by light and electron microscopy was conducted in the distal forks of the Y-shaped tube. Data showed that almost all regenerating nerve fibers spontaneously oriented towards the nerve tissue (attached or not to the peripheral innervation field), showing a good morphological pattern of regeneration in both the early and late phases of regeneration. When the distal choice was represented by a tendon (vascularized or not), very few nerve fibers were detected in the corresponding distal fork of the Y-shaped graft. These results show that, using the muscle-vein-combined grafting technique, regenerating axons are able to correctly grow and orientate within the basement membranes of the graft guided by the neurotropic lure of the distal nerve stump. PMID:10702739

  14. Tofogliflozin Improves Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle and Accelerates Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Atsushi; Kubota, Naoto; Kubota, Tetsuya; Iwamoto, Masahiko; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Yoshitaka; Takamoto, Iseki; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Fukazawa, Masanori; Ikeda, Sachiya; Iwayama, Kaito; Tokuyama, Kumpei; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have attracted attention as they exert antidiabetic and antiobesity effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of tofogliflozin on glucose homeostasis and its metabolic consequences and clarified the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow containing tofogliflozin (0.005%) for 20 weeks or a high-fat diet containing tofogliflozin (0.005%) for 8 weeks ad libitum. In addition, the animals were pair-fed in relation to controls to exclude the influence of increased food intake. Tofogliflozin reduced the body weight gain, mainly because of fat mass reduction associated with a diminished adipocyte size. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were ameliorated. The serum levels of nonesterified fatty acid and ketone bodies were increased and the respiratory quotient was decreased in the tofogliflozin-treated mice, suggesting the acceleration of lipolysis in the white adipose tissue and hepatic β-oxidation. In fact, the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and the adipose triglyceride lipase protein levels in the white adipose tissue as well as the gene expressions related to β-oxidation, such as Cpt1α in the liver, were significantly increased. The hepatic triglyceride contents and the expression levels of lipogenic genes were decreased. Pair-fed mice exhibited almost the same results as mice fed an high-fat diet ad libitum. Moreover, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp revealed that tofogliflozin improved insulin resistance by increasing glucose uptake, especially in the skeletal muscle, in pair-fed mice. Taken together, these results suggest tofogliflozin ameliorates insulin resistance and obesity by increasing glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in adipose tissue. PMID:26713783

  15. ACE2/Ang 1-7 axis: A critical regulator of epicardial adipose tissue inflammation and cardiac dysfunction in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vaibhav B; Basu, Ratnadeep; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissues leading to weight gain and is increasing in prevalence and is strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has emerged as a key pathogenic mechanism for these disorders; activated RAS and angiotensin (Ang) II production results in worsening of cardiovascular diseases and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) negatively regulates RAS by metabolizing Ang II into Ang 1-7. ACE2 is expressed in the adipocytes and its expression is upregulated in response to high fat diet induced obesity in mice. Loss of ACE2 results in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction which is mediated in part by epicardial adipose tissue inflammation. Angiotensin 1-7 reduces the obesity associated cardiac dysfunction predominantly via its role in adiponectin expression and attenuation of epicardial adipose tissue inflammation. Human heart disease is also linked with inflammed epicardial adipose tissue. Here, we discuss the important interpretation of the novel of ACE2/Ang 1-7 pathway in obesity associated cardiac dysfunction. PMID:27617176

  16. In vivo muscle mechanics during human locomotion : fascicle-tendinous tissue interaction during stretch-shortening cycle exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    The present series of studies were designed to examine how the interaction between muscle fibers and tendinous tissues (TT) were modulated for effective utilization of elastic energy during stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercises. By combining the in vivo direct recordings of tendon force with fascicle length changes by the ultrasonic techniques, the in vivo behavior of the vastus lateralis and triceps surae muscle groups was examined in several different intensity drop jumps as well as in w...

  17. Residues of sulfadiazine and doxycycline in broiler liver and muscle tissues due to cross-contamination in the feed

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberge, Valerie; Delezie, Evelyne; Huyghebaert, Gerard; Delahaut, Philippe; Daeseleire, Els; Croubels, Siska

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Veterinary drugs, such as antimicrobial compounds are widely used in poultry and may lead to the presence of residues in matrices of animal origin such as muscle and liver tissue. In this study, broilers received experimental feed, containing sulfadiazine or doxycycline at cross contamination levels of 2.5%, 5% and 10 % of the therapeutic dose in feed. Breast- and thigh muscle and liver samples were collected during treatment and depletion period and analyzed via liquid ch...

  18. Integrated data mining of transcriptomic and proteomic datasets to predict the secretome of adipose tissue and muscle in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, M; Tournayre, J; Cassar-Malek, I

    2016-08-16

    Adipose tissue and muscle are endocrine organs releasing signalling and mediator proteins termed adipokines and myokines, enabling functioning of the organism and its adaption to a wide range of different challenges such as starvation, overfeeding, stress and diseases. They also contribute to the "adipose-muscular" cross-talk for an integrated control of body mass composition. This article integrates transcriptomic and proteomic data available in ruminant species (mainly in bovine, and when available in ovine and caprine) to computationally predict the large-scale secretome of adipose tissues and muscles. For this purpose predictive bioinformatics algorithms were employed to identify proteins putatively secreted by tissues thanks to a signal peptide. We predicted 1749 secreted proteins that were found from adipose tissues and muscles, more than a half of them being already declared as secreted proteins in public repositories. We also identified 188 and 357 proteins in the predictive secretome of adipose tissues and muscles respectively, only a minor part (3-11%) of them being reported in the overlap of public repositories used for comparison. Functional analysis of these proteins highlights their involvement in biological pathways known to sustain tissue growth and functioning. This strategy allowed us to identify some known and putative novel adipomyokines, adipokines and myokines. However their role and their expression signature depending on rearing practices remain largely to be explored. PMID:27374837

  19. Clinicopathologic analysis of esophageal and cardiac cancers and survey of molecular expression on tissue arrays in Chaoshan littoral of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Su; Xiao-Hu Xu; Xiao-Yun Li; Dong-Ping Tian; Ming-Yao Wu; Xian-Ying Wu; Shan-Ming Lu; Hai-Hua Huang; De-Rui Li; Zhi-Chao Zheng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate clinical and pathologic data of esophageal carcinoma (EC) and cardiac carcinoma (CC)among residents in Chaoshan region of China.METHODS: Clinical and pathologic data of 9 650 patients with EC and 4 173 patients with CC in the Chaoshan population were collected and analyzed. Moreover,Chaoshan esophageal carcinoma tissue arrays were made for high-throughput study.RESULTS: Male to female ratio was 3:1 in patients with EC and 4.75:1 in CC. The average age of the occurrence of EC was 54.6 years, and of CC was 58.1 years. For both EC and CC, age at diagnosis was a little younger in Chaoshan region than in most other areas. The most commonly affected site of esophageal carcinoma was the middle third of esophagus (72.0%); the second was the lower third (15.3%). The main gross type of esophageal carcinoma was ulcerative type (41.50%); the medullary type was the second (39.6%). Squamous cell carcinoma accounted for the overwhelming majority of esophageal cancer (96.4%);adenocarcinoma accounted for the overwhelming majority of cardiac carcinoma (94.5%). Chaoshan esophageal carcinoma tissue arrays were easily for high-throughput study, and tissue cores with a diameter of 1.5 mm could better keep more structure for molecular expression study.CONCLUSION: Both EC and CC are common in males.The average occurrence age of EC and CC is younger in Chaoshan than in most other regions of China. The most commonly affected site of esophageal carcinoma was the middle third of esophagus (72.0%). Squamous cell carcinoma accounted for the overwhelming majority of esophageal cancer; adenocarcinoma accounted for the overwhelming majority of cardiac carcinoma. Tissue arrays technology is applicable for rapid molecular profiling of large numbers of cancers in a single experiment.

  20. Changes in the masticatory muscles, periodontal tissues, and the pharyngeal ring in Wistar rats in chronic psychophysical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, I N

    2008-11-01

    Experimental studies performed on 120 male Wistar rats using morphometric and histological methods demonstrated changes in oral cavity tissues on exposure to chronic psychophysical stress (dosed swimming). The masticatory muscles showed foci of non-infective inflammation, dystrophic changes in muscle fibers, and contractures. The periodontal ligament showed impairments to the microcirculation with congestion of the venous bed, local bleeding into the tissue, changes in the directions of bundles of collagen fibers, and deformation of bundles. The tissues of the pharyngeal ring showed decreases in lymphocyte content, progressive loosening of connective tissue, and decreases in non-degranulated mast cell numbers, as compared with controls. The intensity of these changes depended on the level of physical loading and the individual adaptive capacity of the animals. These structural changes in the tissues may be the etiopathogenetic basis of the development of chronic inflammatory periodontal diseases. PMID:18975112

  1. The Effect of Xin Mai Tong Capsules in Protecting Survival Cardiac Muscles of the Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Ruixiang; Feng Jun; Meng Jun

    2005-01-01

    To study the effect of Composite Xin Mai Tong capsules (复方心脉通胶囊 CXMT) in protecting survival cardiac muscles in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) operation. The treatment with Composite XMT capsules started 3 days prior to the operation and continued for a period of 4 weeks; and its effect on the number of segments of nuclide resting ventricular myocardial imaging, the nuclide defect extension score (ES) and nuclide defect severity score (SS),and the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of circulatory blood were determined and compared with that of the control group. More segments originally scored 1 turning to be scored 2 in nuclide imaging were seen in the treatment group than in the control group; and smaller ES and less SS seen in the former than in the latter group (P<0.05). Composite XMT capsules play an active role in myocardial salvage by promoting its metabolism and expression of circulatory VEGF. Its angiogenesis-like action helps establish collateral flow and has a positive role in myocardial salvage.

  2. Gene Expression Profile of Human Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue of Chinese Han Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN-LI YANG; RUO-LAN XIANG; CHANG YANG; XIAO-JUN LIU; WEN-JUN SHEN; JIN ZUO; YONG-SHENG CHANG; FU-DE FANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the differential patterns of gene expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and healthy subjects using DNA microarray analysis. Methods T2DM patiens were divided into female group, young male group and old male group. DNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR were carried out to analyze the relation between gene expressions and T2DM. Results The mRNA expression of 298, 578, and 350 genes was changed in the skeletal muscle of diabetes mellitus patients compared with control subjects. The 1320, 1143, and 2847 genes were modified in adipose tissue of the three groups. Among the genes surveyed, the change of 25 and 39 gene transcripts in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was ≥2 folds. These differentially expressed genes were classified into 15 categories according to their functions. Conclusion New genes are found and T2DM can be prevented or cured.

  3. Ultrastructural effects on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by a waterborne uranium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillet, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.barillet@free.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Larno, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.larno@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Floriani, Magali, E-mail: magali.floriani@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Devaux, Alain, E-mail: alain.devaux@entpe.fr [INRA, EFPA Department, 54280, Champenoux and Environmental Science Laboratory, ENTPE, 69518 Vaulx en Velin cedex (France); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle, E-mail: christelle.adam-guillermin@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France)

    2010-11-01

    Experiments on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were conducted to assess histopathological effects induced on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues after waterborne uranium exposure. Although histopathology is often employed as a tool for the detection and assessment of xenobiotic-mediated effects in aquatic organisms, few studies have been dedicated to the investigation of histopathological consequences of uranium exposure in fish. Results showed that gill tissue architecture was markedly disrupted. Major symptoms were alterations of the secondary lamellae epithelium (from extensive oedema to desquamation), hyperplasia of chloride cells, and breakdown of the pillar cell system. Muscle histology was also affected. Degeneration and disorganization of myofibrillar sarcomeric pattern as well as abnormal localization of mitochondria within muscle and altered endomysial sheaths were observed. Morphological alterations of spermatozoa within the gonadal tissue were also noticed. This study demonstrated that uranium exposure induced a variety of histological impairments in fish, supporting environmental concerns when uranium contaminates aquatic systems.

  4. Electrospun type 1 collagen matrices preserving native ultrastructure using benign binary solvent for cardiac tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamparithi, Anuradha; Punnoose, Alan M; Kuruvilla, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Electrospinning is a well-established technique that uses a high electric field to fabricate ultrafine fibrous scaffolds from both natural and synthetic polymers to mimic the cellular microenvironment. Collagen is one of the most preferred biopolymers, due to its widespread occurrence in nature and its biocompatibility. Electrospinning of collagen alone has been reported, with fluoroalcohols such as hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and trifluoroethanol (TFE), but the resultant collagen lost its characteristic ultrastructural integrity of D-periodicity 67 nm banding, confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the fluoroalcohols used were toxic to the environment. In this study, we describe the use of glacial acetic acid and DMSO to dissolve collagen and generate electrospun nanofibers of collagen type 1, which is non-toxic and economical. TEM analysis revealed the characteristic feature of native collagen triple helical repeats, showing 67 nm D-periodicity banding pattern and confirming that the ultrastructural integrity of the collagen was maintained. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed fiber diameters in the range of 200-1100 nm. Biocompatibility of the three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds was established by MTT assays using rat skeletal myoblasts (L6 cell line) and confocal microscopic analysis of immunofluorescent-stained sections of collagen scaffolds for muscle-specific markers such as desmin and actin. Primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCM) seeded onto the collagen scaffolds were able to maintain their contractile function for a period of 17 days and also expressed higher levels of desmin when compared with 2D cultures. We report for the first time that collagen type 1 can be electrospun without blending with copolymers using the novel benign solvent combination, and the method can be potentially explored for applications in tissue engineering. PMID:25960178

  5. Pyrophosphate scintigraphy and other non-invasive methods in the detection of cardiac involvement in some systemic connective tissue diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirteen patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 patients with polymyositis, and 6 patients with spondylitis ankylopoetica (Bechterew's disease) underwent clinical cardiologic examination and scintigraphy of the myocardium (99mTc-pyrophosphate), ECG, echocardiography, polygraphy, and their blood pressure was taken. The aim of the study was to ascertain how such a combination of non-invasive examinations can help in recognizing a cardiac involvement. In systemic lupus erythematosus cases one or more positive findings were revealed in 9 patients (69%), in 4 patients all examinations were negative (31%). Four patients (50%) with polymyosits had positive findings. In patients with spondylitis ankylopoetica positive findings occurred in 2 cases (33%). The study has shown that a combination of non-invasive cardiologic methods increases the probability of detecting cardiac involvement in systemic connective tissue diseases. (orig.)

  6. cav-p60 expression in rat muscle tissues. Distribution of caveolar proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M.; Vinten, Jørgen; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen

    Caveolae, Caveolin, muscle, endothel, electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, rat (Wistar)......Caveolae, Caveolin, muscle, endothel, electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, rat (Wistar)...

  7. Technetium-99m labeled 1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-4-(2-mercapto-2-methyl-4-azapentyl)-4- (2-mercapto-2-methylp ropylamino)-piperidine and iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine for studying cardiac adrenergic function: a comparison of the uptake characteristics in vascular smooth muscle cells and neonatal cardiac myocytes, and an investigation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samnick, Samuel E-mail: rassam@uniklinik-saarland.de; Scheuer, Claudia; Muenks, Sven; El-Gibaly, Amr M.; Menger, Michael D.; Kirsch, Carl-Martin

    2004-05-01

    In developing technetium-99m-based radioligands for in vivo studies of cardiac adrenergic neurons, we compared the uptake characteristics of the {sup 99m}Tc-labeled 1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-4-(2-mercapto-2-methyl-4-azapentyl)-4- (2-mercapto-2-methylpropylamino)-piperidine ({sup 99m}Tc-FBPBAT) with those of the clinically established meta-[{sup 123}I]iodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) in rat vascular smooth muscle cells and neonatal cardiac myocytes. Furthermore, the cardiac and extracardiac uptake of both radiopharmaceuticals was assessed in intact rats and in rats pretreated with various {alpha}- and {beta}-adrenoceptor drugs, and adrenergic reuptake blocking agents. The uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-FBPBAT and {sup 123}I-MIBG into vascular smooth muscle cells and neonatal cardiac myocytes was rapid; more than 85% of the radioactivity accumulation into the cells occurring within the first 3 minutes. Radioactivity uptake after a 60-minute incubation at 37 degree sign C (pH 7.4) varied from 15% to 65% of the total loaded activity per million cells. In all cases, {sup 99m}Tc-FBPBAT showed the higher uptake, relative to {sup 123}I-MIBG, at any given cell concentration. The cellular uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-FBPBAT was lower at 4 degree sign C and 20 degree sign C than at 37 degree sign C. In contrast, the {sup 123}I-MIBG uptake was only slightly temperature dependent. Inhibition experiments confirmed that the cellular uptake of {sup 123}I-MIBG is mediated by the uptake-I carrier, whereas {alpha}{sub 1}- and {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors were predominantly involved in the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-FBPBAT into the cardiovascular tissues. Biodistribution studies in rats showed that {sup 99m}Tc-FBPBAT accumulated in myocardium after intravenous injection. Radioactivity in rat heart amounted to 2.32% and 1.91% of the injected dose per gram at 15 and 60 minutes postinjection, compared with 3.10% and 2.21% injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) in the experiment with {sup 123}I

  8. A Multistep Procedure To Prepare Pre-Vascularized Cardiac Tissue Constructs Using Adult Stem Sells, Dynamic Cell Cultures And Porous Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    StefaniaPagliari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The vascularization of tissue engineered products represents a key issue in regenerative medicine which needs to be addressed before the translation of these protocols to the bedside can be foreseen. Here we propose a multistep procedure to prepare pre-vascularized three-dimensional (3D cardiac bio-substitutes using dynamic cell cultures and highly porous biocompatible gelatin scaffolds. The strategy adopted exploits the peculiar differentiation potential of two distinct subsets of adult stem cells to obtain human vascularized 3D cardiac tissues. In the first step of the procedure, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs are seeded onto gelatin scaffolds to provide interconnected vessel-like structures, while human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (hCMPCs are stimulated in vitro to obtain their commitment towards the cardiac phenotype. The use of a modular bioreactor allows the perfusion of the whole scaffold, providing superior performance in terms of cardiac tissue maturation and cell survival. Both the cell culture on natural-derived polymers and the continuous medium perfusion of the scaffold led to the formation of a densely packaged proto-tissue composed of vascular-like and cardiac-like cells, which might complete maturation process and interconnect with native tissue upon in vivo implantation. In conclusion, the data obtained through the approach here proposed highlight the importance to provide stem cells with complementary signals in vitro able to resemble the complexity of cardiac microenvironment.

  9. Cardiomyocytes induce endothelial cells to trans-differentiate into cardiac muscle: Implications for myocardium regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Condorelli, G.; Borello, U; De Angelis, L.; Latronico, M.; D. Sirabella; Coletta, M; Galli, R; Balconi, G.; Follenzi, A.; Frati, G.; M. G. Cusella De Angelis; Gioglio, L.; Amuchastegui, S.; Adorini, L; Naldini, L

    2001-01-01

    The concept of tissue-restricted differentiation of postnatal stem cells has been challenged by recent evidence showing pluripotency for hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and neural stem cells. Furthermore, rare but well documented examples exist of already differentiated cells in developing mammals that change fate and trans-differentiate into another cell type. Here, we report that endothelial cells, either freshly isolated from embryonic vessels or established as homogenous cells in culture, dif...

  10. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy of human smooth muscle cells in bioengineered tissue scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackmann, Christian; Esguerra, Maricris; Olausson, Daniel; Delbro, Dick; Krettek, Alexandra; Gatenholm, Paul; Enejder, Annika

    2011-02-01

    The integration of living, human smooth muscle cells in biosynthesized cellulose scaffolds was monitored by nonlinear microscopy toward contractile artificial blood vessels. Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy was applied for studies of the cell interaction with the biopolymer network. CARS microscopy probing CH2-groups at 2845 cm-1 permitted three-dimensional imaging of the cells with high contrast for lipid-rich intracellular structures. SHG microscopy visualized the fibers of the cellulose scaffold, together with a small signal obtained from the cytoplasmic myosin of the muscle cells. From the overlay images we conclude a close interaction between cells and cellulose fibers. We followed the cell migration into the three-dimensional structure, illustrating that while the cells submerge into the scaffold they extrude filopodia on top of the surface. A comparison between compact and porous scaffolds reveals a migration depth of <10 μm for the former, whereas the porous type shows cells further submerged into the cellulose. Thus, the scaffold architecture determines the degree of cell integration. We conclude that the unique ability of nonlinear microscopy to visualize the three-dimensional composition of living, soft matter makes it an ideal instrument within tissue engineering.

  11. Arsenolipids show different profiles in muscle tissues of four commercial fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amayo, Kenneth O; Raab, Andrea; Krupp, Eva M; Marschall, Talke; Horsfall, Michael; Feldmann, Jörg

    2014-04-01

    Identification of arsenolipids in biological samples is today a challenge and in particular the need for speciation data for toxicological assessment. Fish is one of the major contributors of arsenic in diet. However, the majority of work in this area has only focused on the water soluble compounds. The aim of this study is to provide some data on total arsenic and in particular to gain insights into the types of arsenolipids in the muscle tissues of four commercial and commonly consumed fish species. Determination of total arsenic was carried out by ICP-MS following microwave-assisted acid digestion of the samples and the concentrations found for total arsenic in the muscles ranged from 4.8 to 6.0μg/gd.w. Sequential extraction was carried out using hexane and MeOH/DCM followed by reversed phase HPLC-ICP-MS/ESI-MS analysis of the MeOH/DCM fraction. Eight arsenolipids including three arsenic fatty acids (AsFAs) and five arsenic hydrocarbons (AsHCs) were identified. The result showed that fish with higher arsenolipid (AsLp) content (brill and sardine) are dominated by AsHC, while those with the smaller proportion of AsLp (mackerel and red mullet) have predominately arsenic in the form of AsFA. PMID:24332310

  12. The role of matrix metalloproteinases in muscle and adipose tissue development and meat quality: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sara; Purslow, Peter P

    2016-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix components but are also important signaling molecules that regulate many biological processes including muscle, adipose and connective tissue development. Most recently it has been discovered that MMPs act as intracellular signaling molecules inducing gene expression and altering related proteins in the nucleus. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms of MMPs and their inhibitors are known to exist and most of the research on MMPs to date has focused on their activity in relation to human health and disease. Nevertheless there is a growing body of evidence identifying important roles of MMPs as regulators of myogenesis, fibrogenesis and adipogenesis. The aim of this review is to highlight the currently known functions of the MMPs that have a direct bearing on the deposition of meat components and their relationship with meat quality. Some central pathways by which these enzymes can affect the tenderness, the amount and type of fatty acids are highlighted. PMID:27180222

  13. Development of antibody-siRNA conjugate targeted to cardiac and skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugo, Tsukasa; Terada, Michiko; Oikawa, Tatsuo; Miyata, Kenichi; Nishimura, Satoshi; Kenjo, Eriya; Ogasawara-Shimizu, Mari; Makita, Yukimasa; Imaichi, Sachiko; Murata, Shumpei; Otake, Kentaro; Kikuchi, Kuniko; Teratani, Mika; Masuda, Yasushi; Kamei, Takayuki; Takagahara, Shuichi; Ikeda, Shota; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    2016-09-10

    Despite considerable efforts to develop efficient carriers, the major target organ of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) remains limited to the liver. Expanding the application outside the liver is required to increase the value of siRNAs. Here we report on a novel platform targeted to muscular organs by conjugation of siRNAs with anti-CD71 Fab' fragment. This conjugate showed durable gene-silencing in the heart and skeletal muscle for one month after intravenous administration in normal mice. In particular, 1μg siRNA conjugate showed significant gene-silencing in the gastrocnemius when injected intramuscularly. In a mouse model of peripheral artery disease, the treatment with myostatin-targeting siRNA conjugate by intramuscular injection resulted in significant silencing of myostatin and hypertrophy of the gastrocnemius, which was translated into the recovery of running performance. These data demonstrate the utility of antibody conjugation for siRNA delivery and the therapeutic potential for muscular diseases. PMID:27369865

  14. Time- and space-resolved spectroscopic characterization of laser-induced swine muscle tissue plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial-temporal evolution of muscle tissue sample plasma induced by a high-power transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 pulsed laser at vacuum conditions (0.1–0.01 Pa) has been investigated using high-resolution optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and imaging methods. The induced plasma shows mainly electronically excited neutral Na, K, C, Mg, H, Ca, N and O atoms, ionized C+, C2+, C3+, Mg+, Mg2+, N+, N2+, Ca+, O+ and O2+ species and molecular band systems of CN(B2Σ+–X2Σ+), C2(d3Πg–a3Πu), CH(B2Σ−–X2Π; A2Δ–X2Π), NH(A3Π–X3Σ−), OH(A2Σ+–X2 Σ+), and CaOH(B2Σ+–X2Σ+; A2Π–X2Σ+). Time-resolved two-dimensional emission spectroscopy is used to study the expanded distribution of different species ejected during ablation. Spatial and temporal variations of different atoms and ionic excited species are reported. Plasma parameters such as electron density and temperature were measured from the spatio-temporal analysis of different species. Average velocities of some plasma species were estimated. - Highlights: • LIBS of swine muscle tissue sample generated by CO2 laser pulses has been done for the first time. • Average velocities of some plasma species have been calculated from spatial and temporally resolved 2D OES images. • Electron density (~ 9 × 1017 cm-3) has been studied with spatial and temporal resolution. • Temporal evolution of the plasma temperature has been calculated by means of Boltzmann plots

  15. Intermuscular adipose tissue and thigh muscle area dynamics during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Tene, Lilac; Zelicha, Hila; Tsaban, Gal; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Zeller, Lior; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2016-08-01

    It remains unclear whether intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) has any metabolic influence or whether it is merely a marker of abnormalities, as well as what are the effects of specific lifestyle strategies for weight loss on the dynamics of both IMAT and thigh muscle area (TMA). We followed the trajectory of IMAT and TMA during 18-mo lifestyle intervention among 278 sedentary participants with abdominal obesity, using magnetic resonance imaging. We measured the resting metabolic rate (RMR) by an indirect calorimeter. Among 273 eligible participants (47.8 ± 9.3 yr of age), the mean IMAT was 9.6 ± 4.6 cm(2) Baseline IMAT levels were directly correlated with waist circumference, abdominal subdepots, C-reactive protein, and leptin and inversely correlated with baseline TMA and creatinine (P < 0.05 for all). After 18 mo (86.3% adherence), both IMAT (-1.6%) and TMA (-3.3%) significantly decreased (P < 0.01 vs. baseline). The changes in both IMAT and TMA were similar across the lifestyle intervention groups and directly corresponded with moderate weight loss (P < 0.001). IMAT change did not remain independently associated with decreased abdominal subdepots or improved cardiometabolic parameters after adjustments for age, sex, and 18-mo weight loss. In similar models, 18-mo TMA loss remained associated with decreased RMR, decreased activity, and with increased fasting glucose levels and IMAT (P < 0.05 for all). Unlike other fat depots, IMAT may not represent a unique or specific adipose tissue, instead largely reflecting body weight change per se. Moderate weight loss induced a significant decrease in thigh muscle area, suggesting the importance of resistance training to accompany weight loss programs. PMID:27402560

  16. Zearalenone-induced changes in biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiac tissue: Protective role of crocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, I Ben; Boussabbeh, M; Neffati, F; Najjar, M F; Abid-Essefi, S; Bacha, H

    2016-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin from Fusarium species commonly found in food commodities and is known to cause reproductive disorders. Several in vivo studies have shown that ZEN is haematotoxic and hepatotoxic and causes several alterations of immunological parameters. Meantime, the available information on the cardiotoxic effects of ZEN is very much limited. In the present study, we investigated the toxic effects of ZEN in heart tissues of Balb/c mice. We demonstrated that ZEN (40 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.)) increased creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and induced oxidative stress as monitored by measuring the malondialdehyde level, the generation of protein carbonyls, the catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and the expression of the heat shock proteins (Hsp 70). We also demonstrated that acute administration of ZEN triggers apoptosis in cardiac tissue. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of crocin (CRO), a natural carotenoid, to prevent ZEN-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. In fact, combined treatment of ZEN with different doses of CRO (50, 100, and 250 mg kg(-1) b.w.) showed a significant reduction of ZEN-induced toxicity for all tested markers in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that CRO was effective in the protection against ZEN-induced toxicity in cardiac tissue. PMID:26231423

  17. Discordant gene expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes: effect of interleukin-6 infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, A.; Wolsk, Emil; Bruce, C.;

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis  We compared metabolic gene expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and from well-matched healthy control subjects. We hypothesised that gene expression would be discordantly regulated when comparing the two groups. Our secondary aim was...... patients, along with the finding that adipose tissue from some patients with type 2 diabetes can express UCP1 mRNA, suggests that in these patients white adipose tissue may move towards a brown adipose tissue phenotype.......Aims/hypothesis  We compared metabolic gene expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and from well-matched healthy control subjects. We hypothesised that gene expression would be discordantly regulated when comparing the two groups. Our secondary aim was...... to determine the effect of Interleukin-6 (IL6) infusion on circulating adipokines and on gene expression in human adipose tissue. To do this we used real-time RT-PCR. Methods  Both diabetic and control subjects underwent basal skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies. A subset of...

  18. An inverse finite element method for determining the tissue compressibility of human left ventricular wall during the cardiac cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah I Hassaballah

    Full Text Available The determination of the myocardium's tissue properties is important in constructing functional finite element (FE models of the human heart. To obtain accurate properties especially for functional modeling of a heart, tissue properties have to be determined in vivo. At present, there are only few in vivo methods that can be applied to characterize the internal myocardium tissue mechanics. This work introduced and evaluated an FE inverse method to determine the myocardial tissue compressibility. Specifically, it combined an inverse FE method with the experimentally-measured left ventricular (LV internal cavity pressure and volume versus time curves. Results indicated that the FE inverse method showed good correlation between LV repolarization and the variations in the myocardium tissue bulk modulus K (K = 1/compressibility, as well as provided an ability to describe in vivo human myocardium material behavior. The myocardium bulk modulus can be effectively used as a diagnostic tool of the heart ejection fraction. The model developed is proved to be robust and efficient. It offers a new perspective and means to the study of living-myocardium tissue properties, as it shows the variation of the bulk modulus throughout the cardiac cycle.

  19. An inverse finite element method for determining the tissue compressibility of human left ventricular wall during the cardiac cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaballah, Abdallah I; Hassan, Mohsen A; Mardi, Azizi N; Hamdi, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The determination of the myocardium's tissue properties is important in constructing functional finite element (FE) models of the human heart. To obtain accurate properties especially for functional modeling of a heart, tissue properties have to be determined in vivo. At present, there are only few in vivo methods that can be applied to characterize the internal myocardium tissue mechanics. This work introduced and evaluated an FE inverse method to determine the myocardial tissue compressibility. Specifically, it combined an inverse FE method with the experimentally-measured left ventricular (LV) internal cavity pressure and volume versus time curves. Results indicated that the FE inverse method showed good correlation between LV repolarization and the variations in the myocardium tissue bulk modulus K (K = 1/compressibility), as well as provided an ability to describe in vivo human myocardium material behavior. The myocardium bulk modulus can be effectively used as a diagnostic tool of the heart ejection fraction. The model developed is proved to be robust and efficient. It offers a new perspective and means to the study of living-myocardium tissue properties, as it shows the variation of the bulk modulus throughout the cardiac cycle. PMID:24367544

  20. Shear wave vibrometry evaluation in transverse isotropic tissue mimicking phantoms and skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound radiation force-based methods can quantitatively evaluate tissue viscoelastic material properties. One of the limitations of the current methods is neglecting the inherent anisotropy nature of certain tissues. To explore the phenomenon of anisotropy in a laboratory setting, we created two phantom designs incorporating fibrous and fishing line material with preferential orientations. Four phantoms were made in a cube-shaped mold; both designs were arranged in multiple layers and embedded in porcine gelatin using two different concentrations (8%, 14%). An excised sample of pork tenderloin was also studied. Measurements were made in the phantoms and the pork muscle at different angles by rotating the phantom with respect to the transducer, where 0° and 180° were defined along the fibers, and 90° and 270° across the fibers. Shear waves were generated and measured by a Verasonics ultrasound system equipped with a linear array transducer. For the fibrous phantom, the mean and standard deviations of the shear wave speeds along (0°) and across the fibers (90°) with 8% gelatin were 3.60  ±  0.03 and 3.18  ±  0.12 m s−1 and with 14% gelatin were 4.10  ±  0.11 and 3.90  ±  0.02 m s−1. For the fishing line material phantom, the mean and standard deviations of the shear wave speeds along (0°) and across the fibers (90°) with 8% gelatin were 2.86  ±  0.20 and 2.44  ±  0.24 m s−1 and with 14% gelatin were 3.40  ±  0.09 and 2.84  ±  0.14 m s−1. For the pork muscle, the mean and standard deviations of the shear wave speeds along the fibers (0°) at two different locations were 3.83  ±  0.16 and 3.86  ±  0.12 m s−1 and across the fibers (90°) were 2.73  ±  0.18 and 2.70  ±  0.16 m s−1, respectively. The fibrous and fishing line gelatin-based phantoms exhibited anisotropy that resembles that observed in the pork muscle. (paper)

  1. Variation in fatty acid composition in muscle and heart tissues among species and populations of tropical fish in Lakes Victoria and Kyoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwetegyeka, Justus; Mpango, George; Grahl-Nielsen, Otto

    2008-11-01

    The composition of the fatty acids in muscle and heart tissue of seven fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), marbled lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus), African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), Lake Victoria squeaker (Synodontis victoriae), Bagrus docmas, and Tilapia zilli, from two locations in Lake Kyoga and one location in Lake Victoria was chemometrically determined. The muscle tissue was very lean, with an average of 3.4 mg total fatty acids per g tissue. The lipid level in the heart tissue was approximately five times higher than in the muscle tissue, with an average of 15.5 mg total fatty acids per g tissue. The n-3/n-6 level in the muscles was 1.7 +/- 0.7 and in the heart tissue 1.0 +/- 0.4. The muscle tissue contained an average of 46 mg cholesterol per 100 g, and the heart tissue contained about five times as much. Plasmalogens were detected in 7-8% of the amounts of total fatty acids in both muscle and heart tissue. The seven species had large differences (P < 0.05) in the fatty acid composition for both muscle and heart tissue. Within the species there were differences between fish from the populations in the three locations, although the population differences were smaller than the species differences. These differences appear to be controlled more closely by genetics/transcriptomics than by the diet. PMID:18712426

  2. Substantial elevation of interleukin-6 concentration in peritendinous tissue, in contrast to muscle, following prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Olesen, Jens; Gemmer, Carsten;

    2002-01-01

    Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration has been shown to increase with exercise and various cell types and tissues have been suggested to be responsible for this increase. At present no studies have measured the interstitial concentration of IL-6 in skeletal muscle and connective tissue. The...... present study represents the first attempt to simultaneously measure IL-6 in plasma, skeletal muscle and peritendinous connective tissue in response to prolonged exercise. Six healthy well-trained volunteers completed a 36 km run (flat, 12 km h(-1)). IL-6 was measured before, 2 h post-exercise and 24 h...... of the run (50-fold increase). Using the microdialysis technique, the interstitial concentration of IL-6 was found to increase dramatically from 0 +/- 0 pg ml(-1) to 3618 +/- 1239 pg ml(-1) in the peritendinous tissue in the hours following the exercise. The pattern of changes was similar in plasma...

  3. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiation from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Esophagus Tissues Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are increasingly being used for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can be differentiated from ASCs. Oxygen is a key factor influencing the stem cell differentiation. Tissue engineered esophagus has been a preferred solution for diseased esophagus replacement. The first part involved the effect of hypoxia on differentiation. The results showed 5% hypoxia to be the optimal condition for differentiation of ASCs into contract...

  4. Tissue-specific bioaccumulation of human and veterinary antibiotics in bile, plasma, liver and muscle tissues of wild fish from a highly urbanized region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the bioaccumulation of antibiotics in bile, plasma, liver and muscle tissues of wild fish from four rivers in the Pearl River Delta region. In total, 12 antibiotics were present in at least one type of fish tissues from nine wild fish species in the four rivers. The mean values of log bioaccumulation factors (log BAFs) for the detected antibiotics in fish bile, plasma, liver, and muscle tissues were at the range of 2.06–4.08, 1.85–3.47, 1.41–3.51, and 0.48–2.70, respectively. As the digestion tissues, fish bile, plasma, and liver showed strong bioaccumulation ability for some antibiotics, indicating a different bioaccumulation pattern from hydrophobic organic contaminants. Human health risk assessment based on potential fish consumption indicates that these antibiotics do not appear to pose an appreciable risk to human health. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report of bioaccumulation patterns of antibiotics in wild fish bile and plasma. - Highlights: • We investigated the bioaccumulation of antibiotics in wild fish from the Pearl River Delta region. • Twelve antibiotics were found in fish bile, plasma, liver and muscle tissues. • High log bioaccumulation factors suggested strong bioaccumulation ability for some antibiotics in wild fish tissues. • The presence of antibiotics in fish bile and plasma tissues indicates a novel bioaccumulation pattern. • Potential adverse effects are possibly caused by the high internal antibiotic concentrations in tissues. - Fish bile and plasma displayed strong bioaccumulation ability for some antibiotics, indicating a novel bioaccumulation pattern for antibiotics in the contaminated environment

  5. Molecular characterization of a gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) muscle tissue cDNA for carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukouvala, Evridiki; Leaver, Michael J; Favre-Krey, Laurence; Theodoridou, Maria; Krey, Grigorios

    2010-10-01

    Understanding the control of piscine fatty acid metabolism is important for determining the nutritional requirements of fish, and hence for the production of optimal aquaculture diets. The regulation and expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1; EC No 2.3.1.21) are critical processes in the control of fatty acid metabolism, and here we report a cDNA from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) which encodes a protein with high identity to vertebrate CPT1. This sea bream CPT1 mRNA is predominantly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle, with little expression in other tissues. Phylogenetic analysis of other vertebrate CPT1 sequences show that fish genomes contain a single gene related to mammalian CPT1B, and a further two multi-gene families related to mammalian CPT1A. Genes related to mammalian CPT1C are absent in fish. Therefore, based on both functional and evolutionary orthology to mammalian CPT1B, the sea bream CPT1 reported here is a CPT1B isoform. Sea bream CPT1B mRNA expression progressively decreases in heart and muscle up to 12h after last feeding, but returns to initial, non-fasted levels after 72h. In contrast, in liver non-fasted expression is low, but strongly increases at 24 and 72h after last feeding. In white muscle and liver, CPT1B mRNA expression is highly correlated with the expression of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARbeta). Thus fatty acid metabolism by CPT1B and its control by PPARs are similar in fish and mammals, but multiple genes for CPT1A-like proteins in fish also suggest different and more complex pathways of lipid utilisation than in mammals. PMID:20601065

  6. Autophagy plays an important role in Sunitinib-mediated cell death in H9c2 cardiac muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunitinib, which is a multitargeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, exhibits antiangiogenic and antitumor activity, and extends survival of patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). This molecule has also been reported to be associated with cardiotoxicity at a high frequency, but the mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, we observed that Sunitinib showed high anti-proliferative effect on H9c2 cardiac muscle cells measured by PI staining and the MTT assay. But apoptotic markers (PARP cleavage, caspase 3 cleavage and chromatin condensation) were uniformly negative in H9c2 cells after Sunitinib treatment for 48 h, indicating that another cell death pathway may be involved in Sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity. Here we found Sunitinib dramatically increased autophagic flux in H9c2 cells. Acidic vesicle fluorescence and high expression of LC3-II in H9c2 cells identified autophagy as a Sunitinib-induced process that might be associated with cytotoxicity. Furthermore, knocking down Beclin 1 by RNA-interference to block autophagy in H9c2 cells revealed that the death rate was decreased when treated with Sunitinib in comparison to control cells. These results confirmed that autophagy plays an important role in Sunitinib-mediated H9c2 cells cytotoxicity. Taken together, the data presented here strongly suggest that autophagy is associated with Sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity, and that inhibition of autophagy constitutes a viable strategy for reducing Sunitinib-induced cardiomyocyte death thereby alleviating Sunitinib cardiotoxicity.

  7. Effects of pressure- or volume-overload hypertrophy on passive stiffness in isolated adult cardiac muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.; Koide, M.; Cooper, G. 4th; Zile, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the changes in myocardial stiffness induced by chronic hemodynamic overloading are dependent on changes in the passive stiffness of the cardiac muscle cell (cardiocyte). However, no previous studies have examined the passive constitutive properties of cardiocytes isolated from animals with myocardial hypertrophy. Accordingly, changes in relative passive stiffness of cardiocytes isolated from animals with chronic pressure- or volume-overload hypertrophy were determined by examining the effects of anisosmotic stress on cardiocyte size. Anisosmotic stress was produced by altering superfusate osmolarity. Hypertrophied cardiocytes were enzymatically isolated from 16 adult cats with right ventricular (RV) pressure-overload hypertrophy induced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) and from 6 adult cats with RV volume-overload hypertrophy induced by creating an atrial septal defect (ASD). Left ventricular (LV) cardiocytes from each cat served as nonhypertrophied, normally loaded, same-animal controls. Superfusate osmolarity was decreased from 305 +/- 3 to 135 +/- 5 mosM and increased to 645 +/- 4 mosM. During anisosmotic stress, there were no significant differences between hypertrophied RV and normal LV cardiocytes in pressure overload PAB cats with respect to percent change in cardiocyte area (47 +/- 2% in RV vs. 48 +/- 2% in LV), diameter (46 +/- 3% in RV vs. 48 +/- 2% in LV), or length (2.4 +/- 0.2% in RV vs. 2.0 +/- 0.3% in LV), or sarcomere length (1.5 +/- 0.1% in RV vs. 1.3 +/- 0.3% in LV). Likewise, there were no significant differences in cardiocyte strain between hypertrophied RV and normal LV cardiocytes from ASD cats. In conclusion, chronic pressure-overload hypertrophy and chronic volume-overload hypertrophy did not alter the cardiocyte response to anisosmotic stress. Thus chronic overload hypertrophy did not alter relative passive cardiocyte stiffness.

  8. Photochemical bonding of epithelial cell-seeded collagen lattice to rat muscle layer for esophageal tissue engineering: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Barbara P.; Sato, M.; Vacanti, Joseph P.; Kochevar, Irene E.; Redmond, Robert W.

    2005-04-01

    Bilayered tube structures consist of epithelial cell-seeded collagen lattice and muscle layer have been fabricated for esophageal tissue engineering. Good adhesion between layers in order to facilitate cell infiltration and neovascularization in the collagen lattice is required. Previous efforts include using other bioglues such as fibrin glue and silicone tube as the physical support. However, the former is subjected to chances of transmitting blood-born infectious disease and is time consuming while the latter requires a second surgical procedure. The current project aimed to bond the cell-seeded collagen lattice to muscle layer using photochemical bonding, which has previously been demonstrated a rapid and non-thermal procedure in bonding collagenous tissues. Rat esophageal epithelial cells were seeded on collagen lattice and together with the latissimus dorsi muscle layer, were exposed to a photosensitizer rose Bengal at the bonding surface. An argon laser was used to irradiate the approximated layers. Bonding strength was measured during the peeling test of the collagen layer from the muscle layer. Post-bonding cell viability was assessed using a modified NADH-diaphorase microassay. A pilot in vivo study was conducted by directly bonding the cell-seeded collagen layer onto the muscle flap in rats and the structures were characterized histologically. Photochemical bonding was found to significantly increase the adherence at the bonding interface without compromising the cell viability. This indicates the feasibility of using the technique to fabricate multi-layered structures in the presence of living cells. The pilot animal study demonstrated integration of the collagen lattice with the muscle layer at the bonding interface although the subsequent surgical manipulation disturbed the integration at some region. This means that an additional procedure removing the tube could be avoided if the approximation and thus the bonding are optimized. Cell infiltration

  9. Transplantation of 5-azacytidine treated cardiac fibroblasts improves cardiac function of infarct hearts in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Cheng-chun; MA Gan-shan; CHEN Ji-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Cellular cardiomyoplasty by transplantation of various cell types has been investigated as potential treatments for the improvement of cardiac function after myocardial injury. A major barrier for the clinical application of cell transplantation is obtaining sufficiently large quantities of suitable cells. AIIogeneic cellular cardiomyoplasty may provide an alternative source of abundant, transplantable, myogenic cells by in vitro manipulation of cardiac fibroblasts using chemicals including 5-azacytidine. This study evaluated cardiomyogenic differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts, their survival in myocardial scar tissue, and the effect of the implanted cells on heart function.Methods Primary cardiac fibroblasts from neonatal rats were treated with 5-azacytidine (10 μmol/L) or control.Treatment of 5-azacytidine caused myogenic differentiation of cultured cardiac fibroblasts, as defined by elongation and fusion into multinucleated myotubes with sarcomeric structures as identified by electron microscopy, and positive immunostaining for cardiac specific proteins, troponin I and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) and the gap junction protein connexin 43. The myogenic cells (1.0x106) were transplanted into the infarcted myocardium 2 weeks after coronary artery occlusion.Results By 1 month after transplantation, the converted fibroblasts gave rise to a cluster of cardiac-like muscle cells that in the hearts occupied a large part of the scar with positive immunostaining for the myogenic proteins troponin I and β-MHC. Engrafted cells also expressed the gap junction protein connexin 43 in a disorganized manner. There was no positive staining in the control hearts treated with injections of culture medium. Heart function was evaluated at 6 weeks after myocardial injury with echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements. Improvement in cardiac function was seen in the hearts transplanted with the 5-azacytidine-treated cardiac fibroblasts which was absent in the

  10. Engineered 3D bioimplants using elastomeric scaffold, self-assembling peptide hydrogel, and adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells for cardiac regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Soler-Botija, Carolina; Bagó, Juli R; Llucià-Valldeperas, Aida; Vallés-Lluch, Ana; Castells-Sala, Cristina; Martínez-Ramos, Cristina; Fernández-Muiños, Teresa; Chachques, Juan Carlos; Pradas, Manuel Monleón; Semino, Carlos E; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Contractile restoration of myocardial scars remains a challenge with important clinical implications. Here, a combination of porous elastomeric membrane, peptide hydrogel, and subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells (subATDPCs) was designed and evaluated as a bioimplant for cardiac regeneration in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. SubATDPCs were doubly transduced with lentiviral vectors to express bioluminescent-fluorescent reporters driven by constitutively active, cardiac...

  11. Removal of pinned scroll waves in cardiac tissues by electric fields in a generic model of three-dimensional excitable media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, De-Bei; Gao, Xiang; Feng, Xia; Pan, Jun-Ting; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Spirals or scroll waves pinned to heterogeneities in cardiac tissues may cause lethal arrhythmias. To unpin these life-threatening spiral waves, methods of wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by low-voltage pulsed DC electric fields (PDCEFs) and circularly polarized electric fields (CPEFs) have been used in two-dimensional (2D) cardiac tissues. Nevertheless, the unpinning of scroll waves in three-dimensional (3D) cardiac systems is much more difficult than that of spiral waves in 2D cardiac systems, and there are few reports on the removal of pinned scroll waves in 3D cardiac tissues by electric fields. In this article, we investigate in detail the removal of pinned scroll waves in a generic model of 3D excitable media using PDCEF, AC electric field (ACEF) and CPEF, respectively. We find that spherical waves can be induced from the heterogeneities by these electric fields in initially quiescent excitable media. However, only CPEF can induce spherical waves with frequencies higher than that of the pinned scroll wave. Such higher-frequency spherical waves induced by CPEF can be used to drive the pinned scroll wave out of the cardiac systems. We hope this remarkable ability of CPEF can provide a better alternative to terminate arrhythmias caused by pinned scroll waves. PMID:26905367

  12. Relationship between deoxyribonucleic acid content and nucleoli in human heart muscle cells and estimation of cell number during cardiac growth and hyperfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, C P

    1975-01-01

    In the myocardium of 30 human hearts of all age groups quantitative deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) measurements were performed and the results of the measurements were correlated with the pure myocardium weight. By means of the diphenylamine reaction the total amount of DNA (DNA concentration and DNA amount) in the myocardium was estimated. By means of Feulgen cytophotometry the DNA amount exclusively in the heart muscle cell nuclei was measured. With the use of myocardial tissue spread on slides, the nuclear areas of the heart muscle nuclei were planimetrically measured. After preparation with DNase and staining with gallocyanine chromalumn the nucleoli in heart muscle nuclei were specifically presented and their number per nucleus as well as their area values were demonstrated. From the biochemical and cytophotometric results of the myocardial DNA content it was possible to estimate the absolute cell number of the hearts, keeping the pure myocardium weight in consideration. The investigations led to the following results. In growing childrens' hearts the DNA concentration decreases to a constant level of 0.3-0.4 mg/g. The amount of DNA rises with increasing heart weight. During the growth of the heart of a child between the ages of 8 and 12 the DNA amount doubles in the heart muscle nuclei, and most of the muscle nuclei of an adult have a tetraploid DNA content. In pathological heart hypertrophy a further polyploidization of the heart muscle nuclei occurs. The areas of the nuclei increases with growing polyploidization. The nuclear areas form the same grouping as the ploidy classes. With growing nuclear areas, the total areas of the nucleoli and their number per nucleus also increase. Right after birth an increase in the number of connective tissue and heart muscle cells follows. A normal heart contains about 2 x 10(9) muscle cells. In hypertrophic hearts the number of muscle cells can double. PMID:129834

  13. Circulating Matrix Metalloproteinases and Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases in Cardiac Amyloidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Komei; Essick, Eric E.; Doros, Gheorghe; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Connors, Lawreen H.; Seldin, David C.; Sam, Flora

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac amyloidosis due to amyloid fibril deposition in the heart results in cardiomyopathy (CMP) with heart failure (HF) and/or conduction disturbances. Immunoglobulin light chain–related CMP (AL‐CMP) features rapidly progressive HF with an extremely poor prognosis compared with a CMP due to the deposition of mutant (ATTR) amyloidosis or wild‐type (senile systemic amyloidosis, SSA) transthyretin (TTR) proteins. Amyloid fibril deposition disrupts the myocardial extracellular matrix...

  14. Exercise-induced increase in interstitial bradykinin and adenosine concentrations in skeletal muscle and peritendinous tissue in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, H; Bjørn, C; Boushel, Robert Christopher;

    2002-01-01

    been established. Microdialysis (molecular mass cut-off 5 kDa) was performed simultaneously in calf muscle and peritendinous Achilles tissue at rest and during 10 min periods of incremental (0.75 W, 2 W, 3.5 W and 4.75 W) dynamic plantar flexion exercise in 10 healthy individuals (mean age 27 years......Bradykinin is known to cause vasodilatation in resistance vessels and may, together with adenosine, be an important regulator of tissue blood flow during exercise. Whether tissue concentrations of bradykinin change with exercise in skeletal muscle and tendon-related connective tissue has not yet...... interstitial concentration of bradykinin rose in response to exercise both in skeletal muscle (from 23.1 +/- 4.9 nmol l(-1) to 110.5 +/- 37.9 nmol l(-1); P <0.05) and in the peritendinous tissue (from 27.7 +/- 7.8 nmol l(-1) to 105.0 +/- 37.9 nmol l(-1); P <0.05). In parallel, the adenosine concentration...

  15. [Morphological characteristics of the changes in the skeletal muscle tissue in acute experimental ischemia of the extremities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel'ev, V S; Chekareva, G A; Mishnev, O D; Bogdanov, O A

    1985-05-01

    A comprehensive morphological study of the ischemic skeletal muscles of the limbs was performed in experiments on dogs. Ischemia of the muscle tissue was induced by artificial embolic occlusion of the terminal part of the aorta. A quantitative functional and morphological study revealed serious disturbances in metabolism of the skeletal muscle that was subjected to a 6-hour ischemia. Depression of aerobic metabolism, ineffectiveness of anaerobic glycolysis (a spare pathway of the synthesis of macroergic substances), a dramatic lowering of ATPase activity, and activation of acid phosphatase in experiments of such a duration are important signs of a probably compromised adaptation process and irreversibility of the lesions in the tissue. The data should be taken into consideration in determining the optimal periods of the blood flow recovery in the limbs. Morphological changes in muscle fibers under ischemia progress with an increase in the experiment duration (up to 9 and 12 h). An important morphological sign of ischemia is a disturbed typification of muscle fibers. PMID:4005420

  16. Time- and space-resolved spectroscopic characterization of laser-induced swine muscle tissue plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, J.J. [Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Diaz, L., E-mail: luis.diaz@csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CFMAC, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Ramirez, S. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CFMAC, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Caceres, J.O. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense, Cuidad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    The spatial-temporal evolution of muscle tissue sample plasma induced by a high-power transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO{sub 2} pulsed laser at vacuum conditions (0.1–0.01 Pa) has been investigated using high-resolution optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and imaging methods. The induced plasma shows mainly electronically excited neutral Na, K, C, Mg, H, Ca, N and O atoms, ionized C{sup +}, C{sup 2+}, C{sup 3+}, Mg{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, N{sup +}, N{sup 2+}, Ca{sup +}, O{sup +} and O{sup 2+} species and molecular band systems of CN(B{sup 2}Σ{sup +}–X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}), C{sub 2}(d{sup 3}Π{sub g}–a{sup 3}Π{sub u}), CH(B{sup 2}Σ{sup −}–X{sup 2}Π; A{sup 2}Δ–X{sup 2}Π), NH(A{sup 3}Π–X{sup 3}Σ{sup −}), OH(A{sup 2}Σ{sup +}–X{sup 2} Σ{sup +}), and CaOH(B{sup 2}Σ{sup +}–X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}; A{sup 2}Π–X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}). Time-resolved two-dimensional emission spectroscopy is used to study the expanded distribution of different species ejected during ablation. Spatial and temporal variations of different atoms and ionic excited species are reported. Plasma parameters such as electron density and temperature were measured from the spatio-temporal analysis of different species. Average velocities of some plasma species were estimated. - Highlights: • LIBS of swine muscle tissue sample generated by CO{sub 2} laser pulses has been done for the first time. • Average velocities of some plasma species have been calculated from spatial and temporally resolved 2D OES images. • Electron density (~ 9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) has been studied with spatial and temporal resolution. • Temporal evolution of the plasma temperature has been calculated by means of Boltzmann plots.

  17. Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptide D-4F Reduces Cardiac Hypertrophy and Improves Apolipoprotein A-I-Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport From Cardiac Tissue in LDL Receptor-null Mice Fed a Western Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Zhang, Song; Ye, Ping; Liu, Yong-Xue; Qin, Yan-Wen; Miao, Dong-Mei

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that hypercholesterolemia is an independent determinant of increased left ventricular (LV) mass. Because high-density lipoprotein and its major protein apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mediate reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and have cardiac protective effects, we hypothesized that the apoA-I mimetic peptide D-4F could promote RCT in cardiac tissue and decrease cardiac hypertrophy induced by hypercholesterolemia. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice were fed by a Western diet for 18 weeks and then randomized to receive water, or D-4F 0.3 mg/mL, or D-4F 0.5 mg/mL added to drinking water for 6 weeks. After D-4F administration, an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride in a trend toward dose-responsivity were found in cardiac tissue. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a reduction in LV posterior wall end-diastolic dimension, and an increase in mitral valve E/A ratio and LV ejection fraction. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed reduced LV wall thickness and myocardial cell diameter. The protein levels of ABCA1 and LXRα were elevated in cardiac tissue of D-4F treated mice compared with the controls (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that D-4F treatment reduced cardiac hypertrophy, and improved cardiac performance in low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice fed a Western diet, presumably through the LXRα-ABCA1 pathway associated with enhanced myocardial RCT. PMID:26828321

  18. Electrical stimulation as a biomimicry tool for regulating muscle cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadian, Samad; Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Kaji, Hirokazu; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need to understand muscle cell behaviors and to engineer muscle tissues to replace defective tissues in the body. Despite a long history of the clinical use of electric fields for muscle tissues in vivo, electrical stimulation (ES) has recently gained significant attention as a powerful tool for regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro. ES aims to mimic the electrical environment of electroactive muscle cells (e.g., cardiac or skeletal muscle cells) by helping to regulate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. As a result, it can be used to enhance the alignment and differentiation of skeletal or cardiac muscle cells and to aid in engineering of functional muscle tissues. Additionally, ES can be used to control and monitor force generation and electrophysiological activity of muscle tissues for bio-actuation and drug-screening applications in a simple, high-throughput, and reproducible manner. In this review paper, we briefly describe the importance of ES in regulating muscle cell behaviors in vitro, as well as the major challenges and prospective potential associated with ES in the context of muscle tissue engineering. PMID:23823664

  19. Effect of administration of oral contraceptives in vivo on collagen synthesis in tendon and muscle connective tissue in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Miller, B F; Holm, L;

    2009-01-01

    concentrations of estradiol and progesterone (control, n = 12). Subjects performed 1 h of one-legged kicking exercise. The next day collagen fractional synthesis rates (FSR) in tendon and muscle connective tissue were measured after a flooding dose of [(13)C]proline followed by biopsies from the patellar tendon......-terminal telopeptides of type-I collagen (CTX-I) were measured as markers for bone synthesis and breakdown, respectively. Tendon FSR and PINP were lower in OC compared with control. An increase in muscle collagen FSR postexercise was only observed in control (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the results indicate a lower...

  20. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A.; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W.

    2016-01-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM) and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms. PMID:27035343

  1. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W

    2016-04-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM) and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms. PMID:27035343

  2. Black-box modeling to estimate tissue temperature during radiofrequency catheter cardiac ablation: feasibility study on an agar phantom model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study linear deterministic models to predict tissue temperature during radiofrequency cardiac ablation (RFCA) by measuring magnitudes such as electrode temperature, power and impedance between active and dispersive electrodes. The concept involves autoregressive models with exogenous input (ARX), which is a particular case of the autoregressive moving average model with exogenous input (ARMAX). The values of the mode parameters were determined from a least-squares fit of experimental data. The data were obtained from radiofrequency ablations conducted on agar models with different contact pressure conditions between electrode and agar (0 and 20 g) and different flow rates around the electrode (1, 1.5 and 2 L min−1). Half of all the ablations were chosen randomly to be used for identification (i.e. determination of model parameters) and the other half were used for model validation. The results suggest that (1) a linear model can be developed to predict tissue temperature at a depth of 4.5 mm during RF cardiac ablation by using the variables applied power, impedance and electrode temperature; (2) the best model provides a reasonably accurate estimate of tissue temperature with a 60% probability of achieving average errors better than 5 °C; (3) substantial errors (larger than 15 °C) were found only in 6.6% of cases and were associated with abnormal experiments (e.g. those involving the displacement of the ablation electrode) and (4) the impact of measuring impedance on the overall estimate is negligible (around 1 °C)

  3. Extrinsic and intrinsic regulation of DOR/TP53INP2 expression in mice: effects of dietary fat content, tissue type and sex in adipose and muscle tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fromm-Dornieden Carolin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DOR/TP53INP2 acts both at the chromosomal level as a nuclear co-factor e.g. for the thyroid hormone receptor and at the extrachromosomal level as an organizing factor of the autophagosome. In a previous study, DOR was shown to be down-regulated in skeletal muscle of obese diabetic Zucker fa/fa rats. Methods To identify sites of differential DOR expression in metabolically active tissues, we measured differences in DOR expression in white adipose tissue (WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT, skeletal muscle (SM and heart muscle (HM by qPCR. To assess whether DOR expression is influenced in the short term by nutritional factors, NMRI mice were fed different fat rich diets (fat diet, FD: 18% or high fat diet, HFD: 80% fat for one week and DOR expression was compared to NMRI mice fed a control diet (normal diet, ND: 3.3% fat. Additionally, DOR expression was measured in young (45 days old and adult (100 days old genetically obese (DU6/DU6i mice and compared to control (DUKs/DUKsi animals. Results ANOVA results demonstrate a significant influence of diet, tissue type and sex on DOR expression in adipose and muscle tissues of FD and HFD mice. In SM, DOR expression was higher in HFD than in FD male mice. In WAT, DOR expression was increased compared to BAT in male FD and HFD mice. In contrast, expression levels in female mice were higher in BAT for both dietary conditions. DOR expression levels in all tissues of 100 days old genetically obese animals were mainly influenced by sex. In HM, DOR expression was higher in male than female animals. Conclusions DOR expression varies under the influence of dietary fat content, tissue type and sex. We identified target tissues for further studies to analyze the specific function of DOR in obesity. DOR might be part of a defense mechanism against fat storage in high fat diets or obesity.

  4. Tropomyosin flexural rigidity and single ca(2+) regulatory unit dynamics: implications for cooperative regulation of cardiac muscle contraction and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loong, Campion K P; Badr, Myriam A; Chase, P Bryant

    2012-01-01

    Striated muscle contraction is regulated by dynamic and cooperative interactions among Ca(2+), troponin, and tropomyosin on the thin filament. While Ca(2+) regulation has been extensively studied, little is known about the dynamics of individual regulatory units and structural changes of individual tropomyosin molecules in relation to their mechanical properties, and how these factors are altered by cardiomyopathy mutations in the Ca(2+) regulatory proteins. In this hypothesis paper, we explore how various experimental and analytical approaches could broaden our understanding of the cooperative regulation of cardiac contraction in health and disease. PMID:22493584

  5. Tropomyosin flexural rigidity and single Ca2+ regulatory unit dynamics: implications for cooperative regulation of cardiac muscle contraction and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.BryantChase

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Striated muscle contraction is regulated by dynamic and cooperative interactions among Ca2+, troponin and tropomyosin on the thin filament. While Ca2+ regulation has been extensively studied, little is known about the dynamics of individual regulatory units and structural changes of individual tropomyosin molecules in relation to their mechanical properties, and how these factors are altered by cardiomyopathy mutations in the Ca2+ regulatory proteins. In this hypothesis paper, we explore how novel experimental and analytical approaches would improve our understanding of regulation of cardiac contraction in health and disease.

  6. Multiresidue analysis of anabolic agents in muscle tissues and urines of cattle by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeseleire, E A; De Guesquière, A; Van Peteghem, C H

    1992-10-01

    The illegal use of anabolic steroids in livestock breeding has taken enormous proportions the last few decades. To protect the consumer against possible harmful effects due to the consumption of contaminated meat or meat products, a multiresidue analysis of anabolic steroids has been developed for muscle tissues and urine. The pretreatment of the meat and urine samples consists of an enzymatic digestion, liquid or solid-phase extraction, and finally high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation. Five fractions or windows are collected, each containing a number of analytes. The residues are derivatized prior to the detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both gas chromatographic retention data and mass spectral data are used for identification of nortestosterone, testosterone, estradiol, ethynylestradiol, trenbolone, zeranol, diethylstilbestrol, boldenone, methandienone, methyltestosterone, megestrol acetate, chlormadinone acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, chlorotestosterone, progesterone, and chlorotestosterone acetate. The limit of detection varies from matrix to matrix and from analyte to analyte but is, in the most favorable case, on the order of 0.3 ppb (micrograms/kg). PMID:1430050

  7. Dietary effects on fatty acid composition in muscle tissue of juvenile European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Enno; Malzahn, Arne M.; Zumholz, Karsten; Hanel, Reinhold

    2012-03-01

    The role of intracontinental migration patterns of European eel ( Anguilla anguilla) receives more and more recognition in both ecological studies of the European eel and possible management measures, but small-scale patterns proved to be challenging to study. We experimentally investigated the suitability of fatty acid trophic markers to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats. Eight groups of juvenile European eels were fed on eight different diets in a freshwater recirculation system at 20°C for 56 days. Three groups were fed on freshwater diets ( Rutilus rutilus, Chironomidae larvae, and Gammarus pulex) and four groups were reared on diets of a marine origin ( Clupea harengus, Crangon crangon, Mysis spec., and Euphausia superba) and one on commercial pellets used in eel aquaculture. Fatty acid composition (FAC) of diets differed significantly with habitat. FAC of eel muscle tissue seemed to be rather insensitive to fatty acids supplied with diet, but the general pattern of lower n3:n6 and EPA:ARA ratios in freshwater prey organisms could be traced in the respective eels. Multivariate statistics of the fatty acid composition of the eels resulted in two distinct groups representing freshwater and marine treatments. Results further indicate the capability of selectively restraining certain fatty acids in eel, as e.g. the n3:n6 ratio in all treatments was <4, regardless of dietary n3:n6. In future studies on wild eel, these measures can be used to elucidate the utilization of feeding habitats of individual European eel.

  8. Development of Bipotent Cardiac/Skeletal Myogenic Progenitors from MESP1+ Mesoderm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Sun-Kin Chan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The branchiomeric skeletal muscles co-evolved with new chambers of the heart to enable predatory feeding in chordates. These co-evolved tissues develop from a common population in anterior splanchnic mesoderm, referred to as cardiopharyngeal mesoderm (CPM. The regulation and development of CPM are poorly understood. We describe an embryonic stem cell-based system in which MESP1 drives a PDGFRA+ population with dual cardiac and skeletal muscle differentiation potential, and gene expression resembling CPM. Using this system, we investigate the regulation of these bipotent progenitors, and find that cardiac specification is governed by an antagonistic TGFβ-BMP axis, while skeletal muscle specification is enhanced by Rho kinase inhibition. We define transcriptional signatures of the first committed CPM-derived cardiac and skeletal myogenic progenitors, and discover surface markers to distinguish cardiac (PODXL+ from the skeletal muscle (CDH4+ CPM derivatives. These tools open an accessible window on this developmentally and evolutionarily important population.

  9. Bovine sirtuins: initial characterization and expression of sirtuins 1 and 3 in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinis-Hozumi, Y; González-Gallardo, A; González-Dávalos, L; Antaramian, A; Villarroya, F; Shimada, A; Varela-Echavarría, A; Mora, O

    2011-08-01

    Sirtuins, the mammalian homologs of the silent information regulator 2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are members of the NAD(+)-dependent family of histone deacetylases. In vertebrates, 7 sirtuins have been described, with different cellular localizations and target proteins. Glucose and lipid metabolism are among the processes regulated by these enzymes. In ruminants, gluconeogenesis is the main biochemical pathway by which glucose is obtained. Because sirtuins in bovines have not been studied, the aim of this work was to obtain sequences coding for the 7 sirtuins and determine the expression patterns of sirtuin1 (Sirt1) and sirtuin3 (Sirt3) in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of calves and bulls. Using PCR amplification, we obtained sirtuin gene sequences and reported them to the National Center for Biotechnology Information GenBank. Characteristic sequence motifs corresponding to the sirtuin catalytic core domain were found, including the active and zinc-binding sites. Relative expression patterns of Sirt1 and Sirt3 in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue were quantified by real-time PCR, normalizing to the geometric mean of the housekeeping genes cyclophilin A and β-actin. Expression of Sirt1 was less in liver and muscle, whereas it was greater in adipose tissue of adult animals, with statistical differences (P=0.0071) only in the latter. In the case of Sirt3, expression was greater in all 3 adult tissues, but statistical differences were found only in liver (P=0.0141) and muscle (P=0.0017). The greatest expression was observed in liver for Sirt1 and in muscle for Sirt3, whereas the least expression was in muscle for Sirt1 and in adipose tissue for Sirt3. In other species, sirtuin expression (both Sirt1 and Sirt3) in liver is reported to be the greatest among these 3 tissues, a pattern different from what we measured. These differences in expression can be associated with metabolic differences between nonruminant and ruminant species. However, further

  10. Evaluation of copper concentration in subclinical cases of white muscle disease and its relationship with cardiac troponin I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Ataollahi

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the serum level of copper (Cu in lambs suffering from subclinical forms of white muscle disease (WMD and its relationship with cardiac troponin I (cTn-I as a novel biomarker of cardiovascular disorders. Ten milliliters of jugular blood were taken from 200 lambs less than one year old to measure serum concentrations of Cu, selenium (Se, and cTn-I. The subjects were divided into 2 groups, namely, the deficient group which included 36 lambs, and the control group which included 164 lambs according to the reference serum Se concentration (50 ng/mL. Serum Se levels in the deficient group were lower than 50 ng/mL. By contrast, the control group showed Se levels higher than 50 ng/mL. Differences among the serum Cu and cTn-I levels were determined in both groups. The mean ±SD and median of serum Cu and cTn-I levels in the deficient group were lower and higher than those in the control group, respectively. A significant positive correlation was observed between serum Cu and Se levels, and also serum Cu and Se levels showed a negative correlation with serum cTn-I concentrations. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that serum Cu levels were correlated positively with serum Se levels (p<0.05. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis indicated that the area under curve (AUC of Cu was significantly higher than that of cTn-I based on the reference diagonal line. It is important to keep in mind that the value of AUC for the ROC curve is between 0.5 and 1.00, in which the lowest accuracy is related to the reference diagonal line with AUC of 0.5. A cut-off was determined to indicate which Cu level can discriminate between affected and healthy lambs. The cut-off level, sensitivity, and specificity of Cu in this study were 144.5 ng/mL, 74%, and 61%, respectively.

  11. The pediculated gastrocnemius muscle flap as a treatment for soft tissue problems of the knee – indication, placement and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moebius, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of endoprosthetic knee replacements, there is also an increase of critical wounds to the knee due to a high incidence of soft tissue problems (ranging from wound healing defects to severe wound infections. The literature describes a general rate of soft tissue complications of up to 20% [1], [2], with 5% [3] involving exposed bone. These complications are an increasingly important problem for surgeons. Since sufficient coverage of bones, tendons and prosthetic material with soft tissue is a necessity, the use of a pediculated muscle flap is the only solution in some cases. The gastrocnemius muscle is very useful for this purpose. It is an elaborate procedure which is associated with a high rate of complications. However, this procedure can establish a secure coverage with soft tissue, and the function of the prosthesis and the patient’s extremity can be saved. We have treated 23 patients with a gastrocnemius rotation flap after knee prosthesis or knee arthrodesis infection with consecutive soft tissue damage at our hospital from 8/2004 through 3/2011. The overall rate of healing of the knee infections with stable soft tissue status is almost 87%. The revision rate with lifting of the flap and revision of the sutures at the point of insertion as well as the point of extraction was about 35% with long-term conservative or additional surgical treatments.

  12. Perivascular adipose tissue control of insulin-induced vasoreactivity in muscle is impaired in db/db mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Rick I; Bakker, Wineke; Alta, Caro-Lynn A F;

    2013-01-01

    Microvascular recruitment in muscle is a determinant of insulin sensitivity. Whether perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is involved in disturbed insulin-induced vasoreactivity is unknown, as are the underlying mechanisms. This study investigates whether PVAT regulates insulin-induced vasodilation...... in muscle, the underlying mechanisms, and how obesity disturbs this vasodilation. Insulin-induced vasoreactivity of resistance arteries was studied with PVAT from C57BL/6 or db/db mice. PVAT weight in muscle was higher in db/db mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. PVAT from C57BL/6 mice uncovered insulin......-induced vasodilation; this vasodilation was abrogated with PVAT from db/db mice. Blocking adiponectin abolished the vasodilator effect of insulin in the presence of C57BL/6 PVAT, and adiponectin secretion was lower in db/db PVAT. To investigate this interaction further, resistance arteries of AMPKa2(+/+) and AMPKa2...

  13. Evidence towards Improved Estimation of Respiratory Muscle Effort from Diaphragm Mechanomyographic Signals with Cardiac Vibration Interference Using Sample Entropy with Fixed Tolerance Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlabous, Leonardo; Torres, Abel; Fiz, José A.; Jané, Raimon

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of amplitude parameters of the diaphragm mechanomyographic (MMGdi) signal is a non-invasive technique to assess respiratory muscle effort and to detect and quantify the severity of respiratory muscle weakness. The amplitude of the MMGdi signal is usually evaluated using the average rectified value or the root mean square of the signal. However, these estimations are greatly affected by the presence of cardiac vibration or mechanocardiographic (MCG) noise. In this study, we present a method for improving the estimation of the respiratory muscle effort from MMGdi signals that is robust to the presence of MCG. This method is based on the calculation of the sample entropy using fixed tolerance values (fSampEn), that is, with tolerance values that are not normalized by the local standard deviation of the window analyzed. The behavior of the fSampEn parameter was tested in synthesized mechanomyographic signals, with different ratios between the amplitude of the MCG and clean mechanomyographic components. As an example of application of this technique, the use of fSampEn was explored also in recorded MMGdi signals, with different inspiratory loads. The results with both synthetic and recorded signals indicate that the entropy parameter is less affected by the MCG noise, especially at low signal-to-noise ratios. Therefore, we believe that the proposed fSampEn parameter could improve estimates of respiratory muscle effort from MMGdi signals with the presence of MCG interference. PMID:24586436

  14. Polymorphism in the alpha cardiac muscle actin 1 gene is associated to susceptibility to chronic inflammatory cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Farage Frade

    Full Text Available AIMS: Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic in Latin America, and may lead to a life-threatening inflammatory dilated, chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC. One third of T. cruzi-infected individuals progress to CCC while the others remain asymptomatic (ASY. A possible genetic component to disease progression was suggested by familial aggregation of cases and the association of markers of innate and adaptive immunity genes with CCC development. Since mutations in multiple sarcomeric genes, including alpha-cardiac actin (ACTC1 have been involved in hereditary dilated cardiomyopathy, we investigated the involvement of the ACTC1 gene in CCC pathogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a proteomic and genetic study on a Brazilian study population. The genetic study was done on a main cohort including 118 seropositive asymptomatic subjects and 315 cases and the replication was done on 36 asymptomatic and 102 CCC cases. ACTC1 protein and mRNA levels were lower in myocardial tissue from patients with end-stage CCC than those found in hearts from organ donors. Genotyping a case-control cohort of CCC and ASY subjects for all informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the ACTC1 gene identified rs640249 SNP, located at the 5' region, as associated to CCC. Associations are borderline after correction for multiple testing. Correlation and haplotype analysis led to the identification of a susceptibility haplotype. Functional assays have shown that the rs640249A/C polymorphism affects the binding of transcriptional factors in the promoter regions of the ACTC1 gene. Confirmation of the detected association on a larger independent replication cohort will be useful. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations at the ACTC1 gene may contribute to progression to chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy among T. cruzi-infected patients, possibly by modulating transcription factor binding to ACTC1 promoter regions.

  15. Preparation of human cardiac anti-myosin: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present communication is a review of the physicochemical characterization and immunological properties of myosin isolated from the cardiac muscle, the production of monoclonal antibody anti-myosin, the radiolabeling of this antibody and its applications as radiopharmaceuticals to imaging myocardial infarcts. The classical example of radioimmunologic diagnosis of non malignant tissues is the detection of myocardial infarction by radiolabeled antibodies to myosin. (author)

  16. Sulfated levan from Halomonas smyrnensis as a bioactive, heparin-mimetic glycan for cardiac tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginer, Merve; Akcay, Ayca; Coskunkan, Binnaz; Morova, Tunc; Rende, Deniz; Bucak, Seyda; Baysal, Nihat; Ozisik, Rahmi; Eroglu, Mehmet S; Agirbasli, Mehmet; Toksoy Oner, Ebru

    2016-09-20

    Chemical derivatives of levan from Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6(T) with low, medium and high levels of sulfation were synthesized and characterized by FTIR and 2D-NMR. Sulfated levan samples were found to exhibit anticoagulation activity via the intrinsic pathway like heparin in a dose-dependent manner. Exceptionally high heparin equivalent activity of levan sulfate was shown to proceed via thrombin inhibition where decreased Factor Xa activity with increasing concentration was observed in antithrombin tests and above a certain concentration, levan sulfate showed a better inhibitor activity than heparin. In vitro experimental results were then verified in silico by docking studies using equilibrium structures obtained by molecular dynamic simulations and results suggested a sulfation dependent binding mechanism. With its high biocompatibility and heparin mimetic activity, levan sulfate can be considered as a suitable functional biomaterial to design biologically active, functionalized, thin films and engineered smart scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering applications. PMID:27261753

  17. Connective tissue regeneration in skeletal muscle after eccentric contraction-induced injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail Louise; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle has the potential to regenerate completely after injury induced under controlled experimental conditions. The events inside the myofibres as they undergo necrosis, followed closely by satellite cell mediated myogenesis, have been mapped in detail. Much less is known about...... interaction during adaptation to eccentric contractions is an unexplored field in human skeletal muscle and may provide insight into the optimal timing of rest vs. return to activity after muscle injury....

  18. Correlation between endogenous polyamines in human cardiac tissues and clinical parameters in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, Clara; Rubín, José Manuel; Bordallo, Carmen; Suárez, Lorena; Bordallo, Javier; Sánchez, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Polyamines contribute to several physiological and pathological processes, including cardiac hypertrophy in experimental animals. This involves an increase in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and intracellular polyamines associated with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) increases. The aim of the study was to establish the role of these in the human heart in living patients. For this, polyamines (by high performance liquid chromatography) and the activity of ODC and N(1) -acetylpolyamine oxidases (APAO) were determined in the right atrial appendage of 17 patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation to correlate with clinical parameters. There existed enzymatic activity associated with the homeostasis of polyamines. Left atria size was positively associated with ODC (r = 0.661, P = 0.027) and negatively with APAO-N(1) -acetylspermine (r = -0.769, P = 0.026), suggesting that increased levels of polyamines are associated with left atrial hemodynamic overload. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and heart rate were positively associated with spermidine (r = 0.690, P = 0.003; r = 0.590, P = 0.021) and negatively with N(1) -acetylspermidine (r = -0.554, P = 0.032; r = -0.644, P = 0.018). LVEF was negatively correlated with cAMP levels (r = -0.835, P = 0.001) and with cAMP/ODC (r = -0.794, P = 0.011), cAMP/spermidine (r = -0.813, P = 0.001) and cAMP/spermine (r = -0.747, P = 0.003) ratios. Abnormal LVEF patients showed decreased ODC activity and spermidine, and increased N(1) -acetylspermidine, and cAMP. Spermine decreased in congestive heart failure patients. The trace amine isoamylamine negatively correlated with septal wall thickness (r = -0.634, P = 0.008) and was increased in cardiac heart failure. The results indicated that modifications in polyamine homeostasis might be associated with cardiac function and remodelling. Increased cAMP might have a deleterious effect on function. Further studies should confirm these findings and the involvement of

  19. The effect of 3-methylcholanthrene and butylated hydroxytoluene on glycogen levels of liver, muscle, testis, and tumor tissues of rats

    OpenAIRE

    POLAT, Fikriye; DERE, Egemen; GÜL, Eylem; YELKUVAN, İzzet; ÖZDEMİR, Öztürk; BİNGÖL, Günsel

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of separate and combined applications of 3-methylcholanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and potent carcinogenic agent, and butylated hydroxytoluene, the antioxidant food additive, on the glycogen levels of liver, muscle, testis, and tumor tissues in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats weighing 100-110 g at 8 weeks of age were used in this study. This study consisted of a control group (n = 9) and 3 different experiment groups in which rats were chronic...

  20. Absorbed dose assessment of cardiac and other tissues around the cardiovascular system in brachytherapy with 90Sr/90Y source by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac disease is one of the most important causes of death in the world. Coronary artery stenosis is a very common cardiac disease. Intravascular brachytherapy (IVBT) is one of the radiotherapy methods which have been used recently in coronary artery radiation therapy for the treatment of restenosis. 90Sr/90Y, a beta-emitting source, is a proper option for cardiovascular brachytherapy. In this research, a Monte Carlo simulation was done to calculate dosimetry parameters and effective equivalent doses to the heart and its surrounding tissues during IVBT. The results of this study were compared with the published experimental data and other simulations performed by different programs but with the same source of radiation. A very good agreement was found between results of this work and the published data. An assessment of the risk for cardiac and other sensitive soft tissues surrounding the treated vessel during 90Sr/90Y IVBT was also performed in the study. (authors)

  1. Cardiac-specific miRNA in cardiogenesis, heart function, and cardiac pathology (with focus on myocardial infarction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Orekhov, Alexander N; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2016-05-01

    Cardiac miRNAs (miR-1, miR133a, miR-208a/b, and miR-499) are abundantly expressed in the myocardium. They play a central role in cardiogenesis, heart function and pathology. While miR-1 and miR-133a predominantly control early stages of cardiogenesis supporting commitment of cardiac-specific muscle lineage from embryonic stem cells and mesodermal precursors, miR-208 and miR-499 are involved in the late cardiogenic stages mediating differentiation of cardioblasts to cardiomyocytes and fast/slow muscle fiber specification. In the heart, miR-1/133a control cardiac conductance and automaticity by regulating all phases of the cardiac action potential. miR-208/499 located in introns of the heavy chain myosin genes regulate expression of sarcomeric contractile proteins. In cardiac pathology including myocardial infarction (MI), expression of cardiac miRNAs is markedly altered that leads to deleterious effects associated with heart wounding, arrhythmia, increased apoptosis, fibrosis, hypertrophy, and tissue remodeling. In acute MI, circulating levels of cardiac miRNAs are significantly elevated making them to be a promising diagnostic marker for early diagnosis of acute MI. Great cardiospecific capacity of these miRNAs is very helpful for enhancing regenerative properties and survival of stem cell and cardiac progenitor transplants and for reprogramming of mature non-cardiac cells to cardiomyocytes. PMID:27056419

  2. Methods for histochemical demonstration of vascular structures at the muscle-bone interface from cryostate sections of demineralized tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S

    1981-01-01

    In tissue decalcified with MgNa2EDTA at a neutral pH activity for ATPase can used be for demonstration of the vascular structures at the muscle-bone interface. The GOMORI method for alkaline phosphatase is only of value, when fresh unfixed tissue is to be examined. The azo-dye method for alkaline...... phosphatase failed to give satisfactory results, and so did the alpha-amylase PAS method. 5'-nucleotidase activity is present in both capillaries and in cells lining the surfaces of bones, while larger blood vessels are poorly stained....

  3. Real-time optical monitoring of permanent lesion progression in radiofrequency ablated cardiac tissue (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Hendon, Christine P.

    2016-02-01

    Despite considerable advances in guidance of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapies for atrial fibrillation, success rates have been hampered by an inability to intraoperatively characterize the extent of permanent injury. Insufficient lesions can elusively create transient conduction blockages that eventually reconduct. Prior studies suggest significantly greater met-myoglobin (Mmb) concentrations in the lesion core than those in the healthy myocardium and may serve as a marker for irreversible tissue damage. In this work, we present real-time monitoring of permanent injury through spectroscopic assessment of Mmb concentrations at the catheter tip. Atrial wedges (n=6) were excised from four fresh swine hearts and submerged under pulsatile flow of warm (37oC) phosphate buffered saline. A commercial RFA catheter inserted into a fiber optic sheath allowed for simultaneous measurement of tissue diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra (500-650nm) during application of RF energy. Optical measurements were continuously acquired before, during, and post-ablation, in addition to healthy neighboring tissue. Met-myoglobin, oxy-myoglobin, and deoxy-myoglobin concentrations were extracted from each spectrum using an inverse Monte Carlo method. Tissue injury was validated with Masson's trichrome and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Time courses revealed a rapid increase in tissue Mmb concentrations at the onset of RFA treatment and a gradual plateauing thereafter. Extracted Mmb concentrations were significantly greater post-ablation (p<0.0001) as compared to healthy tissue and correlated well with histological assessment of severe thermal tissue destruction. On going studies are aimed at integrating these findings with prior work on near infrared spectroscopic lesion depth assessment. These results support the use of spectroscopy-facilitated guidance of RFA therapies for real-time permanent injury estimation.

  4. Expression of somatostatin receptors subtype 2 and 5 in extraocular muscle tissue of hypothyroidism animal induced by 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the expression and distribution of somatostatin receptors 2 and 5 (SSTR2, 5) in extraocular muscle in hypothyroidism and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) Wister rats induced by 131I. Methods: 20 Wister rats were randomly divided into experimental group and normal group(group D). According to 131I doses of intraperitoneal injection, the experimental groups were divided into low (group A), middle (group B) and high dose group (group C). After 8 weeks, all rats were sacrificed and orbital tissue sections were applied to HE staining and Immunohistochemistry for the analysis of rat orbital tissue changes and SSTR2 and 5 distribution in extraocular muscle. Results: The serum FT4 levels in group A (16.98±2.92 pmol / L), group B (1.84±0.44 pmol / L) and group C (1.35 ±0.37 pmol /L) eight weeks after 131I injection were decreased, and had significant difference compared with group D (P4 levels in group B and C were significantly lower than that in group A (P 0.05). Orbital tissue in experimental group showed mucoid degeneration and edema, the extent was about 25% in group A, 50% in group B, 70% in group C. The rats in group B and group C appeared obvious proliferation of fibrous and adipose tissue, muscle fibers degeneration fracture, even extraocular muscles in group C have vacuole formation. Immunohistochemical analysis displayed highest SSTR5 distribution and strongest expression was in extraocular muscle of group C, second in A B combination group (A and B groups)and weakest in group D. There were significant differences between A B combination group,group C and group D (P 0.05). Conclusion: This study observed the distribution and expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5 in extraocular muscle on the established hypothyroidism animal model. It is some significance for understanding the mechanism of somatostatin receptors in occurrence and development of TAO, similar to provide a reference for the use of somatostatin analogue orbital imaging

  5. The Protective Effect of Proponyl-L-Carnitine Against Ultrastructural Alterations in Cardiac Muscle of Irradiated and / or diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart dysfunction in chronic diabetes has been observed to be associated with depressed myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase activities. Oxidative stress a factor implicated in the heart injury may contribute towards some of these alterations. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of L-carnitine on gamma radiation and diabetes induced oxidative damage in the heart by investigating alterations in the ultrastructural level. Streptozotocin was intraperitoneally injected (i.p) to rats at a dose of 28 mg/Kg b.wt / day for 2 weeks pre-irradiation. In irradiated groups, animals were exposed to 6.5 Gy whole body gamma radiation. L-carnitine was intraperitoneally injected (i.p) to rats at a dose of 250 mg/Kg b.wt/day for 2 weeks pre-irradiation. Animals were sacrificed on the 7th day after irradiation. The results demonstrated that the whole body exposure of rats to ionizing radiation induce oxidative stress which showed alterations on the ultrastructural level included dis organization with mayofibrillolysis relatively intact z-band (Z), fibrosis, swollen mitochondria, apoptotic nuclei and thickened walls of capillaries. In diabetic rats cardio muscle focal loss of myofilaments, also swelling of mitochondria and rupture of sacroplasmic reticulum, apoptotic nuclei with dilation of capillaries were evident. Administration of L-carnitine pre-irradiation has improved the ultrastructural alterations of the heart tissue. It is proposed that the oxidative stress is associated with a deficit in the status of the antioxidant defense system which may play a critical role in subcellular remodeling, calcium-handling abnormalities and subsequent diabetic cardiomyopathy

  6. An examination of the elastic properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms using vibro-acoustography and a muscle motor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccabi, A.; Taylor, Z.; Bajwa, N.; Mallen-St. Clair, J.; St. John, M.; Sung, S.; Grundfest, W.; Saddik, G.

    2016-02-01

    Tissue hardness, often quantified in terms of elasticity, is an important differentiating criterion for pathological identity and is extensively used by surgeons for tumor localization. Delineation of malignant regions from benign regions is typically performed by visual inspection and palpation. Although practical, this method is highly subjective and does not provide quantitative metrics. We have previously reported on Vibro-Acoustography (VA) for tumor delineation. VA is unique in that it uses the specific, non-linear properties of tumor tissue in response to an amplitude modulated ultrasound beam to generate spatially resolved, high contrast maps of tissue. Although the lateral and axial resolutions (sub-millimeter and sub-centimeter, respectively) of VA have been extensively characterized, the relationship between static stiffness assessment (palpation) and dynamic stiffness characterization (VA) has not been explicitly established. Here we perform a correlative exploration of the static and dynamic properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms, specifically elasticity, using VA and a muscle motor system. Muscle motor systems, commonly used to probe the mechanical properties of materials, provide absolute, quantitative point measurements of the elastic modulus, analogous to Young's modulus, of a target. For phantoms of varying percent-by-weight concentrations, parallel VA and muscle motor studies conducted on 18 phantoms reveal a negative correlation (p < - 0.85) between mean signal amplitude levels observed with VA and calculated elastic modulus values from force vs. indentation depth curves. Comparison of these elasticity measurements may provide additional information to improve tissue modeling, system characterization, as well as offer valuable insights for in vivo applications, specifically surgical extirpation of tumors.

  7. REGULATION OF CARDIAC AND SKELETAL MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS BY INDIVIDUAL BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACIDS IN NEONATAL PIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeletal muscle grows at a very rapid rate in the neonatal pig, due in part to an enhanced sensitivity of protein synthesis to the postprandial rise in amino acids. An increase in leucine alone stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonatal pig; however, the effect of isoleucine and...

  8. A correlation study of the expression of resistin and glycometabolism in muscle tissue after traumatic brain injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Peng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate the expression pattern of resistin (RSTN in skeletal muscle tissue and its influence on glycometabolism in rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Methods:Seventy-eight SD rats were randomly divided into traumatic group (n=36, RSTN group (n=36 and sham operation group (n=6. Fluid percussion TBI model was developed in traumatic and RSTN groups and the latter received additional 1 mg RSTN antibody treatment for each rat. At respectively 12 h, 24 h, 72 h, 1 w, 2 w, and 4 w after operation, venous blood was collected and the right hind leg skeletal muscle tissue was sampled. We used real-time PCR to determine mRNA expression of RSTN in skeletal muscles, western blot to determine RSTN protein expression and ELISA to assess serum insulin as well as fasting blood glucose (FBG levels. Calculation of the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (Q value was also conducted. The above mentioned indicators and their correction were statistically analyzed. Results:Compared with sham operation group, the RSTN expression in the skeletal muscle as well as serum insulin and FBG levels revealed significant elevation (P<0.05, and reduced Q value (P<0.05 in traumatic group. Single factor linear correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between RSTN expression and Q values (P<0.001 in traumatic group. Conclusion:The expression of RSTN has been greatly increased in the muscular tissue of TBI rats and it was closely related to the index of glycometabolism. RSTN may play an important role in the process of insulin resistance after TBI. Key words: Brain injuries; Resistin; Insulin resistance; Blood glucose; Insulin sensitivity

  9. Differential effects of leucine on translation initiation factor activation and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, renal and adipose tissues of neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In adult rats, protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue increases in response to pharmacological doses of leucine (Leu) administered orally. In neonatal pigs, a physiological increase in plasma leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle without increasing hepatic protein...

  10. Thickness of Rectus Abdominis Muscle and Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Tissue in Adult Women: Correlation with Age, Pregnancy, Laparotomy, and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue are usefulfor reconstruction of the chest wall, and abdominal, vaginal, and perianal defects. Thus,preoperative evaluation of rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue isimportant. This is a retrospective study that measured the thickness of rectus abdominis muscleand abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue using computed tomography (CT and analyzed thecorrelation with the patients’ age, gestational history, history of laparotomy, and body massindex (BMI.Methods A total of 545 adult women were studied. Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominalsubcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured with abdominopelvic CT. The results were analyzedto determine if the thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle or subcutaneous fat tissue wassignificantly correlated with age, number of pregnancies, history of laparotomy, and BMI.Results Rectus abdominis muscle thicknesses were 9.58 mm (right and 9.73 mm (left at thexiphoid level and 10.26 mm (right and 10.26 mm (left at the umbilicus level. Subcutaneousfat thicknesses were 24.31 mm (right and 23.39 mm (left. Rectus abdominismuscle thicknessdecreased with age and pregnancy. History of laparotomy had a significant negative correlationwith rectus abdominis muscle thickness at the xiphoid level. Abdominal subcutaneous fatthickness had no correlation with age, number of pregnancies, or history of laparotomy.Conclusions Age, gestational history, and history of laparotomy influenced rectus abdominismuscle thickness but did not influence abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness. These results areclinically valuable for planning a rectus abdominis muscle flap and safe elevation of muscle flap.

  11. Activity of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in experimental hyperthyroidism in muscle tissue of the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cardial and femoral muscles of rabbits specific activities of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases for twenty amino acids were generally similar, namely the activities towards amino acids and their amides, leucine, isoleucine, histidine, tyrosine, proline and serine were considerably lower than towards the remaining amino acids. Specific activities of most aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases were higher in hyperthyroidism than in euthyreosis, and were higher in femoral muscle than in heart. The response to thyroxine treatment of individual aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in both kinds of muscles varied with respect to most of the amino acids. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Posterior shift of the anterior papillary muscle in patients with heart failure. A potential role in the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anatomical relationship between left ventricular pacing site and the anterior papillary muscle (A-PM) may have a major influence on the improvement of mitral regurgitation (MR) in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aims of the present study were to assess the anatomical relationship between coronary veins and papillary muscles in patients with and without heart failure (HF), and to examine its contribution to the response to CRT. Sixty-one patients (36 patients with HF, 25 patients without HF) who underwent multi-detector computed tomography were studied. We measured the angle between the anterior papillary muscle and coronary veins (Ang. 1) and the angle between the anterior edge of the left ventricular free wall and A-PM (Ang. 2). Angle 1 of the posterolateral vein in the patients with HF was significantly smaller than those without HF (54.9±11.1, 68.7±15.8 degrees, respectively, P=0.02). Supportively, Angle 2 of patients with HF was larger than that of patients without HF (100±13.0, 87.3±10.7 degrees, respectively, P100 degrees), but not in patients with Ang. 2<100 degrees. A-PM tends to be located in a more posterior wall in patients with HF. Displacement of A-PM may have a potential role as a predictor of the response to CRT. (author)

  13. Mass dynamics of wintering Pacific Black Brant: Body, adipose tissue, organ, and muscle masses vary with location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    We compared body size and mass of the whole body, organs, adipose tissue, and muscles of adult Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawrence, 1846)) collected concurrently in Alaska and Baja California during the fall, winter, and spring of 2002-2003. Head and tarsal lengths of males were similar between sites and slightly larger for females in Alaska than in Baja California. Brant appear to operate under similar physiological bounds, but patterns of nutrient allocation differ between sites. Birds wintering in Alaska lost similar amounts of adipose tissue during early winter as birds in Baja California gained during late winter before migration. Masses of the body, adipose tissue, and flight muscles during mid-winter were similar between sites. Seasonal adipose tissue deposition may, therefore, equally favor winter residency or long-distance migration. Gonad and liver masses increased in late winter for birds in Alaska but not for those in Baja California, suggesting birds wintering in Baja may delay reproductive development in favor of allocating reserves needed for migration. Phenotypic flexibility allows Brant to use widely divergent wintering sites. The wintering location of Brant likely depends more upon changes in environmental conditions and food availability, than upon physiological differences between the two wintering populations. ?? 2007 NRC.

  14. FNDC5 expression and circulating irisin levels are modified by diet and hormonal conditions in hypothalamus, adipose tissue and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Rodríguez, B M; Pena-Bello, L; Juiz-Valiña, P; Vidal-Bretal, B; Cordido, F; Sangiao-Alvarellos, S

    2016-01-01

    Irisin is processed from fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5). However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function. To elucidate the relationship between serum irisin and FNDC5 mRNA expression levels, we evaluated plasma irisin levels and FNDC5 gene expression in the hypothalamus, gastrocnemius muscle and different depots of adipose tissue in models of altered metabolism. In normal rats, blood irisin levels diminished after 48-h fast and with leptin, insulin and alloxan treatments, and serum irisin concentrations increased in diabetic rats after insulin treatment and acute treatments of irisin increased blood insulin levels. No changes were observed during long-term experiments with different diets. We suggested that levels of circulating irisin are the result of the sum of the irisin produced by different depots of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. This study shows for the first time that there are differences in FNDC5 expression depending on white adipose tissue depots. Moreover, a considerable decrease in visceral and epididymal adipose tissue depots correlated with increased FNDC5 mRNA expression levels, probably in an attempt to compensate the decrease that occurs in their mass. Hypothalamic FNDC5 expression did not change for any of the tested diets but increased with leptin, insulin and metformin treatments suggesting that the regulation of central and peripheral FNDC5/irisin expression and functions are different. PMID:27432282

  15. An integrated in vitro model of perfused tumor and cardiac tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Moya, Monica; Tran, David; George, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer and cardiovascular disease remain the two leading causes of death in the United States. Progress in treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality will include the development of new drugs. Recent advances in induced pluripotent stem cell technology, tissue engineering, and microfabrication techniques have created a unique opportunity to develop three-dimensional (3D) microphysiological systems that more accurately reflect in vivo human biology when compared with two-dimensional flat syst...

  16. Encapsulation of Cardiomyocytes in a Fibrin Hydrogel for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Kathy Yuan; Sullivan, Kelly Elizabeth; Black, Lauren Deems

    2011-01-01

    Culturing cells in a three dimensional hydrogel environment is an important technique for developing constructs for tissue engineering as well as studying cellular responses under various culture conditions in vitro. The three dimensional environment more closely mimics what the cells observe in vivo due to the application of mechanical and chemical stimuli in all dimensions 1. Three-dimensional hydrogels can either be made from synthetic polymers such as PEG-DA 2 and PLGA 3 or a number of na...

  17. Evaluation of Cardiac Functions with Tissue Doppler Imaging in Prediabetic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kanat, Mustafa; Vardi, Seref; Arinc, Huseyin; Gunduz, Huseyin; Erdem, Alim; Karagoz, Yalcin

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate left ventricle systolic and diastolic function, using tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE), in relation to blood glucose status in prediabetic patients who had no evidence of heart disease by conventional echocardiography (CE). Subjects and Methods We included 60 patients (30 female, 30 male) and 20 healthy controls (10 male, 10 female). All participants were randomised into four groups according to their oral glucose tol...

  18. Plasma tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1): an independent predictor of poor response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosana, Jose María; Mont, Lluís; Sitges, Marta; Berruezo, Antonio; Delgado, Victoria; Vidal, Bàrbara; Tamborero, David; Morales, Manel; Batlle, Montserrat; Roig, Eulalia; Castel, M. Angeles; Pérez-Villa, Félix; Godoy, Miguel; Brugada, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Aims Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) play a role in left ventricular structural remodelling. The aim of our study was to analyse MMP-2 and TIMP-1 levels as predictors of poor response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods and results A cohort of 42 CRT patients from our centre was prospectively evaluated at baseline and after 12-month follow-up. MMP-2 and TIMP-1 assays were performed prior to CRT implant. Cardiac resynchronization therapy responders were defined as patients who survived, were not transplanted, and increased their basal 6 min walking distance test (6MWDT) by ≥10% or improved their NYHA functional class. Overall, 25 patients (60%) were classed as responders. At 12-month follow-up, six patients (14.2%) had died and one (2.4%) patient had been transplanted. Compared with responders, non-responders had higher levels of TIMP-1 (277 ± 59 vs. 216 ± 46 ng/mL, P = 0.001), MMP-2 (325 ± 115 vs. 258 ± 56 ng/mL, P = 0.02), and creatinine (1.76 ± 0.8 vs. 1.25 ± 0.3 mg/dL, P = 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, TIMP-1 was the only independent predictor of non-response to CRT [OR 0.97, 95% (CI 0.96–0.99) P = 0.005]. TIMP-1≥248 ng/mL predicted non-response with 71% sensitivity and 72% specificity. Conclusion TIMP-1 is an independent predictor of non-response in patients treated with CRT. PMID:20360066

  19. Effects of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, fenbufen, on clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of cardiac and skeletal muscle of rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, R. M.; Delday, M. I.; McMillan, D. N.; Noble, B. S.; Bain, P.; Maltin, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    1. When rats were fed with clenbuterol for 7 days skeletal muscle mass increased by 21% in the tonic soleus and phasic plantaris muscles and a 16% hypertrophy of the heart was also induced. Fenbufen, fed to rats for the same period, blocked the hypertrophy of the heart but not that of the skeletal muscles. 2. When feeding of fenbufen commenced 3 days before the administration of clenbuterol, plasma prosta-glandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) was reduced by 79%; there was again no effect of fenbufen ...

  20. Insulin-like growth factor-I and slow, bi-directional perfusion enhance the formation of tissue-engineered cardiac grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo; Engelmayr, George C; Freed, Lisa E

    2009-03-01

    Biochemical and mechanical signals enabling cardiac regeneration can be elucidated using in vitro tissue-engineering models. We hypothesized that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF) and slow, bi-directional perfusion could act independently and interactively to enhance the survival, differentiation, and contractile performance of tissue-engineered cardiac grafts. Heart cells were cultured on three-dimensional porous scaffolds in medium with or without supplemental IGF and in the presence or absence of slow, bi-directional perfusion that enhanced transport and provided shear stress. Structural, molecular, and electrophysiologic properties of the resulting grafts were quantified on culture day 8. IGF had independent, beneficial effects on apoptosis (p < 0.01), cellular viability (p < 0.01), contractile amplitude (p < 0.01), and excitation threshold (p < 0.01). Perfusion independently affected the four aforementioned parameters and also increased amounts of cardiac troponin-I (p < 0.01), connexin-43 (p < 0.05), and total protein (p < 0.01) in the grafts. Interactive effects of IGF and perfusion on apoptosis were also present (p < 0.01). Myofibrillogenesis and spontaneous contractility were present only in grafts cultured with perfusion, although contractility was inducible by electrical field stimulation of grafts from all groups. Our findings demonstrate that multi-factorial stimulation of tissue-engineered cardiac grafts using IGF and perfusion resulted in independent and interactive effects on heart cell survival, differentiation, and contractility. PMID:18759675

  1. Freeze drying reduces the extractability of organochlorine pesticides in fish muscle tissue by microwave-assisted method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of animal origin are usually dried before solvent extraction for analysis of organic contaminants. The freeze drying technique is preferred for hydrophobic organic compounds in practice. In this study, it was shown that the concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) extracted from fish muscle tissue significantly decreased after the samples were freeze dried. And the reason for this reduced extractability seemed to be the resistance of OCPs associated with freeze-dried muscle protein to solvent extraction. The extractability can be recovered by adding water prior to extraction. It suggests that the dietary exposure risk of OCPs from fish might be underestimated if freeze-dried samples are used. - Highlights: • Freeze drying significantly reduces extractability of OCPs in fish muscle sample. • It is the protein that causes the reduction in extractability of OCPs. • The extractability can be recovered by adding water before extraction. - Freeze drying significantly decreases the concentrations of OCPs extracted from fish muscle samples by microwave-assisted method

  2. Mechanical dyssynchrony evaluated by tissue Doppler cross-correlation analysis is associated with long-term survival in patients after cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Williams, Eric S; Khouri, Michel G;

    2013-01-01

    acceleration curves. Outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, cardiac transplantation, or implantation of a ventricular assist device (left ventricular assist device) and modelled using the Cox proportional hazards regression. Follow-up was truncated at 1460 days. Dyssynchrony by AD-max was......Aims Pre-implant assessment of longitudinal mechanical dyssynchrony using cross-correlation analysis (XCA) was tested for association with long-term survival and compared with other tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-derived indices. Methods and results In 131 patients referred for cardiac...

  3. Role of the Adipose Tissue in Determining Muscle Mass in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Sarnak, Mark J.; Wang, Xuelei; Greene, Tom; Madero, Magdalena; Kusek, John W.; Beck, Gerald; Collins, Allan J.; Kopple, Joel D.; Levey, Andrew S.; Menon, Vandana

    2009-01-01

    Objective Malnutrition is a powerful predictor of mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, its etiology is unclear. We hypothesized that adipocyte-derived proteins leptin and adiponectin, inflammation (C-reactive protein –CRP), and insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment –HOMA); implicated in the malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome commonly seen in maintenance dialysis patients, would be associated with the loss of muscle mass in earlier stages of CKD. Arm muscle area was used as an indicator of muscle mass. Setting The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study cohort of people with CKD stages 3 and 4 was used for analysis. Main Outcome Measures Regression models were carried out to examine the relationships of leptin, adiponectin, CRP, and HOMA with arm muscle area (the main study outcome). Results Arm muscle area was 39 ± 15 cm2 (mean ± standard deviation, SD) and adiponectin levels were 13 ± 7 μg/mL. Median and (inerquartile range, IQR) concentrations were: 9.0 (13.6) ng/mL for leptin, 2.3 (4.9) mg/L for CRP, and 2.4 (2.0) form HOMA. Higher leptin [beta coefficient and (95% confidence interval): −6.9 (−8.7, −5.1), P<0.001] and higher CRP [−2.7 (−3.9, −1.4), P<0.001] were associated with lower arm muscle area. There was a trend toward lower arm muscle area with higher adiponectin (P=0.07) but no association with HOMA (P=0.80). Conclusion Leptin and CRP were associated with lower muscle mass in subjects with CKD stages 3–4. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these associations and to develop targeted interventions for this patient population. PMID:17720100

  4. Regional differences in porcine adipocytes isolated from skeletal muscle and adipose tissues as identified by a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, F; Guitton, N; Guillerm-Regost, C; Louveau, I

    2008-09-01

    The content and distribution of body lipids are of special interest for production efficiency and meat quality in the farm animal industry. Triglycerides represent the most variable fraction of tissue lipids, and are mainly stored in adipocytes. Although several studies have reported regional differences in the expression of genes and their products in adipocytes from various species, the characteristics of i.m. adipocytes remain poorly described. To evaluate adipocyte features according to muscle and other fat locations, adipocyte proteins were isolated from trapezius skeletal muscle, and intermuscular, s.c., or perirenal adipose tissues from 6 female pigs (80 d of age). Protein extracts were labeled and analyzed by 2-dimensional, fluorescent, differential gel electrophoresis. The comparisons revealed that 149 spots were always differentially expressed (P anabolic and energy-yielding catabolic pathways are downregulated in i.m. adipocytes compared with s.c., visceral, or intermuscular adipocytes, suggest that the metabolic activity of i.m. adipocytes is low. Thus, triggering adipogenesis rather than cell metabolism per se might be a valuable strategy to control lipid deposition in pig skeletal muscles. PMID:18310487

  5. In vivo observation of quadrupolar splitting in (39)K magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, M B; Nagel, A M; Umathum, R; Bachert, P; Benkhedah, N

    2016-04-01

    muscle tissue. PMID:26837061

  6. Mercury in fish scales as an assessment method for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, J L; Ryba, S A; Serbst, J R; Libby, A D

    2006-05-01

    The relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentration in fish scales and in tissues of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 20 freshwater sites was developed and evaluated to determine whether scale analysis would allow a nonlethal and convenient method for predicting Hg concentrations in tissues. The relationship between total Hg concentration in untreated scale samples and muscle tissue is highly variable. Several different scale treatments were tried in an effort to increase the coefficient of determination and thereby enhance the effectiveness of this predictive technique. Washing scales with acetone, deionized (DI) water, detergent solution, and soap were used in conjunction with ultrasonication. The use of a mild soap solution with heating and ultrasonication increased the r(2) the most (from 0.69 [untreated scales] to 0.89). However, despite treatment, wide predictions of tissue Hg concentration remained. These results suggest that application of this technique as an independent method for issuance of fish advisories is inappropriate. Nevertheless, our results showed that scale analysis has potential for assessing general trends in concentration relative to a tissue criterion and for assessing Hg contamination in fish tissue as a first-level screen. PMID:16435082

  7. Pulmonary tissue volume, cardiac output, and diffusing capacity in sustained microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanck, S.; Larsson, H.; Linnarsson, D.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.; Paiva, M.

    1997-01-01

    In microgravity (microG) humans have marked changes in body fluids, with a combination of an overall fluid loss and a redistribution of fluids in the cranial direction. We investigated whether interstitial pulmonary edema develops as a result of a headward fluid shift or whether pulmonary tissue fluid volume is reduced as a result of the overall loss of body fluid. We measured pulmonary tissue volume (Vti), capillary blood flow, and diffusing capacity in four subjects before, during, and after 10 days of exposure to microG during spaceflight. Measurements were made by rebreathing a gas mixture containing small amounts of acetylene, carbon monoxide, and argon. Measurements made early in flight in two subjects showed no change in Vti despite large increases in stroke volume (40%) and diffusing capacity (13%) consistent with increased pulmonary capillary blood volume. Late in-flight measurements in four subjects showed a 25% reduction in Vti compared with preflight controls (P capacity remained elevated (11%; P pulmonary perfusion and pulmonary capillary blood volume, interstitial pulmonary edema does not result from exposure to microG.

  8. Pulmonary tissue volume, cardiac output, and diffusing capacity in sustained microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanck, S.; Larsson, H.; Linnarsson, D.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.; Paiva, M.

    1997-01-01

    In microgravity (microG) humans have marked changes in body fluids, with a combination of an overall fluid loss and a redistribution of fluids in the cranial direction. We investigated whether interstitial pulmonary edema develops as a result of a headward fluid shift or whether pulmonary tissue fluid volume is reduced as a result of the overall loss of body fluid. We measured pulmonary tissue volume (Vti), capillary blood flow, and diffusing capacity in four subjects before, during, and after 10 days of exposure to microG during spaceflight. Measurements were made by rebreathing a gas mixture containing small amounts of acetylene, carbon monoxide, and argon. Measurements made early in flight in two subjects showed no change in Vti despite large increases in stroke volume (40%) and diffusing capacity (13%) consistent with increased pulmonary capillary blood volume. Late in-flight measurements in four subjects showed a 25% reduction in Vti compared with preflight controls (P volume, to the extent that it was no longer significantly different from preflight control. Diffusing capacity remained elevated (11%; P pulmonary perfusion and pulmonary capillary blood volume, interstitial pulmonary edema does not result from exposure to microG.

  9. Matrilin-2, an extracellular adaptor protein, is needed for the regeneration of muscle, nerve and other tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    va Korpos; Ferenc Dek; Ibolya Kiss

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) performs essential functions in the differentiation, maintenance and remodeling of tissues during development and regeneration, and it undergoes dynamic chang-es during remodeling concomitant to alterations in the cell-ECM interactions. Here we discuss recent data addressing the critical role of the widely expressed ECM protein, matrilin-2 (Matn2) in the timely onset of differentiation and regeneration processes in myogenic, neural and other tissues and in tumorigenesis. As a multiadhesion adaptor protein, it interacts with other ECM proteins and integrins. Matn2 promotes neurite outgrowth, Schwann cell migration, neuromuscular junc-tion formation, skeletal muscle and liver regeneration and skin wound healing. Matn2 deposition by myoblasts is crucial for the timely induction of the global switch toward terminal myogenic differentiation during muscle regeneration by affecting transforming growth factor beta/bone morphogenetic protein 7/Smad and other signal transduction pathways. Depending on the type of tissue and the pathomechanism, Matn2 can also promote or suppress tumor growth.

  10. Tenascin-Y: a protein of novel domain structure is secreted by differentiated fibroblasts of muscle connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagios, C; Koch, M; Spring, J; Chiquet, M; Chiquet-Ehrismann, R

    1996-09-01

    Tenascin-Y was identified in chicken as a novel member of the tenascin (TN) family of ECM proteins. Like TN-C, TN-R, and TN-X, TN-Y is a multidomain protein consisting of heptad repeats, epidermal growth factor-like repeats, fibronectin type III-like (FNIII) domains and a domain homologous to fibrinogen. In contrast to all other known TNs, the series of FNIII domains is interrupted by a novel domain, rich in serines (S) and prolines (P) that occur as repeated S-P-X-motifs, where X stands for any amino acid. Interestingly, the TN-Y-type FNIII domains are 70-100% identical with respect to their DNA sequence. Different TN-Y variants are created by alternative splicing of FNIII domains. Although, based on sequence comparisons TN-Y is most similar to mammalian TN-X, these molecules are not species homologues. TN-Y is predominantly expressed in embryonic and adult chicken heart and skeletal muscle and, to a lower extent, also in several non-muscular tissues. Two major transcripts of approximately 6.5 and 9.5 kb are differentially expressed during heart and skeletal muscle development and are also present in the adult. Anti-TN-Y antibodies recognize a approximately 400-kD double band and a approximately 300-kD form of TN-Y on immunoblots of chicken heart extracts. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence analysis of aortic smooth muscle, heart, and skeletal muscle revealed that TN-Y is mainly expressed and secreted by cells within muscle-associated connective tissue. Cultured primary muscle fibroblasts released a approximately 220-kD doublet and a approximately 170-kD single TN-Y variant only when cultured in 10% horse serum but not in medium containing 10% fetal calf serum. All TN-Y variants isolated bind to heparin under physiologically relevant conditions that may indicate an important function retained in all tenascins. PMID:8830777

  11. How to measure propagation velocity in cardiac tissue: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre C. Linnenbank

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To estimate conduction velocities from activation times in myocardial tissue, the average vector method computes all the local activation directions and velocities from local activation times and estimates the fastest and slowest propagation speed from these local values. The single vector method uses areas of apparent uniform elliptical spread of activation and chooses a single vector for the estimated longitudinal velocity and one for the transversal. A simulation study was performed to estimate the influence of grid size, anisotropy, and vector angle bin size. The results indicate that the average vector method can best be used if the grid- or bin-size is large, although systematic errors occur. The single vector method performs better, but requires human intervention for the definition of fiber direction. The average vector method can be automated.

  12. Acoustic-radiation-force-induced shear wave propagation in cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Richard R.; Wolf, Patrick D.; Hsu, Stephen J.; Dumont, Douglas M.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2009-02-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) was employed to track acoustic radiation force (ARF)-induced shear waves in the myocardium of a beating heart. Shear waves were generated in and tracked through the myocardium of the left ventricular free wall (LVFW) in an in vivo heart that was exposed through a thoracotomy; matched studies were also preformed on an ex vivo myocardial specimen. Average shear wave velocities ranged from 2.22 to 2.53 m/s for the ex vivo specimen and 1.5 to 2.9 m/s (1.5-2.09 m/s during diastole; 2.9 m/s during systole) for in vivo specimens. Despite the known rotation of myocardial fiber orientation with tissue depth, there was no statistically significant shear wave velocity depth dependence observed in any of the experimental trials.

  13. Cooperative control of striated muscle mass and metabolism by MuRF1 and MuRF2

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Christian C; Stephanie H Witt; Lerche, Stefanie; Labeit, Dietmar; Back, Walter; Labeit, Siegfried

    2007-01-01

    The muscle-specific RING finger proteins MuRF1 and MuRF2 have been proposed to regulate protein degradation and gene expression in muscle tissues. We have tested the in vivo roles of MuRF1 and MuRF2 for muscle metabolism by using knockout (KO) mouse models. Single MuRF1 and MuRF2 KO mice are healthy and have normal muscles. Double knockout (dKO) mice obtained by the inactivation of all four MuRF1 and MuRF2 alleles developed extreme cardiac and milder skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Muscle hypert...

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring of tissue oxygenation of exercising skeletal muscle in a chronic compartment syndrome model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, G. A.; Gross, J. H.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Chance, B.; Hargens, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    Variations in the levels of muscle hemoglobin and of myoglobin oxygen saturation can be detected non-invasively with near-infrared spectroscopy. This technique could be applied to the diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome, in which invasive testing has shown increased intramuscular pressure associated with ischemia and pain during exercise. We simulated chronic compartment syndrome in ten healthy subjects (seven men and three women) by applying external compression, through a wide inflatable cuff, to increase the intramuscular pressure in the anterior compartment of the leg. The tissue oxygenation of the tibialis anterior muscle was measured with near-infrared spectroscopy during gradual inflation of the cuff to a pressure of forty millimeters of mercury (5.33 kilopascals) during fourteen minutes of cyclic isokinetic dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle. The subjects exercised with and without external compression. The data on tissue oxygenation for each subject then were normalized to a scale of 100 per cent (the baseline value, or the value at rest) to 0 per cent (the physiological minimum, or the level of oxygenation achieved by exercise to exhaustion during arterial occlusion of the lower extremity). With external compression, tissue oxygenation declined at a rate of 1.4 +/- 0.3 per cent per minute (mean and standard error) during exercise. After an initial decrease at the onset, tissue oxygenation did not decline during exercise without compression. The recovery of tissue oxygenation after exercise was twice as slow with compression (2.5 +/- 0.6 minutes) than it was without the use of compression (1.3 +/- 0.2 minutes).

  15. Patterns of bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression in smooth muscle tumors of the uterine corpus and other uterine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadare, Oluwole; Renshaw, Idris L; Liang, Sharon X

    2011-07-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are extracellular, multifunctional growth factors that constitute the largest subset of the transforming growth factor β superfamily. BMP2 is involved in cardiovascular embryogenesis, in addition to a variety of other postnatal functions, such as neovascularization, osteoinduction, tumor signaling, and in the uterus, stromal decidualization at the implantation site. Estrogen receptor signaling is common in smooth muscle tumors of the uterus, and preclinical models suggest significant interactions between BMP2 and estrogen receptor-mediated signaling. The purpose of this study is to define the patterns of BMP2 expression, as assessed by immunohistochemistry, in smooth muscle tumors and other tissues of the uterine corpus, and to establish whether BMP2 expression has any prognostic significance in uterine leiomyosarcomas. BMP2 was positive (cytoplasmic pattern, typically focal) in 24% of leiomyosarcomas and 20.7% of leiomyomata, but was either infrequently expressed or not expressed in all other tissues evaluated, including normal myometrium and endometrium, endometrial stromal tumors, typical adenomyoma, adenomyosis, and serosal endometriosis. The endothelial cells of small, thin-walled vessels were frequently, but not invariably immunoreactive for BMP2. There was no significant difference between BMP2⁺ and BMP⁻ leiomyosarcomas regarding average tumor size, average patient age, microvessel density, and proportions with high tumor grade, advanced stage and frequency of death from disease on follow-up. Two (29%) of 7 BMP2⁺ leiomyosarcomas were estrogen receptor+, compared with 5 (50%) of 10 BMP2⁻ leiomyosarcomas, a statistically insignificant difference (P=0.62). It is concluded that BMP2 is only expressed in a minority of smooth muscle tumors of the uterine corpus, and lacks prognostic significance in leiomyosarcomas. BMP2 is rarely expressed in the other nonendothelial tissues of the human uterine corpus that were

  16. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YUUTA KOMATSU; SHIN SUKEGAWA; MAIYAMA SHITA; NAOKI KATSUDA; BIN TONG; TAKESHI OHTA; HIROYUKI KOSE; TAKAHISA YAMADA

    2016-06-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated withgrowth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from mus-culus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected breeding values at the age of 100 kg. Three upregu-lated genes (EEF1A2 ,TSG101andTTN) and six downregulated genes (ATP5B ,ATP5C1 ,COQ3 ,HADHA ,MYH1andMYH7)in pig with genetic propensity for higher growth rate were identified by sequence analysis of 12 differentially expressed clonesselected by differential screening following the generation of the subtracted cDNA population. Real-time PCR analysis con-firmed difference in expression profiles of the identified genes in musculus longissimus muscle tissues between the two Lan-drace weanling pig groups with divergent genetic propensity for growth rate. Further, differential expression of the identifiedgenes except for theTTNwas validated by Western blot analysis. Additionally, the eight genes other than theATP5C1co-localized with the same chromosomal positions as QTLs that have been previously identified for growth rate traits. Finally,the changes of expression predicted from gene function suggested association of upregulation of expression of theEEF1A2 ,TSG101andTTNgenes and downregulation of theATP5B ,ATP5C1 ,COQ3 ,HADHA ,MYH1andMYH7gene expressionwith increased growth rate. The identified genes will provide an important insight in understanding the molecular mechanismunderlying growth rate in Landrace pig breed.

  17. Skeletal Muscle Derived IL-6 in Liver and Adipose Tissue Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob Grunnet

    was to investigate the effect of exercise on key factors in liver glucose and fat metabolism. This study demonstrated that PDH and ACC phosphorylation was decreased and that changes in hepatic PEPCK and G6Pase protein content does not contribute to gluconeogenesis during 1h of exercise in mice. These findings...... indirectly regulate PEPCK protein content when on HFD and that skeletal muscle derived IL-6 may regulate skeletal muscle and hepatic fat metabolism. These findings indicate an indirect role of skeletal muscle derived IL-6 in the regulation of liver metabolism in response to HFD and HFD combined with exercise...... during exercise in the liver may derive from carbohydrate rather than fatty acid oxidation and that increases in gluconeogenic enzyme content does not contribute to hepatic glucose production during 1h of acute exercise in mice....

  18. Differential expression profiling between the relative normal and dystrophic muscle tissues from the same LGMD patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wei

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD is a group of heterogeneous muscular disorders with autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance, in which the pelvic or shoulder girdle musculature is predominantly or primarily involved. Although analysis of the defective proteins has shed some light onto their functions implicated in the etiology of LGMD, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying muscular dystrophy remains incomplete. Methods To give insight into the molecular mechanisms of AR-LGMD, we have examined the differentially expressed gene profiling between the relative normal and pathological skeletal muscles from the same AR-LGMD patient with the differential display RT-PCR approach. The research subjects came from a Chinese AR-LGMD family with three affected sisters. Results In this report, we have identified 31 known genes and 12 unknown ESTs, which were differentially expressed between the relative normal and dystrophic muscle from the same LGMD patient. The expression of many genes encoding structural proteins of skeletal muscle fibers (such as titin, myosin heavy and light chains, and nebulin were dramatically down-regulated in dystrophic muscles compared to the relative normal muscles. The genes, reticulocalbin 1, kinectin 1, fatty acid desaturase 1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5, Nedd4 family interacting protein 1 (NDFIP1, SMARCA2 (SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2, encoding the proteins involved in signal transduction and gene expression regulation were up-regulated in the dystrophic muscles. Conclusion The functional analysis of these expression-altered genes in the pathogenesis of LGMD could provide additional information for understanding possible molecular mechanisms of LGMD development.

  19. Quantifying the effect of tissue deformation on diffusion-weighted MRI: a mathematical model and an efficient simulation framework applied to cardiac diffusion imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkaoui, Imen; Moulin, Kevin; Croisille, Pierre; Pousin, Jerome; Viallon, Magalie

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac motion presents a major challenge in diffusion weighted MRI, often leading to large signal losses that necessitate repeated measurements. The diffusion process in the myocardium is difficult to investigate because of the unqualified sensitivity of diffusion measurements to cardiac motion. A rigorous mathematical formalism is introduced to quantify the effect of tissue motion in diffusion imaging. The presented mathematical model, based on the Bloch–Torrey equations, takes into account deformations according to the laws of continuum mechanics. Approximating this mathematical model by using finite elements method, numerical simulations can predict the sensitivity of the diffusion signal to cardiac motion. Different diffusion encoding schemes are considered and the diffusion weighted MR signals, computed numerically, are compared to available results in literature. Our numerical model can identify the existence of two time points in the cardiac cycle, at which the diffusion is unaffected by myocardial strain and cardiac motion. Of course, these time points depend on the type of diffusion encoding scheme. Our numerical results also show that the motion sensitivity of the diffusion sequence can be reduced by using either spin echo technique with acceleration motion compensation diffusion gradients or stimulated echo acquisition mode with unipolar and bipolar diffusion gradients.

  20. Preclinical Evaluation of the Immunomodulatory Properties of Cardiac Adipose Tissue Progenitor Cells Using Umbilical Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Direct Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Perea-Gil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based strategies to regenerate injured myocardial tissue have emerged over the past decade, but the optimum cell type is still under scrutiny. In this context, human adult epicardial fat surrounding the heart has been characterized as a reservoir of mesenchymal-like progenitor cells (cardiac ATDPCs with potential clinical benefits. However, additional data on the possibility that these cells could trigger a deleterious immune response following implantation are needed. Thus, in the presented study, we took advantage of the well-established low immunogenicity of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs to comparatively assess the immunomodulatory properties of cardiac ATDPCs in an in vitro allostimulatory assay using allogeneic mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs. Similar to UCBMSCs, increasing amounts of seeded cardiac ATDPCs suppressed the alloproliferation of T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL6, TNFα, and IFNγ was also specifically modulated by the different numbers of cardiac ATDPCs cocultured. In summary, we show that cardiac ATDPCs abrogate T cell alloproliferation upon stimulation with allogeneic mature MDDCs, suggesting that they could further regulate a possible harmful immune response in vivo. Additionally, UCBMSCs can be considered as valuable tools to preclinically predict the immunogenicity of prospective regenerative cells.

  1. Gene Expression and Correlation of Pten and Fabp4 in Liver, Muscle, and Adipose Tissues of Type 2 Diabetes Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Di; Zhang, Chuan-ling; Gao, Ying-chun; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Li, Cai-ping; Huangfu, Jian; Xiao, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this work was to study the Fabp4 and Pten gene expression and correlation in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. Material/Methods Male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=12/group): a control group fed a normal diet for 8 weeks and an experimental group fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet for 8 weeks and that received 25 mg/kg streptozotocin by intraperitoneal injection to induce T2DM. The random blood ...

  2. Acceleration of Ca(2+) repletion in the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum and alternation of the Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release mechanism in hypertensive rat (SHR) cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Midori; Tameyasu, Tsukasa

    2008-04-01

    We estimated the time taken for a repletion of the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (JSR) Ca(2+) stores from a family of mechanical restitution curves after twitches of various magnitudes in the cardiac muscle of hypertensive rats (SHR), using a method described previously (Tameyasu et al. Jpn J Physiol. 2004;54:209-19), to evaluate abnormality in Ca(2+) handling by cardiac JSR in hypertension. We found no differences in contractility or in the time course of mechanical restitution between SHR and the controls (WKY) at 3 weeks of age. In comparison to WKY, 7- and 20-week-old SHR showed a greater rested state contraction (RST) and similar or smaller rapid cooling contracture, suggesting that their JSR contains a similar amount of Ca(2+) at saturation, but releases more Ca(2+) upon stimulation. The adult SHR and WKY showed similar mechanical restitution time courses, but the adults had longer pretwitch latencies. The function G(t) representing the time course of JSR Ca(2+) store repletion in adult SHR exceeded the WKY value at t JSR [Ca(2+)] change corresponding to the mechanical restitution after RST was smaller in the adult SHR at t JSR Ca(2+) store repletion and an alternation of the Ca(2+)-induced release of Ca(2+ )from the JSR in young adult SHR. PMID:18312741

  3. Up-regulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin in cardiomyocytes from non-hypertrophic and non-failing transgenic mouse hearts expressing N-terminal truncated cardiac troponin I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kern

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that a restrictive N-terminal truncation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI-ND is up-regulated in the heart in adaptation to hemodynamic stresses. Over-expression of cTnI-ND in the hearts of transgenic mice revealed functional benefits such as increased relaxation and myocardial compliance. In the present study, we investigated the subsequent effect on myocardial remodeling. The alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA isoform is normally expressed in differentiating cardiomyocytes and is a marker for myocardial hypertrophy in adult hearts. Our results show that in cTnI-ND transgenic mice of between 2 and 3 months of age (young adults, a significant level of α-SMA is expressed in the heart as compared with wild-type animals. Although blood vessel density was increased in the cTnI-ND heart, the mass of smooth muscle tissue did not correlate with the increased level of α-SMA. Instead, immunocytochemical staining and Western blotting of protein extracts from isolated cardiomyocytes identified cardiomyocytes as the source of increased α-SMA in cTnI-ND hearts. We further found that while a portion of the up-regulated α-SMA protein was incorporated into the sarcomeric thin filaments, the majority of SMA protein was found outside of myofibrils. This distribution pattern suggests dual functions for the up-regulated α-SMA as both a contractile component to affect contractility and as possible effector of early remodeling in non-hypertrophic, non-failing cTnI-ND hearts.

  4. Molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of angiotensin II-induced muscle wasting: potential therapeutic targets for cardiac cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Tabony, A Michael; Galvez, Sarah; Mitch, William E; Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2013-10-01

    Cachexia is a serious complication of many chronic diseases, such as congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many factors are involved in the development of cachexia, and there is increasing evidence that angiotensin II (Ang II), the main effector molecule of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), plays an important role in this process. Patients with advanced CHF or CKD often have increased Ang II levels and cachexia, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor treatment improves weight loss. In rodent models, an increase in systemic Ang II leads to weight loss through increased protein breakdown, reduced protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and decreased appetite. Ang II activates the ubiquitin-proteasome system via generation of reactive oxygen species and via inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, Ang II inhibits 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and disrupts normal energy balance. Ang II also increases cytokines and circulating hormones such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, serum amyloid-A, glucocorticoids and myostatin, which regulate muscle protein synthesis and degradation. Ang II acts on hypothalamic neurons to regulate orexigenic/anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide-Y, orexin and corticotropin-releasing hormone, leading to reduced appetite. Also, Ang II may regulate skeletal muscle regenerative processes. Several clinical studies have indicated that blockade of Ang II signaling via ACE inhibitors or Ang II type 1 receptor blockers prevents weight loss and improves muscle strength. Thus the RAS is a promising target for the treatment of muscle atrophy in patients with CHF and CKD. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Molecular basis of muscle wasting. PMID:23769949

  5. DNA extraction from Ascaris suum muscle tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mito, Carmela; Betschart, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of DNA from Ascaris suum muscle has been developed. It combines a standard SDS-based extraction with a plant DNA extraction procedure. The use of SDS and proteinase K allows the elimination of proteins, while CTAB and polyclar AT eliminate glycogen and polyphenols. The DNA thus obtained can easily be digested by endonucleases and amplified by PCR.

  6. Growth Hormone signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Poul Frølund; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Pedersen, Steen Bønnelykke;

    2014-01-01

    RNA response (r=0.533, P=0.05). CONCLUSION: i) GH signaling in muscle and fat after a single GH bolus in healthy human subjects is age independent, ii) we hypothesize that constitutive overexpression of CISH may contribute to the relative GH resistance in women, and iii) experimental studies on the impact...

  7. Evaluation of the role of the cyclooxygenase signaling pathway during inflammation in skin and muscle tissues of ball pythons (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Ryan A; Schumacher, Juergen P; Rathore, Kusum; Newkirk, Kim M; Cole, Grayson; Seibert, Rachel; Cekanova, Maria

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine degrees of production of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 and other mediators of inflammation in noninflamed and inflamed skin and muscle tissues in ball pythons (Python regius). ANIMALS 6 healthy adult male ball pythons. PROCEDURES Biopsy specimens of noninflamed skin and muscle tissue were collected from anesthetized snakes on day 0. A 2-cm skin and muscle incision was then made 5 cm distal to the biopsy sites with a CO2 laser to induce inflammation. On day 7, biopsy specimens of skin and muscle tissues were collected from the incision sites. Inflamed and noninflamed tissue specimens were evaluated for production of COX-1, COX-2, phosphorylated protein kinase B (AKT), total AKT, nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, phosphorylated extracellular receptor kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, and total ERK proteins by western blot analysis. Histologic evaluation was performed on H&E-stained tissue sections. RESULTS All biopsy specimens of inflamed skin and muscle tissues had higher histologic inflammation scores than did specimens of noninflamed tissue. Inflamed skin specimens had significantly greater production of COX-1 and phosphorylated ERK than did noninflamed skin specimens. Inflamed muscle specimens had significantly greater production of phosphorylated ERK and phosphorylated AKT, significantly lower production of COX-1, and no difference in production of COX-2, compared with production in noninflamed muscle specimens. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Production of COX-1, but not COX-2, was significantly greater in inflamed versus noninflamed skin specimens from ball pythons. Additional research into the reptilian COX signaling pathway is warranted. PMID:27111016

  8. Treadmill exercise induces neutrophil recruitment into muscle tissue in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. An intravital microscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albená Nunes-Silva

    Full Text Available Intense exercise is a physiological stress capable of inducing the interaction of neutrophils with muscle endothelial cells and their transmigration into tissue. Mechanisms driving this physiological inflammatory response are not known. Here, we investigate whether production of reactive oxygen species is relevant for neutrophil interaction with endothelial cells and recruitment into the quadriceps muscle in mice subjected to the treadmill fatiguing exercise protocol. Mice exercised until fatigue by running for 56.3±6.8 min on an electric treadmill. Skeletal muscle was evaluated by intravital microscopy at different time points after exercise, and then removed to assess local oxidative stress and histopathological analysis. We observed an increase in plasma lactate and creatine kinase (CK concentrations after exercise. The numbers of monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in blood increased 12 and 24 hours after the exercise. Numbers of rolling and adherent leukocytes increased 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours post-exercise, as assessed by intravital microscopy. Using LysM-eGFP mice and confocal intravital microscopy technology, we show that the number of transmigrating neutrophils increased 12 hours post-exercise. Mutant gp91phox-/- (non-functional NADPH oxidase mice and mice treated with apocynin showed diminished neutrophil recruitment. SOD treatment promoted further adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes 12 hours after the exercise. These findings confirm our hypothesis that treadmill exercise increases the recruitment of leukocytes to the postcapillary venules, and NADPH oxidase-induced ROS plays an important role in this process.

  9. Measurement of Smooth Muscle Function in the Isolated Tissue Bath-applications to Pharmacology Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jespersen, Brian; Tykocki, Nathan R.; Watts, Stephanie W.; Cobbett, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Isolated tissue bath assays are a classical pharmacological tool for evaluating concentration-response relationships in a myriad of contractile tissues. While this technique has been implemented for over 100 years, the versatility, simplicity and reproducibility of this assay helps it to remain an indispensable tool for pharmacologists and physiologists alike. Tissue bath systems are available in a wide array of shapes and sizes, allowing a scientist to evaluate samples as small as murine mes...

  10. Comparison of regional skeletal muscle tissue oxygenation in college athletes and sedentary control subjects using quantitative BOLD MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Mitchel R; Caracciolo, Christopher M; Qiu, Maolin; Pal, Prasanta; Varga, Tyler; Constable, Robert Todd; Sinusas, Albert J

    2016-08-01

    Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging permits noninvasive assessment of tissue oxygenation. We hypothesized that BOLD imaging would allow for regional evaluation of differences in skeletal muscle oxygenation between athletes and sedentary control subjects, and dynamic BOLD responses to ischemia (i.e., proximal cuff occlusion) and reactive hyperemia (i.e., rapid cuff deflation) would relate to lower extremity function, as assessed by jumping ability. College football athletes (linemen, defensive backs/wide receivers) were compared to sedentary healthy controls. BOLD signal of the gastrocnemius, soleus, anterior tibialis, and peroneus longus was assessed for peak hyperemic value (PHV), time to peak (TTP), minimum ischemic value (MIV), and time to recovery (TTR). Significantly higher PHVs were identified in athletes versus controls for the gastrocnemius (linemen, 15.8 ± 9.1%; defensive backs/wide receivers, 17.9 ± 5.1%; controls, 7.4 ± 3.5%), soleus (linemen, 25.9 ± 11.5%; backs/receivers, 22.0 ± 9.4%; controls, 12.9 ± 5.8%), and anterior tibialis (linemen, 12.8 ± 5.3%; backs/receivers, 12.6 ± 3.9%; controls, 7.7 ± 4.0%), whereas no differences in PHV were found for the peroneus longus (linemen, 14.1 ± 6.9%; backs/receivers, 11.7 ± 4.6%; controls, 9.0 ± 4.9%). In all subject groups, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles exhibited the lowest MIVs during cuff occlusion. No differences in TTR were found between muscles for any subject group. PHV of the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly and positively related to maximal vertical (r = 0.56, P = 0.002) and broad jump (r = 0.47, P = 0.01). These results suggest that BOLD MR imaging is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating differences in tissue oxygenation of specific muscles between active and sedentary individuals, and peak BOLD responses may relate to functional capacity. PMID:27535483

  11. Tissue damage in organic rainbow trout muscle investigated by proteomics and bioinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Tune; Silva, T.; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2013-01-01

    The response to tissue damage is a complex process, which involves the coordinated regulation of multiple proteins to ensure tissue repair. In order to investigate the effect of tissue damage in a lower vertebrate, samples were taken from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at day seven after...... damage and proteins were separated using 2-DE. The experimental design included two groups of rainbow trout, which were fed organic feed either with or without astaxanthin. In total, 96 proteins were found to be affected by tissue damage, clearly demonstrating in this lower vertebrate the complexity and...

  12. Differentiation of smooth muscle progenitor cells in peripheral blood and its application in tissue engineered blood vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-zhe XIE; Ning-tao FANG; Shui LIU; Ping ZHOU; Yi ZHANG; Song-mei WANG; Hong-yang GAO; Luan-feng PAN

    2008-01-01

    Background: A major shortcoming in tissue engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) is the lack of healthy and easily attainable smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Smooth muscle progenitor cells (SPCs), especially from peripheral blood, may offer an alternative cell source for tissue engineering involving a less invasive harvesting technique. Methods: SPCs were isolated from 5-ml fresh rat peripheral blood by density-gradient centrifugation and cultured for 3 weeks in endothelial growth medium-2-MV (EGM-2-MV) medium containing platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF BB). Before seeded on the synthesized scaffold, SPC-derived smooth muscle outgrowth cell (SOC) phenotypes were assessed by immuno-fluorescent staining, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cells were seeded onto the silk fibroin-modified poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (SF-PHBHHx) scaffolds by 6×104 cells/cm'2 and cultured under the static con-dition for 3 weeks. The growth and proliferation of the seeded cells on the scaffold were analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Results: SOCs displayed specific "hill and valley" morphology, expressed the specific markers of the SMC lineage: protein, and extracellular matrix components elastin and matrix Gla protein (MGP), as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). After seeded on the SF-PHBHHx scaffold, the cells showed excellent metabolic activity and proliferation. Conclusion: SPCs isolated from peripheral blood can be differentiated into the SMCs in vitro and have an impressive growth potential in the biodegradable synthesized scaffold. Thus, SPCs may be a promising cell source for constructing TEBVs.

  13. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilius E. Fonvig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in youth are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20 with a body mass index (BMI >90th percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle fat content (MFC was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC <5% or ³5%. Visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAT were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Blood samples were obtained from 119 patients, and liver enzyme concentrations and other variables were measured. The data were analysed to detect any associations between MFC and BMI standard deviation scores, VAT and SAT, blood values, and physical activity levels. The mean BMI standard deviation score (SDS was 3.04 (range 1.32-5.02. The mean MFC was 8.9% (range 0.8-46.7, and 118 (74.2% of 159 patients had an MFC ³5%. Children with a high MFC had a higher BMI SDS (P=0.03 and had a higher VAT, but not SAT or SAT/VAT ratio. Both intramyocellular lipid (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL content were elevated in patients with an MFC ³5%. Blood values and physical activity levels did not differ between the two groups. Severely obese children and adolescents tend to have a high MFC, which is associated with elevated VAT and IMCL and EMCL content. An increased MFC may be associated with impaired metabolic processes, which may predispose young people to obesity-related complications.

  14. Feeding feedlot steers fish oil alters the fatty acid composition of adipose and muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistuba, T J; Kegley, E B; Apple, J K; Rule, D C

    2007-10-01

    Sixteen steers (441±31.7kg initial body weight) consumed two high concentrate diets with either 0 or 3% fish oil to determine the impact of fish oil, an omega-3 fatty acid source, on the fatty acid composition of beef carcasses. Collected tissue samples included the Longissimus thoracis from the 6th to 7th rib section, ground 10th to 12th rib, liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue adjacent to the 12th rib, intramuscular adipose tissue in the 6th to 7th rib sections, perirenal adipose tissue, and brisket adipose tissue. Including fish oil in the diet increased most of the saturated fatty acids (Pniche marketing if there are no deleterious effects on consumer satisfaction. PMID:22061591

  15. Muscle tissue oxygenation, pressure, electrical, and mechanical responses during dynamic and static voluntary contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Pernille; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Søgaard, Karen;

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic muscle contractions have been shown to cause greater energy turnover and fatigue than static contractions performed at a corresponding force level. Therefore, we hypothesized that: (1) electro- (EMG) and mechanomyography (MMG), intramuscular pressure (IMP), and reduction in muscle oxygen...... tension (rTO(2)) would be larger during dynamic (DYN) than intermittent static (IST) low force contractions; and that (2) oxygen tension would remain lower in the resting periods subsequent to DYN as compared to those following IST. Eight subjects performed elbow flexions with identical time......-tension products: (1) DYN as a 20 degrees elbow movement of 2 s concentric and 2 s eccentric followed by a 4 s rest; and (2) IST with a 4 s contraction followed by a 4 s rest. Each session was performed for 1 min at 10 and 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The force, bipolar surface EMG, MMG, IMP, r...

  16. MANGANESE CONTENT IN THE MUSCLE TISSUE OF THE TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA) IN SOME RIVERS OF ALBANIA

    OpenAIRE

    F. Selami; E. Sotiri; D. Laci; B. Bizhga

    2011-01-01

    Bioaccumulation and magnification is capable of leading to toxic level of these metals in fish even when exposure is low. The presence of metal pollutant in fresh water is known to disturb the delicate balance of the aquatic systems. Fishes are notorious for their ability to concentrate heavy metals in their muscles and since they play an important role in human nutrition, they need to be carefully screened to ensure that unnecessary high levels of some toxic trace metals are not being transf...

  17. Normalisation models for accounting for fat content in stable isotope measurements in salmonid muscle tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Abrantes, K.G.; Semmens, J. M.; Lyle, J.M.; Nichols, P D

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis is increasingly used in ecological studies. Because lipid content influences d13C, lipids should be removed from lipid-rich samples before d13C analysis. To account for differences in d13C arising from differences in lipid content, relationships between lipid content, C:N ratio and ?d13C with lipid removal can be used to normalise lipid content to uniform levels. We investigate these relationships for salmonid muscle and evaluate the suitability of previously published...

  18. Regulation of Nutrient Metabolism in Equine Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Suagee, Jessica Kanekakenre

    2010-01-01

    Glucose and lipid metabolism are dysregulated in obese horses. Altered glucose metabolism is evidenced by the development of insulin resistance and increased fasting plasma insulin concentrations (hyperinsulinemia) while altered lipid metabolism is evidenced by increased plasma lipid concentrations. Obesity in horses also increases the risk of the painful hoof disease, laminitis. Three experiments were performed to investigate the regulation of nutrient metabolism in skeletal muscle and adip...

  19. EVALUATION OF TOTAL MERCURY CONTENT IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF MARINE FISH AND ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Bajčan; Július Árvay; Janette Musilová

    2013-01-01

    Nowdays, a degree of contamination by heavy metals can be observed in the environment. Heavy metals have serious effects on all living organisms because they can accumulate in lethal or sublethal concentrations in the various parts of food chain and so they can cause different health problems like cardiovascular and cancer diseases. Marine fish and animals are one of the bigges source of mercury in human food. Therefore this work is focused to the rate of mercury content in muscle tisuues of ...

  20. 2-Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase is a more significant source of O2(·-)/H2O2 than pyruvate dehydrogenase in cardiac and liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Ryan J; Gardiner, Danielle; O'Brien, Marisa

    2016-08-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (Pdh) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (Ogdh) are vital for Krebs cycle metabolism and sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). O2(·-)/H2O2 formation by Pdh and Ogdh from porcine heart were compared when operating under forward or reverse electron transfer conditions. Comparisons were also conducted with liver and cardiac mitochondria. During reverse electron transfer (RET) from NADH, purified Ogdh generated ~3-3.5× more O2(·-)/H2O2 in comparison to Pdh when metabolizing 0.5-10µM NADH. Under forward electron transfer (FET) conditions Ogdh generated ~2-4× more O2(·-)/H2O2 than Pdh. In both liver and cardiac mitochondria, Ogdh displayed significantly higher rates of ROS formation when compared to Pdh. Ogdh was also a significant source of ROS in liver mitochondria metabolizing 50µM and 500µM pyruvate or succinate. Finally, we also observed that DTT directly stimulated O2(·-)/H2O2 formation by purified Pdh and Ogdh and in cardiac or liver mitochondria in the absence of substrates and cofactors. Taken together, Ogdh is a more potent source of ROS than Pdh in liver and cardiac tissue. Ogdh is also an important ROS generator regardless of whether pyruvate or succinate serve as the sole source of carbon. Our observations provide insight into the ROS generating capacity of either complex in cardiac and liver tissue. The evidence presented herein also indicates DTT, a reductant that is routinely added to biological samples, should be avoided when assessing mitochondrial O2(·-)/H2O2 production. PMID:27394173