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Sample records for cardiac computed tomography

  1. Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT) Updated:Sep 3,2015 What is Computerized Tomography (CT)? CT is a noninvasive test that uses ...

  2. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We...

  3. Computed tomography of cardiac pseudotumors and neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anavekar, Nandan S; Bonnichsen, Crystal R; Foley, Thomas A; Morris, Michael F; Martinez, Matthew W; Williamson, Eric E; Glockner, James F; Miller, Dylan V; Breen, Jerome F; Araoz, Philip A

    2010-07-01

    Important features of cardiac masses can be clearly delineated on cardiac computed tomography (CT) imaging. This modality is useful in identifying the presence of a mass, its relationship with cardiac and extracardiac structures, and the features that distinguish one type of mass from another. A multimodality approach to the evaluation of cardiac tumors is advocated, with the use of echocardiography, CT imaging and magnetic resonance imaging as appropriately indicated. In this article, various cardiac masses are described, including pseudotumors and true cardiac neoplasms, and the CT imaging findings that may be useful in distinguishing these rare entities are presented. PMID:20705174

  4. Cardiac computed tomography in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, cardiac computed tomography (CT) is increasingly being implemented into clinical algorithms, primarily due to substantial technical advances over the last decade. Its use in the setting of suspected acute coronary syndrome is of particular relevance, given the high degree of accumulating scientific evidence of improving patient outcomes. Performing cardiac CT requires specific knowledge on the available scan acquisitions and patient preparation. Also, expertise is required in order to interpret the coronary and extra-coronary findings adequately. The present article provides an overview of the different aspects on the use of cardiac CT in the setting of acute coronary syndrome.

  5. Incidental cardiac findings on computed tomography imaging of the thorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Gendi Hossam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of pulmonary pathology with computed tomography also allows visualisation of the heart and major vessels. We sought to explore whether clinically relevant cardiac pathology could be identified on computed tomography pulmonary angiograms (CTPA requested for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE. 100 consecutive CT contrast-enhanced pulmonary angiograms carried out for exclusion of PE at a single centre were assessed retrospectively by two cardiologists. Findings Evidence of PE was reported in 5% of scans. Incidental cardiac findings included: aortic wall calcification (54%, coronary calcification (46%, cardiomegaly (41%, atrial dilatation (18%, mitral annulus calcification (15%, right ventricular dilatation (11%, aortic dilatation (8% and right ventricular thrombus (1%. Apart from 3 (3% reports describing cardiomegaly, no other cardiac findings were described in radiologists' reports. Other reported pulmonary abnormalities included: lung nodules (14%, lobar collapse/consolidation (8%, pleural effusion (2%, lobar collapse/consolidation (8%, emphysema (6% and pleural calcification (4%. Conclusions CTPAs requested for the exclusion of PE have a high yield of cardiac abnormalities. Although these abnormalities may not have implications for acute clinical management, they may, nevertheless, be important in long-term care.

  6. Cardiac motion extraction and characterization in multislice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac kinetics analysis is of a great diagnostic interest in the fight against cardiovascular pathologies. Two methods are proposed in order to estimate cardiac motion from dynamic sequences of three-dimensional volumes acquired in multislice computed tomography. These methods both lie on a feature matching process, carried out within a Markovian framework and according to a multi-resolution scheme. The first method, estimating the correspondences between pre-segmented surfaces, is dependent on the temporal coherence of this segmentation. The second method estimates the correspondences between, on the one hand, a segmented surface and, on the other hand, the original data volume corresponding to the next moment. The motion estimation and the segmentation are then carried out, on the whole sequence, during a single process. Both methods are validated on simulated and real data. (author)

  7. Assessment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by ECG gated cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of ECG gated cardiac computed tomography (CT) in 12 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was examined. Six of the 12 patients had hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, including one patient with mid-ventricular obstruction. Three of the 12 patients had hypertrophic non-obstructive cardiomyopathy, and three had apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was confirmed by the angiocardiogram in all patients. Cardiac CT was performed after intravenous administration of contrast media usually given as a bolus injection. The gantry was set with positive 200 tilt angle. In all patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy except for mid-ventricular obstruction, the hypertrophied interventricular septum in the basal and mid portions was observed, and the left ventricular cavity was narrowed in systole. In a patient with mid-ventricular obstruction, the marked hypertrophied interventricular septum and antero-lateral papillary muscle were observed. In diastole, the left ventricular cavity was narrow and divided into two parts. The apical cavity was completely disappeared in systole. In all patients with hypertrophic non-obstructive cardiomyopathy, the diffuse hypertrophied interventricular septum was observed in diastole. In systole, the apical portion of the left ventricular cavity was markedly narrow and antero-lateral papillary muscle was hypertrophic. In all patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the marked apical hypertrophy of the left ventricular wall was observed in diastole. It is concluded that ECG gated cardiac CT could estimate myocardial wall motion and thickness and differentiate the types of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy each other. (author)

  8. Is Training Essential for Interpreting Cardiac Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has gained increasing acceptance for diagnosing obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Several guidelines have been published on required education for proficiency in the interpretation of these examinations. Purpose: To describe the learning-curve effect of the interpretation of 100 consecutive cardiac CT examinations aimed at diagnosing CAD. The diagnostic accuracy of radiologists and radiographers was also compared. Material and Methods: Two radiologists and two radiographers, all with no prior experience in evaluation of cardiac CT, independently underwent a dedicated training program of 100 examinations randomized into 10 blocks (sessions), with 10 cases in each. They independently evaluated the coronary arteries regarding significant obstructive CAD. After every session, individual feedback on diagnostic accuracy and comparison with the corresponding invasive coronary angiography (currently regarded as the gold standard to detect coronary lesions) was given. The time required for interpretation was recorded. Results: The mean review time decreased (P<0.0001) successively during the 10 sessions for all the observers together. The first session had a mean review time of 32 min, and the last session 16 min. No significant improvement in sensitivity, specificity, or negative predictive value (NPV) was observed. For positive predictive value (PPV), there was an improvement for the radiologists (P<0.05), but not for the radiographers. The radiographers had a higher total specificity compared to the radiologists (P<0.01). Conclusion: The review time for novices in cardiac CT was approximately halved during the first 100 cases, with maintained accuracy. There was a learning-curve effect in PPV for the radiologists. The diagnostic accuracy of dedicated radiographers indicates that they might be considered to be included as part of the evaluation team

  9. Conventional radiography and computed tomography of cardiac assist devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients intended for circulatory support by cardiac assist devices (CAD) usually suffer from end-stage acute or chronic heart failure. Since the introduction of CAD in 1963 by DeBakey and coworkers, the systems have gone through a substantial evolution and have been increasingly used in the intervening decades. The spectrum of CAD includes a variety of systems serving to assist the systolic function of the left ventricle, the right ventricle, or both. Conventional radiography and multislice spiral computed tomography (CT) are the most commonly used radiological techniques for imaging patients with a CAD. CT is very useful for evaluating CAD systems by using both two- and three-dimensional reconstructions of the volumetric data sets. The two techniques together allow for the comprehensive assessment of patients with devices by imaging the in- and outflow cannulae, the anastomoses, the position of the pump, as well as associated complications. A close collaboration with cardiac surgeons with expertise in the field of circulatory support is deemed necessary for adequate image interpretation. This article describes the technical diversity of the currently available CAD systems. The imaging characteristics on conventional radiography and multislice spiral CT as well as the typical complications of their use are demonstrated. (orig.)

  10. Quantitative analysis of left ventricular strain using cardiac computed tomography

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    Buss, Sebastian J., E-mail: sebastian.buss@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schulz, Felix; Mereles, Derliz [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hosch, Waldemar [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Galuschky, Christian; Schummers, Georg; Stapf, Daniel [TomTec Imaging Systems GmbH, Munich (Germany); Hofmann, Nina; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Hardt, Stefan E. [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Katus, Hugo A.; Korosoglou, Grigorios [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Objectives: To investigate whether cardiac computed tomography (CCT) can determine left ventricular (LV) radial, circumferential and longitudinal myocardial deformation in comparison to two-dimensional echocardiography in patients with congestive heart failure. Background: Echocardiography allows for accurate assessment of strain with high temporal resolution. A reduced strain is associated with a poor prognosis in cardiomyopathies. However, strain imaging is limited in patients with poor echogenic windows, so that, in selected cases, tomographic imaging techniques may be preferable for the evaluation of myocardial deformation. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 27) with congestive heart failure who underwent a clinically indicated ECG-gated contrast-enhanced 64-slice dual-source CCT for the evaluation of the cardiac veins prior to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) were included. All patients underwent additional echocardiography. LV radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain and strain rates were analyzed in identical midventricular short axis, 4-, 2- and 3-chamber views for both modalities using the same prototype software algorithm (feature tracking). Time for analysis was assessed for both modalities. Results: Close correlations were observed for both techniques regarding global strain (r = 0.93, r = 0.87 and r = 0.84 for radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain, respectively, p < 0.001 for all). Similar trends were observed for regional radial, longitudinal and circumferential strain (r = 0.88, r = 0.84 and r = 0.94, respectively, p < 0.001 for all). The number of non-diagnostic myocardial segments was significantly higher with echocardiography than with CCT (9.6% versus 1.9%, p < 0.001). In addition, the required time for complete quantitative strain analysis was significantly shorter for CCT compared to echocardiography (877 ± 119 s per patient versus 1105 ± 258 s per patient, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of LV strain

  11. Preoperative cardiac computed tomography for demonstration of congenital cardiac septal defect in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to evaluate the role of preoperative cardiac computed tomography (CT) for adults with congenital cardiac septal defect (CSD). Sixty-five consecutive patients who underwent preoperative CT and surgery for CSD were included. The diagnostic accuracy of CT and the concordance rate of the subtype classification of CSD were evaluated using surgical findings as the reference standard. Sixty-five patients without CSD who underwent cardiac valve surgery were used as a control group. An incremental value of CT over echocardiography was described retrospectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CT for diagnosis of CSD were 95 % and 100 %, respectively. The concordance rate of subtype classification was 91 % in CT and 92 % in echocardiography. The maximum size of the defect measured by CT correlated well with surgical measurement (r = 0.82), and the limit of agreement was -0.9 ± 7.42 mm. In comparison with echocardiography, CT was able to detect combined abnormalities in three cases, and exclusively provided correct subtype classification or clarified suspected abnormal findings found on echocardiography in seven cases. Cardiac CT can accurately demonstrates CSD in preoperative adult patients. CT may have an incremental role in preoperative planning, particularly in those with more complex anatomy. (orig.)

  12. Preoperative cardiac computed tomography for demonstration of congenital cardiac septal defect in adults

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    Eom, Hye-Joung; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae-Hee; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Cardiology and Heart Institute, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Cardiothoracic surgery, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the role of preoperative cardiac computed tomography (CT) for adults with congenital cardiac septal defect (CSD). Sixty-five consecutive patients who underwent preoperative CT and surgery for CSD were included. The diagnostic accuracy of CT and the concordance rate of the subtype classification of CSD were evaluated using surgical findings as the reference standard. Sixty-five patients without CSD who underwent cardiac valve surgery were used as a control group. An incremental value of CT over echocardiography was described retrospectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CT for diagnosis of CSD were 95 % and 100 %, respectively. The concordance rate of subtype classification was 91 % in CT and 92 % in echocardiography. The maximum size of the defect measured by CT correlated well with surgical measurement (r = 0.82), and the limit of agreement was -0.9 ± 7.42 mm. In comparison with echocardiography, CT was able to detect combined abnormalities in three cases, and exclusively provided correct subtype classification or clarified suspected abnormal findings found on echocardiography in seven cases. Cardiac CT can accurately demonstrates CSD in preoperative adult patients. CT may have an incremental role in preoperative planning, particularly in those with more complex anatomy. (orig.)

  13. Acute mediastinitis: multidetector computed tomography findings following cardiac surgery

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    Macedo, Clarissa Aguiar de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto do Coracao (InCor)]. E-mail: clarissaaguiarm@yahoo.com.br; Baena, Marcos Eduardo da Silva [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unit of Ultrasonography; Uezumi, Kiyomi Kato [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unit of Computed Tomography; Castro, Claudio Campi de [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unit of Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Center of Diagnosis; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine. Dept. of Radiology

    2008-07-15

    Postoperative mediastinitis is defined as an infection of the organs and tissues in the mediastinal space, with an incidence ranging between 0.4% and 5% of cases. This disease severity varies from infection of superficial tissues in the chest wall to fulminant mediastinitis with sternal involvement. Diagnostic criterion for postoperative detection of acute mediastinitis at computed tomography is the presence of fluid collections and gas in the mediastinal space, which might or might not be associated with peristernal abnormalities such as edema of soft tissues, separation of sternal segments with marginal bone resorption, sclerosis and osteomyelitis. Other associated findings include lymphadenomegaly, pulmonary consolidation and pleural/ pericardial effusion. Some of these findings, such as mediastinal gas and small fluid collections can be typically found in the absence of infection, early in the period following thoracic surgery where the effectiveness of computed tomography is limited. After approximately two weeks, computed tomography achieves almost 100% sensitivity and specificity. Patients with clinical suspicion of mediastinitis should be submitted to computed tomography for investigating the presence of fluid collections to identify the extent and nature of the disease. Multidetector computed tomography allows 3D images reconstruction, contributing particularly to the evaluation of the sternum. (author)

  14. Optimisation of post mortem cardiac computed tomography compared to optical coherence tomography and histopathology - Technical note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle; Leth, Peter Mygind; Thygesen, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Coronary atherosclerosis is a leading cause of mortality. New technological developments in computed tomography (CT), including dual energy, iterative reconstructions and high definition scanning, could significantly improve the non-invasive identification of atherosclerosis plaques....... Here, a new method for optimising cardiac coronary CT with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histopathology is presented. Materials and methods: Twenty human hearts obtained from autopsies were used. A contrast agent that solidifies after cooling was injected into the coronary arteries. CT...... scanning was performed on the heart alone as well as with the heart in a chest phantom. We used eight different CT protocols and the newest CT technique to image every heart. The OCT and CT images were compared with their corresponding histological sections. A procedure for ensuring the correct alignment...

  15. Simulation study of respiratory-induced errors in cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart disease is a leading killer in Canada and positron emission tomography (PET) provides clinicians with in vivo metabolic information for diagnosing heart disease. Transmission data are usually acquired with 68Ge, although the advent of PET/CT scanners has made computed tomography (CT) an alternative option. The fast data acquisition of CT compared to PET may cause potential misregistration problems, leading to inaccurate attenuation correction (AC). Using Monte Carlo simulations and an anthropomorphic dynamic computer phantom, this study determines the magnitude and location of respiratory-induced errors in radioactivity uptake measured in cardiac PET/CT. A homogeneous tracer distribution in the heart was considered. The AC was based on (1) a time-averaged attenuation map (2) CT maps from a single phase of the respiratory cycle, and (3) CT maps phase matched to the emission data. Circumferential profiles of the heart uptake were compared and differences of up to 24% were found between the single-phase CT-AC method and the true phantom values. Simulation results were supported by a PET/CT canine study which showed differences of up to 10% in the heart uptake in the lung-heart boundary region when comparing 68Ge- to CT-based AC with the CT map acquired at end inhalation

  16. Coronary artery pseudoaneurysm: closure with pericardium-covered stents, guided by cardiac computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Kjell; van der Zant, Friso M; de Swart, Johannes B R M; Knol, Remco J; Heestermans, Antonius A C M; Cornel, Jan H

    2013-08-01

    Coronary aneurysms are found in approximately 5% of patients undergoing coronary angiography. We describe a case of a coronary artery pseudoaneurysm. The use of cardiac computed tomography angiography is demonstrated in the planning and follow-up of a percutaneous closure of the pseudoaneurysm with pericardium-covered stents. PMID:23395278

  17. Cardiac computed tomography in patients with acute coronary syndrome; Kardiale CT beim akuten Koronarsyndrom

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    Schlett, C.L. [Universitaetsklinikum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Alkadhi, H. [Universitaetsspital, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bamberg, F. [Universitaetsklinikum, Tuebingen (Germany). Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2014-09-15

    Currently, cardiac computed tomography (CT) is increasingly being implemented into clinical algorithms, primarily due to substantial technical advances over the last decade. Its use in the setting of suspected acute coronary syndrome is of particular relevance, given the high degree of accumulating scientific evidence of improving patient outcomes. Performing cardiac CT requires specific knowledge on the available scan acquisitions and patient preparation. Also, expertise is required in order to interpret the coronary and extra-coronary findings adequately. The present article provides an overview of the different aspects on the use of cardiac CT in the setting of acute coronary syndrome.

  18. Current role of cardiac and extra-cardiac pathologies in clinically indicated cardiac computed tomography with emphasis on status before pulmonary vein isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of cardiac and significant extra-cardiac findings in clinical computed tomography of the heart in patients with atrial fibrillation before pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Materials and Methods: 224 patients (64 ± 10 years; male 63%) with atrial fibrillation were examined by cardiac 64-slice multidetector CT before PVI. Extra-cardiac findings were classified as 'significant' if they were recommended to additional diagnostics or therapy, and otherwise as 'non-significant'. Additionally, cardiac findings were documented in detail. Results: A total of 724 cardiac findings were identified in 203 patients (91% of patients). Additionally, a total of 619 extra-cardiac findings were identified in 179 patients (80% of patients). Among these extra-cardiac findings 196 (32%) were 'significant', and 423 (68%) were 'non-significant'. In 2 patients (1%) a previously unknown malignancy was detected (esophageal cancer and lung cancer, local stage, no metastasis). 203 additional imaging diagnostics followed to clarify the 'significant' findings (124 additional CT, costs 38,314.69 US dollars). Overall, there were 3.2 cardiac and 2.8 extra-cardiac findings per patient. Extra-cardiac findings appear significantly more frequently in patients over 60 years old, in smokers and in patients with a history of cardiac findings (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Cardiac CT scans before PVI should be screened for extracardiac incidental findings that could have important clinical implications for each patient. (orig.)

  19. Imaging pitfalls, normal anatomy, and anatomical variants that can simulate disease on cardiac imaging as demonstrated on multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in computed tomography have led to continuous improvement in cardiac imaging. Dedicated postprocessing capabilities, faster scan times, and cardiac gating methods reveal details of normal cardiac anatomy and anatomic variants that can mimic pathologic conditions. This article will review normal cardiac anatomy and variants that can mimic disease. Radiologists should be familiar with normal cardiac anatomy and anatomic variants to avoid misinterpretation of normal findings for pathologic processes

  20. Cine CT: a new technology for cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical requirements for adequate evaluation of cardiac anatomy and physiology, namely scan speeds in the 33-100 msec range, simultaneous multi-slice capability, 15-20 multi-level scans/second and a repeat multi-slice study at one per second, have been realized with the inception of the Cine-CT scanner. This scanner acquires scan data in 50 milliseconds by eliminating moving parts and using a scanning electron beam to produce a high speed X-ray source. The authors describe this scanner and the three scanning modes available: continuous or cine mode; flow or triggered mode; and full resolution mode. (Auth.)

  1. Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging Guidelines for Cardiac Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging (KOCSI) has issued a guideline for the use of cardiac CT imaging in order to assist clinicians and patients in providing adequate level of medical service. In order to establish a guideline founded on evidence based medicine, it was designed based on comprehensive data such as questionnaires conducted in international and domestic hospitals, intensive journal reviews, and with experts in cardiac radiology. The recommendations of this guideline should not be used as an absolute standard and medical professionals can always refer to methods non-adherent to this guideline when it is considered more reasonable and beneficial to an individual patient's medical situation. The guideline has its limitation and should be revised appropriately with the advancement medical equipment technology and public health care system. The guideline should not be served as a measure for standard of care. KOCSI strongly disapproves the use of the guideline to be used as the standard of expected practice in medical litigation processes.

  2. Evaluation of effective dose received by patients undergoing Cardiac Angiography Computed Tomography (CT) and Conventional Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac Angiography is a field of studies that utilizes the energy of radiation to study the coronary arteries of the heart. Patients undergoing this procedure has a probability of receiving an over dose of radiation that may further cause stochastic effect. The main objective of this research is to compare and clarify an approach for minimal effective dose receive by patients between procedures of Cardiac Angiography Computerized Tomography (CT) and Conventional Angiography. Based on this study, the patients recorded are based in Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. The Dose-Length-Product (DLP) was extracted from the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI); meanwhile the Dose-Area-Product (DAP) was extracted from the modalities console screen. These relevant data are the means to clarify the effective dose receive by patients. The result shows that patients who undergo Conventional Angiography had a mean effective dose of 8.50 ± 6.41 mSv. Meanwhile, as for Cardiac Angiography Computerized Tomography, the patients had a mean effective dose of 7.08 ± 2.42 mSv. A significant difference in effective dose was seen between the two procedures. Cardiac Angiography CT provides high accurate diagnostic information with less radiation dose to patients compared to Conventional Angiography. (author)

  3. Current role of cardiac and extra-cardiac pathologies in clinically indicated cardiac computed tomography with emphasis on status before pulmonary vein isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohns, J.M.; Lotz, J. [Goettingen University Medical Center (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Goettingen (Germany); Menke, J.; Staab, W.; Fasshauer, M.; Kowallick, J.T.; Zwaka, P.A.; Schwarz, A. [Goettingen University Medical Center (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Spiro, J. [Koeln University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Bergau, L.; Unterberg-Buchwald, C. [Goettingen University Medical Center (Germany). Cardiology and Pneumology

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of cardiac and significant extra-cardiac findings in clinical computed tomography of the heart in patients with atrial fibrillation before pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Materials and Methods: 224 patients (64 ± 10 years; male 63%) with atrial fibrillation were examined by cardiac 64-slice multidetector CT before PVI. Extra-cardiac findings were classified as 'significant' if they were recommended to additional diagnostics or therapy, and otherwise as 'non-significant'. Additionally, cardiac findings were documented in detail. Results: A total of 724 cardiac findings were identified in 203 patients (91% of patients). Additionally, a total of 619 extra-cardiac findings were identified in 179 patients (80% of patients). Among these extra-cardiac findings 196 (32%) were 'significant', and 423 (68%) were 'non-significant'. In 2 patients (1%) a previously unknown malignancy was detected (esophageal cancer and lung cancer, local stage, no metastasis). 203 additional imaging diagnostics followed to clarify the 'significant' findings (124 additional CT, costs 38,314.69 US dollars). Overall, there were 3.2 cardiac and 2.8 extra-cardiac findings per patient. Extra-cardiac findings appear significantly more frequently in patients over 60 years old, in smokers and in patients with a history of cardiac findings (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Cardiac CT scans before PVI should be screened for extracardiac incidental findings that could have important clinical implications for each patient. (orig.)

  4. Measurement of cardiac output by dynamic computed transmission tomography. Comparison with thermodilution method

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    Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Yoshino, Futoshi; Ootani, Yukihiro; Kishimoto, Kinya; Takahashi, Ryuji

    1989-05-01

    The capacity of the new computed tomography (CT) instrument with excellent time resolution to measure cardiac output was explored. Dynamic scans of serial one-second images were performed at the middle section of left ventricle for 28 sec. We injected a bolus of 0.3 ml/kg angiografin for 2 sec or 0.4 ml/kg angiografin for 4 sec into the inferior vena cava. The regions of interest were set in the left ventricular cavity and thoracic aorta. Cardiac output was calculated by applying indicator dilution principles. The results were compared with those obtained by thermodilution. The CT results by using 2 sec 0.3 ml/kg angiografin correlated well (r=0.91, p<0.001) with those of thermodilution. This study indicates the utililty of dynamic CT for estimation of cardiac output. (author).

  5. Value of cardiac 320-multidetector computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of myocardial perfusion defects in patients with known chronic ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Kühl, Jørgen T; Mathiasen, Anders B;

    2013-01-01

    The challenge for therapies targeting perfusion abnormalities is to identify and evaluate the region of interest. The aim of this study was to compare rest and stress myocardial perfusion measured by cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in...

  6. Characterization of cardiac quiescence from retrospective cardiac computed tomography using a correlation-based phase-to-phase deviation measure

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    Wick, Carson A.; McClellan, James H. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777 Atlantic Drive Northwest, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Arepalli, Chesnal D. [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, 3350-950 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E3 (Canada); Auffermann, William F.; Henry, Travis S. [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging, 1364 Clifton Road Northeast, Suite 309, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Khosa, Faisal [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Division of Emergency Radiology, 550 Peachtree Street Northeast, Atlanta, Georgia 30308 (United States); Coy, Adam M. [School of Medicine, Emory University, 100 Woodruff Circle, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Tridandapani, Srini, E-mail: stridan@emory.edu [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Winship Cancer Institute, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777 Atlantic Drive Northwest, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate knowledge of cardiac quiescence is crucial to the performance of many cardiac imaging modalities, including computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). To accurately quantify quiescence, a method for detecting the quiescent periods of the heart from retrospective cardiac computed tomography (CT) using a correlation-based, phase-to-phase deviation measure was developed. Methods: Retrospective cardiac CT data were obtained from 20 patients (11 male, 9 female, 33–74 yr) and the left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex, right coronary artery (RCA), and interventricular septum (IVS) were segmented for each phase using a semiautomated technique. Cardiac motion of individual coronary vessels as well as the IVS was calculated using phase-to-phase deviation. As an easily identifiable feature, the IVS was analyzed to assess how well it predicts vessel quiescence. Finally, the diagnostic quality of the reconstructed volumes from the quiescent phases determined using the deviation measure from the vessels in aggregate and the IVS was compared to that from quiescent phases calculated by the CT scanner. Three board-certified radiologists, fellowship-trained in cardiothoracic imaging, graded the diagnostic quality of the reconstructions using a Likert response format: 1 = excellent, 2 = good, 3 = adequate, 4 = nondiagnostic. Results: Systolic and diastolic quiescent periods were identified for each subject from the vessel motion calculated using the phase-to-phase deviation measure. The motion of the IVS was found to be similar to the aggregate vessel (AGG) motion. The diagnostic quality of the coronary vessels for the quiescent phases calculated from the aggregate vessel (P{sub AGG}) and IVS (P{sub IV} {sub S}) deviation signal using the proposed methods was comparable to the quiescent phases calculated by the CT scanner (P{sub CT}). The one exception was the RCA, which improved for P{sub AGG} for 18 of the 20 subjects when compared to P

  7. Characterization of cardiac quiescence from retrospective cardiac computed tomography using a correlation-based phase-to-phase deviation measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Accurate knowledge of cardiac quiescence is crucial to the performance of many cardiac imaging modalities, including computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). To accurately quantify quiescence, a method for detecting the quiescent periods of the heart from retrospective cardiac computed tomography (CT) using a correlation-based, phase-to-phase deviation measure was developed. Methods: Retrospective cardiac CT data were obtained from 20 patients (11 male, 9 female, 33–74 yr) and the left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex, right coronary artery (RCA), and interventricular septum (IVS) were segmented for each phase using a semiautomated technique. Cardiac motion of individual coronary vessels as well as the IVS was calculated using phase-to-phase deviation. As an easily identifiable feature, the IVS was analyzed to assess how well it predicts vessel quiescence. Finally, the diagnostic quality of the reconstructed volumes from the quiescent phases determined using the deviation measure from the vessels in aggregate and the IVS was compared to that from quiescent phases calculated by the CT scanner. Three board-certified radiologists, fellowship-trained in cardiothoracic imaging, graded the diagnostic quality of the reconstructions using a Likert response format: 1 = excellent, 2 = good, 3 = adequate, 4 = nondiagnostic. Results: Systolic and diastolic quiescent periods were identified for each subject from the vessel motion calculated using the phase-to-phase deviation measure. The motion of the IVS was found to be similar to the aggregate vessel (AGG) motion. The diagnostic quality of the coronary vessels for the quiescent phases calculated from the aggregate vessel (PAGG) and IVS (PIV S) deviation signal using the proposed methods was comparable to the quiescent phases calculated by the CT scanner (PCT). The one exception was the RCA, which improved for PAGG for 18 of the 20 subjects when compared to PCT (PCT = 2.48; PAGG = 2.07, p = 0

  8. A comparison of bolus injection of landiolol versus oral administration of propranolol before cardiac computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Yamaji, Kyohei; Saho, Tatsunori; Matsuzaki, Zyousin; Yuda, Itsuo; Soga, Yoshimitsu; Shirai, Shinichi; Ando, Kenji; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) reduction is essential to achieve good image quality for cardiac computed tomography (CCT). We evaluated the efficacy of a bolus injection of landiolol, an ultra-short acting β-blocker, without the administration of oral β-blocker to reduce HR prior to CCT. We enrolled 678 consecutive patients who underwent CCT from December 2011 to March 2012 and divided them into three groups, which were a propranolol group (n = 277), a low-dose landiolol group (n = 188), and a high-dose lan...

  9. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in ischemic cardiomyopathy: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Boldrini Assunção

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ischemic cardiomyopathy is one of the major health problems worldwide, representing a significant part of mortality in the general population nowadays. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI and cardiac computed tomography (CCT are noninvasive imaging methods that serve as useful tools in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and may also help in screening individuals with risk factors for developing this illness. Technological developments of CMRI and CCT have contributed to the rise of several clinical indications of these imaging methods complementarily to other investigation methods, particularly in cases where they are inconclusive. In terms of accuracy, CMRI and CCT are similar to the other imaging methods, with few absolute contraindications and minimal risks of adverse side-effects. This fact strengthens these methods as powerful and safe tools in the management of patients. The present study is aimed at describing the role played by CMRI and CCT in the diagnosis of ischemic cardiomyopathies.

  10. Cardiac findings on non-gated chest computed tomography: A clinical and pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanza, Rene Epunza; Allard, Christian; Berube, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The use of chest computed tomography (CT) as an imaging test for the evaluation of thoracic pathology has significantly increased during the last four decades. Although cardiopulmonary diseases often overlap in their clinical manifestation, radiologists tend to overlook the heart while interpreting routine chest CT. Recent advances in CT technology have led to significant reduction of heart motion artefacts and now allow for the identification of several cardiac findings on chest CT even without electrocardiogram (ECG) gating. These observations range from simple curiosity to both benign and malignant discoveries, to life-threatening discoveries. We here present a clinical and radiologic review of common and less common cardiac findings discovered on non-gated chest CT in order to draw the attention of radiologists and referring physicians to these possibilities. PMID:26781150

  11. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in ischemic cardiomyopathy: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischemic cardiomyopathy is one of the major health problems worldwide, representing a significant part of mortality in the general population nowadays. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) and cardiac computed tomography (CCT) are noninvasive imaging methods that serve as useful tools in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and may also help in screening individuals with risk factors for developing this illness. Technological developments of CMRI and CCT have contributed to the rise of several clinical indications of these imaging methods complimentarily to other investigation methods, particularly in cases where they are inconclusive. In terms of accuracy, CMRI and CCT are similar to the other imaging methods, with few absolute contraindications and minimal risks of adverse side-effects. This fact strengthens these methods as powerful and safe tools in the management of patients. The present study is aimed at describing the role played by CMRI and CCT in the diagnosis of ischemic cardiomyopathies. (author)

  12. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in ischemic cardiomyopathy: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Fernanda Boldrini; Oliveira, Diogo Costa Leandro de; Nacif, Marcelo Souto, E-mail: msnacif@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Medicina; Souza, Vitor Frauches [Complexo Hospitalar de Niteroi (CHN), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    Ischemic cardiomyopathy is one of the major health problems worldwide, representing a significant part of mortality in the general population nowadays. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) and cardiac computed tomography (CCT) are noninvasive imaging methods that serve as useful tools in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and may also help in screening individuals with risk factors for developing this illness. Technological developments of CMRI and CCT have contributed to the rise of several clinical indications of these imaging methods complimentarily to other investigation methods, particularly in cases where they are inconclusive. In terms of accuracy, CMRI and CCT are similar to the other imaging methods, with few absolute contraindications and minimal risks of adverse side-effects. This fact strengthens these methods as powerful and safe tools in the management of patients. The present study is aimed at describing the role played by CMRI and CCT in the diagnosis of ischemic cardiomyopathies. (author)

  13. Analysis of Pulmonary Vein Antrums Motion with Cardiac Contraction Using Dual-Source Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guise, Jacques; Vu, Toni; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl; Blais, Danis; Lebeau, Martin; Nguyen, Nhu-Tram; Roberge, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the extent of displacement of the pulmonary vein antrums resulting from the intrinsic motion of the heart using 4D cardiac dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). Methods: Ten consecutive female patients were enrolled in this prospective planning study. In breath-hold, a contrast-injected cardiac 4-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) synchronized to the electrocardiogram was obtained using a prospective sequential acquisition method including the extreme phases of systole and diastole. Right and left atrial fibrillation target volumes (CTVR and CTVL) were defined, with each target volume containing the antral regions of the superior and inferior pulmonary veins. Four points of interest were used as surrogates for the right superior and inferior pulmonary vein antrum (RSPVA and RIPVA) and the left superior and inferior pulmonary vein antrum (LSPVA and LIPVA). On our 4D post-processing workstation (MIM Maestro™, MIM Software Inc.), maximum displacement of each point of interest from diastole to systole was measured in the mediolateral (ML), anteroposterior (AP), and superoinferior (SI) directions. Results: Median age of the enrolled patients was 60 years (range, 56-71 years). Within the CTVR, the mean displacements of the superior and inferior surrogates were 3 mm vs. 1 mm (p=0.002), 2 mm vs. 0 mm (p= 0.001), and 3 mm vs. 0 mm (p=0.00001), in the ML, AP, and SI directions, respectively. On the left, mean absolute displacements of the LSPVA vs. LIPVA were similar at 4 mm vs. 1 mm (p=0.0008), 2 mm vs. 0 mm (p= 0.001), and 3 mm vs. 1 mm (p=0.00001) in the ML, AP, and SI directions. Conclusion: When isolated from breathing, cardiac contraction is associated with minimal inferior pulmonary veins motion and modest (1-6 mm) motion of the superior veins. Target deformation was thus of a magnitude similar or greater than target motion, limiting the potential gains of cardiac tracking. Optimal strategies for cardiac

  14. Functional Relevance of Coronary Artery Disease by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance and Cardiac Computed Tomography: Myocardial Perfusion and Fractional Flow Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Pontone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and it is responsible for an increasing resource burden. The identification of patients at high risk for adverse events is crucial to select those who will receive the greatest benefit from revascularization. To this aim, several non-invasive functional imaging modalities are usually used as gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography, but the diagnostic yield of elective invasive coronary angiography remains unfortunately low. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging by cardiac magnetic resonance (stress-CMR has emerged as an accurate technique for diagnosis and prognostic stratification of the patients with known or suspected CAD thanks to high spatial and temporal resolution, absence of ionizing radiation, and the multiparametric value including the assessment of cardiac anatomy, function, and viability. On the other side, cardiac computed tomography (CCT has emerged as unique technique providing coronary arteries anatomy and more recently, due to the introduction of stress-CCT and noninvasive fractional flow reserve (FFR-CT, functional relevance of CAD in a single shot scan. The current review evaluates the technical aspects and clinical experience of stress-CMR and CCT in the evaluation of functional relevance of CAD discussing the strength and weakness of each approach.

  15. Optimal iodine staining of cardiac tissue for X-ray computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Butters

    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography (XCT has been shown to be an effective imaging technique for a variety of materials. Due to the relatively low differential attenuation of X-rays in biological tissue, a high density contrast agent is often required to obtain optimal contrast. The contrast agent, iodine potassium iodide ([Formula: see text], has been used in several biological studies to augment the use of XCT scanning. Recently I2KI was used in XCT scans of animal hearts to study cardiac structure and to generate 3D anatomical computer models. However, to date there has been no thorough study into the optimal use of I2KI as a contrast agent in cardiac muscle with respect to the staining times required, which has been shown to impact significantly upon the quality of results. In this study we address this issue by systematically scanning samples at various stages of the staining process. To achieve this, mouse hearts were stained for up to 58 hours and scanned at regular intervals of 6-7 hours throughout this process. Optimal staining was found to depend upon the thickness of the tissue; a simple empirical exponential relationship was derived to allow calculation of the required staining time for cardiac samples of an arbitrary size.

  16. Cardiac sarcoidosis evaluated with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance and contrast-enhanced 64-slice computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Jan-Peter; Truter, Rene; de Klerk, Petra A; Zaaiman, Leonie; White, Leonie; Doubell, Anton F

    2006-09-20

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology with symptomatic cardiac involvement in up to 7% of patients. The clinical features of sarcoid heart disease include congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, and sudden death. We evaluated the value of contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography in delineating myocardial scar and granulomatous inflammation by comparing our findings with gadolinium magnetic resonance in a patient diagnosed with cardiac sarcoidosis. PMID:16257460

  17. The Morphology of Left Atrial Appendage Lobes: A Novel Characteristic Naming Scheme Derived through Three-Dimensional Cardiac Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Beutler, David S.; GERKIN, RICHARD D; Akil I. Loli

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study used cardiac CT to identify and name the different shapes of individual left atrial appendage (LAA) lobes and identified correlations between the size and shape of the LAA ostium and the volume of the LAA in a population of normal individuals. Background: The anatomy of the LAA appendage has become the subject of current research, because appendage occlusion devices have emerged for patients with atrial fibrillation. The development of cardiac computed tomography (CT) a...

  18. Tetralogy of Fallot Cardiac Function Evaluation and Intelligent Diagnosis Based on Dual-Source Computed Tomography Cardiac Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ken; Rongqian, Yang; Li, Lihua; Xie, Zi; Ou, Shanxing; Chen, Yuke; Dou, Jianhong

    2016-05-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common complex congenital heart disease (CHD) of the cyanotic type. Studies on ventricular functions have received an increasing amount of attention as the development of diagnosis and treatment technology for CHD continues to advance. Reasonable options for imaging examination and accurate assessment of preoperative and postoperative left ventricular functions of TOF patients are important in improving the cure rate of TOF radical operation, therapeutic evaluation, and judgment prognosis. Therefore, with the aid of dual-source computed tomography (DSCT), cardiac images with high temporal resolution and high definition, we measured the left ventricular time-volume curve using image data and calculating the left ventricular function parameters to conduct the preliminary evaluation on TOF patients. To comprehensively evaluate the cardiac function, the segmental ventricular wall function parameters were measured, and the measurement results were mapped to a bull's eye diagram to realize the standardization of segmental ventricular wall function evaluation. Finally, we introduced a new clustering method based on auto-regression model parameters and combined this method with Euclidean distance measurements to establish an intelligent diagnosis of TOF. The results of this experiment show that the TOF evaluation and the intelligent diagnostic methods proposed in this article are feasible. PMID:26496001

  19. Looking Outside the “Cardiac” Box: Incidental Detection of a Metastatic Lung Tumor on Cardiac Position Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Shawgi, Mohamed; Arumugam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Incidental extracardiac findings are not uncommon in patients undergoing cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and some of these findings can have significant clinical impact. We report a case of a 74-year-old man who presented with dyspnea and left sided chest pain. 82-rubidium PET/CT imaging showed normal myocardial perfusion. Review of the low dose CT scan performed for attenuation correction purposes (CTAC) incidentally revealed a 4 cm mass in the left lung, wh...

  20. The role of multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography in imaging complications post-cardiac surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been numerous advances in the field of cardiac imaging. The advent of multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) and in particular electrocardiographic (ECG)-gated acquisition has revolutionized the investigation of the complete spectrum of complications of common cardiothoracic surgical procedures. Generic complications, such as mediastinitis, pericardial effusion, sternal osteomyelitis, and mediastinal fibrosis, are discussed with illustrative examples of multiplanar and volume-rendered three-dimensional reconstructions. Graft-related complications of both coronary artery bypass grafts and aortic root grafts are reviewed. The role of MDCT-CA in the investigation of prosthetic valve endocarditis and root abscesses is outlined. We present a complete illustration of the detailed images that are obtained when investigating a full range of graft-related complications from both aortic and coronary surgery using ECG-gated MDCT-CA. MDCT-CA has the potential to become established as the optimal technique with which to image a multitude of complications post-cardiac surgery

  1. An application of x-ray computed tomography for complex cardiac anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) was performed in two patients with complex congenital heart disease in order to assess the clinical utility in the systemic morphological diagnosis. A Somotom 2 whole body CT scanner (Siemens Co) was used, and contrast enhanced CT scannings and a dynamic CT scanning were performed in one case (Case 2).; Case 1: A 20-year-old female with double outlet right ventricle (S, D, L), pulmonary stenosis and aortic insufficiency. The CT revealed a visceroatrial situs, ventriculoarterial relation, spatial interrelationship between the great arteries and a run of the stenotic pulmonary artery. The CT clarified spatial relationship among four cardiac chambers, ventricular septal defect and great arteries, contributing to the understanding of the complex cardiac structure. Case 2: A 26-year-old female with single ventricle (III-C solitus), pulmonary stenosis, dextroversion, left superior vena cava and WPW syndrome. The CT documented precisely a visceroatrial situs, dextroversion, ventriculoarterial relation, spatial interrelationship between the great arteries, stenotic main and left pulmonary arteries and a dilated right pulmonary artery due to the right Blalock-Taussig operation performed 15 years before. A diagnosis of left superior vena cava could be made by CT, and its flow into coronary sinus was visualized by dynamic CT. The dynamic CT also clarified a mixing of venous and arterial blood in the common ventricle, and revealed a rudimentary ventricular septum. Thus, the CT serves useful purposes especially as examination of visceroatrial situs, ventriculoarterial relation and spatial interrelationship between great arteries, and anomalies of the mediastinal vessels. Furthermore the relationship among four cardiac chambers, ventricular septal defect, and the pattern of blood flow were also clarified. (J.P.N.)

  2. Integration of cardiac computed tomography into pulmonary vein isolation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Detailed anatomic information of the left atrium is necessary for securely performing radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation-triggering ectopies in the pulmonary vein ostia. In this study the impact of a preinterventionally acquired cardiac computed tomography (CT) on pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) was assessed. Materials and methods: Examinations of 54 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation undergoing PVI were analyzed. In 27 patients a supplementary cardiac CT was obtained prior to PVI (CT group, 12 women, 15 men, 59.7 ± 9.9 years of age): 16 x 1.5 mm collimation, 0.2 pitch, 120 kV tube voltage, 400 effective mAs. The fluoroscopy time, effective dose and quantity of radiofrequency (RF) pulses of the following catheter ablation were compared to 27 patients undergoing stand-alone PVI (11 women, 16 men, 62.0 ± 9.9 years of age). Mann-Whitney tests served for statistical comparison. Results: CT datasets were successfully integrated into the ablation procedure of each patient in the CT group. The mean quantity of RF pulses was significantly lower in the CT group (22.1 ± 8.0 vs. 29.1 ± 11.9, p = 0.030), and a significant reduction of fluoroscopy time was found (41.8 ± 12.0 min vs. 51.2 ± 16.0 min, p = 0.005). Effective doses of the catheter ablation differed in an equivalent dimension but altogether not significantly (14.9 ± 10.0 mSv vs. 20.0 ± 16.0 mSv, p = 0.203). The mean additive effective dose of the cardiac CT was 85 ± 0.3 mSv. (orig.)

  3. Etiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest diagnosed via detailed examinations including perimortem computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Moriwaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The spectrum of the etiology of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (OHCPA has not been established. We have performed perimortem computed tomography (CT during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Aims: To clarify the incidence of non-cardiac etiology (NCE, actual distribution of the causes of OHCPA via perimortem CT and its usefulness. Settings and Design: Population-based observational case series study. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 1846 consecutive OHCPA cases and divided them into two groups: 370 showing an obvious cause of OHCPA with NCE (trauma, neck hanging, terminal stage of malignancy, and gastrointestinal bleeding and others. Results: Of a total OHCPA, perimortem CT was performed in 57.5% and 62.5% were finally diagnosed as NCE: Acute aortic dissection (AAD 8.07%, pulmonary thrombo-embolization (PTE 1.46%, hypoxia due to pneumonia 5.25%, asthma and acute worsening of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2.06%, cerebrovascular disorder (CVD 4.48%, airway obstruction 7.64%, and submersion 5.63%. The rates of patients who survived to hospital discharge were 6-14% in patients with NCE. Out of the 1476 cases excluding obvious NCE of OHCPA, 66.3% underwent perimortem CT, 14.6% of cases without obvious NCE and 22.1% of cases with perimortem CT were confirmed as having some NCE. Conclusions: Of the total OHCPA the incidences of NCE was 62.5%; the leading etiologies were AAD, airway obstruction, submersion, hypoxia and CVD. The rates of cases converted from cardiac etiology to NCE using perimortem CT were 14.6% of cases without an obvious NCE.

  4. Cardiovascular measurement and cardiac function analysis with electron beam computed tomography in health Chinese people (50 cases report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To quantitatively measure cardiovascular diameters and function parameters by using electron beam computed tomography, EBCT. Methods: Men 50 health Chinese people accepted EBCT common transverse and short-axis enhanced movie scan (27 men, 23 women, average age 47.7 years.). The transverse scan was used to measure the diameters of the ascending aorta, descending aorta, pulmonary artery and left atrium. The movie study was used to measure the left ventricular myocardium thickness and analysis global, sectional and segmental function of the right and left ventricles. Results: The cardiovascular diameters and cardiac functional parameters were calculated. The diameters and most functional parameters (end syspoble volume, syspole volume, ejection fraction, cardiac-output, cardiac index) of normal Chinese men were greater than those of women (P>0.05). However, the EDV and MyM(myocardium mass) of both ventricles were significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: EBCT is a minimally invasive method for cardiovascular measurement and cardiac function evaluation

  5. Assessment of cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography performance using a scanning linear observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chih-Jie; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Volokh, Lana [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); GE Healthcare, Haifa 39120 (Israel)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is widely used to detect myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction. It is important to assess and compare different SPECT system designs in order to achieve the highest detectability of cardiac defects. Methods: Whitaker et al.'s study ['Estimating random signal parameters from noisy images with nuisance parameters: linear and scanning-linear methods,' Opt. Express 16(11), 8150-8173 (2008)] on the scanning linear observer (SLO) shows that the SLO can be used to estimate the location and size of signals. One major advantage of the SLO is that it can be used with projection data rather than with reconstruction data. Thus, this observer model assesses the overall hardware performance independent of any reconstruction algorithm. In addition, the computation time of image quality studies is significantly reduced. In this study, three systems based on the design of the GE cadmium zinc telluride-based dedicated cardiac SPECT camera Discovery 530c were assessed. This design, which is officially named the Alcyone Technology: Discovery NM 530c, was commercialized in August, 2009. The three systems, GE27, GE19, and GE13, contain 27, 19, and 13 detectors, respectively. Clinically, a human heart can be virtually segmented into three coronary artery territories: the left-anterior descending artery, left-circumflex artery, and right coronary artery. One of the most important functions of a cardiac SPECT system is to produce images from which a radiologist can accurately predict in which territory the defect exists [http://www.asnc.org/media/PDFs/PPReporting081511.pdf, Guideline from American Society of Nuclear Cardiology]. A good estimation of the extent of the defect from the projection images is also very helpful for determining the seriousness of the myocardial ischemia. In this study, both the location and extent of defects were estimated by the SLO, and the system performance was assessed by

  6. Establishment of computed tomography reference dose levels in Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to apply European Commission (EC) Reference Dose Levels (RDL) in Computed Tomography (CT) examinations at Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center (OCSC). These are weighted CT Dose Index (CTDIw ) for a single slice and Dose-Length Product (DLP) for a complete examination. During the period 1998-1999, the total number of CT examinations, every type of CT examination, patient related data and technical parameters of the examinations were recorded. The most frequent examinations were chosen for investigation which were the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. CTDI measurements were performed and CTDIw and DLP were calculated. Third Quartile values of CTDIw were chosen to be 43mGy for head, 8mGy for chest, and 22mGy for abdomen and pelvis examinations. Third quartile values of DLP were chosen to be 740mGycm for head, 370mGycm for chest, 490mGycm for abdomen and 420mGycm for pelvis examination. Results confirm that OCSC follows successfully the proposed RDL for the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis examinations in terms of radiation dose. (author)

  7. 64. The prevalence of coronary artery anomalies in Qassim province detected by cardiac computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. smettei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs affect about 1% of the general population based on invasive coronary angiography (ICA data, computed tomography angiography (CTA enables better visualization of the origin, course, relation to the adjacent structures, and termination of CAAs compared to ICA. The aim of our work is to estimate the frequency of CAAs in Qassim province among patients underwent cardiac CTA at PSCCQ. Retrospective analysis of the CTA data of 2235 patients between 2009 and 2015. The prevalence of CAAs in our study was 1.029%. Among the 2235 patients, 241 (10.78% had CAAs or coronary variants, 198 (8.85% had myocardial bridging, 34 (1.52% had a variable location of the Coronary Ostia, Twenty two (0.98% had a separate origin of left anterior descending (LAD and left circumflex coronary (LCX arteries, ten (0.447% had a separate origin of the RCA and the Conus artery. Seventeen (0.76% had an anomalous origin of the coronaries. Six (0.268% had a coronary artery fistula, which is connected mainly to the right heart chambers, one of these fistulas was complicated by acute myocardial infarction. The incidence of CAAs in our patient population was similar to the former studies, CTA is an excellent tool for diagnosis and guiding the management of the CAAs.

  8. Computer simulations to estimate organ doses from clinically validated cardiac, neuro, and pediatric protocols for multiple detector computed tomography scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghita, Monica

    Recent advances in Computed Tomography (CT) technology, particularly that of multiple detector CT (MDCT) scanning, have provided increased utilization and more diverse clinical applications including more advanced vascular and cardiac exams, perfusion imaging, and screening exams. Notwithstanding the benefits to the patient undergoing a CT study, the fundamental concern in radiation protection is the minimization of the radiation exposure delivered as well as the implementation of structures to prevent inappropriate ordering and clinical use of these advanced studies. This research work developed a computational methodology for routine clinical use to assess patient organ doses from MDCT scanners. To support the methodology, a computer code (DXS-Diagnostic X-ray Spectra) was developed to accurately and conveniently generate x-ray spectra in the diagnostic energy range (45-140 keV). The two accepted standard radiation transport calculation methods namely, deterministic and Monte Carlo, have been preliminarily investigated for their capability and readiness to support the proposed goal of the work. Thorough tests demonstrated that the lack of appropriate discrete photon interaction coefficients in the aforementioned diagnostic energy range impedes the applicability of the deterministic approach to routine clinical use; improvements in the multigroup treatment may make it more viable. Thus, the open source Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, was adapted to appropriately model an MDCT scan. For this, a new method, entirely based on routine clinical CT measurements, was developed and validated to generate an "equivalent source and filtration" model that obviates the need of proprietary information for a given CT scanner. Computer simulations employing the Monte Carlo methodology and UF's tomographic human phantoms were performed to assess, compare, and optimize pediatric, cardiac and neuro-imaging protocols for the new 320-slice scanner at Shands/UF based on dose considerations

  9. Nonrigid registration-based coronary artery motion correction for cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagalia, Roshni; Pack, Jed D.; Miller, James V.; Iatrou, Maria [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); GE Healthcare, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: X-ray computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the modality of choice to noninvasively monitor and diagnose heart disease with coronary artery health and stenosis detection being of particular interest. Reliable, clinically relevant coronary artery imaging mandates high spatiotemporal resolution. However, advances in intrinsic scanner spatial resolution (CT scanners are available which combine nearly 900 detector columns with focal spot oversampling) can be tempered by motion blurring, particularly in patients with unstable heartbeats. As a result, recently numerous methods have been devised to improve coronary CTA imaging. Solutions involving hardware, multisector algorithms, or {beta}-blockers are limited by cost, oversimplifying assumptions about cardiac motion, and populations showing contraindications to drugs, respectively. This work introduces an inexpensive algorithmic solution that retrospectively improves the temporal resolution of coronary CTA without significantly affecting spatial resolution. Methods: Given the goal of ruling out coronary stenosis, the method focuses on 'deblurring' the coronary arteries. The approach makes no assumptions about cardiac motion, can be used on exams acquired at high heart rates (even over 75 beats/min), and draws on a fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) nonrigid bidirectional labeled point matching approach to estimate the trajectories of the coronary arteries during image acquisition. Motion compensation is achieved by employing a 3D warping of a series of partial reconstructions based on the estimated motion fields. Each of these partial reconstructions is created from data acquired over a short time interval. For brevity, the algorithm 'Subphasic Warp and Add' (SWA) reconstruction. Results: The performance of the new motion estimation-compensation approach was evaluated by a systematic observer study conducted using nine human cardiac CTA exams acquired over a range of average heart

  10. Radiation dose reduction by using 100-kV tube voltage in cardiac 64-slice computed tomography: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate a 100-kilovoltage (kV) tube voltage protocol regarding radiation dose and image quality, in comparison with the standard 120 kV setting in cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Methods: 103 patients undergoing retrospective ECG-gated helical 64-slice CCTA were enrolled (100 kV group: 51 patients; 120 kV group: 52 patients). Inclusion criteria were: (1) BMI 2; (2) weight 25 kg/m2). Conclusions: The 100 kV protocol significantly reduces the radiation dose in CCTA in patients with a low BMI 2 and a low calcium load while maintaining high image quality and the advantages of helical scan algorithm.

  11. Cardiac motion extraction and characterization in multislice computed tomography; Extraction et caracterisation du mouvement cardiaque en imagerie scanner multibarrette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, A

    2005-12-15

    Cardiac kinetics analysis is of a great diagnostic interest in the fight against cardiovascular pathologies. Two methods are proposed in order to estimate cardiac motion from dynamic sequences of three-dimensional volumes acquired in multislice computed tomography. These methods both lie on a feature matching process, carried out within a Markovian framework and according to a multi-resolution scheme. The first method, estimating the correspondences between pre-segmented surfaces, is dependent on the temporal coherence of this segmentation. The second method estimates the correspondences between, on the one hand, a segmented surface and, on the other hand, the original data volume corresponding to the next moment. The motion estimation and the segmentation are then carried out, on the whole sequence, during a single process. Both methods are validated on simulated and real data. (author)

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses What is CT (Computed Tomography) of ... of CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses ... CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses ... CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known ...

  15. Anatomical reconstructions of the human cardiac venous system using contrast-computed tomography of perfusion-fixed specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julianne; Fitch, Emily; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the complexity and relative variability within the human cardiac venous system is crucial for the development of cardiac devices that require access to these vessels. For example, cardiac venous anatomy is known to be one of the key limitations for the proper delivery of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)(1) Therefore, the development of a database of anatomical parameters for human cardiac venous systems can aid in the design of CRT delivery devices to overcome such a limitation. In this research project, the anatomical parameters were obtained from 3D reconstructions of the venous system using contrast-computed tomography (CT) imaging and modeling software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The following parameters were assessed for each vein: arc length, tortuousity, branching angle, distance to the coronary sinus ostium, and vessel diameter. CRT is a potential treatment for patients with electromechanical dyssynchrony. Approximately 10-20% of heart failure patients may benefit from CRT(2). Electromechanical dyssynchrony implies that parts of the myocardium activate and contract earlier or later than the normal conduction pathway of the heart. In CRT, dyssynchronous areas of the myocardium are treated with electrical stimulation. CRT pacing typically involves pacing leads that stimulate the right atrium (RA), right ventricle (RV), and left ventricle (LV) to produce more resynchronized rhythms. The LV lead is typically implanted within a cardiac vein, with the aim to overlay it within the site of latest myocardial activation. We believe that the models obtained and the analyses thereof will promote the anatomical education for patients, students, clinicians, and medical device designers. The methodologies employed here can also be utilized to study other anatomical features of our human heart specimens, such as the coronary arteries. To further encourage the educational value of this research, we have shared the venous models on our

  16. The clinical meaning of gastric-wall hyperactivity observed on sestamibi cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, C.; Dumont, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Quebec, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: christian.cote@chuq.qc.ca

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate prospectively the incidence and clinical meaning, if any, of gastric-wall hyperactivity observed on sestamibi cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This phenomenon is completely different from the well-known intraluminal gastric reflux of sestamibi. A group of 819 patients who underwent sestamibi cardiac SPECT was studied from January 2000 to October 2000. Gastric-wall activity was graded qualitatively. Only patients with gastric-wall activity near or equivalent to their heart activity were considered for subsequent analysis. The medical records of patient candidates were reviewed, and their family physicians were asked to respond to a questionnaire by telephone when further information was needed. We identified 13 patients with significant gastric-wall hyperactivity, which was more intense on rest images. Our review of the clinical data shows that all these patients were suffering from dyspepsia and were taking gastric medication. These 13 cases were assigned to 3 groups: gastroesophageal reflux, chronic functional dyspepsia and nonspecific gastritis. Significant gastric-wall hyperactivity is an infrequent observation on sestamibi cardiac SPECT. Our results indicate that the presence of significant gastric-wall hyperactivity is associated with dyspepsia. It is important to realize that this gastric-wall hyperactivity by its proximity to the inferior myocardial wall could in some circumstances lead to either false-negative or false-positive findings, representing a diagnostic problem. Although infrequent, this situation could be avoided by proper quality control, including a systematic review of the raw cine data before reading the images. (author)

  17. Quantification of mitral regurgitation on cardiac computed tomography: comparison with qualitative and quantitative echocardiographic parameters.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arnous, Samer

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To assess whether cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) can quantify the severity of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) compared to qualitative and quantitative echocardiographic parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiac computed tomographic angiography was performed in 23 patients (mean +\\/- SD age, 63 +\\/- 16 years; range, 24-86 years) with MR and 20 patients without MR (controls) as determined by transthoracic echocardiography. Multiphasic reconstructions (20 data sets reconstructed at 5% increments of the electrocardiographic gated R-R interval) were used to analyze the mitral valve. Using CCTA planimetry, 2 readers measured the regurgitant mitral orifice area (CCTA ROA) during systole. A qualitative echocardiographic assessment of severity of MR was made by visual assessment of the length of the regurgitant jet. Quantitative echocardiographic measurements included the vena contracta, proximal isovelocity surface area, regurgitant volume, and estimated regurgitant orifice (ERO). Comparisons were performed using the independent t test, and correlations were assessed using the Spearman rank test. RESULTS: All controls and the patients with MR were correctly identified by CCTA. For patients with mild, moderate, or severe MR, mean +\\/- SD EROs were 0.16 +\\/- 0.03, 0.31 +\\/- 0.08, and 0.52 +\\/- 0.03 cm(2) (P < 0.0001) compared with mean +\\/- SD CCTA ROAs 0.09 +\\/- 0.05, 0.30 +\\/- 0.04, and 0.97 +\\/- 0.26 cm(2) (P < 0.0001), respectively. When echocardiographic measurements were graded qualitatively as mild, moderate, or severe, strong correlations were seen with CCTA ROA (R = 0.89; P < 0.001). When echocardiographic measurements were graded quantitatively, the vena contracta and the ERO showed modest correlations with CCTA ROA (0.48 and 0.50; P < 0.05 for both). Neither the proximal isovelocity surface area nor the regurgitant volume demonstrated significant correlations with CCTA ROA. CONCLUSIONS: Single-source 64-slice CCTA provides a

  18. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes assessment: comparison with cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and objective: Few studies addressed the comparison between real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) and cardiac computed tomography (CCT) concerning left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes assessment. We sought to compare both techniques regarding left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction function and volumes analysis. Methods: we studied by RT3DE (Philips IE 33, And, MA, USA) and by CCT (Toshiba, 64-slice, Otawara, Japan) 41 consecutive patients (29 males, 58 ± 11 yrs). We analysed by both techniques LVEF, LVEDV, LVESV. RT3DE and CCT data were compared by coefficients of determination (r: Pearson), Bland and Altman test and linear regression, 95% CI. Results: RT3DE data: LVEF ranged from 56.7 to 78.9 % (65.3 + 5.7 ); LVEDV ranged from 49.6 to 178.2 (88 + 27.5) mL; LVESV from 11.4 to 78 ( 33.9 + 13.7) mL. CCT data: LVEF ranged from 53 to 86 % (67.3 + 7.9 ); LVEDV ranged from 51 to 186 (106.4 + 30.7) mL; LVESV from 7 to 72 ( 35.1 + 13.8) mL. Correlations relative to RT3DE and CCT were: LVEF (r: 0. 7877, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.6327 to 0.8853 ); LVEDV (r:0.7671, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.5974 to 0.8745); LVESV (r: 0.8121, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.6659 to 0.8957). Conclusions: it was observed adequate correlation between real-time 3D echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography concerning ejection fraction and volumes assessment. (author)

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  20. Feasibility study to demonstrate cardiac imaging using fast kVp switching dual-energy computed tomography: phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhav, Priti; Imai, Yasuhiro; Narayanan, Suresh; Dutta, Sandeep; Chandra, Naveen; Hsieh, Jiang

    2012-03-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography is a novel imaging tool that has the potential to reduce beam hardening artifacts and enhance material separation over conventional imaging techniques. Dual-energy acquisitions can be performed by using a fast kVp technology to switch between acquiring adjacent projections at two distinct x-ray spectra (80 and 140 kVp). These datasets can be used to further compute material density and monochromatic images for better material separation and beam hardening reduction by virtue of the projection domain process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using dual-energy in cardiac imaging for myocardial perfusion detection and coronary artery lumen visualization. Data was acquired on a heart phantom, which consisted of the chambers and aorta filled with Iodine density solution (500 HU @ 120 kVp), a defect region between the aorta and chamber (40 HU @ 120 kVp), two Iodinefilled vessels (400 HU @ 120 kVp) of different diameters with high attenuation (hydroxyapatite) plaques (HAP), and with a 30-cm water equivalent body ring around the phantom. Prospective ECG-gated single-energy and prospective ECG-gated dual-energy imaging was performed. Results showed that the generated monochromatic images had minimal beam hardening artifacts which improved the accuracy and detection of the myocardial defect region. Material density images were useful in differentiating and quantifying the actual size of the plaque and coronary artery lumen. Overall, this study shows that dual-energy cardiac imaging will be a valuable tool for cardiac applications.

  1. Comparison of effective doses between computed tomography cardiac angiography and conventional angiography at Pantai Hospital, Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Faizal; Moin, F. H. A.

    2013-05-01

    This research studies two types of cardiac angiography procedures, namely Computed Tomography Cardiac Angiography (CTCA) and Conventional Angiography (CA). The following research was executed to estimate the difference of mean effective doses that the patients received through both procedures. The mean dose-length-product (DLP) from CTCA and mean dose-area-product (DAP) from CA were utilized in calculating the effective doses. The result shows that the mean effective dose for CTCA and CA are 1.71±0.59 mSv and 53.25±14.22 mSv respectively. This proves that the mean effective dose received by patients undergoing CA is higher than patients undergoing CTCA. According to t-test, both procedures differ significantly, with a difference amounting to p<0.0001. The increases of the effective dose that the patients received through CA procedure were influenced by exposure time, the coronary anatomical condition, the operator's experience, and the operation methods.

  2. Contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography resolves the 3-dimensional morphology of the cardiac conduction system in mammalian hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Stephenson

    Full Text Available The general anatomy of the cardiac conduction system (CCS has been known for 100 years, but its complex and irregular three-dimensional (3D geometry is not so well understood. This is largely because the conducting tissue is not distinct from the surrounding tissue by dissection. The best descriptions of its anatomy come from studies based on serial sectioning of samples taken from the appropriate areas of the heart. Low X-ray attenuation has formerly ruled out micro-computed tomography (micro-CT as a modality to resolve internal structures of soft tissue, but incorporation of iodine, which has a high molecular weight, into those tissues enhances the differential attenuation of X-rays and allows visualisation of fine detail in embryos and skeletal muscle. Here, with the use of a iodine based contrast agent (I(2KI, we present contrast enhanced micro-CT images of cardiac tissue from rat and rabbit in which the three major subdivisions of the CCS can be differentiated from the surrounding contractile myocardium and visualised in 3D. Structures identified include the sinoatrial node (SAN and the atrioventricular conduction axis: the penetrating bundle, His bundle, the bundle branches and the Purkinje network. Although the current findings are consistent with existing anatomical representations, the representations shown here offer superior resolution and are the first 3D representations of the CCS within a single intact mammalian heart.

  3. Cardiac emission computed tomography (ECT) using a rotating gamma camera, (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of stress and redistribution thallium-201 emission computed tomography (ECT) for detecting individual coronary artery involvement was analyzed in 58 cases, including 8 normal cases and 48 cases with angiographically proved coronary artery disease (CAD). Perfusion defect was observed in 45 of the 48 cases with CAD (94%) and in 78 of the 95 diseased coronary arteries (82%). Number of diseased coronary arteries was accurately predicted in 78% of those with single vessel disease and 69% of those with two-vessel disease, but only in 53% of those with three-vessel disease. Quantitative assessment of thallium distribution and washout rate improved the sensitivity for detection of diseased vessels (95%) and accuracy for prediction of three vessel disease (76%). The sensitivity for detection of individual coronary artery involvement was 85% for RCA, 90% for LAD, and 63% for LCX The specificity was also high (90% for RCA, 93% for LAD, and 100% for LCX.) Segmental analysis of ECT imaging was comparatively assessed with the results of contrast left ventriculography. Marked wall motion abnormalities (dys- or akinesis) were seen in 15% of the segments with transient perfusion defect, but in 63% of those with persistent perfusion defect. We conclude that stress and redistribution thallium ECT imaging is a sensitive and specific tool for predicting individual coronary artery involvement and regional myocardial viability. (author)

  4. Clinical experiences of delayed contrast enhancement with cardiac computed tomography: case series

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhu Manavjot S; Ghoshhajra Brian B; Uthamalingam Shanmugam; Kilcullen Niamh; Engel Leif-Christopher; Medina Hector M; Venkatesh Vikram; Vorasettakarnkij Yongkasem; Hoffmann Udo; Cury Ricardo C; Abbara Suhny; Brady Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Myocardial delayed enhancement (MDE) by gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MRI is well established for myocardial scar assessment in ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease. The role of MDE by cardiac CT (CT-MDE) is not yet defined. Findings We reviewed all clinical cases of CT-MDE at a tertiary referral center to present the cases as a case series. All clinical cardiac CT exams which utilized CT-MDE imaging between January 1, 2005 and October 1, 2010 were collected as a series a...

  5. Clinical experiences of delayed contrast enhancement with cardiac computed tomography: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidhu Manavjot S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial delayed enhancement (MDE by gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MRI is well established for myocardial scar assessment in ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease. The role of MDE by cardiac CT (CT-MDE is not yet defined. Findings We reviewed all clinical cases of CT-MDE at a tertiary referral center to present the cases as a case series. All clinical cardiac CT exams which utilized CT-MDE imaging between January 1, 2005 and October 1, 2010 were collected as a series and their findings were also compared with available myocardial imaging to assess for myocardial abnormalities, including echocardiography (wall motion, morphology, cardiac MRI (delayed enhancement, morphology, SPECT MPI (perfusion defects. 5,860 clinical cardiac CT exams were performed during the study period. CT-MDE was obtained in 18 patients and was reported to be present in 9 patients. The indications for CT-MDE included ischemic and non-ischemic heart diseases. In segments positive for CT-MDE, there was excellent agreement of CT with other modalities: echocardiography (n=8 demonstrated abnormal morphology and wall motion (k=1.0 and k=0.82 respectively; prior MRI (n=2 demonstrated abnormal delayed enhancement (MR-MDE (k=1.0; SPECT MPI (n=1 demonstrated fixed perfusion defects (k=1.0. In the subset of patients without CT-MDE, no abnormal segments were identified by echocardiography (n=8, MRI (n=1 and nuclear MPI (n=0. Conclusions CT-MDE was performed in rare clinical situations. The indications included both ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease and there was an excellent agreement between CT-MDE and abnormal myocardium by echocardiography, cardiac MRI, and nuclear MPI.

  6. The Role of Imaging with Cardiac Computed Tomography in Cardio-Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitekova, Barbora; Ravi, Sriram; Shah, Shimoli V; Mladosievicova, Beata; Heitner, Stephen; Ferencik, Maros

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases and cancer represent the two most common causes of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. With the increase in long-term survival of cancer patients, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality for many cancer survivors. In this article, we will review the most common cardiovascular toxicities of cancer therapies and will describe the role of cardiac CT in the detection and monitoring of cardiovascular disease. While there is limited evidence for the use of CT imaging in cancer patients, we will discuss the utility of cardiac CT in the detection and management of coronary artery disease, pericardial and valvular heart disease. PMID:27443383

  7. Cardiac Multidetector Computed Tomography: Basic Physics of Image Acquisition and Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bardo, Dianna M.E; Brown, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac MDCT is here to stay. And, it is more than just imaging coronary arteries. Understanding the differences in and the benefits of one CT scanner from another will help you to optimize the capabilities of the scanner, but requires a basic understanding of the MDCT imaging physics. This review provides key information needed to understand the differences in the types of MDCT scanners, from 64 – 320 detectors, flat panels, single and dual source configurations, step and shoot prospective a...

  8. Reference values for quantitative left ventricular and left atrial measurements in cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess reference values for left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) dimensions, global LV function, and LV-myocardial mass for cardiac CT. We examined 120 subjects undergoing a coronary angiography using 64-slice and dual-source CT. All individuals had a low cardiovascular risk, normal ECG, negative biomarkers, and a normal cardiac CT examination. All subjects had a negative medical history of cardiovascular disease both on admission and at clinical 6-month follow-up. The following measurements were obtained: septal wall thickness (SWT), posterior wall thickness (PWT), LV inner diameter (LVID), LA anterior posterior diameter (LADsys), end-systolic volume (ESV), and end-diastolic volume (EDV), LV-myocardial mass (LVMM). We found significant gender-related differences for all LV dimensions (SWTsys, SWTdia,PWTsys,PWTdia,LVIDsys,LVIDdia). LADsys showed no significant difference between males and females. Significant differences were found for global LV functional parameters including ESV, EDV, and SV, whereas no significant differences were found for the EF. LV-myocardial mass parameters showed significant gender-related differences. No significant correlation was found between any of these parameters and age. All data were transferred to percentile ranks. This study provides gender-related reference values and percentiles for LV and LA quantitative measurements for cardiac CT and should assist in interpreting results. (orig.)

  9. In Vivo Quantitative Assessment of Myocardial Structure, Function, Perfusion and Viability Using Cardiac Micro-computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deel, Elza; Ridwan, Yanto; van Vliet, J Nicole; Belenkov, Sasha; Essers, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The use of Micro-Computed Tomography (MicroCT) for in vivo studies of small animals as models of human disease has risen tremendously due to the fact that MicroCT provides quantitative high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) anatomical data non-destructively and longitudinally. Most importantly, with the development of a novel preclinical iodinated contrast agent called eXIA160, functional and metabolic assessment of the heart became possible. However, prior to the advent of commercial MicroCT scanners equipped with X-ray flat-panel detector technology and easy-to-use cardio-respiratory gating, preclinical studies of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in small animals required a MicroCT technologist with advanced skills, and thus were impractical for widespread implementation. The goal of this work is to provide a practical guide to the use of the high-speed Quantum FX MicroCT system for comprehensive determination of myocardial global and regional function along with assessment of myocardial perfusion, metabolism and viability in healthy mice and in a cardiac ischemia mouse model induced by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). PMID:26967592

  10. Comparison of cardiac output of the left and right side of the heart by ultrafast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfkiel, C.J.; Ferguson, J.L.; Law, W.R.; Chomka, E.V.; Brundage, B.H.

    1986-03-05

    Ultrafast computed tomography (CT) evaluation of cardiac output (CO) can be determined using indicator dilution theory. The concentration of an iodinated contrast agent injected into a vein of a subject can be measured as a function of time by serial EKG, gated CT imaging. The contrast density of the blood pool measured by CT defines the indicator concentration. CT CO is proportional to the area under a time density curve from a region of the blood pool. Proper subject position and scanning timing allows CT to measure CO in the pulmonary (PA) artery and the aorta (AO) with the same contrast bolus. Three anesthetized dogs were multiply scanned following simultaneous injections of contrast and radioactive tracer microspheres. Microsphere CO was determined by reference withdrawal method. Multiple thermodilution CO measurements were made just prior and after each CT CO procedure. 24 comparisons were made of thermodilution, microsphere and CT CO measured in the PA (right sided CO (RSCO)) and the AO (left sided CO (LSCO)). CT CO was calculated as the ratio of the volume of contrast injected to the time density curve area corrected for the relation of contrast density to CT number. RSCO agreed very closely to LSCO (r = .99, p < .001; y = 1.0x +/- .32). RSCO correlated to thermodilution (r = .96, p < .001; y = 1.2x +/- 1.3) and microsphere CO (r = .93, p < .001; y = .69x +/- 1.3). These data show that CT CO measurements can be made in the PA and AO with equal accuracy.

  11. Dual-source cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in the follow-up of cardiac transplant: comparison of image quality and radiation dose using three different imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitzke, D.; Berger-Kulemann, V.; Unterhumer, S.; Loewe, C.; Wolf, F. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image Guided Therapy, Division of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, V. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image Guided Therapy, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Spitzer, E. [Bern University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Bern (Switzerland); Feuchtner, G.M. [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck (Austria); Gyoengyoesi, M. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Cardiology, Vienna (Austria); Uyanik-Uenal, K.; Zuckermann, A. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    To prospectively evaluate image quality (IQ) and radiation dose of dual-source cardiac computed tomography (CCTA) using different imaging protocols. CCTA was performed in 150 patients using the retrospective ECG-gated spiral technique (rECG) the prospective ECG-gated technique (pECG), or the prospective ECG-gated technique with systolic imaging and automated tube voltage selection (pECGsys). IQ was rated using a 16-segment coronary artery model. Techniques were compared for overall IQ, IQ of the large and the small coronary artery segments. Effective dose was used for comparison of radiation dose. Overall IQ and IQ of the large segments showed no differences between the groups. IQ analysis of the small segments showed lowered IQ in pECGsys compared to rECG (p = 0.02), but not to pECG (p = 0.6). Effective dose did not differ significantly between rECG and pECG (p = 0.13), but was significantly lower for pECGsys (p < 0.001 vs. rECG and pECG). Radiation dose of dual-source CCTA in heart transplant recipients is significantly reduced by using prospective systolic scanning and automated tube voltage selection, while overall IQ and IQ of the large coronary segments are maintained. IQ appears to be lower compared to retrospective techniques with regard to small coronary segments. (orig.)

  12. Dual-source cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in the follow-up of cardiac transplant: comparison of image quality and radiation dose using three different imaging protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prospectively evaluate image quality (IQ) and radiation dose of dual-source cardiac computed tomography (CCTA) using different imaging protocols. CCTA was performed in 150 patients using the retrospective ECG-gated spiral technique (rECG) the prospective ECG-gated technique (pECG), or the prospective ECG-gated technique with systolic imaging and automated tube voltage selection (pECGsys). IQ was rated using a 16-segment coronary artery model. Techniques were compared for overall IQ, IQ of the large and the small coronary artery segments. Effective dose was used for comparison of radiation dose. Overall IQ and IQ of the large segments showed no differences between the groups. IQ analysis of the small segments showed lowered IQ in pECGsys compared to rECG (p = 0.02), but not to pECG (p = 0.6). Effective dose did not differ significantly between rECG and pECG (p = 0.13), but was significantly lower for pECGsys (p < 0.001 vs. rECG and pECG). Radiation dose of dual-source CCTA in heart transplant recipients is significantly reduced by using prospective systolic scanning and automated tube voltage selection, while overall IQ and IQ of the large coronary segments are maintained. IQ appears to be lower compared to retrospective techniques with regard to small coronary segments. (orig.)

  13. Paediatric cardiac computed tomography: a review of imaging techniques and radiation dose consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Carolyn; Taylor, Andrew M. [UCL, Institute of Child Health, Cardiorespiratory Unit, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Cardiorespiratory Unit, London (United Kingdom); Owens, Catherine M. [UCL, Institute of Child Health, Cardiorespiratory Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    The significant challenges involved in imaging the heart in small children (<15 kg) have been addressed by, and partially resolved with improvement in temporal and spatial resolution secondary to the advent of new multi-detector CT technology. This has enabled both retrospective and prospective ECG-gated imaging in children even at high heart rates (over 100 bpm) without the need for beta blockers. Recent studies have highlighted that the radiation burden associated with cardiac CT can be reduced using prospective ECG-gating. Our experience shows that the resultant dose reduction can be optimised to a level equivalent to that of a non-gated study. This article reviews the different aspects of ECG-gating and the preferred technique for cardiac imaging in the young child (<15 kg). We summarize our evidenced based recommendations for readers, referencing recent articles and using our in house data, protocols and dose measurements discussing the various methods available for dose calculations and their inherent bias. (orig.)

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head What is CT Scanning of the ... Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  15. A novel approach for the automated segmentation and volume quantification of cardiac fats on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, É O; Morais, F F C; Morais, N A O S; Conci, L S; Neto, L V; Conci, A

    2016-01-01

    The deposits of fat on the surroundings of the heart are correlated to several health risk factors such as atherosclerosis, carotid stiffness, coronary artery calcification, atrial fibrillation and many others. These deposits vary unrelated to obesity, which reinforces its direct segmentation for further quantification. However, manual segmentation of these fats has not been widely deployed in clinical practice due to the required human workload and consequential high cost of physicians and technicians. In this work, we propose a unified method for an autonomous segmentation and quantification of two types of cardiac fats. The segmented fats are termed epicardial and mediastinal, and stand apart from each other by the pericardium. Much effort was devoted to achieve minimal user intervention. The proposed methodology mainly comprises registration and classification algorithms to perform the desired segmentation. We compare the performance of several classification algorithms on this task, including neural networks, probabilistic models and decision tree algorithms. Experimental results of the proposed methodology have shown that the mean accuracy regarding both epicardial and mediastinal fats is 98.5% (99.5% if the features are normalized), with a mean true positive rate of 98.0%. In average, the Dice similarity index was equal to 97.6%. PMID:26474835

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  17. Reference absolute and indexed values for left and right ventricular volume, function and mass from cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumetric and functional parameters are important biomarkers for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. To retrospectively determine reference mean values of LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised by age, gender and body surface area (BSA) from retrospectively electrocardiographically gated 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) by using automated analysis software in healthy adults. The study was approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Seventy-four healthy subjects (49% female, mean age 49.6±11) free of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia with a normal CCT formed the study population. Analyses of LV and RV volume (end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes), function (ejection fraction), LV mass and inter-rater reproducibility were performed with commercially available analysis software capable of automated contour detection. General linear model analysis was performed to assess statistical significance by age group after adjustment for gender and BSA. Bland–Altman analysis assessed the inter-rater agreement. The reference range for LV and RV volume, function, and LV mass was normalised to age, gender and BSA. Statistically significant differences were noted between genders in both LV mass and RV volume (P-value<0.0001). Age, in concert with gender, was associated with significant differences in RV end-diastolic volume and LV ejection fraction (P-values 0.027 and 0.03). Bland–Altman analysis showed acceptable limits of agreement (±1.5% for ejection fraction) without systematic error. LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised to age, gender and BSA can be reported from CCT datasets, providing additional information important for patient management.

  18. Cardiac computed tomography imaging in familial hypercholesterolaemia: implications for therapy and clinical trials.

    OpenAIRE

    Sijbrands, EJ; Nieman, K.; Budoff, MJ

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present review is to summarize the potential clinical applications of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) in familial hypercholesterolemia so far and recent advances of CTA research in other high-risk patients.Long-term, aggressively statin-treated, asymptomatic familial hypercholesterolemia patients may still have dramatic coronary artery disease (CAD). A clear association between the presence and the extent of nonobstructive CAD and all-cause mortality was found in the...

  19. Contrast-fluid level in the inferior vena cava (IVC niveau sign) in patients with acute type A aortic dissection. Computed tomography findings during acute cardiac tamponade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to report a new computed tomography (CT) finding in acute cardiac tamponade: a contrast-fluid level in the hepatic inferior vena cava (IVC) during an arterial dominant phase CT study (IVC niveau sign) in patients with acute type A aortic dissection. We retrospectively reviewed CT studies with the diagnosis of proximal aortic dissection (Stanford type A) with acute cardiac tamponade. There were 12 patients enrolled in the study (6 women, 6 men; mean age 66 years). A total of 62 patients were selected as a control chronic pericardial effusion group to compare with the acute cardiac tamponade group. Among the 12 patients with acute cardiac tamponade, the IVC niveau sign was seen in 7 (58%). In the control chronic pericardial effusion group (n=62), we identified the IVC niveau sign in only one patient (1.6%). There was a significant difference in the presence of the IVC niveau sign between the acute cardiac tamponade and chronic pericardial effusion groups (P<0.0001). The presence of the IVC niveau sign suggests acute cardiac tamponade in patients with acute type A aortic dissection. (author)

  20. Cardiomyopathy and cardiac computed tomography: What the radiologist needs to know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is an established tool for the investigation of shortness of breath and chest pain. Although CCTA is performed to assess vessels that could well be diseased, one must review the study for evidence of cardiomyopathy, which can provoke similar symptoms. Cardiomyopathies can coexist with various causes of chest pain including obstructive coronary artery disease and may, therefore, be identifiable at CCTA. Furthermore, symptoms such as shortness of breath and chest pain that the clinician may suspect are secondary to coronary disease leading to investigation with CCTA, may be secondary to cardiomyopathy. We review several important causes of cardiomyopathy that may be detected by CCTA, which are important for radiologists to identify given the implications for further management and prognosis.

  1. Cardiac tamponade in an infant during contrast infusion through central venous catheter for chest computed tomography; Tamponamento cardiaco durante infusao de contraste em acesso venoso central para realizacao de tomografia computadorizada do torax em lactente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, Danilo Felix; Campos, Marcos Menezes Freitas de; Fleury Neto, Augusto de Padua [Hospital Geral de Palmas, TO (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Complications from central venous catheterization include infectious conditions, pneumothorax, hemothorax and venous thrombosis. Pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade hardly occurs, and in infants is generally caused by umbilical catheterization. The authors describe the case of cardiac tamponade occurred in an infant during chest computed tomography with contrast infusion through a central venous catheter inserted into the right internal jugular vein. (author)

  2. Evaluation of aortic valve stenosis by cardiac multislice computed tomography compared with echocardiography: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Sivertsen, Jacob Christian; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: It has not yet been established whether multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) is reliable for the quantification of aortic valve area (AVA) in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and simultaneously for assessment of the coronary anatomy. The study aim, via ...

  3. Morphological and Volumetric Analysis of Left Atrial Appendage and Left Atrium: Cardiac Computed Tomography-Based Reproducibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taina, Mikko; Korhonen, Miika; Haataja, Mika; Muuronen, Antti; Arponen, Otso; Hedman, Marja; Jäkälä, Pekka; Sipola, Petri; Mustonen, Pirjo; Vanninen, Ritva

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Left atrial appendage (LAA) dilatation and morphology may influence an individual's risk for intracardiac thrombi and ischemic stroke. LAA size and morphology can be evaluated using cardiac computed tomography (cCT). The present study evaluated the reproducibility of LAA volume and morphology assessments. Methods A total of 149 patients (47 females; mean age 60.9±10.6 years) with suspected cardioembolic stroke/transient ischemic attack underwent cCT. Image quality was rated based on four categories. Ten patients were selected from each image quality category (N = 40) for volumetric reproducibility analysis by two individual readers. LAA and left atrium (LA) volume were measured in both two-chamber (2CV) and transversal view (TV) orientation. Intertechnique reproducibility was assessed between 2CV and TV (200 measurement pairs). LAA morphology (A = Cactus, B = ChickenWing, C = WindSock, D = CauliFlower), LAA opening height, number of LAA lobes, trabeculation, and orientation of the LAA tip was analysed in all study subjects by three individual readers (447 interobserver measurement pairs). The reproducibility of volume measurements was assessed by intra-class correlation (ICC) and the reproducibility of LAA morphology assessments by Cohen's kappa. Results The intra-observer and interobserver reproducibility of LAA and LA volume measurements was excellent (ICCs>0.9). The LAA (ICC = 0.954) and LA (ICC = 0.945) volume measurements were comparable between 2CV and TV. Morphological classification (ĸ = 0.24) and assessments of LAA opening height (ĸ = 0.1), number of LAA lobes (ĸ = 0.16), trabeculation (ĸ = 0.15), and orientation of the LAA tip (ĸ = 0.37) was only slightly to fairly reproducible. Conclusions LA and LAA volume measurements on cCT provide excellent reproducibility, whereas visual assessment of LAA morphological features is challenging and results in unsatisfactory agreement between readers

  4. Morphological and volumetric analysis of left atrial appendage and left atrium: cardiac computed tomography-based reproducibility assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Taina

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Left atrial appendage (LAA dilatation and morphology may influence an individual's risk for intracardiac thrombi and ischemic stroke. LAA size and morphology can be evaluated using cardiac computed tomography (cCT. The present study evaluated the reproducibility of LAA volume and morphology assessments. METHODS: A total of 149 patients (47 females; mean age 60.9±10.6 years with suspected cardioembolic stroke/transient ischemic attack underwent cCT. Image quality was rated based on four categories. Ten patients were selected from each image quality category (N = 40 for volumetric reproducibility analysis by two individual readers. LAA and left atrium (LA volume were measured in both two-chamber (2CV and transversal view (TV orientation. Intertechnique reproducibility was assessed between 2CV and TV (200 measurement pairs. LAA morphology (A = Cactus, B = ChickenWing, C = WindSock, D = CauliFlower, LAA opening height, number of LAA lobes, trabeculation, and orientation of the LAA tip was analysed in all study subjects by three individual readers (447 interobserver measurement pairs. The reproducibility of volume measurements was assessed by intra-class correlation (ICC and the reproducibility of LAA morphology assessments by Cohen's kappa. RESULTS: The intra-observer and interobserver reproducibility of LAA and LA volume measurements was excellent (ICCs>0.9. The LAA (ICC = 0.954 and LA (ICC = 0.945 volume measurements were comparable between 2CV and TV. Morphological classification (ĸ = 0.24 and assessments of LAA opening height (ĸ = 0.1, number of LAA lobes (ĸ = 0.16, trabeculation (ĸ = 0.15, and orientation of the LAA tip (ĸ = 0.37 was only slightly to fairly reproducible. CONCLUSIONS: LA and LAA volume measurements on cCT provide excellent reproducibility, whereas visual assessment of LAA morphological features is challenging and results in unsatisfactory agreement between readers.

  5. Computed tomography to estimate cardiac preload and extravascular lung water. A retrospective analysis in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In critically ill patients intravascular volume status and pulmonary edema need to be quantified as soon as possible. Many critically ill patients undergo a computed tomography (CT-scan of the thorax after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU. This study investigates whether CT-based estimation of cardiac preload and pulmonary hydration can accurately assess volume status and can contribute to an early estimation of hemodynamics. Methods Thirty medical ICU patients. Global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI were assessed using transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD serving as reference method (with established GEDVI/EVLWI normal values. Central venous pressure (CVP was determined. CT-based estimation of GEDVI/EVLWI/CVP by two different radiologists (R1, R2 without analyzing software. Primary endpoint: predictive capabilities of CT-based estimation of GEDVI/EVLWI/CVP compared to TPTD and measured CVP. Secondary endpoint: interobserver correlation and agreement between R1 and R2. Results Accuracy of CT-estimation of GEDVI ( 800 mL/m2 was 33%(R1/27%(R2. For R1 and R2 sensitivity for diagnosis of low GEDVI (2 was 0% (specificity 100%. Sensitivity for prediction of elevated GEDVI (> 800 mL/m2 was 86%(R1/57%(R2 with a specificity of 57%(R1/39%(R2 (positive predictive value 38%(R1/22%(R2; negative predictive value 93%(R1/75%(R2. Estimated CT-GEDVI and TPTD-GEDVI were significantly different showing an overestimation of GEDVI by the radiologists (R1: mean difference ± standard error (SE: 191 ± 30 mL/m2, p 2, p 10 mL/kg was 30% for R1 and 40% for R2. CT-EVLWI and TPTD-EVLWI were significantly different (R1: mean difference ± SE: 3.3 ± 1.2 mL/kg, p = 0.013; R2: mean difference ± SE: 2.8 ± 1.1 mL/kg, p = 0.021. Again ccc was low with -0.02 (R1; 95% CI: -0.20 to +0.13, BCF = 0.44 and +0.14 (R2; 95% CI: -0.05 to +0.32, BCF = 0.53. GEDVI, EVLWI and CVP estimations of R1 and R2 showed a poor

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? What are ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses ... of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  8. Cardiac C-arm computed tomography using a 3D + time ROI reconstruction method with spatial and temporal regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mory, Cyril, E-mail: cyril.mory@philips.com [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Philips Research Medisys, 33 rue de Verdun, 92156 Suresnes (France); Auvray, Vincent; Zhang, Bo [Philips Research Medisys, 33 rue de Verdun, 92156 Suresnes (France); Grass, Michael; Schäfer, Dirk [Philips Research, Röntgenstrasse 24–26, D-22335 Hamburg (Germany); Chen, S. James; Carroll, John D. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado Denver, 12605 East 16th Avenue, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Rit, Simon [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1 (France); Centre Léon Bérard, 28 rue Laënnec, F-69373 Lyon (France); Peyrin, Françoise [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); X-ray Imaging Group, European Synchrotron, Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Douek, Philippe; Boussel, Loïc [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1 (France); Hospices Civils de Lyon, 28 Avenue du Doyen Jean Lépine, 69500 Bron (France)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Reconstruction of the beating heart in 3D + time in the catheter laboratory using only the available C-arm system would improve diagnosis, guidance, device sizing, and outcome control for intracardiac interventions, e.g., electrophysiology, valvular disease treatment, structural or congenital heart disease. To obtain such a reconstruction, the patient's electrocardiogram (ECG) must be recorded during the acquisition and used in the reconstruction. In this paper, the authors present a 4D reconstruction method aiming to reconstruct the heart from a single sweep 10 s acquisition. Methods: The authors introduce the 4D RecOnstructiOn using Spatial and TEmporal Regularization (short 4D ROOSTER) method, which reconstructs all cardiac phases at once, as a 3D + time volume. The algorithm alternates between a reconstruction step based on conjugate gradient and four regularization steps: enforcing positivity, averaging along time outside a motion mask that contains the heart and vessels, 3D spatial total variation minimization, and 1D temporal total variation minimization. Results: 4D ROOSTER recovers the different temporal representations of a moving Shepp and Logan phantom, and outperforms both ECG-gated simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique and prior image constrained compressed sensing on a clinical case. It generates 3D + time reconstructions with sharp edges which can be used, for example, to estimate the patient's left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusions: 4D ROOSTER can be applied for human cardiac C-arm CT, and potentially in other dynamic tomography areas. It can easily be adapted to other problems as regularization is decoupled from projection and back projection.

  9. Four-dimensional computed tomography: a method of assessing right ventricular outflow tract and pulmonary artery deformations throughout the cardiac cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schievano, Silvia; Capelli, Claudio; Young, Carol; Lurz, Philipp; Nordmeyer, Johannes; Owens, Catherine; Bonhoeffer, Philipp; Taylor, Andrew M. [UCL, Institute of Child Health and Great, Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Cardiovascular Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    To characterise 3D deformations of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT)/ pulmonary arteries (PAs) during the cardiac cycle and estimate the errors of conventional 2D assessments. Contrast-enhanced, ECG-gated cardiovascular computed tomography (CT) findings were retrospectively analysed from 12 patients. The acquisition of 3D images over 10 phases of the cardiac cycle created a four-dimensional CT (4DCT) dataset. The datasets were reconstructed and deformation measured at various levels of the RVOT/PAs in both space and time. Section planes were either static or dynamic relative to the motion of the structures. 4DCT enabled measurement and characterisation of in vivo 3D changes of patients' RVOT/PA during the cardiac cycle. The studied patient population showed a wide range of RVOT/PA morphologies, sizes and dynamics that develop late after surgical repair of congenital heart disease. There were also significant differences in the measured cross-sectional areas of the structures between static and dynamic section planes (up to 150%, p < 0.05) secondary to large 3D displacements and rotations. 4DCT imaging data suggest high variability in RVOT/PA dynamics and significant errors in deformation measurements if 3D analysis is not carried out. These findings play an important role for the development of novel percutaneous approaches to pulmonary valve intervention. (orig.)

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  14. 右心房血管肉瘤1例与心电门腔CT%Right atrial angiosarcoma and electrocardiogram-gated cardiac computed tomography: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Gong; Jianming Tian; Yi Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are quite rare and most of these tumors are benign. In this report, a patient presented with chest distress and shortness of breath after activity. Echocardiography of other hospital showed a hyperechoic right atrial mass. Electrocerdiogram-gated cardiac computed tomography (ECG-Gated CT) of our hospital provided accurate information about the site and extent of the tumor, and the involvement of neighboring structures, even about the malignant nature of the lesion. The pathological study indicated angiosarcorna. The role of ECG-Gated CT in the assessment of cardiac masses and tumors was discussed. Cardiac tumors are extremely rare and can be divided into benign and malignant lesions. Myxomas are the most common type of cardiac benign tumor, while angiosarcomas are the most common type of cardiac malignant tumor.Imaging studies play an important role in the diagnosis of cardiac angiosarcomas. Echocardiogram, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most common imaging studies for tumors evaluation. However, the precise tumor location is often difficult to evaluate precisely on the basis of two-dimensional source images. We conducted ECG-gated cardiac CT examination with 3D reconstruction for preoperative assessment in a patient with a angiosarcorna arising in the right atrium.

  15. Assessment of the Right Ventricular Function and Mass Using Cardiac Multi-Detector Computed Tomography in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to assess the relationship between measurements of the right ventricular (RV) function and mass, with using cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as determined by the pulmonary function test (PFT). Measurements of PFT and cardiac MDCT were obtained in 33 COPD patients. Using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification, the patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of the disease: stage I (mild, n = 4), stage II (moderate, n = 15) and stage III (severe, n = 14). The RV function and the wall mass were obtained by cardiac MDCT. The results were compared among the groups using the Student-Newman-Keuls method. Person's correlation was used to evaluate the relationship between the right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and the wall mass results with the PFT results. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The RVEF and mass were 47 ±3% and 41 ±2 g in stage I, 46 ±6% and 46 ±5 g in stage II, and 35 ±5% and 55 ±6 g in stage III, respectively. The RVEF was significantly lower in stage III than in stage I and II (p < 0.01). The RV mass was significantly different among the three stages, according to the disease severity of COPD (p < 0.05). The correlation was excellent between the MDCT results and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (r = 0.797 for RVEF and r -0.769 for RV mass) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to the forced vital capacity (r = 0.745 for RVEF and r = -0.718 for RV mass). Our study shows that the mean RV wall mass as measured by cardiac MDCT correlates well with the COPD disease severity as determined by PFT

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of late iodine enhancement on cardiac computed tomography with a denoise filter for the evaluation of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takuya; Kido, Teruhito; Itoh, Toshihide; Saeki, Hideyuki; Shigemi, Susumu; Watanabe, Kouki; Kido, Tomoyuki; Aono, Shoji; Yamamoto, Masaya; Matsuda, Takeshi; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the image quality and diagnostic performance of late iodine enhancement (LIE) in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) with low kilo-voltage peak (kVp) images and a denoise filter for the detection of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in comparison with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The Hospital Ethics Committee approved the study protocol. Before discharge, 19 patients who received percutaneous coronary intervention after AMI underwent DSCT and 1.5 T MRI. Immediately after coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography, contrast medium was administered at a slow injection rate. LIE-CT scans were acquired via dual-energy CT and reconstructed as 100-, 140-kVp, and mixed images. An iterative three-dimensional edge-preserved smoothing filter was applied to the 100-kVp images to obtain denoised 100-kVp images. The mixed, 140-kVp, 100-kVp, and denoised 100-kVp images were assessed using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and their diagnostic performance in comparison with MRI and infarcted volumes were evaluated. Three hundred four segments of 19 patients were evaluated. Fifty-three segments showed LGE in MRI. The median CNR of the mixed, 140-, 100-kVp and denoised 100-kVp images was 3.49, 1.21, 3.57, and 6.08, respectively. The median CNR was significantly higher in the denoised 100-kVp images than in the other three images (P LIE-CT. PMID:26202159

  17. Cervical computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the possibilities of cervical computed tomography with the apparatus available at present. The normal anatomy of the cervical region as it appears in computed tomography is described with special regard to its compartimental structure and functional aspects; this is supplemented by anatomically normal measures obtained from cervical computed tomograms of 60 healthy individuals of different age and both sexes. The morphology of cervical anomalies obtained via CT and of the various acquired cervical disease processes is discussed and illustrated by means of the authors' own observations; the diagnostic value of the findings obtained by CT is discussed, a diagnosis is set up. (orig./MG)

  18. Impact of sirolimus-eluting stent fractures without early cardiac events on long-term clinical outcomes: A multislice computed tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Tsuyoshi [Toyohashi Heart Center, Oyama-cho, Toyohashi (Japan); Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Cardio-Renal Medicine and Hypertension, Nagoya (Japan); Kimura, Masashi; Ehara, Mariko; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Nasu, Kenya; Kinoshita, Yoshihisa; Habara, Maoto; Tsuchikane, Etsuo; Suzuki, Takahiko [Toyohashi Heart Center, Oyama-cho, Toyohashi (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    This study sought to evaluate the impact of sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) fractures on long-term clinical outcomes using multislice computed tomography (MSCT). In this study, 528 patients undergoing 6- to 18-month follow-up 64-slice MSCT after SES implantation without early clinical events were followed clinically (the median follow-up interval was 4.6 years). A CT-detected stent fracture was defined as a complete gap with Hounsfield units (HU) <300 at the site of separation. The major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), including cardiac death, stent thrombosis, and target lesion revascularisation, were compared according to the presence of stent fracture. Stent fractures were observed in 39 patients (7.4 %). MACEs were more common in patients with CT-detected stent fractures than in those without (46 % vs. 7 %, p < 0.01). Univariate Cox regression analysis indicated a significant relationship between MACE and stent fracture [hazard ratio (HR) 7.65; p < 0.01], age (HR 1.03; p = 0.04), stent length (HR 1.03; p < 0.01), diabetes mellitus (HR 1.77; p = 0.04), and chronic total occlusion (HR 2.54; p = 0.01). In the multivariate model, stent fracture (HR 5.36; p < 0.01) and age (HR 1.03; p = 0.04) remained significant predictors of MACE. An SES fracture detected by MSCT without early clinical events was associated with long-term clinical adverse events. (orig.)

  19. Neutron Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography is a non-destructive testing method which can visualize cross-section of materials based on their nuclear characteristics. In the previous work, X-ray was used as its radiation media. The aim of this experiment was to improve the computed tomography technique using neutron beam. For reconstructing the cross-section image of materials, a filtered back projection was used. Result indicated that a minimum hole shown was 3 mm in diameter using a black and white presentation. While using eight colour levels, a hole of 2 mm in diameter could be seen clearly. It is expected that neutron computed tomography can improve the results of non-destructive testing. (author). 5 refs., 6 figs

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head What is CT Scanning of the Head? What are some ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography ( ... used in your exam. You should inform your physician of all medications you are taking and if ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography ( ... used in your exam. You should inform your physician of all medications you are taking and if ...

  3. Chest computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Rosenfeld, Margaret;

    2013-01-01

    are not suitable to study CF lung disease in young children. Chest computed tomography (CT) holds great promise for use as a sensitive surrogate endpoint in CF. A large body of evidence has been produced to validate the use of chest CT as primary endpoint to study CF lung disease. However, before...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ... CT exam to be stressful. The technologist or nurse, under the direction of a physician, may offer ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses ... visibility of certain tissues or blood vessels. A nurse or technologist will insert an intravenous (IV) line ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

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    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses uses special x-ray equipment to evaluate the paranasal sinus cavities – hollow, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

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    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

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    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) is a fast, painless exam that uses ... of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  9. Low dose prospective ECG-gated delayed enhanced dual-source computed tomography in reperfused acute myocardial infarction comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated delayed contrast-enhanced dual-source computed tomography (DCE-DSCT) can accurately delineate the extension of myocardial infarction (MI) compared with delayed enhanced cardiac MR (DE-MR). Material and methods: Eleven patients were examined using dual-source CT and cardiac MR in 2 weeks after a first reperfused MI. DCE-DSCT scan protocol was performed with prospective ECG-gating sequential scan model 7 min after contrast administration. In a 17-model, infarcted myocardium detected by DE-MR was categorized as transmural and subendocardial extension. Segment of infarcted location and graded transmurality were compared between DCE-MDCT and DE-MR. Results: In all eleven patients, diagnostic quality was obtained for depicting delayed enhanced myocardium. Agreement between DCE-DSCT and MR was good on myocardial segment based comparison (kappa = 0.85, p < 0.001), and on transmural and subendocardial infarction type comparison (kappa = 0.82, p < 0.001, kappa = 0.52, p < 0.001, respectively). CT value was higher on infarcted region than that of normal region (100.02 ± 9.57 HU vs. 72.63 ± 7.32 HU, p < 0.001). Radiation dose of prospectively ECG-gating protocol were 0.99 ± 0.08 mSv (0.82-1.19 mSv). Conclusions: Prospective ECG-gated DCE-DSCT can accurately assess the extension and the patterns of myocardial infarction with low radiation dose.

  10. Low dose prospective ECG-gated delayed enhanced dual-source computed tomography in reperfused acute myocardial infarction comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Rui, E-mail: rui_wang1979@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Zhang Zhaoqi, E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Xu Lei, E-mail: leixu2001@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Ma Qin, E-mail: tel1367@gmail.com [Department of Emergency, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); He Yi, E-mail: heyi139@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Lu Dongxu, E-mail: larry.hi@163.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Yu Wei, E-mail: yuwei02@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Fan Zhanming, E-mail: fanzm120@tom.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated delayed contrast-enhanced dual-source computed tomography (DCE-DSCT) can accurately delineate the extension of myocardial infarction (MI) compared with delayed enhanced cardiac MR (DE-MR). Material and methods: Eleven patients were examined using dual-source CT and cardiac MR in 2 weeks after a first reperfused MI. DCE-DSCT scan protocol was performed with prospective ECG-gating sequential scan model 7 min after contrast administration. In a 17-model, infarcted myocardium detected by DE-MR was categorized as transmural and subendocardial extension. Segment of infarcted location and graded transmurality were compared between DCE-MDCT and DE-MR. Results: In all eleven patients, diagnostic quality was obtained for depicting delayed enhanced myocardium. Agreement between DCE-DSCT and MR was good on myocardial segment based comparison (kappa = 0.85, p < 0.001), and on transmural and subendocardial infarction type comparison (kappa = 0.82, p < 0.001, kappa = 0.52, p < 0.001, respectively). CT value was higher on infarcted region than that of normal region (100.02 {+-} 9.57 HU vs. 72.63 {+-} 7.32 HU, p < 0.001). Radiation dose of prospectively ECG-gating protocol were 0.99 {+-} 0.08 mSv (0.82-1.19 mSv). Conclusions: Prospective ECG-gated DCE-DSCT can accurately assess the extension and the patterns of myocardial infarction with low radiation dose.

  11. Computed Tomography Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansche, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a relatively new radiographic technique which has become widely used in the medical field, where it is better known as computerized axial tomographic (CAT) scanning. This technique is also being adopted by the industrial radiographic community, although the greater range of densities, variation in samples sizes, plus possible requirement for finer resolution make it difficult to duplicate the excellent results that the medical scanners have achieved.

  12. Computed Tomography. Chapter 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After its clinical introduction in 1971, computed tomography (CT) developed from an X ray modality that was limited to axial imaging of the brain in neuroradiology into a versatile 3-D whole body imaging modality for a wide range of applications, including oncology, vascular radiology, cardiology, traumatology and interventional radiology. CT is applied for diagnosis and follow-up studies of patients, for planning of radiotherapy, and even for screening of healthy subpopulations with specific risk factors

  13. Reduction of radiation exposure and improvement of image quality with BMI-adapted prospective cardiac computed tomography and iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the impact of body mass index (BMI)-adapted protocols and iterative reconstruction algorithms (iDose) on patient radiation exposure and image quality in patients undergoing prospective ECG-triggered 256-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Methods: Image quality and radiation exposure were systematically analyzed in 100 patients. 60 Patients underwent prospective ECG-triggered CCTA using a non-tailored protocol and served as a ‘control’ group (Group 1: 120 kV, 200 mA s). 40 Consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent prospective CCTA, using BMI-adapted tube voltage and standard (Group 2: 100/120 kV, 100–200 mA s) versus reduced tube current (Group 3: 100/120 kV, 75–150 mA s). Iterative reconstructions were provided with different iDose levels and were compared to filtered back projection (FBP) reconstructions. Image quality was assessed in consensus of 2 experienced observers and using a 5-grade scale (1 = best to 5 = worse), and signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios (SNR and CNR) were quantified. Results: CCTA was performed without adverse events in all patients (n = 100, heart rate of 47–87 bpm and BMI of 19–38 kg/m2). Patients examined using the non-tailored protocol in Group 1 had the highest radiation exposure (3.2 ± 0.4 mSv), followed by Group 2 (1.7 ± 0.7 mSv) and Group 3 (1.2 ± 0.6 mSv) (radiation savings of 47% and 63%, respectively, p < 0.001). Iterative reconstructions provided increased SNR and CNR, particularly when higher iDose level 5 was applied with Multi-Frequency reconstruction (iDose5 MFR) (14.1 ± 4.6 versus 21.2 ± 7.3 for SNR and 12.0 ± 4.2 versus 18.1 ± 6.6 for CNR, for FBP versus iDose5 MFR, respectively, p < 0.001). The combination of BMI adaptation with iterative reconstruction reduced radiation exposure and simultaneously improved image quality (subjective image quality of 1.4 ± 0.4 versus 1.9 ± 0.5 for Group 2 reconstructed using iDose5 MFR versus

  14. High-resolution computed tomography in patients with atypical 'cardiac' chest pain: a study investigating patients at 10-year cardiovascular risks defined by the Framingham and PROCAM scores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choon Kiat ANG; Kui Hian SIM; Alan Yean Yip FONG; Sze Piaw CHIN; Tiong Kiam ONG; Seyfarth M Tobias; Wei Ling CHAN; Chee Khoon LIEW; Rapaee ANNUAR; Houng Bang LIEW

    2006-01-01

    Background and objective Atypical 'cardiac' chest pain (ACCP) is not usually caused by myocardial ischaemia. Current noninvasive investigations for these symptoms are not yet as accurate as invasive coronary angiography. The latest 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) technology is non-invasive, has high specificity and negative predictive values for the detection of significant coronary disease. Our aim was to investigate if this modality can provide more information in the assessment of outpatients with ACCP in addition to established cardiovascular risk scores. Methods Seventy consecutive patients presenting to the outpatient clinic with ACCP underwent 64-row MDCT scan of the coronary arteries. They were categorized into low, medium or high risk groups based upon the Framingham and PROCAM scores. We defined a clinically abnormal MDCT scan as coronary stenosis =50% or calcium score >400 Agatston. Results Fifty-three (75.7%) patients did not have clinically abnormal scans. Framingham score classified 43 patients as low-risk while PROCAM classified 59 patients as low-risk. MDCT scans were abnormal for 18.6% and 22.0% of the respective low-risk group of patients. For patients with medium-to-high risk, 33.3% and 36.4% of Framingham and PROCAM patient groups respectively had abnormal MDCT scans. Conclusion MDCT adds valuable information in the assessment of patients with ACCP by identifying a significant proportion of patients categorized as low-risk to have underlying significant coronary stenosis and coronary calcification by established cardiovascular risk scores.

  15. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Study of the Short-Acting β1-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker Landiolol Hydrochloride for Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in Japanese Patients with Suspected Ischemic Cardiac Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Masaharu; Yamashina, Akira; Hara, Kazuhiro; Ikari, Yuji; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Iino, Misako; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Tanimoto, Mitsunobu; Kuribayashi, Sachio; ,

    2013-01-01

    Objectives and Background The objective of this study was to investigate the image quality-improving and heart rate-lowering effects of landiolol hydrochloride (a short-acting β1-adrenergic receptor blocker) on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). During CCTA, β-adrenergic receptor blockers have been commonly used to lower heart rate and improve image quality. Methods A total of 258 subjects suspected of having ischemic cardiac disease and requiring CCTA were randomized to either ...

  16. Assessment of left ventricular function by gated cardiac blood-pool emission computed tomography using a rotating gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elucidate the usefulness of gated cardiac blood-pool single photon emission CT (SPECT) with Tc-99m for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) global and regional functions, 18 patients with coronary artery disease were studied. Thirty-two gated projection images were obtained over 360-degree at 16 frames per cardiac cycle. As LV volume was calculated by integrating the numbers of voxels which constituted LV and multiplying by the volume of a single voxel (0.1143 ml), we performed phantom studies to determine the appropriate cut-off level to detect LV outline. These cut-off levels were affected by the background activity and organ volume itself. So we constructed Volume-Cut-Level-Curve at each background activity. In clinical studies, short axis images which constituted LV were selected and provisional LV volumes were calculated at the cut-off levels of 45, 50 and 55%. These volumes were plotted on the Volume-Cut-Level-Curve and the true cut-off levels were obtained to calculate LV end-diastolic or end-systolic volume (EDV, ESV). The cut-off levels were different at every patient and ED or ES. EDV, ESV and LV ejection fraction obtained by SPECT were correlatd well with those obtained by contrast ventriculography (LVG) (r=0.89, 0.94, 0.94 each, p<0.01). For the LV wall motion analysis, LVGs obtained at two projections were compared with SPECT or gated cardiac blood-pool planar imaging (Planar) in 5 segments. In addition to visual comparison, wall motion scores (WMS) based on the degree of wall motion abnormality were calculated in each segment. Correlation of WMS between LVG and SPECT (r=0.84) was significantly (p<0.01) superior to that between LVG and Planar (r=0.62). Especially in SPECT, wall motion analyses at septal and infero-posterior segments were superior to those in Planar. Although gated SPECT requires relatively long time to perform, it is a useful method to detect LV global and regional functions. (author)

  17. Evaluation of cardiac function in patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent of myocardial ischemia was evaluated in 20 patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) by using Bull's eye method of thallium-201 myocardial SPECT. It was examined in relation to skeletal muscle involvement, age, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and ventricular premature contractions (VPCs). Myocardial ischemia was detected in all of patients with DMD. Ischemic lesion was mostly detected in the apical side of the LV lateral wall and interventricular septum, while the extent of myocardial ischemia had no correlations with either the stage of functional disability of skeletal muscle or age. The more ischemic ratio was higher, the more LV ejection fraction decreased. The total number of VPCs was relatively small and it did not have any relation to myocardial ischemic ratio. These results suggest that younger DMD patients having extensive myocardial ischemia and/or ventricular tachycardia will have a high risk of cardiac death. (author)

  18. Congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities in adults detected by gated cardiac multidetector computed tomography: Clefts, aneurysms, diverticula and terminology problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities (clefts, aneurysms and diverticula), describe and illustrate imaging features, discuss terminology problems and determine their prevalence detected by cardiac CT in a single center. Materials and methods: Coronary CT angiography images of 2093 adult patients were evaluated retrospectively in order to determine congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities. Results: The incidence of left ventricular clefts (LVC) was 6.7% (141 patients) and statistically significant difference was not detected between the sexes regarding LVC (P = 0.5). LVCs were single in 65.2% and multiple in 34.8% of patients. They were located at the basal to mid inferoseptal segment of the left ventricle in 55.4%, the basal to mid anteroseptal segment in 24.1%, basal to mid inferior segment in 17% and septal–apical septal segment in 3.5% of cases. The cleft length ranged from 5 to 22 mm (mean 10.5 mm) and they had a narrow connection with the left ventricle (mean 2.5 mm). They were contractile with the left ventricle and obliterated during systole. Congenital left ventricular septal aneurysm that was located just under the aortic valve was detected in two patients (0.1%). No case of congenital left ventricular diverticulum was detected. Conclusion: Cardiac CT allows us to recognize congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities which have been previously overlooked in adults. LVC is a congenital structural variant of the myocardium, is seen more frequently than previously reported and should be differentiated from aneurysm and diverticulum for possible catastrophic complications of the latter two.

  19. Clinical relevance and scope of accidental extracoronary findings in coronary computed tomography angiography: A cardiac versus thoracic FOV study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglan, Iman; Jodocy, Daniel; Hiehs, Stefan; Soegner, Peter; Frank, Renate; Haberfellner, Berhard; Klauser, Andrea; Jaschke, Werner [Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Feuchtner, Gudrun M. [Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: Gudrun.Feuchtner@i-med.ac.at

    2010-04-15

    Objective: To assess the spectrum and clinical relevance of extracoronary findings in coronary CT angiography (CCTA), and to compare a small (cardiac) field of view (FOV) to a large (thoracic) FOV setting. Material and methods: 1084 consecutive patients (mean 57 years) with low-to-intermediate risk of coronary artery disease were enrolled. 542 CCTA scans were interpreted with small FOV (160-190 mm{sup 2}) encompassing the cardiac region. In another 542 CCTA (patients matched for age and gender), read-out of an additional full FOV (>320 mm{sup 2}) covering the thorax was performed. Clinical relevance of extracoronary findings was considered as either 'significant' or 'non-significant'. 'Significant' findings were subclassified as either score 1: findings necessitating immediate therapeutic actions, or score 2: findings with undoubted clinical or prognostic relevance, requiring clinical awareness, follow-up or further investigations (non-urgent). 'Non-significant' findings were assigned to either score 3: findings not requiring follow-up or further tests, or as score 4: irrelevant incidental findings. Results: Significantly more patients with extracoronary findings were identified by using a full FOV with 43.2% (234/542) compared to a small FOV with 33.6% (182/542) (p = 0.001). Similarly, a higher total number of extracoronary findings (n = 394) was found on full FOV compared to small FOV (n = 250) (p < 0.001). The detection rate of clinically significant findings was higher by using full FOV compared to small FOV (25.6% versus 15.4%) (p < 0.001), out of those 2.2% versus 1.8% of findings required immediate actions (score 1), and 23.4% versus 13.6% (p = 0.0001), respectively were of clinical relevance (non-urgent, score 2). The rate of malign findings was 0.2%, and of acute pulmonary embolism 0.1%. More lung pathologies were observed by using full FOV compared to small FOV (22% versus 7%) (p < 0.0001), and the detection rate of

  20. Quantitative Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Balda, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a wide-spread medical imaging modality. Traditional CT yields information on a patient's anatomy in form of slice images or volume data. Hounsfield Units (HU) are used to quantify the imaged tissue properties. Due to the polychromatic nature of X-rays in CT, the HU values for a specific tissue depend on its density and composition but also on CT system parameters and settings and the surrounding materials. The main objective of Quantitative CT (QCT) is measuring ch...

  1. Stored Luminescence Computed Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    The phosphor nanoparticles made of doped semiconductors, pre-excited by well-collimated X-ray radiation, were recently reported for their light emission upon NIR light stimulation. The characteristics of X-ray energy storage and NIR stimulated emission is highly desirable to design targeting probes and improve molecular and cellular imaging. Here we propose stored luminescence computed tomography (SLCT), perform realistic numerical simulation, and demonstrate a much-improved spatial resolution in a preclinical research context. The future opportunities are also discussed along this direction.

  2. Computed tomography device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computed tomography device comprising a subtraction unit which obtains differential data strings representing the difference between each time-serial projection data string of a group of projection data strings corresponding to a prospective reconstruction image generated by projection data strings acquired by a data acquisition system, a convolution unit which convolves each time-serial projection data string of the group of projection data strings corresponding to the prospective reconstruction image, and a back-projection unit which back-projects the convolved data strings

  3. Computational Modeling of Cardiac Electromechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamoorthi, Shankarjee

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are a leading cause of death worldwide. Notably, the electrophysiologiy and microstructural requirements for a fatal ventricular arrhythmia remain incompletely understood, thereby the treatment remains largely empirical. Standard antiarrhythmic drug therapy has failed to reduce, and in some instances has increased, the incidence of Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD). Hence, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms that foment a fatal arrhythmia is needed and computational m...

  4. Computed tomography of electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Richard H.; Kruse, Robert J.; Knutson, Benjamin W.

    1989-12-01

    The application of Computed Tomography (CT) and laminography was tested on a variety of electronic components. The effort was performed as a preliminary testing task assignment in the Advanced Development of X ray Computed Tomography Application program. A key area for testing was printed circuit boards for the inspection of solder bonds and in particular for leadless chip carrier devices. During the course of the task assignment several other categories of electronic devices were examined including transformers, connectors, switches from solution and contrast sensitivity phantoms developed for the programs were used to establish quantitative measures of capability used to generate images. This preliminary testing of electronics lead to the conclusion that higher resolution CT scanning is needed to resolve details of interest. CT testing on commercially available system could resolve high contrast details in the range of 2 to 4 lp/mm; however, in many electronic components finer resolution is needed to detect microcracking, voiding and other features. Further testing on high resolution system is recommended. Two areas of immediate potential economic payback for electronics inspection were identified; the inspection of high volume printed circuit board production using high speed laminography and nondestructive failure analysis studies components using high-resolution CT.

  5. Cardiac valve calcifications on low-dose unenhanced ungated chest computed tomography: inter-observer and inter-examination reliability, agreement and variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine inter-observer and inter-examination variability for aortic valve calcification (AVC) and mitral valve and annulus calcification (MC) in low-dose unenhanced ungated lung cancer screening chest computed tomography (CT). We included 578 lung cancer screening trial participants who were examined by CT twice within 3 months to follow indeterminate pulmonary nodules. On these CTs, AVC and MC were measured in cubic millimetres. One hundred CTs were examined by five observers to determine the inter-observer variability. Reliability was assessed by kappa statistics (κ) and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Variability was expressed as the mean difference ± standard deviation (SD). Inter-examination reliability was excellent for AVC (κ = 0.94, ICC = 0.96) and MC (κ = 0.95, ICC = 0.90). Inter-examination variability was 12.7 ± 118.2 mm3 for AVC and 31.5 ± 219.2 mm3 for MC. Inter-observer reliability ranged from κ = 0.68 to κ = 0.92 for AVC and from κ = 0.20 to κ = 0.66 for MC. Inter-observer ICC was 0.94 for AVC and ranged from 0.56 to 0.97 for MC. Inter-observer variability ranged from -30.5 ± 252.0 mm3 to 84.0 ± 240.5 mm3 for AVC and from -95.2 ± 210.0 mm3 to 303.7 ± 501.6 mm3 for MC. AVC can be quantified with excellent reliability on ungated unenhanced low-dose chest CT, but manual detection of MC can be subject to substantial inter-observer variability. Lung cancer screening CT may be used for detection and quantification of cardiac valve calcifications. (orig.)

  6. Assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction: comparison of two dimensional echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and 64-row multi-detector computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Khoon LIEW; Kui Hian SIM; Rapaee ANNUAR; Tiong Kiam ONG; Sze Piaw CHIN; Tobias Seyfarth; Yean Yip FONG; Wei Ling CHAN; Choon Kiat ANG; Houng Bang LIEW

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To compare left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) determined from 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (64-row MDCT) with those determined from two dimensional echocardiography (2D echo) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods Thirty-two patients with coronary artery disease underwent trans-thoracic 2D echo, CMR and contrast-enhanced 64-row MDCT for assessment of LVEF within 48 hours of each other. 64-row MDCT LVEF was derived using the Syngo Circulation software; CMR LVEF was by Area Length Ejection Fraction (ALEF) and Simpson method and 2D echo LVEF by Simpson method.Results The LVEF was 49.13 ± 15.91% by 2D echo, 50.72 ± 16.55% (ALEF method) and 47.65 ± 16.58%(Simpson method) by CMR and 50.00 ± 15.93% by 64-row MDCT. LVEF measurements by 64-row MDCT correlated well with LVEF measured with CMR using either the ALEF method (Pearson correlation r = 0.94, P <0.01) or Simpson method (r = 0.92, P<0.01). It also correlated well with LVEF measured using 2D echo (r = 0.80, P < 0.01). Conclusion LVEF measurements by 64-row MDCT correlated well with LVEF measured by CMR and 2D echo. The correlation between 64-row MDCT and CMR was better than the correlation between 2D echo with CMR. Standard data set from a 64-row MDCT coronary study can be reliably used to calculate the LVEF.

  7. Cardiac valve calcifications on low-dose unenhanced ungated chest computed tomography: inter-observer and inter-examination reliability, agreement and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamersvelt, Robbert W. van; Willemink, Martin J.; Takx, Richard A.P.; Eikendal, Anouk L.M.; Budde, Ricardo P.J.; Leiner, Tim; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mol, Christian P.; Isgum, Ivana [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-07-15

    To determine inter-observer and inter-examination variability for aortic valve calcification (AVC) and mitral valve and annulus calcification (MC) in low-dose unenhanced ungated lung cancer screening chest computed tomography (CT). We included 578 lung cancer screening trial participants who were examined by CT twice within 3 months to follow indeterminate pulmonary nodules. On these CTs, AVC and MC were measured in cubic millimetres. One hundred CTs were examined by five observers to determine the inter-observer variability. Reliability was assessed by kappa statistics (κ) and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Variability was expressed as the mean difference ± standard deviation (SD). Inter-examination reliability was excellent for AVC (κ = 0.94, ICC = 0.96) and MC (κ = 0.95, ICC = 0.90). Inter-examination variability was 12.7 ± 118.2 mm{sup 3} for AVC and 31.5 ± 219.2 mm{sup 3} for MC. Inter-observer reliability ranged from κ = 0.68 to κ = 0.92 for AVC and from κ = 0.20 to κ = 0.66 for MC. Inter-observer ICC was 0.94 for AVC and ranged from 0.56 to 0.97 for MC. Inter-observer variability ranged from -30.5 ± 252.0 mm{sup 3} to 84.0 ± 240.5 mm{sup 3} for AVC and from -95.2 ± 210.0 mm{sup 3} to 303.7 ± 501.6 mm{sup 3} for MC. AVC can be quantified with excellent reliability on ungated unenhanced low-dose chest CT, but manual detection of MC can be subject to substantial inter-observer variability. Lung cancer screening CT may be used for detection and quantification of cardiac valve calcifications. (orig.)

  8. MR tomography in cardiac septum defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various flow phenomena can occur in MR tomography of the heart. In the present study the influence of various examination parameters on the imaging of flow phenomena behind cardiac septum defects was investigated by means of a model. In the examination by fast field echo sequence (FFE) the contrast between poststenotic jet and surrounding area was most pronounced if short echo times (TE 10 ms), a narrow flip angle (d=10 ) and layers of minor thickness (d=5 mm) had been selected. The number of acquisitions and the flow compensation exercised only slight influence on contrast. Our results point to the possibility of obtaining quantitative information on cardiac septum defects if the influence of examination parameters on the imaging of flow phenomena is accurately known. (orig.)

  9. A Multicenter, Open-Label Study of an Intravenous Short-Acting β1-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist Landiolol Hydrochloride for Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography by 16-Slice Multi-Detector Computed Tomography in Japanese Patients with Suspected Ischemic Cardiac Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Masaharu; Yamashina, Akira; Hara, Kazuhiro; Ikari, Yuji; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Iino, Misako; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Tanimoto, Mitsunobu; Kuribayashi, Sachio; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background During coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA), β-blockers (β-adrenergic receptor antagonists) have commonly been used to lower heart rate and improve image quality. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the image quality-improving effect as well as the heart rate-lowering effect of landiolol hydrochloride (an intravenous short-acting β1-adrenergic receptor antagonist) in CCTA by 16-slice multi-detector CT (MDCT). Methods A total of 39 subjects suspected ...

  10. Value of multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax in preparation for catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation: The impact of unexpected cardiac and extracardiac findings on patient care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissner, Erik; Wellnitz, Clinton V.; Srivathsan, Komandoor; Scott, Luis R. [Mayo Clinic Arizona - Mayo Clinic Hospital, Cardiovascular Diseases, 5777 East Mayo Boulevard, Phoenix, AZ 85054 (United States); Altemose, Gregory T. [Mayo Clinic Arizona - Mayo Clinic Hospital, Cardiovascular Diseases, 5777 East Mayo Boulevard, Phoenix, AZ 85054 (United States)], E-mail: altemose.gregory@mayo.edu

    2009-11-15

    Objective: In patients referred for catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation, multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax is routinely performed to assess pulmonary vein anatomy. We sought to investigate the incidence of unexpected cardiac and extracardiac findings in this select patient population and to establish how these findings influence subsequent patient care. Methods: Ninety-five patients (mean age 62 {+-} 10 years, 35% female) referred to our institution for ablation therapy for atrial fibrillation between July 2003 and October 2007 underwent multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax. Radiologists interpreted all images. Need for additional testing, consultation and eventual diagnosis were assessed by electronic record review. Results: A total of 83 (5 cardiac, 78 extracardiac) unexpected findings were observed in 50/95 (53%) of patients. The findings prompted 23 additional tests (5 cardiac, 18 noncardiac) in 15/95 (16%) of patients and 8 subsequent referrals in 7/95 (7%) patients. In 6 patients the findings significantly altered future patient care and resulted in postponement of ablation therapy in 4 patients. In 2 patients, extracardiac findings (pulmonary emboli and adenocarcinoma of the lung) were of potentially life-saving consequence. Conclusions: In patients undergoing multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax in anticipation of planned catheter ablation therapy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation, unexpected findings are common and of potentially significant value. In comparison, there is a higher prevalence of unexpected extracardiac, rather than cardiac findings. Further investigation of these findings may lead to postponement of ablation therapy, but may also be of potentially lifesaving consequence.

  11. Value of multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax in preparation for catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation: The impact of unexpected cardiac and extracardiac findings on patient care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: In patients referred for catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation, multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax is routinely performed to assess pulmonary vein anatomy. We sought to investigate the incidence of unexpected cardiac and extracardiac findings in this select patient population and to establish how these findings influence subsequent patient care. Methods: Ninety-five patients (mean age 62 ± 10 years, 35% female) referred to our institution for ablation therapy for atrial fibrillation between July 2003 and October 2007 underwent multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax. Radiologists interpreted all images. Need for additional testing, consultation and eventual diagnosis were assessed by electronic record review. Results: A total of 83 (5 cardiac, 78 extracardiac) unexpected findings were observed in 50/95 (53%) of patients. The findings prompted 23 additional tests (5 cardiac, 18 noncardiac) in 15/95 (16%) of patients and 8 subsequent referrals in 7/95 (7%) patients. In 6 patients the findings significantly altered future patient care and resulted in postponement of ablation therapy in 4 patients. In 2 patients, extracardiac findings (pulmonary emboli and adenocarcinoma of the lung) were of potentially life-saving consequence. Conclusions: In patients undergoing multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax in anticipation of planned catheter ablation therapy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation, unexpected findings are common and of potentially significant value. In comparison, there is a higher prevalence of unexpected extracardiac, rather than cardiac findings. Further investigation of these findings may lead to postponement of ablation therapy, but may also be of potentially lifesaving consequence.

  12. Computed tomography in neurocysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three hundred and fifty seven computed tomography (CT) from 100 different patients with neurocysticercosis (NC) were studied between 1979 and 1988. All patients were treated with praziquantel (PZQ). A new classification attempting to recognize the CT evolution profile in NC as well as assigning a possible link between CT findings and biological conditions of cysts is evaluated. It was possible to conclude that: intact cysts remain unchanged in consecutive CTs by 11 months and exhibit signs of degeneration in about 18 months after PZQ drug therapy; degenerating cysts can be detected by 10.5 months, disappear in 11 months and become nodular calcifications in about 25 months. Therefore, a time period of at least 36 months can be estimated for the complete evolution profile of cysts in the brain parenchyma. (author)

  13. Influence of respiratory gating, image filtering, and animal positioning on high-resolution electrocardiography-gated murine cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Chao; Vaissier, Pieter E. B.; Vastenhouw, Brendan; de Jong, Johan R.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Beekman, Freek J.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac parameters obtained from single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images can be affected by respiratory motion, image filtering, and animal positioning. We investigated the influence of these factors on ultra-high-resolution murine myocardial perfusion SPECT. Five mice were inject

  14. Multislice computed tomography coronary angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Cademartiri, Filippo

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is also known as "CAT scanning" (Computed Axial Tomography). Tomography is from the Greek word "tomos" meaning "slice" or "section" and "graphia" meaning "describing". CT was invented in 1972 by British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Laboratories, England, and independently by South Mrican born physicist Allan Cormack of Tufts University, Massachusetts.1 • 2 Hounsfield was later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and honoured with K...

  15. Computed Tomography Measuring Inside Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, James F.; Scudder, Henry J.; Anders, Jeffrey E.

    1995-01-01

    Computed tomography applied to obtain approximate measurements of radial distances from centerline of turbopump to leading edges of diffuser vanes in turbopump. Use of computed tomography has significance beyond turbopump application: example of general concept of measuring internal dimensions of assembly of parts without having to perform time-consuming task of taking assembly apart and measuring internal parts on coordinate-measuring machine.

  16. Computed tomography of abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdominal lesions following an accident or surgical interventions are becoming more frequently indications for investigations by computed tomography. Changes of spleen, liver, kidneys, pancreas, and of the retroperitoneal space are discussed. Advantages of computed tomography compared to other investigative methods are shown. (orig.)

  17. Computed tomography using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a widely used method of obtaining cross-sectional views of objects. The high intensity, natural collimation, monochromaticity and energy tunability of synchrotron x-ray sources could potentially be used to provide CT images of improved quality. The advantages of these systems would be that images could be produced more rapidly with better spatial resolution and reduced beam artifacts. In addition, images, in some cases, could be acquired with elemental sensitivity. As a demonstration of the capability of such a system, CT images were obtained of four slices of an excised pig heart in which the arteries and the cardiac chambers were filled with an iodinated medium. Images were taken with incident x-rays tuned successively to energies just above and below the iodine K edge. Iodine specific images were obtained by logarithmically subtracting the low energy image data from the high energy data and then reconstructing the image. CT imaging using synchrotron radiation may become a convenient and non-destructive method of imaging samples difficult to study by other methods

  18. Spinal computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartor, K.

    1980-10-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the spine and spinal cord is gaining more and more importance as a valuable investigative method in neuroradiology. Performed as a noninvasive procedure, with or without intravenous contrast enhancement, it can be used to diagnose paravertebral soft tissue lesions, constrictive lesions of the bony spinal canal, structure changes of the vertebral column or of individual vertebrae, vascular intraspinal lesions, and intraspinal tumors with abnormally high or abnormally low attenuation values. Performed as an invasive procedure, after intrathecal introduction of metrizamide, spinal CT can in selected cases be used in conjunction with conventional metrizamide myelography as an additional procedure (secondary CT-myelography) or even as initial procedure ( primary CT-myelography), taking advantage of its unique properties, namely to provide a transverse axial image of the spine and related soft tissue structures and to detect even small differences in density. Further improvement of spinal CT, particularly the routine non-invasive demonstration of the intraspinal soft tissues, is to be expected.

  19. Computed tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In fan-beam computed tomography apparatus, timing reference pulses, normally occurring at intervals t, for data transfer and reset of approx. 500 integrators in the signal path from the detector array, are generated from the scan displacement, e.g. using a graticule and optical sensor to relate the measurement paths geometrically to the body section. Sometimes, a slow scan rate is required to provide a time-averaged density image, e.g. for planning irradiation therapy, and then the sensed impulses will occur at extended intervals and can cause integrator overload. An improvement is described which provides a pulse generator which responds to a reduced scan rate by generating a succession of further transfer and reset pulses at intervals approximately equal to t starting a time t after each timing reference pulse. Then, using an adding device and RAM, all the transferred signals integrated in the interval t' between two successive slow scan reference pulses are accumulated in order to form a corresponding measurement signal. (author)

  20. Computed tomography for imaging of pediatric congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital heart diseases are the most common congenital abnormalities of development. In general, echocardiography and cardiac catheter angiography are considered the gold standard for the evaluation of congenital heart disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has become an important supplementary imaging modality because of its ability to provide an accurate morphological and functional evaluation. The role of cardiac computed tomography in the imaging of patients with congenital heart disease is becoming increasingly more important due to the development of low radiation dose protocols and improvements in the spatial and temporal resolution. In the preoperative depiction and follow-up after surgical repair of congenital heart diseases, cardiac computed tomography provides detailed information of the heart, the venous and arterial pulmonary circulation as well as systemic arteries. This article reviews the technical aspects of cardiac CT and the modification of examination protocols according to the expected pathology and patient age. The potentials and limitations of the various radiation dose reduction strategies are outlined. (orig.)

  1. Quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Judith E. [Royal Infirmary and University, Manchester (United Kingdom)], E-mail: judith.adams@manchester.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was introduced in the mid 1970s. The technique is most commonly applied to 2D slices in the lumbar spine to measure trabecular bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cm{sup 3}). Although not as widely utilized as dual-energy X-ray absortiometry (DXA) QCT has some advantages when studying the skeleton (separate measures of cortical and trabecular BMD; measurement of volumetric, as opposed to 'areal' DXA-BMDa, so not size dependent; geometric and structural parameters obtained which contribute to bone strength). A limitation is that the World Health Organisation (WHO) definition of osteoporosis in terms of bone densitometry (T score -2.5 or below using DXA) is not applicable. QCT can be performed on conventional body CT scanners, or at peripheral sites (radius, tibia) using smaller, less expensive dedicated peripheral CT scanners (pQCT). Although the ionising radiation dose of spinal QCT is higher than for DXA, the dose compares favorably with those of other radiographic procedures (spinal radiographs) performed in patients suspected of having osteoporosis. The radiation dose from peripheral QCT scanners is negligible. Technical developments in CT (spiral multi-detector CT; improved spatial resolution) allow rapid acquisition of 3D volume images which enable QCT to be applied to the clinically important site of the proximal femur, more sophisticated analysis of cortical and trabecular bone, the imaging of trabecular structure and the application of finite element analysis (FEA). Such research studies contribute importantly to the understanding of bone growth and development, the effect of disease and treatment on the skeleton and the biomechanics of bone strength and fracture.

  2. [Computed tomography of the heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T.S.; Kofoed, K.F.; der, Recke P. von;

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive evaluation of the coronary arteries by multi-detector row computed tomography is a promising new alternative to conventional invasive coronary angiography. This article describes the technical background, methods, limitations and clinical applications and reviews current literature th...

  3. Recent Developments in Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized Tomography. has become, during the past few years, one of the mostly used apparatus in X-ray diagnosis. Its clinical applications has penetrated to various fields, like operational guidance, cardiac imaging, computer aided surgery etc. The first second-generation CT scanners consisted of a rotate-rotate system detectors array and an X-ray tube. These scanners were capable of acquiring individual single slices, the duration of each being several seconds. The slow scanning rate, and the then poor computers power, limited the application range of these scanners, to relatively stable organs, short body coverage at given resolutions. Further drawbacks of these machines were weak X-ray sources and low efficiency gas detectors. In the late 80's the first helical scanners were introduced by Siemens. Based on a continuous patient couch movement during gantry rotation, much faster scans could be obtained, increasing significantly the volume coverage at a given time. In 1992 the first dual-slice scanners, equipped with high efficiency solid state detectors were introduced by Elscint. The acquisition of data simultaneously from two detector arrays doubled the efficiency of the scan. Faster computers and stronger X-ray sources further improved the performance, allowing for a new range of clinical applications. Yet, the need for even faster machines and bigger volume coverage led to further R and D efforts by the leading CT manufacturers. In order to accomplish the most demanding clinical needs, innovative 2 dimensional 4-rows solid-state detector arrays were developed, together with faster rotating machines and bigger X-ray tubes, all demanding extremely accurate and robust mechanical constructions. Parallel, multi-processor custom computers were made, in order to allow the on-line reconstruction of the growing amounts of raw data. Four-slice helical scanners, rotating at 0.5 sec per cycle are being tested nowadays in several clinics all over the world. This talk

  4. What is Computed Tomography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... word "tomography" is from the Greek word "tomos" meaning "slice" or "section" and "graphe" meaning "drawing." A CT imaging system produces cross-sectional ... The patient may receive an injection of a "contrast material" to facilitate visualization of vascular structure. Detectors ...

  5. Neuroanatomy of cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the fundamental structures visualized by means of computed tomography, the authors present the functional systems which are relevant in neurology by means of axial cross-sections. All drawings were prepared from original preparations by means of a new technique which is similar to the grey values of X-ray CT and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography. A detailed description is given of the topics of neurofunctional lesions

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate ... follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two- ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate ... follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two- ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ...

  10. Computer tomography in acute pyelonephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triller, J.; Scheidegger, J.; Terrier, F.

    1983-07-01

    Computer tomography of the kidneys was performed on 30 patients with acute renal infections (acute suppurative pyelonephritis, acute renal abscess, infected cyst, pyelonephrosis, calculus perforation, retroperitoneal abscess). Computer tomography provided more accurate information concerning the extent of the renal and extra-renal inflammatory process than did the urogram or sonogram. This may significantly affect the choice of treatment, particularly concerning the use of drugs or of surgery. Angiography and retrograde pyelography may be used in selected cases, especially where there is a suspicion of acute bacterial nephritis, renal vein thrombosis or ureteric obstruction.

  11. Mediastinite aguda: aspectos de imagem pós-cirurgias cardíacas na tomografia computadorizada de multidetectores Acute mediastinitis: multidetector computed tomography findings following cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Aguiar de Macedo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mediastinite pós-cirurgias torácicas é definida como a infecção dos órgãos e tecidos do espaço mediastinal, ocorrendo em 0,4% a 5% dos casos. A gravidade da infecção pós-operatória varia desde infecção de tecidos superficiais da parede torácica até mediastinite fulminante com envolvimento esternal. O critério diagnóstico da tomografia computadorizada para mediastinite aguda pós-cirúrgica é a presença de coleção mediastinal, podendo estar associada ou não a anormalidades periesternais como edema/borramento de partes moles, separação dos segmentos esternais com reabsorção óssea marginal, esclerose e osteomielite. Achados associados incluem linfonodomegalias, consolidações pulmonares e derrame pleural e pericárdico. Pequenas coleções e gás mediastinais podem ser usualmente encontradas em pós-operatório recente de cirurgias torácicas sem a presença de infecções, limitando a eficácia da tomografia computadorizada nas duas primeiras semanas. Após esse período, a tomografia alcança quase 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade. Pacientes com suspeita clínica de mediastinite devem ser submetidos a exame de tomografia para pesquisa de coleções, identificando a extensão da doença e sua natureza. A versão de multidetectores propicia recursos de reconstruções em diversos planos e janelas, contribuindo especialmente para o estudo do esterno.Postoperative mediastinitis is defined as an infection of the organs and tissues in the mediastinal space, with an incidence ranging between 0.4% and 5% of cases. This disease severity varies from infection of superficial tissues in the chest wall to fulminant mediastinitis with sternal involvement. Diagnostic criterion for postoperative detection of acute mediastinitis at computed tomography is the presence of fluid collections and gas in the mediastinal space, which might or might not be associated with peristernal abnormalities such as edema of soft tissues

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a ... by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a ... by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional ...

  14. Emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there are many common aspects to x-ray transmission and radionuclide emission (ECT) computerized tomography, there are added difficulties and a number of particular factors which form the basis of ECT. The relationship between the physical factors, system design, methodologic approach and assumptions of ECT is discussed. The instrumentation design and application strategies in ECT at this time are diverse and in a rapid stage of development. The approaches are divided into two major categories of Single Photon Counting (SPC) employing scanner and camera concepts with radionuclides of 99/sup m/Tc, 201Tl, 123I etc., and Annihilation Coincidence Detection (ACD) of positron-emitting radionuclides. Six systems in the former and ten systems in the latter category, with examples of typical studies, illustrate the different approaches

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of ... Society of Urogenital Radiology note that the available data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of ... Society of Urogenital Radiology note that the available data suggest that it is safe to continue breastfeeding ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD. CT ... distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image. In a conventional x- ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... look like? The CT scanner is typically a large, box-like machine with a hole, or short ... spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross- ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... look like? The CT scanner is typically a large, box-like machine with a hole, or short ... spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross- ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, ... to reduce the risk of an allergic reaction. These medications generally need to be taken 12 hours ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, ... to reduce the risk of an allergic reaction. These medications generally need to be taken 12 hours ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate control room, ... which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into a loaf ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate control room, ... which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into a loaf ...

  5. Computed tomography of intramuscular myxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed in seven patients with intramuscular myxoma. All lesions were well demarcated, of homogeneous appearance and attenuation values ranging from 10 to 60 (HU). The tumor size, as estimated at CT, correlated well with the size of the surgical specimen, which is in contrast to the findings in some high grade malignant sarcomas. (orig.)

  6. X-ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Greg

    2001-01-01

    Describes computed tomography (CT), a medical imaging technique that produces images of transaxial planes through the human body. A CT image is reconstructed mathematically from a large number of one-dimensional projections of a plane. The technique is used in radiological examinations and radiotherapy treatment planning. (Author/MM)

  7. Industrial applications of computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.; Kruth, J. -P.;

    2014-01-01

    The number of industrial applications of Computed Tomography(CT) is large and rapidly increasing. After a brief market overview, the paper gives a survey of state of the art and upcoming CT technologies, covering types of CT systems, scanning capabilities, and technological advances. The paper...

  8. Computed tomography for dimensional metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruth, J.P.; Bartscher, M.; Carmignato, S.;

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives a survey of the upcoming use of X-ray computed tomography (CT) for dimensional quality control purposes: i.e. for traceable measurement of dimensions of technical (mechanical) components and for tolerance verification of such components. It describes the basic principles of CT...

  9. Facility for positron computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron computed tomography facility has got scintillator detector rings simultaneously recording more than one tomogrphic image of different cross-sections of the patient. The detectors in neighboring rings are staggered and can be rotated with respect to each other in order to increase the count rate without loss of efficiency. (DG)

  10. Computed tomography:the details.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  11. Repeatability and reproducibility of phase analysis of gated single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging used to quantify cardiac dyssynchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Mark A.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Adams, George L.; Honeycutt, Emily F.; Pagnanelli, Robert A.; Barnhart, Huiman X.; Chen, Ji; Iskandrian, Ami E.; Garcia, Ernest V.; Borges-Neto, Salvador

    2010-01-01

    Background A novel method to quantify dyssynchrony has been developed using phase analysis of gated single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion imaging. We report on the effect of variability in image reconstruction on the phase analysis results (repeatability) and on the interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility of the technique. Methods Phase standard deviation (SD) and bandwidth are phase indices that quantify dyssynchrony. To evaluate repeatability, raw data sets were processed twice in 50 patients with left ventricular dysfunction and 50 normal controls. To determine the optimal processing method, two replicated phase analysis results were obtained using automated and manual base parameter placement. Reproducibility of the phase analysis was determined using the data from 20 patients. Results In normal controls, manual base parameter placement improves repeatability of the phase analysis as measured by the mean absolute difference between two reads for phase SD (12.0° vs. 1.2°, P< 0.0001) and bandwidth (33.7° vs. 3.6°, P< 0.0001). Repeatability is better for normal controls than for patients with left ventricular dysfunction for phase SD (1.2° vs. 6.0°, P < 0.0001) and bandwidth (3.6° vs. 26.5°, P < 0.0001). Reproducibility of the phase analysis is high as measured by the intraclass correlation coefficients for phase SD and bandwidth of 0.99 and 0.99 for the interobserver comparisons and 1.00 and 1.00 for the intraobserver comparisons. Conclusion A novel method to quantify dyssynchrony has been developed using gated single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion imaging. Manual base parameter placement reduces the effect that variability in image reconstruction has on phase analysis. A high degree of reproducibility of phase analysis is observed. PMID:18317303

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ... gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ... in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ... gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located ... in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate control room, where ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite each other in a ring, called a gantry. The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate control room, where ...

  16. Pediatric cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of CT in the investigation of intercranial pathology has revolutionized the approach to clinical neurological and neurosurgical practice. This book applies the advances of cranial CT to the pediatric patient. The test is divided into two sections. The first portion describes the practical methodology, anatomy and normal and abnormal CT scan appearance, including high or low density lesions, cystic lesions and ventricular or subarachnoid space dilation. The characteristic scans for various neurological diseases are presented and discussed. The author has given special attention to the CT diagnosis of congenital malformations and cerebral neoplasms. Partial Contents: Normal Computed Tomographic Anatomy/ High Density Lesions/Low Density Lesions/Cystic Lesions; Supratentorial/Cystic Lesions; Infratentorial/Increased Head Circumference/Increased Ventricular Size/Small Ventricular Size/Cranial Lesions/Spinal Lesions/CT Cisternography/Part II CT in Neonates/Congenital Craniocerebral Malformations/Hydrocephalus/Craniosynostosis/Head Trauma/Cerebrovascular Lesions/Intracranial Lesions/Seizure Disorders/Intracranial and Other Chronic Neurological Disorders

  17. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, David W

    2008-05-01

    Accurate anatomical localization of functional abnormalities obtained with the use of positron emission tomography (PET) is known to be problematic. Although tracers such as (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) visualize certain normal anatomical structures, the spatial resolution is generally inadequate for accurate anatomic localization of pathology. Combining PET with a high-resolution anatomical imaging modality such as computed tomography (CT) can resolve the localization issue as long as the images from the two modalities are accurately coregistered. However, software-based registration techniques have difficulty accounting for differences in patient positioning and involuntary movement of internal organs, often necessitating labor-intensive nonlinear mapping that may not converge to a satisfactory result. Acquiring both CT and PET images in the same scanner obviates the need for software registration and routinely provides accurately aligned images of anatomy and function in a single scan. A CT scanner positioned in line with a PET scanner and with a common patient couch and operating console has provided a practical solution to anatomical and functional image registration. Axial translation of the couch between the 2 modalities enables both CT and PET data to be acquired during a single imaging session. In addition, the CT images can be used to generate essentially noiseless attenuation correction factors for the PET emission data. By minimizing patient movement between the CT and PET scans and accounting for the axial separation of the two modalities, accurately registered anatomical and functional images can be obtained. Since the introduction of the first PET/CT prototype more than 6 years ago, numerous patients with cancer have been scanned on commercial PET/CT devices worldwide. The commercial designs feature multidetector spiral CT and high-performance PET components. Experience has demonstrated an increased level of accuracy and confidence in the

  18. Computed tomography of gynecologic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although computed tomography (CT) provides superb images of all areas of the body, sonography, because of its lack of ionizing radiation and its real-time and multiplanar capacities, has become the preferred initial method of evaluating the female pelvis. This has resulted in a relative paucity of information in the literature concerning CT features of benign pelvic disorders in particular and prompted the authors to review our experience with third-generation CT scanning of the uterus and ovaries

  19. Hermaphroditism demonstrated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The categorization of disorders of gender differentiation is based on chromosome analysis, physical examination, gonadal histology, and endocrine evaluation. In most cases of hermaphroditism, radiologic studies have been limited to assessment of associated urinary tract anomalies before surgical revconstruction. Noninvasive evaluation with computed tomography (CT) or sonography is potentially useful for investigation of internal pelvic anatomy in these cases. A case report of a 65-year-old man is reported

  20. Hermaphroditism demonstrated by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, M.E.

    1983-07-01

    The categorization of disorders of gender differentiation is based on chromosome analysis, physical examination, gonadal histology, and endocrine evaluation. In most cases of hermaphroditism, radiologic studies have been limited to assessment of associated urinary tract anomalies before surgical revconstruction. Noninvasive evaluation with computed tomography (CT) or sonography is potentially useful for investigation of internal pelvic anatomy in these cases. A case report of a 65-year-old man is reported. (KRM)

  1. Cranial computed tomography in paediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals mainly with methodical aspects (such as sedation, intravenous and intrathecal application of contrast media) and with common difficulties in interpretation of computed tomography images. The indications for cranial CT are discussed in respect probable therapeutic consequences and expected diagnostic yield. In view of the author CT is, as a rule, not required in assessing chronic headache, generalised epileptic convulsions, non-specific mental retardation and cerebral palsy. (Author)

  2. Integration of cardiac computed tomography into pulmonary vein isolation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation; Integration einer praeinterventionellen Computertomografie des Herzens in die therapeutische Pulmonalvenenisolation bei Patienten mit paroxysmalem Vorhofflimmern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, T.F. [Abt. Radiologie, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Klemm, H.; Willems, S. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Kardiologie und Angiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Koops, A.; Adam, G.; Begemann, P.G. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Nagel, H.D. [Philips Medizin Systeme GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Purpose: Detailed anatomic information of the left atrium is necessary for securely performing radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation-triggering ectopies in the pulmonary vein ostia. In this study the impact of a preinterventionally acquired cardiac computed tomography (CT) on pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) was assessed. Materials and methods: Examinations of 54 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation undergoing PVI were analyzed. In 27 patients a supplementary cardiac CT was obtained prior to PVI (CT group, 12 women, 15 men, 59.7 {+-} 9.9 years of age): 16 x 1.5 mm collimation, 0.2 pitch, 120 kV tube voltage, 400 effective mAs. The fluoroscopy time, effective dose and quantity of radiofrequency (RF) pulses of the following catheter ablation were compared to 27 patients undergoing stand-alone PVI (11 women, 16 men, 62.0 {+-} 9.9 years of age). Mann-Whitney tests served for statistical comparison. Results: CT datasets were successfully integrated into the ablation procedure of each patient in the CT group. The mean quantity of RF pulses was significantly lower in the CT group (22.1 {+-} 8.0 vs. 29.1 {+-} 11.9, p = 0.030), and a significant reduction of fluoroscopy time was found (41.8 {+-} 12.0 min vs. 51.2 {+-} 16.0 min, p = 0.005). Effective doses of the catheter ablation differed in an equivalent dimension but altogether not significantly (14.9 {+-} 10.0 mSv vs. 20.0 {+-} 16.0 mSv, p = 0.203). The mean additive effective dose of the cardiac CT was 85 {+-} 0.3 mSv. (orig.)

  3. Inducible myocardial ischaemia diagnosed using computed tomography dipyridamole stress myocardial perfusion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) temporal and spatial resolution allows for the assessment of coronary artery disease, left ventricular systolic function and resting myocardial perfusion defects with high sensitivity and specificity. Here we present a case using a novel combination technique of cardiac computed tomography scanning with dipyridamole stress for the detection of functionally significant coronary disease, and demonstrate that dipyridamole-induced myocardial ischaemia is both detectable and quantifiable by cardiac MDCT.

  4. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) Updated:Sep 11,2015 What is a ... Heart Attack Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Radionuclide Ventriculography, Radionuclide Angiography, MUGA Scan Heart ...

  5. The history of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New scientific discoveries are often made by the synthetising of other discoveries. Computed tomography is such an example. The three necessary elements were: 1/ the fact that certain simple crystals scintillate when exposed to X-rays, 2/ the advent of electronics and 3/ that of computers. The fact that X-rays cause crystals to scintillate was learnt very shortly after Roentgen's discovery, electronics and computers coming very much later. To put all these together and apply them to diagnostic radiology, and at the same time dismiss the concept so firmly ingrained in everyone's mind that an X-ray picture must be produced on photographic film, required a genius. (orig./VJ)

  6. Computed tomography of stress fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An athletic young female developed gradual onset of pain in the right leg. Plain radiographs demonstrated solid periosteal reaction in the tibia compatible with stress fracture. She stopped sport activites but her pain continued. Follow-up radiographs of the tibia revealed changes suspicious for osteoid osteoma. Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated periosteal reaction, but in addition, lucent fracture lines in the tibial cortex were evident. CT obviated the need for more invasive diagnostic procedures in this patient. In selected cases CT may be useful to confirm the diagnosis of stress fracture when plain radiographic or routine tomographic studies are not diagnostic. (orig.)

  7. Facility for positron computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For positron computed tomography two or more rings of scintillation detectors are used by which three or more sections of the object may be determined at a time. The rings are placed in parallel planes having got some distance from each other, axially movable collimator rings being provided for. Each collimator can be moved towards the opposite collimator and towards a central collimator which also is ring-shaped and is placed between the rows of detectors. The external and internal collimator are used for data selection and image-forming. (DG)

  8. Computed Tomography in Forensic Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2015-01-01

    Modern diagnostic imagining techniques are gaining popularity in forensic medicine. Denmark has been involved in the development of this use of imaging techniques from the beginning. The Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Southern Denmark acquired a helical computed tomography (CT...... AND METHODS: This thesis investigated 900 forensic cases that were CT-scanned and autopsied at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, from 2006-2011. The scanner was a Siemens Somatom Spirit dual-slice CT-scanner with a Siemens Syngo MultiModality workstation. Contrast enhancement...

  9. Split-bolus single-phase cardiac multidetector computed tomography for reliable detection of left atrial thrombus. Comparison to transesophageal echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of a new cardiac MDCT protocol using a split-bolus contrast injection protocol and single MDCT scan for reliable diagnosis of LA/LAA thrombi in comparison to TEE, optimizing radiation exposure and use of contrast agent. A total of 182 consecutive patients with drug refractory AF scheduled for PVI (62.6% male, mean age: 64.1 ± 10.2 years) underwent routine diagnostic work including TEE and cardiac MDCT for the evaluation of LA/LAA anatomy and thrombus formation between November 2010 and March 2012. Contrast media injection was split into a pre-bolus of 30 ml and main bolus of 70 ml iodinated contrast agent separated by a short time delay. In this study, split-bolus cardiac MDCT identified 14 of 182 patients with filling defects of the LA/LAA. In all of these 14 patients, abnormalities were found in TEE. All 5 of the 14 patients with thrombus formation in cardiac MDCT were confirmed by TEE. MDCT was 100% accurate for thrombus, with strong but not perfect overall results for SEC equivalent on MDCT.

  10. Split-bolus single-phase cardiac multidetector computed tomography for reliable detection of left atrial thrombus. Comparison to transesophageal echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staab, W.; Zwaka, P.A.; Sohns, J.M.; Schwarz, A.; Lotz, J. [University Medical Center Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Sohns, C.; Vollmann, D.; Zabel, M.; Hasenfuss, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Pneumology; Schneider, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medical Statistics

    2014-11-15

    Evaluation of a new cardiac MDCT protocol using a split-bolus contrast injection protocol and single MDCT scan for reliable diagnosis of LA/LAA thrombi in comparison to TEE, optimizing radiation exposure and use of contrast agent. A total of 182 consecutive patients with drug refractory AF scheduled for PVI (62.6% male, mean age: 64.1 ± 10.2 years) underwent routine diagnostic work including TEE and cardiac MDCT for the evaluation of LA/LAA anatomy and thrombus formation between November 2010 and March 2012. Contrast media injection was split into a pre-bolus of 30 ml and main bolus of 70 ml iodinated contrast agent separated by a short time delay. In this study, split-bolus cardiac MDCT identified 14 of 182 patients with filling defects of the LA/LAA. In all of these 14 patients, abnormalities were found in TEE. All 5 of the 14 patients with thrombus formation in cardiac MDCT were confirmed by TEE. MDCT was 100% accurate for thrombus, with strong but not perfect overall results for SEC equivalent on MDCT.

  11. Accuracy of dual-energy computed tomography for the measurement of iodine concentration using cardiac CT protocols: validation in a phantom model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koonce, James D. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Schmidt, Bernhard; Flohr, Thomas G. [Siemens Healthcare, Imaging and Therapy Division, Forchheim (Germany); Wahlquist, Amy E.; Nietert, Paul J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Public Health Services, Charleston, SC (United States); Bastarrika, Gorka [University of Navarra, Department of Radiology, Pamplona (Spain); Meinel, Felix G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To assess the accuracy of dual-energy CT (DECT) for the quantification of iodine concentrations in a thoracic phantom across various cardiac DECT protocols and simulated patient sizes. Experiments were performed on first- and second-generation dual-source CT (DSCT) systems in DECT mode using various cardiac DECT protocols. An anthropomorphic thoracic phantom was equipped with tubular inserts containing known iodine concentrations (0-20 mg/mL) in the cardiac chamber and up to two fat-equivalent rings to simulate different patient sizes. DECT-derived iodine concentrations were measured using dedicated software and compared to true concentrations. General linear regression models were used to identify predictors of measurement accuracy Correlation between measured and true iodine concentrations (n = 72) across CT systems and protocols was excellent (R = 0.994-0.997, P < 0.0001). Mean measurement errors were 3.0 ± 7.0 % and -2.9 ± 3.8 % for first- and second-generation DSCT, respectively. This error increased with simulated patient size. The second-generation DSCT showed the most stable measurements across a wide range of iodine concentrations and simulated patient sizes. Overall, DECT provides accurate measurements of iodine concentrations across cardiac CT protocols, strengthening the case for DECT-derived blood volume estimates as a surrogate of myocardial blood supply. (orig.)

  12. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular and renal events in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from first year of follow-up of the Gunma-CKD SPECT multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events. We examined whether stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides reliable prognostic markers for these patients. In this multicenter, prospective cohort trial from the Gunma-CKD SPECT study protocol, patients with CKD [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 min/ml per 1.73 m2] undergoing stress 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT for suspected or possible ischemic heart disease were initially followed for 1 year, with the following study endpoints: primary, the occurrence of cardiac deaths (CDs), and secondary, major adverse cardiac, cerebrovascular, and renal events (MACCREs). The summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) were estimated with the standard 17-segment, 5-point scoring model. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction were measured using electrocardiogram-gated SPECT. During the first year of follow-up, 69 of 299 patients experienced MACCREs (CD, n = 7; non-fatal myocardial infarction, n = 3; hospitalization for heart failure, n = 13; cerebrovascular accident, n = 1; need for revascularization, n = 38; and renal failure, i.e., hemodialysis initiation, n = 7). ESV and SSS were associated with CDs (p < 0.05), and eGFR and SDS were associated with MACCREs (p < 0.05), in multivariate logistic analysis. Patients with high ESV and high SSS had a significantly higher CD rate during the first year than the other CKD patient subgroups (p < 0.05). Patients with low eGFR and high SDS had a significantly higher MACCRE rate than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). Myocardial perfusion SPECT can provide reliable prognostic markers for patients with CKD. (orig.)

  13. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular and renal events in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from first year of follow-up of the Gunma-CKD SPECT multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Toyama, Takuji [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma Prefectural Cardiovascular Center, Maebashi (Japan); Sato, Makito [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Tatebayashi Kosei Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Sano, Hirokazu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Isesaki Municipal Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Isesaki (Japan); Ueda, Tetsuya [Fujioka General Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Fujioka (Japan); Sasaki, Toyoshi [Takasaki General Medical Center, Division of Cardiology, Takasaki (Japan); Nakahara, Takehiro; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tsushima, Yoshito [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maebashi (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events. We examined whether stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides reliable prognostic markers for these patients. In this multicenter, prospective cohort trial from the Gunma-CKD SPECT study protocol, patients with CKD [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 min/ml per 1.73 m{sup 2}] undergoing stress {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT for suspected or possible ischemic heart disease were initially followed for 1 year, with the following study endpoints: primary, the occurrence of cardiac deaths (CDs), and secondary, major adverse cardiac, cerebrovascular, and renal events (MACCREs). The summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) were estimated with the standard 17-segment, 5-point scoring model. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction were measured using electrocardiogram-gated SPECT. During the first year of follow-up, 69 of 299 patients experienced MACCREs (CD, n = 7; non-fatal myocardial infarction, n = 3; hospitalization for heart failure, n = 13; cerebrovascular accident, n = 1; need for revascularization, n = 38; and renal failure, i.e., hemodialysis initiation, n = 7). ESV and SSS were associated with CDs (p < 0.05), and eGFR and SDS were associated with MACCREs (p < 0.05), in multivariate logistic analysis. Patients with high ESV and high SSS had a significantly higher CD rate during the first year than the other CKD patient subgroups (p < 0.05). Patients with low eGFR and high SDS had a significantly higher MACCRE rate than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). Myocardial perfusion SPECT can provide reliable prognostic markers for patients with CKD. (orig.)

  14. Computed tomography of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until the advent of Computed Tomography (CT), axial studies of the spine were limited in the main to gross bony anatomy and to conventional transaxial tomography (TAT). Others studied the upper cervical cord in transverse section during gas myelography and encephalography. The potential role of CT in the evaluation of spinal anatomy and disease was recognized, however, at an early stage in the development of the general purpose CT scanner. CT is not organ specific and therefore provides a uniformly thin (1.5-13 mm) axial section displaying detailed spinal topographical anatomy against a background of paravertebral muscles, vascular structures and body cavity organs. The relationships of the apophyseal joints to the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina are particularly well displayed. The study of neural tissue and pathology within the spinal canal is facilitated by the use of a non-ionic water-soluble contrast medium (viz. metrizamide) in the subarachnoid spaces. The high sensitivity of CT to very small changes in X-ray attenuation permits studies to be continued over several hours. The digital derivation of the sequential CT transaxial sections enables not only interrogation of data and quantitative studies to be made but also makes possible computer-generated reconstructions in other planes

  15. Coronary computed tomography and triple rule out CT in patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk profile. Part 1: Impact on patient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruettner, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.gruettner@umm.de [Emergency Department, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Fink@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Walter, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.walter@umm.de [Emergency Department, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Meyer, Mathias, E-mail: mr.meyer.mathias@gmail.com [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Apfaltrer@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive, Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); Saur, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.saur@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine (Cardiology), University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Sueselbeck, Tim, E-mail: tim.sueselbeck@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine (Cardiology), University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Traunwieser, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.traunwieser@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine (Cardiology), University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Takx, Richard, E-mail: richard.takx@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive, Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); and others

    2013-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of coronary CT angiography (coronary CTA) or “triple-rule-out” CT angiography (TRO-CTA) on patient management in the work-up of patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk profile. Materials and methods: 100 patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) underwent coronary CTA or TRO-CTA for the evaluation of chest pain. Patients with a high and low cardiac risk profile were not included in this study. All patients with significant coronary stenosis >50% on coronary CTA underwent invasive coronary catheterization (ICC). Important other pathological findings were recorded. All patients had a 90-day follow-up period for major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Results: Based on a negative coronary CTA 60 of 100 patients were discharged on the same day. None of the discharged patients showed MACE during the 90-day follow-up. Coronary CTA revealed a coronary stenosis >50% in 19 of 100 patients. ICC confirmed significant coronary stenosis in 17/19 patients. Among the 17 true positive patients, 9 underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation, 7 were received intensified medical therapy, and 1 patient underwent coronary artery bypass surgery. A TRO-CTA protocol was performed in 36/100 patients due to elevated D-dimer levels. Pulmonary embolism was present in 5 patients, pleural effusion of unknown etiology in 3 patients, severe right ventricular dysfunction with pericardial effusion in 1 patient, and an incidental bronchial carcinoma was diagnosed in 1 patient. Conclusion: Coronary CTA and TRO-CTA allow a rapid and safe discharge in the majority of patients presenting with acute chest pain and an intermediate risk for ACS while at the same time identifies those with significant coronary artery stenosis.

  16. Adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The present proposal describes the development of an adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS), or "Snapshot" spectrometer which can...

  17. Establishing normal reference values in quantitative computed tomography of emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Benjamin M.; Barr, R Graham

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can provide reliable and valid measures of lung structure and volumes. Similar to lung function and volumes measured by spirometry, lung measures obtained by QCT vary by demographic and anthropomorphic factors including sex, race/ethnicity and height in asymptomatic non-smokers. Hence, some accounting for these factors is necessary to define abnormal from normal QCT values and disease severity. Similar to spirometry and cardiac volumes, prediction equati...

  18. Noninvasive coronary angioscopy using electron beam computed tomography and multidetector computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, PMA; Nieman, K; de Feyter, PJ; Oudkerk, M

    2002-01-01

    With the advent of noninvasive coronary imaging techniques like multidetector computed tomography and electron beam computed tomography, new representation methods such as intracoronary visualization. have been introduced. We explore the possibilities of these novel visualization techniques and comp

  19. Percutaneous transthoracic computed tomography-guided AICD insertion in a patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Darra T

    2011-02-01

    Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

  20. Fused aortic valve without an elliptical-shaped systolic orifice in patients with severe aortic stenosis: cardiac computed tomography is useful for differentiation between bicuspid aortic valve with raphe and tricuspid aortic valve with commissural fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to determine cardiac computed tomography (CCT) features capable of differentiating between bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) in severe aortic stenosis (AS) patients with fused cusp and without elliptical-shaped systolic orifices. We retrospectively enrolled 53 patients who had severe AS with fused cusps and without an elliptical-shaped systolic orifice on CCT and who had undergone surgery. CCT features were analyzed using: (1) aortic valve findings including cusp size, cusp area, opening shape, midline calcification, fusion length, calcium volume score, and calcium grade; (2) diameters of ascending and descending aorta, and main pulmonary artery; and (3) rheumatic mitral valve findings. The variables were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. At surgery, 19 patients had BAV and 34 had TAV. CCT features including uneven cusp size, uneven cusp area, round-shaped systolic orifice, longer cusp fusion, and dilatation of ascending aorta were significantly associated with BAV (P < 0.05). In particular, fusion length (OR, 1.76; P = 0.001), uneven cusp area (OR, 10.46; P = 0.012), and midline calcification (OR, 0.08; P = 0.013) were strongly associated with BAV. CCT provides diagnostic clues that helps differentiate between BAV with raphe and TAV with commissural fusion in patients with severe AS. (orig.)

  1. Fused aortic valve without an elliptical-shaped systolic orifice in patients with severe aortic stenosis: cardiac computed tomography is useful for differentiation between bicuspid aortic valve with raphe and tricuspid aortic valve with commissural fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, So Hyeon; Ko, Sung Min [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Departments of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Meong Gun; Shin, Je Kyoun; Chee, Hyun Kun; Kim, Jun Suk [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Departments of Thoracic Surgery, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    The objective is to determine cardiac computed tomography (CCT) features capable of differentiating between bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) in severe aortic stenosis (AS) patients with fused cusp and without elliptical-shaped systolic orifices. We retrospectively enrolled 53 patients who had severe AS with fused cusps and without an elliptical-shaped systolic orifice on CCT and who had undergone surgery. CCT features were analyzed using: (1) aortic valve findings including cusp size, cusp area, opening shape, midline calcification, fusion length, calcium volume score, and calcium grade; (2) diameters of ascending and descending aorta, and main pulmonary artery; and (3) rheumatic mitral valve findings. The variables were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. At surgery, 19 patients had BAV and 34 had TAV. CCT features including uneven cusp size, uneven cusp area, round-shaped systolic orifice, longer cusp fusion, and dilatation of ascending aorta were significantly associated with BAV (P < 0.05). In particular, fusion length (OR, 1.76; P = 0.001), uneven cusp area (OR, 10.46; P = 0.012), and midline calcification (OR, 0.08; P = 0.013) were strongly associated with BAV. CCT provides diagnostic clues that helps differentiate between BAV with raphe and TAV with commissural fusion in patients with severe AS. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of myocardial perfusion SPECT with 64-slice multi-slice computed tomography angiography in cardiac screening of asymptomatic diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Il Han; Lee, Won Woo; Chang, Hyuck Jae; Choi, Sang II; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Asymptomatic diabetic patients may suffer silent ischemia. However, the question that what is the optimal screening tool for detection of cardiac disease in asymptomatic diabetic patients has not been addressed. We prospectively recruited diabetic patients who had not complained chest pain, and obtained myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) and cardiac CT angiography (CTA). We compared perfusion status on MPS with findings on CTA. A total of 110 diabetic patients (Age range 41-84, mean age 61.6{+-}7.74; gender, M: F 66:44) without cardiac symptom underwent both MPS and CTA. The MPS protocol was one-day single isotope study, adenosine stress Tc-99m MIBI/rest Tc-99m MIBI. CTA was conducted using 64-slice multi-slice CT (Brillance64, Philips Medical Systems). Perfusion status on MPS was assessed by summed-stress score (SSS) using 20-segment model, and SSS of {>=}4 was considered abnormal. Coronary stenosis of more than 50% luminal narrowing in CTA was considered significant, and coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) was graded as: < or =10, 11-100, 101-400, or >400. MPS found abnormal perfusion in 11.8% (13/110) and CTA significant coronary stenosis in 20.9% (23/110). Five patients showed both abnormal perfusion and significant coronary stenosis. CACS (n=103 patients) were measured as; < or =10 in 45.6%, 11-100 in 28.1%, 101-400 in 19.4%, and >400 in 6.8%. The patient proportion of abnormal MPS in each CACS group were; 10.6% with < or = 10, 17.2% with 11-100, 5% with 101-400, and 0% with >400. The patient proportion of significant coronary stenosis on CTA in each CACS group were; 2.13% with < or =10, 27.6% with 11-100, 35% with 101-400, and 57.1% with >400. In asymptomatic diabetic patients, coronary stenosis by CTA showed correlation with coronary artery calcium scoring, but myocardial perfusion status by MPS did not. Long-term evaluation is essential for determination of prognostic significance of MPS and cardiac CTA.

  3. A model for quantitative correction of coronary calcium scores on multidetector, dual source, and electron beam computed tomography for influences of linear motion, calcification density, and temporal resolution : A cardiac phantom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuter, M. J. W.; Groen, J. M.; Nicolai, L. J.; Dijkstra, H.; Oudkerk, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to quantify the influence of linear motion, calcification density, and temporal resolution on coronary calcium determination using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), dual source CT (DSCT), and electron beam tomography (EBT) and to find a quantitative me

  4. Computed tomography in sport injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) provides axial slices plane and shows excellent details of bones and different soft tissues, favoring its use in traumatic lesions caused by sporting activities. Complex anatomical structures such as the shoulder, the vertebral column, the pelvis, the knee, the tarsal and carpal bones are often better recognized in detail than by conventional radiography. Fracture lines, localization of bone fragments and involvement of soft tissues are clearly demonstrated. Luxations and bone changes leading to luxations can be shown. CT arthrography provides for the first time a direct visualization of joint cartilage and of cruciate ligaments in the knee joint, so traumatic lesions such as chondropathia patellae or rupture of the cruciate ligaments are shown with a high degree of reliability. (orig.)

  5. Diagnostic usefulness of computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Tsugawa, R.; Yamakawa, Y. (Kanazawa Medical Univ., Uchinada, Ishikawa (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been used as a diagnostic technique in various urological diseases. Here demonstrated is a case of ureteral incontinence with double renal pelvis whose upper one has ectopic ureteral orifice. Also a case of ureteral stricture in transplanted kidney and three cases of uric acid calculi are demonstrated. CT provides accurate information in each diagnostic procedure. The use of CT in the diagnosis of urinary stones is estimated. CT number of 75 stones with single component shows specific distribution in relation to the component; ex. calcium stones: 900 - 1000, cystine: 700 - 800, struvite: 600 - 700, uric acid: 400 - 500. Structure and component of the stone is easily demonstrated by CT, especially about nonopaque calculi, whose image is positively displayed only by CT.

  6. Computed tomography in hepatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five patients with hepatic injury from blunt upper abdominal trauma were examined by computed tomography (CT). The spectrum of CT findings was recorded, and the size of the hepatic laceration and the associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs nonoperative). While the need for surgery correlated roughly with the size of the hepatic laceration, the size of the associated hemoperitoneum was an important modifying factor. Fifteen patients with hepatic lacerations but little or no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. CT seems to have significant advantages over hepatic scintigraphy, angiography, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage. By combining inforamtion on the clinical state of the patient and CT findings, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased

  7. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY PERITONEAL CANCER INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiutiuca RC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal surface malignancy results from seeding of gastrointestinal cancer or abdomino-pelvic sarcoma, or it can occur as a primary disease, such as peritoneal mesothelioma. In the past, this clinical situation was treated only with palliative intent. Actual treatment options for surgical management uses cytoreductive surgery which combines peritonectomy and visceral resection in an effort to remove all visible cancer within the abdomen and pelvis. Then the peritoneal cavity is flooded with chemotherapy solution. To select patients for this agressive approach quantitative prognostic indicators for carcinomatosis must be evaluated. The peritoneal cancer index (PCI is a synthesis of the distribution of tumor and a lesion size score. In such conditions abdominal medium contrast computed-tomography it is very helpful in identification of neoplasic implants.

  8. Diagnostic usefulness of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) has been used as a diagnostic technique in various urological diseases. Here demonstrated is a case of ureteral incontinence with double renal pelvis whose upper one has ectopic ureteral orifice. Also a case of ureteral stricture in transplanted kidney and three cases of uric acid calculi are demonstrated. CT provides the accurate information in each diagnostic procedure. The use of CT in the diagnosis of urinary stones is estimated. CT number of 75 stones with single component shows specific distribution in relation to the component; ex. calcium stones: 900 - 1000, cystine: 700 - 800, struvite: 600 - 700, uric acid: 400 - 500. Structure and component of the stone is easily demonstrated by CT, especially about nonopaque calculi, whose image is positively displayed only by CT. (author)

  9. Influence of trigger type, tube voltage and heart rate on calcified plaque imaging in dual source cardiac computed tomography: phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the impact of high pitch cardiac CT vs. retrospective ECG gated CT on the quantification of calcified vessel stenoses, with assessment of the influence of tube voltage, reconstruction kernel and heart rate. A 4D cardiac movement phantom equipped with three different plaque phantoms (12.5%, 25% and 50% stenosis at different calcification levels), was scanned with a 128-row dual source CT scanner, applying different trigger types (gated vs. prospectively triggered high pitch), tube voltages (100-120 kV) and heart rates (50–90 beats per minute, bpm). Images were reconstructed using different standard (B26f, B46f, B70f) and iterative (I26f, I70f) convolution kernels. Absolute and relative plaque sizes were measured and statistically compared. Radiation dose associated with the different methods (gated vs. high pitch, 100 kV vs. 120 kV) were compared. Compared to the known diameters of the phantom plaques and vessels both CT-examination techniques overestimated the degrees of stenoses. Using the high pitch CT-protocol plaques appeared larger (0.09 ± 0.31 mm, 2 ± 8 percent points, PP) in comparison to the ECG-gated CT-scans. Reducing tube voltage had a similar effect, resulting in higher grading of the same stenoses by 3 ± 8 PP. In turn, sharper convolution kernels lead to a lower grading of stenoses (differences of up to 5%). Pairwise comparison of B26f and I26f, B46f and B70f, and B70f and I70f showed differences of 0–1 ± 6–8 PP of the plaque depiction. Motion artifacts were present only at 90 bpm high pitch experiments. High-pitch protocols were associated with significantly lower radiation doses compared with the ECG-gated protocols (258.0 mGy vs. 2829.8 mGy CTDIvol, p ≤ 0.0001). Prospectively triggered high-pitch cardiac CT led to an overestimation of plaque diameter and degree of stenoses in a coronary phantom. This overestimation is only slight and probably negligible in a clinical situation. Even at higher heart rates high pitch CT

  10. Coronary computed tomography and triple rule out CT in patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk for acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the economic impact of integrating coronary CT angiography (cCTA) or whole chest “triple-rule-out” CTA (TRO-CTA) in the work-up of patients with acute chest pain. Materials and methods: 100 consecutive emergency department patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk for ACS underwent cCTA or TRO-CTA (cCTA group). Diagnostic performance, rate and length of hospitalization, hospital costs, hospital reimbursement and hospital profit were analyzed. All findings were compared to those of 100 different patients with acute chest pain that were evaluated with a standard of care (SOC) diagnostic algorithm (SOC group) that did not include cCTA. Diagnostic performance (“safety”) of both algorithms was defined as the absence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) over a 90-day follow-up period. Results: In the cCTA group 60/100 patients were safely discharged at the same day. 19/100 patients were hospitalized due to significant coronary stenosis on cCTA, which was confirmed by invasive coronary catheterization (ICC) in 17/19 patients. Relevant non-coronary disease that led to hospitalization were found in 21 patients of the cCTA group. In the SOC group all patients were hospitalized. 87 of these hospitalized patients underwent ICC for exclusion of coronary artery stenosis. A significant coronary artery stenosis was found in only 25 of these patients. Within the cCTA group no patient suffered from MACE over the 90-day follow-up period. In the SOC group 2 patients were rehospitalized during the 90-day follow-up period due to recurrent chest pain and 1 patient because of a pseudoaneurym of the left femoral artery after ICC. The median hospital costs per patient were significantly lower in the cCTA group than in the SOC group (428.9€ vs. 1575.0€, p < 0.001). The median reimbursement of the cCTA group was less compared to the SOC group (589.8€ vs. 2412.1€, p < 0.001) and patients in the cCTA group gained less profit than

  11. Coronary computed tomography and triple rule out CT in patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk for acute coronary syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzler, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.henzler@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Gruettner, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.gruettner@umm.de [Emergency Department, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Meyer, Mathias, E-mail: mr.meyer.mathias@gmail.com [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Rothhaar, Baerbel, E-mail: baerbel.rothhaar@umm.de [Business Development – Medical Controlling, University Medical Center, Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Apfaltrer@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Metzger, Franz, E-mail: franz.metzger@umm.de [Business Development – Medical Controlling, University Medical Center, Mannheim (Germany); Borggrefe, Martin, E-mail: martin.borggrefe@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine (Cardiology), University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoenberg, Stefan O., E-mail: stefan.schoenberg@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); and others

    2013-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate the economic impact of integrating coronary CT angiography (cCTA) or whole chest “triple-rule-out” CTA (TRO-CTA) in the work-up of patients with acute chest pain. Materials and methods: 100 consecutive emergency department patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk for ACS underwent cCTA or TRO-CTA (cCTA group). Diagnostic performance, rate and length of hospitalization, hospital costs, hospital reimbursement and hospital profit were analyzed. All findings were compared to those of 100 different patients with acute chest pain that were evaluated with a standard of care (SOC) diagnostic algorithm (SOC group) that did not include cCTA. Diagnostic performance (“safety”) of both algorithms was defined as the absence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) over a 90-day follow-up period. Results: In the cCTA group 60/100 patients were safely discharged at the same day. 19/100 patients were hospitalized due to significant coronary stenosis on cCTA, which was confirmed by invasive coronary catheterization (ICC) in 17/19 patients. Relevant non-coronary disease that led to hospitalization were found in 21 patients of the cCTA group. In the SOC group all patients were hospitalized. 87 of these hospitalized patients underwent ICC for exclusion of coronary artery stenosis. A significant coronary artery stenosis was found in only 25 of these patients. Within the cCTA group no patient suffered from MACE over the 90-day follow-up period. In the SOC group 2 patients were rehospitalized during the 90-day follow-up period due to recurrent chest pain and 1 patient because of a pseudoaneurym of the left femoral artery after ICC. The median hospital costs per patient were significantly lower in the cCTA group than in the SOC group (428.9€ vs. 1575.0€, p < 0.001). The median reimbursement of the cCTA group was less compared to the SOC group (589.8€ vs. 2412.1€, p < 0.001) and patients in the cCTA group gained less profit than

  12. Infarct size in primary angioplasty without on-site cardiac surgical backup versus transferal to a tertiary center: a single photon emission computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed in large community hospitals without cardiac surgery back-up facilities (off-site) reduces door-to-balloon time compared with emergency transferal to tertiary interventional centers (on-site). The present study was performed to explore whether off-site PCI for acute myocardial infarction results in reduced infarct size. One hundred twenty-eight patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to undergo primary PCI at the off-site center (n = 68) or to transferal to an on-site center (n = 60). Three days after PCI, 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT was performed to estimate infarct size. Off-site PCI significantly reduced door-to-balloon time compared with on-site PCI (94 ± 54 versus 125 ± 59 min, respectively, p 12%. Off-site PCI reduces door-to-balloon time compared with transferal to a remote on-site interventional center but does not reduce infarct size. Instead, pre-PCI TIMI 0/1 flow, anterior wall infarct localization, and development of Q-waves are more important predictors of infarct size. (orig.)

  13. Computed tomography and three-dimensional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented here is a brief introduction to two-, three-, and four-dimensional computed tomography. More detailed descriptions of the mathematics of reconstruction and of CT scanner operation are presented elsewhere. The complementary tomographic imaging methods of single-photon-emission tomography (SPECT) positron-emission tomography (PET), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, ulltrasound sector scanning, and ulltrasound computer-assisted tomography [UCAT] are only named here. Each imaging modality ''probes'' the body with a different energy form, yielding unique and useful information about tomographic sections through the body

  14. Infarct size in primary angioplasty without on-site cardiac surgical backup versus transferal to a tertiary center: a single photon emission computed tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaapen, Paul; Rossum, Albert C. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, Maarten de; Peels, Hans O.; Cornel, Jan H.; Umans, Victor A.W.M. [Medical Center Alkmaar, Department of Cardiology, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Zant, Friso M. van der [Medical Center Alkmaar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Twisk, Jos W.R. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed in large community hospitals without cardiac surgery back-up facilities (off-site) reduces door-to-balloon time compared with emergency transferal to tertiary interventional centers (on-site). The present study was performed to explore whether off-site PCI for acute myocardial infarction results in reduced infarct size. One hundred twenty-eight patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to undergo primary PCI at the off-site center (n = 68) or to transferal to an on-site center (n = 60). Three days after PCI, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT was performed to estimate infarct size. Off-site PCI significantly reduced door-to-balloon time compared with on-site PCI (94 {+-} 54 versus 125 {+-} 59 min, respectively, p < 0.01), although symptoms-to-treatment time was only insignificantly reduced (257 {+-} 211 versus 286 {+-} 146 min, respectively, p = 0.39). Infarct size was comparable between treatment centers (16 {+-} 15 versus 14 {+-} 12%, respectively p = 0.35). Multivariate analysis revealed that TIMI 0/1 flow grade at initial coronary angiography (OR 3.125, 95% CI 1.17-8.33, p = 0.023), anterior wall localization of the myocardial infarction (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.38-8.55, p < 0.01), and development of pathological Q-waves (OR 5.07, 95% CI 2.10-12.25, p < 0.01) were independent predictors of an infarct size > 12%. Off-site PCI reduces door-to-balloon time compared with transferal to a remote on-site interventional center but does not reduce infarct size. Instead, pre-PCI TIMI 0/1 flow, anterior wall infarct localization, and development of Q-waves are more important predictors of infarct size. (orig.)

  15. Fracture of the orbit: computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main mechanisms of orbital fractures and their clinical symptoms are exposed. The computed tomographic appearance is described and the implication of computed tomography for therapeutic indications is evaluated as a function of clinical symptoms: visual impairment, anomaly of pupillary reaction to light, ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos and associated injuries such as intracranial hematomas. The role of computed tomography for the follow-up of these patients is considered

  16. Dynamic X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper Dynamic computed tomography (CT) imaging aims at reconstructing image sequences where the dynamic nature of the living human body is of primary interest. Main concerned applications are image-guided interventional procedures, functional studies and cardiac imaging. The introduction of ultra-fast rotating gantries along with multi-row detectors and in near future area detectors allows a huge progress toward the imaging of moving organs with low-contrast resolution. This paper gives an overview of the different concepts used in dynamic CT. A new reconstruction algorithm based on a voxel-specific dynamic evolution compensation is also presented. It provides four-dimensional image sequences with accurate spatio-temporal information, where each frame is reconstructed using a long-scan acquisition mode on several half-turns. In the same time, this technique permits to reduce the dose delivered per rotation while keeping the same signal to noise ratio for every frame using an adaptive motion-compensated temporal averaging. Results are illustrated on simulated data. (authors)

  17. Computed tomography of obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the computed tomography (CT) is very useful in the evaluation of obstructive jaundice. We have studied 55 cases of obstructive jaundice with whole body scanner from Jun.1980 to Jun. 1981. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution was 36 males and 19 females, and 40 cases of obstructive jaundice were seen in fifth, sixth, and seventh decades. 2. Causes of obstructive jaundice were 25 cases of pancreas cancer, 8 cases of common duct cancer, 4 cases of gallbladder cancer, 4 cases of ampulla vater cancer, 12 cases of common duct stone, and 2 cases of common duct stricture. 3. Levels of obstruction were 8 cases of hepatic portion, 15 cases of suprapancreatic portion, 28 cases of pancreatic portion, and 4 cases of ampullary portion. 4. In tumorous condition, CT demonstrated metastasis of other organs, 9 cases of the liver, 1 case of the lung, 3 cases of the pancreas, 3 cases of the common bile duct, 1 case of the stomach, and 12 cases of adjacent lymph nodes. 5. Associated diseases were 12 cases of intrahepatic stone, 4 cases of clonorchiasis, 2 cases of pancreas pseudocyst, 1 cases of hydronephrosis, and 1 case of renal cyst

  18. Computed tomography of obstructive jaundice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jung Hek; Lee, Joong Suk; Chun, Beung He; Suh, Soo Jhi [Kosin Medical College, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-09-15

    It is well known that the computed tomography (CT) is very useful in the evaluation of obstructive jaundice. We have studied 55 cases of obstructive jaundice with whole body scanner from Jun.1980 to Jun. 1981. The results were as follows: 1. The sex distribution was 36 males and 19 females, and 40 cases of obstructive jaundice were seen in fifth, sixth, and seventh decades. 2. Causes of obstructive jaundice were 25 cases of pancreas cancer, 8 cases of common duct cancer, 4 cases of gallbladder cancer, 4 cases of ampulla vater cancer, 12 cases of common duct stone, and 2 cases of common duct stricture. 3. Levels of obstruction were 8 cases of hepatic portion, 15 cases of suprapancreatic portion, 28 cases of pancreatic portion, and 4 cases of ampullary portion. 4. In tumorous condition, CT demonstrated metastasis of other organs, 9 cases of the liver, 1 case of the lung, 3 cases of the pancreas, 3 cases of the common bile duct, 1 case of the stomach, and 12 cases of adjacent lymph nodes. 5. Associated diseases were 12 cases of intrahepatic stone, 4 cases of clonorchiasis, 2 cases of pancreas pseudocyst, 1 cases of hydronephrosis, and 1 case of renal cyst.

  19. Clinical cardiac positron emission tomography: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) has evolved rapidly from a relatively esoteric research tool into clinical applications providing unique, quantitative information on myocardial perfusion, metabolism, and cell membrane function and having a potentially significant impact on cardiovascular medicine. Although there are many different positron radionuclides for imaging diverse myocardial behavior, three radionuclides have reached accepted clinical utility. Cardiac PET using nitrogen-13-ammonia, rubidium-82, and fluoro-18-deoxyglucose has proved accurate and definitive in multiple university and private-practice sites for diagnosing and assessing severity and location of coronary artery disease in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients, for identifying injured but viable myocardium potentially salvageable by revascularization, and for ruling out clinically significant coronary artery stenosis with a high specificity in patients who might otherwise undergo coronary arteriography to document the absence of significant disease. 89 references

  20. Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and MRA) Computed Tomography (CT) Scan Diagnostic Tests and Procedures Echocardiography Electrocardiogram ... Ultrasound Nuclear Stress Test Nuclear Ventriculography Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Stress ... Optical Coherence Tomography | ...

  1. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip join can be measured by means of computed tomography. (Auth.)

  2. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, J.D.; Jonkers, A.; Klasen, H.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Hillen, B. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Lab. voor Anatomie en Embryologie)

    1982-06-26

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip joint can be measured by means of computed tomography.

  3. Computed Tomography For Internal Inspection Of Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Timothy L.

    1995-01-01

    Computed tomography used to detect internal flaws in metal castings before machining and otherwise processing them into finished parts. Saves time and money otherwise wasted on machining and other processing of castings eventually rejected because of internal defects. Knowledge of internal defects gained by use of computed tomography also provides guidance for changes in foundry techniques, procedures, and equipment to minimize defects and reduce costs.

  4. Quantitative computed tomography evaluation of pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Buelund, Lene Elisabeth; Strathe, Anders Bjerring;

    2009-01-01

    Objective assessment of pulmonary disease from computed tomography (CT) examinations is desirable but difficult. When such assessments can be made, it is important that they are related to some part of the pathophysiologic process present.......Objective assessment of pulmonary disease from computed tomography (CT) examinations is desirable but difficult. When such assessments can be made, it is important that they are related to some part of the pathophysiologic process present....

  5. Computer tomography of posterior cranial fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, J.; Dutka, J. (Ustredni Vojenska Nemocnice, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1982-11-01

    The problems and possibilities are presented of computer tomography examinations of the posterior cranial fossa. The apparatus used was Somatom 2 by Siemens. Such examinations make it possible to introduce specific measurements and evaluations of pathological processes. Computer tomography in itself, however, may not always be successful in this respect and in the examination of the posterior cranial fossa invasive methods, suitably used, will make the diagnosis more accurate and adequate therapy possible.

  6. Computer tomography of posterior cranial fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems and possibilities are presented of computer tomography examinations of the posterior cranial fossa. The apparatus used was Somatom 2 by Siemens. Such examinations make it possible to introduce specific measurements and evaluations of pathological processes. Computer tomography in itself, however, may not always be successful in this respect and in the examination of the posterior cranial fossa invasive methods, suitably used, will make the diagnosis more accurate and adequate therapy possible. (J.O.)

  7. Examination of weld defects by computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jovanović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Defects in metal arc gas (MAG welds made in S235JR low carbon steel of 6 mm thickness were examined. A sample containing lack of fusion (LOF and pores was examined by computed tomography – CT. The computed tomography examination was performed in order to define LOF size and position as well as dimensions and distribution of accompanying pores in the weld metal.

  8. Measurements of pericardial adipose tissue using contrast enhanced cardiac multidetector computed tomography—comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elming, Marie Bayer; Lønborg, Jacob; Rasmussen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) located in close vicinity to the epicardial coronary arteries may play a role in the development of coronary artery disease. PAT has primarily been measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) or with non......-contrast cardiac multidetector computered tomography (MDCT) images. The aim of this study was to validate contrast MDCT derived measures of total PAT volume by a comparison to CMRI. In 52 patients, aged 60 years (34-81 years), Body Mass Index 28 kg/m(2) (18-39), and with stable ischemic heart disease, paired MDCT...

  9. Coexistence of atrial myxoma and lung cancer on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography: The impact of distinct fluorodeoxyglucose uptake pattern on differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information regarding fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in benign and malignant cardiac tumors is limited in the literature and most of the currrently available data were derived from single case reports. Herein we reported coexistence of atrial myxoma and lung cancer on FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography with the aim of emphasizing the importance of distinct FDG uptake pattern on differential diagnosis

  10. Coronary computed tomography angiography for risk stratification before noncardiac surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathala, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Currently, there are limited available data for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in the setting of the risk stratification before noncardiac surgery. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the role of CCTA in cardiac risk stratification before noncardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three patients underwent CCTA in the assessment of cardiac risk before noncardiac surgery. Patients with normal or mildly abnormal CCTA (<50% stenosis) underwent surgery without any further testing (Group 1). Patients with abnormal CCTA (17 patients) (more than 50% stenosis) and nondiagnostic CCTA (5%) underwent either stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy or conventional coronary angiography, Group 2. Results: Group one consists of 71 patients who went for surgery without any further testing. 59 of 71 (83%) patients had no complications in the postoperative period, 9 patients had noncardiac complications, 1 had a cardiac complication (new onset atrial fibrillation), and 2 patients died in the postoperative period due to noncardiac complications. Group 2 comprises 22 (26%) patients, 16 patients had no postoperative complications, 5 patients had noncardiac complications, and one patient developed postoperative acute heart failure. Conclusions: CCTA is diagnostic in up to 95% in the preoperative setting, and it provides a comprehensive cardiac examination in the risk stratification before intermediate and high-risk noncardiac surgery. Therefore, CCTA may be considered as an alternative test for already established imaging techniques for preoperative cardiac risk stratification before noncardiac surgery. PMID:26750671

  11. Computed tomography of intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is a new non-invasive diagnostic imaging method, which has ability to differentiate C.S.F., hematoma, and even edematous brain from normal brain tissue. Prior to the introduction of the CT, the diagnosis of the intraventricular hemorrhage in living patients was difficult and was confirmed by surgery of autopsy. Intracranial hemorrhages are visible on the CT with density higher than brain tissue in acute phase. CT is an accurate method for detecting of intraventricular hemorrhage including detection of nature, location, amount, and associated changes. CT is also useful as a guidance and in the evaluation of fate of the hematomas by easily performable follow up studies. The causes of the intraventricular hemorrhages are hypertension, rupture of aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, head trauma, brain tumor, and others. This study included evaluation of CT of 69 patients who show the high density in cerebral ventricular system during the period of 31 months from Feb. 1979 to Aug. 1981 in the Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University. The results were as follows. 1. Age distribution of the total 69 patient was broad ranging from 1 month to 80 years. 28% of patients were in the 6th decade. The mate to female ratio was 2 : 1. 2. The consciousness of patients at CT study: Those were conscious in 11 cases, stuporous in 41 cases and unconscious in 17 cases. 3. The causes of intraventricular hemorrhages were hypertension in 28 cases, head trauma in 12 cases, aneurysm in 4 cases, tumor in 2 cases and others in 23 cases. 4. 9 cases showed intraventricular hematomas only, other 60 cases showed associated intracranial hematomas: Those were intracerebral hematomas in 53 cases including 30 cases of basal ganglial and thalamic hematomas, subarachnoid hemorrhage in 17 cases, epidural hematomas in 3 cases, and subdural hematomas in 2 cases. 5. All cases of the intraventricular hematomas except one sowed hematoma in the lateral

  12. Dose in x-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Willi A

    2014-02-01

    Radiation dose in x-ray computed tomography (CT) has become a topic of high interest due to the increasing numbers of CT examinations performed worldwide. This review aims to present an overview of current concepts for both scanner output metrics and for patient dosimetry and will comment on their strengths and weaknesses. Controversial issues such as the appropriateness of the CT dose index (CTDI) are discussed in detail. A review of approaches to patient dose assessment presently in practice, of the dose levels encountered and options for further dose optimization are also given and discussed. Patient dose assessment remains a topic for further improvement and for international consensus. All approaches presently in use are based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Estimates for effective dose are established, but they are crude and not patient-specific; organ dose estimates are rarely available. Patient- and organ-specific dose estimates can be provided with adequate accuracy and independent of CTDI phantom measurements by fast MC simulations. Such information, in particular on 3D dose distributions, is important and helpful in optimization efforts. Dose optimization has been performed very successfully in recent years and even resulted in applications with effective dose values of below 1 mSv. In general, a trend towards lower dose values based on technical innovations has to be acknowledged. Effective dose values are down to clearly below 10 mSv on average, and there are a number of applications such as cardiac and pediatric CT which are performed routinely below 1 mSv on modern equipment. PMID:24434792

  13. Computer tomography following blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer tomographic appearances of lesions of parenchymatous organs following blunt abdominal trauma are described in 13 patients (five liver, four renal, two splenic and two pancreatic injuries). The value of abdominal computer tomography is discussed in relation to the interval between injury and time of abdominal examination and compared with the diagnostic value of abdominal angiography. (orig.)

  14. Computer axial tomography in geosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer Axial Tomography (CAT) is one of the most adequate non-invasive techniques for the investigation of the internal structure of a large category of objects. Initially designed for medical investigations, this technique, based on the attenuation of X- or gamma-ray (and in some cases neutrons), generates digital images which map the numerical values of the linear attenuation coefficient of a section or of the entire volume of the investigated sample. Shortly after its application in medicine, CAT has been successfully used in archaeology, life sciences, and geosciences as well as for the industrial materials non-destructive testing. Depending on the energy of the utilized radiation as well as on the effective atomic number of the sample, CAT can provide with a spatial resolution of 0.01 - 0.5 mm, quantitative as well as qualitative information concerning local density, porosity or chemical composition of the sample. At present two types of axial Computer Tomographs (CT) are in use. One category, consisting of medical as well as industrial CT is equipped with X-ray tubes while the other uses isotopic gamma-ray sources. CT provided with intense X-ray sources (equivalent to 12-15 kCi or 450-550 TBq) has the advantage of an extremely short running time (a few seconds and even less) but presents some disadvantages known as beam hardening and absorption edge effects. These effects, intrinsically related to the polychromatic nature of the X-rays generated by classical tubes, need special mathematical or physical corrections. A polychromatic X-ray beam can be made almost monochromatic by means of crystal diffraction or by using adequate multicomponent filters, but these devices are costly and considerably diminish the output of X-ray generators. In the case of CT of the second type, monochromatic gamma-rays generated by radioisotopic sources, such as 169 Yb (50.4 keV), 241 Am (59 keV), 192 Ir (310.5 and 469.1 keV ) or 137 Cs (662.7 keV), are used in combination with

  15. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a ... a gantry, which rotates around the patient. The computer that processes the imaging information and monitor are ...

  16. Indication for dental computed tomography. Case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on case reports, common indications for dental computed tomography are demonstrated and typical findings are analysed. From a group of 110 patients who had a reformatted computed tomography of the maxilla and mandibula, 10 typical cases were chosen as examples and are presented with a detailed description of the findings. The most important indication was the analysis of the morphology of the alveolar ridge needed in presurgical planning for osseointegrated implants as well as in special cases of postsurgical control. Apart from implantology, the method could be used in cases of mandibular cysts and bony destructions. In conclusion, dental computed tomography has become established mainly in implantology. It can provide valuable results in cases where a demonstration of the bone in all dimensions and free of overlappings and distortions is needed. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of laryngeal carcinoma by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limitation of direct or indirect laryngoscopy and laryngogram in determining the exact site and anatomic location of laryngeal carcinoma were well documented by many authors. As compared with laryngoscopy and laryngogram, computed tomographic study for laryngeal cancer is more exact and accurate method demonstrating anatomic sites of involvement, invasion into deep soft tissue spaces of endolarynx, destruction of laryngeal cartilages and cervical metastasis. Fourteen laryngeal cancer patients proven by laryngoscopic biopsy were further examined by computed tomography for staging. The authors compared laryngoscopic findings with those of computed tomography, and their clinical, surgical and computed tomographic findings were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. All patients were proved as squamous cell carcinoma. They were 12 males and 2 females aged over 50 yr. 2. Common clinical symptoms were hoarsense, dysphagia and swallowing difficulty. The primary anatomic sites determined by CT were 8 transglottic, 2 glottic, 2 supraglottic and 1 pyriform sinus respectively. They were 2 T1, 7 T2,1 T3, 3 T4 by TNM systems, respectively. (One case was difficult to evaluate exactly). 3. Invasion into deep soft tissue spaces of endolarynx, cartilage destruction, and neck metastasis were relatively predominant in transglottic carcinomas. 4. Compute tomography was superior in evaluating tumor invasion, especially into deep sift tissue spaces of endolarynx, laryngeal cartilages and metastasis to soft tissue and lymph nodes of neck. However computed tomography had some limitation in determining primary site of laryngeal cancer.

  18. Epiploic appendicitis - ultrasonography and computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epiploic appendicitis is an uncommon inflammatory condition, which is presently better diagnosed by current imaging methods such as computed tomography and ultrasonography that allow a non-invasive and efficient diagnostic approach. The author studied 6 patients with epiploic appendicitis. The patients were submitted to computed tomography that showed paracolic oval lesions of 1 to 2 cm of diameter, fat attenuation and a thin peripheral hyperdense rim associated with adjacent fat stranding. Ultrasound examination performed in two patients showed hyperechoic ovoid noncompressible masses at the site of maximum abdominal tenderness. (author)

  19. Usefulness of computed tomography in recurrent nephrolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For five cases of recurrent stone formers we performed Computed Tomography, which revealed non-visualized small stones on KUB and uric acid stones. Case 1 was primary hyperparathyroidism. Case 2 had several episodes of spontaneous stone passage without any stone shadow on routine X-ray examination. Case 3 had single ureteral stone on X-ray film. Case 4 had several episodes of spontaneous passage of mixed stones (uric acid and calcium oxalate). Case 5 had bilateral radiolucent large renal stones. We emphasized the superiority of Computed Tomography in search and prophylactic therapy of the stone formation. (author)

  20. Computed tomography in spinal canal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, J.; Dutka, J. (Ustredni Vojenska Nemocnice, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1983-09-01

    On a sample of 128 patients examined for suspected disorders of the spinal canal by computed tomography, the experience with the diagnostic possibilities of this quick, accurate and noninvasive imaging technique is demonstrated. The methodology of the examination and the range of obtained information in diagnosing congenital anomalies, traumas and degenerative changes are briefly described. Certain problems and limitations of this method for the diagnosis of tumors are presented. For the assessment of vascular changes and inflammatory processes, computed tomography cannot be expected to be used on a wider scale.

  1. Computed tomography in spinal canal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a sample of 128 patients examined for suspected disorders of the spinal canal by computed tomography, the experience with the diagnostic possibilities of this quick, accurate and noninvasive imaging technique is demonstrated. The methodology of the examination and the range of obtained information in diagnosing congenital anomalies, traumas and degenerative changes are briefly described. Certain problems and limitations of this method for the diagnosis of tumors are presented. For the assessment of vascular changes and inflammatory processes, computed tomography cannot be expected to be used on a wider scale

  2. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography has provided excellent opportunities for advancement of computed tomography (CT) technology and clinical applications. It has a wide range of applications in the abdomen including vascular pathologies either occlusive or aneurysmal; enables the radiologist to produce vascular mapping that clearly show tumor invasion of vasculature and the relationship of vessels to mass lesions. MDCTA can be used in preoperative planning for hepatic resection, preoperative evaluation and planning for liver transplantation. MDCTA can also provide extremely valuable information in the evaluation of ischemic bowel disease, active Crohn disease, the extent and location of collateral vessels in cirrhosis

  3. Computed tomography in malignant primary bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of computed tomography is examined in malignant primary bone tumours using a strongly defined examination group of 13 Patients (six Ewing's-sarcomas, five osteosarcomas, one chondrosarcoma and one spindle-shaped cell sarcoma). Computed tomography is judged superior compared to plain radiographs in recognition of bone marrow infiltration and presentation of parosteal tumour parts as well as in analysis of tissue components of tumours, CT is especially suitable for therapy planning and evaluating response to therapy. CT does not provide sufficient diagnostic information to determine dignity and exact diagnosis of bone tumours. (orig.)

  4. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a gantry, which rotates around the patient. The computer that processes the imaging information and monitor are located in ... ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this series of pictures, or slices of the ...

  5. Assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve integrity with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffel, David M. E-mail: raffel@umich.edu; Wieland, Donald M

    2001-07-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of cardiac function. Abnormalities of cardiac innervation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many heart diseases, including sudden cardiac death and congestive heart failure. In an effort to provide clinicians with the ability to regionally map cardiac innervation, several radiotracers for imaging cardiac sympathetic neurons have been developed. This paper reviews the development of neuronal imaging agents and discusses their emerging role in the noninvasive assessment of cardiac sympathetic innervation.

  6. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are then displayed on a monitor. Special software can also generate three-dimensional (3-D) images ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed ...

  8. Quadricuspid pulmonary valve: computed tomography case series and review of relevant literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerem Khan, Shamruz Khan; Anavekar, Nandan S; Araoz, Philip A

    2012-11-01

    Quadricuspid pulmonary valve (QPV) is a rare congenital cardiac entity. The recognition of QPV has clinical significance as it can cause pulmonary valve dysfunction. It is also important to recognize this condition in patients undergoing the Ross procedure. We report a case of QPV diagnosed by computed tomography with associated pulmonary stenosis and right ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:23090364

  9. Coronary computed tomography angiography: emerging technique for coronary artery imaging - pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of potential coronary artery disease is the single most common indication for cardiovascular imaging. Currently, definite anatomic diagnosis requires invasive cardiac catheterization. Recent developments in computed tomography (CT) technology have resulted in substantially improved noninvasive coronary artery imaging. We review an imaging protocol for coronary CT angiography (CTA), study interpretation, and current and future potential applications of this technology. (author)

  10. Coordinate Metrology by Traceable Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a measuring technique which has become an important technology in the production environment over the last years. Due to a number of advantages of CT compared to, e.g., coordinate measuring machines (CMMs), CT has been recently spread in the field of manufacturin...

  11. Computed Tomography For Inspection Of Thermistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.

    1991-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) enables identification of cracked thermistors without disassembly of equipment containing them. CT unit used to scan equipment and locate thermistors. Further scans made in various radial orientations perpendicular to plane of devices to find cracks. Cracks invisible in conventional x-radiographs seen.

  12. Analysis of airways in computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is major cause of death and disability world-wide. It affects lung function through destruction of lung tissue known as emphysema and inflammation of airways, leading to thickened airway walls and narrowed airway lumen. Computed Tomography (CT) imaging...

  13. Comparison on Computed Tomography using industrial items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In a comparison involving 27 laboratories from 8 countries, measurements on two common industrial items, a polymer part and a metal part, were carried out using X-ray Computed Tomography. All items were measured using coordinate measuring machines before and after circulation, with reference...

  14. Computed Tomography in the Modern Slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb

    technology. Recently, the use of X-ray computed tomography (CT) coupled with methods from image analysis has been introduced as a powerful means to optimise production, by providing detailed information on the raw materials. This thesis covers two aspects of the application of CT in the modern abattoir. In...

  15. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    An interlaboratory comparison on industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) was organized by the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and carried out within the project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning...

  16. Investigation of measuring strategies in computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; Hiller, Jochen; Cantatore, Angela;

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography has entered the industrial world in 1980’s as a technique for non-destructive testing and has nowadays become a revolutionary tool for dimensional metrology, suitable for actual/nominal comparison and verification of geometrical and dimensional tolerances. This paper evaluates...

  17. Neutron computed tomography of rat lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzke, R W; Wall, W A [Institute for Computational Mechanics at Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany); Runck, H; Stahl, C A; Schneider, M; Guttmann, J [Department of Anesthesiology, Section for Experimental Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Schillinger, B; Calzada, E; Muehlbauer, M; Schulz, M [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM-II) and Fakultaet fuer Physik E21 at Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Priebe, H-J, E-mail: metzke@lnm.mw.tum.d [Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-01-07

    Using conventional methods, three-dimensional imaging of the lung is challenging because of the low contrast between air and tissue and the large differences in dimensions between various pulmonary structures. The small distal airway structures and the high air-to-tissue ratio of lung tissue require an imaging technique which reliably discriminates between air and water. The objective of this study was to assess whether neutron computed tomography would satisfy such a requirement. This method utilizes the unique characteristic of neutrons of directly interacting with the atomic nucleus rather than being scattered by the atomic shell. Neutron computed tomography was tested in rats and allowed differentiation of larger lung structures (e.g., lobes) and distal airways. Airways could be identified reliably down to the sixth bronchial generation, in some cases even down to the tenth generation. The lung could be stabilized for sufficiently long exposure times to achieve an image resolution of 50-60 {mu}m, which is the current physical resolution limit of the neutron computed tomography facility. Neutron computed tomography allowed excellent lung imaging without the need for additional tissue preparation or contrast media. The enhanced structural resolution obtained by applying this new research technique may improve understanding of lung physiology and respiratory therapy. (note)

  18. Sparse Image Reconstruction in Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer

    In recent years, increased focus on the potentially harmful effects of x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans, such as radiation-induced cancer, has motivated research on new low-dose imaging techniques. Sparse image reconstruction methods, as studied for instance in the field of compressed sensing...

  19. Computed tomography of intussusception in adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intussusception is rare in adult and usually caused by organic lesions, although there is a significant number of so-called idiopathic cases. The diagnosis of intussusception have been made by plain abdomen, barium enema and small bowel series. But recently ultrasound and computed tomography make a contribution to diagnose intussusception. Computed tomography is not the primary means for evaluating a gastrointestinal tract abnormality but also provides valuable information in evaluating disorders affecting the hollow viscera of the alimentary tract. Computed tomography image of intussusception demonstrates a whirl like pattern of bowel loops separated by fatty stripe correlating of the intestinal walls. Abdominal ultrasonogram was used as the initial diagnostic test in 2 cases out of total 4 cases, with abdominal mass of unknown cause. It revealed a typical pattern, composed of a round or oval mass with central dense echoes and peripheral poor echoes. We report 4 all cases of intussusception in adult who were performed by computed tomography and/or ultrasound. All cases were correlated with barium enema examination and/or surgical reports.

  20. Computed tomography of intussusception in adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hae Jeong; Ahn, Byeong Yeob; Cha, Soon Joo; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-12-15

    Intussusception is rare in adult and usually caused by organic lesions, although there is a significant number of so-called idiopathic cases. The diagnosis of intussusception have been made by plain abdomen, barium enema and small bowel series. But recently ultrasound and computed tomography make a contribution to diagnose intussusception. Computed tomography is not the primary means for evaluating a gastrointestinal tract abnormality but also provides valuable information in evaluating disorders affecting the hollow viscera of the alimentary tract. Computed tomography image of intussusception demonstrates a whirl like pattern of bowel loops separated by fatty stripe correlating of the intestinal walls. Abdominal ultrasonogram was used as the initial diagnostic test in 2 cases out of total 4 cases, with abdominal mass of unknown cause. It revealed a typical pattern, composed of a round or oval mass with central dense echoes and peripheral poor echoes. We report 4 all cases of intussusception in adult who were performed by computed tomography and/or ultrasound. All cases were correlated with barium enema examination and/or surgical reports.

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Abdominal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Norling, Rikke; Lauridsen, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion is an evolving method to visualize perfusion in organs and tissue. With the introduction of multidetector CT scanners, it is now possible to cover up to 16 cm in one rotation, and thereby making it possible to scan entire organs such as the liver with a fixed...

  2. Computed tomography scanning during a traumatic resuscitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.F.M. Beenen; R. Adams; R.W. Koster; T. Otto

    2011-01-01

    In cardiopulmonary resuscitation, computed tomography (CT) imaging could be of decisive importance to therapeutic strategy making but is yet unavailable because of incompatibility of CT scanning and manual chest compressions. In this report, we describe a case in which CT scanning was performed on a

  3. Neutron computed tomography of rat lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using conventional methods, three-dimensional imaging of the lung is challenging because of the low contrast between air and tissue and the large differences in dimensions between various pulmonary structures. The small distal airway structures and the high air-to-tissue ratio of lung tissue require an imaging technique which reliably discriminates between air and water. The objective of this study was to assess whether neutron computed tomography would satisfy such a requirement. This method utilizes the unique characteristic of neutrons of directly interacting with the atomic nucleus rather than being scattered by the atomic shell. Neutron computed tomography was tested in rats and allowed differentiation of larger lung structures (e.g., lobes) and distal airways. Airways could be identified reliably down to the sixth bronchial generation, in some cases even down to the tenth generation. The lung could be stabilized for sufficiently long exposure times to achieve an image resolution of 50-60 μm, which is the current physical resolution limit of the neutron computed tomography facility. Neutron computed tomography allowed excellent lung imaging without the need for additional tissue preparation or contrast media. The enhanced structural resolution obtained by applying this new research technique may improve understanding of lung physiology and respiratory therapy. (note)

  4. Computed tomography in severe protein energy malnutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Househam, K C; Villiers, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomography of the brain was performed on eight children aged 1 to 4 years with severe protein energy malnutrition. Clinical features typical of kwashiorkor were present in all the children studied. Severe cerebral atrophy or brain shrinkage according to standard radiological criteria was present in every case. The findings of this study suggest considerable cerebral insult associated with severe protein energy malnutrition.

  5. Parallel Computing for the Computed-Tomography Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2008-01-01

    This software computes the tomographic reconstruction of spatial-spectral data from raw detector images of the Computed-Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS), which enables transient-level, multi-spectral imaging by capturing spatial and spectral information in a single snapshot.

  6. Lung Nodule Detection in Screening Computed Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, I; Cerello, P; Cheran, S C; De Nunzio, G; Fantacci, M E; Kasae, P; Masala, G L; Pérez-Martínez, A; Retico, A

    2007-01-01

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the identification of pulmonary nodules in low-dose multi-detector helical Computed Tomography (CT) images with 1.25 mm slice thickness is presented. The basic modules of our lung-CAD system, a dot-enhancement filter for nodule candidate selection and a neural classifier for false-positive finding reduction, are described. The results obtained on the collected database of lung CT scans are discussed.

  7. Computed tomography of tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, tuberculous meningitis has become rather rare except in areas where tuberculosis is still endemic. Six adolescents and young adults with tuberculous meningitis were evaluated by means of serial computerized tomography (CT), and the results were correlated with the findings of surgical specimens or autopsies. All cases showed meningeal irritation and fever at onset. CSF cultures revealed the presence of tuberculous bacilli. Four cases advanced rapidly to the clinical stage III and expired in a short period-between two weeks to one month from onset. On initial CT scanning, the disappearance of the basal cistern was a characteristic finding in all these cases. With the progression, an enhancement of the basal cistern on contrast injection, a localized hypodensity in adjacent parenchyma, and symmetrical ventricular dilatation appeared. Two autopsied cases showed tuberculous granulomas with purulent materials, thickened meninges, and caseous necrosis in the parenchyma around the basal cistern. The other two cases progressed rather slowly. CT findings at Stage II showed multiple enhanced spots in the basal subcortical area following contrast injection. Tuberculous granulomas were identified in these parts by means of explorative craniotomy. The authors point out the pathognomonic CT findings of tuberculous meningitis and emphasize the necessity of serial CT for the early detection and management of tuberculous meningitis. (author)

  8. Truncus arteriosus:Diagnosis with dual-source computed tomography angiography and low radiation dose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa; Koplay; Derya; Cimen; Mesut; Sivri; Osman; Güvenc; Derya; Arslan; Alaaddin; Nayman; Bulent; Oran

    2014-01-01

    Truncus arteriosus is an uncommon congenital cardiac abnormality which is characterized by a single arterial trunk origin from the heart that supplies both the systemic,pulmonary and coronary circulation.We present a preterm newborn female patient with type 2 truncusarteriosus,left superior vena cava and aberrant subclavian artery diagnosed with low dose dual-source cardiac computed tomography(CT).We discuss that low dose dual-source cardiac CT has more advantages than other imaging methods and it is an important modality for assessment of patients with conotruncal anomalies such as truncusarteriosus.

  9. Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... child may have, and if there is a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ... the patient. The computer that processes the imaging information and monitor are ... in detector technology allow new CT scanners to obtain multiple slices ...

  10. Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, P.; Candardjis, G.

    1987-05-01

    Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplastic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10,5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis.

  11. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  12. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  13. Acute pancreatitis: diagnostic value of ultrasonography and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blery, M.; Hautefeuille, P.; Jacquenod, P. and others

    1987-09-01

    The value of ultrasonography and computed tomography for the diagnosis, extension, pronostic, complications and etiology of acute pancreatitis is discussed. Ultrasonography and computed tomography guided interventional radiology techniques are valuable in the management of pancreatitis complications such as abscesses.

  14. Acute pancreatitis: diagnostic value of ultrasonography and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of ultrasonography and computed tomography for the diagnosis, extension, pronostic, complications and etiology of acute pancreatitis is discussed. Ultrasonography and computed tomography guided interventional radiology techniques are valuable in the management of pancreatitis complications such as abscesses

  15. Real-time computed optical interferometric tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemonski, Nathan D.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Ahmad, Adeel; Adie, Steven G.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-03-01

    High-resolution tomography is of great importance to many areas of biomedical imaging, but with it comes several apparent tradeoffs such as a narrowing depth-of-field and increasing optical aberrations. Overcoming these challenges has attracted many hardware and computational solutions. Hardware solutions, though, can become bulky or expensive and computational approaches can require high computing power or large processing times. This study demonstrates memory efficient implementations of interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) and computational adaptive optics (CAO) - two computational approaches for overcoming the depthof- field limitation and the effect of optical aberrations in optical coherence tomography (OCT). Traditionally requiring lengthy post processing, here we report implementations of ISAM and CAO on a single GPU for real-time in vivo imaging. Real-time, camera-limited ISAM processing enabled reliable acquisition of stable data for in vivo imaging, and CAO processing on the same GPU is shown to quickly correct static aberrations. These algorithmic advances hold the promise for high-resolution volumetric imaging in time-sensitive situations as well as enabling aberrationfree cellular-level volumetric tomography.

  16. Computed tomography of tibial plateau fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty patients with tibial plateau fractures were studied by conventional tomography and computed tomography (CT) in order to determine the role and feasibility of CT in management of such patients. CT resulted in less discomfort to the patient and provided optimal visualization of the plateau defect and the split fragments. It proved more accurate than conventional tomography in assessing depressed and split fractures when they involved the anterior or posterior border of the plateau and in demonstrating the extent of fracture comminution. Split fragments with an oblique plane of fracture also were seen better by CT. The degree of fracture depression and separation as measured by the computerized technique was often more accurate than measurements obtained from conventional tomograms

  17. Computed tomography of the medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medulla was studied in cadavers and in 100 patients both with and without the intrathecal administration of contrast material. The computed tomographic (CT) anatomy was correlated with the appearance on anatomic dissections. The pyramids, olives, and inferior cerebellar peduncles produced characteristic contours on cross sections of the medulla. The hypoglossal nerve by its location and course in the medullary cistern could be distinguished from the glossopharyngeal, vagal, and spinal accessory nerves. For optimal evaluation of the medulla, intrathecal administration of metrizamide and 5- and/or 1.5-mm-thick axial and coronal sections are recommended

  18. Introducing Seismic Tomography with Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, R.; Neves, M. L.; Teodoro, V.

    2011-12-01

    Learning seismic tomography principles and techniques involves advanced physical and computational knowledge. In depth learning of such computational skills is a difficult cognitive process that requires a strong background in physics, mathematics and computer programming. The corresponding learning environments and pedagogic methodologies should then involve sets of computational modelling activities with computer software systems which allow students the possibility to improve their mathematical or programming knowledge and simultaneously focus on the learning of seismic wave propagation and inverse theory. To reduce the level of cognitive opacity associated with mathematical or programming knowledge, several computer modelling systems have already been developed (Neves & Teodoro, 2010). Among such systems, Modellus is particularly well suited to achieve this goal because it is a domain general environment for explorative and expressive modelling with the following main advantages: 1) an easy and intuitive creation of mathematical models using just standard mathematical notation; 2) the simultaneous exploration of images, tables, graphs and object animations; 3) the attribution of mathematical properties expressed in the models to animated objects; and finally 4) the computation and display of mathematical quantities obtained from the analysis of images and graphs. Here we describe virtual simulations and educational exercises which enable students an easy grasp of the fundamental of seismic tomography. The simulations make the lecture more interactive and allow students the possibility to overcome their lack of advanced mathematical or programming knowledge and focus on the learning of seismological concepts and processes taking advantage of basic scientific computation methods and tools.

  19. 21 CFR 892.1200 - Emission computed tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emission computed tomography system. 892.1200... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1200 Emission computed tomography system. (a) Identification. An emission computed tomography system is a device intended to detect...

  20. Practical management of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For examinations of the spinal canal is used computed myelography as an adjunct to water-soluble conventional myelography. For CT alone about 3.5 g. of metrizamide in isotonic solution is adequate for all investigations. If the constrast medium has to be run into the head by gravity, as in the detection of cerebrospinal fluid fistula or empty sella, or for detailed examination of the basal cisterns, phenobarbitone 100 mg. t.d.s. is commenced on the eve of the examination and continued for 48 hours. A similar dose is also administered to epileptic subject. If fits should occur they are treated with intravenous diazepam and prophylactic phenobarbitone is administered. (orig./AJ)

  1. Cone beam computed tomography in endodontic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durack, Conor; Patel, Shanon, E-mail: conordurack1@hotmail.com [Unit of Endodontology, Department of Conservative Dentistry, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a contemporary, radiological imaging system designed specifically for use on the maxillofacial skeleton. The system overcomes many of the limitations of conventional radiography by producing undistorted, three-dimensional images of the area under examination. These properties make this form of imaging particularly suitable for use in endodontic. The clinician can obtain an enhanced appreciation of the anatomy being assessed, leading to an improvement in the detection of endodontic disease and resulting in more effective treatment planning. In addition, CBCT operates with a significantly lower effective radiation dose when compared with conventional computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature relating to the limitations and potential applications of CBCT in endodontic practice. (author)

  2. Cone beam computed tomography in endodontic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a contemporary, radiological imaging system designed specifically for use on the maxillofacial skeleton. The system overcomes many of the limitations of conventional radiography by producing undistorted, three-dimensional images of the area under examination. These properties make this form of imaging particularly suitable for use in endodontic. The clinician can obtain an enhanced appreciation of the anatomy being assessed, leading to an improvement in the detection of endodontic disease and resulting in more effective treatment planning. In addition, CBCT operates with a significantly lower effective radiation dose when compared with conventional computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature relating to the limitations and potential applications of CBCT in endodontic practice. (author)

  3. Possibilities of computer tomography in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer tomography was performed in 41 patients with multiple sclerosis, the average age of patients being 40.8 years. Native examinations were made of 17 patients, examinations with contrast medium of 19, both methods were used in the examination of 5 patients. In 26 patients, i.e. in almost two-thirds, cerebral atrophy was found, in 11 of a severe type. In 9 patients atrophy affected only the hemispheres, in 16 also the stem and cerebellum. The stem and cerebellum only were affected in 1 patient. Hypodense foci were found in 21 patients, i.e. more than half of those examined. In 9 there were multiple foci. In most of the 19 examined patients the hypodense changes were in the hemispheres and only in 2 in the cerebellum and brain stem. No hyperdense changes were detected. The value and possibilities are discussed of examinations by computer tomography multiple sclerosis. (author)

  4. Biliary obstruction: Helical computed tomography cholangiography evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helical computed tomography cholangiography (HCTC) takes advantage of the improvement in the quality of multiplanar and three-dimensional reconstructions resulting from the volumetric acquisition of data achieved with helical computed tomography and the indirect opacification of the bile ducts provided by cholangiographic contrast media. This method was used to evaluate 31 patients with suspected biliary obstruction over a one-year period and the findings were compared with those of direct cholangiography and/or surgery. Biliary opacification was sufficient to allow three-dimensional reconstructions in 90,3% of cases. Sensitivity was 81% for the diagnosis of choledochoolithiasis and 100% for ascariasis, choledochal cysts and anatomic variants of the biliary tree. Our results indicate that HCTC is a valuable alternative as a diagnostic method prior to direct cholangiography. Direct cholangiography should be reserved for those patients who require it as part of a therapeutic procedure

  5. Spontaneous cerebral intraparenchymatous hematoma: computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to identify the most frequent aspects of spontaneous cerebral intraparenchymatous hematoma found at computed tomography examinations. We reviewed, retrospectively, the computed tomography studies of 250 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage carried out in three hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results showed deep intracerebral hematomas showed the highest incidence and were observed in 54.4% of the cases (136 patients) followed by lobar hemorrhage in 34.8% of the cases (87 patients). Cerebellar hemorrhage and brainstem bleeding were more rarely observed, occurring in 8.4% (21 patients) and 2.4% (six patients) of the cases, respectively. Chronic headache was the most frequent symptom whereas hypertension was observed in the majority of the cases. Blood draining into the ventricular system occurred more frequently in patients with deep hematomas. (author)

  6. Computed tomography after radical pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple's procedure (radical pancreaticoduodenectomy) is currently the only curative option for patients with periampullary malignancy. The surgery is highly complex and involves multiple anastomoses. Complications are common and can lead to significant postoperative morbidity. Early detection and treatment of complications is vital, and high-quality multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is currently the best method of investigation. This review outlines the surgical technique and illustrates the range of normal postoperative appearances together with the common complications

  7. Computed tomography of ano-rectal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 9 patients with faecal incontinence more than 8 years after rectoplasty for high imperforate anus. The radiologic findings were correlated with the clinical evaluation of faecal incontinence. No statistically significant correlation was found between function and anatomic findings as demonstrated by CT. Thus, although CT demonstrates the post-operative anatomy in a detailed way, the information does not seem to be directly applicable when selecting the type of reoperation for faecal incontinence. (orig.)

  8. Dose reduction in abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The broad availability and use of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in recent years has increased the radiation dose for patients. Multiphase MDCT protocols are used in abdominal imaging for various indications. Dose reduction though novel technologies, such as dual energy CT or adapted contrast injection protocols (split bolus etc.) for reduction of scans. An optimized dose reduction can be achieved by using strict protocols which are adapted to the clinical situation of the patient. (orig.)

  9. Computed tomography diagnostic of chronic rhino sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordinary conventional roentgenological examinations of paranasal sinuses does not satisfy the latest needs of otorinolaringologysta, especially for functional endoscopic surgery. Computed tomography of paranasal sinuses because more important for diagnostics of chronic rhino sinusitis and for choosing the appropriate therapy of it. The examination enables to localize pathology precisely, to exactly evaluate anatomic structures, ostiomeatalic complex, the status of mucous membrane of paranasal sinuses and the effectiveness of surgical treatment of chronic rhino sinusitis. (author)

  10. Encapsulating peritonitis: computed tomography and surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadow, Juliana Santos; Fingerhut, Carla Jeronimo Peres; Fernandes, Vinicius de Barros; Coradazzi, Klaus Rizk Stuhr; Silva, Lucas Marciel Soares; Penachim, Thiago Jose, E-mail: vinicius.barros.fernandes@gmail.com [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Hospital e Maternidade Celso Pierro

    2014-07-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare and frequently severe entity characterized by total or partial involvement of small bowel loops by a membrane of fibrous tissue. The disease presents with nonspecific clinical features of intestinal obstruction, requiring precise imaging diagnosis to guide the treatment. The present report emphasizes the importance of computed tomography in the diagnosis of this condition and its confirmation by surgical correlation. (author)

  11. Computed Tomography Findings in Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis

    OpenAIRE

    Arumugam Rajesh; George Jakanani; Nick Mayer; Kevin Mulcahy

    2011-01-01

    Background: Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGN) is an uncommon condition characterized by chronic suppurative renal inflammation that leads to progressive parenchymal destruction. Purpose: To review the computed tomography (CT) findings of patients diagnosed with XGN. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of CT findings in patients with histologically proven XGN was carried out. Results: Thirteen CT examinations of 11 patients were analyzed. Renal enlargement was demonstrable on ...

  12. Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary (n=20) and (n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST (5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography is useful in detection and characterization of primary and recurrent tumors with regard to tumor growth pattern, tumor size, and varied appearances of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and indirectly

  13. Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Altehoefer, Carsten; Winterer, Jan; Schaefer, Oliver; Springer, Oliver; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106, Freiburg (Germany); Furtwaengler, Alex [Department of Abdominal Surgery, University Hospital Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106, Freiburg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary (n=20) and (n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST (<5 cm) showed a sharp tumor margin with homogeneous density and structure on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, and were characterized by an intraluminal tumor growth. Intermediate sized GIST (>5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography

  14. Analysis of computed tomography of ovarian tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omura, Makoto; Taniike, Keiko; Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu

    1987-07-01

    One hundred and twenty six patients with ovarian mass were studied with computed tomography (CT) and classified into five groups according to its margin and inner structure. The incidence of malignancy of cystic ovarian mass with smooth margin was low and that of solid ovarian mass with irreglar margin was high. Three cases (6.7 %) of malignant ovarian tumor demonstrated completely cystic pattern. Ovarian teratomas contained well defined component of fat density.

  15. Dynamic computed tomography of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic computed tomography (CT) studies of the brain are based on a rapid intravenous bolus injection of radiographic contrast material immediately followed by serial CT scans. The recycling times for this technique are 1 sec or less. Dynamic studies, which are relatively non-invasive, add considerable information to the static cerebral scan as it is presently performed. The resulting time-density patterns are described and typical examples of each are shown. (orig.)

  16. Improvement in computed tomography spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important recent developments in transmission computed tomography is the improvement in spatial resolution. Applications of this technical advance to the neuroradiographic exploration of such structures as spinal cord, nerve roots and pituitary gland - as well as the orbits and inner and middle ear - is still limited to a few centers. Increased spatial resolution appears to be an effective means to increase our diagnostic capabilities. The higher dosimetry connected with this modality needs to be emphasized. (orig.)

  17. Computed tomography in opportunistic lung infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chest radiography in two teenage boys, one with Wiscott-Aldrich's syndrome and one with acute lymphatic leucemia in remission showed increased interstitial pattern. In both computed tomography (CT) of the lungs showed heavy interstitial pneumonia, rather different in appearance but in both cases equal to the CT findings in opportunistic lung infections known from immunoincompetent patients with for instance pneumocystis carinii and/or cytomegalo virus infections. In both patients the CT findings led to lung biopsy establishing the etiologic agent. (orig.)

  18. HORSESHOE KIDNEY: A MULTIDETECTOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma V

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Horseshoe kidney is the most common renal fusion anomaly with a reported prevalence of 1 in 400 persons with a male to female ratio of 2:1. In many cases its presence may go unnoticed and undiagnosed because the patient may remain asymptomatic throughout life. The objective of our study is to report radiological and anatomical features of horseshoe kidney detected incidentally during retrospective evaluation of multidetector computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: Contrast enhanced multidetector computed tomography scans of 682 patients, 355 males and 327 females, were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Seven cases of horseshoe kidney were detected incidentally, six males and one female, with an incidence of 1.02 %. In all cases, malrotation of the kidneys were observed with the hilum facing anteriorly or anterolaterally. The isthmus was made up of parenchymal tissue in all the cases and the fusion was midline in four cases and lateral in three cases. Horseshoe kidney in all cases was supplied by multiple renal arteries, varying from 3 to 6. In three cases symmetrical arterial supply and in the rest asymmetrical supply was observed. Nephrolithiasis and hydronephrosis were noted in two patients. No other associated congenital anomaly was observed in all seven patients. Conclusion: Contrast enhanced multidetector computed tomography evaluation of patients with horseshoe kidney provide excellent information about its vascularity, collecting system and other associated conditions.

  19. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Larsen, Erik;

    The ‘CIA-CT comparison - Inter laboratory comparison on industrial Computed Tomography” is organized by DTU Department of Mechanical Engineering within the Danish project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning - CIA-CT”. The project is co-financed by the Danish Ministry of Science......, Technology and Innovation. The comparison aims to collect information about measurement performance in state-of the-art industrial CT (Computed Tomography) scanning. Since CT scanning has entered the field of manufacturing and coordinate metrology, evaluation of uncertainty of measurement with assessment of...

  20. Live dynamic imaging and analysis of developmental cardiac defects in mouse models with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Andrew L.; Wang, Shang; Garcia, Monica; Valladolid, Christian; Larin, Kirill V.; Larina, Irina V.

    2015-03-01

    Understanding mouse embryonic development is an invaluable resource for our interpretation of normal human embryology and congenital defects. Our research focuses on developing methods for live imaging and dynamic characterization of early embryonic development in mouse models of human diseases. Using multidisciplinary methods: optical coherence tomography (OCT), live mouse embryo manipulations and static embryo culture, molecular biology, advanced image processing and computational modeling we aim to understand developmental processes. We have developed an OCT based approach to image live early mouse embryos (E8.5 - E9.5) cultured on an imaging stage and visualize developmental events with a spatial resolution of a few micrometers (less than the size of an individual cell) and a frame rate of up to hundreds of frames per second and reconstruct cardiodynamics in 4D (3D+time). We are now using these methods to study how specific embryonic lethal mutations affect cardiac morphology and function during early development.

  1. Single photon emission computed tomography-guided Cerenkov luminescence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhua; Chen, Xueli; Liang, Jimin; Qu, Xiaochao; Chen, Duofang; Yang, Weidong; Wang, Jing; Cao, Feng; Tian, Jie

    2012-07-01

    Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) has become a valuable tool for preclinical imaging because of its ability of reconstructing the three-dimensional distribution and activity of the radiopharmaceuticals. However, it is still far from a mature technology and suffers from relatively low spatial resolution due to the ill-posed inverse problem for the tomographic reconstruction. In this paper, we presented a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-guided reconstruction method for CLT, in which a priori information of the permissible source region (PSR) from SPECT imaging results was incorporated to effectively reduce the ill-posedness of the inverse reconstruction problem. The performance of the method was first validated with the experimental reconstruction of an adult athymic nude mouse implanted with a Na131I radioactive source and an adult athymic nude mouse received an intravenous tail injection of Na131I. A tissue-mimic phantom based experiment was then conducted to illustrate the ability of the proposed method in resolving double sources. Compared with the traditional PSR strategy in which the PSR was determined by the surface flux distribution, the proposed method obtained much more accurate and encouraging localization and resolution results. Preliminary results showed that the proposed SPECT-guided reconstruction method was insensitive to the regularization methods and ignored the heterogeneity of tissues which can avoid the segmentation procedure of the organs.

  2. Computed tomography to quantify tooth abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofmehl, Lukas; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Filippi, Andreas; Hotz, Gerhard; Berndt-Dagassan, Dorothea; Kramis, Simon; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography, also termed digital volume tomography, has become a standard technique in dentistry, allowing for fast 3D jaw imaging including denture at moderate spatial resolution. More detailed X-ray images of restricted volumes for post-mortem studies in dental anthropology are obtained by means of micro computed tomography. The present study evaluates the impact of the pipe smoking wear on teeth morphology comparing the abraded tooth with its contra-lateral counterpart. A set of 60 teeth, loose or anchored in the jaw, from 12 dentitions have been analyzed. After the two contra-lateral teeth were scanned, one dataset has been mirrored before the two datasets were registered using affine and rigid registration algorithms. Rigid registration provides three translational and three rotational parameters to maximize the overlap of two rigid bodies. For the affine registration, three scaling factors are incorporated. Within the present investigation, affine and rigid registrations yield comparable values. The restriction to the six parameters of the rigid registration is not a limitation. The differences in size and shape between the tooth and its contra-lateral counterpart generally exhibit only a few percent in the non-abraded volume, validating that the contralateral tooth is a reasonable approximation to quantify, for example, the volume loss as the result of long-term clay pipe smoking. Therefore, this approach allows quantifying the impact of the pipe abrasion on the internal tooth morphology including root canal, dentin, and enamel volumes.

  3. Mathematics in computed tomography and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mathematical basis of computed tomography (CT) was formulated in 1917 by Radon. His theorem states that the 2-D function f(x,y) can be determined at all points from a complete set of its line integrals. Modern methods of image reconstruction include three approaches: algebraic reconstruction techniques with simultaneous iterative reconstruction or simultaneous algebraic reconstruction; convolution back projection; and the Fourier transform method. There is no one best approach. Because the experimental data do not strictly satisfy theoretical models, a number of effects have to be taken into account; in particular, the problems of beam geometry, finite beam dimensions and distribution, beam scattering, and the radiation source spectrum. Tomography with truncated data is of interest, employing mathematical approximations to compensate for the unmeasured projection data. Mathematical techniques in image processing and data analysis are also extensively used. 13 refs

  4. Fluorescence Computed Tomography with Polychromatic Source Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence computed tomography is a synchrotron imaging technique aiming at reconstructing the fluorescence emission within a sample object. For a polychromatic source hitting the object, the amount of fluorescence detected is defined by a linear equation. For the monochromatic case, the operator is a Generalized Attenuated Radon Transform (GART). The main goal is to reconstruct the density function, given the sinogram data and the weight function. An eficient iterative algorithm for the inversion of the GART was presented recently by the authors. This inversion can only be performed if the weight function is previously known, which means that μ = μ(·, ε) and λ are also known. For monochromatic XFCT (acronym for x-rays fluorescence computed tomography), the determination of λ is a dificult task, and we have considered the approximation λ ≈ μ, which is valid for low energies ranging from 3Kev to 10Kev. So, for solving our problem, the first step is to find μ given the polychromatic sinogram. There are different approaches for this in the literature. Recently, an elegant and efficient method for solving this problem was introduced, using a fixed point algorithm. Opposite to this, where μ(·, ε) needs to be computed for all ε element of E, we claim that the integral of μ(·, ε) for all ε has a physical meaning and provides a good aproximation for the solution. Also we present fast algorithm for computations.

  5. Positron computed tomography: current state, clinical results and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends

  6. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes assessment: comparison with cardiac computed tomography; Comparacao entre a afericao da fracao de ejecao e dos volumes do ventriculo esquerdo, medidos com ecocardiografia tridimensional em tempo real e com tomografia computadorizada ultra-rapida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Marcelo L.C.; Nomura, Cesar H.; Tranchesi Junior, Bernardino; Oliveira, Wercules A. de; Naccarato, Gustavo; Serpa, Bruna S.; Cury, Alexandre; Passos, Rodrigo B.D.; Nobrega, Marcel V. da; Funari, Marcelo B.G.; Pfefermam, Abhaham; Makdisse, Marcia; Fischer, Claudio H.; Morhy, Samira S., E-mail: luiz766@terra.com.br [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    Background and objective: Few studies addressed the comparison between real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) and cardiac computed tomography (CCT) concerning left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes assessment. We sought to compare both techniques regarding left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction function and volumes analysis. Methods: we studied by RT3DE (Philips IE 33, And, MA, USA) and by CCT (Toshiba, 64-slice, Otawara, Japan) 41 consecutive patients (29 males, 58 ± 11 yrs). We analysed by both techniques LVEF, LVEDV, LVESV. RT3DE and CCT data were compared by coefficients of determination (r: Pearson), Bland and Altman test and linear regression, 95% CI. Results: RT3DE data: LVEF ranged from 56.7 to 78.9 % (65.3 + 5.7 ); LVEDV ranged from 49.6 to 178.2 (88 + 27.5) mL; LVESV from 11.4 to 78 ( 33.9 + 13.7) mL. CCT data: LVEF ranged from 53 to 86 % (67.3 + 7.9 ); LVEDV ranged from 51 to 186 (106.4 + 30.7) mL; LVESV from 7 to 72 ( 35.1 + 13.8) mL. Correlations relative to RT3DE and CCT were: LVEF (r: 0. 7877, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.6327 to 0.8853 ); LVEDV (r:0.7671, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.5974 to 0.8745); LVESV (r: 0.8121, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.6659 to 0.8957). Conclusions: it was observed adequate correlation between real-time 3D echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography concerning ejection fraction and volumes assessment. (author)

  7. Diagnostic value for extrahepatic metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma in positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluated the value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and extrahepatic metastases.

  8. Computed tomography of infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) was performed on five infants with hepatic hemangioendothelioma. Precontrast scans showed solitary or multiple, homogeneous, circumscribed areas with reduced attenuation values. Tiny tumoral calcifications were identified in two patients. Serial scans, after injection of a bolus of contrast material, showed early massive enhancement, which was either diffuse or peripheral. On delayed scans, multinocular tumors became isodense with surrounding liver, while all solitary ones showed varied degrees of centripetal enhancement and persistent central cleftlike unenhanced areas. The authors believe that these CT features are characteristic and obviate arteriographic confirmation

  9. Multidetector Computed Tomography in Acute Joint Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapamaeki, V.V.; Kiuru, M.J.; Mustonen, A.O.; Koskinen, S.K. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Helsinki Medical Imaging Center

    2005-10-01

    Conventional radiography plays an essential diagnostic role in the primary evaluation of acute joint trauma. In complex fractures, however, computed tomography (CT) is an imaging modality often used second to radiography. As a result of technical breakthroughs in the field, multidetector CT (MDCT) allows faster imaging and better temporal, spatial, and contrast resolution compared with conventional single-slice spiral CT. MDCT with multiplanar reformation is helpful in disclosing fracture patterns, particularly in complex joint fractures, where they reveal occult fractures and show the exact number of fracture components and their degree of displacement.

  10. Quantitative computed tomography in assessment of osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is a common disorder with considerable health risk and medical care cost. Recent advances in technology have provided new opportunities for evaluating bone mass noninvasively that may impact substantially on the detection and course of osteoporotic conditions. The laboratory and clinical results presented herein indicate that quantitative computed tomography provides a reliable means to evaluate and monitor the many forms of osteoporosis and the various interventions aimed at ameliorating this condition. The greatest advantages of spinal QCT for noninvasive bone mineral measurement lie in the high precision of the technique, the high sensitivity of the vertebral spongiosa measurement site, and the potential for widespread application

  11. Multidetector Computed Tomography in Acute Joint Fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional radiography plays an essential diagnostic role in the primary evaluation of acute joint trauma. In complex fractures, however, computed tomography (CT) is an imaging modality often used second to radiography. As a result of technical breakthroughs in the field, multidetector CT (MDCT) allows faster imaging and better temporal, spatial, and contrast resolution compared with conventional single-slice spiral CT. MDCT with multiplanar reformation is helpful in disclosing fracture patterns, particularly in complex joint fractures, where they reveal occult fractures and show the exact number of fracture components and their degree of displacement

  12. Computed tomography after percutaneous renal stone extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty patients were examined with computed tomography (CT) of the kidney and the retroperitoneal space after percutaneous stone extraction. Most examinations were done within a week after the operation. The morphologic changes were usually small or none. In 7 patients minor renal or perirenal fluid collections were found. Their operations had been complicated by bleeding or leakage. In 66 patients CT was compared with conventional radiographs. Residual stones were more often detected by CT. They were usually small. Percutaneous renal stone extraction is considered a safe and efficient method. (orig.)

  13. Computed tomography studies of human brain movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhythmic brain movements have been revealed by sets of sequential computed tomography scans of human brains (seen retrospectively to be normal). These scans have shown that both (unenhanced) brain parenchymal density and the shapes of the elements of the supratentorial ventricular/cisternal system are subject to wave motions having similar periods - ranging from 26 s through 56 s, 77-96 s, 109 s and 224 s to 224 X 2 s (or even longer), with good correlation between peak values. These motions, as well as phase variations between the waves, suggest a peristaltic movement of cerebrospinal fluid through the ventricular/cisternal system with progressive axial damping

  14. Calculation of profitability in computer tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comments do not refer to a specific type of whole body computer tomography which made it necessary to base the calculations on mean values with regard to both initial costs and operating costs. The calculation of the receipts was based on the resulting costs, mean long-term utilization of the unit and on a reasonable period of amortization. The model calculation indicates that the break-even point is reached with 1,920 annual examinations and a five-year amortization period. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB

  15. Emerging clinical applications of computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguori C

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carlo Liguori,1 Giulia Frauenfelder,2 Carlo Massaroni,3 Paola Saccomandi,3 Francesco Giurazza,4 Francesca Pitocco,4 Riccardo Marano,5 Emiliano Schena,3 1Radiology Unit, AORN A Cardarelli, 2Radiology Unit, AOU Federico II, Naples, 3Measurement and Biomedical Instrumentation Unit, 4Radiology Unit, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, 5Department of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, Catholic University of Rome, A Gemelli University Hospital, Rome, Italy Abstract: X-ray computed tomography (CT has recently been experiencing remarkable growth as a result of technological advances and new clinical applications. This paper reviews the essential physics of X-ray CT and its major components. Also reviewed are recent promising applications of CT, ie, CT-guided procedures, CT-based thermometry, photon-counting technology, hybrid PET-CT, use of ultrafast-high pitch scanners, and potential use of dual-energy CT for material differentiations. These promising solutions and a better knowledge of their potentialities should allow CT to be used in a safe and effective manner in several clinical applications. Keywords: computed tomography, X-ray, thermometry, dual-energy, ultrafast scanner, guidance, photon-counting technology

  16. Microscopic x-ray luminescence computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Zhang, Kun; Li, Changqing

    2015-03-01

    X-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) was emerged as a new hybrid imaging modality, in which the x-rays are used to excite phosphors emitting optical photons to be measured for imaging. In this paper, we reported a microscopic x-ray luminescence computed tomography (microXLCT) with a spatial resolution up to hundreds of micrometers for deep targets. We use a superfine x-ray pencil beam to scan the phosphor targets. The superfine x-ray pencil beam is generated by a small collimator mounted in front of a powerful x-ray tube (93212, Oxford Instrument). A CT detector is used to image the x-ray beam. We have generated an x-ray beam with a diameter of 192 micrometers with a collimator of 100 micrometers in diameter. The emitted optical photons on the top surface of phantom are reflected by a mirror and acquired by an electron multiplier charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera (C9100-13, Hamamatsu Photonics). The microXLCT imaging system is built inside an x-ray shielding and light tight cabinet. The EMCCD camera is placed in a lead box. All the imaging components are controlled by a VC++ program. The optical photon propagation is modeled with the diffusion equation solved by the finite element method. We have applied different regularization methods including L2 and L1 in the microXLCT reconstruction algorithms. Numerical simulations and phantom experiments are used to validate the microXLCT imaging system.

  17. Computed tomography colonography (virtual colonoscopy): review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography examination of the colon performed after bowel cleansing and distension of the lumen with gas goes by several different names-CT colonography (CTC) and CT colography perhaps being the most common. Strictly, the term 'virtual colonoscopy' (VC), should be reserved for the process of examining 3-D, simulated endo-luminal images with a capability to navigate through the bowel using appropriate software. Computed tomography colonography appears to be the name that has gained favour among radiologists, although it is suspected that 'virtual colonoscopy' will persist as a generic term due to its attractive 'high-tech' connotations for non-radiological medical and lay persons. Whatever the name, the technique has been made possible through the advent of fast helical CT scanners which allow acquisition of a volume of data, and of proprietary software which enables multiplanar reformatting and 3-D endoluminal reconstructions. It is evident that if CTC/VC can be shown to be acceptable to patients, safe, affordable and accurate, it has enormous potential as a diagnostic and screening tool for colorectal neoplasia. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Computed tomography of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that computed tomography (CT) is useful in detecting accurately the location, extent, erosion and relationship of angiofibroma to surrounding structures such as pterygopalation fossa. It is well known that computed tomography (CT) is useful in detecting accurately the location, sphenoid sinus, and etc. CT of 20 patients with juvenile angiofibroma, which were examined for 5 yeas from February, 1979 to May, 1984 at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. All 20 patients of juvenile angiofibroma had tumors in nasopharynx and posterior nasal cavity showing homogeneously dense-enhancing soft tissue mass on CT. There was extension of the tumor from nasopharynx and posterior nasal cavity into paranasal sinus (60%, 12/20), pterygopalatine fossa (55%, 11/20), infratemporal fossa (30%, 6/20), posterior orbit (10%, 2/20) and cranial cavity (15%, 3/20). 2. Angiogrpahy usually adds little diagnostic information, but is still needed to identify the precise source of blood supply to the tumor, and to perform the pre-operative embolization. The use of CT has deferred angiography until just before surgery, permitting embolization at optimal time. 3. CT is almost always necessary to reveal accurately the full extent of the tumor, especially intracranial space in the axial and coronal planes with contrast enhancement. CT is useful both in diagnosis as a guide to angiography and in planning the adequate therapy of juvenile angiofibroma

  19. Computed tomography of post-traumatic orbito-palpebral emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, H.; Kohno, K. (Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1981-11-01

    Two cases of orbito-palpebral emphysema are described. Both having a history of recent facial trauma, emphysema occurred after blowing the nose. They were studied by computed tomography and plain x-ray film, including tomograms of the orbit. The emphysema was revealed by computed tomography and x-ray film, but more clearly by the former technique. The fracture lines of the orbit were revealed in only one case by x-ray film, but in both cases by computed tomography. The authors stress that computed tomography is the best technique for the study of orbital emphysema.

  20. Computed tomography of post-traumatic orbito-palpebral emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of orbito-palpebral emphysema are described. Both having a history of recent facial trauma, emphysema occurred after blowing the nose. They were studied by computed tomography and plain x-ray film, including tomograms of the orbit. The emphysema was revealed by computed tomography and x-ray film, but more clearly by the former technique. The fracture lines of the orbit were revealed in only one case by x-ray film, but in both cases by computed tomography. The authors stress that computed tomography is the best technique for the study of orbital emphysema. (author)

  1. Technological Evolution on Computed Tomography and Radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed Tomography (CT) has been available since the 70s and has experienced a dramatic technical evolution. Multi-detector technology is our current standard, offering capabilities unthinkable only a decade ago. Yet, we must nor forget the ionizing nature of CT's scanning energy (X-rays). It represents the most important cause of medical-associated radiation exposure to the general public, with a trend to increase. It is compulsory to intervene with the objective of dose reduction, following ALARA policies. Currently there are some technical advances that allow dose reduction, without sacrificing diagnostic image capabilities. However, human intervention is also essential. We must keep investment on education so that CT exams are don when they are really useful in clinical decision. Alternative techniques should also be considered. Image quality must not be searched disregarding the biological effects of radiation. Generally, it is possible to obtain clinically acceptable images with lower dose protocols. (author)

  2. Computed Tomography findings in Fournier's gangrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the utility of computed tomography (CT) as an imaging technique in the diagnosis and determination of the extension of Fournier's gangrene (FG). We report the cases of six patients who had been clinically diagnosed as having FG, CT, enhanced by oral and intravenous contrast media, was performed in all the patients. All six patients presented soft tissue masses and gas in the scrotal region, which were also detected in the perineal region in five. In two patients, the gas extended toward anterior abdominal wall and in one of them, it also observed in anterior and posterior para renal space. The major predisposing factors were diabetes and alcoholism and the most common triggering factor was urologic disease. CT confirms the existence of FG and aids in assessing its extension and, in some cases, in identifying the underlying cause. (Author) 15 refs

  3. Computed tomography of primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen patients with primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy (cholangiocarcinoma in 13, biliary cystadenocarcinoma in two) were examined by computed tomography (CT). The CT features were classified into three types: (A) a well-defined round cystic mass with internal papillary projections, (B) a localized intrahepatic biliary dilatation without a definite mass lesion, and (C) miscellaneous low-density masses. Intraphepatic biliary dilatation was noted in all cases of Types A and B and half of those of Type C; dilatation of extrahepatic bile ducts occurred in 4/4, 1/3, and 0/8, respectively. CT patterns, such as a well-defined round cystic mass with papillary projections or dilatation of intra- and extrahepatic ducts, give important clues leading to a correct diagnosis of primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy

  4. Radiation Protection in Paediatric Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of examinations with radiation exposure has been increasing mainly due to advances in computed tomography (CT) technology, with a rapid expansion of CT utilization. Annually, 3.6 billion diagnostic and medical and dental examinations involving radiation are performed worldwide. The contribution of CT to collective dose due to medical X rays is up to 47–59%. A 2009 report of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) estimates that 8–10% of CT examinations in the United States of America are performed on children; the growth in CT utilization is higher in the paediatric than adult population in the USA; and there is a particularly pronounced rise in adolescents undergoing chest CT in the emergency department setting for suspected pulmonary embolism or trauma. The reasons for the growing incidence of CT are new indications for CT with the advent of multidetector CT, overcautious ordering related to medico-legal problems and probably financial incentive systems

  5. Radiation Protection of Patients in Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiation for medical diagnostic examinations contributes over 95% of human-made radiation exposure and is only exceeded by natural background as a source of exposure to the world’s population. In fact, for several developed countries, the increased use of high dose X ray technology, in particular, computed tomography (CT), has resulted in a situation in which the annual collective and per capita doses of ionizing radiation due to diagnostic radiology have exceeded those from natural background radiation. In light of this marked increase in worldwide collective effective dose from medical diagnostic procedures, and with CT scans accounting for half of this, there is great emphasis on the subject of radiation protection of patients in CT

  6. Quality assessment of clinical computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Dorothea; Luckow, Marlen; Lambrecht, J. Thomas; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert

    2008-08-01

    Three-dimensional images are vital for the diagnosis in dentistry and cranio-maxillofacial surgery. Artifacts caused by highly absorbing components such as metallic implants, however, limit the value of the tomograms. The dominant artifacts observed are blowout and streaks. Investigating the artifacts generated by metallic implants in a pig jaw, the data acquisition for the patients in dentistry should be optimized in a quantitative manner. A freshly explanted pig jaw including related soft-tissues served as a model system. Images were recorded varying the accelerating voltage and the beam current. The comparison with multi-slice and micro computed tomography (CT) helps to validate the approach with the dental CT system (3D-Accuitomo, Morita, Japan). The data are rigidly registered to comparatively quantify their quality. The micro CT data provide a reasonable standard for quantitative data assessment of clinical CT.

  7. Polychromatic phase-contrast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychromatic phase-contrast radiography differs from traditional (absorption-only) radiography in that the method requires at least a partially coherent x-ray source and the resulting images contain information about the phase shifts of x-rays in addition to the traditional absorption information. In a typical embodiment, this effect results in a measurable enhancement in image contrast at the edges of objects. In this study, a phase-contrast imaging system was adapted to allow an object to be imaged at multiple projections, and these projections were used to generate phase-contrast computed tomography images. The images obtained with this technique show edge enhancements surrounding the objects within the image

  8. Data processing device for computed tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A data processing device applied to a computed tomography system which examines a living body utilizing radiation of X-rays is disclosed. The X-rays which have penetrated the living body are converted into electric signals in a detecting section. The electric signals are acquired and converted from an analog form into a digital form in a data acquisition section, and then supplied to a matrix data-generating section included in the data processing device. By this matrix data-generating section are generated matrix data which correspond to a plurality of projection data. These matrix data are supplied to a partial sum-producing section. The partial sums respectively corresponding to groups of the matrix data are calculated in this partial sum-producing section and then supplied to an accumulation section. In this accumulation section, the final value corresponding to the total sum of the matrix data is calculated, whereby the calculation for image reconstruction is performed

  9. Computed tomography findings in convergent strabismus fixus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) of the eyeball and orbit revealed the cause of eye movement disorder in convergent strabismus fixus. The findings suggest that the disease can be diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Twelve cases of progressive esotropia with high myopia and 20 cases with normal visual acuity served as subjects in this study. The CT slice was parallel to the German horizontal plane, and the lens and medial and lateral rectus muscles were scanned. The average axial length of the affected eyes was significantly longer than in normal eyes. In progressive esotropia, the characteristic CT findings are an elongated eyeball, mechanical contact between the eyeball and lateral wall of the orbit, and a downward displacement of the lateral rectus muscle. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that eye movement disorder in convergent strabismus fixus results from weakness of the lateral rectus muscle which has been displaced downward due to compression of the eyeball against the orbital wall. (author)

  10. PRIMA+: a proton computed tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton Computed Tomography (pCT) is a medical imaging method, based on the use of proton beams with kinetic energy of the order of 250 MeV, aimed to directly measure the stopping power distribution of tissues thus improving the present accuracy of treatment planning in hadron therapy. A pCT system should be capable to measure tissue electron density with an accuracy better than 1% and a spatial resolution better than 1 mm. The blurring effect due to multiple Coulomb scattering can be mitigated by single proton tracking technique. As a first step towards pCT the PRIMA+ Collaboration built a prototype capable to carry out a single radiography and a tomographic image of a rotating object. This apparatus includes a silicon microstrip tracker to identify the proton trajectory and a YAG:Ce calorimeter to measure the particle residual energy.

  11. Interpolation method in simple computed tomography scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiguna, Gede A.

    2015-03-01

    A method for sinogram data interpolation based on a sinusoidal pattern in computed tomography has been developed. Sampled sinograms were acquired based on angular interval scanning of 5o, 10o, and 20o. Then each resulted sinogram was interpolated following sinusoidal pattern to make a complete full scanning sinogram as if they were sampled at 1o. After that, a formal summation convolved filtered back projection was applied to each sinogram to yield a crosssectional image. This method was successfully interpolated limited number of projections data to obtained complete sinogram. It works for simple and homogenous object. However, for high variation of physical properties, e.g. linear attenuation coefficient values, this method needs more consideration on interpolation strategies to produce good image.

  12. Reporting of Dose in Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meaningful measurement and reporting of dose is an ongoing quest in computed tomography (CT). Expressions such as CTDIvol and dose length product are frequently used, but they describe machine output rather than dose to the patient. Further, they can be misleading when certain dose sparing technologies are employed. Size specific dose estimate has been proposed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine as a more meaningful measure, but it approximates the mean dose to the patient centre rather than the dose to any specific organ. For estimates of patient risk, doses to specific organs are needed, but these are difficult to obtain. Medical physicists continue to try to resolve these issues, so that more meaningful estimates of dose from CT can be acquired. In the meantime, authors of scientific articles should be dissuaded from using meaningless expressions such as ‘low dose’ and ‘ultra-low dose’ in their descriptions of CT procedures. (author)

  13. Advanced proton imaging in computed tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Mattiazzo, S; Giubilato, P; Pantano, D; Pozzobon, N; Snoeys, W; Wyss, J

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the use of hadrons for cancer radiation treatment has grown in importance, and many facilities are currently operational or under construction worldwide. To fully exploit the therapeutic advantages offered by hadron therapy, precise body imaging for accurate beam delivery is decisive. Proton computed tomography (pCT) scanners, currently in their R&D phase, provide the ultimate 3D imaging for hadrons treatment guidance. A key component of a pCT scanner is the detector used to track the protons, which has great impact on the scanner performances and ultimately limits its maximum speed. In this article, a novel proton-tracking detector was presented that would have higher scanning speed, better spatial resolution and lower material budget with respect to present state-of-the-art detectors, leading to enhanced performances. This advancement in performances is achieved by employing the very latest development in monolithic active pixel detectors (to build high granularity, low material budget, ...

  14. Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.; Levitt, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) should be the imaging method of choice following plain chest radiographs when a suspected thymic abnormality requires further evaluation. Based upon a six-year experience, including the evaluation of 25 patients with thymic pathology, CT was found useful in suggesting or excluding a diagnosis of thymoma and in distinguishing thymic hyperplasis from thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis. The thickness of the thymic lobes determined by CT was found to be a more accurate indicator of infiltrative disease (thymic hyperplasia and lymphoma) than the width. CT was helpful in differentiating benign thymic cysts from solid tumors, and in defining the extent of a thymic neoplasms. On occasion, CT may suggest the specific histologic nature of a thymic lesion.

  15. Computer tomography of intracranial tumours and hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of intracranial tumors and hematomas was investigated in a retrospective study comprising 220 patients. All C.T.scans are reviewed and described in detail. To assess the diagnostic accuracy, the original interpretation of the C.T.scans was compared with that of conventional neuroradiological and neurophysiological examinations. The aspect on C.T. of the various types of tumors and hematomas proved to vary widely and specific features were seldom seen. This holds particularly for the malignant tumors. Benign tumors such as meningeomas, adenomas and neurilemmomas showed a rather easily identifiable and almost identical picture of the C.T.scan, and diagnosis had to be based mainly on differences in localization. The hematomas, with the exception of the older intracerebral ones, showed the most characteristic C.T.abnormalities. (Auth.)

  16. Computed tomography findings of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) findings were assessed in 7 patients with malignant mesothelioma. CT findings were also reviewed in 9 patients with lung cancer and pleuritis carcinomatosa and in 11 patients with tuberculous pleuritis. Five patients with malignant mesothelioma underwent CT scans twice, on admission and from 1 to 7 months after admission. Tuberculous pleuritis could be distinguished from pleuritis carcinomatosa and malignant mesothelioma by the presence or absence of pleural nodularity and chest wall invasion. Although it was difficult to identify specific CT features clearly distinguishing malignant mesothelioma from pleuritis carcinomatosa, characteristic findings of malignant mesothelioma appeared to include the rapid development and progression of pleural rind and a tendency to spread directly into the chest wall. We divided the pleural into the four regions; upper anterior, upper posterior, lower anterior and lower posterior regions. Pleural changes were more frequently seen in the lower pleural regions than in the upper pleural regions in malignant mesothelioma. (author)

  17. Computed tomography findings in convergent strabismus fixus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Michitaka; Iwashige, Hiroyasu; Hayashi, Takao; Maruo, Toshio [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-08-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) of the eyeball and orbit revealed the cause of eye movement disorder in convergent strabismus fixus. The findings suggest that the disease can be diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Twelve cases of progressive esotropia with high myopia and 20 cases with normal visual acuity served as subjects in this study. The CT slice was parallel to the German horizontal plane, and the lens and medial and lateral rectus muscles were scanned. The average axial length of the affected eyes was significantly longer than in normal eyes. In progressive esotropia, the characteristic CT findings are an elongated eyeball, mechanical contact between the eyeball and lateral wall of the orbit, and a downward displacement of the lateral rectus muscle. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that eye movement disorder in convergent strabismus fixus results from weakness of the lateral rectus muscle which has been displaced downward due to compression of the eyeball against the orbital wall. (author).

  18. [Spontaneous intraparenchymatous hemorrhage: findings at computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Celso Monteiro; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; Rodrigues, Andréa de Jesus

    2004-09-01

    Computed tomography studies of 250 patients with spontaneous hemorrhage were examined in three hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The goal of this study was to identify the aspects of this disease that appear most frequently in this type of exam. Deep intracerebral hematomas have had the highest incidence followed by lobar hemorrhage, with thalamus being more frequently affected. Cerebellar hemorrhage was much rarer, with brainstem bleeding observed in few patients. The age group with a peak incidence was at 61 to 70 years. Headache was the most frequently related symptom and elevated levels of blood pressure were found in most of the cases. There was no pronounced difference as to predominance in either sex or side most affected but it was observed that the onset of this disease occurs at an earlier age in men than in women. Blood draining into the ventricular system occurred more frequently in deep hematomas. PMID:15334231

  19. Myocardial hypoperfusion on conventional contrast computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Shing; Chung, Tak Shun

    2015-10-01

    Non–electrocardiogram (ECG)–gated contrast computed tomography (CT) is commonly performed to exclude aortic dissection in chest pain patients. Besides evaluating the aorta for dissection flap, attention should be paid to the myocardium for areas of hypoenhancement that may suggest ischemia. Current models of multidetector CT enable assessment of myocardial perfusion with minimal motion artifact even without ECG gating. Transmural hypoenhancement with preserved wall thickness in a coronary distribution is highly specific for acute myocardial infarction. We report 2 cases of acute chest pain with initial nondiagnostic studies that underwent CT aortogram to exclude dissection. Instead, the CT showed myocardial hypoenhancement in left anterior descending artery territory. Myocardial hypoenhancement occurred before ST-segment elevation on ECG, suggesting that recognition of this important finding may lead to earlier revascularization decisions. PMID:26321167

  20. Perfusion computed tomography imaging of autoimmune pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfusion computed tomography (P-CT) is now available for the analysis of pancreatic blood flow. The aim of this study was to clarify pancreatic blood perfusion in AIP patients and the changes after steroid treatment. Color map imaging of P-CT and pancreatic time CT density curve (TDC) demonstrated that the pancreatic blood flow was attenuated in AIP patients. Pancreatic volumetric blood flow FV values of 11 AIP patients (82.7/min) were significantly lower than those of 12 normal controls (163.5/min, p=0.0006). AIP patients received steroid treatment and were re-examined, of these, 9 patients showed significantly elevated FV values after treatment (76.2/min and 109.8/min, p=0.0391, respectively). However, the changes of the values after the treatment differed in varying degrees among the individuals. P-CT is a useful method for the analysis of the blood flow in pancreatic diseases. (author)

  1. Computed tomography of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is written entirely to include the imaging of the pituitary gland by computed tomography (CT). The first three chapters illustrated technical aspects of scanning, anatomic depiction of the gland by CT, and the use of dynamic CT scanning for detecting and displaying abnormalities. The chapters discuss and illustrate various types of pathologic processes in and around the pituitary gland. One short but very helpful chapter demonstrates potential pitfalls due to the combination of anatomic variants and the geometry of CT sections. Some illustrations of disease processed are depicted by magnetic resonance imaging. All major types of pituitary diseases are illustrated. Lists of readily available English-language references are available. A small subject index is provided at the end of the book in which the illustrations are identified by use of a special numeric front

  2. Unilateral pulmonary veins atresia: evaluation by computed tomography; Atresia unilateral das veias pulmonares: avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eifer, Diego Andre; Arsego, Felipe Veras, E-mail: felipesoarestorres@gmail.com [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), RS (Brazil). Serv. de Radiologia; Torres, Felipe Soares [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Medicina

    2013-11-15

    Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia is a rare congenital condition. In addition to cardiac malformations or pulmonary hypertension, patients may present with recurrent pulmonary infections or hemoptysis in childhood or adolescence. The authors report a case where the typical findings of such condition were observed at computed tomography in an adult patient. (author)

  3. Diagnosis of lumbar disc hernia with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, Atsuro; Ohira, Nobuhiro; Ojima, Tadashi; Oshida, Midori; Horaguchi, Mitsuru (Tohoku Rosai Hospital, Sendai (Japan))

    1982-07-01

    Results of computed tomography performed on patients with clinically diagnosed hernia were compared with those of myelography and operative findings. This comparative study suggested that computed tomography is quite different from other methods and very useful in diagnosis of hernia. Some cases of hernia were shown, and the characteristics of CT were reviewed.

  4. 21 CFR 1020.33 - Computed tomography (CT) equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computed tomography (CT) equipment. 1020.33... Computed tomography (CT) equipment. (a) Applicability. (1) The provisions of this section, except for paragraphs (b), (c)(1), and (c)(2) are applicable as specified herein to CT x-ray systems manufactured...

  5. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance findings in lipoid pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bréchot, J M; Buy, J N; Laaban, J P; Rochemaure, J

    1991-01-01

    A case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia was documented by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Although strongly suggesting the presence of fat on T1 weighted images, magnetic resonance does not produce images specific for this condition. Computed tomography is the best imaging modality for its diagnosis.

  6. Diagnosis of lumbar disc hernia with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of computed tomography performed on patients with clinically diagnosed hernia were compared with those of myelography and operative findings. This comparative study suggested that computed tomography is quite different from other methods and very useful in diagnosis of hernia. Some cases of hernia were shown, and the characteristics of CT were reviewed. (Ueda, J.)

  7. Computed tomography of the central nervous system in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With computed tomography in 44 small animals some well defined anatomical structures and pathological processes of the central nervous system are described. Computed tomography is not only necessary for the diagnosis of tumors; malformations, inflammatory, degenerative and vascular diseases and traumas are also visible

  8. Computational modeling of cardiac hemodynamics: Current status and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rajat; Seo, Jung Hee; Vedula, Vijay; Choi, Young J.; Liu, Hang; Huang, H. Howie; Jain, Saurabh; Younes, Laurent; Abraham, Theodore; George, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of four-dimensional imaging technologies, increasing computational speeds, improved simulation algorithms, and the widespread availability of powerful computing platforms is enabling simulations of cardiac hemodynamics with unprecedented speed and fidelity. Since cardiovascular disease is intimately linked to cardiovascular hemodynamics, accurate assessment of the patient's hemodynamic state is critical for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Unfortunately, while a variety of invasive and non-invasive approaches for measuring cardiac hemodynamics are in widespread use, they still only provide an incomplete picture of the hemodynamic state of a patient. In this context, computational modeling of cardiac hemodynamics presents as a powerful non-invasive modality that can fill this information gap, and significantly impact the diagnosis as well as the treatment of cardiac disease. This article reviews the current status of this field as well as the emerging trends and challenges in cardiovascular health, computing, modeling and simulation and that are expected to play a key role in its future development. Some recent advances in modeling and simulations of cardiac flow are described by using examples from our own work as well as the research of other groups.

  9. The role of computed tomography in the laryngeal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hoon Sik [Capital Armed Forces General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    Computed tomography of the larynx represents a major advance in laryngology. Even in severe injury the larynx can be examined easily and conveniently by CT at the same time as the brain and facial structures without moving the patient, who need only lie down and breathe quietly during the study. Computed tomography permitted a much more detailed appraisal of laryngeal dysfunction in patients with blunt laryngeal trauma (3 cases) and strangulation injury (2 cases). Computed tomography of the larynx undoubtedly played a determinant role in patient management. Computed tomography was helpful in evaluating the laryngeal cartilages and deep spaces of the larynx which was difficult to examine by the laryngoscope. Follow-up computed tomography made it possible to evaluate the postoperative results.

  10. The role of computed tomography in the laryngeal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography of the larynx represents a major advance in laryngology. Even in severe injury the larynx can be examined easily and conveniently by CT at the same time as the brain and facial structures without moving the patient, who need only lie down and breathe quietly during the study. Computed tomography permitted a much more detailed appraisal of laryngeal dysfunction in patients with blunt laryngeal trauma (3 cases) and strangulation injury (2 cases). Computed tomography of the larynx undoubtedly played a determinant role in patient management. Computed tomography was helpful in evaluating the laryngeal cartilages and deep spaces of the larynx which was difficult to examine by the laryngoscope. Follow-up computed tomography made it possible to evaluate the postoperative results

  11. Terahertz Computed Tomography of NASA Thermal Protection System Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, D. J.; Reyes-Rodriguez, S.; Zimdars, D. A.; Rauser, R. W.; Ussery, W. W.

    2011-01-01

    A terahertz axial computed tomography system has been developed that uses time domain measurements in order to form cross-sectional image slices and three-dimensional volume renderings of terahertz-transparent materials. The system can inspect samples as large as 0.0283 cubic meters (1 cubic foot) with no safety concerns as for x-ray computed tomography. In this study, the system is evaluated for its ability to detect and characterize flat bottom holes, drilled holes, and embedded voids in foam materials utilized as thermal protection on the external fuel tanks for the Space Shuttle. X-ray micro-computed tomography was also performed on the samples to compare against the terahertz computed tomography results and better define embedded voids. Limits of detectability based on depth and size for the samples used in this study are loosely defined. Image sharpness and morphology characterization ability for terahertz computed tomography are qualitatively described.

  12. Computed tomography of normal distal tibiofibular syndesmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the shape and measurements of the normal distal tibiofibular syndesmosis on computed tomographic scans and to identify features that could aid in the diagnosis of syndesmotic diastasis using computed tomography (CT). CT scans of 100 patients with normal distal tibiofibular syndesmoses were reviewed retrospectively. In 67% the incisura fibularis was deep, giving the syndesmosis a crescent shape. In 33% the incisura fibularis was shallow, giving the syndesmosis a rectangular shape. The measurements of both types were taken using the same reference points. The mean age of the patients was 40 years, and there were 53 men and 47 women. The mean width of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis anteriorly between the tip of the anterior tibial tubercle and the nearest point of the fibula was 2 mm. The mean width of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis posteriorly between the medial border of the fibula and the nearest point of the lateral border of the posterior tibial tubercle was 4 mm. In men the mean width of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis, anterior and posterior, was 2 mm and 5 mm, respectively, and in women it was 2 mm and 4 mm, respectively. This study provides measurements of the normal tibiofibular syndesmosis to aid in the diagnosis of occult diastasis. (orig.)

  13. Computed tomography of normal distal tibiofibular syndesmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgafy, Hossein; Semaan, Hassan B.; Blessinger, Brian; Wassef, Andrew; Ebraheim, Nabil A. [University of Toledo Medical Center, Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery and Radiology, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the shape and measurements of the normal distal tibiofibular syndesmosis on computed tomographic scans and to identify features that could aid in the diagnosis of syndesmotic diastasis using computed tomography (CT). CT scans of 100 patients with normal distal tibiofibular syndesmoses were reviewed retrospectively. In 67% the incisura fibularis was deep, giving the syndesmosis a crescent shape. In 33% the incisura fibularis was shallow, giving the syndesmosis a rectangular shape. The measurements of both types were taken using the same reference points. The mean age of the patients was 40 years, and there were 53 men and 47 women. The mean width of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis anteriorly between the tip of the anterior tibial tubercle and the nearest point of the fibula was 2 mm. The mean width of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis posteriorly between the medial border of the fibula and the nearest point of the lateral border of the posterior tibial tubercle was 4 mm. In men the mean width of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis, anterior and posterior, was 2 mm and 5 mm, respectively, and in women it was 2 mm and 4 mm, respectively. This study provides measurements of the normal tibiofibular syndesmosis to aid in the diagnosis of occult diastasis. (orig.)

  14. Texture classification of lung computed tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheng, Hang See; Shamsuddin, Siti M.

    2013-03-01

    Current development of algorithms in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme is growing rapidly to assist the radiologist in medical image interpretation. Texture analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans is one of important preliminary stage in the computerized detection system and classification for lung cancer. Among different types of images features analysis, Haralick texture with variety of statistical measures has been used widely in image texture description. The extraction of texture feature values is essential to be used by a CAD especially in classification of the normal and abnormal tissue on the cross sectional CT images. This paper aims to compare experimental results using texture extraction and different machine leaning methods in the classification normal and abnormal tissues through lung CT images. The machine learning methods involve in this assessment are Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS), Naive Bayes, Decision Tree (J48) and Backpropagation Neural Network. AIRS is found to provide high accuracy (99.2%) and sensitivity (98.0%) in the assessment. For experiments and testing purpose, publicly available datasets in the Reference Image Database to Evaluate Therapy Response (RIDER) are used as study cases.

  15. Positron emission tomography alone, positron emission tomography-computed tomography and computed tomography in diagnosing recurrent cervical carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yi; Wei, Jia; Zhang, Yicheng; Xiong, Weining

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to assess systematically the accuracies of positron emission tomography (PET), PET/computed tomography (CT), and CT in diagnosing recurrent cervical cancer. Material and methods We searched for articles published from January 1980 to June 2013 using the following inclusion criteria: articles were reported in English; the use of PET, interpreted with or without the use of CT; use of CT to detect recurrent cervical cancer; and histopathologic analysis and/o...

  16. Quantification of aortic valve area at 256-slice computed tomography: Comparison with transesophageal echocardiography and cardiac catheterization in subjects with high-grade aortic valve stenosis prior to percutaneous valve replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare planimetric aortic valve area (AVA) measurements from 256-slice CT to those derived from transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and cardiac catheterization in high-risk subjects with known high-grade calcified aortic stenosis. Methods and materials: The study included 26 subjects (10 males, mean age: 79 ± 6; range, 61-88 years). All subjects were clinically referred for aortic valve imaging prior to percutaneous aortic valve replacement from April 2008 to March 2009. Two radiologists, blinded to the results of TEE and cardiac catheterization, independently selected the systolic cardiac phase of maximum aortic valve area and independently performed manual CT AVA planimetry for all subjects. Repeated AVA measurements were made to establish CT intra- and interobserver repeatability. In addition, the image quality of the aortic valve was rated by both observers. Aortic valve calcification was also quantified. Results: All 26 subjects had a high-grade aortic valve stenosis (systolic opening area 2) via CT-based planimetry, with a mean AVA of 0.62 ± 0.18. In four subjects, TEE planimetry was precluded due to severe aortic valve calcification, but CT-planimetry was successfully performed with a mean AVA of 0.46 ± 0.23 cm2. Mean aortic valve calcium mass score was 563.8 ± 526.2 mg. Aortic valve area by CT was not correlated with aortic valve calcium mass score. A bias and limits of agreement among CT and TEE, CT and cardiac catheterization, and TEE and cardiac catheterization were -0.07 [-0.37 to 0.24], 0.03 [-0.49 to 0.55], 0.12 [-0.39 to 0.63] cm2, respectively. Differences in AVA among CT and TEE or cardiac catheterization did not differ systematically over the range of measurements and were not correlated with aortic valve calcium mass score. Conclusion: Planimetric aortic valve area measurements from 256-slice CT agree well with those derived from TEE and cardiac catheterization in high-risk subjects with known

  17. Quantification of aortic valve area at 256-slice computed tomography: Comparison with transesophageal echocardiography and cardiac catheterization in subjects with high-grade aortic valve stenosis prior to percutaneous valve replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.klass@uniklinik-ulm.de [University Hospital of Ulm, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Steinhoevelstr. 9, 89075 Ulm (Germany); Walker, Matthew J.; Olszewski, Mark E. [Philips Healthcare, CT Clinical Science, Cleveland, OH (United States); Bahner, Johannes; Feuerlein, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Martin H.K.; Lang, Alexandra [University Hospital of Ulm, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Steinhoevelstr. 9, 89075 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare planimetric aortic valve area (AVA) measurements from 256-slice CT to those derived from transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and cardiac catheterization in high-risk subjects with known high-grade calcified aortic stenosis. Methods and materials: The study included 26 subjects (10 males, mean age: 79 {+-} 6; range, 61-88 years). All subjects were clinically referred for aortic valve imaging prior to percutaneous aortic valve replacement from April 2008 to March 2009. Two radiologists, blinded to the results of TEE and cardiac catheterization, independently selected the systolic cardiac phase of maximum aortic valve area and independently performed manual CT AVA planimetry for all subjects. Repeated AVA measurements were made to establish CT intra- and interobserver repeatability. In addition, the image quality of the aortic valve was rated by both observers. Aortic valve calcification was also quantified. Results: All 26 subjects had a high-grade aortic valve stenosis (systolic opening area <1.0 cm{sup 2}) via CT-based planimetry, with a mean AVA of 0.62 {+-} 0.18. In four subjects, TEE planimetry was precluded due to severe aortic valve calcification, but CT-planimetry was successfully performed with a mean AVA of 0.46 {+-} 0.23 cm{sup 2}. Mean aortic valve calcium mass score was 563.8 {+-} 526.2 mg. Aortic valve area by CT was not correlated with aortic valve calcium mass score. A bias and limits of agreement among CT and TEE, CT and cardiac catheterization, and TEE and cardiac catheterization were -0.07 [-0.37 to 0.24], 0.03 [-0.49 to 0.55], 0.12 [-0.39 to 0.63] cm{sup 2}, respectively. Differences in AVA among CT and TEE or cardiac catheterization did not differ systematically over the range of measurements and were not correlated with aortic valve calcium mass score. Conclusion: Planimetric aortic valve area measurements from 256-slice CT agree well with those derived from TEE and cardiac catheterization in

  18. Computed tomography of traumatic intracranial lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cranial computed tomography (CT) is a new radiological technique with which, for the first time, minimal differences an attenuation by intracranial soft tissue can be measured exactly. The basic physical principles of computed tomography have been extensively presented by Hounsfield (1973). It is well established that the attenuation of extravasated blood measures between 35 and 45 Hounsfield units. Therefore no difficulty should be encountered in the recognition and diagnosis of extra-axial hematoma and cerebral contusion since the density of the brain parenchyma never measures more than 25 units. As the constant increase in high velocity accidents and violence, the problem of acute head injury is one of the matters of great importance in today's medical practice. Therefore it is very important to figure out the method that would allow us to diagnose easily and precisely the effects of trauma upon the brain in order to institute the proper treatment at the earliest possible moment. Computed tomography allows us to make a diagnosis quickly and in a non-invasive manner. The CT scan was carried out on 310 head trauma cases in the department of radiology, St. Mary's and Kang Nam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College, for 16 months from June 1979 to October 1980. All the scans were obtained with the Hitachi CT-H2 scanner and the scans were repeated following intravenous injection of high dose of contrast media (roughly 1.8 cc per kg body weight of 60% Conray). We have reviewed the CT scans of 310 patients got acute head injury in order to assess the location of brain lesions, the relationship between the CT densities of hematomas and their stage, the shape and mass effect of the extra-axial hematomas, and the effect of contrast enhancement. The results were as follows: 1. Of all 310 cases of the head injuries, epidural hematoma was 13.5%, subdural hematoma was 8.7%, subdural hygroma was 10%, cerebral contusion was 39%, hydrocephalus and atrophy was 3.9% and

  19. Giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma. Findings on computed helical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe computed helical tomography characteristics of the giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma. Method: During five years, we evaluated 21 patients with 21 giant hepatic cavernous hemangiomas with computed helical and multislice tomography. We included 18 women (86%) and 3 men (14%) with a mean age of 45 years. Results: The mean size of hemangiomas was 10.4 cm. Non enhanced computed tomography Showed 21 hemangiomas with lower density than adjacent hepatic parenchyma , all hemangiomas showed a central cleft area with low density. None hemangioma showed calcifications neither internal septa. In enhanced helical tomography all lesions demonstrated a globular, peripheral enhancing pattern with centripetal filling that begin in the arterial phase and continued in portal and delayed phases. None of the lesions showed complete filling. Conclusion: giant hepatic cavernous hemangiomas showed low attenuation in non enhanced computed tomography. central cleft area was very frequently seen. The enhancement pattern is characteristic, starting at the periphery with centripetal filling but it was never complete.

  20. Reproducibility in the assessment of acute pancreatitis with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire Filho, Edison de Oliveira; Vieira, Renata La Rocca; Yamada, Andre Fukunishi; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Bekhor, Daniel; Freire, Maxime Figueiredo de Oliveira; Ajzen, Sergio; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Imaging Diagnosis]. E-mail: eofilho@ig.com.br; eoffilho@uol.com.br

    2007-11-15

    Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography in the assessment of patients with acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Fifty-one unenhanced and contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography studies of patients with acute pancreatitis were blindly reviewed by two radiologists (observers 1 and 2). The morphological index was separately calculated for unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography and the disease severity index was established. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of computed tomography was measured by means of the kappa index ({kappa}). Results: Interobserver agreement was {kappa} 0.666, 0.705, 0.648, 0.547 and 0.631, respectively for unenhanced and contrast-enhanced morphological index, presence of pancreatic necrosis, pancreatic necrosis extension, and disease severity index. Intraobserver agreement (observers 1 and 2, respectively) was {kappa} = 0.796 and 0.732 for unenhanced morphological index; {kappa} 0.725 and 0.802 for contrast- enhanced morphological index; {kappa} = 0.674 and 0.849 for presence of pancreatic necrosis; {kappa} = 0.606 and 0.770 for pancreatic necrosis extension; and {kappa} = 0.801 and 0.687 for disease severity index at computed tomography. Conclusion: Computed tomography for determination of morphological index and disease severity index in the staging of acute pancreatitis is a quite reproducible method. The absence of contrast- enhancement does not affect the computed tomography morphological index reproducibility. (author)

  1. Reproducibility in the assessment of acute pancreatitis with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography in the assessment of patients with acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Fifty-one unenhanced and contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography studies of patients with acute pancreatitis were blindly reviewed by two radiologists (observers 1 and 2). The morphological index was separately calculated for unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography and the disease severity index was established. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of computed tomography was measured by means of the kappa index (κ). Results: Interobserver agreement was κ 0.666, 0.705, 0.648, 0.547 and 0.631, respectively for unenhanced and contrast-enhanced morphological index, presence of pancreatic necrosis, pancreatic necrosis extension, and disease severity index. Intraobserver agreement (observers 1 and 2, respectively) was κ = 0.796 and 0.732 for unenhanced morphological index; κ 0.725 and 0.802 for contrast- enhanced morphological index; κ = 0.674 and 0.849 for presence of pancreatic necrosis; κ = 0.606 and 0.770 for pancreatic necrosis extension; and κ = 0.801 and 0.687 for disease severity index at computed tomography. Conclusion: Computed tomography for determination of morphological index and disease severity index in the staging of acute pancreatitis is a quite reproducible method. The absence of contrast- enhancement does not affect the computed tomography morphological index reproducibility. (author)

  2. Analysis of the computed tomography in the acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: This study tends to test the capacity of the computed tomography in assist in the diagnosis and the approach of the acute abdomen. Material and method: This is a longitudinal and prospective study, in which were analyzed the patients with the diagnosis of acute abdomen. There were obtained 105 cases of acute abdomen and after the application of the exclusions criteria were included 28 patients in the study. Results: Computed tomography changed the diagnostic hypothesis of the physicians in 50% of the cases (p 0.05), where 78.57% of the patients had surgical indication before computed tomography and 67.86% after computed tomography (p = 0.0546). The index of accurate diagnosis of computed tomography, when compared to the anatomopathologic examination and the final diagnosis, was observed in 82.14% of the cases (p = 0.013). When the analysis was done dividing the patients in surgical and nonsurgical group, were obtained an accuracy of 89.28% (p 0.0001). The difference of 7.2 days of hospitalization (p = 0.003) was obtained compared with the mean of the acute abdomen without use the computed tomography. Conclusion: The computed tomography is correlative with the anatomopathology and has great accuracy in the surgical indication, associated with the capacity of increase the confident index of the physicians, reduces the hospitalization time, reduces the number of surgeries and is cost-effective. (author)

  3. Reproducibility of aortic annulus measurements by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate a systematic approach for measurement of aortic annulus dimensions by cardiac computed tomography. CT data sets of 64 patients were evaluated. An oblique cross-section aligned with the aortic root was created by systematically identifying the caudal insertion points of the three aortic cusps and sequentially aligning them in a double oblique plane. Aortic annulus dimensions, distances of coronary ostia and a suitable fluoroscopic projection angle were independently determined by two observers. Interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for aortic annulus diameters were excellent (ICC 0.89-0.93). Agreement for prosthesis size selection was excellent (k = 0.86 for mean, k = 0.84 for area-derived and k = 0.91 for circumference-derived diameter). Mean distances of the left/right coronary ostium were 13.4 ± 2.4/14.4 ± 2.8 mm for observer 1 and 13.2 ± 2.7/13.5 ± 3.2 mm for observer 2 (p = 0.30 and p = 0.0001, respectively; ICC 0.76/0.77 for left/right coronary artery). A difference of less than 10 for fluoroscopic projection angle was achieved in 84.3 % of patients. A systematic approach to generate a double oblique imaging plane exactly aligned with the aortic annulus demonstrates high interobserver and intraobserver agreements for derived measurements which are not influenced by aortic root calcification. (orig.)

  4. Proceedings of clinical SPECT [single photon emission computed tomography] symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been five years since the last in-depth American College of Nuclear Physicians/Society of Nuclear Medicine Symposium on the subject of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was held. Because this subject was nominated as the single most desired topic we have selected SPECT imaging as the basis for this year's program. The objectives of this symposium are to survey the progress of SPECT clinical applications that have taken place over the last five years and to provide practical and timely guidelines to users of SPECT so that this exciting imaging modality can be fully integrated into the evaluation of pathologic processes. The first half was devoted to a consideration of technical factors important in SPECT acquisition and the second half was devoted to those organ systems about which sufficient clinical SPECT imaging data are available. With respect to the technical aspect of the program we have selected the key areas which demand awareness and attention in order to make SPECT operational in clinical practice. These include selection of equipment, details of uniformity correction, utilization of phantoms for equipment acceptance and quality assurance, the major aspect of algorithms, an understanding of filtered back projection and appropriate choice of filters and an awareness of the most commonly generated artifacts and how to recognize them. With respect to the acquisition and interpretation of organ images, the faculty will present information on the major aspects of hepatic, brain, cardiac, skeletal, and immunologic imaging techniques. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  5. Reproducibility of aortic annulus measurements by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika; Achenbach, Stephan [University of Erlangen, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); University of Giessen, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Pflederer, Tobias; Marwan, Mohamed; Schmid, Jasmin; Arnold, Martin [University of Erlangen, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Nef, Holger; Rixe, Johannes; Hecker, Franziska [University of Giessen, Department of Cardiology, Giessen (Germany); Schneider, Christian [University of Giessen, Department of Radiology, Giessen (Germany); Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael [University of Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    To evaluate a systematic approach for measurement of aortic annulus dimensions by cardiac computed tomography. CT data sets of 64 patients were evaluated. An oblique cross-section aligned with the aortic root was created by systematically identifying the caudal insertion points of the three aortic cusps and sequentially aligning them in a double oblique plane. Aortic annulus dimensions, distances of coronary ostia and a suitable fluoroscopic projection angle were independently determined by two observers. Interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for aortic annulus diameters were excellent (ICC 0.89-0.93). Agreement for prosthesis size selection was excellent (k = 0.86 for mean, k = 0.84 for area-derived and k = 0.91 for circumference-derived diameter). Mean distances of the left/right coronary ostium were 13.4 ± 2.4/14.4 ± 2.8 mm for observer 1 and 13.2 ± 2.7/13.5 ± 3.2 mm for observer 2 (p = 0.30 and p = 0.0001, respectively; ICC 0.76/0.77 for left/right coronary artery). A difference of less than 10 for fluoroscopic projection angle was achieved in 84.3 % of patients. A systematic approach to generate a double oblique imaging plane exactly aligned with the aortic annulus demonstrates high interobserver and intraobserver agreements for derived measurements which are not influenced by aortic root calcification. (orig.)

  6. Non-gated computed tomography of left ventricular hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-ECG gated computed tomography (CT) of the heart was carried out in 19 cases with cardiovascular diseases; 4 with mitral stenosis, 3 with aortic valve disease, 2 with combined valve disease, 8 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and one myocardial infarction and one aortic aneurysm. All cardiac diseases were studied by echocardiography and 13 of them further investigated by intracadiac catheterization. The interventricular septum and the apical and posterolateral wall of the left ventricle were segmentally evaluated as to relative wall thickness of myocardium on CT. The wall thickness was directly measured on left ventricular cine angiograms in 13 cases. O-G vector calculated by CT was compatible with the palne of vectorcardiography in evaluating left ventricular hypertorphy. Conclusion were as follows: 1) The degree and site of myocardial hypertrophy were detected by CT with satisfaction. 2) The area of ventricular myocardium increased in aortic valve disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. 3) The direction and magnitude of O-G vector calculated by CT were well correlated to the half area of QRS loop in horizontal plane of vectorcardiography. (author)

  7. Computed tomography studies on patients with mucopolysaccharidoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearances on computed tomography (CT) in eight patients with mucopolysaccharidosis Type I, two with mucopolysaccharidosis Type II and two with mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB are presented. Reference is also made to two further cases in which the CT showed special features. Follow-up scans were obtained to assess the evolution of the changes. The place of CT in the diagnosis of complications due to thecal involvement is examined. The density of grey matter on the CT scans was similar to that of normal brain. Inhaled xenon did not produce any special enhancement which could be helpful in assessing the degree of the mucopolysaccharide deposition within cerebral cells. Symmetrical low attenuation in the white matter was a very common finding. This work has shown that the stage in the evolution of the mucopolysaccharidoses at which hydrocephalus develops as a complication is highly variable and CSF diversion procedures are sometimes indicated to improve the quality of the patients' lives. These indications are briefly discussed. We consider that CT is essential for the adequate appraisal of these patients and to identify some treatable complications. (orig./MG)

  8. Radiation Doses from Computed tomography in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation doses to Patient during CT scanner and the radiological risk are significant. Patient dose survey has been conducted to investigate the Iraq patient radiation doses received in CT scanners in order to established reference dose levels. These doses are Entrance Surface Dose (ESD),computed tomography dose index(CTDI)), and dose length product (DLP). Two CT scanner were investigated in this study were, Siemens Somatom Plus 4, located in at medical city of Baghdad, and Philips, Optimus located in privet hospital at Baghdad. ESD were measured by TLD and Dosimax ionization chamber for head, chest, and abdomen for both sex and different weights. The TLD results were higher than that measured with Dosimax due to scattered radiation .The scattering factor which is the ratio between dose measured by TLD and that measured by ionization chamber range between (1.14-1.34) compare to international measurement which is range between (1.1-1.5).The (ESD) measured by the two methods were agree well after the subtraction of scattering dose, and have compered with original research. Dose profile were measured using array of TLD chips shows that its full width at half maximum is(7.99 mm) approximately equal the slice thickness(8 mm). Our results compare with reference level at U.K, European Guidelines and

  9. Cranial computed tomography in infantile spasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of 109 children with infantile spasms (IS), prospectively tested during the years 1976 to 1979 in Denmark, 52 children were examined by cranial computed tomography (CT). The classification of IS into cryptogenic (CR), symptomatic (SY) and doubtful (DO) was done clinically without considering the CT-finding. Sixty per cent of the scannings were abnormal. Only 6/30 (20%) of the children in ACTH treatment were found to develop cerebral atrophy which means that this finding is not an obligatory side-effect of ACTH treatment of children with IS. Normal CT-findings were found in 50% of the CR and 50% of the SY + DO-groups, and could not be used as a prognostic tool for estimating the mental development. This was also the case for children with cerebral atrophy. Abnormal CT-findings (minus atrophy) were highly correlated to the group with clinical symptoms and indicate an extremely unsatisfying long-term mental prognosis. CT-scanning is a valuable tool for the examination of clearing children with infantile spasms. (authors)

  10. Radiation doses from computed tomography in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent surveys in various countries have shown that computed tomography (CT) is a significant and growing contributor to the radiation dose from diagnostic radiology. Australia, with 332 CT scanners (18 per million people), is well endowed with CT equipment compared to European countries (6 to 13 per million people). Only Japan, with 8500 units (78 per million people), has a significantly higher proportion of CT scanners. In view of this, a survey of CT facilities, frequency of examinations, techniques and patient doses has been performed in Australia. It is estimated that there are 1 million CT examinations in Australia each year, resulting in a collective effective dose of 7000 Sv and a per caput dose of 0.39 mSv. This per caput dose is much larger than found in earlier studies in the UK and New Zealand but is less than 0.48 mSv in Japan. Using the ICRP risk factors, radiation doses from CT could be inducing about 280 fatal cancers per year in Australia. CT is therefore a significant, if not the major, single contributor to radiation doses and possible risk from diagnostic radiology. (authors)

  11. Quantitative investigations of megavoltage computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Myron; Kerr, Andrew; Salomons, Greg; Schreiner, L. John

    2005-04-01

    Megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) has been an active area of research and development in image guided radiation therapy. We have been investigating a particular implementation of MVCT in conjunction with studies of the potential for tomotherapy with a Cobalt-60 radiation source. In this paper, we present results comparing MVCT using a Co-60 source and a 4 MV linear accelerator to conventional kVCT imaging. The Co-60 and linac MVCT measurements were obtained with a first generation benchtop CT imager; the KVCT measurements were obtained using a Philips AcQSim CT Simulator). Phantoms containing various inserts ranging in density from air, through lung, soft tissue and bone equivalent materials and extending to high atomic number metals were imaged with the three modalities. The results enable characterization of image artifacts, CT number linearity and beam hardening. The MVCT images have sufficient contrast that soft tissue regions with 2.8% difference in electron density can be visualized. In MVCT, a linear relationship between CT numbers and electron densities extends to materials with Z ~ 60. In the 4MV CT imaging there is a position dependence of the CT numbers within a uniform water phantom, which is absent in Co-60 CT images, indicating the presence of beam hardening artifacts in the linac MVCT images. The differences between kVCT and MVCT will be discussed considering the variation of the photon interactions dominating the images. Our investigations indicate that MVCT has properties that may potentially extend its utility beyond radiation therapy.

  12. Computed Tomography Following Body Stuffing Heroin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. Nordt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED in police custody for “medical clearance” before being taken to jail. The patient was approached by police officers for suspicion of selling illicit drugs. When approached by police he ran away and was witnessed to swallow several small plastic baggies suspected to contain heroin. He was apprehended and brought to the ED. On arrival, he was asymptomatic with a blood pressure 144/83mmHg, heart rate 67bpm, respiratory rate of 19bpm, oxygen saturation of 99% on room air and afebrile. A Glasgow coma score was 15 and he was alert and oriented to person, place and time. Patient had a negative review of systems. On physical examination pupils were 4mm and reactive to light, lungs clear to auscultation and had normal respiratory rate with normal cardiovascular exam. Abdomen was soft, non-tender and non-distended with present bowel sounds. The patient admitted to ingesting approximately 20 packets of heroin to avoid being charged with possession. The patient declined activated charcoal and whole bowel irrigation (WBI with polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ELS. The patient declined a urine toxicology immunoassay screen. A computed tomography (CT of his abdomen with contrast was obtained and read as normal except for a cluster of foreign bodies within the distal stomach likely contained within a plastic bag.

  13. Computed tomography findings in fibrosing mediastinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, A. [Departments of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.devaraj@rbht.nhs.uk; Griffin, N. [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Nicholson, A.G. [Department of Histopathology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Padley, S.P.G. [Departments of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Aim: To describe the CT features of fibrosing mediastinitis. Materials and methods: The clinical notes, histology, and CT images from 12 patients with fibrosing mediastinitis were reviewed. Clinical data regarding the presentation and suspected aetiology were correlated with location of mediastinal disease, calcification, effect on mediastinal structures, and additional pulmonary findings on computed tomography (CT). Results: The mean age was 40.5 years, with seven female and five male patients. The most common presenting symptom was shortness of breath. Fibrosing mediastinitis diffusely infiltrated the mediastinum in five patients and was localized in seven. Calcification was present in two cases. Eleven of 12 cases had narrowing of mediastinal structures, including five with pulmonary artery narrowing, five with superior vena cava obstruction, four with bronchial narrowing, three with tracheal narrowing, and one with narrowing of the pulmonary vein. The disease was considered idiopathic in seven cases with a demonstrable aetiology in five cases. Eight out of 12 patients had additional pulmonary findings, including all patients with a known aetiology. Conclusions: In the present series of patients, fibrosing mediastinitis more commonly presented as a localized mediastinal mass than as diffuse mediastinal disease, with the anterior mediastinal compartment most frequently involved. Most cases were idiopathic compared with the majority of previous cases at this institution being ascribed to tuberculosis. There is a high incidence of concomitant pulmonary findings, in particular when an identifiable aetiology is present. Obstruction of vital structures frequently gives rise to complications.

  14. Computed tomography findings in pancreas divisum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 29 patients with abdominal pain the diagnosis of pancreas divisum (PD) was verified by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (EPR) via both the major and the minor papilla. Computed tomography (CT) was done in all patients to evaluate contour, volume, antero-posterior diameters and attenuation values of the gland in comparison with a normal reference series. Also, the validity of the CT grading of pancreatitis was assessed in comparison with ERP grading. Patients with PD had an increased cranio-caudal diameter of the pancreatic head (p<0.001). Further, the main pancreatic duct was visualized more often in patients with PD (p<0.01), who also had an increasing frequency of pancreatic calcifications (p<0.05). Otherwise there were no differences compared with the normal series. The observed reduction in the volume of the gland in patients with marked pancreatitis at ERP seemingly reflected the severity of inflammation. No cleavage between the dorsal and ventral anlage was identified. CT was found to be too unspecific to be of any use in grading of pancreatitis. In conclusion, CT findings in patients with PD are sparse, unspecific and preferably a reflection of pancreatitis, if present. ERP remains the ''gold standard'' for the diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Computed tomography phantom for radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate in detail the dose distribution during computed tomography (CT), a sheet roll CT dosimetry phantom (SRCT-P) with a radiochromic film (RF) was experimentally developed. The SRCT-P was made by rolling up a vinyl chloride sheet in a cylindrical shape to arbitrarily select the SRCT-P diameter, dose measurement position, and depth. The SRCT-P centre core consisted of a plastic hose in which a 10 mm acrylic bar with a RF was inserted. To determine the availability of the SRCT-P, the surface and centre doses (at a 5 mm radius) at each SRCT-P diameter (6-16 cm; every 2 cm) were measured. The ratios of the centre-to-surface doses (Dcentre/Dsuface) systematically increased, from 80 to 111%, for decreasing SRCT-P diameters, between 16 and 6 cm, respectively. The centre dose approached the surface dose as the SRCT-P diameter decreased. To use a RF for a CT dose measurement, further detailed research and analysis is necessary. However, this study has shown that a SRCT-P is useful and beneficial for the measurement of the dose distribution during a CT examination

  16. Computed tomography imaging and angiography - principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalian, Shervin; Lev, Michael H; Gupta, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of patients with diverse neurologic disorders was forever changed in the summer of 1973, when the first commercial computed tomography (CT) scanners were introduced. Until then, the detection and characterization of intracranial or spinal lesions could only be inferred by limited spatial resolution radioisotope scans, or by the patterns of tissue and vascular displacement on invasive pneumoencaphalography and direct carotid puncture catheter arteriography. Even the earliest-generation CT scanners - which required tens of minutes for the acquisition and reconstruction of low-resolution images (128×128 matrix) - could, based on density, noninvasively distinguish infarct, hemorrhage, and other mass lesions with unprecedented accuracy. Iodinated, intravenous contrast added further sensitivity and specificity in regions of blood-brain barrier breakdown. The advent of rapid multidetector row CT scanning in the early 1990s created renewed enthusiasm for CT, with CT angiography largely replacing direct catheter angiography. More recently, iterative reconstruction postprocessing techniques have made possible high spatial resolution, reduced noise, very low radiation dose CT scanning. The speed, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, and low radiation dose capability of present-day scanners have also facilitated dual-energy imaging which, like magnetic resonance imaging, for the first time, has allowed tissue-specific CT imaging characterization of intracranial pathology. PMID:27432657

  17. Industrial computed tomography image size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the most useful modern detection technologies, Industrial Computed Tomography (ICT) image size measurement can correctly non-destructively measure the size of workpieces' inner construction, and it is considered as the standard for quality assurance and reverse engineering. In view of the advantages and disadvantages compared to conventional methods, this paper improves the precision of image size measurement with a new algorithm that uses an approximate function to describe edge degradation. First, this algorithm constructs the approximate function and determines the optimal point of edge detection, based on image intensity and inflexions. Then, in order to accurately extract the image edge, this algorithm is used to revise the primary image, completing construction of the CT image. Excellent results are obtained from simulations and experiments. The experimental results indicate that the relative error is 2% for the CT image when the step evolution of the image edge is pooled. The relative error of this method is decreased by as much as 1.5% compared to wavelet transformation and ridgelet transformation. Therefore, this new algorithm demonstrates increased effectiveness in extracting an accurate measurement of the CT image edge.

  18. Dedicated breast computed tomography: Basic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni, E-mail: mettivier@na.infn.it; Russo, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cintia, Napoli I-80126, Italy and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli I-80126 (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    X-ray mammography of the compressed breast is well recognized as the “gold standard” for early detection of breast cancer, but its performance is not ideal. One limitation of screening mammography is tissue superposition, particularly for dense breasts. Since 2001, several research groups in the USA and in the European Union have developed computed tomography (CT) systems with digital detector technology dedicated to x-ray imaging of the uncompressed breast (breast CT or BCT) for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. This CT technology—tracing back to initial studies in the 1970s—allows some of the limitations of mammography to be overcome, keeping the levels of radiation dose to the radiosensitive breast glandular tissue similar to that of two-view mammography for the same breast size and composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the research efforts carried out in the invention, development, and improvement of BCT with dedicated scanners with state-of-the-art technology, including initial steps toward commercialization, after more than a decade of R and D in the laboratory and/or in the clinic. The intended focus here is on the technological/engineering aspects of BCT and on outlining advantages and limitations as reported in the related literature. Prospects for future research in this field are discussed.

  19. Intraperitoneal tuberculous abscess: computed tomography features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Dong; Jing-Jing; Chen; Xi-Zhen; Wang; Ya-Qin; Wang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the computed tomography(CT) features of intraperitoneal tuberculous abscess(IPTA). METHODS: Eight patients with IPTA confirmed by pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical symptoms, medical images, and surgical findings were evaluated. Involvement of the intestine, peritoneum, viscera, and lymph nodes was also assessed. RESULTS: All 8 patients had a history of abdominal discomfort for 1 to 6 mo. Physical examination revealed a palpable abdominal mass in 6 patients. Three patients had no evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis(TB). All IPTAs(11 abscesses) were seen as a multiseptated, peripherally enhanced, hypodense mass with enlarged, rim-enhanced lymph nodes. The largest abscess diameter ranged from 4.5 cm to 12.2 cm. CT showed 2 types of IPTA: Lymph node fusion and encapsulation. Of the 8 patients, one had liver tuberculosis and one had splenic and ovarian tuberculosis. Two cases showed involvement of the terminal ileum and ileocecal junction. Ascites were found in 4 cases. Three patients had peritonitis and mesenteritis. Three patients showed involvement of the omentum. Three patients had histological evidence of caseating granuloma, and 5 had histological evidence of acid-fast bacilli. CONCLUSION: CT is crucial in the detection and characterization of IPTA. Certain CT findings are necessary for correct diagnosis.

  20. Computed tomography of the ovarian tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) provides valuable informations in the diagnosis of the female pelvic masses. CT findings of 109 cases of surgically proved ovarian masses were reviewed regarding number, size, contour, and internal consistency (cystic, solid, and mixed masses). Differentiation between malignant and benign ovarian tumors depended on number and internal consistency of the mass. Most of malignant tumors showed bilateral mixed or solid masses and contained solid components. Most of metastatic ovarian cancer were demonstrated as bilateral mixed or solid masses. They were able to be differentiated from primary ovarian cancer because metastatic tumors contained more solid components than primary ones did and had ill-defined margins between cystic and solid components in mixed masses. In benign ovarian tumors, differentiation between mucinous cystadenomas, endometrial cysts, and dermoid cysts were possible. Mucinous cystadenomas showed the largest mulilocular cystic masses with band like septal thickening and their each locule demonstrated different densities. Endometrial cysts showed uni- or bilocular cystic masses with thick wall. Dermoid cysts were characterized by the presence of fatty component. It was concluded that CT is very useful in the tissue characterization of the ovarian masses by specific CT findings. (author)

  1. Perfusion computed tomography in renal cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandan; J; Das; Usha; Thingujam; Ananya; Panda; Sanjay; Sharma; Arun; Kumar; Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Various imaging modalities are available for the diagnosis, staging and response evaluation of patients with renal cell carcinoma(RCC). While contrast enhanced computed tomography(CT) is used as the standard of imaging for size, morphological evaluation and response assessment in RCC, a new functional imaging technique like perfusion CT(p CT), goes down to the molecular level and provides new perspectives in imaging of RCC. p CT depicts regional tumor perfusion and vascular permeability which are indirect parameters of tumor angiogenesis and thereby provides vital information regarding tumor microenvironment. Also response evaluation using p CT may predate the size criteria used in Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, as changes in the perfusion occurs earlier following tissue kinase inhibitors before any actual change in size. This may potentially help in predicting prognosis, better selection of therapy and more accurate and better response evaluation in patients with RCC. This article describes the techniques and role of p CT in staging and response assessment in patients with RCCs.

  2. Dose profile in computed tomography chest scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the optimization of the patient dose in computed tomography (CT), the Brazilian legislation only established the diagnostic reference levels (DRL's) in terms of Multiple Scan Average Dose (MSAD) in a typical adult as a parameter of quality control of CT scanners. Conformity to the DRL's can be verified by measuring the dose distribution in CT scans and MSAD determination. An analysis of the quality of CT scans of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte is necessary by conducting pertinent tests to the study that are presented in the ANVISA (National Agency of Sanitary Vigilance) Guide. The purpose of this study is to investigate, in a chest scan, the variation of dose in CT. To measure the dose profile are used lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100 Rod) distributed in cylinders positioned in peripheral and central regions of a phantom of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The data obtained allow us to observe the variation of the dose profile inside the phantom. The peripheral region shows higher dose values than the central region. The longitudinal variation can be observed and the maximum dose was recorded at the edges of the phantom (41,58±5,10) mGy at the midpoint of the longitudinal axis. The results will contribute to disseminate the proper procedure and optimize the dosimetry and the tests of quality control in CT, as well as make a critical analysis of the DRL's. (author)

  3. Computed tomography findings in middle ear anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone was studied in 45 ears with a middle ear anomaly but whose tympanic membranes were normal. The plane of the film was 30 degrees oblique to the orbito-meatal line. Four otorhinolaryngologists made radiological diagnoses of the CT film without having any information about the patients. CT films of 40 normal ears were also evaluated and served as controls. The incudo-stapedial joint (I-S joint) and the stapes were visualized in all control group subjects. The percentage of correct diagnoses was 77.8% for separation of the I-S joint, and 75.6% for fixation of the stapes. The monopedal stapes was not visualized. Fixation of the malleus and the incus could not be diagnosed correctly. Abnormalities in the location of the facial nerve were visualized in a few ears. CT of the temporal bone was clinically useful for differentiating I-S joint separation and fixation of the stapes. (author)

  4. Computed tomography of the alveolar bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the conventional radiological methods used in odontology, computed tomography (CT) provides superposition-free images of the mandible and maxilla. Its value has been proved not only in cases of malignancy but also in many other problems. If an examination is performed with a slice thickness of less than 1.5 mm, the form and position of retained teeth in the alveolar bone, as well as subsequent lesions of neighboring permanent teeth, can be visualized so that early treatment can be planned. If the parodontal space of a retained tooth is visible, orthodontic intervention is possible. Precise assessment of horizontal or vertical bone loss is essential in inflammatory dental diseases. The morphology and extent of benign cystic lesions are also shown by CT. With CT surgical strategy of an intended implant therapy can take into account the remaining bone substance and the exact position of nerves and foramina. If such therapy is possible, the location, form and number of implants are easily defined. (orig.)

  5. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the western world. Adenomatous colorectal polyps, which are found in 30-50% of Americans more than 50 years old, are recognized as important precursors of malignancy. Probably most of the invasive colon carcinomas arise from polyps. For this reason an early detection of these polyps and their complete removal is a recognized strategy for the prevention of colon cancer. So far no single method for an early diagnois of colon polyps or colon cancer offers high sensitivity and specificity along with low cost and good patient accccf Endo-opic colonoscopy allows the accurate detection of very small lesions and has since almost completely replaced fluooscopy. Cross-sectional imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), are increasingly being considered imaging modalities for the detection of colorectal polyps. CT and MR colonography are new techniques for imaging of the colon. In symptomatic patients, these new techniques show promising results for the detection of polyps equal to or larger than 1 cm in diameter. (author)

  6. Computed tomography experiments of Pantex high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D. E.; Martz, H. E.; Hester, L. O.; Sobczak, G.; Pratt, C. L.

    1992-04-01

    X-ray computed tomography is an advanced imaging technique which provide three-dimensional nondestructive characterization of materials, components and assemblies. The CT Project group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Pantex Plant are cooperating to examine the use of CT technology to inspect and characterize high-explosives pressings (e.g., PBX-9502, LX-10-2). High-explosives pressings manufactured by Pantex must be characterized prior to assembling into weapons systems; a nondestructive examination of all assembly parts would be preferable to the current sampling and destructive testing. The earlier in the processing cycle this can be done the more cost effective it will be. We have performed experiments that show that this characterization can be performed at the pressed billet stage using CT. We have detected 2-mm inclusions in a 15-cm diameter billet and 3.5-mm voids in a 20-cm diameter billet. Based on these results we show calculations that can be used to design production CT systems for characterization of high-explosives.

  7. Nano-computed tomography. Technique and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano-computed tomography (nano-CT) is an emerging, high-resolution cross-sectional imaging technique and represents a technical advancement of the established micro-CT technology. Based on the application of a transmission target X-ray tube, the focal spot size can be decreased down to diameters less than 400 nanometers (nm). Together with specific detectors and examination protocols, a superior spatial resolution up to 400 nm (10 % MTF) can be achieved, thereby exceeding the resolution capacity of typical micro-CT systems. The technical concept of nano-CT imaging as well as the basics of specimen preparation are demonstrated exemplarily. Characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques (intraplaque hemorrhage and calcifications) in a murine model of atherosclerosis (ApoE(-/-)/LDLR(-/-) double knockout mouse) are demonstrated in the context of superior spatial resolution in comparison to micro-CT. Furthermore, this article presents the application of nano-CT for imaging cerebral microcirculation (murine), lung structures (porcine), and trabecular microstructure (ovine) in contrast to micro-CT imaging. This review shows the potential of nano-CT as a radiological method in biomedical basic research and discusses the application of experimental, high resolution CT techniques in consideration of other high resolution cross-sectional imaging techniques.

  8. Computed Tomography Findings in Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGN is an uncommon condition characterized by chronic suppurative renal inflammation that leads to progressive parenchymal destruction. Purpose: To review the computed tomography (CT findings of patients diagnosed with XGN. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of CT findings in patients with histologically proven XGN was carried out. Results: Thirteen CT examinations of 11 patients were analyzed. Renal enlargement was demonstrable on the affected side in all patients. Nine patients (82% had multiple dilated calyces and abnormal parenchyma. Six patients (55% had a renal pelvis or upper ureteric calculus causing obstruction. Three patients (27% had focal fat deposits identifiable within the inflamed renal parenchyma. Two patients had renal abscesses. Ten patients (91% had extrarenal extension of the inflammatory changes. Three patients (27% demonstrated extensive retroperitoneal inflammation. Conclusion: Unilateral renal enlargement and inflammation were the most consistent findings of XGN on CT. Perinephric inflammation and collections or abscess should also alert the radiologist to the possibility of this diagnosis.

  9. Relevance of computed tomography in gynecological tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, J.R.; Hagemann, J.

    1983-11-01

    1. Abdominal CT examination is the method of choice when examining ovarial tumours. 2. Abdominal CT is redundant in the early stages of carcinoma of the collum and if the carcinoma has penetrated into the vagina. 3. In advanced stages of carcinoma of the collum, CT enables accurate staging. CT is at least equal in relevance to gynecological examination in respect of assessment of parametraneous infiltration. Distant metastases, as well as complications of the efferent urinary tract can be visualized. In view of this, the following procedure appears meaningful in advanced carcinoma of the collum: First of all, gynecological examination is performed without anaesthesia to confirm the findings in the regions of the portio and vagina; as far as possible, the existence of the central parametraneous infiltrations is confirmed. For the purpose of further staging of the parametraneous infiltration, as well as of the paraaortal lymphomas and possible metastases, as well as for the purpose of excluding hydronephrosis, computed tomography is performed. This avoids burdening the patient with an examination under anaesthesia, and it also avoids invasive examination methods, such as urography and lymphography.

  10. Relevance of computed tomography in gynaecological tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Abdominal CT examination is the method of choice when examining ovarial tumours. 2. Abdominal CT is redundant in the early stages of carcinoma of the collum and if the carcinoma has penetrated into the vagina. 3. In advanced stages of carcinoma of the collum, CT enables accurate staging. CT is at least equal in relevance to gynaecological examination in respect of assessment of parametraneous infiltration. Distant metastases, as well as complications of the efferent urinary tract can be visualized. In view of this, the following procedure appears meaningful in advanced carcinoma of the collum: First of all, gynaecological examination is performed without anaesthesia to confirm the findings in the regions of the portio and vagina; as far as possible, the existence of the central parametraneous infiltrations is confirmed. For the purpose of further staging of the parametraneous infiltration, as well as of the paraaortal lymphomas and possible metastases, as well as for the purpose of excluding hydronephrosis, computed tomography is performed. This avoids burdening the patient with an examination under anaesthesia, and it also avoids invasive examination methods, such as urography and lymphography. (orig.)

  11. Variations in measured computed tomography number values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed Tomography (CT) scans of a water phantom have been performed on a number of different CT scanners, and variations in the measured mean pixel value for a central region have been observed. In addition, a positional variation of mean CT number was noted. In particular, the head rest on an EMI CT1010 scanner had a significant effect on the pixel values. To simulate head scanning, a phantom with a Teflon annulus surrounding a water bath was used. This annulus affected both the mean and standard deviation of the pixels in a central area of the scan. Both an mAS and beam width dependence on CT numbers was noted. The effect of calibration on the measured CT numbers for each reconstruction filter was examined on one machine. The variation of CT number with reconstruction matrix and compensation filter was also investigated. These measurements suggest caution must be exercised when interpreting actual CT number values. This will be particularly relevant when the numbers are used to differentiate between tissue types for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. (author)

  12. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional state of organs can be imaged by their accumulation of single photon emitter like 99mTc (γ-ray energy 140 keV), 201Tl (73 keV) and 201I (159 keV) with computed tomography. The emitted γ-ray is collimated to reach the NaI (Tl) detector for specifying its direction, which is called as the scintillation camera or gamma camera. The camera rotating around the patient gives the SPECT images. The NaI (Tl) detector is suitable for converting 60-300 keV γ-ray to fluorescence through the photoelectric effect. Photomultiplier receiving the fluorescence outputs X/Y signals for the emitting position and Z signal (energy) separately, giving imaging data. 3D images can be re-constructed by either method of the filtered back projection or maximum likelihood-expectation maximization. For quantitative reconstruction, correction of γ-ray absorption in water, of scattering and of collimator opening is necessary. Recently, semiconductor-detectors like CdZnTe and CdTe are being utilized in place of NaI for better resolution, which will reduce the size of the camera. Further, a camera with coincidence circuit for positron has appeared and will be applicable for both SPECT and PET. Compton camera having 2-step detectors without collimator is now under development. (N.I.)

  13. Perfusion computed tomography in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Chandan J; Thingujam, Usha; Panda, Ananya; Sharma, Sanjay; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2015-07-28

    Various imaging modalities are available for the diagnosis, staging and response evaluation of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). While contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) is used as the standard of imaging for size, morphological evaluation and response assessment in RCC, a new functional imaging technique like perfusion CT (pCT), goes down to the molecular level and provides new perspectives in imaging of RCC. pCT depicts regional tumor perfusion and vascular permeability which are indirect parameters of tumor angiogenesis and thereby provides vital information regarding tumor microenvironment. Also response evaluation using pCT may predate the size criteria used in Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, as changes in the perfusion occurs earlier following tissue kinase inhibitors before any actual change in size. This may potentially help in predicting prognosis, better selection of therapy and more accurate and better response evaluation in patients with RCC. This article describes the techniques and role of pCT in staging and response assessment in patients with RCCs. PMID:26217456

  14. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy diagnosed with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rupture of ectopic pregnancy (EP) still remains the primary and direct cause of death in the first trimester of pregnancy. Ultrasonography is known to be a modality of choice in EP diagnostics. We found a severe discrepancy between the frequency of ectopic pregnancies (EP) and the number of available computed tomography (CT) examinations. A 29-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with a history of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and collapse. Sonographic findings of a suspected EP were unclear. Moreover, not all features of intrauterine pregnancy were present. Due to the patient’s life-threatening condition, an emergency multi-slice CT with MPR and VRT reconstructions was performed, revealing symptoms of a ruptured EP. In the right adnexal area, a well-vascularized, solid-cystic abnormal mass lesion was found. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage was confirmed intraoperatively, and the right fallopian tube with a tubal EP was resected. In the surgery in situ, as well as in the pathological examination of the tumor mass, a human embryo of approximately 1.5 cm in length (beginning of the 8th week of gestation) was found. Although ultrasonography still remains the first-line imaging examination in EP diagnostics, sometimes the findings of suspected EPs are unclear and not sufficient. The rupture of EP, with serious bleeding and symptoms of shock, may require an emergent pelvic and abdominal CT inspection. A clear correlation was found between the macroscopic CT images and the intraoperatively sampled material

  15. Dedicated breast computed tomography: Basic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray mammography of the compressed breast is well recognized as the “gold standard” for early detection of breast cancer, but its performance is not ideal. One limitation of screening mammography is tissue superposition, particularly for dense breasts. Since 2001, several research groups in the USA and in the European Union have developed computed tomography (CT) systems with digital detector technology dedicated to x-ray imaging of the uncompressed breast (breast CT or BCT) for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. This CT technology—tracing back to initial studies in the 1970s—allows some of the limitations of mammography to be overcome, keeping the levels of radiation dose to the radiosensitive breast glandular tissue similar to that of two-view mammography for the same breast size and composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the research efforts carried out in the invention, development, and improvement of BCT with dedicated scanners with state-of-the-art technology, including initial steps toward commercialization, after more than a decade of R and D in the laboratory and/or in the clinic. The intended focus here is on the technological/engineering aspects of BCT and on outlining advantages and limitations as reported in the related literature. Prospects for future research in this field are discussed

  16. Patient doses for computed tomography in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest initiative of the National Patient Dose Evaluation Program was an overall evaluation of patient doses for computed tomography. The aim of the survey was to collect data from which the patient doses of the CT examination of different body parts can be estimated and the most important technical parameters affecting on the patient exposures can be evaluated. The 54 CT scanners in clinical use in Hungary can be categorized into 31 different models from 8 manufacturers. Per caput frequency for CT is about 62.3 examinations per 1000 inhabitants. 59% of all examinations are connected to the head imaging. The highest mean effective dose arising from the chest and pelvis examinations, 6.98 mSv and 6.64 mSv, respectively. The yearly collective effective dose has been estimated at about 1700 manSv. This total dose is as much as the figure of 1785 manSv previously assessed for photofluorography applied in mass chest screening in Hungary. (author)

  17. Computed tomography with selectable image resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computed tomography system x-ray detector has a central group of half-width detector elements and groups of full-width elements on each side of the central group. To obtain x-ray attenuation data for whole body layers, the half-width elements are switched effectively into paralleled pairs so all elements act like full-width elements and an image of normal resolution is obtained. For narrower head layers, the elements in the central group are used as half-width elements so resolution which is twice as great as normal is obtained. The central group is also used in the half-width mode and the outside groups are used in the full-width mode to obtain a high resolution image of a body zone within a full body layer. In one embodiment data signals from the detector are switched by electronic multiplexing and in another embodiment a processor chooses the signals for the various kinds of images that are to be reconstructed. (author)

  18. Computed tomography guidance. Fluoroscopy and more

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are competitive imaging modalities for the guidance of needle-based interventions, computed tomography (CT) is the only modality suitable for image-guided interventions in all regions of the body, including the lungs and bone. The ongoing technical development of CT involves accelerated image acquisition, significantly improved spatial resolution, CT scanners with an extended gantry diameter, acceleration of the procedure through joystick control of relevant functions of interventional CT by the interventional radiologist and tube current modulation to protect the hands of the examiner and radiosensitive organs of the patient. CT fluoroscopy can be used as a real-time method (the intervention is monitored under continuous CT fluoroscopy) or as a quick check method (repeated acquisitions of individual CT fluoroscopic images after each change of needle or table position). For the two approaches, multislice CT fluoroscopy (MSCTF) technique with wide detectors is particularly useful because even in the case of needle deviation from the center slice the needle tip is simultaneously visualised in the neighboring slices. With the aid of this technique a precise placement of interventional devices is possible even in angled access routes and in the presence of pronounced respiratory organ movements. As the reduction of CT fluoroscopy time significantly reduces radiation exposure for the patient and staff, the combination of a quick check technique and a low milliampere technique with multislice CT fluoroscopy devices is advantageous. (orig.)

  19. Dynamic X-ray computed tomography; Tomographie dynamique a rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grangeat, P

    2003-07-01

    Paper Dynamic computed tomography (CT) imaging aims at reconstructing image sequences where the dynamic nature of the living human body is of primary interest. Main concerned applications are image-guided interventional procedures, functional studies and cardiac imaging. The introduction of ultra-fast rotating gantries along with multi-row detectors and in near future area detectors allows a huge progress toward the imaging of moving organs with low-contrast resolution. This paper gives an overview of the different concepts used in dynamic CT. A new reconstruction algorithm based on a voxel-specific dynamic evolution compensation is also presented. It provides four-dimensional image sequences with accurate spatio-temporal information, where each frame is reconstructed using a long-scan acquisition mode on several half-turns. In the same time, this technique permits to reduce the dose delivered per rotation while keeping the same signal to noise ratio for every frame using an adaptive motion-compensated temporal averaging. Results are illustrated on simulated data. (authors)

  20. Parallel algorithm based on a frequency decomposition for dynamic three dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic X ray tomography is a new medical imaging modality. In conventional scanner, a static cross-section of the patient is reconstructed from a set of x-ray projection acquired from the rotation around the patient of a X ray source and a set of detectors. In dynamic tomography a set of successive cross sections is reconstructed enabling the imaging of naturally moving organs such as the heart or organs in dynamic interaction with exterior elements. This is the case for CAS (computer assisted surgery) where we would like to control under CT imaging the progression of surgical tools (example: peri-cardiac punction). The diffusion of a contrast product (ex in angiography), or of a marker in nuclear imaging can also be studied dynamically. Thus dynamic tomography is becoming a very promising tool for the diagnostic of disease, the study of their evolution but also for guiding surgeons during CAS. (author)

  1. MR tomography in cardiac septum defects; Model investigations for parameter optimization. Magnetresonanz-Tomographie bei Herzscheidewanddefekten; Modelluntersuchungen zur Parameteroptimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandring, K.H. (Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany)); Baumgart, T. (Universitaetsklinik fuer Innere Medizin, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany))

    1993-07-01

    Various flow phenomena can occur in MR tomography of the heart. In the present study the influence of various examination parameters on the imaging of flow phenomena behind cardiac septum defects was investigated by means of a model. In the examination by fast field echo sequence (FFE) the contrast between poststenotic jet and surrounding area was most pronounced if short echo times (TE 10 ms), a narrow flip angle (d=10 ) and layers of minor thickness (d=5 mm) had been selected. The number of acquisitions and the flow compensation exercised only slight influence on contrast. Our results point to the possibility of obtaining quantitative information on cardiac septum defects if the influence of examination parameters on the imaging of flow phenomena is accurately known. (orig.)

  2. Evolution of Computed Tomography Findings in Secondary Aortoenteric Fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aortoenteric fistula is a rare but significant clinical entity associated with high morbidity and mortality if remain untreated. Clinical presentation and imaging findings may be subtle and prompt diagnosis can be difficult. Herein, we present a patient who initially presented with abdominal pain and computed tomography showed an aortic aneurysm compressing duodenum without any air bubbles. One month later, the patient presented with gastrointestinal bleeding and computed tomography revealed air bubbles within aneurysm. With a diagnosis of aortoenteric fistula, endovascular aneurysm repair was carried out. This case uniquely presented the computed tomography findings in progression of an aneurysm to an aortoenteric fistula

  3. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results: abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion: computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  4. Computed tomography of the llama head: technique and normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography was performed on the head of 6 normal adult llamas. The animals were under general anesthesia and positioned in dorsal recumbency on the scanning table. The area scanned was from the external occipital protuberance to the rostral portion of the nasal passage, and the images are presented in both a bone window and a soft tissue window to allow evaluation and identification of the anatomy of the head. Computed tomography of the llama head can be accomplished by most computed tomography scanners utilizing a technique similar to that used in small animals with minor modification of the scanning table

  5. Diagnosis of hoof disease in horses using computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovač Milomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes findings of computed tomography investigations at the Bergische Equine Clinic (Germany of 39 horses with hoof diseaseas. The most frequently findings were the navicular syndrome (eight horses, laminitis (seven horses, keratnoma (six horses and ossification of collateral cartilages in the distal phalanx (four horses. The special value of the computed tomography is in evaluating the size and courses fracture/fissure of the navicular and koffin bones, which were diagnose in five horses. In four of horses no pathologic changes of the hoof were determined by computed tomography.

  6. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermelho, Marli Batista Fernandes; Correia, Ademir Silva; Michailowsky, Tania Cibele de Almeida; Suzart, Elizete Kazumi Kuniyoshi; Ibanes, Aline Santos; Almeida, Lanamar Aparecida; Khoury, Zarifa; Barba, Mario Flores, E-mail: marlivermelho@globo.com [Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas (IIER), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results: abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion: computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  7. Diagnosis of sacral perineural cysts by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabas, J H; Deeb, Z L

    1986-07-01

    Three cases of sacral perineural cysts associated with chronic low-back pain are described with their myelography, computed tomography, and plain film findings. Significant findings include multiple cystic dilatations of lumbosacral nerve root sheaths, enlargement of the sacral foramina by masses isodense with cerebrospinal fluid, and asymmetric epidural fat distribution. Recognition of these findings on unenhanced computed tomography scans should preclude further evaluation by myelography and intrathecal metrizamide (Amipaque) computed tomography. These cysts are usually not the primary cause of back and leg pain. PMID:2942338

  8. Diagnosis of hoof diseases in horses using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes findings of computed tomography investigations at the Bergische Equine Clinic (Bergische Tierklinik), Germany, of 39 horses with hoof diseases. The most frequently findings were the navicular syndrome (eight horses), laminitis (seven horses), keratnoma (six horses) and ossification of collateral cartilages in the distal phalanx (four horses). The special value of the computed tomography is in evaluating the size and courses fracture/fissure of the navicular and koffin bones, which were diagnose in five horses. In four of horses no pathologic changes of the hoof were determined by computed tomography

  9. Maximal thickness of the normal human pericardium assessed by electron-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delille, J.P.; Hernigou, A.; Sene, V.; Chatellier, G.; Boudeville, J.C.; Challande, P.; Plainfosse, M.C. [Service de Radiologie Centrale, Hopital Broussais, Paris (France)

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the maximal value of normal pericardial thickness with an electron-beam computed tomography unit allowing fast scan times of 100 ms to reduce cardiac motion artifacts. Electron-beam computed tomography was performed in 260 patients with hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertension, as these pathologies have no effect on pericardial thickness. The pixel size was 0.5 mm. Measurements could be performed in front of the right ventricle, the right atrioventricular groove, the right atrium, the left ventricle, and the interventricular groove. Maximal thickness of normal pericardium was defined at the 95th percentile. Inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility studies were assessed from additional CT scans by the Bland and Altman method [24]. The maximal thickness of the normal pericardium was 2 mm for 95 % of cases. For the reproducibility studies, there was no significant relationship between the inter-observer and intra-observer measurements, but all pericardial thickness measurements were {<=} 1.6 mm. Using electron-beam computed tomography, which assists in decreasing substantially cardiac motion artifacts, the threshold of detection of thickened pericardium is statistically established as being 2 mm for 95 % of the patients with hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertension. However, the spatial resolution available prevents a reproducible measure of the real thickness of thin pericardium. (orig.) With 6 figs., 1 tab., 31 refs.

  10. Maximal thickness of the normal human pericardium assessed by electron-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the maximal value of normal pericardial thickness with an electron-beam computed tomography unit allowing fast scan times of 100 ms to reduce cardiac motion artifacts. Electron-beam computed tomography was performed in 260 patients with hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertension, as these pathologies have no effect on pericardial thickness. The pixel size was 0.5 mm. Measurements could be performed in front of the right ventricle, the right atrioventricular groove, the right atrium, the left ventricle, and the interventricular groove. Maximal thickness of normal pericardium was defined at the 95th percentile. Inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility studies were assessed from additional CT scans by the Bland and Altman method [24]. The maximal thickness of the normal pericardium was 2 mm for 95 % of cases. For the reproducibility studies, there was no significant relationship between the inter-observer and intra-observer measurements, but all pericardial thickness measurements were ≤ 1.6 mm. Using electron-beam computed tomography, which assists in decreasing substantially cardiac motion artifacts, the threshold of detection of thickened pericardium is statistically established as being 2 mm for 95 % of the patients with hypercholesterolemia and/or hypertension. However, the spatial resolution available prevents a reproducible measure of the real thickness of thin pericardium. (orig.)

  11. Calcium score of small coronary calcifications on multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groen, J M; Kofoed, K F; Zacho, M;

    2013-01-01

    Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) underestimates the coronary calcium score as compared to electron beam tomography (EBT). Therefore clinical risk stratification based on MDCT calcium scoring may be inaccurate. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a new phantom which...

  12. Recurrent ovarian endodermal sinus tumor: demonstration by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of recurrent endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary that was identified and/or clearly depicted by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. The potential roles of various imaging modalities in the detection of recurrent endodermal sinus tumor are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in evaluation of residual intramuscular myxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intramuscular myxoma (IM) is a rare benign neoplasm. In a patient diagnosed with IM of left thigh, we report the utility of a postoperative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan in assessing the efficacy of surgical excision

  14. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle Westergren;

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...

  15. The Use of GPUs for Solving the Computed Tomography Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Kovtanyuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT is a widespread method used to study the internal structure of objects. The method has applications in medicine, industry and other fields of human activity. In particular, Electronic Imaging, as a species CT, can be used to restore the structure of nanosized objects. Accurate and rapid results are in high demand in modern science. However, there are computational limitations that bound the possible usefulness of CT. On the other hand, the introduction of high-performance calculations using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs provides improving quality and performance of computed tomography investigations. Moreover, parallel computing with GPUs gives significantly higher computation speeds when compared with (Central Processing Units CPUs, because of architectural advantages of the former. In this paper a computed tomography method of recovering the image using parallel computations powered by NVIDIA CUDA technology is considered. The implementation of this approach significantly reduces the required time for solving the CT problem.

  16. Computed Tomography diagnosis of skeletal involvement in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors assess the role of Computed Topography in the diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma (MM) and investigate if Computed Tomography findings can influence the clinical approach, prognosis and treatment. 273 multiple myeloma patients submitted to Computed Tomography June 1994, to December, 1996. The patients were 143 men and 130 women (mean age: 65 years): 143 were stage I, 38 stage II and 92 stage III according to Durie and Salomon's clinical classification. All patients were submitted to blood tests, spinal radiography and Computed Tomography, the latter with serial 5-mm scans on several vertebral bodies. Computed Tomography despicted vertebral arch and process involvement in 3 cases with the vertebral pedicle sign. Moreover, Computed Tomography proved superior to radiography in showing the spread of myelomatous masses into the soft tissues in a case with solitary permeative lesion in the left public bone, which facilitated subsequent biopsy. As for extraosseous localizations, Computed Tomography demonstrated thoracic soft tissue (1 woman) and pelvic (1 man) involvement by myelomtous masses penetrating into surrounding tissues. In our series, only a case of osteosclerotic bone myeloma was observed in the pelvis, associated with lytic abnormalities. Computed Tomography findings do not seem to improve the clinical approach and therapeutic management of the disease. Nevertheless, the authors reccommend Computed Tomography for some myelomatous conditions, namely: a) in the patients with focal bone pain but normal skeletal radiographs; b) in the patients with M protein, bone marrow plasmocytosis and back pain, but with an incoclusive multiple myeloma diagnosis; c) to asses bone spread in the regions which are anatomically complex or difficult to study with radiography and to depict soft tissue involvement; d) for bone biopsy

  17. Dose modulated computed tomography automated dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Computed Tomography (CT) scans contribute a significant portion of the effective radiation dose from medical procedures and generally large effective radiation doses per diagnostic examination. With the advent of Multislice CT, the potential for large radiation exposures increased. This combined with the appeal of the resultant isotropic imaging and the increasing number of applications for which CT could be utilised (including screening procedures) has further increased the need for vigilant monitoring of CT protocols and use with respect to radiation dose. The introduction of dose modulated Computed Tomography has proven an effective method for reducing patient dose and is now widely used by CT manufacturers. This involves lowering the mA when scanning through anatomical regions which do not require a large mA. Many CT investigations now utilise dose modulation. Some of these studies will include over 900 images for which the mA and occasionally other factors could vary. In order to utilise the existing software to perform CT dosimetry a program has been written to automatically extract scan parameters from CT dicom image files and apply the ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator, for slices with differing factors. Matlab has been used to write and compile a program which sorts through a folder of dicom images and extracts the appropriate dicom header information. Some manufacturers store different series and reformatted images all within the same folder. The images of the CT study for which the dosimetry is to be performed must be stored within the one folder and must be in a dicom format. The program has been written to accommodate several manufacturers, which all contain different information in their dicom headers. The Matlab program groups the various study/image types, extracting the relevant dicom header information, which is written to an Excel worksheet. An Excel file uses this information to run the ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator with

  18. Color doppler findings of gastric varices compared with findings on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamics of gastric varices. We evaluated the detection rates of gastric varices, inflowing vessels to gastric varices, and outflowing vessels from gastric varices in 24 patients with gastric varices, using color Doppler sonography, and compared these findings with computed tomography findings. Eighteen patients had F2-type varices and 6 had F3-type, classified according to the Japanese Research Society for Portal Hypertension. Fourteen patients had fundal varices, and 10 had cardiac and fundal varices. The detection rates of collateral veins using color Doppler sonography were as follows: gastric varices were detected in all 24 patients (100%); inflowing vessels, in 21 of the 24 patients (87.5%); and outflowing vessels, in 18 of the 24 patients (75.0%). The detection rates of collateral veins, using computed tomography, were: gastric varices were detected in all 24 patients (100%); inflowing vessels, in all 24 patients (100%); and outflowing vessles, in 21 of the 24 patients (87.5%). The color Doppler findings agreed perfectly with the computed tomography findings in 13 of the 24 patients (54.2%). Although color Doppler sonography is a useful, noninvasive modality for evaluating the hemodynamics of gastric varices, it falls short in visualizing the detailed hemodynamics of the inflowing and outflowing vessels of gastric varices in half of the patients when compared with computed tomography. (author)

  19. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in the Assessment of Acute Chest Pain in the Emergency Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coronary computed tomography angiography has recently emerged as an accurate diagnostic tool in the evaluation of coronary artery disease, providing diagnostic and prognostic data that correlate directly with the data provided by invasive coronary angiography. The association of recent technological developments has allowed improved temporal resolution and better spatial coverage of the cardiac volume with significant reduction in radiation dose, and with the crucial need for more effective protocols of risk stratification of patients with chest pain in the emergency room, recent evaluation of the computed tomography coronary angiography has been performed in the setting of acute chest pain, as about two thirds of invasive coronary angiographies show no significantly obstructive coronary artery disease. In daily practice, without the use of more efficient technologies, such as coronary angiography by computed tomography, safe and efficient stratification of patients with acute chest pain remains a challenge to the medical team in the emergency room. Recently, several studies, including three randomized trials, showed favorable results with the use of this technology in the emergency department for patients with low to intermediate likelihood of coronary artery disease. In this review, we show data resulting from coronary angiography by computed tomography in risk stratification of patients with chest pain in the emergency room, its diagnostic value, prognosis and cost-effectiveness and a critical analysis of recently published multicenter studies

  20. Live four-dimensional optical coherence tomography reveals embryonic cardiac phenotype in mouse mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Andrew L., III; Wang, Shang; Larin, Kirill V.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Larina, Irina V.

    2015-09-01

    Efficient phenotyping of developmental defects in model organisms is critical for understanding the genetic specification of normal development and congenital abnormalities in humans. We previously reported that optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with live embryo culture is a valuable tool for mouse embryo imaging and four-dimensional (4-D) cardiodynamic analysis; however, its capability for analysis of mouse mutants with cardiac phenotypes has not been previously explored. Here, we report 4-D (three-dimensional+time) OCT imaging and analysis of the embryonic heart in a Wdr19 mouse mutant, revealing a heart looping defect. Quantitative analysis of cardiac looping revealed a statistically significant difference between mutant and control embryos. Our results indicate that live 4-D OCT imaging provides a powerful phenotyping approach to characterize embryonic cardiac function in mouse models.

  1. Live 4D optical coherence tomography for early embryonic mouse cardiac phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Andrew L.; Wang, Shang; Larin, Kirill V.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Studying embryonic mouse development is important for our understanding of normal human embryogenesis and the underlying causes of congenital defects. Our research focuses on imaging early development in the mouse embryo to specifically understand cardiovascular development using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We have previously developed imaging approaches that combine static embryo culture, OCT imaging and advanced image processing to visualize the whole live mouse embryos and obtain 4D (3D+time) cardiodynamic datasets with cellular resolution. Here, we present the study of using 4D OCT for dynamic imaging of early embryonic heart in live mouse embryos to assess mutant cardiac phenotypes during development, including a cardiac looping defect. Our results indicate that the live 4D OCT imaging approach is an efficient phenotyping tool that can reveal structural and functional cardiac defects at very early stages. Further studies integrating live embryonic cardiodynamic phenotyping with molecular and genetic approaches in mouse mutants will help to elucidate the underlying signaling defects.

  2. Radiological protection in paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that paediatric patients are generally at greater risk for the development of cancer per unit of radiation dose compared with adults, due both to the longer life expectancy for any harmful effects of radiation to manifest, and the fact that developing organs and tissues are more sensitive to the effects of radiation. Multiple computed tomography (CT) examinations may cumulatively involve absorbed doses to organs and tissues that can sometimes approach or exceed the levels known from epidemiological studies to significantly increase the probability of cancer development. Radiation protection strategies include rigorous justification of CT examinations and the use of imaging techniques that are non-ionising, followed by optimisation of radiation dose exposure (according to the ‘as low as reasonably achievable’ principle). Special consideration should be given to the availability of dose reduction technology when acquiring CT scanners. Dose reduction should be optimised by adjustment of scan parameters (such as mAs, kVp, and pitch) according to patient weight or age, region scanned, and study indication (e.g. images with greater noise should be accepted if they are of sufficient diagnostic quality). Other strategies include restricting multiphase examination protocols, avoiding overlapping of scan regions, and only scanning the area in question. Newer technologies such as tube current modulation, organ-based dose modulation, and iterative reconstruction should be used when appropriate. Attention should also be paid to optimising study quality (e.g. by image post-processing to facilitate radiological diagnoses and interpretation). Finally, improving awareness through education and advocacy, and further research in paediatric radiological protection are important to help reduce patient dose.

  3. Computed tomography of diffuse pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article summarizes our preliminary results on high resolution computed tomography of 101 patients with various diffuse lung diseases. Instead of pattern recognition routinely done on chest radiogram (nodular, reticular or reticulo-nodular) we emphasized the relation of the lesions with inherent structures of the lung seen on the CT images. For this purpose our ten years radiologic-pathologic correlation on inflated and fixed lung specimens proved quite useful. 1) Centrilobular inflammatory nodules. This was seen in diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB), allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis, tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis and lobular pneumonia. DPB and bronchogenic spread of tuberculosis were most representative. The nodules produced by these diseases were located at the extreme end of bronchial branchings and separated by 2 to 3 mm from the pleura and pulmonary vein which constitute the edge of the secondary pulmonary lobule. 2) The lesions extending along bronchoarterial sheath and pulmonary vein. The contours of the pulmonary vessels were irregular and their calibers enlarged. These findings were seen in sarcoidosis and lymphangiosis carcinomatosa. 3) Lobular and multilobular lesions. This was seen in diffuse interstitial pneumonia and in alveolar filling diseases. The margins of the lesions were straight or curved slightly suggesting that disease is blocked by the lobular septa. Fine air bronchogram within the lesions was characteristic in chronic interstitial pneumonia. 4) Slight to moderate increase of lung density with multilobular distribution. This was seen in interstitial pneumonia, sarcoidosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. We supposed that this finding corresponds to cellular or fibrous thickening of alveolar septa, but direct proof was not available. (J.P.N.)

  4. Computed tomography in Duchenne type muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computed tomography (CT) scan was performed on 91 Duchenne type muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients on the following four levels; (1) at the level of L3 vertebra, (2) 2-3cm above the symphysis pubica, (3) midposition of the thigh, (4) largest-diameter section of the lower leg. The CT of muscles common to most of the DMD patients were as follows: 1. Muscle atrophy: Muscle atrophy was shown as a reduction in the cross-sectional area of the muscles. Very mild muscle atrophy could be detected either by the clearly identified muscle border or by scattered low-density areas of so-called ''moth-eaten'' appearance within muscles. 2. Fat infiltration: The decrease in radio-density of muscles was interpreted as infiltration of fatty tissue. This type of density change was further classified into diffuse, streaked, cobblestone and salt-and-pepper patterns according to the spacial distribution of low-density areas. 3. Selectivity pattern: As the chronological sequence of DMD muscle degeneration is usually different among individual muscles, it may be seen, in some stages, that some of the synergistic muscles are still only slightly involved, while the others are quite severely atrophied with evident fat infiltration. In certain stages of the disease, most of the patients show relative preservation of particular muscles although they assumed a rounded shape. The most resistent muscle was musculus gracilis, followed by the musculus sartorius, musculus semitendinosus (and/or musculus semimembranosus) in that order. According to the severity of the CT changes, 86 of the 91 patients were classed into five stages from A1 to A5. Morphological stages (A1-A5) were well correlated to the functional disability stages by Ueda with a correlation factor of r=0.88. (J.P.N.)

  5. The petromastoid canal on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, G.A.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Weidner, J.; Guenther, R.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Prescher, A. [Department of Anatomy, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, E. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Technology, Pauwelstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    The objective was to assess visibility and anatomy of the petromastoid canal in high-resolution CT. Computed tomography images of 188 patients were reviewed for delineation of the petromastoid canal. This bony canal connects the mastoid antrum with the cranial cavity and houses the subarcuate artery and vein. The diameter, obtained in the middle portion of the canal, was compared with the diameter of the vestibular and cochlear aqueduct in all patients, and absolute values measured in 20 cases. Collimation was 1 mm in 164 and 2 mm in 24 examinations. Additionally, temporal bone of a cadaver was imaged and microdissected. The petromastoid canal was identified bilaterally in all 164 scans that were obtained with a slice thickness of 1 mm. In 5 of the 24 patients imaged with a collimation of 2 mm, the canal was not visible, most probably due to partial-volume effects. The petromastoid canal had the same diameter as the cochlear aqueduct in 42/44 (right/left), exceeded it in 66/61 and was smaller in 75/78 cases. In comparison to the vestibular aqueduct it had an equal diameter in 38/41 (right/left), exceeded it in 63/61, and was rated as smaller in 82/81 temporal bones. Diameters for the canals were: petromastoid canal 0.51{+-}0.04 mm; cochlear aqueduct 0.57{+-}0.03; and vestibular aqueduct 0.63{+-}0.06 mm. Microdissection of the specimen revealed the entire course of the canal and demonstrated a similar appearance of the structure as in the images. The petromastoid canal can easily be identified on high-resolution, thin-slice CT images. Knowledge of the anatomy of this bony canal prevents misinterpretation as pathological structure, such as fracture line, which might occur if this structure is not known. (orig.)

  6. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate key elements of feasibility for a high speed automated time domain terahertz computed axial tomography (TD-THz CT) non destructive...

  7. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase 2 project, we propose to develop, construct, and deliver to NASA a computed axial tomography time-domain terahertz (CT TD-THz) non destructive...

  8. The value of computed tomography in tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computed tomography (CT) findings in 5 patients with tuberous sclerosis are presented. CT is recommended as a rapid, non-invasive, easily repeated investigative procedure for patients with clinically suspected tuberous sclerosis and epilepsy of unknown origin

  9. Helical x-ray differential phase contrast computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhihua; Thériault-Lauzier, Pascal; Bevins, Nicholas; Zambelli, Joseph; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2011-03-01

    Helical computed tomography revolutionized the field of x-ray computed tomography two decades ago. The simultaneous translation of an image object with a standard computed tomography acquisition allows for fast volumetric scan for long image objects. X-ray phase sensitive imaging methods have been studied over the past few decades to provide new contrast mechanisms for imaging an object. A Talbot-Lau grating interferometer based differential phase contrast imaging method has recently demonstrated its potential for implementation in clinical and industrial applications. In this work, the principles of helical computed tomography are extended to differential phase contrast imaging to produce volumetric reconstructions based on fan-beam data. The method demonstrates the potential for helical differential phase contrast CT to scan long objects with relatively small detector coverage in the axial direction.

  10. Use of computed tomography in nondestructive testing of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography has been used to detect imperfections and to measure cross-link density gradients in polymeric products, such as airplane tires, rubber shock absorbers, and filament-wound high-pressure tanks

  11. Dynamic separation of pulmonary and cardiac changes in electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spontaneously breathing or ventilated subjects, it is difficult to image cardiac-related conductivity changes using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) due to the high amplitude of the ventilation component. Previous attempts to separate these components included either electrocardiogram-gated averaging, frequency domain filtering or holding the breath while performing the measurements. However, such methods are either not able to produce continuous real-time images or to fully separate cardiac and pulmonary changes. The aim of this work was to develop a new dynamic filtering method for the online separation of pulmonary and cardiac changes avoiding the drawbacks of the previous attempts. The approach is based on estimating template functions for the pulmonary and cardiac components by means of principal component analysis and frequency domain filtering. Then, these templates are fitted into the input signals. The new method enables an observer to examine the variation of the cardiac signal beat-by-beat after a one-time setup period of 20 s. Preliminary in vivo results of two healthy subjects are presented. The results are superior to frequency domain filtering and in good agreement with signals averaged over several cardiac cycles. The method does not depend on ECG or other a priori knowledge. The apparent validity of the method's ability to separate cardiac and pulmonary changes in EIT images was shown and has to be confirmed in future studies. The algorithm opens up new possibilities for future clinical trials on continuous monitoring by means of EIT and for the examination of the relation between the cardiac component and lung perfusion

  12. Myocardial perfusion with multi-detector computed tomography: quantitative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the skill of multidetector computer tomography, to quantify the different patterns of intensification during the evaluation of the myocardial perfusion. 45 patients were studied with suspicion of cardiovascular disease. Multi-detector computed tomography was utilized on patients at rest and in effort with pharmacological stress, after the administration of dipyridamole. Also they were evaluated using nuclear medicine

  13. Diagnosis of hoof disease in horses using computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač Milomir; Nowak Michael; Kaufels Nikola; Tambur Zoran

    2002-01-01

    This study describes findings of computed tomography investigations at the Bergische Equine Clinic (Germany) of 39 horses with hoof diseaseas. The most frequently findings were the navicular syndrome (eight horses), laminitis (seven horses), keratnoma (six horses) and ossification of collateral cartilages in the distal phalanx (four horses). The special value of the computed tomography is in evaluating the size and courses fracture/fissure of the navicular and koffin bones, which were diagnos...

  14. Dual energy computed tomography: Physical principles and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Κοντογιάννη, Λουκία

    2013-01-01

    The current thesis concerns Dual Energy Computed Tomography and specifically the physical principles and methods it is based on. Dual Energy CT offers the potential of not only anatomical, but also functional information from Computed Tomography (CT) exams. This is achieved by utilizing the energy dependence of X-rays’ attenuation within matter. In this way, materials are divided into those that are characterized by energy-dependent attenuation (strong spectral behavior), due t...

  15. Computed tomography of the mediastinum in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography of the mediastinum was performed in 45 patients with myasthenia gravis. Surgery was carried out in fourteen. Amongst these, there were four thymomas, one thymolipoma, eight thymic hyperplasias and one normal thymus gland. A further patient, who did not have surgery, probably also had a thymic tumour. The normal thymus and thymic hyperplasia cannot be distinguished on computed tomography. Differentiation of small thymomas from normal thymus is not always possible. Invasion by thymomas can only be appreciated with large tumours. (orig.)

  16. Computed tomography of the mediastinum in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guertler, K.F.; Janzen, R.W.C.; Hagemann, J.; Otto, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography of the mediastinum was performed in 45 patients with myasthenia gravis. Surgery was carried out in fourteen. Amongst these, there were four thymomas, one thymolipoma, eight thymic hyperplasias and one normal thymus gland. A further patient, who did not have surgery, probably also had a thymic tumour. The normal thymus and thymic hyperplasia cannot be distinguished on computed tomography. Differentiation of small thymomas from normal thymus is not always possible. Invasion by thymomas can only be appreciated with large tumours.

  17. Diagnostic Performance of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography and Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in Kidney Transplantation Candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Simon; Svensson, My; Jørgensen, Hanne Mari Skou;

    2014-01-01

    chronic kidney disease referred for cardiac evaluation before kidney transplantation. Background The optimal method for the detection of obstructive CAD in potential kidney transplant patients has not yet been identified. Previous studies have shown low diagnostic accuracy of established noninvasive......Objectives To compare the diagnostic accuracy of coronary artery calcium score (CACS), coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and a combination of these in the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with...... for diagnosing obstructive CAD prior to kidney transplantation. A noninvasive approach with use of either CCTA or a combination of CCTA and SPECT to rule out obstructive CAD appears recommendable in kidney transplant candidates....

  18. Quantification of aortic elasticity: development and experimental validation of a method using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aortic distensibility depending on aortic cross-sectional area changes is an important parameter for the grading of vascular diseases. This study measured aortic area changes by multidetector computed tomography. An image reconstruction algorithm was developed to assess aorta diameter and area as a function of the cardiac cycle with sufficient time resolution along the entire length of the aorta by four-detector row computed tomography. The algorithm was tested on porcine aortic specimens and compared with an optical reference method. The error of the relative vessel area change comparing the two methods was found to be about 3%. Initial tests on patient datasets indicate that clinical application is feasible. The proposed method has the advantage that it can easily be integrated into a modified routine CT angiography study and allows the measurement of aortic cross-sectional area changes. (orig.)

  19. Value of positron emission tomography and computer tomography (PET/CT) for urologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography is a functional imaging technique that allows the detection of the regional metabolic rate, and is often coupled with other morphological imaging technique such as computed tomography. The rationale for its use is based on the clearly demonstrated fact that functional changes in tumor processes happen before morphological changes. Its introduction to the clinical practice added a new dimension in conventional imaging techniques. This review presents the current and proposed indications of the use of positron emission/computed tomography for prostate, bladder and testes, and the potential role of this exam in radiotherapy planning. (authors)

  20. [Value of positron emission tomography and computer tomography (PET/CT) for urologic malignancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujelbene, N; Prior, J O; Boubaker, A; Azria, D; Schaffer, M; Gez, E; Jichlinski, P; Meuwly, J-Y; Mirimanoff, R O; Ozsahin, M; Zouhair, A

    2011-07-01

    Positron emission tomography is a functional imaging technique that allows the detection of the regional metabolic rate, and is often coupled with other morphological imaging technique such as computed tomography. The rationale for its use is based on the clearly demonstrated fact that functional changes in tumor processes happen before morphological changes. Its introduction to the clinical practice added a new dimension in conventional imaging techniques. This review presents the current and proposed indications of the use of positron emission/computed tomography for prostate, bladder and testes, and the potential role of this exam in radiotherapy planning. PMID:21507695

  1. Challenges for computed tomography of overweight patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In morbidly obese patients, computed tomography frequently represents the only viable option for non-invasive imaging diagnostics. The aim of this study was to analyze the weight limits, dose and image quality with standard CT scanners and to determine the diagnostic value and dose with a dual source XXL mode. A total of 15 patients (average body weight 189.6±42 kg) were retrospectively identified who had been examined with the XXL mode. Of these patients 7 (average body weight 176.4±56 kg) had been examined using both the XXL and standard protocols allowing for an intraindividual comparison in this subcollective. Additionally 14 patients weighing between 90 and 150 kg (average 106.1±19 kg) examined with standard protocols were included as references. Dose, image noise and subjectively assessed image quality (rating scale 1-4) were determined. Additionally, a large abdomen phantom of 48 cm diameter was examined with both protocols at equivalent tube current-time product in order to compare the dose efficiency. The patient groups differed significantly in dose (CTDIvol XXL 72.9±23 versus standard 16.7±11 mGy; intraindividual 64.1±20 versus 27.0±15 mGy). The image noise was generally somewhat higher in the XXL group but significantly lower in the intraindividual comparison (liver 24.2±14 HU versus 36.3±20 HU; p=0.03; fat 15.5±8 HU versus 26.2±12 HU; p=0.02). With ratings of 1.9±0.7 and 1.8±0.7 image quality did not differ significantly in general, whereas there was a clear difference in the intraindividual comparison (1.8±0.8 versus 3.0±1.2) and only the XXL protocol achieved diagnostic quality in all cases, while 43% of the examinations with the standard protocol were rated as non-diagnostic. The quantification of dose efficiency in the phantom scans yielded no significant difference between the protocols. Up to 150 kg body weight, CT can be performed with the standard technique at 120 kVp with tube current modulation. In larger patients diagnostic

  2. Skeletal dosimetry in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, B. R. B.; Ding, G. X.; Kramer, R.; Kawrakow, I. [Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa K1A OR6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-5671 (United States); Departamento de Energia Nuclear, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire 1000, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 50740-540, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa K1A OR6 (Canada)

    2009-07-15

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a relatively new patient imaging technique that has proved invaluable for treatment target verification and patient positioning during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). It has been shown that CBCT results in additional dose to bone that may amount to 10% of the prescribed dose. In this study, voxelized human phantoms, FAX06 (adult female) and MAX06 (adult male), are used together with phase-space data collected from a realistic model of a CBCT imager to calculate dose in the red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSCs), the two organs at risk within the bone spongiosa, during simulated head and neck, chest and pelvis CBCT scans. The FAX06/MAX06 phantoms model spongiosa based on micro-CT images, filling the relevant phantom voxels, which are 0.12x0.12x0.12 cm{sup 3}, with 17x17x17 {mu}m{sup 3} microvoxels to form a micromatrix of trabecular bone and bone marrow. FAX06/MAX06 have already been implemented in an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo code to simulate radiation transport in the phantoms; however, this study required significant modifications of the code to allow use of phase-space data from a simulated CBCT imager as a source and to allow scoring of total dose, RBM dose and BSC dose on a voxel-by-voxel basis. In simulated CBCT scans, the BSC dose is significantly greater than the dose to other organs at risk. For example, in a simulated head and neck scan, the average BSC dose is 25% higher than the average dose to eye lens ({approx}8.3 cGy), and 80% greater than the average dose to brain (5.7 cGy). Average dose to RBM, on the other hand, is typically only {approx}50% of the average BSC dose and less than the dose to other organs at risk (54% of the dose to eye lens and 76% of dose to brain in a head and neck scan). Thus, elevated dose in bone due to CBCT results in elevated BSC dose. This is potentially of concern when using CBCT in conjunction with radiotherapy treatment.

  3. Skeletal dosimetry in cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, B R B; Ding, G X; Kramer, R; Kawrakow, I

    2009-07-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a relatively new patient imaging technique that has proved invaluable for treatment target verification and patient positioning during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). It has been shown that CBCT results in additional dose to bone that may amount to 10% of the prescribed dose. In this study, voxelized human phantoms, FAX06 (adult female) and MAX06 (adult male), are used together with phase-space data collected from a realistic model of a CBCT imager to calculate dose in the red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSCs), the two organs at risk within the bone spongiosa, during simulated head and neck, chest and pelvis CBCT scans. The FAX06/MAX06 phantoms model spongiosa based on micro-CT images, filling the relevant phantom voxels, which are 0.12 x 0.12 x 0.12 cm3, with 17 x 17 x 17 microm3 microvoxels to form a micromatrix of trabecular bone and bone marrow. FAX06/ MAX06 have already been implemented in an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo code to simulate radiation transport in the phantoms; however, this study required significant modifications of the code to allow use of phase-space data from a simulated CBCT imager as a source and to allow scoring of total dose, RBM dose and BSC dose on a voxel-by-voxel basis. In simulated CBCT scans, the BSC dose is significantly greater than the dose to other organs at risk. For example, in a simulated head and neck scan, the average BSC dose is 25% higher than the average dose to eye lens (approximately 8.3 cGy), and 80% greater than the average dose to brain (5.7 cGy). Average dose to RBM, on the other hand, is typically only approximately 50% of the average BSC dose and less than the dose to other organs at risk (54% of the dose to eye lens and 76% of dose to brain in a head and neck scan). Thus, elevated dose in bone due to CBCT results in elevated BSC dose. This is potentially of concern when using CBCT in conjunction with radiotherapy treatment. PMID:19673190

  4. Skeletal dosimetry in cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a relatively new patient imaging technique that has proved invaluable for treatment target verification and patient positioning during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). It has been shown that CBCT results in additional dose to bone that may amount to 10% of the prescribed dose. In this study, voxelized human phantoms, FAX06 (adult female) and MAX06 (adult male), are used together with phase-space data collected from a realistic model of a CBCT imager to calculate dose in the red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSCs), the two organs at risk within the bone spongiosa, during simulated head and neck, chest and pelvis CBCT scans. The FAX06/MAX06 phantoms model spongiosa based on micro-CT images, filling the relevant phantom voxels, which are 0.12x0.12x0.12 cm3, with 17x17x17 μm3 microvoxels to form a micromatrix of trabecular bone and bone marrow. FAX06/MAX06 have already been implemented in an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo code to simulate radiation transport in the phantoms; however, this study required significant modifications of the code to allow use of phase-space data from a simulated CBCT imager as a source and to allow scoring of total dose, RBM dose and BSC dose on a voxel-by-voxel basis. In simulated CBCT scans, the BSC dose is significantly greater than the dose to other organs at risk. For example, in a simulated head and neck scan, the average BSC dose is 25% higher than the average dose to eye lens (∼8.3 cGy), and 80% greater than the average dose to brain (5.7 cGy). Average dose to RBM, on the other hand, is typically only ∼50% of the average BSC dose and less than the dose to other organs at risk (54% of the dose to eye lens and 76% of dose to brain in a head and neck scan). Thus, elevated dose in bone due to CBCT results in elevated BSC dose. This is potentially of concern when using CBCT in conjunction with radiotherapy treatment.

  5. Computed tomography of the orbital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jai Korl; Lee, Hwang Bok; Kang, Eun Young; Seol, Hae Young; Suh, Won Hyuck [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Byeong Yeob [Han Mi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-04-15

    The development of computed tomography (CT) provided a noninvasive safe technique for imaging the orbit in any plane exquisitely demonstrating its normal anatomy as well as its pathologic process. The orbit is an ideal structure to be examined by CT because of large difference of absorption values between the intraorbital fat, muscle, optic nerve and vessels. In this study, the authors reviewed CT findings of 66 pathologically proven orbital tumors and tumorous conditions among the total of 98 cases who had taken orbital CT scan because if exophthalmos, ocular pain, diplopia and other ophthalmologic symptoms suggesting orbital masses during the period of 3 years. For the analysis of characteristic CT findings of the orbital lesions, all lesions are divided into 4 groups according to the site of origin, i.e., tumors arising in the eyeball (group 1); from intraconal space (group 2); from extraconal space (group 3); and from extraorbital regions (group 4). The results are as follows; 1.Extra tumor detection and localization was possible in 63 cases. Thus the detection rate was 95% with CT scan. 2.Among 36 males and 30 females, their age ranged from 10 months to 72 years. 3.Intraocular tumors (group 1) were 10 cases. Retinoblastoma occurred wholly in the young children under 5 years and combined with calcification in 57%. Choroidal melanoma occurred wholly in adults. 4.Intraconal tumors (group 2) were 9 cases. Vascular tumors (7 cases) were the most frequent and well enhancing mass. 5.The tumors arising in the extraconal region (group 3) were pseudotumor (12 cases), lymphoma (3 cases), dermoid cyst (4 cases), metastasis (2 cases), adenoid cystic carcinoma (1 case) and teratoma (1 case). A case of lymphoma demonstrating retrobulbar ill defined mass with scleral l thickening could not be differentiated from the pseudotumor which showing similar finding. 6.The lesions arising from extraorbital region (group 4) were PNS cancer (9 cases), mucocele (3 cases), lid cancer (4

  6. Computed tomography of the orbital tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of computed tomography (CT) provided a noninvasive safe technique for imaging the orbit in any plane exquisitely demonstrating its normal anatomy as well as its pathologic process. The orbit is an ideal structure to be examined by CT because of large difference of absorption values between the intraorbital fat, muscle, optic nerve and vessels. In this study, the authors reviewed CT findings of 66 pathologically proven orbital tumors and tumorous conditions among the total of 98 cases who had taken orbital CT scan because if exophthalmos, ocular pain, diplopia and other ophthalmologic symptoms suggesting orbital masses during the period of 3 years. For the analysis of characteristic CT findings of the orbital lesions, all lesions are divided into 4 groups according to the site of origin, i.e., tumors arising in the eyeball (group 1); from intraconal space (group 2); from extraconal space (group 3); and from extraorbital regions (group 4). The results are as follows; 1.Extra tumor detection and localization was possible in 63 cases. Thus the detection rate was 95% with CT scan. 2.Among 36 males and 30 females, their age ranged from 10 months to 72 years. 3.Intraocular tumors (group 1) were 10 cases. Retinoblastoma occurred wholly in the young children under 5 years and combined with calcification in 57%. Choroidal melanoma occurred wholly in adults. 4.Intraconal tumors (group 2) were 9 cases. Vascular tumors (7 cases) were the most frequent and well enhancing mass. 5.The tumors arising in the extraconal region (group 3) were pseudotumor (12 cases), lymphoma (3 cases), dermoid cyst (4 cases), metastasis (2 cases), adenoid cystic carcinoma (1 case) and teratoma (1 case). A case of lymphoma demonstrating retrobulbar ill defined mass with scleral l thickening could not be differentiated from the pseudotumor which showing similar finding. 6.The lesions arising from extraorbital region (group 4) were PNS cancer (9 cases), mucocele (3 cases), lid cancer (4

  7. Computed tomography of orbital diseases in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed computed tomography (CT) of 29 cases of various orbital diseases in pediatric age group. Diagnosis were confirmed by either operation or direct ophthalmoscope. The patients were examined during the period of last 3 years. The results were as follows: 1. Of 29 cases, 21 were male and 8 were female, and the age ranged from 20 days to 15 years. 2. Intraorbital tumors were 13 cases consisting of 7 retinoblastoma, 3 pseudotumor, and 1 each of congenital teratoma, cavernous lymphangioma, and optic glioma. Of remaining 16 cases, 6 had orbital fracture, 5 persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV), 3 vitreous opacity, and 2 primary glaucoma. 3. The CT findings of the retinoblastoma were a lobulated or oval soft tissue mass density (40-60 HU) extending into the vitreous without significant enhancement on postcontrast scan. Of 7 cases, 4 had calcifications within the tumors. The extraglobal extension of the tumor was shown in 2 patients demonstrating markedly thickened sclera with enhancement and dilated optic nerve. 4. There were 5 patients with PHPV having a history of white pupil since birth, and all were affected unilateraly. Four patients had vitreous opacity and 3 of those showed either liner or branching tree-like densities within the vitreous on the postcontrast scan. Another one had a lobulated increased density protruding into the vitreous which was difficult to differenciate from the similar finding of retinoblastoma. Remaining one case demonstrated a deformed and decreased density in the lesional lens without change in the density of the vitreous. This was confirmed to be caused by persistence of the embryonic hyaloid artery attached to the posterior capsule of he lens. 5. There were 3 patients with vitreous opacity and 2 of them were due to retinal detachment and 1 was caused by retrolental fibroplasia. The CT findings of retinal detachment were homogeneous or heterogenous opacities in the vitreous. In a case of retrolental fibroplasia

  8. Optimization of Free-Breathing Whole-Heart 3D Cardiac MRI at 3Tesla to Identify Coronary Vein Anatomy and to Compare with Multi-Detector Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wael G.; El Khouli, Riham H.; Abd-Elmoniem, Khaled Z.; Matta, Jatin Raj; McAreavey, Dorothea; Gharib, Ahmed M

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study optimizes use of 3T MRI to delineate coronary venous anatomy, and compares 3T MRI with MDCT measurements. Methods The study population included 37 consecutive subjects (22 men, 19-71 years). Whole-heart contrast-enhanced MRI images at 3T were acquired using segmented k-space gradient echo with inversion recovery prepared technique. MDCT images were obtained using nonionic iodinated contrast. Results The coronary sinus, and great cardiac, posterior interventricular, and anterior interventricular veins were visualized in 100% of cases by both MRI and MDCT. Detection of the posterior vein of left ventricle and left marginal vein by MRI was 97% and 81% respectively. Bland Altman plots showed agreement in ostial diameter measured by both modalities with correlation coefficients ranging 0.5-0.76. Vein length and distances also agreed closely. Conclusion Free-breathing whole-heart 3D MRI at 3T provides high spatial resolution images and could offer an alternative imaging technique instead of MDCT scans. PMID:24983436

  9. Assessment of coronary artery disease using coronary computed tomography angiography and biochemical markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gitsios; Gitsioudis; Hugo; A; Katus; Grigorios; Korosoglou

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory mechanisms in the arterial wall lead to atherosclerosis,and include endothelial cell damage,inflammation,apoptosis,lipoprotein deposition,calcification and fibrosis.Cardiac computed tomography angiography(CCTA)has been shown to be a promising tool for non-invasive assessment of theses specific compositional and structural changes in coronary arteries.This review focuses on the technical background of CCTA-based quantitative plaque characterization.Furthermore,we discuss the available evidence for CCTA-based plaque characterization and the potential role of CCTA for risk stratification of patients with coronary artery disease.

  10. Preoperative diagnosis of gastric cancer using plain computed tomography and dynamic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of preoperative diagnosis using computed tomography with or without contrast enhancement in detecting the depth of tumor invasion in the gastric wall and the presence or absence of lymph node metastasis was compared based on histological findings in 94 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy. The diagnostic accuracy rate of plain CT for gastric wall invasion was less than dynamic CT. Particularly in the evaluation of invasion to another organ, the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic CT was higher (84%) than plain CT (56%). The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of dynamic CT for lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that of plain CT. With respect to the detection of metastasis to group 2 lymph nodes (especially No. 7, 8, 9, and 11), the sensitivity of dynamic CT was higher than that of plain CT. We conclude that dynamic CT is an available preoperative diagnostic procedure for detecting lymph node metastasis and serosal invasion. (author)

  11. Proceedings of clinical SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    It has been five years since the last in-depth American College of Nuclear Physicians/Society of Nuclear Medicine Symposium on the subject of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was held. Because this subject was nominated as the single most desired topic we have selected SPECT imaging as the basis for this year's program. The objectives of this symposium are to survey the progress of SPECT clinical applications that have taken place over the last five years and to provide practical and timely guidelines to users of SPECT so that this exciting imaging modality can be fully integrated into the evaluation of pathologic processes. The first half was devoted to a consideration of technical factors important in SPECT acquisition and the second half was devoted to those organ systems about which sufficient clinical SPECT imaging data are available. With respect to the technical aspect of the program we have selected the key areas which demand awareness and attention in order to make SPECT operational in clinical practice. These include selection of equipment, details of uniformity correction, utilization of phantoms for equipment acceptance and quality assurance, the major aspect of algorithms, an understanding of filtered back projection and appropriate choice of filters and an awareness of the most commonly generated artifacts and how to recognize them. With respect to the acquisition and interpretation of organ images, the faculty will present information on the major aspects of hepatic, brain, cardiac, skeletal, and immunologic imaging techniques. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  12. Endocrine radionuclide scintigraphy with fusion single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Kit; Gandhi, Arpit; Viglianti, Benjamin L; Fig, Lorraine M; Rubello, Domenico; Gross, Milton D

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review the benefits of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) hybrid imaging for diagnosis of various endocrine disorders. METHODS: We performed MEDLINE and PubMed searches using the terms: “SPECT/CT”; “functional anatomic mapping”; “transmission emission tomography”; “parathyroid adenoma”; “thyroid cancer”; “neuroendocrine tumor”; “adrenal”; “pheochromocytoma”; “paraganglioma”; in order to identify relevant articles published in English during the years 2003 to 2015. Reference lists from the articles were reviewed to identify additional pertinent articles. Retrieved manuscripts (case reports, reviews, meta-analyses and abstracts) concerning the application of SPECT/CT to endocrine imaging were analyzed to provide a descriptive synthesis of the utility of this technology. RESULTS: The emergence of hybrid SPECT/CT camera technology now allows simultaneous acquisition of combined multi-modality imaging, with seamless fusion of three-dimensional volume datasets. The usefulness of combining functional information to depict the bio-distribution of radiotracers that map cellular processes of the endocrine system and tumors of endocrine origin, with anatomy derived from CT, has improved the diagnostic capability of scintigraphy for a range of disorders of endocrine gland function. The literature describes benefits of SPECT/CT for 99mTc-sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy and 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy, 123I- or 131I-radioiodine for staging of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, 111In- and 99mTc- labeled somatostatin receptor analogues for detection of neuroendocrine tumors, 131I-norcholesterol (NP-59) scans for assessment of adrenal cortical hyperfunction, and 123I- or 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging for evaluation of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. CONCLUSION: SPECT/CT exploits the synergism between the functional information from radiopharmaceutical imaging and anatomy

  13. Finger fractures imaging: accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography and multislice computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccioli, Niccolo; Foti, Giovanni; Barillari, Marco; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi [University of Verona, Department of Radiology, G.B. Rossi Hospital, Verona (Italy); Atzei, Andrea [University of Verona, Department of Hand Surgery, G.B. Rossi Hospital, Verona (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy and radiation exposure of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and multislice computed tomography (MSCT) in the evaluation of finger fractures. In a 3-year period, 57 consecutive patients with post-traumatic fractures of the metacarpal-phalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints with involvement of the articular surface were studied by means of CBCT and MSCT. Student's t test was used to compare CBCT and MSCT accuracy in evaluating the percentage of joint surface involvement and in detecting bone fragments. The average tissue-absorbed doses of CBCT and MSCT were also compared. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Inter-observer agreement was calculated. In all cases, CBCT allowed the percentage of articular involvement to be correctly depicted compared with MSCT, showing 100% sensitivity and specificity (p < 0.001). A total of 103 bone fragments were depicted on MSCT (mean 3.8 per patient, range 1-23). CBCT indicated 92 out of 103 fragments (89.3%) compared with MSCT (mean diameter of missed fragments 0.9 mm, range 0.6-1.3 mm), with no statistically significant difference between CBCT and MSCT (p < 0.025). Multislice CT radiation exposure was significantly higher than that of CBCT (0.18 mSv vs 0.06 mSv, p < 0.0025). Inter-observer agreement was good (overall {kappa} = 0.89-0.96). Cone beam CT may be considered a valuable imaging tool in the preoperative assessment of finger fractures, when MSCT is not available. (orig.)

  14. Computed tomography in penetrating injury to the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimani, S; Virapongse, C; Sarwar, M; Twist, J F

    1984-05-01

    We used computed tomography to detect and localize foreign bodies in two unusual cases of penetrating injury to the eyes. In one case, a large broken twig appeared to have penetrated the globe and the inferior rectus muscle; in the other, the globe was ruptured by many glass shards . In the first case surgery showed the computed tomographic impression to be incorrect. The globe and the inferior rectus muscle were intact and vision and motility were normal postoperatively. In the second case, swelling made direct visualization impossible, and computed tomography was used to locate the foreign bodies. PMID:6720836

  15. Development of a proton Computed Tomography detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer tomography is one of the most promising new methods to image abnormal tissues inside the human body. Tomography is also used to position the patient accurately before radiation therapy. Hadron therapy for treating cancer has become one of the most advantegeous and safe options. In order to fully utilize the advantages of hadron therapy, there is a necessity of performing radiography with hadrons as well. In this paper we present the development of a proton computed tomography system. Our second-generation proton tomography system consists of two upstream and two downstream trackers made up of fibers as active material and a range detector consisting of plastic scintillators. We present details of the detector system, readout electronics, and data acquisition system as well as the commissioning of the entire system. We also present preliminary results from the test beam of the range detector

  16. Development of a proton Computed Tomography Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Naimuddin, Md; Blazey, G; Boi, S; Dyshkant, A; Erdelyi, B; Hedin, D; Johnson, E; Krider, J; Rukalin, V; Uzunyan, S A; Zutshi, V; Fordt, R; Sellberg, G; Rauch, J E; Roman, M; Rubinov, P; Wilson, P

    2015-01-01

    Computer tomography is one of the most promising new methods to image abnormal tissues inside the human body. Tomography is also used to position the patient accurately before radiation therapy. Hadron therapy for treating cancer has become one of the most advantageous and safe options. In order to fully utilize the advantages of hadron therapy, there is a necessity of performing radiography with hadrons as well. In this paper we present the development of a proton computed tomography system. Our second-generation proton tomography system consists of two upstream and two downstream trackers made up of fibers as active material and a range detector consisting of plastic scintillators. We present details of the detector system, readout electronics, and data acquisition system as well as the commissioning of the entire system. We also present preliminary results from the test beam of the range detector.

  17. Hypovolemic shock ond contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuutinen, P.; Kivisaari, L.; Lehtola, A.; Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G.; Lempinen, M.; Schroeder, T.; Talja, M,

    1986-01-01

    The effect of profound hemorrhagic hypovolemia on cardiac output and pancreatic blood flow was studied in pigs with the thermodilution method and microspere technique. Approximately 30 to 40% of the circulating blood volume was withdrawn slowly during 5 h. Cardiac output and pancreatic blood flow decreased by 35% and 32%, respectively. The animals underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) before hypovolemia and at 5 h after its onset. The changes in systemic and local blood flow were related to the contrast enhancement of the pancreas. In spite of profound hypovolemia and a significant decrease in pancreatic blood flow (p<0.005), the contrast enhancement remained normal. The results of the present study indicate that pancreatic hypoperfusion caused by hypovolemia does not effect the contrast enhancement of the pancreas in CT.

  18. Coronary computed tomography angiography indicates complexity of percutaneous coronary interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Stähli, B E; Bonassin, F; Goetti, R; Küest, S M; Frank, M.; Altwegg, L A; Gebhard, C; Levis, A; Wischnewsky, M. B.; Lüscher, T F; Alkadhi, H.; Kaufmann, P A; Maier, W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) provides information regarding lesion morphology and three-dimensional coronary anatomy incremental to coronary angiography. We addressed the question whether preprocedural CCTA bears potential for guiding percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-six coronary lesions attempted with PCI within 6 months of preprocedural CCTA were retrospectively assessed. Lesion parameters from unenhanced computed tomogr...

  19. Dose estimation for paediatric cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curci Daros, K.A.; Bitelli Medeiros, R. [Sao Paulo Univ. Federal (Brazil); Curci Daros, K.A.; Oliveira Echeimberg, J. de [Centro Univ. Sao Camilo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In the last ten years, the number of paediatric computed tomography (CT) scans have increased worldwide, contributing to higher population radiation dose. Technique diversification in paediatrics and different CT equipment technologies have led to various exposure levels complicating precise evaluation of doses and operational conditions necessary for good quality images. The objective of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between absorbed dose and cranial region in children up to 6 years old undergoing CT exams. Methods: X-ray was measured on the cranial surface of 64 patients undergoing CT using thermoluminescent (T.L.) dosimeters. Forty T.L.D.100 thermoluminescent dosimeters (T.L.D.) were evenly distributed on each patients skin surface along the sagittal axis. Measurements were performed in facial regions exposed to scatter radiation and in the supratentorial and posterior fossa regions, submitted to primary radiation. T.L.D. were calibrated for 120 kV X-ray over the acrylic phantom. T.L. measurements were made with a Harshaw 4000 system. Patient mean T.L. readings were determined for position, pi, of T.L.D. and normalized to the maximum supratentorial reading. From integrating the linear T.L. density function (?) resulting from radiation distribution in each of the three exposed regions, dose fraction was determined in the region of interest, along with total dose under the technical conditions used in that specific exam protocol. For each T.L.D. position along the patient cranium, there were n T.L. measurements with 2% uncertainty due to T.L. reader, and 5% due to thermal treatment of dosimeters. Also, mean T.L. readings and their uncertainties were calculated for each patient at each position, p. Results: Mean linear T.L. density for the region exposed to secondary radiation defined by position, 0.3{<=}p{<=}6 cm, was {rho}((p)=7.9(4)x10{sup -2}+7(5)x10{sup -5}p{sup 4.5(4)} cm{sup -1}; exposed to primary X-ray for the posterior fossa

  20. Evaluating iterative reconstruction performance in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) offers notable advantages in computed tomography (CT). However, its performance characterization is complicated by its potentially nonlinear behavior, impacting performance in terms of specific tasks. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of IR with both task-specific and task-generic strategies. Methods: The performance of IR in CT was mathematically assessed with an observer model that predicted the detection accuracy in terms of the detectability index (d′). d′ was calculated based on the properties of the image noise and resolution, the observer, and the detection task. The characterizations of image noise and resolution were extended to accommodate the nonlinearity of IR. A library of tasks was mathematically modeled at a range of sizes (radius 1–4 mm), contrast levels (10–100 HU), and edge profiles (sharp and soft). Unique d′ values were calculated for each task with respect to five radiation exposure levels (volume CT dose index, CTDIvol: 3.4–64.8 mGy) and four reconstruction algorithms (filtered backprojection reconstruction, FBP; iterative reconstruction in imaging space, IRIS; and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction with strengths of 3 and 5, SAFIRE3 and SAFIRE5; all provided by Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany). The d′ values were translated into the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) to represent human observer performance. For each task and reconstruction algorithm, a threshold dose was derived as the minimum dose required to achieve a threshold AUC of 0.9. A task-specific dose reduction potential of IR was calculated as the difference between the threshold doses for IR and FBP. A task-generic comparison was further made between IR and FBP in terms of the percent of all tasks yielding an AUC higher than the threshold. Results: IR required less dose than FBP to achieve the threshold AUC. In general, SAFIRE5 showed the most significant dose reduction

  1. 3D neutron computed tomography. Requirements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Other than X-rays, neutrons can penetrate most metals easily while delivering a high contrast for many light-weight elements. Especially their high sensitivity for hydrogen makes them a valuable tool for the detection of organic materials like lubricants, plastics or sealants within metal housings. Neutron radiography and tomography complement the application of X-ray for the inspection of complex and critical components like in automotive and aerospace applications. An overview about the technical and mathematical differences between neutron and X-ray tomography is given and the imperfections and limitations of a neutron setup are shown. Several examples of technical neutron computed tomography are given. (author)

  2. The current concepts of computed tomography for acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroke is one of a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The major advances in stroke therapy in particular invasive therapy lead to application of new imaging techniques. The aim of this review is to present state-of-the-art concepts of computed tomography for acute stroke. The goals of a neuroimaging in acute stroke are to establish a diagnosis as early as possible and to evaluate brain perfusion and intracranial vessels' patency. State-of-the-art imaging in the era of multidetector computed tomography (CT) with high spatial and temporal resolution consists of multimodal CT imaging. Non enhanced CT is necessary for depiction of hemorrhage or early ischemic signs. CT angiography evaluates intravascular thrombi or significant stenosis, and CT perfusion demonstrates salvageable tissue at risk. By combining different imaging techniques in multimodal approach we can acquire information necessary for therapeutic planning and could select patients for thrombolysis. The imaging protocol should be tailored to the patient regarding to the time of onset, necessity and availability of CT modalities. (authors) Key words: Stroke. Computed Tomography (CT). Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA). Computed Tomography Perfusion (CTP)

  3. Assessment of left atrial volume and function: a comparative study between echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging and multi slice computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, J Tobias; Lønborg, Jacob; Fuchs, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    dynamic LA volume changes. Conversely, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) appears more appropriate for such measures. We sought to determine the relationship between LA size assessed with TTE and LA size and function assessed with CMR and MSCT. Fifty......Measurement of left atrial (LA) maximal volume (LA(max)) using two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) provides prognostic information in several cardiac diseases. However, the relationship between LA(max) and LA function is poorly understood and TTE is less well suited for measuring...

  4. Gliomatosis cerebri mimicking encephalitis evaluated using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is a rare condition in which an infiltrative glial neoplasm spreads through the brain with preservation of the underlying structure. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has an important role in demonstrating the appropriate metabolism and differentiating pathologies mimicking GC on CT and magnetic resonance imaging. We describe imaging findings of FDG PET/CT in GC in a 9-year-old male child mimicking encephalitis

  5. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle W;

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...... study investigates the positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of PET-CT in stage I disease and the clinical impact of the scan results in all disease stages....

  6. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography findings in a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram; Shah, Hardik

    2013-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGNP) is an uncommon condition characterized by chronic suppurative renal inflammation that leads to progressive parenchymal destruction. This condition can clinically present as recurrent urinary tract infections, flank pain, hematuria, and occasionally sepsis, and weight loss. This condition is usually associated with obstructing renal calculus. We present 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18-FDG PET/CT) findings in a...

  7. Numerical observer for atherosclerotic plaque classification in spectral computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsakul, Auranuch; Fakhri, Georges El; Worstell, William; Ouyang, Jinsong; Rakvongthai, Yothin; Laine, Andrew F; Li, Quanzheng

    2016-07-01

    Spectral computed tomography (SCT) generates better image quality than conventional computed tomography (CT). It has overcome several limitations for imaging atherosclerotic plaque. However, the literature evaluating the performance of SCT based on objective image assessment is very limited for the task of discriminating plaques. We developed a numerical-observer method and used it to assess performance on discrimination vulnerable-plaque features and compared the performance among multienergy CT (MECT), dual-energy CT (DECT), and conventional CT methods. Our numerical observer was designed to incorporate all spectral information and comprised two-processing stages. First, each energy-window domain was preprocessed by a set of localized channelized Hotelling observers (CHO). In this step, the spectral image in each energy bin was decorrelated using localized prewhitening and matched filtering with a set of Laguerre-Gaussian channel functions. Second, the series of the intermediate scores computed from all the CHOs were integrated by a Hotelling observer with an additional prewhitening and matched filter. The overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were obtained, yielding an overall discrimination performance metric. The performance of our new observer was evaluated for the particular binary classification task of differentiating between alternative plaque characterizations in carotid arteries. A clinically realistic model of signal variability was also included in our simulation of the discrimination tasks. The inclusion of signal variation is a key to applying the proposed observer method to spectral CT data. Hence, the task-based approaches based on the signal-known-exactly/background-known-exactly (SKE/BKE) framework and the clinical-relevant signal-known-statistically/background-known-exactly (SKS/BKE) framework were applied for analytical computation of figures of merit (FOM). Simulated data of a

  8. 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in initial assessment and diagnosis of right atrial angiosarcoma with widespread visceral metastases: A rare case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac angiosarcoma is the most common primary cardiac sarcoma in adults. Primary cardiac tumors are rare and have nonspecific clinical presentation, thus making its diagnosis challenging. Clinically, patients present with advanced disease demonstrating metastatic disease at initial presentation itself. It commonly metastasizes to lung, liver, brain, and bone; however metastases to lymph nodes, adrenal glands, spleen and skin has also been seen. We describe a case of right atrial angiosarcoma with extensive visceral metastases involving brain, lungs, liver, pancreas, kidney, and lymph nodes, demonstrated on contrast-enhanced 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET-CT). To the best of our knowledge metastases to pancreas and kidney have not been reported so far in the literature. With our report, we emphasize on the initial use of FDG PET-CT in workup of cardiac angiosarcoma for accurate staging and prognostication of this disease

  9. Quantitative Computed Tomography of Pulmonary Emphysema and Ventricular Function in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yu-Sen; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun; Chen, Jo-Yu; Tai, Mei-Hwa; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chang, Yeun-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study strived to evaluate the relationship between degree of pulmonary emphysema and cardiac ventricular function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) using electrocardiographic-gated multidetector computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods Lung transplantation candidates with the diagnosis of COPD and PH were chosen for the study population, and a total of 15 patients were included. The extent of emphysema is defined as...

  10. Role of Computed Tomography for Diagnosis and Risk Stratification of Patients with Suspected or Known Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Dan K.; Heo, Ran; Valenti, Valentina; Nakazato, Ryo; Min, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography angiography(CCTA) has emerged as a powerful imaging modality for the detection and prognostication of individuals with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Because calcification of coronary plaque occurs in proportion to the total atheroma volume, the initial diagnostic potential of CCT focused on identification and quantification of coronary calcium in low to intermediate risk individuals, a finding that tracks precisely with the risk of incident adverse clini...

  11. Diagnosis of a cardiac angiosarcoma by fluorine-18 fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare tumour entity with a poor prognosis. Early detection is difficult but important for the further course of the disease. We report on a young patient with a tumour of unknown origin and dignity of the right atrium. Magnetic resonance imaging, CT and echocardiography were sufficient in localisation, but no statement on the dignity was possible. Furthermore, staging led to ambiguous results. Malignancy could be proved by fluorine-18 fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, leading to early surgery. Histology revealed a poorly differentiated angiosarcoma. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of myocardial ischemia by multiple detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For years, cardiovascular diseases have been the leading cause of death worldwide, bringing on important social and economic consequences. Given this scenario, the search for a method capable of diagnosing coronary artery diseases in an early and accurate way is increasingly higher. The coronary computed tomography angiogram is already widely established for the stratification of coronary artery diseases, and, more recently, the computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging has been providing relevant information by correlating ischemia and the coronary anatomy. The objective of this review is to describe the evaluation of myocardial ischemia by multiple detector computed tomography. This study will resort to controlled clinical trials that show the possibility of a single method to identify the atherosclerotic load, presence of coronary artery luminal narrowing and possible myocardial ischemia, by means of a fast, practical and reliable method validated by a multicenter study. (author)

  13. Evaluation of myocardial ischemia by multiple detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fabio Vieira, E-mail: rccury@me.com [Hospital do Coracao (HCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cury, Roberto Caldeira [Hospital Samaritano, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    For years, cardiovascular diseases have been the leading cause of death worldwide, bringing on important social and economic consequences. Given this scenario, the search for a method capable of diagnosing coronary artery diseases in an early and accurate way is increasingly higher. The coronary computed tomography angiogram is already widely established for the stratification of coronary artery diseases, and, more recently, the computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging has been providing relevant information by correlating ischemia and the coronary anatomy. The objective of this review is to describe the evaluation of myocardial ischemia by multiple detector computed tomography. This study will resort to controlled clinical trials that show the possibility of a single method to identify the atherosclerotic load, presence of coronary artery luminal narrowing and possible myocardial ischemia, by means of a fast, practical and reliable method validated by a multicenter study. (author)

  14. Computed tomography of the thorax in children with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied retrospectively the value of computed tomography of the thorax in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Twenty-six patients were studied, which showed as the most frequency pulmonary findings bronchial wall thickening in 22 patients (84.6), followed by bronchiectasis in 16 patients (61.5%). Less frequent finding were ill-defined patch consolidation, mucoid impaction, bullaes and atelectasis. We found a predominant distribution of bronchial wall thickening and bronchiectasis in the upper lobes of the lungs. Computed tomography is the more sensitive technique for early visualization and location of the manifestations of cystic fibrosis bronchopathy. (author)

  15. Importance of computer tomography in diagnosis of deep papillar drusen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladykova, J.; Ciganek, L.; Sobota, J. (Ustredni Vojenska Nemocnice, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1983-07-01

    In a 22-year old patient deep peripapillar drusen were observed accompanied by bilateral papillo-edemas and unilateral papillar and peripapillar haemorrhages and bilateral defects of the visual fields which in certain stages assumed the character of left-side hemianopia. The importance is evaluated of computer tomography in the diagnosis of deep peripapillar drusen and the following conclusions are arrived at: 1. computer tomography (CT) has an immense differential diagnosis significance in their quiescent stage; 2. in the acute stage accompanied by vascular and perimetric symptoms, even though deep papillar drusen are accurately shown by CT, further examinations are required to exclude the possibility of simultaneous intracranial lesions.

  16. Importance of computer tomography in diagnosis of deep papillar drusen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a 22-year old patient deep peripapillar drusen were observed accompanied by bilateral papillo-edemas and unilateral papillar and peripapillar haemorrhages and bilateral defects of the visual fields which in certain stages assumed the character of left-side hemianopia. The importance is evaluated of computer tomography in the diagnosis of deep peripapillar drusen and the following conclusions are arrived at: 1. computer tomography (CT) has an immense differential diagnosis significance in their quiescent stage; 2. in the acute stage accompanied by vascullar and perimetric symptoms, even though deep papillar drusen are accurately shown by CT, further examinations are required to exclude the possibility of simultaneous intracranial lesions. (author)

  17. Real-time in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Adeel; Shemonski, Nathan D; Adie, Steven G; Kim, Hee-Seok; Hwu, Wen-Mei W; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A

    2013-06-01

    High-resolution real-time tomography of scattering tissues is important for many areas of medicine and biology(1-6). However, the compromise between transverse resolution and depth-of-field in addition to low sensitivity deep in tissue continue to impede progress towards cellular-level volumetric tomography. Computed imaging has the potential to solve these long-standing limitations. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM)(7-9) is a computed imaging technique enabling high-resolution volumetric tomography with spatially invariant resolution. However, its potential for clinical diagnostics remains largely untapped since full volume reconstructions required lengthy postprocessing, and the phase-stability requirements have been difficult to satisfy in vivo. Here we demonstrate how 3-D Fourier-domain resampling, in combination with high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT), can achieve high-resolution in vivo tomography. Enhanced depth sensitivity was achieved over a depth-of-field extended in real time by more than an order of magnitude. This work lays the foundation for high-speed volumetric cellular-level tomography. PMID:23956790

  18. Multidetector row computed tomography may accurately estimate plaque vulnerability. Does MDCT accurately estimate plaque vulnerability? (Pro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) has become the most reliable and established of the noninvasive examination techniques for detecting coronary heart disease. Now MDCT is chasing intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in terms of spatial resolution. Among the components of vulnerable plaque, MDCT may detect lipid-rich plaque, the lipid pool, and calcified spots using computed tomography number. Plaque components are detected by MDCT with high accuracy compared with IVUS and angioscopy when assessing vulnerable plaque. The TWINS study and TOGETHAR trial demonstrated that angioscopic loss of yellow color occurred independently of volumetric plaque change by statin therapy. These 2 studies showed that plaque stabilization and regression reflect independent processes mediated by different mechanisms and time course. Noncalcified plaque and/or low-density plaque was found to be the strongest predictor of cardiac events, regardless of lesion severity, and act as a potential marker of plaque vulnerability. MDCT may be an effective tool for early triage of patients with chest pain who have a normal electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac enzymes in the emergency department. MDCT has the potential ability to analyze coronary plaque quantitatively and qualitatively if some problems are resolved. MDCT may become an essential tool for detecting and preventing coronary artery disease in the future. (author)

  19. Multidetector row computed tomography may accurately estimate plaque vulnerability: does MDCT accurately estimate plaque vulnerability? (Pro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Sei; Imai, Atsuko; Kodama, Kazuhisa

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) has become the most reliable and established of the noninvasive examination techniques for detecting coronary heart disease. Now MDCT is chasing intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in terms of spatial resolution. Among the components of vulnerable plaque, MDCT may detect lipid-rich plaque, the lipid pool, and calcified spots using computed tomography number. Plaque components are detected by MDCT with high accuracy compared with IVUS and angioscopy when assessing vulnerable plaque. The TWINS study and TOGETHAR trial demonstrated that angioscopic loss of yellow color occurred independently of volumetric plaque change by statin therapy. These 2 studies showed that plaque stabilization and regression reflect independent processes mediated by different mechanisms and time course. Noncalcified plaque and/or low-density plaque was found to be the strongest predictor of cardiac events, regardless of lesion severity, and act as a potential marker of plaque vulnerability. MDCT may be an effective tool for early triage of patients with chest pain who have a normal ECG and cardiac enzymes in the emergency department. MDCT has the potential ability to analyze coronary plaque quantitatively and qualitatively if some problems are resolved. MDCT may become an essential tool for detecting and preventing coronary artery disease in the future. PMID:21532180

  20. DE-BLURRING SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IMAGES USING WAVELET DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu M. Sasi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Single photon emission computed tomography imaging is a popular nuclear medicine imaging technique which generates images by detecting radiations emitted by radioactive isotopes injected in the human body. Scattering of these emitted radiations introduces blur in this type of images. This paper proposes an image processing technique to enhance cardiac single photon emission computed tomography images by reducing the blur in the image. The algorithm works in two main stages. In the first stage a maximum likelihood estimate of the point spread function and the true image is obtained. In the second stage Lucy Richardson algorithm is applied on the selected wavelet coefficients of the true image estimate. The significant contribution of this paper is that processing of images is done in the wavelet domain. Pre-filtering is also done as a sub stage to avoid unwanted ringing effects. Real cardiac images are used for the quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the algorithm. Blur metric, peak signal to noise ratio and Tenengrad criterion are used as quantitative measures. Comparison against other existing de-blurring algorithms is also done. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method effectively reduces blur present in the image.

  1. Application and development of Industrial Computed Tomography in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compared with traditional perspective radiography, ICT (Industrial Computed Tomography) is able to acquire tomography image without the disadvantages of image overlapping and blurring that exist in traditional perspective radiography. By acquiring the 2D tomography image of the object at different stage as many as needed, it is possible to achieve 3D tomography image. In China, the first Γ-ray ICT equipment was born at Chongqing University in May 1993. For this equipment, 60Co radiation source with 1 Ci and 30 Ci was used, and spatial resolution is about 0.5mm, and density resolution is about 0.5%, and the diameter of the test object can be 300mm, but the price of the Chinese ICT equipment is only about a half on the same type of ICT equipment producing abroad other than China. Besides Γ-ray ICT, Chinese are engaging in research and develop x-ray ICT to meet foreign and domestic need. (author)

  2. A controlled study of positron-emission-tomography and positron-emission-tomography/computed tomography in differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules-report of 60 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Qi-yong; HUA Yan-qing; ZHANG Guo-zhen; ZHAO Jun; GUAN Yi-hui; GE Xiao-jun; MAO Ding-biao; ZUO Chuan-tao

    2005-01-01

    @@ The differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) remains a challenge. It is acknowledged that combining positron-emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) offers the most reliable noninvasive method for the diagnosis of SPNs.

  3. Computed tomography angiography and perfusion to assess coronary artery stenosis causing perfusion defects by single photon emission computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochitte, Carlos E; George, Richard T; Chen, Marcus Y;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the diagnostic power of integrating the results of computed tomography angiography (CTA) and CT myocardial perfusion (CTP) to identify coronary artery disease (CAD) defined as a flow limiting coronary artery stenosis causing a perfusion defect by single photon emission computed...... emission computed tomography (SPECT/MPI). Sixteen centres enroled 381 patients who underwent combined CTA-CTP and SPECT/MPI prior to conventional coronary angiography. All four image modalities were analysed in blinded independent core laboratories. The prevalence of obstructive CAD defined by combined ICA...... tomography (SPECT). METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a multicentre study to evaluate the accuracy of integrated CTA-CTP for the identification of patients with flow-limiting CAD defined by ≥50% stenosis by invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with a corresponding perfusion deficit on stress single photon...

  4. Diagnostic utility of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in pyrexia of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic utility of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) in patients presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). Forty-seven patients (31 males and 16 females; mean age of 42.7 ± 19.96 years) presenting as PUO to the Department of Medicine at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi over a period of 2 years underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT. PET ⁄ CT was considered supportive when its results correlated with the final definitive diagnosis. Final diagnosis was made on the basis of combined evaluation of history, clinical findings, investigations, and response to treatment. Thirty-five PET/CT studies (74.5%) were positive. However, only 18 (38.3%) were supportive of the final diagnosis. In three patients (6.4%), PET/CT was considered diagnostic as none of the other investigations including contrast-enhanced computed tomography of chest and abdomen, and directed tissue sampling could lead to the final diagnosis. All these three patients were diagnosed as aortoarteritis. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography is an important emerging modality in the workup of PUO. It supported the final diagnosis in 38% of our patients and was diagnostic in 6.4% of patients. Thus, PET/CT should only be considered as second-line investigation for the diagnostic evaluation of PUO; especially in suspected noninfectious inflammatory disorders

  5. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming

    2016-04-14

    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  6. Detection of hepatic tumor by means of single photon emission computed tomography, Gray scale ultrasonography, and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the hepatic tumor detection by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using rotatory chair and gamma camera. SPECT were taken by multiple section slice not only in transaxial view, but also in frontal and sagital. The results were superior in detectability to conventional liver scintiphoto (CLS). In cases of obstructive jaundice, ultrasonography (US) and/or computed axial tomography (CAT) should be taken before SPECT, because there are various probabilities of evaluation like as false positive by means of SPECT. Simultaneous interpretation of SPECT, US, and CAT was more helpful than independent interpretation

  7. Computed tomography of cystic pancreatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer tomographic appearances of atrophic and lipomatous degeneration of the pancreas in cystic pancreatic fibrosis are described. CT exploration of the pancreas in recommended, particularly in differential diagnostic aspects of cystic fibrosis. (orig.)

  8. Prognostic value of absence or presence of coronary artery disease determined by 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography A systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Asferg, Camilla Lundegaard; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang

    2011-01-01

    To determine via a meta-analysis the prognostic value of 64-slice computed tomography angiography (CTA) by quantifying risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in different patient groups classified according to CT angiographic findings. A systematic literature search and meta-analyses was con...

  9. Comparison of 180° and 360° Arc Data Acquisition to Measure Scintigraphic Parameters from Gated Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: Is There Any Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Hamid; Mahmoud-Pashazadeh, Ali; Mogharrabi, Mehdi; Iranpour, Darioush; Amini, Abdollatif; Pourbehi, Mohammadreza; Akbarzadeh, Mehdi; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare 180° and 360° data collection modes to measure end diastolic volume (EDV), end systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) values of the cardiac system by gated myocardial perfusion tomography. Methods: Thirty-three patients underwent gated myocardial perfusion tomography. Single photon emission computed tomography data of patients’ heart were acquired by 180°, 45° left posterior oblique to 45° right anterior oblique, and 360° to obtain EDV, ESV, EF and cardiac volume changes (V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7 and V8) throughout each cardiac cycle. Results: Results of the current study indicated that there were no significant differences between 180° and 360° angular sampling in terms of measuring EDV, ESV and EF in myocardial perfusion imaging. Cardiac volume change patterns during a cardiac cycle were also similar in 360° and 180° scans. We also observed that there was no difference in EDV, ESV and EF values between the group with stress induced by exercise and the group with stress imposed by dipyridamole. Conclusion: As there is no difference between 180°and 360° cardiac scanning in terms of EDV, ESV and EF, half-orbit scan is recommended to study these cardiac system parameters because it offers more comfort to patients and a shorter scanning time.

  10. Comparison of 180° and 360° Arc Data Acquisition to Measure Scintigraphic Parameters from Gated Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: Is There Any Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Javadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare 180° and 360° data collection modes to measure end diastolic volume (EDV, end systolic volume (ESV and ejection fraction (EF values of the cardiac system by gated myocardial perfusion tomography. Methods: Thirty-three patients underwent gated myocardial perfusion tomography. Single photon emission computed tomography data of patients’ heart were acquired by 180°, 45° left posterior oblique to 45° right anterior oblique, and 360° to obtain EDV, ESV, EF and cardiac volume changes (V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7 and V8 throughout each cardiac cycle. Results: Results of the current study indicated that there were no significant differences between 180° and 360° angular sampling in terms of measuring EDV, ESV and EF in myocardial perfusion imaging. Cardiac volume change patterns during a cardiac cycle were also similar in 360° and 180° scans. We also observed that there was no difference in EDV, ESV and EF values between the group with stress induced by exercise and the group with stress imposed by dipyridamole. Conclusion: As there is no difference between 180°and 360° cardiac scanning in terms of EDV, ESV and EF, half-orbit scan is recommended to study these cardiac system parameters because it offers more comfort to patients and a shorter scanning time.

  11. The value of computed tomography in nonspecific spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computed tomographic symptoms of nonspecific spondylitis, observed in 14 patients, are described. In 9 patients the spondylitis occurred as complication following operations for lumbar disc hernias. The most common computed-tomographic symptoms were: edematous dilatation of the paravertebral soft tissues, osteolytic destructive changes of the discal surfaces of the vertebral bodies, low densitometric values of the affected disc, soft-tissue masses in the spinal canal. Computed tomography is considered as a method of crucial importance for early and accurate diagnosis of nonspecific spondylitis. The method is of particular value also in the dynamic study of the evolution of the inflammatory process. An optimal organization scheme is suggested of an early diagnosis of nonspecific spondilytis, includung computed tomography, bone scintigraphy, conventional roentgenography and CT-guided puncture

  12. Micro-computed tomography: an alternative method for shark ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, P T; Jones, A S; Stewart, J; Macbeth, W G

    2012-04-01

    Micro-computed tomography (microCT) produced 3D reconstructions of shark Carcharhinus brevipinna vertebrae that could be virtually sectioned along any desired plane, and upon which growth bands were readily visible. When compared to manual sectioning, it proved to be a valid and repeatable means of ageing and offers several distinct advantages over other ageing methods. PMID:22497384

  13. Radiation dosimetry of computed tomography x-ray scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the development and application of the methods employed in National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) surveys of computed tomography x-ray scanners (CT scanners). It includes descriptions of the phantoms and equipment used, discussion of the various dose parameters measured, the principles of the various dosimetry systems employed and some indication of the doses to occupationally exposed personnel

  14. Unsuspected organic disease in chronic schizophrenia demonstrated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsuspected intracranial pathology was demonstrated in 12 of 136 chronic schizophrenic patients examined by computed tomography (CT). Seven cases of cerebral infarction were found, and one each of porencephalic cyst, meningioma, cystic enlargement of the pineal body, and two of subdural haematoma. Attention is drawn to the value of CT in demonstrating organic disease in schizophrenia. (author)

  15. Multidetector computed tomography of jaw lesions in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Jaw lesions in paediatric and adolescent population are uncommon and can arise in odontogenic or non-odontogenic tissues. With the advent of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), algorithm for imaging jaw lesions has changed dramatically. This pictorial essay describes the imaging appearance of commonly encountered jaw lesions in children and adolescents with emphasis on MDCT findings

  16. Computed tomography evaluation of autogenous graft in sinus lift surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to quantify bone formation within autogenous bone grafts and autogenous bone grafts in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained either from apheresis or centrifugation using computed tomography. This prospective, double-blind study was conducted in 34 male and female adult patients (mean age of 28 years and 8 months), with either unilateral or bilateral pneumatization of the maxillary sinuses, requiring bone graft for dental implant. All patients were submitted to computed tomography examinations prior and six months after sinus lift surgery. Fifty-three maxillary sinuses were operated and divided into three distinct groups: autogenous bone graft, autogenous bone graft in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained by centrifugation, and autogenous bone graft in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained by apheresis. The results showed that computed tomography demonstrated bone growth in height and width between the initial and the follow-up computed tomography scans in all three groups. However, no statistical difference was found either for bone height or width. It was concluded that clinical evidence demonstrates the effectiveness of autogenous bone grafts, particularly when used in combination with bone growth factors such as platelet-rich plasma, which allow prosthetic and functional restoration of maxillofacial structures through fixation of dental implants. (author)

  17. Atypical findings on computed tomography in tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 3 patients with tuberous sclerosis computed tomography showed numerous low-density areas suggestive of brain demyelination. In addition, solitary small subependymal calcifications were noted. These features in an infant or child with unexplained seizures should alert one to the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis

  18. Bone densitometry in healthy cats by quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiodensity of the trabecular bone of the lumbar vertebrae in 16 healthy adult cats was studied using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). The average radiodensity of the trabecular bone of the second lumbar vertebra was 436.1 +- 42.1 Hounsfield units. However, there was a nonhomogeneous radiodensity distribution of the vertebral body. (author)

  19. Aortic valve area assessed with 320-detector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Linnea Hornbech; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Carstensen, Helle Gervig; Mejdahl, Mads Rams; Andersen, Mads Jønsson; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Køber, Lars; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Hassager, Christian

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of aortic valve area (AVA) assessment with 320-detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) compared to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in a population with mild to severe aortic valve stenosis. AVA was estimated in 169 patients by planimetry on MDCT images (AVA...

  20. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN HYDATID CYST OF THE ORBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abbassioun

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of hydatid cysts of the orbit causing unilateral exophthalmos are reported. Diagnosis were suspected by means of computed tomography (CT and confirmed at Operation. CT changes are described and its value in diagnosis of this lesion particularly in the endemic areas is stressed.