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Sample records for cardiac autonomic nervous

  1. Postnatal Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Control in Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Nederend

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital defect. During childhood, survival is generally good but, in adulthood, late complications are not uncommon. Abnormal autonomic control in children with congenital heart disease may contribute considerably to the pathophysiology of these long term sequelae. This narrative review of 34 studies aims to summarize current knowledge on function of the autonomic nervous system in children with a congenital heart defect. Large scale studies that measure both branches of the nervous system for prolonged periods of time in well-defined patient cohorts in various phases of childhood and adolescence are currently lacking. Pending such studies, there is not yet a good grasp on the extent and direction of sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic function in pediatric congenital heart disease. Longitudinal studies in homogenous patient groups linking autonomic nervous system function and clinical outcome are warranted.

  2. Circadian profile of cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Richardt, Gert; Potratz, Jürgen;

    2003-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Circadian Profile of Heart Rate Variability. INTRODUCTION: Although heart rate variability (HRV) has been established as a tool to study cardiac autonomic activity, almost no data are available on the circadian patterns of HRV in healthy subjects aged 20 to 70 years. METHODS AND RESULTS......: We investigated 166 healthy volunteers (81 women and 85 men; age 42 +/- 15 years, range 20-70) without evidence of cardiac disease. Time-domain HRV parameters were determined from 24-hour Holter monitoring and calculated as hourly mean values and mean 24-hour values. All volunteers were fully mobile...

  3. Relationship between duration of illness and cardiac autonomic nervous activity in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Fujita, Masatoshi; Nin, Kazuko; Noma, Shun’ichi; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background The mortality rate associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) is high, and death is mainly attributable to cardiac events. A wide range of autonomic nervous system disturbances may be mechanisms underlying the increased cardiovascular mortality and sudden death of patients with AN. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been proven to be a reliable noninvasive method for quantitative assessment of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of heart rate (HR). The longer the duration of illnes...

  4. Relationship between duration of illness and cardiac autonomic nervous activity in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Fujita, Masatoshi; Nin, Kazuko; Noma, Shun'ichi; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mortality rate associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) is high, and death is mainly attributable to cardiac events. A wide range of autonomic nervous system disturbances may be mechanisms underlying the increased cardiovascular mortality and sudden death of patients with AN. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been proven to be a reliable noninvasive method for quantitative assessment of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of heart rate (HR). The longer the duration of illne...

  5. (Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The proposed research addresses the development, validation and application of cardiac PET imaging techniques to characterize the autonomic nervous system of the heart. PET technology has significantly matured over the last two decades. Instrument design, image processing and production of radiochemical compounds have formed an integrative approach to provide a powerful and novel imaging modality for the quantitative in vivo evaluation of the autonomic nervous system of the heart. Animal studies using novel tracers for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals will be employed to characterize the functional integrity of nerve terminals. This work will be complemented by the development of agents which bind to postsynaptic receptor sites. The combined evaluation of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal function will allow a unique characterization of neuronal function. Initial development in animal studies will be followed by feasibility studies in humans. These studies are designed to test sophisticated imaging protocols in the human heart and validate the scintigraphic findings with independent markers of autonomic innervation. Subsequent clinical application in various cardiac diseases is expected to provide new insights into the neuropathophysiology of the heart.

  6. Imaging of the autonomic nervous system: focus on cardiac sympathetic innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David S

    2003-12-01

    Symptoms or signs of abnormal autonomic nervous system function occur commonly in several neurological disorders. Clinical evaluations have depended on physiological, pharmacological, and neurochemical approaches. Recently, imaging of sympathetic noradrenergic innervation has been introduced and applied especially in the heart. Most studies have used the radiolabeled sympathomimetic amine, (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine. Decreased uptake or increased "washout" of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine-derived radioactivity is associated with worse prognosis or more severe disease in hypertension, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and diabetes mellitus. This pattern may reflect a high rate of postganglionic sympathetic nerve traffic to the heart. Many recent studies have agreed on the remarkable finding that all patients with Parkinson's disease and orthostatic hypotension have a loss of cardiac sympathetic innervation, whereas all patients with multiple system atrophy, often difficult to distinguish clinically from Parkinson's disease, have intact cardiac sympathetic innervation. Because Parkinson's disease entails a postganglionic sympathetic noradrenergic lesion, the disease appears to be not only a movement disorder, with dopamine loss in the nigrostriatal system of the brain, but also a dysautonomia, with noradrenaline loss in the sympathetic nervous system of the heart. As new ligands are developed, one may predict further discoveries of involvement of components of the autonomic nervous system in neurological diseases.

  7. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  8. Dysfunction of pre- and post-operative cardiac autonomic nervous system in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junlong; Tu, Weifeng; Dai, Jianqiang; Lv, Qing; Yang, Xiaoqi

    2011-01-01

    The pre- and post-operative cardiac autonomic nervous functions were compared in elderly, non-cardiac surgery patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and without diabetes mellitus (NDM). A group of 30 unpremedicated elderly patients scheduled to undergo elective non-cardiac surgery were studied, including 15 DM patients and 15 NDM patients. Each component of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in the frequency domain was monitored with Holter during the nights of the day before and on 1st and 2nd day after operation. After surgery, total power (TP), high frequency (HF), low frequency (LF) and very low frequency (VLF) significantly decreased as compared to the baseline values before operation in both groups (p<0.05). The LF/HF ratio was significantly changed in DM group but did not change in NDM group. On the 2nd postoperative day, TP, HF, LF and VLF in DM group were further decreased as compared to those on the 1st postoperative day and were significantly lower than those in NDM group (p<0.01 or 0.05), but these indices in NDM group did not show significant decreases. Surgery induced the cardiac autonomic nervous dysfunction in elderly patients not only with DM but also without diabetes. On the 2nd postoperative day, the disturbances of cardiac autonomic nervous activity were more sever in DM patients, compared to the 1st postoperative day, but was not significantly more sever than in the NDM patients.

  9. Systematic morphology and evolutionary anatomy of the autonomic cardiac nervous system in the lesser apes, gibbons (hylobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Whatton, James F

    2008-08-01

    We examined the morphology of the autonomic cardiac nervous system (ACNS) on 20 sides of 10 gibbons (Hylobatidae) of three genera, and we have inferred the evolution of the anatomy of the primate ACNS. We report the following. (1) Several trivial intraspecific and interspecific variations are present in gibbons, but the general arrangement of the ACNS in gibbons is consistent. (2) Although the parasympathetic vagal cardiac nervous system is extremely consistent, the sympathetic cardiac nervous system, such as the composition of the sympathetic ganglia and the range of origin of the sympathetic cardiac nerves, exhibit topographical differences among primates. (3) The vertebral ganglion, seldom observed in the Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae), was consistently present in gibbons as well as in humans. (4) There are fewer thoracic ganglia contributing to the cervicothoracic ganglion in humans than in gibbons and in gibbons than in Old World monkeys. (5) The superior cardiac nerve originating from the superior cervical ganglion, rarely observed in Old World monkeys but commonly observed in humans, was present in 13 of 20 sides (65%), mostly on the left. Accordingly, the ACNS morphology exhibits evolutionary changes within the primate lineage. These evolutionary differences between Old World monkeys, gibbons, and humans are most parsimoniously interpreted as resulting from regular changes in the lineages leading from their common ancestor to the extant species that we dissected. They include the reduction in the number of thoracic ganglia contributing to the cervicothoracic ganglion and the expansion of the range of the cardiac nervous origin.

  10. Complex Nonlinear Autonomic Nervous System Modulation Link Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy and Peripheral Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinda eKhalaf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiological interactions are abundant within, and between, body systems. These interactions may evolve into discrete states during pathophysiological processes resulting from common mechanisms. An association between arterial stenosis, identified by low ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI and cardiovascular disease (CVD as been reported. Whether an association between vascular calcification - characterized by high ABPI and a different pathophysiology - is similarly associated with CVD, has not been established. The current study aims to investigate the association between ABPI, and cardiac rhythm, as an indicator of cardiovascular health and functionality, utilising heart rate variability (HRV.Methods and Results: Two hundred and thirty six patients underwent ABPI assessment. Standard time and frequency domain, and non-linear HRV measures were determined from 5-minute electrocardiogram. ABPI data were divided into normal (n=101, low (n=67 and high (n=66 and compared to HRV measures.(DFAα1 and SampEn were significantly different between the low ABPI, high ABPI and control groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: A possible coupling between arterial stenosis and vascular calcification with decreased and increased HRV respectively was observed. Our results suggest a model for interpreting the relationship between vascular pathophysiology and cardiac rhythm. The cardiovascular system may be viewed as a complex system comprising a number of interacting subsystems. These cardiac and vascular subsystems/networks may be coupled and undergo transitions in response to internal or external perturbations. From a clinical perspective, the significantly increased sample entropy compared to the normal ABPI group and the decreased and increased complex correlation properties measured by DFA for the low and high ABPI groups respectively, may be useful indicators that a more holistic treatment approach in line with this more complex clinical picture is required.

  11. Exercise training improves cardiac autonomic nervous system activity in type 1 diabetic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ki Ok; Moritani, Toshio; Woo, Jinhee; Jang, Ki Soeng; Bae, Ju Yong; Yoo, Jaeho; Kang, Sunghwun

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effect exercise training has on cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) and cardiovascular risk profiles in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). [Subjects] Fifteen type 1 DM children (all boys; 13.0±1.0 years of age) were enrolled in the study. [Methods] The subjects received exercise training three times a week in a 12-week program. Each child was asked to walk on a treadmill to achieve an exercise intensity of VO2max 60%. ANS activity was measured by power spectral analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG). Blood samples were obtained for serum lipid profiles. To evaluate Doppler-shifted Fourier pulsatility index (PI) analysis, a 5-MHz continuous wave Doppler (VASCULAB D10) set was used to measure forward blood flow velocity (FLOW) in the radial artery. [Results] Total and low-frequency (LF) power of heart rate variability increased significantly after exercise intervention. Total cholesterol (TC) levels were significant lower after exercise intervention. Total and high-frequency (HF) power were significantly correlated with higher TC levels, but diastolic blood pressure and HF was significantly correlated with lower TC levels. [Conclusion] Regular exercise intervention should be prescribed for children with type 1 DM.

  12. Quantification of cardiac autonomic nervous activities in ambulatory dogs by eliminating cardiac electric activities using cubic smoothing spline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of an implantable radio transmitter system, direct measurement of cardiac autonomic nervous activities (CANAs) became possible for ambulatory animals for a couple of months. However, measured CANAs include not only CANA but also cardiac electric activity (CEA) that can affect the quantification of CANAs. In this study, we propose a novel CEA removal method using moving standard deviation and cubic smoothing spline. This method consisted of two steps of detecting CEA segments and eliminating CEAs in detected segments. Using implanted devices, we recorded stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA), vagal nerve activity (VNA) and superior left ganglionated plexi nerve activity (SLGPNA) directly from four ambulatory dogs. The CEA-removal performance of the proposed method was evaluated and compared with commonly used high-pass filtration (HPF) for various heart rates and CANA amplitudes. Results tested with simulated CEA and simulated true CANA revealed stable and excellent performance of the suggested method compared to the HPF method. The averaged relative error percentages of the proposed method were less than 0.67%, 0.65% and 1.76% for SGNA, VNA and SLGPNA, respectively. (paper)

  13. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result of another disease, such as Parkinson's disease, alcoholism and diabetes. Problems can affect either part ...

  14. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET]. Progress report, September 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The proposed research addresses the development, validation and application of cardiac PET imaging techniques to characterize the autonomic nervous system of the heart. PET technology has significantly matured over the last two decades. Instrument design, image processing and production of radiochemical compounds have formed an integrative approach to provide a powerful and novel imaging modality for the quantitative in vivo evaluation of the autonomic nervous system of the heart. Animal studies using novel tracers for the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminals will be employed to characterize the functional integrity of nerve terminals. This work will be complemented by the development of agents which bind to postsynaptic receptor sites. The combined evaluation of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal function will allow a unique characterization of neuronal function. Initial development in animal studies will be followed by feasibility studies in humans. These studies are designed to test sophisticated imaging protocols in the human heart and validate the scintigraphic findings with independent markers of autonomic innervation. Subsequent clinical application in various cardiac diseases is expected to provide new insights into the neuropathophysiology of the heart.

  15. Discrimination between Healthy and Sick Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System by Detrended Heart Rate Variability Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ashkenazy, Yu; Levitan, J; Havlin, S; Saermark, K; Moelgaard, H; Bloch-Thomsen, P E

    1998-01-01

    Multiresolution Wavelet Transform and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis have been recently proven as excellent methods in the analysis of Heart Rate Variability, and in distinguishing between healthy subjects and patients with various dysfunctions of the cardiac nervous system. We argue that it is possible to obtain a distinction between healthy subjects/patients of at least similar quality by, first, detrending the time-series of RR-intervals by subtracting a running average based on a local window with a length of around 32 data points, and then, calculating the standard deviation of the detrended time-series. The results presented here indicate that the analysis can be based on very short time-series of RR-data (7-8 minutes), which is a considerable improvement relative to 24-hours Holter recordings.

  16. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  17. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    C-11 hydroxy ephedrine, introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue, studies employing normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders was found to valuable as a nonadreneric tracer. Simultaneously, animal studies been used to assess its use following ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threohydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, we are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve our ability to identify abnormalides. We are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. We are developing radiopharmaceuticals, for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in our institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by, preliminary PET data.

  18. [Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    C-11 hydroxy ephedrine, introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue, studies employing normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders was found to valuable as a nonadreneric tracer. Simultaneously, animal studies been used to assess its use following ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threohydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, we are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve our ability to identify abnormalides. We are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. We are developing radiopharmaceuticals, for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in our institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by, preliminary PET data.

  19. Discrimination of the Healthy and Sick Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System by a New Wavelet Analysis of Heartbeat Intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Lewkowicz, M.; Levitan, J.; Moelgaard, H.; Thomsen, P. E. Bloch; Saermark, K.

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish with a complete certainty between healthy subjects and patients with various dysfunctions of the cardiac nervous system by way of multiresolutional wavelet transform of RR intervals. We repeated the study of Thurner et al on different ensemble of subjects. We show that reconstructed series using a filter which discards wavelet coefficients related with higher scales enables one to classify individuals for which the method otherwise is inconclu...

  20. Comparing the accuracy of ES-BC, EIS-GS, and ES Oxi on body composition, autonomic nervous system activity, and cardiac output to standardized assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis JE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available John E Lewis1, Stacey L Tannenbaum1, Jinrun Gao3, Angelica B Melillo1, Evan G Long1, Yaima Alonso2, Janet Konefal1, Judi M Woolger2, Susanna Leonard1, Prabjot K Singh1, Lawrence Chen1, Eduard Tiozzo1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3State Farm Insurance, Bloomington, IL, USA Background and purpose: The Electro Sensor Complex (ESC is software that combines three devices using bioelectrical impedance, galvanic skin response, and spectrophotometry: (1 ES-BC (Electro Sensor-Body Composition; LD Technology, Miami, FL to assess body composition, (2 EIS-GS (Electro Interstitial Scan-Galvanic Skin; LD Technology to predict autonomic nervous system activity, and (3 ES Oxi (Electro Sensor Oxi; LD Technology to assess cardiac output. The objective of this study was to compare each to a standardized assessment: ES-BC to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, EIS-GS to heart rate variability, and ES Oxi to BioZ Dx Diagnostic System (BioZ Dx; SonoSite Inc, Bothell, WA. Patients and methods: The study was conducted in two waves. Fifty subjects were assessed for body composition and autonomic nervous system activity. Fifty-one subjects were assessed for cardiac output. Results: We found adequate relative and absolute agreement between ES-BC and DXA for fat mass (r = 0.97, P < 0.001 with ES-BC overestimating fat mass by 0.1 kg and for body fat percentage (r = 0.92, P < 0.001 with overestimation of fat percentage by 0.4%. For autonomic nervous system activity, we found marginal relative agreement between EIS-GS and heart rate variability by using EIS-GS as the predictor in a linear regression equation (adjusted R2 = 0.56, P = 0.03. For cardiac output, adequate relative and absolute agreement was found between ES Oxi and BioZ Dx at baseline (r = 0.60, P < 0.001, after the first exercise stage (r = 0.79, P < 0.001, and after the second exercise stage (r = 0.86, P

  1. Discrimination of the Healthy and Sick Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System by a New Wavelet Analysis of Heartbeat Intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Ashkenazy, Yu; Levitan, J; Moelgaard, H; Bloch-Thomsen, P E; Saermark, K

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish with a complete certainty between healthy subjects and patients with various dysfunctions of the cardiac nervous system by way of multiresolutional wavelet transform of RR intervals. We repeated the study of Thurner et al on different ensemble of subjects. We show that reconstructed series using a filter which discards wavelet coefficients related with higher scales enables one to classify individuals for which the method otherwise is inconclusive. We suggest a delimiting diagnostic value of the standard deviation of the filtered, reconstructed RR interval time series in the range of $\\sim 0.035$ (for the above mentioned filter), below which individuals are at risk.

  2. Measurement of the effect of Isha Yoga on cardiac autonomic nervous system using short-term heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Muralikrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beneficial effects of Yoga have been postulated to be due to modulation of the autonomic nervous system. Objective: To assess the effect of Isha Yoga practices on cardiovascular autonomic nervous system through short-term heart rate variability (HRV. Design of the Study: Short-term HRV of long-term regular healthy 14 (12 males and 2 females Isha Yoga practitioners was compared with that of age- and gender-matched 14 (12 males and 2 females non-Yoga practitioners. Methods and Materials: ECG Lead II and respiratory movements were recorded in both groups using Polyrite during supine rest for 5 min and controlled deep breathing for 1 minute. Frequency domain analysis [RR interval is the mean of distance between subsequent R wave peaks in ECG], low frequency (LF power, high frequency (HF power, LF normalized units (nu, HF nu, LF/HF ratio] and time domain analysis [Standard Deviation of normal to normal interval (SDNN, square of mean squared difference of successive normal to normal intervals (RMSSD, normal to normal intervals which are differing by 50 ms (NN50, and percentage of NN50 (pNN50] of HRV variables were analyzed for supine rest. Time domain analysis was recorded for deep breathing. Results: Results showed statistically significant differences between Isha Yoga practitioners and controls in both frequency and time domain analyses of HRV indices, with no difference in resting heart rate between the groups. Conclusions: Practitioners of Isha Yoga showed well-balanced beneficial activity of vagal efferents, an overall increased HRV, and sympathovagal balance, compared to non-Yoga practitioners during supine rest and deep breathing.

  3. [Autonomic nervous system in diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, M

    2001-08-01

    Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia have a primary role in determining the early functional and later anatomic changes at the level of the autonomic pathways controlling the circulation, and besides in directly influencing cardiac and vascular cellular targets and feed-back baroreceptor system sensitivity to neurohumoral modulation in patients with diabetes mellitus. The basic mechanisms of dysfunction and damage, and the clinical and prognostic value of diabetic cardiovascular dysautonomia are discussed together with the diagnostic apparatus and the possible therapeutic approaches.

  4. Exercise and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max). Both "central command" and "the exercise pressor reflex" are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of V˙O2max, indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders. PMID:24095123

  5. Noninvasive evaluation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system. Final progress report, December 24, 1993--February 28, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    During the first year of funding, C-11 hydroxyephedrine has been introduced as the first clinically usable norepinephrine analogue. Studies in normal volunteers and patients with various cardiac disorders indicated the feasibility of this tracer for further evaluation. Simultaneously, animal studies have been used to assess the use of these radiopharmaceuticals in ischemic injury in order to define neuronal damage. Current research focuses on the comparison of C-11 hydroxyephedrine with other neurotransmitters such as C-11 epinephrine and C-11 threo-hydroxyephedrine. Epinephrine is primarily stored in vesicles of the nerve terminal, while threo-hydroxyephedrine is only substrate to uptake I mechanism. Such a combination of radiotracers may allow the dissection of uptake I mechanism as well as vesicular storage. In parallel to the refinement of presynaptic tracers for the sympathetic nervous system, the authors are developing radiopharmaceuticals to delineate the adrenergic receptors in the heart. The combined evaluation of pre- and postsynaptic nerve function will improve their ability to identify abnormalities. They are currently developing a new radiosynthesis of the hydrophilic adrenergic receptor antagonist C-11 CGP-12177 which has been used by others for the visualization of adrenergic receptors in the heart. In addition, they are participating in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for the delineation of presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminals. Derivatives of benzovesamicol have been labeled in their institution and are currently under investigation. The most promising agent is F-18 benzovesamicol (FEBOBV) which allows the visualization of parasympathetic nerve terminals in the canine heart as demonstrated by preliminary PET data. A compilation of all publications funded by this grant is presented in this report.

  6. [Autonomic dysfunction syndrome and diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy in children with diabetes mellitus type I. The correction method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukian, V Iu; Bolotova, N V; Aver'ianov, A P; Filina, N Iu; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the state of the autonomic nervous system in 90 children with diabetes mellitus type I. The autonomic dysfunction syndrome was found in 58,9% and diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy in 28,9% of patients. We revealed the high risk of the development of diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy in children with diabetes mellitus type I in the presence of the autonomic dysfunction syndrome. It has been shown that the early treatment of functional disturbances of the autonomic nervous system using transcranial magnetic stimulation is necessary to prevent the manifestation of diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy.

  7. Comparative anatomy of the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Stefan

    2011-11-16

    This short review aims to point out the general anatomical features of the autonomic nervous systems of non-mammalian vertebrates. In addition it attempts to outline the similarities and also the increased complexity of the autonomic nervous patterns from fish to tetrapods. With the possible exception of the cyclostomes, perhaps the most striking feature of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is the similarity between the vertebrate classes. An evolution of the complexity of the system can be seen, with the segmental ganglia of elasmobranchs incompletely connected longitudinally, while well developed paired sympathetic chains are present in teleosts and the tetrapods. In some groups the sympathetic chains may be reduced (dipnoans and caecilians), and have yet to be properly described in snakes. Cranial autonomic pathways are present in the oculomotor (III) and vagus (X) nerves of gnathostome fish and the tetrapods, and with the evolution of salivary and lachrymal glands in the tetrapods, also in the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves.

  8. Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesiewicz, Theresa A.; Baker, Matthew J.; Wahba, Mervat; Hauser, Robert A.

    2003-03-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), affects 70% to 80% of patients, and causes significant morbidity and discomfort. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction symptoms in PD include sexual dysfunction, swallowing and gastrointestinal disorders, bowel and bladder abnormalities, sleep disturbances, and derangements of cardiovascular regulation, particularly, orthostatic hypotension. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in PD may be caused by an underlying degenerative process that affects the autonomic ganglia, brainstem nuclei, and hypothalamic nuclei. Anti-parkinsonian medications can cause or worsen symptoms of ANS dysfunction. The care of a PD patient with ANS dysfunction relies on its recognition and directed treatment, including coordinated care between the neurologist and appropriate subspecialist. Pharmacotherapy may be useful to treat orthostasis, gastrointestinal, urinary, and sexual dysfunction.

  9. The Association between Baseline Subjective Anxiety Rating and Changes in Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Activity in Response to Tryptophan Depletion in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chih Yin; Tsai, Hsin Chun; Chi, Mei Hung; Chen, Kao Chin; Chen, Po See; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of serotonin on anxiety and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function; the correlation between subjective anxiety rating and changes of ANS function following tryptophan depletion (TD) in healthy volunteers was examined. Twenty-eight healthy participants, consisting of 15 females and 13 males, with an average age of 33.3 years, were recruited.Baseline Chinese Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and ANS function measurements were taken. TD was carried out on the testing day, and participants provided blood samples right before and 5 hours after TD. ANS function, somatic symptoms, and Visual Analogue Scales (VASs) were determined after TD. Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman ρ correlation were adapted for analyses of the results.The TD procedure reduced total and free plasma tryptophan effectively. After TD, the sympathetic nervous activity increased and parasympathetic nervous activity decreased. Baseline anxiety ratings positively correlated with post-TD changes in sympathetic nervous activity, VAS ratings, and physical symptoms. However, a negative correlation with post-TD changes in parasympathetic nervous activity was found.The change in ANS function after TD was associated with the severity of anxiety in healthy volunteers. This supports the fact that the effect of anxiety on heart rate variability is related to serotonin vulnerability. Furthermore, it also shows that the subjective anxiety rating has a biological basis related to serotonin.

  10. Cardiac autonomic nervous test value to the diagnosis of plant diabetic neuropathy%心脏自主神经试验对糖尿病合并植物神经病变的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何煜暐

    2015-01-01

    目的:对46例糖尿病患者心脏自主神经试验进行分析,探讨心脏自主神经试验对糖尿病合并植物神经病变的诊断价值。方法:根据临床表现把糖尿病患者分为糖尿病合并植物神经病变组和糖尿病不合并植物神经病变组。行心脏自主神经试验,并对两组数据进行比较。结果:糖尿病合并植物神经病变组呼吸差,乏氏指数、30/15比值均低于不合并植物神经病变组。结论:心脏自主神经试验方法简单方便,容易掌握,重复性好,可作为评估糖尿病合并植物神经病变的敏感指标。%Objective46 cases of diabetic cardiac autonomic nervous test were analyzed, and discuss the heart autonomic nervous test value to the diagnosis of plant diabetic neuropathy.MethodsThe diabetes patients according to clinical manifestations of divided into diabetic neuropathy group and diabetes do not merge plants group of neuropathy. Heart the heart nerve test, and carries on the comparison to 2 sets of data.ResultsPlant diabetic neuropathy group of poor breathing, lack of index, the ratio of 30/15 were less merger plant neuropathy group.Conclusions Cardiac autonomic nervous test method is simple and convenient, easy to learn, good repeatability, can be used as evaluation of sensitive indicator of plant diabetic neuropathy.

  11. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders.

  12. [Emotion, amygdala, and autonomic nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Emotion refers to the dynamic changes of feeling accompanied by the alteration of physical and visceral activities. Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic) regulates the visceral activities. Therefore, monitoring and analyzing autonomic nervous activity help understand the emotional changes. To this end, the survey of the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), such as c-Fos in the brain and target organs, and the viral transneuronal labeling method using the pseudorabies virus (PRV) have enabled the visualization of the neurocircuitry of emotion. By comparing c-Fos expression and data from PRV or other neuroanatomical labeling techniques, the central sites that regulate emotional stress-induced autonomic activation can be deduced. Such regions have been identified in the limbic system (e. g., the extended amygdaloid complex; lateral septum; and infralimbic, insular, and ventromedial temporal cortical regions), as well as in several hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei. The amygdala is structurally diverse and comprises several subnuclei, which play a role in emotional process via projections from the cortex and a variety of subcortical structures. All amygdaloid subnuclei receive psychological information from other limbic systems, while the lateral and central subnuclei receive peripheral and sensory information. Output to the hypothalamus and peripheral sympathetic system mainly originates from the medial amygdala. As estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, and androgen receptor are expressed in the medial amygdala, sex steroids may modulate the autonomic nervous activities.

  13. Cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and arrhythmia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Liu; Dongmei Chen; Yonggang Wang; Xin Zhao; Yang Zheng

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the distribution characteristics of cardiac autonomic nerves and to explore the correlation between cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and arrhythmia.DATA RETRIEVAL: A computer-based retrieval was performed for papers examining the distribution of cardiac autonomic nerves, using "heart, autonomic nerve, sympathetic nerve, vagus nerve, nerve distribution, rhythm and atrial fibrillation" as the key words.SELECTION CRITERIA: A total of 165 studies examining the distribution of cardiac autonomic nerve were screened, and 46 of them were eventually included.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The distribution and characteristics of cardiac autonomic nerves were observed, and immunohistochemical staining was applied to determine the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholine transferase (main markers of cardiac autonomic nerve distribution). In addition, the correlation between cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and cardiac arrhythmia was investigated.RESULTS: Cardiac autonomic nerves were reported to exhibit a disordered distribution in different sites, mainly at the surface of the cardiac atrium and pulmonary vein, forming a ganglia plexus. The distribution of the pulmonary vein autonomic nerve was prominent at the proximal end rather than the distal end, at the upper left rather than the lower right, at the epicardial membrane rather than the endocardial membrane, at the left atrium rather than the right atrium, and at the posterior wall rather than the anterior wall. The main markers used for cardiac autonomic nerves were tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholine transferase. Protein gene product 9.5 was used to label the immunoreactive nerve distribution, and the distribution density of autonomic nerves was determined using a computer-aided morphometric analysis system.CONCLUSION: The uneven distribution of the cardiac autonomic nerves is the leading cause of the occurrence of arrhythmia, and the cardiac autonomic nerves play an important role in the

  14. Autonomic nervous dysfunction in hamsters infected with West Nile virus.

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    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Clinical studies and case reports clearly document that West Nile virus (WNV can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI complications. Other functions controlled by the autonomic nervous system may also be directly affected by WNV, such as bladder and cardiac functions. To investigate how WNV can cause autonomic dysfunctions, we focused on the cardiac and GI dysfunctions of rodents infected with WNV. Infected hamsters had distension of the stomach and intestines at day 9 after viral challenge. GI motility was detected by a dye retention assay; phenol red dye was retained more in the stomachs of infected hamsters as compared to sham-infected hamsters. The amplitudes of electromygraphs (EMGs of intestinal muscles were significantly reduced. Myenteric neurons that innervate the intestines, in addition to neurons in the brain stem, were identified to be infected with WNV. These data suggest that infected neurons controlling autonomic function were the cause of GI dysfunction in WNV-infected hamsters. Using radiotelemetry to record electrocardiograms and to measure heart rate variability (HRV, a well-accepted readout for autonomic function, we determined that HRV and autonomic function were suppressed in WNV-infected hamsters. Cardiac histopathology was observed at day 9 only in the right atrium, which was coincident with WNV staining. A subset of WNV infected cells was identified among cells with hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4 (HCN4 as a marker for cells in the sinoatrial (SA and atrioventricular (AV nodes. The unique contribution of this study is the discovery that WNV infection of hamsters can lead to autonomic dysfunction as determined by reduced HRV and reduced EMG amplitudes of the GI tract. These data may model autonomic dysfunction of the human West Nile neurological disease.

  15. Abnormal cardiac autonomic regulation in mice lacking ASIC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Feng; Kuo, Terry B J; Chen, Wei-Nan; Lin, Chao-Chieh; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3(-/-) mice. Asic3(-/-) mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3(-/-) mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3(-/-) mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24804235

  16. Abnormal Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Mice Lacking ASIC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Feng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3−/− mice. Asic3−/− mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3−/− mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3−/− mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Cardiac sympathetic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. Relationship between results of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy and autonomic nervous function evaluated by the Valsalva maneuver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined whether the results of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy reflect cardiac sympathetic nerve function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The subjects were 62 patients with PD (age, 65.4±6.3 years) and 53 controls (65.2±7.1 years). All subjects underwent 123I-MIBG scintigraphy and QTc interval measurement on electrocardiogram (ECG). Hemodynamic autonomic function was estimated by the Valsalva maneuver in 37 subjects (63.9±5.2 years) randomly selected from the patients with PD. As control, the Valsalva maneuver was also done in 20 randomly selected controls (64.1±5.0 years), and 123I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 21 controls (67.7±5.3 years old). The subjects rested in a supine position for 20 min and were given an intravenous injection of 111 MBq 123I-MIBG. Relative organ uptake was determined by the region of interest (ROI) in the anterior view and the ratio of average pixel count in the heart (H) to that in the mediastinum (M) was calculated (H/M ratio) for early (after 15 min) and delayed (after 3 hrs) periods. The Valsalva maneuver was done by having the subjects exhale into a mouthpiece at an expiratory pressure of 40 mmHg for 15 seconds. Blood pressure and RR intervals were measured during the Valsalva maneuver by tonometry, using a noninvasive blood pressure monitoring system (ANS 508, Nihon Colin Co., Ltd.). Baroreceptor reflex sensitivities (BRS) of the second phase (BRS II) and fourth phase (BRS IV) of the Valsalva maneuver were calculated, and blood pressure elevations during the late second phase (IIp) and fourth phase (IVp) were measured. QTc was greater in the patients with PD (417 ms) than in the control subjects (409 ms). The H/M ratios of the early and delayed images in the patients with PD (1.76, 1.61) were significantly lower than those in the control subjects (2.56, 2.45). The early and delayed H/M ratios significantly correlated with the severity of disease according to Hoehn-Yahr stage. QTc interval and IVp significantly

  18. Nutritional stimulation of the autonomic nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Misha DP Luyer; Quirine Habes; Richard van Hak; Wim Buurman

    2011-01-01

    Disturbance of the inflammatory response in the gut is important in several clinical diseases ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to postoperative ileus. Several feedback mechanisms exist that control the inflammatory cascade and avoid collateral damage. In the gastrointestinal tract, it is of particular importance to control the immune response to maintain the balance that allows dietary uptake and utilization of nutrients on one hand, while preventing invasion of bacteria and toxins on the other hand. The process of digestion and absorption of nutrients requires a relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut to luminal contents which is not yet fully understood. Recently, the autonomic nervous system has been identified as an important pathway to control local and systemic inflammation and gut barrier integrity. Activation of the pathway is possible via electrical or via pharmacological interventions, but is also achieved in a physiological manner by ingestion of dietary lipids. Administration of dietary lipids has been shown to be very effective in reducing the inflammatory cascade and maintaining intestinal barrier integrity in several experimental studies. This beneficial effect of nutrition on the inflammatory inflammatory response and intestinal barrier integrity opens new therapeutic opportunities for treatment of certain gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, this neural feedback mechanism provides more insight in the relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut. Here, we will discuss the regulatory function of the autonomic nervous system on the inflammatory response and gut barrier function and the potential benefit in a clinical setting.

  19. Autonomic nervous system function in type 2 diabetes using conventional clinical autonomic tests, heart rate and blood pressure variability measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sucharita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are currently approximately 40.9 million patients with diabetes mellitus in India and this number is expected to rise to about 69.9 million by the year 2025. This high burden of diabetes is likely to be associated with an increase in associated complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 (15 male and 8 female patients with type 2 diabetes of 10-15 years duration and their age and gender matched controls (n=23 were recruited. All subjects underwent detailed clinical proforma, questionnaire related to autonomic symptoms, anthropometry, peripheral neural examination and tests of autonomic nervous system including both conventional and newer methods (heart rate and blood pressure variability. Results: Conventional tests of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activity were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared to the controls (P<0.05. The diabetic patients group had significantly lower high frequency and low-frequency HRV when expressed in absolute units (P<0.05 and total power (P<0.01 compared to the controls. Conclusion: Data from the current study demonstrated that diabetics had both cardiac sympathetic and cardiac parasympathetic nervous system involvement. The presence of symptoms and involvement of both components of the autonomic nervous system suggest that dysfunction has been present for a while in these diabetics. There is a strong need for earlier and regular evaluation of autonomic nervous system in type 2 diabetics to prevent further complications.

  20. The Relationship between Vascular Function and the Autonomic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiya, Eisuke; Watanabe, Masafumi; Komuro, Issei

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and autonomic nervous system dysfunction are both risk factors for atherosclerosis. There is evidence demonstrating that there is a close interrelationship between these two systems. In hypertension, endothelial dysfunction affects the pathologic process through autonomic nervous pathways, and the pathophysiological process of autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is closely related with vascular function. However, detailed mechanisms of this interrelationship have not been clearly explained. In this review, we summarize findings concerning the interrelationship between vascular function and the autonomic nervous system from both experimental and clinical studies. The clarification of this interrelationship may provide more comprehensive risk stratification and a new effective therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis.

  1. PET and SPET tracers for mapping the cardiac nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human cardiac nervous system consists of a sympathetic and a parasympathetic branch with (-)-norepinephrine and acetylcholine as the respective endogenous neurotransmitters. Dysfunction of the cardiac nervous system is implicated in various types of cardiac disease, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In vivo assessment of the distribution and function of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic neurones with positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) can be achieved by means of a number of carbon-11-, fluorine-18-, bromine-76- and iodine-123-labelled tracer molecules. Available tracers for mapping sympathetic neurones can be divided into radiolabelled catecholamines, such as 6-[18F]fluorodopamine, (-)-6-[18F]fluoronorepinephrine and (-)-[11C]epinephrine, and radiolabelled catecholamine analogues, such as [123I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine, [11C]meta-hydroxyephedrine, [18F]fluorometaraminol, [11C]phenylephrine and meta-[76Br]bromobenzylguanidine. Resistance to metabolism by monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyl transferase simplifies the myocardial kinetics of the second group. Both groups of compounds are excellent agents for an overall assessment of sympathetic innervation. Biomathematical modelling of tracer kinetics is complicated by the complexity of the steps governing neuronal uptake, retention and release of these agents as well as by their high neuronal affinity, which leads to partial flow dependence of uptake. Mapping of cardiac parasympathetic neurones is limited by a low density and focal distribution pattern of these neurones in myocardium. Available tracers are derivatives of vesamicol, a molecule that binds to a receptor associated with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Compounds like (-)-[18F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol display a high degree of non-specific binding in myocardium which restricts their utility for cardiac neuronal imaging. (orig.)

  2. PET and SPET tracers for mapping the cardiac nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver; Halldin, Christer [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, 17176 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    The human cardiac nervous system consists of a sympathetic and a parasympathetic branch with (-)-norepinephrine and acetylcholine as the respective endogenous neurotransmitters. Dysfunction of the cardiac nervous system is implicated in various types of cardiac disease, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In vivo assessment of the distribution and function of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic neurones with positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) can be achieved by means of a number of carbon-11-, fluorine-18-, bromine-76- and iodine-123-labelled tracer molecules. Available tracers for mapping sympathetic neurones can be divided into radiolabelled catecholamines, such as 6-[{sup 18}F]fluorodopamine, (-)-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoronorepinephrine and (-)-[{sup 11}C]epinephrine, and radiolabelled catecholamine analogues, such as [{sup 123}I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine, [{sup 11}C]meta-hydroxyephedrine, [{sup 18}F]fluorometaraminol, [{sup 11}C]phenylephrine and meta-[{sup 76}Br]bromobenzylguanidine. Resistance to metabolism by monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyl transferase simplifies the myocardial kinetics of the second group. Both groups of compounds are excellent agents for an overall assessment of sympathetic innervation. Biomathematical modelling of tracer kinetics is complicated by the complexity of the steps governing neuronal uptake, retention and release of these agents as well as by their high neuronal affinity, which leads to partial flow dependence of uptake. Mapping of cardiac parasympathetic neurones is limited by a low density and focal distribution pattern of these neurones in myocardium. Available tracers are derivatives of vesamicol, a molecule that binds to a receptor associated with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Compounds like (-)-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol display a high degree of non-specific binding in myocardium which restricts their utility

  3. Part and Parcel of the Cardiac Autonomic Nerve System: Unravelling Its Cellular Building Blocks during Development

    OpenAIRE

    Végh, Anna M D; Duim, Sjoerd N; Smits, Anke M; Robert E Poelmann; Arend D. J. ten Harkel; DeRuiter, Marco C; Marie José Goumans; Monique R M Jongbloed

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (cANS) is essential for proper heart function, and complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac death are associated with an altered cANS function. A changed innervation state may underlie (part of) the atrial and ventricular arrhythmias observed after myocardial infarction. In other cardiac diseases, such as congenital heart disease, autonomic dysfunction may be related to disease outcome. This is also the case after heart transplantat...

  4. Vitamin D Levels Are Associated with Cardiac Autonomic Activity in Healthy Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Ellis; Turin, Tanvir C.; Sola, Darlene Y.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Exner, Derek V.; Mann, Michelle C.; Ahmed, Sofia B.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency (≤50nmol/L 25-hydroxy vitamin D) is a cardiovascular (CV) risk factor that affects approximately one billion people worldwide, particularly those affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Individuals with CKD demonstrate abnormal cardiac autonomic nervous system activity, which has been linked to the significant rates of CV-related mortality in this population. Whether vitamin D deficiency has a direct association with regulation of cardiac autonomic activity has never be...

  5. Is There Anything "Autonomous" in the Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasia-Filho, Alberto A.

    2006-01-01

    The terms "autonomous" or "vegetative" are currently used to identify one part of the nervous system composed of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and gastrointestinal divisions. However, the concepts that are under the literal meaning of these words can lead to misconceptions about the actual nervous organization. Some clear-cut examples indicate…

  6. Drug-Free Correction of the Tone of the Autonomic Nervous System in the Management of Cardiac Arrhythmia in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Popov, PhD, ScD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to examine the possibility of ventricular extrasystole (VES management in CAD (coronary artery disease patients by attenuating the sympathetic activity with a course of electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve. Methods: A decrease in sympathetic tone was achieved via vagus nerve electrical stimulation (VNES. VNES was performed in 48 male CAD patients, mean age 53.5±4.1 years. Antiarrhythmic drug therapy was canceled prior to VNES therapy. The effect of VNES on heart rate variability (HRV and VES were carefully studied. All the patients received a 24-hour ECG monitoring. HRV was calculated for high frequency (HF and low frequency (LF bands and the LF/HF index was determined. Results: Immediately following VNES therapy, 30 patients (group 1 reported alleviation of angina signs and the LF/HF index was significantly decreased (p=0.001. Eighteen patients (group 2 showed no change either in health or the LF/HF index. According to ECG and echocardiography, the VES number did not significantly change immediately after VNES therapy. One month after the VNES course, group 1 reported further improvement in health; the LF/HF index approached normal values. In group 2, the LF/HF significantly decreased (p=0.043. However, in the entire study sample, the VES number significantly decreased overall (p=0.025. Conclusion: VNES attenuated the cardiac effects of hypersympathicotonia decreased the ischemic impact on the myocardium, alleviated the cardiac angina signs, and beneficially influenced the VES number in CAD patients.

  7. Cardiovascular and autonomic modulation by the central nervous system after aerobic exercise training

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    M.C. Martins-Pinge

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis under normal and pathological conditions. The sympathetic tone, particularly for the cardiovascular system, is generated by sympathetic discharges originating in specific areas of the brainstem. Aerobic exercise training promotes several cardiovascular adjustments that are influenced by the central areas involved in the output of the autonomic nervous system. In this review, we emphasize the studies that investigate aerobic exercise training protocols to identify the cardiovascular adaptations that may be the result of central nervous system plasticity due to chronic exercise. The focus of our study is on some groups of neurons involved in sympathetic regulation. They include the nucleus tractus solitarii, caudal ventrolateral medulla and the rostral ventrolateral medulla that maintain and regulate the cardiac and vascular autonomic tonus. We also discuss studies that demonstrate the involvement of supramedullary areas in exercise training modulation, with emphasis on the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an important area of integration for autonomic and neuroendocrine responses. The results of these studies suggest that the beneficial effects of physical activity may be due, at least in part, to reductions in sympathetic nervous system activity. Conversely, with the recent association of physical inactivity with chronic disease, these data may also suggest that increases in sympathetic nervous system activity contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  8. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  9. Gyrosonics a Novel Stimulant for Autonomic Nervous System

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, S K; Choudhuri, R; Banerjee, S

    2009-01-01

    Gyrosonics refers to novel audio binaural stimulus that produces rotational perceptions of sound movement in head at a particular predetermined frequency. Therapeutic effect observed with this is considered to be associated with modification of arousal of autonomic nervous system. The heart rate variability (HRV), non-invasive measure of autonomic nervous system, has been measured for group of 30 subjects for pre- and post- gyrosonic installation. The time- and frequency- domain analysis of HRV results show overall decrease in sympathetic response and increase in para- sympathetic response due to listening of gyro sonics.

  10. Anatomy of the cardiac nervous system with clinical and comparative morphological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu

    2011-03-01

    Unlike autonomic nervous preservation in other surgeries for improving patient quality of life, autonomic cardiac nervous system (ACNS) preservation has been neglected in cardiovascular surgery because of technical difficulties and other unsolved issues. Because such ACNS preservation in cardiovascular surgery is anticipated in the future, detailed anatomical investigation of the human ACNS is required. Therefore, we have conducted morphological studies of the ACNS from macroscopic, clinical, and evolutionary anatomical viewpoints. In this study, I review detailed anatomical studies of the human ACNS together with their clinical implications. In addition, the evolutionary comparative anatomical significance of primate ACNS is also summarized to help understand and translate the findings of functional experiments to humans. These integrated findings will be the subject of a future study unifying molecular embryological and anatomical findings to clarify cardiac functions based on functional animal experiments, clinical applications such as improving surgery techniques and individual order-made surgery in cardiac surgery, and for future evaluation in regenerative medicine. PMID:21116884

  11. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor E Valenti; Guida, Heraldo L.; Frizzo, Ana C F; Cardoso, Ana C. V.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Luiz Carlos de Abreu

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation bet...

  12. An Electerophisioligic Study Of Autonomic Nervous System In Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorolahi Moghaddam H

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in diabetics can occur apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and sometimes leads to complaints which may be diagnosed by electrodiagnostic methods. Moreover glycemic control of these patients may prevent such a complications."nMaterials and Methods: 30 diabetic patients were compared to the same number of age and sex-matched controls regarding to electrophysiologic findings of autonomic nervous system. Symptoms referable to autonomic disorder including nightly diarrhea, dizziness, urinary incontinence, constipation, nausea, and mouth dryness were recorded in all diabetic patients. Palmar and plantar SSR and expiration to inspiration ratio (E: I and Valsalva ratio were recorded in all diabetics and control individuals by electromyography device. In addition NCS was performed on two sensory and two motor nerves in diabetic patients."nResults: There was no relation between age of diabetics and abnormal D: I ratio, Valsalva ratio and degree of electrophysiologic autonomic impairment. Also no relation between peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment was found. Plantar SSR was absent in 80% of diabetics with orthostatic hypotension (p~ 0.019. Palmar and plantar SSR were absent in many diabetics in comparison to control group (for palmar SSR p~ 0.00 and for plantar SSR p< 0.015. There was no relation between diabetes duration since diagnosis and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment."nConclusion: According to the above mentioned findings diabetic autonomic neuropathy develops apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and probably with different mechanisms. Remarkable absence of palmar SSR in diabetics with orthostatic hypotension can be due to its sympathetic origin. Absence of any relation between diabetes duration and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment can be due to late diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or no pathophysiologic relation between chronic

  13. Insights into the clinical and functional significance of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Junqueira Junior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Exclusive or associated lesions in various structures of the autonomic nervous system occur in the chronic forms of Chagas disease. In the indeterminate form, the lesions are absent or mild, whereas in the exclusive or combined heart and digestive disease forms, they are often more pronounced. Depending on their severity these lesions can result mainly in cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction but also in sympathetic dysfunction of variable degrees. Despite the key autonomic effect on cardiovascular functioning, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease remains unknown. METHODS: Review of data on the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease and their potential consequences, and considerations supporting the possible relationship between this disturbance and general or cardiovascular clinical and functional adverse outcomes. RESULTS: We hypothesise that possible consequences that cardiac dysautonomia might variably occasion or predispose in Chagas disease include: transient or sustained arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, adverse overall and cardiovascular prognosis with enhanced morbidity and mortality, an inability of the cardiovascular system to adjust to functional demands and/or respond to internal or external stimuli by adjusting heart rate and other hemodynamic variables, and immunomodulatory and cognitive disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired cardiac autonomic modulation in Chagas disease might not be a mere epiphenomenon without significance. Indirect evidences point for a likely important role of this alteration as a primary predisposing or triggering cause or mediator favouring the development of subtle or evident secondary cardiovascular functional disturbances and clinical consequences, and influencing adverse outcomes.

  14. DISORDERS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN THE CARDIOLOGY PRACTICE: FOCUS ON THE ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Akhmedova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV in patients with ischemic heart disease, a life-threatening heart rhythm disorders, as well as diabetes mellitus (DM is considered. A significant association between the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system and death from cardiovascular causes is identified. The reactions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS can serve as a precipitating factor of arrhythmias in patients with heart disorders. Analysis of HRV at rest is the main and informative method for determination of the ANS disorders. HRV decreases greatly in patients with acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmia, and DM, predicting a high risk of death. The leading cause of death in diabetic patients is cardiac autonomic neuropathy, with the development of "silent" ischemia and painless myocardial infarction. Autonomic regulation of the heart rate should be assessed for early diagnosis and prevention of complications in the form of sudden death.

  15. DISORDERS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN THE CARDIOLOGY PRACTICE: FOCUS ON THE ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Akhmedova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV in patients with ischemic heart disease, a life-threatening heart rhythm disorders, as well as diabetes mellitus (DM is considered. A significant association between the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system and death from cardiovascular causes is identified. The reactions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS can serve as a precipitating factor of arrhythmias in patients with heart disorders. Analysis of HRV at rest is the main and informative method for determination of the ANS disorders. HRV decreases greatly in patients with acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmia, and DM, predicting a high risk of death. The leading cause of death in diabetic patients is cardiac autonomic neuropathy, with the development of "silent" ischemia and painless myocardial infarction. Autonomic regulation of the heart rate should be assessed for early diagnosis and prevention of complications in the form of sudden death.

  16. Cardiac autonomic control in the obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouha Gammoudi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sympathetic activation is considered to be the main mechanism involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. The heart rate variability (HRV analysis represents a non-invasive tool allowing the study of the autonomic nervous system. The impairment of HRV parameters in OSA has been documented. However, only a few studies tackled the dynamics of the autonomic nervous system during sleep in patients having OSA. Aims: To analyze the HRV over sleep stages and across sleep periods in order to clarify the impact of OSA on cardiac autonomic modulation. The second objective is to examine the nocturnal HRV of OSA patients to find out which HRV parameter is the best to reflect the symptoms severity. Methods: The study was retrospective. We have included 30 patients undergoing overnight polysomnography. Subjects were categorized into two groups according to apnea–hypopnea index (AHI: mild-to-moderate OSAS group (AHI: 5–30 and severe OSAS group (AHI>30. The HRV measures for participants with low apnea–hypopnea indices were compared to those of patients with high rates of apnea–hypopnea across the sleep period and sleep stages. Results: HRV measures during sleep stages for the group with low rates of apnea–hypopnea have indicated a parasympathetic activation during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. However, no significant difference has been observed in the high AHI group except for the mean of RR intervals (mean RR. The parasympathetic activity tended to increase across the night but without a statistical difference. After control of age and body mass index, the most significant correlation found was for the mean RR (p=0.0001, r=−0.248. Conclusion: OSA affects sympathovagal modulation during sleep, and this impact has been correlated to the severity of the disease. The mean RR seemed to be a better index allowing the sympathovagal balance appreciation during the night in OSA.

  17. Causal interactions between the cerebral cortex and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, XiaoLin; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, JianBao

    2014-05-01

    Mental states such as stress and anxiety can cause heart disease. On the other hand, meditation can improve cardiac performance. In this study, the heart rate variability, directed transfer function and corrected conditional entropy were used to investigate the effects of mental tasks on cardiac performance, and the functional coupling between the cerebral cortex and the heart. When subjects tried to decrease their heart rate by volition, the sympathetic nervous system was inhibited and the heart rate decreased. When subjects tried to increase their heart rate by volition, the parasympathetic nervous system was inhibited and the sympathetic nervous system was stimulated, and the heart rate increased. When autonomic nervous system activity was regulated by mental tasks, the information flow from the post-central areas to the pre-central areas of the cerebral cortex increased, and there was greater coupling between the brain and the heart. Use of directed transfer function and corrected conditional entropy techniques enabled analysis of electroencephalographic recordings, and of the information flow causing functional coupling between the brain and the heart.

  18. Perturbed autonomic nervous system function in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, Nicholas; Argyrakopoulou, Georgia; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is characterized by the clustering of various common metabolic abnormalities in an individual and it is associated with increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Its prevalence in the general population is approximately 25%. Central fat accumulation and insulin resistance are considered as the common denominators of the abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. Subjects with metabolic syndrome have autonomic nervous system dysfunction characterized by predominance of the sympathetic nervous system in many organs, i.e. heart, kidneys, vasculature, adipose tissue, and muscles. Sympathetic nervous system activation in metabolic syndrome is detected as increased heart rate and blood pressure, diminished heart rate variability, baroreceptor dysfunction, enhanced lipolysis in visceral fat, increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity, and high urine or plasma catecholamine concentrations as well as turnover rates. The augmented sympathetic activity in individuals with metabolic syndrome worsens prognosis of this high-risk population. The mechanisms linking metabolic syndrome with sympathetic activation are complex and not clearly understood. Whether sympathetic overactivity is involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome or is a consequence of it remains to be elucidated since data from prospective studies are missing. Intervention studies have demonstrated that the autonomic disturbances of the metabolic syndrome may be reversible.

  19. [State of the autonomic nervous system after induced abortion in the lst trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuleva, L P; Gatina, G A; Kuz'mina, T I; Solov'eva, A D

    1990-04-01

    The autonomic nervous system has been examined in 271 patients with a history of first-trimester induced abortion. It was ascertained that induced abortion affected the autonomic nervous system, thus impairing adaptive potentials and entailing the onset or aggravation of preexisting autonomic vascular dystonia. PMID:2378404

  20. Part and Parcel of the Cardiac Autonomic Nerve System: Unravelling Its Cellular Building Blocks during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. D. Végh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system (cANS is essential for proper heart function, and complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac death are associated with an altered cANS function. A changed innervation state may underlie (part of the atrial and ventricular arrhythmias observed after myocardial infarction. In other cardiac diseases, such as congenital heart disease, autonomic dysfunction may be related to disease outcome. This is also the case after heart transplantation, when the heart is denervated. Interest in the origin of the autonomic nerve system has renewed since the role of autonomic function in disease progression was recognized, and some plasticity in autonomic regeneration is evident. As with many pathological processes, autonomic dysfunction based on pathological innervation may be a partial recapitulation of the early development of innervation. As such, insight into the development of cardiac innervation and an understanding of the cellular background contributing to cardiac innervation during different phases of development is required. This review describes the development of the cANS and focuses on the cellular contributions, either directly by delivering cells or indirectly by secretion of necessary factors or cell-derivatives.

  1. Functional autonomic nervous system profile in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kushki, Azadeh; Brian, Jessica; Dupuis, Annie; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    Background Autonomic dysregulation has been recently reported as a feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the nature of autonomic atypicalities in ASD remain largely unknown. The goal of this study was to characterize the cardiac autonomic profile of children with ASD across four domains affected in ASD (anxiety, attention, response inhibition, and social cognition), and suggested to be affected by autonomic dysregulation. Methods We compared measures of autonomic cardiac regulat...

  2. Obesity and the Activity of the Autonomic Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, Ramis

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the autonomic nervous system functions of obese people. The study group consisted of 30 healthy obese people (20 female, 10 male, age range 18-58, median 37.6±9.7 years of age) and the control group consisted of 30 healthy nonobese people (18 female, 12 male, age range 17- 56, median 34.4±7.5 years). Each function was tested by non-invasive applications (orthostatic test, isometric exercise test, Valsalva ratio test, 30/15 ratio test, heart rate...

  3. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack eHawksley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics and one or more vocal (phonic tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS. Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an

  4. Comparing the Accuracy of ES-BC, EIS-GS, and ES Oxi on Body Composition, Autonomic Nervous System Activity, and Cardiac Outputto Standardized Assessments%ES-BC,EIS-GS与ES Oxi测量方法准确率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋军

    2014-01-01

    人体生物刺激反馈仪通常包括三种测量原理,即ES-BC(生物电阻抗)、EIS-GS(皮电反应)和ES Oxi(光度法),本文通过文献检索研究,分析三种测量方式的准确性,探讨其在临床应用中的价值。%The Electro Sensor Complex (ESC) is software that combines three devices using bioelectrical impedance, galvanic skin response, and spectrophotometry: (1) ES-BC (Electro Sensor-Body Composition; to assess body composition, (2) EIS-GS to predict autonomic nervous system activity, and (3) ES Oxi to assess cardiac output. analysis of clinical application of human biological stimulation feedback Instrument.

  5. Regular Football Practice Improves Autonomic Cardiac Function in Male Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in the cardiovascular regulation is of primal importance. Since it has been associated with adverse conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, sleep disorders, hypertension and obesity. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the impact of recreational football practice on the autonomic cardiac function of male children, as measured by heart rate variability. Patients and Methods Forty-seven male children aged 9 - 12 years were selected according to their engagement with football oriented practice outside school context. The children were divided into a football group (FG; n = 22 and a control group (CG; n = 25. The FG had regular football practices, with 2 weekly training sessions and occasional weekend matches. The CG was not engaged with any physical activity other than complementary school-based physical education classes. Data from physical activity, physical fitness, and heart rate variability measured in time and frequency domains were obtained. Results The anthropometric and body composition characteristics were similar in both groups (P > 0.05. The groups were also similar in time spent daily on moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (FG vs. CG: 114 ± 64 vs. 87 ± 55 minutes; P > 0.05. However, the FG performed better (P < 0.05 in Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (1394 ± 558 vs. 778 ± 408 m and 15-m sprint test (3.06 ± 0.17 vs. 3.20 ± 0.23 s. Also, the FG presented enhanced autonomic function. Significant differences were detected (P < 0.05 between groups for low frequency normalized units (38.0 ± 15.2 vs. 47.3 ± 14.2 n.u (normalized units, high frequency normalized units (62.1 ± 15.2 vs. 52.8 ± 14.2 n.u., and LF:HF ratio (0.7 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.6 ms2. Conclusions Children engaged with regular football practice presented enhanced physical fitness and autonomic function, by increasing vagal tone at rest.

  6. Of Scaredy Cats and Cold Fish: The autonomic nervous system and behaviour in young children

    OpenAIRE

    Dierckx, Bram

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s internal functions. The goal of this regulation is to maintain bodily homeostasis in a changing external environment. The autonomic nervous system acts largely independent of volition and controls heart rate, respiratory rate, digestion, and perspiration. It is divided into two partially antagonistic systems: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic or vagal nervous system. In general, the vagal syste...

  7. Cardiac Autonomic Control in Individuals With Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulopoulou, Styliani; Baynard, Tracy; Collier, Scott; Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Figueroa, Arturo; Beets, Michael; Pitetti, Kenneth; Fernhall, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to compare cardiac autonomic control at rest between 50 individuals with Down syndrome and 24 control participants without disabilities. Resting autonomic function was assessed using analysis of heart rate variability. Participants with Down syndrome had reduced total heart rate variability, which indicates possible…

  8. Autonomic nervous activities assessed by heart rate variability in pre- and post-adolescent Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuba, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Hironori; Sakiyama, Tomomi; Yamaoka Endo, Masako; Yamada, Masako; Ueoka, Hatsumi; Miura, Akira; Koga, Shunsaku

    2009-11-01

    There are many studies with respect to the age-related change of the characteristics of beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV), reflected by cardiac autonomic control, especially focusing on adulthood (i.e., aging related to the incidence of metabolic syndrome) in Japanese individuals. However, it is not still clear how basic control matures during childhood. This study was, therefore, designed to explore the HRV characteristics of pre- and post-adolescent Japanese, in a cross-sectional manner. Resting HRV data was recorded in a relaxing supine position from 136 healthy individuals between 8 and 20 years (48 boys between 8 and 14 years; 88 girls between 8 and 20 years) who were instructed to breathe periodically (0.25 Hz). Frequency-domain analysis (i.e., the spectral analysis based on an autoregressive model) of short-term, stationary R-R intervals was performed to evaluate the low- (LF; below 0.15 Hz) and high- (HF; 0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency powers. The HF to total power represents the vagal control of heart rate (PNS indicator), and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) is considered to relate to the sympathetic modulations (SNS indicator). Both PNS and SNS indices had substantially no effect from age and/or gender in the range between 8 and 20 years. In conclusion, the control of the cardiac autonomic nervous system in Japanese seems already to be compatible with that in adulthood before approximately 10 years. In other word, the cardiac autonomic modulation would presumably be maturated before the age of approximately 7-8 years, though further research is awaited.

  9. Of Scaredy Cats and Cold Fish: The autonomic nervous system and behaviour in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Dierckx (Bram)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s internal functions. The goal of this regulation is to maintain bodily homeostasis in a changing external environment. The autonomic nervous system acts largely independent of volition and controls heart rate, respiratory

  10. Effects of emotion regulation difficulties on the tonic and phasic cardiac autonomic response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Berna

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation theory aims to explain the interactions between individuals and the environment. In this context, Emotion Regulation Difficulties (ERD disrupt the physiological component of emotions through the autonomic nervous system and are involved in several psychopathological states.We were interested in comparing the influence of a film-elicited emotion procedure on the autonomic nervous system activity of two groups with different levels of emotion regulation difficulties.A total of 63 women (undergraduate students ranging from 18 to 27 (20.7 ± 1.99 years old were included. Using the upper and lower quartile of a questionnaire assessing the daily difficulties in regulating emotions, two groups, one with low (LERD and one with high (HERD levels of emotion regulation difficulties, were constituted and studied during a film-elicited emotion procedure. Cardiac vagal activity (HF-HRV was analyzed during three periods: baseline, film-elicited emotion, and recovery.The cardiovascular results showed a decrease in HF-HRV from baseline to elicitation for both groups. Then, from elicitation to recovery, HF-HRV increased for the LERD group, whereas a low HF-HRV level persisted for the HERD group.The HERD group exhibited inappropriate cardiac vagal recovery after a negative emotion elicitation had ended. Cardiac vagal tone took longer to return to its initial state in the HERD group than in the LERD group. Prolonged cardiac vagal suppression might constitute an early marker of emotion regulation difficulties leading to lower cardiac vagal tone.

  11. Motor execution detection based on autonomic nervous system responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggered assistance has been shown to be a successful robotic strategy for provoking motor plasticity, probably because it requires neurologic patients’ active participation to initiate a movement involving their impaired limb. Triggered assistance, however, requires sufficient residual motor control to activate the trigger and, thus, is not applicable to individuals with severe neurologic injuries. In these situations, brain and body–computer interfaces have emerged as promising solutions to control robotic devices. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of a body–machine interface to detect motion execution only monitoring the autonomic nervous system (ANS) response. Four physiological signals were measured (blood pressure, breathing rate, skin conductance response and heart rate) during an isometric pinching task and used to train a classifier based on hidden Markov models. We performed an experiment with six healthy subjects to test the effectiveness of the classifier to detect rest and active pinching periods. The results showed that the movement execution can be accurately classified based only on peripheral autonomic signals, with an accuracy level of 84.5%, sensitivity of 83.8% and specificity of 85.2%. These results are encouraging to perform further research on the use of the ANS response in body–machine interfaces. (paper)

  12. [The influence of aging on autonomic nervous system activity and gastric myoelectric activity in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, P J; Kolasińska-Kloch, W; Pitala, A; Janik, A; Kopp, B; Sibiga, W

    1999-01-01

    The study was performed on 84 healthy volunteers (33 women, 52 men) of age 20-71 years with no history of the circulatory or gastrointestinal system disease. The gastric myoelectrical activity (EGG) was recorded with the cutaneous electrodes--electrogastrography Synectics (Sweden). The activity of the cardiac autonomic nervous system was measured by HRV (heart rate variability) recorded with EGG and computer assisted programme Proster (Poland). Subject were divided into 5 groups according to the decade of age (20-70). Percentage of basal electrical rhythm (BER) dysrhythmias increased (1.9 +/- 0.5% vs 21.1 +/- 3.2% in fasting and 2.4 +/- 1.2% vs 24.6 +/- 5% postprandially but decrease of the EGG amplitude after the meal was observed (270 +/- 20% vs 90 +/- 7%) in youngest and oldest group respectively. With the ageing the cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activity (LF and HF) decreased in first and last group respectively. In the forth decade in man and women the sympathetic activity system prevalence expressed by the LF/HF rate increased (1.09 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.14 +/- 0.5) (p < 0.05). The results of our study suggest the deleterious influence of the ageing on the of autonomic system activity as shown by changes in HRV and dysrhythmia of the gastric slow waves in EGG. PMID:10909474

  13. [AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AND ITS IMBALANCE IN NEURO INTENSIVE CARE UNIT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popugaev, K A; Lubnin, A Yu; Zabelin, M V; Samoylov, A S

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) provides homeostasis due to the innervation of the secretory glands, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Higher centers of the ANS (primarily the hypothalamus, some centers of the brain stem and limbic system) form a integrative network, which plays a key role in coordinating the functioning of the endocrine, immune system and other parts of the central nervous system. Intracranial centers of the ANS are responsible for the consciousness, behavioral, emotional, and other components of the higher nervous activity. Thus, the significance of the ANS can't be overestimated. At the same time today in neurointensive care there are no clear criteria for ANS dysfunction, we don't have universally recognized monitoring facilities for ANS and approaches to targeted therapy of its disorders. This paradox is even more important as in the pathogenesis of some critical conditions such as neurogenic pulmonary edema, stunned myocardium, cardiomyopathy Takotsubo lies precisely ANS imbalance. This review devoted to the ANS and some problems associated with its imbalance. PMID:27468506

  14. Cardiovascular autonomic nervous system function and aerobic capacity in type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet eHägglund

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (ANS function has been reported in type 1 diabetes patients. ANS function, evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, has been linked to aerobic capacity (VO2peak in healthy subjects, but relationship is unknown in type 1 diabetes. We examined cardiovascular ANS function at rest and during function tests, and its relations to VO2peak in type 1 diabetes individuals. Ten type 1 diabetes patients (T1D (34 ± 7 years and 11 healthy control (CON (31 ± 6 years age and leisure-time physical activity-matched men were studied. Autonomic nervous system function was recorded at rest and during active standing and handgrip. Determination of VO2peak was obtained with graded cycle ergometer test. During ANS recordings SBPV, BRS, and resting HRV did not differ between groups, but alpha1 responses to manoeuvres in detrended fluctuation analyses were smaller in T1D (active standing; 32%, handgrip; 20%, medians than in CON (active standing; 71%, handgrip; 54%, p < 0.05. VO2peak was lower in T1D (36 ± 4 ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1 than in CON (45 ± 9 ml ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1, p < 0.05. Resting HRV measures, RMSSD, HF and SD1 correlated with VO2peak in CON (p < 0.05 and when analysing groups together. These results suggest that T1D had lower VO2peak, weaker HRV response to manoeuvres, but not impaired cardiovascular ANS function at rest compared with CON. Resting parasympathetic cardiac activity correlated with VO2peak in CON but not in T1D. Detrended fluctuation analysis could be a sensitive detector of changes in cardiac ANS function in type 1 diabetes.

  15. Analysis of cardiac autonomic modulation in obese and eutrophic children

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo; Júnior, Ismael Forte Freitas; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity causes alterations in cardiac autonomic function. However, there are scarce and conflicting data on this function with regard to heart rate variability in obese children. OBJECTIVE: To compare the autonomic function of obese and eutrophic children by analyzing heart rate variability. METHODS: One hundred twenty-one children (57 male and 64 female) aged 8 to 12 years were distributed into two groups based on nutritional status [obese (n  =  56) and eutrophic (ideal weight...

  16. Analysis of cardiac autonomic modulation in obese and eutrophic children

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei; Carlos Marcelo Pastre; Ismael Forte Freitas Júnior; Moacir Fernandes de Godoy

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity causes alterations in cardiac autonomic function. However, there are scarce and conflicting data on this function with regard to heart rate variability in obese children. OBJECTIVE: To compare the autonomic function of obese and eutrophic children by analyzing heart rate variability. METHODS: One hundred twenty-one children (57 male and 64 female) aged 8 to 12 years were distributed into two groups based on nutritional status [obese (n = 56) and eutrophic (ideal weight r...

  17. Non-linear HRV indices under autonomic nervous system blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Juan; Pueyo, Esther; Laguna, Pablo; Bailón, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied as a non-invasive technique to characterize the autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of the heart. Non-linear methods based on chaos theory have been used during the last decades as markers for risk stratification. However, interpretation of these nonlinear methods in terms of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is not fully established. In this work we study linear and non-linear HRV indices during ANS blockades in order to assess their relation with sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Power spectral content in low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz) bands of HRV, as well as correlation dimension, sample and approximate entropies were computed in a database of subjects during single and dual ANS blockade with atropine and/or propranolol. Parasympathetic blockade caused a significant decrease in the low and high frequency power of HRV, as well as in correlation dimension and sample and approximate entropies. Sympathetic blockade caused a significant increase in approximate entropy. Sympathetic activation due to postural change from supine to standing caused a significant decrease in all the investigated non-linear indices and a significant increase in the normalized power in the low frequency band. The other investigated linear indices did not show significant changes. Results suggest that parasympathetic activity has a direct relation with sample and approximate entropies.

  18. Lost among the trees? The autonomic nervous system and paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Corinne A

    2014-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been strikingly neglected in Western medicine. Despite its profound importance for regulation, adjustment and coordination of body systems, it lacks priority in training and practice and receives scant attention in numerous major textbooks. The ANS is integral to manifestations of illness, underlying familiar physical and psychological symptoms. When ANS activity is itself dysfunctional, usual indicators of acute illness may prove deceptive. Recognising the relevance of the ANS can involve seeing the familiar through fresh eyes, challenging assumptions in clinical assessment and in approaches to practice. Its importance extends from physical and psychological well-being to parenting and safeguarding, public services and the functioning of society. Exploration of its role in conditions ranging from neurological, gastrointestinal and connective tissue disorders, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome, to autism, behavioural and mental health difficulties may open therapeutic avenues. The ANS offers a mechanism for so-called functional illnesses and illustrates the importance of recognising that 'stress' takes many forms, physical, psychological and environmental, desirable and otherwise. Evidence of intrauterine and post-natal programming of ANS reactivity suggests that neonatal care and safeguarding practice may offer preventive opportunity, as may greater understanding of epigenetic change of ANS activity through, for example, accidental or psychological trauma or infection. The aim of this article is to accelerate recognition of the importance of the ANS throughout paediatrics, and of the potential physical and psychological cost of neglecting it. PMID:24573884

  19. Lost among the trees? The autonomic nervous system and paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Corinne A

    2014-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been strikingly neglected in Western medicine. Despite its profound importance for regulation, adjustment and coordination of body systems, it lacks priority in training and practice and receives scant attention in numerous major textbooks. The ANS is integral to manifestations of illness, underlying familiar physical and psychological symptoms. When ANS activity is itself dysfunctional, usual indicators of acute illness may prove deceptive. Recognising the relevance of the ANS can involve seeing the familiar through fresh eyes, challenging assumptions in clinical assessment and in approaches to practice. Its importance extends from physical and psychological well-being to parenting and safeguarding, public services and the functioning of society. Exploration of its role in conditions ranging from neurological, gastrointestinal and connective tissue disorders, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome, to autism, behavioural and mental health difficulties may open therapeutic avenues. The ANS offers a mechanism for so-called functional illnesses and illustrates the importance of recognising that 'stress' takes many forms, physical, psychological and environmental, desirable and otherwise. Evidence of intrauterine and post-natal programming of ANS reactivity suggests that neonatal care and safeguarding practice may offer preventive opportunity, as may greater understanding of epigenetic change of ANS activity through, for example, accidental or psychological trauma or infection. The aim of this article is to accelerate recognition of the importance of the ANS throughout paediatrics, and of the potential physical and psychological cost of neglecting it.

  20. Modulation of Autonomous Nervous System activity by gyrosonic stimulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, S K; Choudhuri, R; Bandopadhaya, S

    2010-01-01

    A novel audio binaural stimulus that generates rotational perceptions of sound movement in brain at a particular predetermined frequency is referred as gyrosonics. The influence of gyrosonics on autonomic nervous system of healthy subjects has been examined by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV) in time- and frequency- domain. The M-lagged Poincare plot shows that the parameters SD1, SD2 and ratio SD12 (SD1/SD2) increases with lagged number M, and M-dependence is well described by Pade' approximant $\\chi \\frac{1+\\beta M}{1+\\gamma M}$ where values of $\\chi$, $\\beta$ and $ \\gamma$ depend on parameters SD1,SD2 and SD12. The values of these parameters for different M are augmented after gyrosonic stimulation. The slope and magnitude of curvature of SD1 and SD12 vs M plot increase considerably due to stimulation. The DFA analysis exhibits decrease in value of exponent $\\alpha$ due to stimulation. This stimulation results slower Heart rate, higher values of the standard deviation SD and the root-mean squared suc...

  1. Vitamin D Levels Are Associated with Cardiac Autonomic Activity in Healthy Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ellis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency (≤50nmol/L 25-hydroxy vitamin D is a cardiovascular (CV risk factor that affects approximately one billion people worldwide, particularly those affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD. Individuals with CKD demonstrate abnormal cardiac autonomic nervous system activity, which has been linked to the significant rates of CV-related mortality in this population. Whether vitamin D deficiency has a direct association with regulation of cardiac autonomic activity has never been explored in humans. Methods: Thirty-four (34 healthy, normotensive subjects were studied and categorized based on 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency (deficient vs. non-deficient, n = 7 vs. 27, as well as 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels (above vs. below 25th percentile, n = 8 vs. 26. Power spectral analysis of electrocardiogram recordings provided measures of cardiac autonomic activity across low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF, representative of vagal contribution bands, representative of the sympathetic and vagal limbs of the autonomic nervous system when transformed to normalized units (nu, respectively, as well as overall cardiosympathovagal balance (LF:HF during graded angiotensin II (AngII challenge (3 ng/kg/min × 30 min, 6 ng/kg/min × 30 min. Results: At baseline, significant suppression of sympathovagal balance was observed in the 25-hydroxy vitamin D-deficient participants (LF:HF, p = 0.02 vs. non-deficient, although no other differences were observed throughout AngII challenge. Participants in the lowest 1,25-dihydroxy VD quartile experienced significant withdrawal of inhibitory vagal control, as well as altered overall sympathovagal balance throughout AngII challenge (HF, mean difference = −6.98 ± 3 nu, p = 0.05; LF:HF, mean difference = 0.34 ± 0.1, p = 0.043 vs. above 25th percentile. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with suppression of resting cardiac autonomic activity, while low 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels are

  2. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton G. Burt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2, 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV and augmentation index (AIx, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02 independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002 independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54. Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001 but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12. We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies.

  3. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Morton G.; Mangelsdorf, Brenda L.; Stranks, Stephen N.; Mangoni, Arduino A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2, 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L) underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02) independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002) independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54). Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001) but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12). We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies. PMID:27649235

  4. Iyengar Yoga Increases Cardiac Parasympathetic Nervous Modulation among Healthy Yoga Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Khattab

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Relaxation techniques are established in managing of cardiac patients during rehabilitation aiming to reduce future adverse cardiac events. It has been hypothesized that relaxation-training programs may significantly improve cardiac autonomic nervous tone. However, this has not been proven for all available relaxation techniques. We tested this assumption by investigating cardiac vagal modulation during yoga.We examined 11 healthy yoga practitioners (7 women and 4 men, mean age: 43 ± 11; range: 26–58 years. Each individual was subjected to training units of 90 min once a week over five successive weeks. During two sessions, they practiced a yoga program developed for cardiac patients by B.K.S. Iyengar. On three sessions, they practiced a placebo program of relaxation. On each training day they underwent ambulatory 24 h Holter monitoring. The group of yoga practitioners was compared to a matched group of healthy individuals not practicing any relaxation techniques. Parameters of heart rate variability (HRV were determined hourly by a blinded observer. Mean RR interval (interval between two R-waves of the ECG was significantly higher during the time of yoga intervention compared to placebo and to control (P < 0.001 for both. The increase in HRV parameters was significantly higher during yoga exercise than during placebo and control especially for the parameters associated with vagal tone, i.e. mean standard deviation of NN (Normal Beat to Normal Beat of the ECG intervals for all 5-min intervals (SDNNi, P < 0.001 for both and root mean square successive difference (rMSSD, P < 0.01 for both. In conclusion, relaxation by yoga training is associated with a significant increase of cardiac vagal modulation. Since this method is easy to apply with no side effects, it could be a suitable intervention in cardiac rehabilitation programs.

  5. Analysis of Autonomic Nervous System Functional Age and Heart Rate Variability in Mine Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasicko T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy working conditions and many unpropitious factors influencing workers health participate in development of various health disorders, among other autonomic cardiovascular regulation malfunction. The aim of this study is to draw a comparison of autonomic nervous system functional age and heart rate variability changes between workers with and without mining occupational exposure.

  6. Percutaneous autonomic neural modulation: A novel technique to treat cardiac arrhythmia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablation and anti-arrhythmic medications have shown promise but have been met with varying success and unwanted side effects such as myocardial injury, arrhythmias, and morbidity from invasive surgical intervention. The answer to improving efficacy of ablation may include modulation of the cardiac aspect of the autonomic nervous system. Our lab has developed a novel approach and device to navigate the oblique sinus and to use DC current and saline/alcohol irrigation to selectively stimulate and block the autonomic ganglia found on the epicardial side of the heart. This novel approach minimizes myocardial damage from thermal injury and provides a less invasive and targeted approach. For feasibility, proof-of-concept, and safety monitoring, we carried out canine studies to test this novel application. Our results suggest a safer and less invasive way of modulating arrhythmogenic substrate that may lead to improved treatment of AF in humans

  7. Percutaneous autonomic neural modulation: A novel technique to treat cardiac arrhythmia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSimone, Christopher V.; Madhavan, Malini [Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Venkatachalam, Kalpathi L. [Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Knudson, Mark B. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); EnteroMedics, EnteroMedics, St. Paul, MN (United States); Asirvatham, Samuel J., E-mail: asirvatham.samuel@mayo.edu [Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Ablation and anti-arrhythmic medications have shown promise but have been met with varying success and unwanted side effects such as myocardial injury, arrhythmias, and morbidity from invasive surgical intervention. The answer to improving efficacy of ablation may include modulation of the cardiac aspect of the autonomic nervous system. Our lab has developed a novel approach and device to navigate the oblique sinus and to use DC current and saline/alcohol irrigation to selectively stimulate and block the autonomic ganglia found on the epicardial side of the heart. This novel approach minimizes myocardial damage from thermal injury and provides a less invasive and targeted approach. For feasibility, proof-of-concept, and safety monitoring, we carried out canine studies to test this novel application. Our results suggest a safer and less invasive way of modulating arrhythmogenic substrate that may lead to improved treatment of AF in humans.

  8. Diabetes and cardiac autonomic neuropathy: Clinicalmanifestations, cardiovascular consequences, diagnosisand treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akif Serhat Balcloglu; Haldun Müderrisoglu

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a frequentchronic complication of diabetes mellitus with potentiallylife-threatening outcomes. CAN is caused by theimpairment of the autonomic nerve fibers regulatingheart rate, cardiac output, myocardial contractility, cardiacelectrophysiology and blood vessel constriction anddilatation. It causes a wide range of cardiac disorders,including resting tachycardia, arrhythmias, intraoperativecardiovascular instability, asymptomatic myocardialischemia and infarction and increased rate of mortalityafter myocardial infarction. Etiological factors associatedwith autonomic neuropathy include insufficient glycemiccontrol, a longer period since the onset of diabetes,increased age, female sex and greater body mass index.The most commonly used methods for the diagnosisof CAN are based upon the assessment of heart ratevariability (the physiological variation in the time intervalbetween heartbeats), as it is one of the first findings inboth clinically asymptomatic and symptomatic patients.Clinical symptoms associated with CAN generally occurlate in the disease process and include early fatigue andexhaustion during exercise, orthostatic hypotension,dizziness, presyncope and syncope. Treatment is basedon early diagnosis, life style changes, optimization ofglycemic control and management of cardiovascular riskfactors. Medical therapies, including aldose reductaseinhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors,prostoglandin analogs and alpha-lipoic acid, have beenfound to be effective in randomized controlled trials.The following article includes the epidemiology, clinicalfindings and cardiovascular consequences, diagnosis,and approaches to prevention and treatment of CAN.

  9. Novel heart rate parameters for the assessment of autonomic nervous system function in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, M; Fifer, W P; Sahni, R; Signorini, M G

    2016-09-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance is a key factor in homeostatic control of cardiac activity, breathing and certain reflex reactions such as coughing, sneezing and swallowing and thus plays a crucial role for survival. ANS impairment has been related to many neonatal pathologies, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Moreover, some conditions have been identified as risk factors for SIDS, such as prone sleep position. There is an urgent need for timely and non-invasive assessment of ANS function in at-risk infants. Systematic measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) offers an optimal approach to access indirectly both sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on ANS functioning. In this paper, data from premature infants collected in a sleep physiology laboratory in the NICU are presented: traditional and novel approaches to HRV analyses are applied and compared in order to evaluate their relative merits in the assessment of ANS activity and the influence of sleep position. Indices from time domain and nonlinear approaches contributed as markers of physiological development in premature infants. Moreover, significant differences were observed as a function of sleep position. PMID:27480495

  10. Effects of diving and oxygen on autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winklewski, Pawel J; Kot, Jacek; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F; Nuckowska, Magdalena K; Tkachenko, Yurii

    2013-09-01

    Recreational scuba diving is a popular leisure activity with the number of divers reaching several millions worldwide. Scuba diving represents a huge challenge for integrative physiology. In mammalian evolution, physiological reflexes developed to deal with lack of oxygen, rather than with an excess, which makes adaptations to scuba diving more difficult to describe and understand than those associated with breath-hold diving. The underwater environment significantly limits the use of equipment to register the organism's functions, so, in most instances, scientific theories are built on experiments that model real diving to some extent, like hyperbaric exposures, dive reflexes or water immersion. The aim of this review is to summarise the current knowledge related to the influence exerted by physiological conditions specific to diving on the autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow. The main factors regulating cerebral blood flow during scuba diving are discussed as follows: 1) increased oxygen partial pressure; 2) immersion-related trigemino-cardiac reflexes and 3) exposure to cold, exercise and stress. Also discussed are the potential mechanisms associated with immersion pulmonary oedema. PMID:24122190

  11. A study of relationship between function of cardiac autonomic nervous system and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in diabetes mellitus%糖尿病患者心自主神经系统功能与24 小时动态血压变化关系的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣; 严钟德; 刘东方

    2000-01-01

    目的 探讨偶测血压正常的糖尿病(DM)患者心自主神经系统功能(ANSF)状况与24小时动态血压(24小时AMBP)的变化关系。方法对71例偶测血压正常的DM患者进行心率功率谱分析及24小时AMBP检测。结果无心自主神经病变(AN)的DM患者与健康人有类似的24小时AMBP;伴轻度AN的DM患者,其24小时动态收缩压及压力负荷发生率明显高于正常对照组,而昼夜改变百分率明显低于正常对照组;伴重度AN的DM患者,其24小时动态收缩压及24小时AMBP负荷发生率高于伴轻度AN的DM患者,昼夜改变百分率低于伴轻度AN的DM患者,但两者间无显著性差异。结论偶测血压正常的DM患者一旦发生心AN,则会对血压造成明显不利的影响;DM患者异常的ANSF和血压参与了急性心血管病变的发生、发展;随访DM患者心ANSF状况及对偶测血压正常、伴AN的DM患者进行早期干预治疗尤为重要。%Objective To study the relationship between function of cardiac autonomic nervous system and 24-hourambulatory blood pressure in diabetes mellitus with normal blood pressure in the casual assay.Methods71 DMpatients with normal blood pressure in casual assay were measured with cardiac power spectral analysis and 24hAMBPassessment.Results There was no difference in 24hAMBP between DM patients without AND and normal subjects.24-hour ambulatory systolic pressure values and the prevalence of blood pressure burden in DM patients with mild AND were significantly higher than that in the control group and the percentage of day-night change in AMBP weresignificantly lower than that in the control group.In DM patients with severe AND, 24-hour ambulatory systolicpressure values and the prevalence of 24hAMBP burden were higher and the percentage of day-night change was lowerthan that in DM patients with mild AND, however, there was no significant difference between them.Conclusion Blood pressure was in severe disorder as

  12. [Orthostatic hypotension due to autonomous nervous system dysfunction. Review of different syndromes and their treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, B P; Blanc, J J

    1999-01-01

    Dysfunction of the autonomous nervous system was poorly known to cardiologists until recently. Advances in the diagnosis of vasovagal syncope have initiated intense cardiological research into this subject. This type of syncope does not cover by far all dysfunctions of this system, all or nearly all of which have vasoplegic or bradycardic components. The aim of this article is to review the disorders of the autonomous nervous system which may interest every day practice of the cardiologist. The diagnostic advances and new treatments will require a further update of this review in the months or years to come. PMID:10065281

  13. Impact of Six-Month Caloric Restriction on Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Healthy, Overweight, Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    de Jonge, Lillian; Moreira, Emilia AM; Martin, Corby K.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) increases maximum lifespan but the mechanisms are unclear. Dominance of the sympathetic nervous System (SNS) over the Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) has been shown to be a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Obesity and aging are associated with increased SNS activity and weight loss and/or exercise seem to have positive effects on this balance. We therefore evaluated the effect of different approaches of CR on autonomic function in 48 overweight indi...

  14. Nitric oxide and the autonomic regulation of cardiac excitability. The G.L. Brown Prize Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, D

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac sympathetic imbalance and arrhythmia; Nitric oxide-cGMP pathway and the cholinergic modulation of cardiac excitability; Nitric oxide-cGMP pathway and the sympathetic modulation of cardiac excitability; Functional significance of nitric oxide in the autonomic regulation of cardiac excitability; Summary; References. Experimental Physiology (2001) 86.1, 1-12. PMID:11429613

  15. Nitric oxide and the autonomic regulation of cardiac excitability. The G.L. Brown Prize Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, D

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac sympathetic imbalance and arrhythmia; Nitric oxide-cGMP pathway and the cholinergic modulation of cardiac excitability; Nitric oxide-cGMP pathway and the sympathetic modulation of cardiac excitability; Functional significance of nitric oxide in the autonomic regulation of cardiac excitability; Summary; References. Experimental Physiology (2001) 86.1, 1-12.

  16. Child Abuse and Autonomic Nervous System Hyporesponsivity among Psychiatrically Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Albert, David B.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sexually or physically abused children are at risk for neurobiological dysregulation as well as for internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Stress-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) down-regulation has been proposed as a sequela of abuse and was investigated in the present study. Methods: Child Protective Services…

  17. Autonomic nervous system mediated effects of food intake. Interaction between gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Orshoven, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis focused on the autonomic nervous system mediated interactions between the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems in response to food intake and on potential consequences of failure of these interactions. The effects of food intake on cardiovascular parameter

  18. The role of the autonomic nervous system in diabetes and cardiovascular disease : an epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to study the role of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease using an epidemiological approach. Based on earlier studies it has remained unclear whether impaired ANS function is a risk factor for the deve

  19. Dysregulation of the Autonomic Nervous System Predicts the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Stress is suggested to lead to metabolic dysregulations as clustered in the metabolic syndrome. Although dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system is found to associate with the metabolic syndrome and its dysregulations, no longitudinal study has been performed to date to examine the pr

  20. Pulmonary function, cholinergic bronchomotor tone, and cardiac autonomic abnormalities in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study analyzed the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in pulmonary and cardiac function by evaluating cardiovascular reflex and its correlation with pulmonary function abnormalities of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients (N = 17 and healthy subjects (N = 17 were evaluated by 1 pulmonary function tests including spirometry, He-dilution method, N2 washout test, and specific airway conductance (SGaw determined by plethysmography before and after aerosol administration of atropine sulfate, and 2 autonomic cardiovascular activity by the passive tilting test and the magnitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA. Basal heart rate was higher in the diabetic group (87.8 ± 11.2 bpm; mean ± SD than in the control group (72.9 ± 7.8 bpm, P<0.05. The increase of heart rate at 5 s of tilting was 11.8 ± 6.5 bpm in diabetic patients and 17.6 ± 6.2 bpm in the control group (P<0.05. Systemic arterial pressure and RSA analysis did not reveal significant differences between groups. Diabetes intragroup analysis revealed two behaviors: 10 patients with close to normal findings and 7 with significant abnormalities in terms of RSA, with the latter subgroup presenting one or more abnormalities in other tests and clear evidence of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. End-expiratory flows were significantly lower in diabetic patients than in the control group (P<0.05. Pulmonary function tests before and after atropine administration demonstrated comparable responses by both groups. Type 2 diabetic patients have cardiac autonomic dysfunction that is not associated with bronchomotor tone alterations, probably reflecting a less severe impairment than that of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Yet, a reduction of end-expiratory flow was detected.

  1. Multifractal and nonlinear assessment of autonomous nervous system response during transient myocardial ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assess autonomic nervous system response during prolonged percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) using heart rate variability analysis with multifractal indices. These indices are used to evaluate the effects of the PTCA procedures at different arteries and locations. A total of 55 patients from the Staff3 database, with no prior history of myocardial infarction, were included in the study. The indices increased significantly during the transient ischaemia and reperfusion periods, indicating an increase in nonlinear multifractal characteristics and a change in temporal correlations in heartbeat fluctuations. This indicates that significant multifractal and nonlinear complex reactions in the autonomic control of the heart rate occurred during coronary artery occlusions and suggests that the multifractal indices may be a promising nonlinear technique for evaluating autonomic nervous system response in the presence of transient myocardial ischaemia

  2. Chinese-chi and Kundalini yoga Meditations Effects on the Autonomic Nervous System: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilesh Dey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac disease is one of the major causes for death all over the world. Heart rate variability (HRV is a significant parameter that used in assessing Autonomous Nervous System (ANS activity. Generally, the 2D Poincare′ plot and 3D Poincaré plot of the HRV signals reflect the effect of different external stimuli on the ANS. Meditation is one of such external stimulus, which has different techniques with different types of effects on the ANS. Chinese Chi-meditation and Kundalini yoga are two different effective meditation techniques. The current work is interested with the analysis of the HRV signals under the effect of these two based on meditation techniques. The 2D and 3D Poincare′ plots are generally plotted by fitting respectively an ellipse/ellipsoid to the dense region of the constructed Poincare′ plot of HRV signals. However, the 2D and 3D Poincaré plots sometimes fail to describe the proper behaviour of the system. Thus in this study, a three-dimensional frequency-delay plot is proposed to properly distinguish these two famous meditation techniques by analyzing their effects on ANS. This proposed 3D frequency-delay plot is applied on HRV signals of eight persons practicing same Chi-meditation and four other persons practising same Kundalini yoga. To substantiate the result for larger sample of data, statistical Student t-test is applied, which shows a satisfactory result in this context. The experimental results established that the Chi-meditation has large impact on the HRVcompared to the Kundalini yoga.

  3. Burnout versus work engagement in their effects on 24-hour ambulatory monitored cardiac autonomic function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.P. van Doornen (Lorenz); J.H. Houtveen (Jan); S. Langelaan (Saar); A.B. Bakker (Arnold); W. van Rhenen (Willem); W.B. Schaufeli (Wilmar)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBurnout has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This relationship may be mediated by a stress-related disruption in cardiac autonomic activity. The aim of the present study was to assess cardiac autonomic activity (sympathetic and parasympathetic) during a work

  4. Research on the features of cardiac autonomic nervous activity of divers under simulated stressors with computer games%电脑游戏模拟应激条件下潜水员心脏自主神经活动特点的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海鹰; 经冥; 邓光辉; 江楠楠; 解汝庆

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过电脑游戏模拟应激条件下27名潜水员和30名普通岸勤人员心率及心率变异性的分析,探讨潜水员心脏自主神经活动的特点.方法 实验采用电脑游戏作为应激诱发材料,在被试操作的同时记录心率和心率变异性指标.结果 (1)模拟应激条件潜水员的恐惧、厌恶和紧张体验与普通岸勤人员比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).(2)2组被试者在3个阶段的平均心率(heart rate variability,HRP)主效应显著[(F(2,110)=67.700,P<0.01)],低频功率(LF)主效应显著[(F(2,110) =20.774,P<0.01)],高频功率(HF)主效应显著[(F(2,110) =5.647,P<0.05)],LF/HF 主效应显著[(F(2,110) =6.101,P<0.05)],低频校正值(LFnu)主效应显著[(F(2,110) =6.184,P<0.05)],高频校正值(HFnu)主效应显著[(F(2,110) =6.735,P<0.05)].(3)组间比较差异无统计学意义.组别与阶段之间在LF/HF[(F(2,110) =4.285,P<0.05)]有显著交互作用.结论 (1)模拟应激条件下潜水员心脏自主神经活动的特点是预期阶段交感神经张力的上升,副交感神经张力下降.应对阶段交感神经张力和副交感神经张力同时下降,但副交感神经张力下降的幅度较小.(2)潜水员迷走神经的功能相对较强,可下调负性情绪体验的强度,同时迷走神经功能不协调也影响负性情绪体验的敏感性.%Objective To explore the features of cardiac autonomic nervous activity of divers by analyzing the heart rate and heart rate variability of 27 divers and 30 ordinary naval personnel ashore.Methods Subjects'heart rate and heart rate variability were recorded under stressors of computer games.Results (1) Under stressful conditions,divers experienced significantly less terror and strain than ordinary naval personnel ashore.(2) Main effects on heart rate variability (HRP) at the 3 stages could be significantly seen in the subjects of the 2 groups [F(2,110) =67.700,P < 0.01)],and the main effect on LF was obviously

  5. ACE2-mediated reduction of oxidative stress in the central nervous system is associated with improvement of autonomic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing Xia

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress in the central nervous system mediates the increase in sympathetic tone that precedes the development of hypertension. We hypothesized that by transforming Angiotensin-II (AngII into Ang-(1-7, ACE2 might reduce AngII-mediated oxidative stress in the brain and prevent autonomic dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, a relationship between ACE2 and oxidative stress was first confirmed in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (Neuro2A cells treated with AngII and infected with Ad-hACE2. ACE2 overexpression resulted in a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS formation. In vivo, ACE2 knockout (ACE2(-/y mice and non-transgenic (NT littermates were infused with AngII (10 days and infected with Ad-hACE2 in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Baseline blood pressure (BP, AngII and brain ROS levels were not different between young mice (12 weeks. However, cardiac sympathetic tone, brain NADPH oxidase and SOD activities were significantly increased in ACE2(-/y. Post infusion, plasma and brain AngII levels were also significantly higher in ACE2(-/y, although BP was similarly increased in both genotypes. ROS formation in the PVN and RVLM was significantly higher in ACE2(-/y mice following AngII infusion. Similar phenotypes, i.e. increased oxidative stress, exacerbated dysautonomia and hypertension, were also observed on baseline in mature ACE2(-/y mice (48 weeks. ACE2 gene therapy to the PVN reduced AngII-mediated increase in NADPH oxidase activity and normalized cardiac dysautonomia in ACE2(-/y mice. Altogether, these data indicate that ACE2 gene deletion promotes age-dependent oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction and hypertension, while PVN-targeted ACE2 gene therapy decreases ROS formation via NADPH oxidase inhibition and improves autonomic function. Accordingly, ACE2 could represent a new target for the treatment of hypertension-associated dysautonomia and oxidative stress.

  6. Autonomic nervous system and risk factors for vascular disease. Effects of autonomic unbalance in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigliano, Giulio; Ronchetti, Gabriele; Girotti, Floriano

    2008-02-01

    Alterations of the cardiovascular system and of the glucose and lipid metabolism can represent important factors of vascular risk. The autonomic nervous system, through its two efferent branches, the parasympatheticcholinergic and the sympathetic-adrenergic, plays an important role in the control of the cardiovascular activity and of the glucose and lipid metabolism, and its impaired working can interfere with these functions. An increased sympathetic activity and an increased frequency of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and obesity have been reported in untreated schizophrenic patients, and a further worsening of these vascular risk factors has been signalled as a side effect of treatment with neuroleptic drugs. The opposite is observed in Parkinson's disease, where the reduced autonomic activity induced by the illness is associated with a decreased frequency of vascular risk factors, and their occurrence is further reduced by the treatment with dopaminergic drugs.

  7. Erythromelalgia as a manifestation of autonomic nervous system involvement in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, Ivan; Lakoš Jukić, Ines; Habek, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Erythromelalgia is a rare condition characterized by burning pain, erythema and increased temperature of the hands or the feet. Its etiology is not completely understood but it is believed that the underlying cause is a peripheral vascular dysfunction that leads to simultaneous tissue hypoxia and hyperemia. We present a rare co-occurrence of erythromelalgia and multiple sclerosis in a patient with autonomic nervous system dysfunction and propose a causative interconnection. PMID:27456866

  8. Cardiac autonomic control in adolescents with primary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlíceková Z

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impairment in cardiovascular autonomic regulation participates in the onset and maintenance of primary hypertension. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control using long-term heart rate variability (HRV analysis in adolescents with primary hypertension. Subjects and methods Twenty two adolescent patients with primary hypertension (5 girls/17 boys aged 14-19 years and 22 healthy subjects matched for age and gender were enrolled. Two periods from 24-hour ECG recording were evaluated by HRV analysis: awake state and sleep. HRV analysis included spectral power in low frequency band (LF, in high frequency band (HF, and LF/HF ratio. Results In awake state, adolescents with primary hypertension had lower HF and higher LF and LF/HF ratio. During sleep, HF was lower and LF/HF ratio was higher in patients with primary hypertension. Conclusions A combination of sympathetic predominance and reduced vagal activity might represent a potential link between psychosocial factors and primary hypertension, associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity.

  9. Diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy: insights from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stables, Catherine L; Glasser, Rebecca L; Feldman, Eva L

    2013-10-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a relatively common and often devastating complication of diabetes. The major clinical signs are tachycardia, exercise intolerance, and orthostatic hypotension, but the most severe aspects of this complication are high rates of cardiac events and mortality. One of the earliest manifestations of CAN is reduced heart rate variability, and detection of this, along with abnormal results in postural blood pressure testing and/or the Valsalva maneuver, are central to diagnosis of the disease. The treatment options for CAN, beyond glycemic control, are extremely limited and lack evidence of efficacy. The underlying molecular mechanisms are also poorly understood. Thus, CAN is associated with a poor prognosis and there is a compelling need for research to understand, prevent, and reverse CAN. In this review of the literature we examine the use and usefulness of animal models of CAN in diabetes. Compared to other diabetic complications, the number of animal studies of CAN is very low. The published studies range across a variety of species, methods of inducing diabetes, and timescales examined, leading to high variability in study outcomes. The lack of well-characterized animal models makes it difficult to judge the relevance of these models to the human disease. One major advantage of animal studies is the ability to probe underlying molecular mechanisms, and the limited numbers of mechanistic studies conducted to date are outlined. Thus, while animal models of CAN in diabetes are crucial to better understanding and development of therapies, they are currently under-used. PMID:23562143

  10. Frontal midline theta rhythm is correlated with cardiac autonomic activities during the performance of an attention demanding meditation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Y; Sato, W; Toichi, M; Murai, T; Okada, T; Hayashi, A; Sengoku, A

    2001-04-01

    Frontal midline theta rhythm (Fm theta), recognized as distinct theta activity on EEG in the frontal midline area, reflects mental concentration as well as meditative state or relief from anxiety. Attentional network in anterior frontal lobes including anterior cingulate cortex is suspected to be the generator of this activity, and the regulative function of the frontal neural network over autonomic nervous system (ANS) during cognitive process is suggested. However no studies have examined peripheral autonomic activities during Fm theta induction, and interaction of central and peripheral mechanism associated with Fm theta remains unclear. In the present study, a standard procedure of Zen meditation requiring sustained attention and breath control was employed as the task to provoke Fm theta, and simultaneous EEG and ECG recordings were performed. For the subjects in which Fm theta activities were provoked (six men, six women, 48% of the total subjects), peripheral autonomic activities were evaluated during the appearance of Fm theta as well as during control periods. Successive inter-beat intervals were measured from the ECG, and a recently developed method of analysis by Toichi et al. (J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. 62 (1997) 79-84) based on heart rate variability was used to assess cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic functions separately. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic indices were increased during the appearance of Fm theta compared with control periods. Theta band activities in the frontal area were correlated negatively with sympathetic activation. The results suggest a close relationship between cardiac autonomic function and activity of medial frontal neural circuitry.

  11. Autonomic nervous system response to L-dopa in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruonala, Verneri; Tarvainen, Mika P; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Pekkonen, Eero; Rissanen, Saara M

    2015-01-01

    Levodopa is the main treatment method for reducing the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Whereas it reduces the motor symptoms efficiently, its effect on autonomous nervous system is not clear. The information about effect of levodopa on heart rate variability is not coherent between the studies. In this study, ECG of 11 patients with Parkinson's disease was measured during levodopa challenge with pronounced dose of fast release levodopa to ensure the positive drug effect for deep brain stimulation treatment. Heart rate variability analysis was done at three time points, before administration of levodopa, 30 and 60 minutes after administration. After 30 minutes of administration, the HRV parameters show that parasympathetic nervous system activity is decreased and the sympatho-vagal balance is shifted towards sympathetic control. At 60 minutes after administration the parasympathetic nervous system activates slightly and causes a decrease in heart rate.

  12. Effect Of Haemodialysis On Intra Dialytic Calcium, Phosphorus,Magnesium, Levels In Relation To AutonomicNervous System Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Hosny, Sahar Shawky, Ahmed Ramadan , Hany Refaat

    2004-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is common in uremia and in patients under hemodialysis. Changes in serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesuim always occur during hemodialysis. The relation between these changes and autonomic nervous system activity during hemodialysis has not been fully studied. This study was carried out on 30 patients with chronic renal failure on regular hemo-dialysis with nearly similar age group. We measured serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesi...

  13. Differentiation of Internet addiction risk level based on autonomic nervous responses: the Internet-addiction hypothesis of autonomic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dong Wei; Wang, Jenn Wu; Huang, Andrew Chih Wei

    2010-08-01

    How high-risk Internet addiction (IA) abusers respond to different autonomic nervous activities compared with low-risk subjects may be a critical research goal with prevention and treatment implications. The aim of the present study was to address this issue by observing differences between high- and low-risk IA abusers in four physiological assessments when surfing the Internet: blood volume pulse (BVP), skin conductance (SC), peripheral temperature (PTEMP), and respiratory response (RESPR). Forty-two male and ten female participants aged 18-24 years were screened with the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS, 2003), and then separated into high- and low-risk IA groups. Using psychophysiology equipment, participants encountered a 3-minute adaptation period followed by a 6-minute testing period for surfing the Internet on baseline and testing phases. The present results indicate that: (a) the CIAS scores were positively and negatively correlated with the RESPR and the PTEMP; (b) the PTEMP and RESPR of high-risk IA abusers were respectively weaker and stronger than those of low-risk IA abusers; the BVP and SC of high-risk IA abusers were respectively augmented and decreased relative to low-risk IA abusers. Thus we suggest that four autonomic responses may be differentially sensitive to abusers' potency in terms of the IA hypothesis of autonomic activity. The stronger BVP and RESPR responses and the weaker PTEMP reactions of the high-risk IA abusers indicate the sympathetic nervous system was heavily activated in these individuals. However, SC activates parasympathetic responses at the same time in the high-risk IA abusers. The paradoxical responses between the sympathetic and parasympathetic actions are addressed in the discussion.

  14. Effect of Autonomic Nervous System on the Transmurai Dispersion of Ventricular Repolarization in Intact Canine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存泰; 徐大文; 李泱; 刘念; 王琳; 陆再英

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The effect of the autonomic nerves on the transmural dispersion of ventricular repolarization in intact canine was investigated. By using the monophasic action potential (MAP) recording technique, monophasic action potentials (MAPs) of the epicardium (Epi), midmyocardium (Mid)and endocardium (Endo) were recorded simultaneously by specially designed plunge-needle electrodes at the left ventricular free wall in 12 open-chest dogs. MAPD90 and transmural dispersion of repolarization among three myocardial layers as well as the incidence of the EAD before autonomic nervous stimulation and during autonomic nervous stimulation were compared. The results showed that the MAPD90 of Epi, Mid and Endo before autonomic nervous stimulation were 278±11 ms,316± 16 ms and 270± 12 ms respectively, the MAPD90of Mid was significantly longer than that of Epi or Endo (P<0.01). MAPD90 of Epi, Mid and Endo were shortened by 19±4 ms, 45±6 ms,18± 3 ms respectively during sympathetic stimulation. Compared with that of the control, the transmural dispersion of repolarization during sympathetic stimulation was shortened from 44 ± 4 ms to 15±3 ms (P<0. 01), but early afterdepolarizations were elicited in the Mid of 5 dogs (41 0%)during sympathetic stimulation. Parasympathetic stimulation did not significantly affect the MAPD90 in the three layers. It is concluded that there is the transmural dispersion of ventricular repolarization in intact canine. Sympathetic stimulation can reduce transmural dispersion of repolarization, but it can produce early afterdepolarizations in the Mid. Parasympathetic stimulation does not significantly affect the transmural dispersion of ventricular repolarization.

  15. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Kushki

    Full Text Available Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1 examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2 characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature during a baseline (movie watching and anxiety condition (Stroop task in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17 and children with ASD (n = 12. The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1 signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2 ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  16. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushki, Azadeh; Drumm, Ellen; Pla Mobarak, Michele; Tanel, Nadia; Dupuis, Annie; Chau, Tom; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1) examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2) characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature) during a baseline (movie watching) and anxiety condition (Stroop task) in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17) and children with ASD (n = 12). The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1) signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2) ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  17. The Mikamo lecture. Role of higher nervous activity in sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, B

    1990-06-01

    The brain receives and catalogues myriads of information from within and without the organism. These inputs promote neural integration of bodily function through a multiplicity of cybernetic feedback loops. Higher nervous activity shapes the contours of perceived well-being and determines the course and progress of disease. Behavioral and neural factors play an important role in cardiovascular function and are especially relevant to the problem of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Clinical data attesting to the role of biobehavioral factors in SCD derive from a diversity of sources. It has long been known that bereavement increases the prevalence of cardiac fatality. Business failure rates are strongly related to increased mortality among persons aged 55 and over. Recession in economic activity, with increasing unemployment, is associated with augmented death rates from ischemic heart disease. In extensive surveys conducted among London civil servants, Rose and Marmot found not only the level but the type of employment to be a factor determining coronary heart disease mortality. Blue collar workers had a 3.6 times greater chance of dying from heart disease than an age-matched population in the higher ranks of civil service. A man's employment status was a stronger predictor of risk for dying from coronary heart disease than any of the usual risk factors, such as smoking, blood pressure, height-weight ratio, leisure time activities, glucose tolerance, or plasma cholesterol. Operation of behavioral factors is also suggested by the time of occurrence of sudden death. Among 3,983 men followed for more than 30 years, Rabkin and co-workers observed an excess proportion of fatalities on Mondays. No such pattern was noted for cancer mortality. Not only the day of the week but the time of day appears to be a factor. Muller and co-workers found a significant preponderance in the occurrence of myocardial infarction and sudden death from 6:00 AM to noon. They could not implicate

  18. Early atherosclerosis and cardiac autonomic responses to mental stress: a population-based study of the moderating influence of impaired endothelial function

    OpenAIRE

    Juonala Markus; Ravaja Niklas; Hintsa Taina; Hintsanen Mirka; Chumaeva Nadja; Raitakari Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen Liisa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute mental stress may contribute to the cardiovascular disease progression via autonomic nervous system controlled negative effects on the endothelium. The joint effects of stress-induced sympathetic or parasympathetic activity and endothelial function on atherosclerosis development have not been investigated. The present study aims to examine the interactive effect of acute mental stress-induced cardiac reactivity/recovery and endothelial function on the prevalence of c...

  19. [Autonomic nervous system as a source of biomarkers in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouclet, Hélène; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Flamant, Mathurin; Coron, Emmanuel; Neunlist, Michel; Derkinderen, Pascal; Rouaud, Tiphaine

    2012-07-01

    No validated biomarker is yet available for Parkinson's disease (PD). Clinical PD symptoms include dopa-responsive motor symptoms and dopa-resistant non motor symptoms. Some of the non motor symptoms begin during the premotor stage, like constipation, hyposmia or REM-sleep disorders. Dementia, gait disorders and dysarthria occur in later stages of the disease. PD pathology extends well beyond the substantia nigra. It affects autonomic and non autonomic nuclei in the brainstem and in the medulla, the olfactory bulb and the peripheral autonomic nervous system. Alpha-synuclein aggregates, called Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, are detectable in these structures at early stages. The study of the enteric nervous system (ENS) displays the Lewy pathology in living patients through the digestive biopsies. Minor salivary glands analysis could be a good marker as well, but this needs confirmation. An anatomopathologic PD biomarker would be interesting at different stages of PD: for the positive diagnosis, to follow the progression and to develop neuroprotective treatments.

  20. Cardiac Autonomic Function in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cheng-Yu; Kung, Woon-Man; Chou, Yi-Sheng; Wang, Yao-Chin; Tai, Hsu-Chih; Wei, James Cheng-Chung

    2016-05-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease involing spine and enthesis. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function and the association between ANS and the functional status or disease activity in AS.The study included 42 AS patients, all fulfilling the modified New York criteria. All the patients are totally symptom free for ANS involvement and had normal neurological findings. These AS patients and 230 healthy volunteers receive analysis of 5 minutes heart rate variability (HRV) in lying posture. In addition, disease activity and functional status of these AS patients are assessed by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BAS-G).Both groups were age and sex-matched. Although the HRV analysis indicates that the peaks of total power (TP, 0-0.5 Hz) and high-frequency power (HF, 0.15-0.40 Hz) are similar in both groups, the activities of low-frequency power (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz), LF in normalized units (LF%), and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) in AS patients are obviously lower than healthy controls. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein revealed negative relationship with HF. The AS patients without peripheral joint disease have higher LF, TP, variance, LF%, and HF than the patients with peripheral joint disease. The AS patients without uvetis have higher HF than the patients with uvetis. The total scores of BASDI, BASFI, and BAS-G do not show any association to HRV parameters.AS patients have significantly abnormal cardiac autonomic regulation. This is closely related with some inflammatory activities. Reduced autonomic function may be one of the factors of high cardiovascular risk in AS patients.

  1. Influence of hydrotherapy on clinical and cardiac autonomic function in migraine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M U Sujan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is associated with autonomic symptoms. The growing body of literature suggests that the dysfunctional autonomic nervous system might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of migraine. Thermal therapies have been hypothesized to modulate these changes and alleviate pain. However, data regarding the efficacy of hydrotherapy in migraine remain scant. We evaluated the effect of add on hydrotherapy procedure (a hot arm and foot bath with ice massage to head in migraine patients. Methods: Forty chronic migraine patients fulfilling the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria were recruited from the neurology outpatient clinic. Patients were randomized to receive either hydrotherapy plus conventional pharmacological care (n = 20 or conventional medication only (n = 20. Hydrotherapy group received treatment with hot arm and foot bath (103°F to 110°F and ice massage to head daily for 20 min for 45 days. Patients were assessed using headache impact test (HIT, visual analog scale for pain and cardiac autonomic function by heart rate variability (HRV before and after intervention period. Results: There was a significant decrease in HIT score, frequency, and intensity of headaches following treatment in both the groups. However, it was more evident in add on hydrotherapy group compared to pharmacological treatment alone group. There was also significant improvement in the HRV parameters. In particular, there was a significant decrease in heart rate (P = 0.017, increase in high frequency (HF (P = 0.014 and decrease in low frequency/HF ratio (P = 0.004 in add on hydrotherapy group. Conclusion: Our study shows that add on hydrotherapy enhanced the vagal tone in addition to reducing the frequency and intensity of headaches in migraine patients.

  2. Cardiac autonomic function in patients with diabetes improves with practice of comprehensive yogic breathing program

    OpenAIRE

    Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Smita Ambekar; Rajiv Singla; Ansumali Joshi; Anju Dhawan; Neeta Kumar; Deepak, K. K.; Sreenivas, V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to observe the effect comprehensive yogic breathing (Sudarshan Kriya Yoga [SKY] and Pranayam) had on cardiac autonomic functions in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 64 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and c...

  3. Diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy: Do we have anytreatment perspectives?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victoria A Serhiyenko; Alexandr A Serhiyenko

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a serious andcommon complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Despiteits relationship to an increased risk of cardiovascularmortality and its association with multiple symptoms andimpairments, the significance of CAN has not been fullyappreciated. CAN among DM patients is characterizedreview the latest evidence and own data regarding thetreatment and the treatment perspectives for diabeticCAN. Lifestyle modification, intensive glycemic controlmight prevent development or progression of CAN.Pathogenetic treatment of CAN includes balanceddiet and physical activity; optimization of glycemiccontrol; treatment of dyslipoproteinemia; correctionof metabolic abnormalities in myocardium; preventionand treatment of thrombosis; use of aldose reductaseinhibitors; dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), acetyl-Lcarnitine,antioxidants, first of all α-lipoic acid (α-LA),use of long-chain ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fattyacids (ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs), vasodilators, fat-solublevitamin B1, aminoguanidine; substitutive therapy ofgrowth factors, in severe cases-treatment of orthostatichypotension. The promising methods include researchand use of tools that increase blood flow throughthe vasa vasorum, including prostacyclin analogues,thromboxane A2 blockers and drugs that contribute intostrengthening and/or normalization of Na+, K+-ATPase(phosphodiesterase inhibitor), α-LA, DGLA, ω-3 PUFAs,and the simultaneous prescription of α-LA, ω-3 PUFAand DGLA.

  4. Relationships between sensory stimuli and autonomic nervous regulation during real and virtual exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iijima Atsuhiko

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of virtual environment (VE technology to motor rehabilitation increases the number of possible rehabilitation tasks and/or exercises. However, enhancing a specific sensory stimulus sometimes causes unpleasant sensations or fatigue, which would in turn decrease motivation for continuous rehabilitation. To select appropriate tasks and/or exercises for individuals, evaluation of physical activity during recovery is necessary, particularly the changes in the relationship between autonomic nervous activity (ANA and sensory stimuli. Methods We estimated the ANA from the R-R interval time series of electrocardiogram and incoming sensory stimuli that would activate the ANA. For experiments in real exercise, we measured vehicle data and electromyogram signals during cycling exercise. For experiments in virtual exercise, we measured eye movement in relation to image motion vectors while the subject was viewing a mountain-bike video image from a first-person viewpoint. Results For the real cycling exercise, the results were categorized into four groups by evaluating muscle fatigue in relation to the ANA. They suggested that fatigue should be evaluated on the basis of not only muscle activity but also autonomic nervous regulation after exercise. For the virtual exercise, the ANA-related conditions revealed a remarkable time distribution of trigger points that would change eye movement and evoke unpleasant sensations. Conclusion For expanding the options of motor rehabilitation using VE technology, approaches need to be developed for simultaneously monitoring and separately evaluating the activation of autonomic nervous regulation in relation to neuromuscular and sensory systems with different time scales.

  5. Aging in autonomic control by multifractal studies of cardiac interbeat intervals in the VLF band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heart rate responds dynamically to various intrinsic and environmental stimuli. The autonomic nervous system is said to play a major role in this response. Multifractal analysis offers a novel method to assess the response of cardiac interbeat intervals. Twenty-four hour ECG recordings of RR interbeat intervals (of 48 elderly volunteers (age 65–94), 40 middle-aged persons (age 45–53) and 36 young adults (age 18–26)) were investigated to study the effect of aging on autonomic regulation during normal activity in healthy adults. Heart RR-interval variability in the very low frequency (VLF) band (32–420 RR intervals) was evaluated by multifractal tools. The nocturnal and diurnal signals of 6 h duration were studied separately. For each signal, the analysis was performed twice: for a given signal and for the integrated signal. A multifractal spectrum was quantified by the hmax value at which a multifractal spectrum attained its maximum, width of a spectrum, Hurst exponent, extreme events hleft and distance between the maxima of a signal and its integrated counterpart. The following seven characteristics are suggested as quantifying the age-related decrease in the autonomic function ('int' refers to the integrated signal): (a) hsleepmax − hmaxwake > 0.05 for a signal; (b) hintmax > 1.15 for wake; (c) hintmax − hmax > 0.85 for sleep; (d) Hurstwake − Hurstsleep < 0.01; (e) widthwake > 0.07; (f) widthint < 0.30 for sleep; (g) hintleft > 0.75. Eighty-one percent of elderly people had at least four of these properties, and ninety-two percent of young people had three or less. This shows that the multifractal approach offers a concise and reliable index of healthy aging for each individual. Additionally, the applied method yielded insights into dynamical changes in the autonomic regulation due to the circadian cycle and aging. Our observations support the hypothesis that imbalance in the autonomic control due to healthy aging could be related to

  6. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Viewing Green and Built Settings: Differentiating Between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Magdalena M.H.E.; Maas, Jolanda; Muller, Rianne; Braun, Anoek; Kaandorp, Wendy; van Lien, René; van Poppel, Mireille N.M.; van Mechelen, Willem; van den Berg, Agnes E.

    2015-01-01

    This laboratory study explored buffering and recovery effects of viewing urban green and built spaces on autonomic nervous system activity. Forty-six students viewed photos of green and built spaces immediately following, and preceding acute stress induction. Simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram signal was used to derive respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP), indicators of respectively parasympathetic and sympathetic activity. The findings provide support for greater recovery after viewing green scenes, as marked by a stronger increase in RSA as a marker of parasympathetic activity. There were no indications for greater recovery after viewing green scenes in PEP as a marker of sympathetic activity, and there were also no indications of greater buffering effects of green space in neither RSA nor PEP. Overall, our findings are consistent with a predominant role of the parasympathetic nervous system in restorative effects of viewing green space. PMID:26694426

  7. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Viewing Green and Built Settings: Differentiating Between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M.H.E. van den Berg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study explored buffering and recovery effects of viewing urban green and built spaces on autonomic nervous system activity. Forty-six students viewed photos of green and built spaces immediately following, and preceding acute stress induction. Simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram signal was used to derive respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA and pre-ejection period (PEP, indicators of respectively parasympathetic and sympathetic activity. The findings provide support for greater recovery after viewing green scenes, as marked by a stronger increase in RSA as a marker of parasympathetic activity. There were no indications for greater recovery after viewing green scenes in PEP as a marker of sympathetic activity, and there were also no indications of greater buffering effects of green space in neither RSA nor PEP. Overall, our findings are consistent with a predominant role of the parasympathetic nervous system in restorative effects of viewing green space.

  8. [Heart rate variability as a method of assessing the autonomic nervous system in polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Joceline Cássia Ferezini; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; da Silva, Ester; Azevedo, George Dantas

    2013-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors, such as central obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension. These factors are associated with adrenergic overactivity, which is an important prognostic factor for the development of cardiovascular disorders. Given the common cardiometabolic disturbances occurring in PCOS women, over the last years studies have investigated the cardiac autonomic control of these patients, mainly based on heart rate variability (HRV). Thus, in this review, we will discuss the recent findings of the studies that investigated the HRV of women with PCOS, as well as noninvasive methods of analysis of autonomic control starting from basic indexes related to this methodology.

  9. Autonomic Dysfunction Predicts Early Cardiac Affection in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Khaled M.; Naglaa Youssef Assaf; Hanan Mohamed Farouk; Iman M. Aly Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To detect the early preclinical alterations in cardiac autonomic control as well as altered cardiac function in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and their relevance to the clinical features of the disease using noninvasive methods. Methods: 30 SSc patients and 15 healthy controls matched for age and sex underwent clinical examination, serological analysis, and echocardiographic assessment including Doppler flow imaging to evaluate cardiac function, and 24-hour Holter monitoring an...

  10. [Effect of the low-frequency impulse magnetic field on the autonomic nervous system in animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiukhina, K Iu; Lobkaeva, E P; Deviatkova, N S

    2010-01-01

    The effect of weak (up to 3.5 mT) low-frequency (up to 100 Hz) impulse magnetic field on the state of the vegetative nervous system of animals has been studied by analyzing the variability of the heart rate. The effect of the magnetic field was estimated by a specially designed complex for recording cardiac signals of animals. Several specially selected regimes of impulse magnetic fields were studied. It was shown that the impulse magnetic field possesses a high biological activity at all regimes used, and the indices of the vegetative nervous system after the exposure to the impulse magnetic field approach the values typical for normotonic animals. This makes it possible to use magnetic fields at these regimes in magnetotherapy. PMID:20968088

  11. Clinical assessment of the autonomic nervous system in diabetes mellitus and its correlation with glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday B Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Clinical assessment of the autonomic nervous system in Diabetes mellitus (DM and its correlation with glycemic control. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional study of 50 adult diabetes patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with DM who were on regular treatment with either insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic agents were studied. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN score was calculated using the clinical test variables. Results: Of the 50 patients 30 had no CAN, 10 had early CAN and 10 had severe CAN. The mean of CAN score increased with duration of diabetes. The mean HbA 1C was 7.73. The mean CAN score was higher in patients who had complication of diabetes as compared to patients without complications. The heart rate variability with respiration was found to be 15.84 ± 7.02/min. The mean valsalva ratio was 1.31 ± 0.23. The mean drop in BP on standing was 7.30 ± 7.24 mmHg. The mean 30:15 ratio was 1.06 ± 0.04. The mean rise in diastolic BP on sustained hand grip was 16.04 ± 4.11 mmHg. Conclusions: The prevalence of autonomic neuropathy in DM as assessed by CAN score was 40%. The CAN score did not correlate with the duration of DM. The HbA 1C had a significant correlation with the severity of autonomic neuropathy. Occurrence of CAN correlated with the presence of peripheral neuropathy but not with the presence of retinopathy or nephropathy. All individual tests in the battery of CAN score were significantly associated with the presence of autonomic neuropathy, except 30:15 ratio.

  12. Hormones and the autonomic nervous system are involved in suprachiasmatic nucleus modulation of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, Marieke; Buijs, Ruud M; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2006-05-01

    Glucose is one of the most important energy sources for the body in general, and the brain in particular. It is essential for survival to keep glucose levels within strict boundaries. Acute disturbances of glucose homeostasis are rapidly corrected by hormonal and neuronal mechanisms. Furthermore, changes in energy expenditure associated with the light-dark cycle induce variations in the plasma glucose concentration that are more gradual. Organisms take advantage of adapting their internal physiology to the predictable daily changes in energy expenditure, because it enables them to anticipate these changes and to prevent unnecessary disturbance of homeostasis. The hypothalamic biological clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), receives light information from the eyes and transmits this information to the rest of the body to synchronize physiology to the environment. Here we review several studies providing evidence for biological clock control of the daily variation in several aspects of glucose metabolism. Although both hormones and the autonomic nervous system can stimulate glucose uptake or production by organs in the periphery, we have shown that the biological clock control of glucose metabolism mostly occurs through the autonomic nervous system. The critical involvement of the biological clock is also indicated by several studies, indicating that disturbance of the biological clock is often associated with metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  13. Effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation and levodopa on the autonomic nervous system in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Janne; Remien, Piet; Guballa, Christoph; Binder, Andreas; Binder, Sabine; Schattschneider, Jörn; Herzog, Jan; Volkmann, Jens; Deuschl, Günther; Wasner, Gunnar; Baron, Ralf

    2007-07-01

    Dysfunctions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Regarding motor disability, deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment option in long lasting PD. The aims of this study were to examine whether STN stimulation has an influence on functions of the ANS and to compare these effects to those induced by levodopa. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) during rest and orthostatic conditions, HR variability (HRV) and breathing-induced cutaneous sympathetic vasoconstriction (CVC) were tested in 14 PD patients treated with STN stimulation during "ON" and "OFF" condition of the stimulator. The effects of a single dose of levodopa on ANS were tested in 15 PD patients without DBS. STN stimulation had no influence on cardiovascular ANS functions, whereas CVC was significantly increased. In contrast, levodopa significantly lowered BP and HR at rest and enhanced orthostatic hypotension. Further, HRV, skin perfusion and temperature increased after administration of levodopa. Our results suggest that in contrast to levodopa, STN stimulation has only minor effects on autonomic functions. Since less pharmacotherapy is needed after STN stimulation, reduced levodopa intake results in relative improvement of autonomic function in deep brain stimulated PD patients.

  14. Metabolic and cardiac autonomic effects of high-intensity resistance training protocol in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Deus, Ana Paula; de Oliveira, Claudio Ricardo; Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; Baldissera, Vilmar; da Silva, Carlos Alberto; Rossi, Bruno Rafael Orsini; de Sousa, Hugo Celso Dutra; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of metabolic and autonomic nervous control on high-intensity resistance training (HRT) as determined by pancreatic glucose sensitivity (GS), insulin sensitivity (IS), blood lactate ([La]), and heart rate variability (HRV) in rats. Thirty male, albino Wistar rats (292 ± 20 g) were divided into 3 groups: sedentary control (SC), low-resistance training (LRT), and HRT. The animals in the HRT group were submitted to a high-resistance protocol with a progressively increasing load relative to body weight until exhaustion, whereas the LRT group performed the same exercise regimen with no load progression. The program was conducted 3 times per week for 8 weeks. The [La], parameters related to the functionality of pancreatic tissue, and HRV were measured. There was a significant increase in peak [La] only in the HRT group, but there was a reduction in [La] when corrected to the maximal load in both trained groups (LRT and HRT, p < 0.05). Both trained groups exhibited an increase in IS; however, compared with SC and LRT, HRT demonstrated a significantly higher GS posttraining (p < 0.05). With respect to HRV, the low-frequency (LF) band, in milliseconds squared, reduced in both trained groups, but the high-frequency band, in milliseconds squared and nu, increased, and the LF in nu, decreased only in the HRT group (p < 0.05). The HRT protocol produced significant and beneficial metabolic and cardiac autonomic adaptations. These results provide evidence for the positive benefits of HRT in counteracting metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:22067239

  15. Relations between blood supply of brain of students and condition of autonomic nervous system and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    L. D. Korovina; T. M. Zaporozhets

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to estimate the brain blood supply level by rheoencephalography method in junior students of the Medical academy and to determine the blood supply links with the autonomic regulation state, behavioural and alimentary factors. Rheo-encephalographic study, research of the autonomic nervous system state, heart rate regulation and questioning of 17–29 year-old students have been conducted. Basic hemodynamic indices were normal in all surveyed students. Increase in ...

  16. Effect of Cervical Manipulation on Autonomic Nervous Function in Healthy Volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔可密; 李为民; 刘霞; Brian Budgell; 李娜; 吴根诚; 肖元春

    2006-01-01

    Objective: According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, the effect of cervical stimulation on autonomic nervous system activity in humans was investigated.Methods: Healthy young male volunteers were selected as subjects of the trial. The upper cervical spine (C2-5) was stimulated bilaterally with spinal manipulation, and changes in heart rate and heart rate variability were calculated as measures of effects on autonomic nervous system tone. Results: Thirty healthy young male volunteers were tested. It was found that heart rate decreased (R-R interval prolonged) significantly. SDNN and total power spectrum increased significantly, indicating an increase in sympathetic tone. Conclusion: Cervical manipulation can regulate the autonomic nervous system tone in healthy young men, and it suggests a possibility of treating cardiovascular diseases such as arrhythmia with cervical manipulation.%目的:脊柱推拿是传统医学的治疗方法之一.根据中医学脏腑经络相关理论,观察颈部脊柱推拿对自主神经系统功能的调节作用.方法:选择成年健康男性志愿者,通过对受试者进行颈部进行推拿操作,包括触压双侧颈椎横突(C2-5)、左右旋转和扳法,以心率和心率变异性的改变为指标,观察推拿前后自主神经系统紧张性的改变.结果:对30名正常成年男性志愿者的观察结果表明,推拿后心率显著降低(RR间期延长);时域分析中SDNN显著性增加,频域分析中总功率谱显著性增加.以上结果皆提示迷走性张力增高.结论:颈部脊柱推拿可调节自主神经系统张力,提示了针灸推拿方法治疗临床心血管疾病如心律失常的可能性.

  17. Complex Nonlinear Autonomic Nervous System Modulation Link Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy and Peripheral Vascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kinda eKhalaf; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Caroline eRobinson; Cornforth, David J.; Tarvainen, Mika P.; Hayder eAl-Aubaidy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physiological interactions are abundant within, and between, body systems. These interactions may evolve into discrete states during pathophysiological processes resulting from common mechanisms. An association between arterial stenosis, identified by low ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) as been reported. Whether an association between vascular calcification - characterized by high ABPI and a different pathophysiology - is similarly associated ...

  18. [Drug with a high metabolic activity, cocarnit, in the treatment of diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S V; Melekhovets', O K; Demikhova, N V; Vynnychenko, L B

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with diabetes is formed in the absence of atherosclerotic changes as a consequence of diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy in the early stages of diabetes. Progression of autonomic cardiac neuropathy in cardio-vascular type is associated with the violation of energy supply of cells, protein synthesis, electrolyte exchange, the exchange of trace elements, oxidation reduction processes, oxygen-transport function of blood, so that metabolic therapy is carried out to optimize the processes of formation and energy costs. The drug cocarnit activates processes of aerobic oxidation of glucose, as well as providing regulatory influence on the oxidation of fatty acids. Applying of cocarnit in complex therapy in patients with diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy found improvement of left ventricular diastolic function, and positive dynamics in the efferent activity balance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic control of heart rate variability, which provides the regression of clinical symptoms. PMID:23356142

  19. Effects of psychological stress test on the cardiac response of public safety workers: alternative parameters to autonomic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that public safety workers (PSW) face many stressful situations that yield them as high-risk population for suffering chronic stress diseases. In this multidisciplinary research the cardiac response to induced psychological stress by a short duration Stroop test was evaluated in 20 female and 19 male PSW, in order to compare traditionally used cardiac response parameters with alternative ones. Electrocardiograms have been recorded using the Eindhoven electrodes configuration for 1 min before, 3 min during and 1 min after the test. Signals analysis has been performed for the heart rate and the power spectra of its variability and of the variability of the amplitude of the R-wave, i.e. the highest peak of the electrocardiographic signal periodic sequence. The results demonstrated that the traditional autonomic balance index shows no significant differences between stages. In contrast, the median of the area of the power spectrum of the R-wave amplitude variability in the frequency region dominated by the autonomous nervous system (0.04-to-0.4 Hz) is the more sensitive parameter. Moreover, this parameter allows to identify gender differences consistent with those encountered in other studies

  20. Lack of circadian variation in the activity of the autonomic nervous system after major abdominal operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg-Adamsen, Susan; Lie, Claus;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Most sudden postoperative deaths occur during the night and we conjectured that this was associated with circadian variations in the autonomic nervous tone, reflected in heart rate variability. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTINGS: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 44...... interval for the period of measurement (SDNN), the root mean square of the standard deviation of the differences between NN intervals (RMSSD), the percentage of NN intervals differing by more than 50 msec from adjacent NN intervals (pNN50) and the coefficient of component variance (meanNN/SDNN). MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURES: Heart rate and heart rate variability. RESULTS: Circadian variation calculated from the SDNN (p = 0.43) the pNN50 (p = 0.11), the RMSSD (p = 0.47), and mean NN:SDNN ratio (p = 0.13) was absent postoperatively. Circadian variation in the heart rate was present but was set on a higher...

  1. An Educational Board Game to Assist PharmD Students in Learning Autonomic Nervous System Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J Shawn; Tincher, Lindsay; Odeng-Otu, Emmanuel; Herdman, Michelle

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To examine whether playing a board game can assist PharmD students in learning autonomic nervous system (ANS) pharmacology. Design. Of 72 students enrolled in a required second-year pharmacology course, 22 students volunteered to play the board game, which was followed by an in-class examination consisting of 42 ANS questions (ANSQs) and 8 control questions (CTLQs). Participants were given a pretest and a posttest to assess immediate educational improvement. Participants' scores for pretest, posttest, in-class examination, and ANSQs were compared. Also, scores for examination, ANSQs, and CTLQs were compared between board game participants (PART) and nonparticipating classmates (NPART). Assessment. Board game participants scored progressively higher between the pretest, posttest, examination, and ANSQs. Additionally, PART scores were higher than NPART scores for examination and ANSQs. Difference between PART and NPART CTLQ scores was not significant. Conclusion. A board game can assist PharmD students in learning ANS pharmacology.

  2. Objective evaluation of stress with the blind by the monitoring of autonomic nervous system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot, Bertrand; Baltenneck, Nicolas; Gehin, Claudine; Dittmar, Andre; McAdams, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Accessibility for the blind in an urban space must be studied under real conditions in their daily environment. A new approach for evaluating the impact of environmental conditions on blind pedestrians is the objective measure of stress by the monitoring of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Original techniques of data analysis and spatial representation are proposed for the detection of the ANS activity through the assessment of the electrodermal activity. Skin resistance was recorded with an EmoSense system on 10 blind subjects who followed a charted course independently. The course was 1065 meters long and consisted of various environmental conditions in an urban space. The spatial frequency of the non-specific skin resistance responses was used to provide a more relevant representation of geographic hotspots. Results of statistical analysis based on this new parameter are discussed to conclude on phenomena causing mental stress with the blind moving in an urban space.

  3. Cardiac autonomic function in patients with diabetes improves with practice of comprehensive yogic breathing program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka P Jyotsna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to observe the effect comprehensive yogic breathing (Sudarshan Kriya Yoga [SKY] and Pranayam had on cardiac autonomic functions in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 64 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program. Standard therapy included dietary advice, brisk walking for 45 min daily, and administration of oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was introduced to the participants through a course of 12 h spread over 3 days. It was an interactive session in which SKY, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam is taught under the guidance of a certified teacher. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and after 6 months of intervention. Results: In the intervention group, after practicing the breathing techniques for 6 months, the improvement in sympathetic functions was statistically significant (P 0.04. The change in sympathetic functions in the standard therapy group was not significant (P 0.75.Parasympathetic functions did not show any significant change in either group. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P 0.06. In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P 0.99. Conclusion: Cardiac autonomic functions improved in patients with diabetes on standard treatment who followed the comprehensive yogic breathing program compared to patients who were on standard therapy alone.

  4. The role of the autonomic nervous system in hypertension: a bond graph model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bond graph model of the cardiovascular system with embedded autonomic nervous regulation was developed for a better understanding of the role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in hypertension. The model is described by a pump model of the heart and a detailed representation of the head and neck, pulmonary, coronary, abdomen and extremity circulation. It responds to sympathetic and parasympathetic activities by modifying systemic peripheral vascular resistance, heart rate, ventricular end-systolic elastance and venous unstressed volumes. The impairment of ANS is represented by an elevation of the baroreflex set point. The simulation results show that, compared with normotensive, in hypertension the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) rose from 112/77 mmHg to 144/94 mmHg and the left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT) increased from 10 mm to 12.74 mm. In the case that ANS regulation was absent, both the SBP and DBP further increased by 8 mmHg and the LVWT increased to 13.22 mm. The results also demonstrate that when ANS regulation is not severely damaged, e.g. the baroreflex set point is 97 mmHg, it still has an effect in preventing the rapid rise of blood pressure in hypertension; however, with the worsening of ANS regulation, its protective role weakens. The results agree with human physiological and pathological features in hemodynamic parameters and carotid baroreflex function curves, and indicate the role of ANS in blood pressure regulation and heart protection. In conclusion, the present model may provide a valid approach to study the pathophysiological conditions of the cardiovascular system and the mechanism of ANS regulation

  5. Cardiac arrest after anesthetic management in a patient with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergül Yakup

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV is a rare disorder with an autosomal recessive transmission and characterized by self-mutilation due to a lack in pain and heat sensation. Recurrent hyperpyrexia and anhydrosis are seen in patients as a result of a lack of sweat gland innervation. Self-mutilation and insensitivity to pain result in orthopedic complications and patients undergone recurrent surgical interventions with anesthesia. However, these patients are prone to perioperative complications such as hyperthermia, hypothermia, and cardiac complications like bradycardia and hypotension. We report a 5-year-old boy with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV, developing hyperpyrexia and cardiac arrest after anesthesia.

  6. Effects of Betel chewing on the central and autonomic nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, N S

    2001-01-01

    Betel chewing has been claimed to produce a sense of well-being, euphoria, heightened alertness, sweating, salivation, a hot sensation in the body and increased capacity to work. Betel chewing also leads to habituation, addiction and withdrawal. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. Arecoline, the major alkaloid of Areca nut, has been extensively studied, and several effects of betel chewing are thought to be related to the actions of this parasympathomimetic constituent. However, betel chewing may produce complex reactions and interactions. In the presence of lime, arecoline and guvacoline in Areca nut are hydrolyzed into arecaidine and guvacine, respectively, which are strong inhibitors of GABA uptake. Piper betle flower or leaf contains aromatic phenolic compounds which have been found to stimulate the release of catecholamines in vitro. Thus, betel chewing may affect parasympathetic, GABAnergic and sympathetic functions. Betel chewing produces an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and body temperature. In addition, EEG shows widespread cortical desynchronization indicating a state of arousal. In autonomic function tests, both the sympathetic skin response and RR interval variation are affected. Betel chewing also increases plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine. These results suggest that betel chewing mainly affects the central and autonomic nervous systems. Future studies should investigate both the acute and chronic effects of betel chewing. Such studies may further elucidate the psychoactive mechanisms responsible for the undiminished popularity of betel chewing since antiquity. PMID:11385294

  7. Early deprivation and autonomic nervous system functioning in post-institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Elisa A; Koss, Kalsea J; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-04-01

    The relations between early deprivation and the development of the neuroendocrine and central components of the mammalian stress response have been examined frequently. However, little is known about the impact of early deprivation on the developmental trajectories of autonomic function. Children adopted between 15-36 months from institutional care were examined during their first 16 months post-adoption (N = 60). Comparison groups included same-aged peers reared in their birth families (N = 50) and children adopted internationally from overseas foster care (N = 46). The present study examined trajectories of baseline autonomic nervous system function longitudinally following entry into adopted families. Post-institutionalized children had higher sympathetic tone, measured by pre-ejection period (PEP). Individual differences in PEP soon after adoption served as a mediator between early deprivation and parent-reported behavioral problems 2 years post-adoption. There were no group differences in parasympathetic function, indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. All three groups showed similar trajectories of ANS function across the 16 month period. PMID:26497289

  8. Association of autonomic nervous system and EEG scalp potential during playing 2D Grand Turismo 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, Ahmad Rauf; Likun, Xia; Saeed Malik, Aamir

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral activation and autonomic nervous system have importance in studies such as mental stress. The aim of this study is to analyze variations in EEG scalp potential which may influence autonomic activation of heart while playing video games. Ten healthy participants were recruited in this study. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were measured simultaneously during playing video game and rest conditions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of heart were evaluated from heart rate variability (HRV), derived from the ECG. Scalp potential was measured by the EEG. The results showed a significant upsurge in the value theta Fz/alpha Pz (p<0.001) while playing game. The results also showed tachycardia while playing video game as compared to rest condition (p<0.005). Normalized low frequency power and ratio of low frequency/high frequency power were significantly increased while playing video game and normalized high frequency power sank during video games. Results showed synchronized activity of cerebellum and sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart. PMID:23366661

  9. Association of autonomic nervous system and EEG scalp potential during playing 2D Grand Turismo 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, Ahmad Rauf; Likun, Xia; Saeed Malik, Aamir

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral activation and autonomic nervous system have importance in studies such as mental stress. The aim of this study is to analyze variations in EEG scalp potential which may influence autonomic activation of heart while playing video games. Ten healthy participants were recruited in this study. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were measured simultaneously during playing video game and rest conditions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic innervations of heart were evaluated from heart rate variability (HRV), derived from the ECG. Scalp potential was measured by the EEG. The results showed a significant upsurge in the value theta Fz/alpha Pz (p<0.001) while playing game. The results also showed tachycardia while playing video game as compared to rest condition (p<0.005). Normalized low frequency power and ratio of low frequency/high frequency power were significantly increased while playing video game and normalized high frequency power sank during video games. Results showed synchronized activity of cerebellum and sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart.

  10. Assessment of autonomic nervous system activity by heart rate recovery response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Zhaohui; BAI Jing

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is a tool for diagnosing or predicting cardiovascular diseases,while heart rate recovery response (HRRR) after exercise has been promoted as a process under the regulation of ANS (sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems).Therefore,assessment of ANS activity was performed by HRRR in this study.Firstly,HRRR signal was extracted based on wavelet decomposition and difference curve of coarse component from heart rate signal.Then,HRRR was divided into quickly descending interval (QDI) and slowly descending interval (SDI).Finally,3 groups of indexes (Difference,Exponential and Quadratic Groups) from QDI and SDI were compared between 50 normotensive and 61 hypertensive subjects.The results showed that the indexes of Difference Group were better choices than others in analyzing the features of HRRR.Furthermore,parasympathetic activity is dominant in QDI,while sympathetic and parasympathetic activities affect SDI together.In conclusion,the proposed method was effective to assess ANS activity.

  11. Aromatherapy benefits autonomic nervous system regulation for elementary school faculty in taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kang-Ming; Shen, Chuh-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Workplace stress-related illness is a serious issue, and consequently many stress reduction methods have been investigated. Aromatherapy is especially for populations that work under high stress. Elementary school teachers are a high-stress working population in Taiwan. In this study, fifty-four elementary school teachers were recruited to evaluate aromatherapy performance on stress reduction. Bergamot essential oil was used for aromatherapy spray for 10 minutes. Blood pressure and autonomic nervous system parameters were recorded 5 minutes before and after the application of the aroma spray. Results showed that there were significant decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, LF power percentage, and LF/HF while there were increases in heart rate variability and HF power percentage (P aromatherapy spray. Further analysis was investigated by dividing subjects into three background variables (position variables, age variables, gender variables) and anxiety degree groups. All parameters were significantly different for most subgroups, except for the substitute teachers and the light-anxiety group. Parasympathetic nervous system activation was measured after aromatherapy in this study. It encouraged further study for other stress working population by aromatherapy. PMID:21584196

  12. Aromatherapy Benefits Autonomic Nervous System Regulation for Elementary School Faculty in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Ming Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Workplace stress-related illness is a serious issue, and consequently many stress reduction methods have been investigated. Aromatherapy is especially for populations that work under high stress. Elementary school teachers are a high-stress working population in Taiwan. In this study, fifty-four elementary school teachers were recruited to evaluate aromatherapy performance on stress reduction. Bergamot essential oil was used for aromatherapy spray for 10 minutes. Blood pressure and autonomic nervous system parameters were recorded 5 minutes before and after the application of the aroma spray. Results showed that there were significant decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, LF power percentage, and LF/HF while there were increases in heart rate variability and HF power percentage (P<.001∗∗∗ after application of the aromatherapy spray. Further analysis was investigated by dividing subjects into three background variables (position variables, age variables, gender variables and anxiety degree groups. All parameters were significantly different for most subgroups, except for the substitute teachers and the light-anxiety group. Parasympathetic nervous system activation was measured after aromatherapy in this study. It encouraged further study for other stress working population by aromatherapy.

  13. Functional programming of the autonomic nervous system by early life immune exposure: implications for anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luba Sominsky

    Full Text Available Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p. exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli. Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of

  14. Functional programming of the autonomic nervous system by early life immune exposure: implications for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sominsky, Luba; Fuller, Erin A; Bondarenko, Evgeny; Ong, Lin Kooi; Averell, Lee; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Dunkley, Peter R; Dickson, Phillip W; Hodgson, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs) 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli). Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of physiological processes.

  15. Circadian rhythm of rest activity and autonomic nervous system activity at different stages in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Fumitoshi; Kuriyama, Nagato; Nakagawa, Masanori; Imanishi, Jiro

    2011-12-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often suffer from non-motor symptoms, including sleep and autonomic dysfunctions, controlled by circadian regulation. To evaluate the alteration of circadian rhythm in PD patients, we investigated both rest activities and autonomic functions. Twenty-seven patients with idiopathic PD and 30 age-matched control subjects were recruited. Group comparisons of controls (mean age: 68.93 years), early-PD patients classified as Hoehn-Yahr (HY) stage 1&2 (mean age: 70.78 years), and advanced-PD as HY 3&4 (mean age: 68.61 years) were conducted. Measurement of rest activities was performed using Actigraph for 7 continuous days, and included measuring rhythm patterns (activity patterns recorded in or out of bed) and circadian rhythm amplitudes (power of the cycle being closest to 24h). A power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) using 24-hour ambulatory ECG was also performed. The actigraphic measurements indicated that statistically PD patients have lower activity levels when out of bed and higher activity levels when in bed, and that, the circadian rest-activity rhythm in PD decreases with disease severity. The HRV analysis showed that the total frequency component and low frequency/high frequency ratio were low in PD patients, suggesting that autonomic activities and the circadian rhythm of the sympathetic nervous system are attenuated in PD. This study elucidated the disorganization in the rest activities and HRV of PD patients as well as the gradual alterations in the circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm disturbances are important to consider the mechanism of non-motor symptoms that occur from early stage of PD.

  16. The impact of emotion-related autonomic nervous system responsiveness on pain sensitivity in female patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, H. van; Lumley, M.A.; Houtveen, J.H.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Geenen, R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with fibromyalgia have shown hyporeactive autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to physical stressors, augmented pain to ANS changes, and heightened negative emotions, which can increase pain. This study examined ANS reactivity to negative emotions and its association with pai

  17. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction and serum levels of neurotoxic and neurotrophic cytokines in patients with cobalamin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Çeneli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available neurotrophiccytokines epidermal growth factor (EGF and interleukin-6 (IL-6 plays a role in the pathogenesisof cobalamin (Cbl deficiency-induced neuropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomicnervous system dysfunction and to look for any relationship between autonomic nervous systemdisturbances and serum cytokine levels (TNF-

  18. Investigation of the Effects of Continuous Low-Dose Epidural Analgesia on the Autonomic Nervous System Using Hilbert Huang Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ren Chuang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of continuous low-dose epidural bupivacaine (0.05-0.1% infusion on the Doppler velocimetry for labor analgesia have been well documented. The aim of this study was to monitor the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS for women in labor based on Hilbert Huang transform (HHT, which performs signal processing for nonlinear systems, such as human cardiac systems. Thirteen pregnant women were included in the experimental group for labor analgesia. They received continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.075% infusion. The normal-to-normal intervals (NN-interval were downloaded from an ECG holter. Another 20 pregnant women in non-anesthesia labor (average gestation age was 38.6 weeks were included in the comparison group. In this study, HHT was used to decompose components of ECG signals, which reflect three different frequency bands of a person's heart rate spectrum (viz. high frequency (HF, low frequency (LF and very low frequency (VLF. It was found that the change of energy in subjects without anesthesia was more active than that with continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.075% infusion. The energy values of the experimental group (i.e., labor analgesia of HF and LF of ANS activities were significantly lower (P < 0.05 than the values of the comparison group (viz. labor without analgesia, but the trend of energy ratio of LF/HF was opposite. In conclusion, the sympathetic and parasympathetic components of ANS are all suppressed by continuous low-dose epidural bupivacaine 0.075% infusion, but parasympathetic power is suppressed more than sympathetic power.

  19. Cardiac Autonomic Function during Submaximal Treadmill Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether the cardiac autonomic function of adults with Down syndrome (DS) differs from that of nondisabled persons during submaximal dynamic exercise. Thirteen participants with DS and 12 nondisabled individuals performed maximal and submaximal treadmill tests with metabolic and heart rate (HR) measurements. Spectral analysis…

  20. Teaching Cardiac Autonomic Function Dynamics Employing the Valsalva (Valsalva-Weber) Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Luiz Fernando, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, a brief history of the Valsalva (Valsalva-Weber) maneuver is outlined, followed by an explanation on the use of this approach for the evaluation of cardiac autonomic function based on underlying heart rate changes. The most important methodological and interpretative aspects of the Valsalva-Weber maneuver are critically updated,…

  1. Screening for diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy using a new handheld device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulichsen, Elisabeth; Fleischer, Jesper; Ejskjaer, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a serious complication of longstanding diabetes and is associated with an increased morbidity and reduced quality of life in patients with diabetes. The present study evaluated the prevalence of CAN diagnosed by reduced heart rate variability (HRV) using...... a newly developed device in a large, unselected, hospital-based population of patients with diabetes....

  2. Effect of Yoga on migraine: A comprehensive study using clinical profile and cardiac autonomic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikiran Kisan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Intervention showed significant clinical improvement in both groups. Headache frequency and intensity were reduced more in Yoga with conventional care than the conventional care group alone. Furthermore, Yoga therapy enhanced the vagal tone and decreased the sympathetic drive, hence improving the cardiac autonomic balance. Thus, Yoga therapy can be effectively incorporated as an adjuvant therapy in migraine patients.

  3. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Anne Sofie; Tarnow, Lise; Rossing, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) has been associated with a poor prognosis in patients with diabetes. Because CAN is common in patients with diabetic nephropathy, we evaluated the predictive value of CAN in type 1 diabetic patients with and without diabetic nephropathy....

  4. Modulation of Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Ischemic Stroke following Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine Treatment

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    Sriranjini Sitaram Jaideep

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in stroke has implications on morbidity and mortality. Ayurveda (Indian system of medicine describes stroke as pakshaghata. We intended to study the effect of Ayurveda therapies on the cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Methods. Fifty patients of ischemic stroke (middle cerebral artery territory (mean age 39.26 ± 9.88 years; male 43, female 7 were recruited within one month of ictus. All patients received standard allopathic medications as advised by neurologist. In addition, patients were randomized to receive physiotherapy (Group I or Ayurveda treatment (Group II for 14 days. Continuous electrocardiogram and finger arterial pressure were recorded for 15 min before and after treatments and analyzed offline to obtain heart rate and blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS. Results were analysed by RMANOVA. Results. Patients in Group II showed statistically significant improvement in cardiac autonomic parameters. The standard deviation of normal to normal intervals,and total and low frequency powers were significantly enhanced (F=8.16, P=0.007, F=9.73, P=0.004, F=13.51, and P=0.001, resp.. The BRS too increased following the treatment period (F=10.129, P=0.004. Conclusions. The current study is the first to report a positive modulation of cardiac autonomic activity after adjuvant Ayurveda treatment in ischemic stroke. Further long term studies are warranted.

  5. Cardiac biopotentials influence on central nervous system functioning: first steps in hypothesis verification

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    Kondal'skaya Yu.O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to verify the hypothesis on influence of cardiac biopotentials on central nervous system. Materials: 20 healthy individuals aged 18-26 years old have been participated in the investigations. Two groups composed of 10 patients each have been formed. Double increase in heart biopotentials by means of artificial impulse insertion between natural cardiac contractions has been modeled. Artificial impulses have been similar to unaffected ones, produced in a normal heart work. Additional impulses have been generated using external pacemaker and have been linked up with electrodes on the chest. They have been synchronized with the heart rhythm and located in-between R waves. The duration of those impulses has been fully matched to ventricular complex. Their amplitude has been adjusted individually depending on the height of R wave. Nervous system mobility has been used as the indicator reflecting the central nervous system functioning. Degree of mobility has been defined on the basis of tapping test results. The test has been repeated at specific intervals. Groups have been exposed to two adverse testing modes. Additional impulses have been conducted to the patients of group I within an hour over a period of the first and the third 15-minute intervals and to the patients of group II over a period of the second and the fourth 15-minute intervals. In the middle and in the end of each time interval tapping test has been carried out. After preliminary analysis two other modes of stimulation have been tested. The stimulation has been performed within the 40-minute course: over a period of the first 20-minute interval and vice versa. Results: Detailed evaluation has revealed that short-time increase of nervous processes has been checked in combination with decrease in their stability. Conclusion: The data obtained have shown that there is possible influence on central nervous system functioning. The article ends with prospects of further

  6. Prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in Asian Indian patients with fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes

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    Amrit Nanaiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It was formerly believed that since fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD is a secondary form of diabetes, specific diabetic complications were uncommon. This is no longer considered to be true. Our objective was to study the prevalence and pattern of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN in patients with FCPD. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study on consecutive male patients with FCPD was performed. Using an automated CAN System Analyzer, heart rate response to deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, standing and blood pressure response to standing were measured. The standard Ewing′s criteria were used to define normal, borderline, and abnormal values. Prevalence rates were calculated and the patients were defined to have normal autonomic function, parasympathetic, sympathetic, and combined dysfunction. Results: The prevalence of CAN in this study population was 63.3%. Isolated parasympathetic dysfunction (42.3% was the most common abnormality. Combined sympathetic and parasympathetic dysfunction was noted in 13.3% of patients. Isolated borderline dysfunction was noted among 13.3% of patients. CAN was detected in six patients with a duration of diabetes of less than 1 year after diagnosis. Patients with autonomic dysfunction were found to have a lower body mass index (BMI and low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol when compared to those with normal autonomic functions, which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The prevalence of abnormal cardiac autonomic function is as high as 63.3% in the present study population which warrants regular screening of patients with FCPD for autonomic dysfunction. Patients with FCPD and autonomic dysfunction were found to have a lower BMI and lower LDL-cholesterol, which may be indicators of malnutrition in the group with autonomic dysfunction. Whether this malnutrition contributes to autonomic dysfunction needs further exploration.

  7. Error awareness revisited: accumulation of multimodal evidence from central and autonomic nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; Danielmeier, Claudia; Ullsperger, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The differences between erroneous actions that are consciously perceived as errors and those that go unnoticed have recently become an issue in the field of performance monitoring. In EEG studies, error awareness has been suggested to influence the error positivity (Pe) of the response-locked event-related brain potential, a positive voltage deflection prominent approximately 300 msec after error commission, whereas the preceding error-related negativity (ERN) seemed to be unaffected by error awareness. Erroneous actions, in general, have been shown to promote several changes in ongoing autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, yet such investigations have only rarely taken into account the question of subjective error awareness. In the first part of this study, heart rate, pupillometry, and EEG were recorded during an antisaccade task to measure autonomic arousal and activity of the CNS separately for perceived and unperceived errors. Contrary to our expectations, we observed differences in both Pe and ERN with respect to subjective error awareness. This was replicated in a second experiment, using a modified version of the same task. In line with our predictions, only perceived errors provoke the previously established post-error heart rate deceleration. Also, pupil size yields a more prominent dilatory effect after an erroneous saccade, which is also significantly larger for perceived than unperceived errors. On the basis of the ERP and ANS results as well as brain-behavior correlations, we suggest a novel interpretation of the implementation and emergence of error awareness in the brain. In our framework, several systems generate input signals (e.g., ERN, sensory input, proprioception) that influence the emergence of error awareness, which is then accumulated and presumably reflected in later potentials, such as the Pe. PMID:21268673

  8. Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction and Inflammation Contribute to the Increased Cardiovascular Mortality Risk Associated With Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop, Willem J.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Tracy, Russell P.; Barzilay, Joshua I.; Schulz, Richard; Gottdiener, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate prospectively whether autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction and inflammation play a role in the increased cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality risk associated with depression. Methods Participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 907; mean age, 71.3 ± 4.6 years; 59.1% women) were evaluated for ANS indices derived from heart rate variability (HRV) analysis (frequency and time domain HRV, and nonlinear indices, including detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA1) and heart rate turbulence). Inflammation markers included C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, and white blood cell count). Depressive symptoms were assessed, using the 10-item Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the mortality risk associated with depression, ANS, and inflammation markers, adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. Results Depression was associated with ANS dysfunction (DFA1, p = .018), and increased inflammation markers (white blood cell count, p = .012, fibrinogen p = .043) adjusting for covariates. CVD-related mortality occurred in 121 participants during a median follow-up of 13.3 years. Depression was associated with an increased CVD mortality risk (hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–2.86). Multivariable analyses showed that depression was an independent predictor of CVD mortality (hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–2.83) when adjusting for independent HRV and inflammation predictors (DFA1, heart rate turbulence, interleukin-6), attenuating the depression-CVD mortality association by 12.7% (p < .001). Conclusion Autonomic dysfunction and inflammation contribute to the increased cardiovascular mortality risk associated with depression, but a large portion of the predictive value of depression remains unexplained by these neuroimmunological measures. PMID:20639389

  9. Glycemic Variability Is Associated With Reduced Cardiac Autonomic Modulation in Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, Jesper; Lebech Cichosz, Simon; Hoeyem, Pernille;

    2015-01-01

    and 39 women with non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes and a known duration of diabetes sensor for 3 days, and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) was calculated to obtain individual glycemic variability. Cardiac......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sex differences in cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and to determine whether cardiac autonomic modulation is associated with glycemic variability. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated a cohort consisting of 48 men...... variability as assessed by MAGE. This was not the case in men. The association in women persisted in a multivariate regression analysis controlling for weight, mean heart rate, blood pressure (systolic), and triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with newly diagnosed and well-controlled type 2 diabetes...

  10. Trigonometric regressive spectral analysis: an innovative tool for evaluating the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Reimann, Manja; Gasch, Julia; Rüdiger, Heinz

    2013-09-01

    Biological rhythms, describing the temporal variation of biological processes, are a characteristic feature of complex systems. The analysis of biological rhythms can provide important insights into the pathophysiology of different diseases, especially, in cardiovascular medicine. In the field of the autonomic nervous system, heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) describe important fluctuations of blood pressure and heart rate which are often analyzed by Fourier transformation. However, these parameters are stochastic with overlaying rhythmical structures. R-R intervals as independent variables of time are not equidistant. That is why the trigonometric regressive spectral (TRS) analysis--reviewed in this paper--was introduced, considering both the statistical and rhythmical features of such time series. The data segments required for TRS analysis can be as short as 20 s allowing for dynamic evaluation of heart rate and blood pressure interaction over longer periods. Beyond HRV, TRS also estimates BRS based on linear regression analyses of coherent heart rate and blood pressure oscillations. An additional advantage is that all oscillations are analyzed by the same (maximal) number of R-R intervals thereby providing a high number of individual BRS values. This ensures a high confidence level of BRS determination which, along with short recording periods, may be of profound clinical relevance. The dynamic assessment of heart rate and blood pressure spectra by TRS allows a more precise evaluation of cardiovascular modulation under different settings as has already been demonstrated in different clinical studies. PMID:23812502

  11. Early postnatal low-protein nutrition, metabolic programming and the autonomic nervous system in adult life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Júlio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Protein restriction during lactation has been used as a rat model of metabolic programming to study the impact of perinatal malnutrition on adult metabolism. In contrast to protein restriction during fetal life, protein restriction during lactation did not appear to cause either obesity or the hallmarks of metabolic syndrome, such as hyperinsulinemia, when individuals reached adulthood. However, protein restriction provokes body underweight and hypoinsulinemia. This review is focused on the regulation of insulin secretion and the influence of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in adult rats that were protein-malnourished during lactation. The data available on the topic suggest that the perinatal phase of lactation, when insulted by protein deficit, imprints the adult metabolism and thereby alters the glycemic control. Although hypoinsulinemia programs adult rats to maintain normoglycemia, pancreatic β-cells are less sensitive to secretion stimuli, such as glucose and cholinergic agents. These pancreatic dysfunctions may be attributed to an imbalance of ANS activity recorded in adult rats that experienced maternal protein restriction.

  12. Early postnatal low-protein nutrition, metabolic programming and the autonomic nervous system in adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Gravena, Clarice; de Mathias, Paulo Cezar Freitas

    2012-09-11

    Protein restriction during lactation has been used as a rat model of metabolic programming to study the impact of perinatal malnutrition on adult metabolism. In contrast to protein restriction during fetal life, protein restriction during lactation did not appear to cause either obesity or the hallmarks of metabolic syndrome, such as hyperinsulinemia, when individuals reached adulthood. However, protein restriction provokes body underweight and hypoinsulinemia. This review is focused on the regulation of insulin secretion and the influence of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in adult rats that were protein-malnourished during lactation. The data available on the topic suggest that the perinatal phase of lactation, when insulted by protein deficit, imprints the adult metabolism and thereby alters the glycemic control. Although hypoinsulinemia programs adult rats to maintain normoglycemia, pancreatic β-cells are less sensitive to secretion stimuli, such as glucose and cholinergic agents. These pancreatic dysfunctions may be attributed to an imbalance of ANS activity recorded in adult rats that experienced maternal protein restriction.

  13. Characterizing Psychological Dimensions in Non-Pathological Subjects through Autonomic Nervous System Dynamics

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    Mimma eNardelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective assessment of psychological traits of healthy subjects and psychiatric patients has been growing interest in clinical and bioengineering research fields during the last decade. Several experimental evidences strongly suggest that a link between Autonomic Nervous System (ANS dynamics and specific dimensions such as anxiety, social phobia, stress and emotional regulation might exist. Nevertheless, an extensive investigation on a wide range of psycho-cognitive scales and ANS non-invasive markers gathered from standard and nonlinear analysis still needs to be addressed. In this study, we analyzed the discerning and correlation capabilities of a comprehensive set of ANS features and psycho-cognitive scales in 29 non-pathological subjects monitored during resting conditions. In particular, the state of the art of standard and nonlinear analysis was performed on Heart Rate Variability, InterBreath Interval series, and Inter-Beat Respiration series, which were considered as monovariate and multivariate measurements. Experimental results show that each ANS feature is linked to specific psychological traits. Moreover, nonlinear analysis outperforms the psychological assessment with respect to standard analysis. Considering that the current clinical practice relies only on subjective scores from interviews and questionnaires, this study provides objective tools for the assessment of psychological dimensions.

  14. Influence of Smoking Consumption and Nicotine Dependence Degree in Cardiac Autonomic Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Ana Paula Soares; Ramos, Dionei; de Oliveira, Gabriela Martins; dos Santos, Ana Alice Soares; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; It, Juliana Tiyaki; Fernandes, Renato Peretti Prieto; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking consumption alters cardiac autonomic function. Objective Assess the influence of the intensity of smoking and the nicotine dependence degree in cardiac autonomic modulation evaluated through index of heart rate variability (HRV). Methods 83 smokers, of both genders, between 50 and 70 years of age and with normal lung function were divided according to the intensity of smoking consumption (moderate and severe) and the nicotine dependency degree (mild, moderate and severe). The indexes of HRV were analyzed in rest condition, in linear methods in the time domain (TD), the frequency domain (FD) and through the Poincaré plot. For the comparison of smoking consumption, unpaired t test or Mann-Whitney was employed. For the analysis between the nicotine dependency degrees, we used the One-way ANOVA test, followed by Tukey's post test or Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. The significance level was p 0.05). Conclusion Only the intensity of smoking consumption had an influence over the cardiac autonomic modulation of the assessed tobacco smokers. Tobacco smokers with severe intensity of smoking consumption presented a lower autonomic modulation than those with moderate intensity. PMID:27142649

  15. Influence of Smoking Consumption and Nicotine Dependence Degree in Cardiac Autonomic Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Soares dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Smoking consumption alters cardiac autonomic function. Objective: Assess the influence of the intensity of smoking and the nicotine dependence degree in cardiac autonomic modulation evaluated through index of heart rate variability (HRV. Methods: 83 smokers, of both genders, between 50 and 70 years of age and with normal lung function were divided according to the intensity of smoking consumption (moderate and severe and the nicotine dependency degree (mild, moderate and severe. The indexes of HRV were analyzed in rest condition, in linear methods in the time domain (TD, the frequency domain (FD and through the Poincaré plot. For the comparison of smoking consumption, unpaired t test or Mann-Whitney was employed. For the analysis between the nicotine dependency degrees, we used the One-way ANOVA test, followed by Tukey's post test or Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. The significance level was p 0.05. Conclusion: Only the intensity of smoking consumption had an influence over the cardiac autonomic modulation of the assessed tobacco smokers. Tobacco smokers with severe intensity of smoking consumption presented a lower autonomic modulation than those with moderate intensity.

  16. Cardiac Autonomic Adjustments During Baroreflex Test in Obese and Non-Obese Preadolescents

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    Mário Augusto Paschoal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Recent studies have shown changes in cardiac autonomic control of obese preadolescents. Objective: To assess the heart rate responses and cardiac autonomic modulation of obese preadolescents during constant expiratory effort. Methods: This study assessed 10 obese and 10 non-obese preadolescents aged 9 to 12 years. The body mass index of the obese group was between the 95th and 97th percentiles of the CDC National Center for Health Statistics growth charts, while that of the non-obese group, between the 5th and 85th percentiles. Initially, they underwent anthropometric and clinical assessment, and their maximum expiratory pressures were obtained. Then, the preadolescents underwent a constant expiratory effort of 70% of their maximum expiratory pressure for 20 seconds, with heart rate measurement 5 minutes before, during and 5 minutes after it. Heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate values were analyzed by use of a software. Results: The HRV did not differ when compared before and after the constant expiratory effort intra- and intergroup. The heart rate values differed (p < 0.05 during the effort, being the total variation in non-obese preadolescents of 18.5 ± 1.5 bpm, and in obese, of 12.2 ± 1.3 bpm. Conclusion: The cardiac autonomic modulation did not differ between the groups when comparing before and after the constant expiratory effort. However, the obese group showed lower cardiovascular response to baroreceptor stimuli during the effort, suggesting lower autonomic baroreflex sensitivity.

  17. Docetaxel does not impair cardiac autonomic function in breast cancer patients previously treated with anthracyclines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekholm, Eeva; Rantanen, Virpi; Syvänen, Kari; Jalonen, Jarmo; Antila, Kari; Salminen, Eeva

    2002-04-01

    The effects of docetaxel treatment on autonomic cardiac function was studied with 24-h ECG recordings in breast cancer patients pretreated with anthracyclines. Twenty-four women were evaluated before docetaxel treatment and after 3-4 courses of docetaxel 100 mg/m(2). The heart rate, cardiac extrasystoles and heart rate variability (HRV) in both the time and frequency domain were assessed from 24-h ECG recordings. The acute effects of docetaxel were calculated from 1-h recordings immediately prior to, during and after infusion. Long-term effects were evaluated from 24-h recordings performed before treatment and after 3-4 courses of docetaxel. There was no increase in the number of cardiac extrasystoles during docetaxel infusion. The number of ventricular extrasystoles decreased from 14 (23) to 7 (14) during and 5 (10) after the first infusion (p=0.02). The heart rate, HRV and extrasystoles were similar before and after 3-4 courses of docetaxel. The treatment did not abolish circadian variability of the heart rate. Docetaxel did not deteriorate autonomic cardiac function. In conclusion, our findings suggest that docetaxel does not have harmful cumulative effects on autonomic control of the heart and is therefore unlikely to be cardiotoxic.

  18. Autonomic nervous system dynamics for mood and emotional-state recognition significant advances in data acquisition, signal processing and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    This monograph reports on advances in the measurement and study of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dynamics as a source of reliable and effective markers for mood state recognition and assessment of emotional responses. Its primary impact will be in affective computing and the application of emotion-recognition systems. Applicative studies of biosignals such as: electrocardiograms; electrodermal responses; respiration activity; gaze points; and pupil-size variation are covered in detail, and experimental results explain how to characterize the elicited affective levels and mood states pragmatically and accurately using the information thus extracted from the ANS. Nonlinear signal processing techniques play a crucial role in understanding the ANS physiology underlying superficially noticeable changes and provide important quantifiers of cardiovascular control dynamics. These have prognostic value in both healthy subjects and patients with mood disorders. Moreover, Autonomic Nervous System Dynamics for Mood and ...

  19. Optimizing the level of the physical health of the students with a glance of the type of autonomic nervous system

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    Grygus I.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed the changes in the level of physical health of students of the Faculty of Physical Education under the influence of physical training with a glance of the type of autonomic nervous system. The study involved 87 students of first and second courses. Is used methods for determining the level of physical health of students: Apanasenko G.L., teacher observations, statistics. Hold a special physical training with the prevalence of the type of the autonomic nervous system. The basis of influence was the principle of individualization of physical activity, the systematic and gradual. A significant high level of physical fitness at the end of the study, the main group of students. In this group, overall assessment of the level of physical health is above the average level by improving the life, power and index Robinson.

  20. Effects of autonomic balance and fluid and electrolyte changes on cardiac function in infarcted rats: A serial study of sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, N S; Dos-Santos, R C; Silveira, Anderson Luiz Bezerra da; R, Sonoda-Côrtes; Gantus, Michel Alexandre Villani; Fortes, F S; Olivares, Emerson Lopes

    2016-04-01

    Premenopausal women are known to show lower incidence of cardiovascular disease than men. During myocardial infarction (MI), homeostatic responses are activated, including the sympathetic autonomic nervous system and the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is related to the fluid and electrolyte balance, both aiming to maintain cardiac output. This study sought to perform a serial evaluation of sexual dimorphism in cardiac autonomic control and fluid and electrolyte balance during the development of MI-induced heart failure in rats. Experimental MI was induced in male (M) and female (F) adult (7-9 weeks of age) Wistar rats. The animals were placed in metabolic cages to assess fluid intake and urine volume 1 and 4 weeks after inducing MI (male myocardial infarction (MMI) and female myocardial infarction (FMI) groups). They subsequently underwent echocardiographic evaluation and spectral analysis of heart rate variability. After completing each protocol, the animals were killed for postmortem evaluation and histology. The MMI group showed earlier and more intense cardiac morphological and functional changes than the FMI group, although the extent of MI did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). The MMI group showed higher sympathetic modulation and sodium and water retention than the FMI group (P < 0.05), which may partly explain both the echocardiographic and pathological findings. Females subjected to infarction seem to show attenuation of sympathetic modulation, more favourable fluid and electrolyte balances, and better preserved cardiac function compared to males subjected to the same infarction model. PMID:26748814

  1. Graded vascular autonomic control versus discontinuous cardiac control during gradual upright tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahjaoui-Bouhaddi, M; Cappelle, S; Henriet, M T; Dumoulin, G; Wolf, J P; Regnard, J

    2000-03-15

    Indexes of heart rate variability (HRV) and the slope of cardiac baroreflex are extensively used for non invasive assessment of circulatory autonomic control in pathophysiology. We performed this study (1) to assess the sensitivity of these indexes towards small graded postural stimulations and (2) to delineate the informations provided about the settings of both vascular tone and cardiac activity. Twenty healthy subjects were randomly tilted for eight minutes at each of the six angles: -10 degrees, 0 degrees (supine), 10 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, and 60 degrees. Instant RR-interval and finger blood pressure (BP) were continuously recorded, and venous blood was collected at the end of each 8 min position for catecholamines determination. Group average heart rate, noradrenaline and diastolic BP (DBP) increased linearly with head-up tilt angle from 10 degrees. Systolic BP (SBB) ranked only two distinct series -10 degrees, 0 degrees, 10 degrees versus 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 60 degrees, as did the number of spontaneous baroreflex (SBR) sequences. The spectral power of the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) of RR variability and the ratio LF/HF changed rather abruptly from either 30 degrees or 45 degrees, depending on each individual. Both HF/tot i.e. the ratio of HF to total spectral RR variability and the slope of SBR decreased markedly from 10 degrees to 30 degrees and less but more gradually from 30 degrees to 60 degrees. Thus, our observations argue for gradual adjustments of vascular tone as reflected by highly consistent changes in plasma noradrenaline and diastolic arterial pressure, contrasting with a main discontinuous autonomic setting of cardiac activity as reflected by changes in the harmonic components of spectral RR variability and in the slope of cardiac baroreflex. The pattern of changes in systolic arterial pressure attested the discontinuous cardiac autonomic control rather than the gradual setting of arterial tone. We submit that

  2. The Role of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus in Cardiac Autonomic Control during Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joustra, S. D.; Reijntjes, R. H.; Pereira, A. M.; Lammers, G. J.; Biermasz, N. R.; Thijs, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) may play an important role in central autonomic control, since its projections connect to (para)sympathetic relay stations in the brainstem and spinal cord. The cardiac autonomic modifications during nighttime may therefore not only result from direct effects of the sleep-related changes in the central autonomic network, but also from endogenous circadian factors as directed by the SCN. To explore the influence of the SCN on autonomic fluctuations during nighttime, we studied heart rate and its variability (HRV) in a clinical model of SCN damage. Methods Fifteen patients in follow-up after surgical treatment for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA) compressing the optic chiasm (8 females, 26–65 years old) and fifteen age-matched healthy controls (5 females, 30–63 years) underwent overnight ambulatory polysomnography. Eleven patients had hypopituitarism and received adequate replacement therapy. HRV was calculated for each 30-second epoch and corrected for sleep stage, arousals, and gender using mixed effect regression models. Results Compared to controls, patients spent more time awake after sleep onset and in NREM1-sleep, and less in REM-sleep. Heart rate, low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power components and the LF/HF ratio across sleep stages were not significantly different between groups. Conclusions These findings suggest that the SCN does not play a dominant role in cardiac autonomic control during sleep. PMID:27010631

  3. Involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the in vivo memory to glucose of pancreatic beta cell in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    N'Guyen, J M; C. Magnan; Laury, M C; Thibault, C.; Leveteau, J; Gilbert, M.; Pénicaud, L.; Ktorza, A

    1994-01-01

    The fact that the potentiating effect of prolonged hyperglycemia on the subsequent insulin secretion is observed in vivo but not in vitro suggests the involvement of extrapancreatic factors in the in vivo memory of pancreatic beta cells to glucose. We have investigated the possible role of the autonomic nervous system. Rats were made hyperglycemic by a 48-h infusion with glucose (HG rats). At the end of glucose infusion as well as 6 h postinfusion, both parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve a...

  4. Treatment effect of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty on autonomic nervous activity during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋光峰; 孙炜; 李娜; 孙彦; 张念凯

    2004-01-01

    @@ Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. The prevalence of OSAS in middle-aged population is about 2%-4%.1 Many OSAS patients can be accompanied by serious cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension.2 The aim of this study was to find the changes of autonomic nervous system (ANS) during sleep, and the impact of surgical treatment on heart rate variability (HRV) in OSAS patients.

  5. Altered autonomic nervous system activity as a potential etiological factor of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi Tatsuya; Kimura Tetsuya; Ushiroyama Takahisa; Matsumoto Tamaki; Moritani Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) encompasses a wide variety of cyclic and recurrent physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms occurring during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and abating shortly following the beginning of menses. Although PMS is widely recognized, its etiopathogenesis is not yet understood. The present study investigates whether the activity of the autonomic nervous system, which plays a vital role in orchestrating physiological homeostasis with...

  6. Cardiac Autonomic Drive during Arterial Hypertension and Metabolic Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kseneva, S I; Borodulina, E V; Trifonova, O Yu; Udut, V V

    2016-06-01

    ANS support of the cardiac work was assessed with analysis of heart rate variability in representative samples of patients with arterial hypertension and metabolic disturbances manifested by overweight, classes I-II obesity, compromised glucose tolerance, and type II diabetes. Initially enhanced sympathetic effects on the heart rate demonstrated no further increase during the orthostatic test in contrast to suprasegmentary influences enhanced by this test. The pronouncedness of revealed peculiarities in ANS drive to the heart correlated with metabolic disturbances, and these peculiarities attained maximum in patients with type II diabetes. PMID:27383176

  7. Dysfunction of autonomic nervous system in childhood obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Baum

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the distribution of autonomic nervous system (ANS dysfunction in overweight and obese children. METHODS: Parasympathetic and sympathetic ANS function was assessed in children and adolescents with no evidence of impaired glucose metabolism by analysis of heart rate variability (low frequency power ln(LF, high frequency power, ln(HF; ln(LF/HF ratio, ratio of longest RR interval during expiration to shortest interval during inspiration (E/I ratio, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD; sympathetic skin response (SSR; and quantitative pupillography (pupil diameter in darkness, light reflex amplitude, latency, constriction velocity, re-dilation velocity. The relationship of each ANS variable to the standard deviation score of body mass index (BMI-SDS was assessed in a linear model considering age, gender and pubertal stage as co-variates and employing an F-statistic to compare the fit of nested models. Group comparisons between normal weight and obese children as well as an analysis of dependence on insulin resistance (as indexed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance, HOMA-IR were performed for parameters shown to correlate with BMI-SDS. Statistical significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: Measurements were performed in 149 individuals (mean age 12.0 y; 90 obese 45 boys; 59 normal weight, 34 boys. E/I ratio (p = 0.003, ln(HF (p = 0.03, pupil diameter in darkness (p = 0.01 were negatively correlated with BMI-SDS, whereas ln(LF/HF was positively correlated (p = 0.05. Early re-dilation velocity was in trend negatively correlated to BMI-SDS (p = 0.08. None of the parameters that depended significantly on BMI-SDS was found to be significantly correlated with HOMA-IR. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate extended ANS dysfunction in obese children and adolescents, affecting several organ systems. Both parasympathetic activity and sympathetic activity are reduced. The conspicuous pattern of ANS dysfunction

  8. Effect Of Haemodialysis On Intra Dialytic Calcium, Phosphorus,Magnesium, Levels In Relation To AutonomicNervous System Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Hosny, Sahar Shawky, Ahmed Ramadan , Hany Refaat

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is common in uremia and in patients under hemodialysis. Changes in serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesuim always occur during hemodialysis. The relation between these changes and autonomic nervous system activity during hemodialysis has not been fully studied. This study was carried out on 30 patients with chronic renal failure on regular hemo-dialysis with nearly similar age group. We measured serum calcium, serum phosphorus and serum magnesium throughout the session (at predialysis state, middialysis state: after 2 hours of the session and postdialysis: at the end of the hemodialysis Session. We have also assessed autonomic function (sympathetic by cold pressor test and parasympathetic by Valsalva maneuver test. Autonomic function tests were assessed at predialysis state, middialysis state and postdialysis state. Calcuim level uncreased throughout the session (P<0.05, phosphorus leuel and Magnesium levels decreased , (P<0.001 and (P<0.05, throghout session . As reguards parasympathetie dysfunetion, there was a significamt relation (P<0.05 with calcuim changes at predialytic and post dialytic states, a highly significant relation (P<0.001 with phosphorus and (P<0.05 with magnesiun, both at predialysis states. Concerging sympathetie dysfunction, there was a significant relation (P<0.05 with calcium levels at end of session. There was a signifcant relation (P<0.05 with predialytic and postdialytic phosphorus levels .There was also significant relation (P<0.05 with predialytic magnesium level.

  9. Measuring quality of sleep and autonomic nervous function in healthy Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Miki Sato,1 Yuko Yasuhara,2 Tetsuya Tanioka,2 Yukie Iwasa,2 Masafumi Miyake,3 Toshiyuki Yasui,2 Masahito Tomotake,2 Haruo Kobayashi,4 Rozzano C Locsin51Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Shikoku University, 2Department of Nursing, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3Tokushima Prefectural Minami Health Care Center, Tokushima, 4Faculty of Medical Welfare, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan; 5Christine E Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USAAbstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between quality of sleep and autonomic nervous functioning in healthy adult Japanese women using three measures, namely, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI for subjective assessment of sleep quality, actigraphy for objective assessment of sleep, and heart rate variability using high frequency and low frequency domains. Participants were 31 healthy women in their 20s to 40s who met the selection criteria, including having normal monthly menstrual periods. Participants were categorized as good or poor sleepers according to their PSQI score. Median correlation coefficients of activity count and high frequency were −0.62 (range −0.43 to −0.84 for good sleepers and −0.45 (range 0.003 to −0.64 for poor sleepers. Good sleepers showed a significantly higher correlation of activity count and high frequency (Z=−2.11, P<0.05. Median correlation coefficients of activity count and low frequency/high frequency were 0.54 (range 0.29–0.73 for good sleepers and 0.41 (range 0.11–0.63 for poor sleepers. The PSQI, actigraphy data, and heart rate variability results showed positive correlations between sleep time as measured by PSQI and duration of inactivity as measured by actigraphy (r=0.446, P<0.05 and sleep time as measured by actigraphy (r=0.377, P<0.05, and a negative correlation between sleep time as measured by PSQI and the

  10. Cardiac autonomic responses induced by mental tasks and the influence of musical auditory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Juliana Cristina; Guida, Heraldo L; Fontes, Anne M G; Antonio, Ana M S; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Barnabé, Viviani; Marcomini, Renata S; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; da Silva, Meire L; Valenti, Vitor E

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the acute effects of musical auditory stimulation on cardiac autonomic responses to a mental task in 28 healthy men (18-22 years old). In the control protocol (no music), the volunteers remained at seated rest for 10 min and the test was applied for five minutes. After the end of test the subjects remained seated for five more minutes. In the music protocol, the volunteers remained at seated rest for 10 min, then were exposed to music for 10 min; the test was then applied over five minutes, and the subjects remained seated for five more minutes after the test. In the control and music protocols the time domain and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability remained unchanged before, during and after the test. We found that musical auditory stimulation with baroque music did not influence cardiac autonomic responses to the mental task. PMID:25129880

  11. Dysregulation of the autonomous nervous system in patients with temporomandibular disorder: a pupillometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Monaco

    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS was recently investigated in Temporomandibular disorders (TMD. Several authors argue that in subjects with TMD there is a dysregulation of ANS. Recent literature support that Pupillometry is a simple non-invasive tool to study ANS. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TMD and ANS activity using pupillometry recording in Infrared light at rest Mandible Position (RP; Infrared light at Forced Habitual Occlusion (FHO; Yellow-green light at RP; Yellow-green light at FHO. Forty female subjects were enrolled: 20 case patients showed TMD based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD, and 20 control patients, aged matched, had no signs or symptoms of TMD. Statistical analysis was performed on average pupil size. Ratio between pupil size in FHO and RP (FHO/RP ratio and yellow-green and infrared (light/darkness ratio lighting were carried out. Within group differences of pupil size and of "ratio" were analyzed using a paired t test, while differences of pupil size between groups were tested using an unpaired t test. Statistical comparisons between groups showed no significant differences of absolute values of pupil dimension in RP and FHO, both in yellow-green and in infrared lighting. In addition, there were no significant differences within groups comparing RP and FHO in yellow-green light. In within group comparison of pupil size, differences between RP and FHO were significant in infrared conditions. Control subjects increased, whereas TMD patients decreased pupil size at FHO in infrared lightening. FHO/RP ratio in darkness and light/darkness ratio in RP were significantly different between groups. Taken together, these data suggest that TMD subjects have an impairment of the sympathetic-adrenergic component of the ANS to be activated under stress. The present study provides preliminary pupillometric data confirming that adrenergic function is dysregulated in patients with

  12. When do the symptoms of autonomic nervous system malfunction appear in patients with Parkinson’s disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Luka Silvio R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Dysautonomia appears in almost all patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD in a certain stage of their condition. The aim of our study was to detect the development and type of autonomic disorders, find out the factors affecting their manifestation by analyzing the potential association with demographic variables related to clinical presentation, as well as the symptoms of the disease in a PD patient cohort. Methods. The patients with PD treated at the Clinic of Neurology in Belgrade during a 2-year period, divided into 3 groups were studied: 25 de novo patients, 25 patients already treated and had no long-term levodopa therapy-related complications and 22 patients treated with levodopa who manifested levodopa-induced motor complications. Simultaneously, 35 healthy control subjects, matched by age and sex, were also analyzed. Results. Autonomic nervous system malfunction was defined by Ewing diagnostic criteria. The tests, indicators of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, were significantly different in the PD patients as compared with the controls, suggesting the failure of both systems. However, it was shown, in the selected groups of patients, that the malfunction of both systems was present in two treated groups of PD patients, while de novo group manifested only sympathetic dysfunction. For this reason, the complete autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed only in the treated PD patients, while de novo patients were defined as those with the isolated sympathetic dysfunction. The patients with the complete autonomic neuropathy differed from the subjects without such neuropathy in higher cumulative and motor unified Parkinson’s disease rating score (UPDRS (p < 0.01, activities of daily living scores (p < 0.05, Schwab-England scale (p < 0.001 and Hoehn-Yahr scale. There was no difference between the patients in other clinical-demographic characteristics (sex, age at the time of diagnosis, actual age, duration of

  13. Evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nervous function by {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy in insulin-treated non-insulin dependent diabetics with hypoglycemia unawareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Tomio; Toyama, Takuji; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi [Gunma Prefectural Cardiovascular Center, Maebashi (Japan)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    The association between the lack of adrenergic symptoms during hypoglycemia and myocardial {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) accumulation was investigated in 12 insulin-treated non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients who had no evidence of heart disease. These patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence (group A) or absence (group B) of adrenergic symptoms during hypoglycemia. Autonomic function tests revealed significantly severe autonomic dysfunction in group B compared to that in group A. Insulin infusion test indicated no significant difference in the catecholamine response between the two groups. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy showed that the heart/mediastinum ratio of MIBG uptake was significantly lower, and scintigraphic defect was greater in group B than in group A. There were no significant differences in the washout rate between the two groups. These results suggested that the lack of adrenergic symptoms during hypoglycemia may be associated with cardiac sympathetic nervous dysfunction in insulin-treated NIDDM patients, and this dysfunction is mainly due to cardiac sympathetic denervation. (author).

  14. Evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nervous function by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy in insulin-treated non-insulin dependent diabetics with hypoglycemia unawareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association between the lack of adrenergic symptoms during hypoglycemia and myocardial 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) accumulation was investigated in 12 insulin-treated non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients who had no evidence of heart disease. These patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence (group A) or absence (group B) of adrenergic symptoms during hypoglycemia. Autonomic function tests revealed significantly severe autonomic dysfunction in group B compared to that in group A. Insulin infusion test indicated no significant difference in the catecholamine response between the two groups. 123I-MIBG scintigraphy showed that the heart/mediastinum ratio of MIBG uptake was significantly lower, and scintigraphic defect was greater in group B than in group A. There were no significant differences in the washout rate between the two groups. These results suggested that the lack of adrenergic symptoms during hypoglycemia may be associated with cardiac sympathetic nervous dysfunction in insulin-treated NIDDM patients, and this dysfunction is mainly due to cardiac sympathetic denervation. (author)

  15. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, Cristiano [Departamento de Educação Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão (UFMA), São Luís, MA (Brazil); Figueroa, Diego Mendrot [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Angelis, Kátia De [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho (Uninove), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.rodrigues@incor.usp.br [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  16. Highly abnormal thermotests in familial dysautonomia suggest increased cardiac autonomic risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hilz, M; Kolodny, E.; Neuner, I; Stemper, B; Axelrod, F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Patients with familial dysautonomia have an increased risk of sudden death. In some patients with familial dysautonomia, sympathetic cardiac dysfunction is indicated by prolongation of corrected QT (QTc) interval, especially during stress tests. As many patients do not tolerate physical stress, additional indices are needed to predict autonomic risk. In familial dysautonomia there is a reduction of both sympathetic neurons and peripheral small nerve fibres which...

  17. Cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability and turbulence in pre-hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Alim; Uenishi, Masahiro; Küçükdurmaz, Zekeriya; Matsumoto, Kazuo; Kato, Ritsushi; Hara, Motoki; Yazıcı, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Non-dipping blood pressure pattern was shown to be associated with increased cardiovascular events. In addition, cardiac autonomic dysfunction was found to be associated with non-dipper phenomenon. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the cardiac autonomic functions in dipper and non-dipper pre-hypertensive subjects. A total of 65 pre-hypertensive subjects were enrolled in this study. They were divided into two groups as non-dippers (40 subjects, 52% female) and dippers (25 subjects, 52.5% female). Cardiac autonomic functions of the two groups were compared with the aid of heart rate variability, heart rate turbulence (HRT), atrial premature contractions (APCs), ventricular premature contractions (VPCs), and mean heart rate (MHR). There was no significant difference between non-dippers and dippers in basal characteristics. The two parameters of HRT, turbulence onset and turbulence slope, were found to be significantly abnormal in non-dippers than in dippers (P < .011 and P < .002, respectively). Heart rate variability parameters, including SDNN, SDANN, RMSSD, and pNN50, were found to be similar in dipper and non-dipper pre-hypertensive subjects (P < .998, P < .453, P < .205, and P < .788, respectively). APCs, VPCs, and MHR were compared, and there were statistical differences between the groups (APCs 5.80 ± 4.55, 9.14 ± 7.33, P < .024; VPCs 8.48 ± 8.83, 13.23 ± 9.68, P < .044; and MHR 70.16 ± 11.08, 76.26 ± 11.31, P < .035; respectively). This study demonstrated a possible cardiac autonomic dysfunction in pre-hypertensive subjects with non-dipper pattern. This may be a basis for future studies related to pre-hypertension and non-dipping BP pattern. PMID:22676318

  18. Interdependence of neurohumoral regulation indicators and state of the autonomic nervous system in patients with psoriasis according to gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abboud Aymen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on the importance of neurohumoral regulation violations in the etiology and pathogenesis of psoriasis necessitate the study of the nervous and endocrine systems depending on the gender of the patient. In order to study neurohumoral regulation in 65 psoriasis patients, 37 women and 28 men, the state of the autonomic nervous system and hormone levels – ACTH, cortisol and TTH were studied. The study found that levels of ACTH and cortisol in all the women with psoriasis – vagotonics, normotonics, sympathotonics were significantly higher than the corresponding figures in men patients with psoriasis. In vagotonics group reliability of prevailing indices on the levels of ACTH, cortisol and TTH was observed. In sympathotonics the data is valid only concerning cortisol, in normotonics group – only ACTH level. In vagotonics men and women with psoriasis and normo- and sympathotonics women indicators of cortisol were higher than physiological parameters. In normotonics female patients with psoriasis cortisol indicators were significantly lower than relative level of cortisol in vagotonics women. In sympathotonics women cortisol level was lower relative to vagotonics and higher than in normotonics, significant data. ACTH and TTH level was higher than physiological parameters only in groups of women vagotonics patients. Thus, compensatory effects of cortisol are leveled with the dominance of parasympathetic tone and female dominant. This indicates that the tension of regulatory mechanisms is associated with parasympathetic tone of the autonomic nervous system. Parasympathetic tone of the autonomic nervous system is to a greater extent vulnerable than compensatory. It should be noted that in vagotonics women steroid homeostasis is shifted towards corticoid activity that is an unfavorable factor of the female organism functioning.

  19. Signs of cardiac autonomic imbalance and proarrhythmic remodeling in FTO deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Carnevali

    Full Text Available In humans, variants of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene have recently been associated with obesity. However, the physiological function of FTO is not well defined. Previous investigations in mice have linked FTO deficiency to growth retardation, loss of white adipose tissue, increased energy metabolism and enhanced systemic sympathetic activation. In this study we investigated for the first time the effects of global knockout of the mouse FTO gene on cardiac function and its autonomic neural regulation. ECG recordings were acquired via radiotelemetry in homozygous knockout (n = 12 and wild-type (n = 8 mice during resting and stress conditions, and analyzed by means of time- and frequency-domain indexes of heart rate variability. In the same animals, cardiac electrophysiological properties (assessed by epicardial mapping and structural characteristics were investigated. Our data indicate that FTO knockout mice were characterized by (i higher heart rate values during resting and stress conditions, (ii heart rate variability changes (increased LF to HF ratio, (iii larger vulnerability to stress-induced tachyarrhythmias, (iv altered ventricular repolarization, and (v cardiac hypertrophy compared to wild-type counterparts. We conclude that FTO deficiency in mice leads to an imbalance of the autonomic neural modulation of cardiac function in the sympathetic direction and to a potentially proarrhythmic remodeling of electrical and structural properties of the heart.

  20. N-Acetylmannosamine improves sleep-wake quality in middle-aged mice: relevance to autonomic nervous function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Ito, Koichi; Hayakawa, Koji; Yagi, Shintaro; Shiota, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a variety of physiological changes originating peripherally and centrally, including within the autonomic nervous system. Sleep-wake disturbances constitute reliable hallmarks of aging in several animal species and humans. Recent studies have been interested in N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) a potential therapeutic agent for improving quality of life, as well as preventing age-related cognitive decline. In this study, ManNAc (5.0 mg/ml) was administered in the drinking water of middle-aged male C57BL/6J mice (55 weeks old) for 7 days. Mice were housed under a 12:12 h light:dark cycle at 23-24 °C. We evaluated bio-behavioral activity using electrocardiogram, body temperature and locomotor activity recorded by an implanted telemetry transmitter. To estimate sleep-wake profile, surface electroencephalogram and electromyogram leads connected to a telemetry transmitter were also implanted in mice. Autonomic nervous activity was evaluated using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. ManNAc-treated mice spent more time in a wakeful state and less time in slow wave sleep during the dark phase. Parasympathetic nervous activity was increased following ManNAc treatment, then the sympatho-vagal balance was shifted predominance of parasympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, improvement in sleep-wake pattern was associated with increased parasympathetic nervous activity. These results suggest that ManNAc treatment can improve bio-behavioral activity and sleep-wake quality in middle-aged mice. This may have implications for improving sleep patterns in elderly humans. PMID:25443216

  1. Effects of work stress and home stress on autonomic nervous function in Japanese male workers

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Eri; IWATA, Toyoto; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic imbalance is one of the important pathways through which psychological stress contributes to cardiovascular diseases/sudden death. Although previous studies have focused mainly on stress at work (work stress), the association between autonomic function and stress at home (home stress) is still poorly understood. The purpose was to clarify the effect of work/home stress on autonomic function in 1,809 Japanese male workers. We measured corrected QT (QTc) interval and QT index on the e...

  2. Assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve integrity with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffel, David M. E-mail: raffel@umich.edu; Wieland, Donald M

    2001-07-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of cardiac function. Abnormalities of cardiac innervation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many heart diseases, including sudden cardiac death and congestive heart failure. In an effort to provide clinicians with the ability to regionally map cardiac innervation, several radiotracers for imaging cardiac sympathetic neurons have been developed. This paper reviews the development of neuronal imaging agents and discusses their emerging role in the noninvasive assessment of cardiac sympathetic innervation.

  3. Autonomic nervous system:its response and adaptation to exercises%自主神经系统对运动反应、适应的研究与进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵连杰

    2015-01-01

    背景:心血管系统满足运动过程中不同组织和器官的需求,一次性运动和长时间运动会引起不同的心脏自主神经系统的反应和变化。通过分析心率变异指标提取人体变化的信息,用于运动效果和个体方案的制定成为一个重要的研究领域。目的:从传统的心率变异指标在运动中的应用入手,并结合最新的研究动态,为进一步的心脏自主神经对运动反应和适应研究提供理论支撑。方法:通过计算机检索学术谷歌和PubMed数据库相关文献。检索时间范围为1997年1月至2015年3月。英文检索词为“autonomic nervous system,heart rate variability,HRV,exercise intervention,exercise training”。结果与结论:共检索到405篇相关文献,根据纳入标准保留79篇文献。根据一次性运动心脏自主神经的变化,可以评定有氧工作能力和制定个体干预方案。心脏自主神经对运动干预的反应和适应取决于强度和持续时间,存在较大的个体差异。交感神经和迷走神经长时间兴奋或抑制可能预示过度训练发生。%BACKGROUND:The cardiovascular system meets the demand of different tissues and organs in the motor process. One-time exercise and long-time exercise wil cause different responses and changes of the cardiac autonomic nervous system. Information about changes of the human body can be extractedvia indicators of heart rate variability, which wil be used for formulation of exercise effect and individualized program. It wil be an important field in the future. OBJECTIVE:To study the conventional indicators of heart rate variability used in exercise in combination with the latest research trends, and to provide theoretical support for studying the response and adaptation of cardiac autonomic nervous system to exercises. METHODS: A computer-based search of Google Scholar and PubMed database was performed for relevant articles published from January

  4. Effect of exercise on cardiac autonomic function in females with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse van Rensburg, Dina C; Ker, James A; Grant, Catharina C; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of exercise on cardiac autonomic function as measured by short-term heart rate variability (HRV) in females suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Females with confirmed RA were randomly assigned to an exercise group (RAE) and a sedentary group (RAC). RAE was required to train under supervision two to three times per week, for 3 months. Three techniques (time domain, frequency domain and Poincaré plot analyses) were used to measure HRV at baseline and study completion. At baseline, RAC (n = 18) had a significantly higher variability compared to RAE (n = 19) for most HRV indicators. At study completion, the variables showing significant changes (p = 0.01 to 0.05) favoured RAE in all instances. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were performed to assess changes within groups from start to end. RAE showed significant improvement for most of the standing variables, including measurements of combined autonomic influence, e.g. SDRR (p = 0.002) and variables indicating only vagal influence, e.g. pNN50 (p = 0.014). RAC mostly deteriorated with emphasis on variables measuring vagal influence (RMSSD, pNN50, SD1 and HF (ms(2)). Study results indicated that 12 weeks of exercise intervention had a positive effect on cardiac autonomic function as measured by short-term HRV, in females with RA. Several of the standing variables indicated improved vagal influence on the heart rate. Exercise can thus potentially be used as an instrument to improve cardiac health in a patient group known for increased cardiac morbidity.

  5. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and cardiac autonomic responses to transrectal examination differ with behavioral reactivity in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Kulcsár-Huszenicza, M; Ruff, F; Szenci, O; Jurkovich, V

    2016-09-01

    Behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity were evaluated in response to transrectal examination in nonlactating Holstein-Friesian cows with different behavioral reactivity. According to behavioral reactions shown to the procedure of fixing the heart rate (HR) monitors, the 20 cows with the highest and the 20 cows with the lowest behavioral reactivity were involved in the study (high responder, n=20; and low responder, n=20, respectively). Activity of the ANS was assessed by HR and HR variability parameters. Blood and saliva were collected at 5 min before (baseline) and 0, 5 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 120 min after the examination to determine cortisol concentrations. The examination lasted for 5 min. Cardiac parameters included HR, the root mean square of successive differences between the consecutive interbeat intervals, the high frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability, and the ratio between the low frequency (LF) and HF parameter (LF/HF). Following the examination, peak plasma and saliva cortisol levels and the amplitude of the plasma and saliva cortisol response were higher in high responder cows than in low responders. Areas under the plasma and saliva cortisol response curves were greater in high responder cows. Plasma and salivary cortisol levels correlated significantly at baseline (r=0.91), right after examination (r=0.98), and at peak levels (r=0.96). Area under the HR response curve was higher in low responder cows; however, maximum HR and the amplitude of the HR response showed no differences between groups. Minimum values of both parameters calculated for the examination were higher in high responders. Following the examination, response parameters of root mean square of successive differences and HF did not differ between groups. The maximum and the amplitude of LF/HF response and area under the LF/HF response curve were lower in low responder cows, suggesting a lower sympathetic

  6. Heart rate variability as important approach for assessment autonomic modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Maycon Jr Ferreira; Angelina Zanesco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alterations in the heart rate recovery and heart rate variability have been associated with greater risk of mortality and early prognosis of cardiac diseases. Thus, strategies for assessing autonomic nervous system and its modulation to the heart are crucial for preventing cardiovascular events in healthy subjects as well as in cardiac patients. In this review, an update of studies examining heart rate variability (HRV) and its use as indicator of cardiac autonomic modulation will be...

  7. POSTMENOPAUSAL METABOLIC SYNDROME: CORRECTION OF AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISBALANCE WITH COMBINATION OF ACE-INHIBITOR AND STATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Logacheva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study dynamics of the indices of heart rate variability (HRV and heart remodeling in response on combined therapy with fosinopril and simvastatin in postmenopausal metabolic syndrome (MS. Material and methods. 95 women were dynamically examined (before and after 12 months of therapy with fosinopril and simvastatin to assess heart rhythm variability (time and spectral domains and remodeling with Holter ECG monitoring and echocardiography. Results. Fosinopril has resulted in blood pressure decrease, reduction in heart remodeling andmyocardial heterogeneity , which accompanied HRV rise with increase in parasympathetic activity. Simvastatin potentiated fosinopril positive effects on left ventricular hypertrophy , myocardial electric heterogeneity and autonomic modulation due to its prominent hypolipidemic and pleiotropic effect. Conclusion. In patients with postmenopausal MS medicines, which modified different elements of MS (ACE inhibitor and statin, not only have antihypertensive and hypolipidemic action, but also reduce the heart remodeling and improve the autonomic nervous system balance.

  8. Prospective randomized controlled intervention trial: Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Improves Cardiac autonomic functions and Quality of life in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Jyotsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To assess the effect of Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Program on glycemic control, quality of life, and cardiac autonomic functions in diabetes. Material and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 120 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes (n = 56 and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program (n = 64. Standard therapy included advice on diet, walk, and oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was an interactive session in which Sudarshan kriya yoga, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam was taught under guidance of a certified teacher. Change in fasting, post prandial blood sugars, glycated hemoglobin, and quality of life were assessed. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and six months after intervention. Results: There was significant improvement in psychological (P = 0.006 and social domains (P = 0.04 and total quality of life (P = 0.02 in the group practicing comprehensive yogic breathing program as compared to the group following standard therapy alone. In the group following breathing program, the improvement in sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions was statistically significant (P = 0.01, while the change in the standard group was not significant (P = 0.17. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P = 0.07. In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P = 0.76. The parameters of glycemic control were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: There was significant improvement in quality of life and cardiac autonomic functions in the diabetes patients practicing comprehensive yogic breathing

  9. Silent myocardial infarction secondary to cardiac autonomic neuropathy in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, Dileep; Jacob, Aasems; Anthony Diaz, Mark; Lederman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    An 83-year-old female patient with rheumatoid arthritis and hypertension presented to the emergency department with fever and chills of 1 day duration. On examination, temperature was 100.9 F, heart rate 111/min and she had orthostatic hypotension. Laboratory tests showed elevated blood urea nitrogen and white cell count. The patient underwent treatment for symptomatic urinary tract infection and while her fever and leucocytosis resolved, tachycardia persisted. An EKG done showed T inversions in leads II, III, arteriovenous fistula, V2 and V3. Troponin-I was elevated. Nuclear stress test revealed apical wall motion abnormality confirming myocardial infarction. Ewing's tests were carried out at bedside and these diagnosed severe autonomic neuropathy. Rheumatoid arthritis can cause cardiac autonomic neuropathy from chronic inflammation. This case entails the importance of assessing and detecting cardiac autonomic neuropathy in chronic inflammatory conditions, and the need to be cautious of acute coronary events in these patients, even for minimal or no symptoms. PMID:27489064

  10. [Application of linear and nonlinear characteristics of heart rate variability in assessment of autonomic nervous system activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping; Yu, Hongliu

    2014-04-01

    Calculation of linear parameters, such as time-domain and frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), is a conventional method for assessment of autonomic nervous system activity. Nonlinear phenomena are certainly involved in the genesis of HRV. In a seemingly random signal the Poincaré plot can easily demonstrate whether there is an underlying determinism in the signal. Linear and nonlinear analysis methods were applied in the computer words inputting experiments in this study for physiological measurement. This study therefore demonstrated that Poincaré plot was a simple but powerful graphical tool to describe the dynamics of a system.

  11. The Effect of Clothing on the Responses of Autonomic Nervous System Activity while Walking and Running

    OpenAIRE

    小柴, 朋子; 斎藤, 嘉代

    2011-01-01

    To determine what kind of walking wear is suitable for one's health, we examined the changes in autonomic nervous system activity by analyzing heart rate variability and the changes of salivary a -amylase activity during exercise.First, ten female subjects were kept sedentary for 30 minutes in the experimental room at 25°C before the experiments. The subjects were asked to walk at 3km/h and run at 5krn/h on the treadmill for 5 minutes each after lying, sitting, and standing.Additionally, hear...

  12. ACE2-Mediated Reduction of Oxidative Stress in the Central Nervous System Is Associated with Improvement of Autonomic Function

    OpenAIRE

    Huijing Xia; Sonia Suda; Sharell Bindom; Yumei Feng; Gurley, Susan B.; Dale Seth; L Gabriel Navar; Eric Lazartigues

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress in the central nervous system mediates the increase in sympathetic tone that precedes the development of hypertension. We hypothesized that by transforming Angiotensin-II (AngII) into Ang-(1-7), ACE2 might reduce AngII-mediated oxidative stress in the brain and prevent autonomic dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, a relationship between ACE2 and oxidative stress was first confirmed in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (Neuro2A cells) treated with AngII and infected with Ad-hA...

  13. Marital Conflict and Growth in Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus…

  14. Exercise and autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, R L; Bloomfield, D M; Rosenwinkel, E T

    2000-03-01

    The complex interplay between the dichotomous subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system establishes and maintains a delicately tuned homeostasis in spite of an ever-changing environment. Aerobic exercise training can increase activity of the parasympathetic nervous system and decrease sympathetic activity. Conversely, it is well-documented that cardiac disease is often characterized by attenuated parasympathetic activity and heightened sympathetic tone. A correlation between autonomic disequilibrium and disease has led to the hypothesis that exercise training, as a therapy that restores the autonomic nervous system towards normal function, may be associated with, and possibly responsible for, outcome improvements in various populations. This is merely one of the many benefits that is conferred by chronic exercise training and reviewed in this issue. PMID:10758814

  15. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia and their healthy relatives – a small review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Juergen Bär

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The majority of excess mortality among people with schizophrenia seems to be caused by cardiovascular complications, and in particular, coronary heart disease. In addition, the prevalence of heart failure and arrhythmias is increased in this population. Reduced efferent vagal activity, which has been consistently described in these patients and their healthy first-degree relatives, might be one important mechanism contributing to their increased cardiac mortality. A decrease in heart rate variability (HRV and complexity was often shown in unmedicated patients when compared to healthy controls. In addition, faster breathing rates, accompanied by shallow breathing, seem to influence autonomic cardiac functioning in acute unmedicated patients substantially. Moreover, low physical fitness is a further and independent cardiac risk factor present in this patient population. Interestingly, new studies describe chronotropic incompetence during physical exercise as an important additional risk factor in patients with schizophrenia. Some studies report a correlation of the autonomic imbalance with the degree of positive symptoms (i.e. delusions and some with the duration of disease. The main body of psychiatric research is focused on mental aspects of the disease, thereby neglecting obvious physical health needs of these patients. Here, a joint effort is needed to design interventional strategies in everyday clinical settings to improve physical health and quality of life.

  16. An Autonomic Link Between Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Impaired Cardiac Performance: Insight From Treadmill and Doubutamine Challenges in Heart Failure-Prone Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Short-term exposure to vehicular emissions is associated with adverse cardiac events. Diesel exhaust (DE) is an ubiquitous air pollutant believed to provoke cardiac events partly through imbalance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervo...

  17. Functional state of the autonomic nervous system in bronchial asthma in children

    OpenAIRE

    HONKELDIEVA HURMATHON KAMCHIEVNA; ALIMDZHANOV IBRAHIM INAMOVICH; ABDULLAEVA МAVJUDA ERGASHEVNA; TOJIBOEV TEMUR TOPVOLDI YGLI; MAMATKHYJAEV MIRHOJIDDIN SADRIDDINKHOJI YGLI

    2016-01-01

    These shifts vegetative status have undoubted positive effect on the microcirculation and the rhythm of the circulatory system, facilitating a more rapid liquidation of clinical manifestations of autonomic dysfunction and create psihoemotsinalnogo patient comfort mode.

  18. OBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF CARDIAC AUTONOMIC ACTIVITY IN DIFFERENT PHASES OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srujana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide spectrum of biological function is regulated by the cyclic changes in estrogen and progesterone levels during regular menstrual cycle. However limited literature is available concerning the relationship of these hormones and cardiac autonomic activity. In the present study, we hypothesize that there would be heart rate variability during different phases of menstrual cycle, which can be attributed to the effect of ovarian steroids on cardiovascular function in women. The aim of the study is to compare the c ardiac autonomic activity in the different phases of menstrual cycle ( M enstrual, follicular and luteal phases using heart rate variability. The objective is to establish a physiological correlation between the cardiac autonomic activity and different phas es of menstrual cycle. The study was conducted in 48 regularly menstruating young female, of age group 18 - 30yrs, in the Upgraded Department of Physiology, Osmania medical college, from December 2011 to August 2013, using LABCHART software provided by ADLAB S. The power spectral analysis of HRV was used to calculate low frequency(LF , high frequency (HF component and their ratio (LF/HF during menstrual (2±1 days, follicular(11±1 day and luteal phases (20±1day from the first day of bleeding. Results showe d a significant increase was noted in low frequency component in luteal phase compared to follicular phase (p=0.000, whereas, a tendency for increase in high frequency component was observed in follicular phase (p=0.004. Furthermore, LF/HF was significan tly higher in luteal phase than in the follicular phase (p=0.000 indicating an increased sympathetic activity. The conclusion is regulation of autonomic tone is modified during menstrual cycle. The alteration in the balance of ovarian hormones might be re sponsible for these changes.

  19. Altered autonomic nervous system activity as a potential etiological factor of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Tatsuya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS encompasses a wide variety of cyclic and recurrent physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms occurring during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and abating shortly following the beginning of menses. Although PMS is widely recognized, its etiopathogenesis is not yet understood. The present study investigates whether the activity of the autonomic nervous system, which plays a vital role in orchestrating physiological homeostasis within the human body, is altered during the menstrual cycle of women with different degrees of premenstrual symptomatology. Methods Sixty-two women in their 20s to 40s with regular menstrual cycles participated in this study. All subjects were examined during the follicular and late luteal phases. Cycle phase was determined by the onset of menstruation and oral temperature and was verified by concentrations of ovarian hormones, estrone, and pregnanediol in a urine sample taken early in the morning. Autonomic nervous system activity was assessed by means of heart-rate variability (HRV power spectral analysis during supine rest. The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was used to evaluate physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms accompanying the menstrual cycle of the subjects. The subjects were categorized in three groups, Control, PMS, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD groups, depending on the severity of premenstrual symptomatology. Results No intramenstrual cycle difference in any of the parameters of HRV was found in the Control group, which had no or a small increase in premenstrual symptoms. In contrast, Total power and high frequency power, which reflect overall autonomic and parasympathetic nerve activity, respectively, significantly decreased in the late luteal phase from the follicular phase in the PMS group. As for the PMDD group, which had more severe symptoms premenstrually, heart-rate fluctuation as well as all components of the power

  20. Autonomic Dysfunction Predicts Early Cardiac Affection in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Othman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the early preclinical alterations in cardiac autonomic control as well as altered cardiac function in systemic sclerosis (SSc patients and their relevance to the clinical features of the disease using noninvasive methods. Methods: 30 SSc patients and 15 healthy controls matched for age and sex underwent clinical examination, serological analysis, and echocardiographic assessment including Doppler flow imaging to evaluate cardiac function, and 24-hour Holter monitoring analyzed for arrhythmia and heart rate variability (HRV in the time and frequency domains. Results: The trans-mitral Doppler of early to atrial wave (E/A ratio was reversed in five patients (16.6% and the tricuspid E/A ratio was reversed in 10 patients (33.3%. Holter analysis for SSc patients revealed an increased prevalence of premature ventricular contractions (PVC $ 10/h (P = 0.02, supra-ventricular tachycardias (SVTs (P = 0.2, and total PVC count (P = 0.0000. Highly significant (P = 0.000 impairment in all HRV parameters was demonstrated in the SSc patients. Total skin thickness score (TSS, Raynaud’s phenomenon and anti-scleroderma 70 (anti-SCL70 showed significant positive correlations with all arrhythmia parameters, while showing a significant negative correlation with the impaired ventricular diastolic function and various HRV parameters. No correlation was found between arrhythmia and HRV parameters and disease duration, disease type, or presence of anti-centromere antibodies. Conclusion: Low heart rate variability, increased TSS and the presence of anti-SCL70 are correlated with preclinical cardiac involvement in SSc patients and may predict the likelihood of malignant arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Therefore, noninvasive HRV evaluation before clinical cardiac involvement in these patients might be beneficial when added to the clinical and laboratory assessments in detecting high-risk patients, and may allow for implementation of preventive

  1. Scintigraphic differentiation between two forms of primary dysautonomia early after onset of autonomic dysfunction: value of cardiac and pulmonary iodine-123 MIBG uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system can be observed in patients with Parkinson's disease and those with multiple system atrophy. However, the fate of the two diseases differs considerably and leads to different strategies for patient management. Differentiation of the two diseases currently requires a combination of several clinical and electrophysiological tests. First studies of myocardial innervation using iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) indicated a possible role of scintigraphy for this purpose. An increase in the pulmonary uptake of 123I-MIBG has been reported in secondary dysautonomias. Whether sympathetic innervation of the lung is affected in primary dysautonomias is currently unknown. Therefore, cardiac and pulmonary uptake of 123I-MIBG was studied in 21 patients with Parkinson's disease, 7 patients with multiple system atrophy and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Thoracic images were obtained in the anterior view 4 h after intravenous injection of 185 MBq 123I-MIBG, at which time the maximum neuronal uptake is reached. All patients with Parkinson's disease had significantly lower cardiac uptake of 123I-MIBG than patients with multiple system atrophy and controls. Sympathetic innervation of the lung was not affected in either disease. It is concluded that scintigraphy with 123I-MIBG appears to be a useful tool for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy early after onset of autonomic dysfunction. (orig.)

  2. Scintigraphic differentiation between two forms of primary dysautonomia early after onset of autonomic dysfunction: value of cardiac and pulmonary iodine-123 MIBG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, M.J.; Juengling, F.D.; Krause, T.M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg University Hospital (Germany); Braune, S. [Dept. of Neurology, Freiburg University Hospital (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Primary dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system can be observed in patients with Parkinson's disease and those with multiple system atrophy. However, the fate of the two diseases differs considerably and leads to different strategies for patient management. Differentiation of the two diseases currently requires a combination of several clinical and electrophysiological tests. First studies of myocardial innervation using iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) indicated a possible role of scintigraphy for this purpose. An increase in the pulmonary uptake of {sup 123}I-MIBG has been reported in secondary dysautonomias. Whether sympathetic innervation of the lung is affected in primary dysautonomias is currently unknown. Therefore, cardiac and pulmonary uptake of {sup 123}I-MIBG was studied in 21 patients with Parkinson's disease, 7 patients with multiple system atrophy and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Thoracic images were obtained in the anterior view 4 h after intravenous injection of 185 MBq {sup 123}I-MIBG, at which time the maximum neuronal uptake is reached. All patients with Parkinson's disease had significantly lower cardiac uptake of {sup 123}I-MIBG than patients with multiple system atrophy and controls. Sympathetic innervation of the lung was not affected in either disease. It is concluded that scintigraphy with {sup 123}I-MIBG appears to be a useful tool for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy early after onset of autonomic dysfunction. (orig.)

  3. Autonomic nervous system and lipid metabolism: findings in anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messina Vincenzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI as a new possible biomarker. Methods 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs. The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Results Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Conclusions Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.

  4. Emotion Regulation via the Autonomic Nervous System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Erica D.; Backs, Richard W.; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffery R.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac…

  5. Effects of different "relaxing" music styles on the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Diez, Joaquín; Domé, María Natalia; Delvenne, Andrea Alvarez; Braidot, Nestor; Cardinali, Daniel P; Vigo, Daniel Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects on heart rate variability (HRV) of exposure to different styles of "relaxing" music. Autonomic responses to musical stimuli were correlated with subjective preferences regarding the relaxing properties of each music style. Linear and nonlinear HRV analysis was conducted in 25 healthy subjects exposed to silence or to classical, new age or romantic melodies in a random fashion. At the end of the study, subjects were asked to choose the melody that they would use to relax. The low-to-high-frequency ratio was significantly higher when subjects were exposed to "new age" music when compared with silence (3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.3, respectively, P preferences did not correlate with autonomic responses to melodies. The results suggest that "new age" music induced a shift in HRV from higher to lower frequencies, independently on the music preference of the listener. PMID:25209037

  6. Baroreflex Sensitivity And Autonomic Nervous System Function In Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise Schouborg; Pors, Kirsten; Theibel, Ann Cathrine;

    2015-01-01

    Syncope in the elderly may be caused by an apparent hypersensitivity in the high pressure baroreflex control of heart rate and blood pressure - carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Previous studies have found ambiguous results regarding the baroreceptor sensitivity in patients with carotid sinus...... hypersensitivity ranging from reduced to increased sensitivity compared to controls. We wanted to establish whether measures of baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic function differed between patients diagnosed with carotid sinus hypersensitivity and age matched controls. We included 36 patients (12 women; 74 +/-10...... differences in autonomic baroreceptor control could be found between patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity and their controls. Our findings seem to reflect the ambiguous results obtained by others and have led us to suggest that the signals behind the established parameters of cardiovagal baroreflex...

  7. Organisation of autonomic nervous structures in the small intestine of chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger, Molina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, E

    2014-08-01

    Using histochemical, histological and immunocytochemical methods, organisation of the autonomic nerve structures in small intestine of chinchilla was investigated. Myenteric plexus was localised between circular and longitudinal layers of the smooth muscles. Forming network nodes, the small autonomic, cholinergic ganglia were linked with the bundles of nerve fibres. Adrenergic structures were visible as specific varicose, rosary-like fibres forming bundles of parallel fibres connecting network nodes. Structures of the submucosal plexus formed a finer network than those of the myenteric plexus. Moreover, in 'whole-mount' specimens, fibres forming thick perivascular plexuses were also observed. Immunocytochemical studies confirmed the cholinergic and adrenergic character of the investigated structures. VAChT-positive neurones were found only in myenteric plexus, and numerous VAChT-positive and DBH-positive fibres were found in both plexuses.

  8. How Can Music Influence the Autonomic Nervous System Response in Patients with Severe Disorder of Consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riganello, Francesco; Cortese, Maria D; Arcuri, Francesco; Quintieri, Maria; Dolce, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Activations to pleasant and unpleasant musical stimuli were observed within an extensive neuronal network and different brain structures, as well as in the processing of the syntactic and semantic aspects of the music. Previous studies evidenced a correlation between autonomic activity and emotion evoked by music listening in patients with Disorders of Consciousness (DoC). In this study, we analyzed retrospectively the autonomic response to musical stimuli by mean of normalized units of Low Frequency (nuLF) and Sample Entropy (SampEn) of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) parameters, and their possible correlation to the different complexity of four musical samples (i.e., Mussorgsky, Tchaikovsky, Grieg, and Boccherini) in Healthy subjects and Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (VS/UWS) patients. The complexity of musical sample was based on Formal Complexity and General Dynamics parameters defined by Imberty's semiology studies. The results showed a significant difference between the two groups for SampEn during the listening of Mussorgsky's music and for nuLF during the listening of Boccherini and Mussorgsky's music. Moreover, the VS/UWS group showed a reduction of nuLF as well as SampEn comparing music of increasing Formal Complexity and General Dynamics. These results put in evidence how the internal structure of the music can change the autonomic response in patients with DoC. Further investigations are required to better comprehend how musical stimulation can modify the autonomic response in DoC patients, in order to administer the stimuli in a more effective way.

  9. How can music influence the Autonomic Nervous System response in patients with severe Disorder of Consciousness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eRiganello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Activations to pleasant and unpleasant musical stimuli were observed within an extensive neuronal network and different brain structures, as well as in the processing of the syntactic and semantic aspects of the music. Previous studies evidenced a correlation between autonomic activity and emotion evoked by music listening in patients with Disorders of Consciousness (DoC. In this study, we analyzed retrospectively the autonomic response to musical stimuli by mean of normalized units of Low Frequency (nuLF and Sample Entropy (SampEn of Heart Rate Variability (HRV parameters, and their possible correlation to the different complexity of four musical samples (i.e. Mussorgsky, Tchaikovsky, Grieg and Boccherini in Healthy subjects and Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (VS/UWS patients.The complexity of musical sample was based on Formal Complexity and General Dynamics parameters defined by Imberty’s semiology studies.The results showed a significant difference between the two groups for SampEn during the listening of Mussorgsky’s music and for nuLF during the listening of Boccherini and Mussorgsky’s music.Moreover, the VS/UWS group showed a reduction of nuLF as well as SampEn comparing music of increasing Formal Complexity and General Dynamics.These results put in evidence how the internal structure of the music can change the autonomic response in patients with DoC. Further investigations are required to better comprehend how musical stimulation can modify the autonomic response in DoC patients, in order to administer the stimuli in a more effective way.

  10. Aromatherapy Benefits Autonomic Nervous System Regulation for Elementary School Faculty in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kang-Ming Chang; Chuh-Wei Shen

    2011-01-01

    Workplace stress-related illness is a serious issue, and consequently many stress reduction methods have been investigated. Aromatherapy is especially for populations that work under high stress. Elementary school teachers are a high-stress working population in Taiwan. In this study, fifty-four elementary school teachers were recruited to evaluate aromatherapy performance on stress reduction. Bergamot essential oil was used for aromatherapy spray for 10 minutes. Blood pressure and autonomic ...

  11. How Can Music Influence the Autonomic Nervous System Response in Patients with Severe Disorder of Consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riganello, Francesco; Cortese, Maria D; Arcuri, Francesco; Quintieri, Maria; Dolce, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Activations to pleasant and unpleasant musical stimuli were observed within an extensive neuronal network and different brain structures, as well as in the processing of the syntactic and semantic aspects of the music. Previous studies evidenced a correlation between autonomic activity and emotion evoked by music listening in patients with Disorders of Consciousness (DoC). In this study, we analyzed retrospectively the autonomic response to musical stimuli by mean of normalized units of Low Frequency (nuLF) and Sample Entropy (SampEn) of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) parameters, and their possible correlation to the different complexity of four musical samples (i.e., Mussorgsky, Tchaikovsky, Grieg, and Boccherini) in Healthy subjects and Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (VS/UWS) patients. The complexity of musical sample was based on Formal Complexity and General Dynamics parameters defined by Imberty's semiology studies. The results showed a significant difference between the two groups for SampEn during the listening of Mussorgsky's music and for nuLF during the listening of Boccherini and Mussorgsky's music. Moreover, the VS/UWS group showed a reduction of nuLF as well as SampEn comparing music of increasing Formal Complexity and General Dynamics. These results put in evidence how the internal structure of the music can change the autonomic response in patients with DoC. Further investigations are required to better comprehend how musical stimulation can modify the autonomic response in DoC patients, in order to administer the stimuli in a more effective way. PMID:26696818

  12. Effects of different "relaxing" music styles on the autonomic nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Pérez-Lloret; Joaquín Diez; María Natalia Domé; Andrea Alvarez Delvenne; Nestor Braidot; Daniel P. Cardinali; Daniel Eduardo Vigo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects on heart rate variability (HRV) of exposure to different styles of "relaxing" music. Autonomic responses to musical stimuli were correlated with subjective preferences regarding the relaxing properties of each music style. Linear and nonlinear HRV analysis was conducted in 25 healthy subjects exposed to silence or to classical, new age or romantic melodies in a random fashion. At the end of the study, subjects were asked to choose the melo...

  13. On the Persistance of Dualism in our so-called Unified Neurosciences: The case of the autonomic nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Pattyn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the historical overview of descriptions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS is applied as a case study to serve the demonstration of the persistence of dualisms in our current framework of neurosciences. First, the four main views on the ANS are briefly summarised, with an emphasis on the latest one, being the neurovisceral integration perspectives, striving for an integrative view on cognition, emotion regulation and physiological adaptation. Second, an explanation is offered on why we are so reluctant to give up the explanatory framework of dualisms, based on both developmental psychology accounts and postmodernism philosophy. To conclude, an attitude based on positivism and epistemological anarchism is suggested for scientists.

  14. Social functioning and autonomic nervous system sensitivity across vocal and musical emotion in Williams syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Arnold, Andrew J; Woo-VonHoogenstyn, Nicholas; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Both Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with unusual auditory phenotypes with respect to processing vocal and musical stimuli, which may be shaped by the atypical social profiles that characterize the syndromes. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to vocal and musical emotional stimuli was examined in 12 children with WS, 17 children with ASD, and 20 typically developing (TD) children, and related to their level of social functioning. The results of this small-scale study showed that after controlling for between-group differences in cognitive ability, all groups showed similar emotion identification performance across conditions. Additionally, in ASD, lower autonomic reactivity to human voice, and in TD, to musical emotion, was related to more normal social functioning. Compared to TD, both clinical groups showed increased arousal to vocalizations. A further result highlighted uniquely increased arousal to music in WS, contrasted with a decrease in arousal in ASD and TD. The ASD and WS groups exhibited arousal patterns suggestive of diminished habituation to the auditory stimuli. The results are discussed in the context of the clinical presentation of WS and ASD. PMID:26248474

  15. Reproducibility of tilt table testing in patients with vasovagal syncope and its relation to variations in autonomic nervous system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochiadakis, G E; Kanoupakis, E M; Rombola, A T; Igoumenidis, N E; Chlouverakis, G I; Vardas, P E

    1998-05-01

    To assess the variability of head-up tilt table testing, 35 patients with vasovagal syncope, shown by a positive tilt table test, underwent a second test 1 week later. Also, on the day before each test, spectral and time-domain indexes of heart rate variability were derived from Holter recordings to examine the stability of autonomous nervous system activity in these patients. Fifteen healthy volunteers served as a control group and also underwent two tilt table tests with prior Holter monitoring. Twenty-one (60%) of the 35 patients had a second positive test. None of the patients in the control group experienced syncope during either of the tests. The heart rate variability measures in the control group varied slightly from 1 day to the other, in contrast to the syncopal patients, where only low frequency spectral power and the mean of all 5-minute standard deviations of RR intervals showed comparable behavior. The indexes which reflect parasympathetic activity exhibited significant fluctuations in the syncopal patients. These fluctuations were due entirely to the patients who did not reproduce the outcome of the tilt table test, where high parasympathetic tone was associated with the positive test and normal parasympathetic tone with the negative test. In contrast, the patients with two positive tests had high parasympathetic tone during both test periods, with low individual variability. In conclusion, patients with vasovagal syncope show variations in vagal autonomic tone and appear to be more prone to syncope when their parasympathetic tone is elevated. PMID:9604238

  16. Social functioning and autonomic nervous system sensitivity across vocal and musical emotion in Williams syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Arnold, Andrew J; Woo-VonHoogenstyn, Nicholas; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Both Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with unusual auditory phenotypes with respect to processing vocal and musical stimuli, which may be shaped by the atypical social profiles that characterize the syndromes. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to vocal and musical emotional stimuli was examined in 12 children with WS, 17 children with ASD, and 20 typically developing (TD) children, and related to their level of social functioning. The results of this small-scale study showed that after controlling for between-group differences in cognitive ability, all groups showed similar emotion identification performance across conditions. Additionally, in ASD, lower autonomic reactivity to human voice, and in TD, to musical emotion, was related to more normal social functioning. Compared to TD, both clinical groups showed increased arousal to vocalizations. A further result highlighted uniquely increased arousal to music in WS, contrasted with a decrease in arousal in ASD and TD. The ASD and WS groups exhibited arousal patterns suggestive of diminished habituation to the auditory stimuli. The results are discussed in the context of the clinical presentation of WS and ASD.

  17. Cardiac autonomic reactivity and salivary cortisol in men and women exposed to social stressors : relationship with individual ethological profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgoifo, A; Braglia, F; Costoli, T; Musso, E; Meerlo, P; Ceresini, G; Troisi, A

    2003-01-01

    The degree of cardiovascular stress responsivity and its possible implications for the onset and progression of cardiovascular pathologies seem to be linked to the individual strategy of behavioral coping with stressors. This study was designed to investigate the relationship among cardiac autonomic

  18. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients with uraemia is not related to pre-diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elming, Marie Bayer; Hornum, Mads; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo;

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been proposed that pre-diabetes may cause neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in uraemic patients was related to the presence of pre-diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 66 non-diabetic uraemic patients...... enrolled. Beat-to-beat variability was determined from the echocardiographic recording during deep inspiration and expiration. CAN was defined as a beat-to-beat value below 10 beats/min. Pre-diabetes was defined as presence of impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance measured by oral...... glucose tolerance test (WHO/American Diabetes Association criteria 2007). RESULTS: The prevalence of CAN was 38% in uraemic patients compared with 8% in the controls (p diabetic, while the remaining 39 had a normal glucose tolerance...

  19. Relationship between inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers and cardiac autonomic function in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Lari C; Roediger, Mollie P; Grandits, Greg;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers and cardiac autonomic function (CAF) as measured by heart rate variability in persons with HIV. MATERIALS & METHODS: This analysis included 4073 HIV-infected persons from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral...... Therapy study. We examined the association between IL-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and D-dimer with heart rate variability measures (SDNN and rMSSD), both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analysis revealed significant inverse associations between IL-6, hs......CRP and d-dimer with SDNN and rMSSD (p longitudinal analysis failed to show a significant association between baseline IL-6, hsCRP and d-dimer with change in CAF over time. CONCLUSION: Cross-sectionally, higher levels of inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers were...

  20. Role of inflammation in the development of cardiac autonomic disfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Novikova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate role of inflammation in pathogenesis of cardiac autonomic dysfunction assessed by heart rate variability (HRV analyses, in patients (pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Material and methods. 75 female pts with SLE aged before 55 years were included. Control group consisted of 32 healthy women of comparable age. Clinical symptoms, activity degree and main cardiovascular risk factors were assessed. Common carotid duplex scanning with measurement of intima-media thickness, echocardiography, 24 h ECG ambulatory recording with determination of time domain parameters, evaluation of serum inflammation markers level (CRP, IL-6, TNFa were performed. Results. HRV time domain parameters adjusted by McanNN - SDNNn%, SDNNin%, rMSSDn%, pNN50% in women with SLE were lower than in healthy control. HRV parameters inversely correlated with inflammation markers in SLE (p<0,05. SLE pts were divided into 4 groups: 1 (n=12 - pts with low HRV parameters and high level of IL-6; 2 (n=13 - low HRV and normal IL-6; 3 (n=6 - normal HRV and high IL-6; 4 (n=44 - normal HRV and IL-6. SLEDA1 2K, left atrium size, levels of markers of inflammation in group 1 were higher, then in group 4 (p<0,05. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and subclinical atherosclerosis of carotid arteries were more frequent in group 2 compared to group 4 (p<0,05. Conclusion. These results suggest important role of autoimmune inflammation in pathogenesis of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in SLE pts with high disease activity and traditional cardiovascular risk factor, atherosclerotic changes - in low SLE activity. HRV, traditional cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers combined measurement can help to identify subjects at risk of cardiovascular mortality among SLE pts.

  1. Effects of different "relaxing" music styles on the autonomic nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pérez-Lloret

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects on heart rate variability (HRV of exposure to different styles of "relaxing" music. Autonomic responses to musical stimuli were correlated with subjective preferences regarding the relaxing properties of each music style. Linear and nonlinear HRV analysis was conducted in 25 healthy subjects exposed to silence or to classical, new age or romantic melodies in a random fashion. At the end of the study, subjects were asked to choose the melody that they would use to relax. The low-to-high-frequency ratio was significantly higher when subjects were exposed to "new age" music when compared with silence (3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.3, respectively, P < 0.02, while no differences were found with "classical" or "romantic" melodies (2.1 ± 0.4 and 2.2 ± 0.3. These results were related to a reduction in the high frequency component with "new age" compared to silence (17.4 ± 1.9 vs. 23.1 ± 1.1, respectively P < 0.004. Significant differences across melodies were also found for nonlinear HRV indexes. Subjects′ preferences did not correlate with autonomic responses to melodies. The results suggest that "new age" music induced a shift in HRV from higher to lower frequencies, independently on the music preference of the listener.

  2. Radiation from wireless technology affects the blood, the heart, and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Magda

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to electrosmog generated by electric, electronic, and wireless technology is accelerating to the point that a portion of the population is experiencing adverse reactions when they are exposed. The symptoms of electrohypersensitivity (EHS), best described as rapid aging syndrome, experienced by adults and children resemble symptoms experienced by radar operators in the 1940s to the 1960s and are well described in the literature. An increasingly common response includes clumping (rouleau formation) of the red blood cells, heart palpitations, pain or pressure in the chest accompanied by anxiety, and an upregulation of the sympathetic nervous system coincident with a downregulation of the parasympathetic nervous system typical of the "fight-or-flight" response. Provocation studies presented in this article demonstrate that the response to electrosmog is physiologic and not psychosomatic. Those who experience prolonged and severe EHS may develop psychologic problems as a consequence of their inability to work, their limited ability to travel in our highly technologic environment, and the social stigma that their symptoms are imagined rather than real.

  3. Effortful control and resiliency exhibit different patterns of cardiac autonomic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Derek P; Friedman, Bruce H

    2015-05-01

    Effortful control (EC) and ego-resiliency (often shortened to resiliency) may similarly encode adaptability to stress. Differentiation of these traits in terms of autonomic control may highlight each construct's relative mechanisms in stress regulation. In the current study, 84 subjects self-reported levels of EC and resiliency and then were exposed to 3 mental stressors (mental arithmetic, speech preparation, verbal fluency), during which heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed to index cardiac vagal influences. Interbeat intervals (IBIs) were also collected, while pre-ejection period (PEP) and left ventricular ejection time (LVET) were assessed as sympathetic indices. Multiple regression was used to explore the extent to which autonomic control was moderated by each EC and resiliency. Results indicate that EC was related to concordance between IBI and HRV, along with negative emotion. Resiliency was more associated with coherence between IBI and PEP, and with positive emotion. Findings suggest that regulatory processes play a role in EC's adaptability to stress, while resiliency may involve approach motivation in stress control. PMID:25758131

  4. Evaluation of diabetic autonomic neuropathy by 123I-metaiodobenzyl-guanidine (MIBG) cardiac imaging. Initial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-photon emission computed tomography was performed in 52 diabetics and 10 healthy volunteers using MIBG. The diabetics had no particular findings of electrocardiography, echocardiography, or exercise thallium imaging and no cardiovascular episodes. The healthy volunteers had no abnormal findings on exercise thallium imaging or glucose tolerance test. The average relative regional uptake (RRU) was decreased in the inferoposterior wall compared with the anterior or lateral wall in both the diabetics and volunteers. According to the RRU and visual images, we divided the diabetics into the following four groups: 14 who were normal (group N), 30 with segmental defects (group S), 4 with diffuse defects (group D) and 4 without accumulation (group DH). Diabetic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) and hypertension were more frequent in group S than group N. However, there were no significant differences in the physiological evidence of autonomic neuropathy (C.V. of the R-R interval on the ECG and blood pressure response to standing or deep breathing) between groups S and N. Vibration sense was significantly more impaired in group S than in group N. These results suggest that cardiac imaging with MIBG might be a useful examination for the early diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. (author)

  5. Autonomic cardiac regulation and morpho-physiological responses to eight week training preparation in junior soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Botek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Training preparation in soccer is thought to improve body composition and performance level, especially the maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max. However, an enhancement in performance may be attenuated by the increase of fatigue. Heart rate variability (HRV as a non-invasive index of autonomic nervous system (ANS activity has been considered to be a sensitive tool in fatigue assessment. Objective: This study was focused to evaluate the response of ANS activity and morpho-physiological parameters to eight week training preparation. Methods: Study included 12 trained soccer players aged 17.2 ± 1.2 years. Athletes underwent pre- and post-preparation testing that included the ANS activity assessment by spectral analysis of HRV in supine and upright position. Further, body composition was analyzed via electrical bio-impedance method and physiological parameters were assessed during maximal stress tests. ANS activity and subjective feeling of fatigue was assessed continuously within subsequent weeks of preparation. Results: No significant differences in all HRV variables within weeks were found. Pre vs. post analyses revealed a significant (p < .05 increase in body weight, fat free mass, body mass index, and peak power. A significant decline in mean maximal heart rate (HR and resting HR at standing was identified at the end of preparation. Since no significant changes between pre- post-preparation in the mean VO2max occurred, the positive correlation between the individual change in VO2max and the vagally related HRV [supine LnHF (r = .78, Ln rMSSD (r = .63, and the standing LnHF (r = .73, p < .05] was found. Conclusions: This study showed that an 8 week training program modified particularly fat free mass and short-term endurance, whereas both the autonomic cardiac regulation and the feeling of fatigue remained almost unaffected. Standing position seems to be more sensitive in terms of the HR response in relation to fatigue

  6. Distinctive cardiac autonomic dysfunction following stress exposure in both sexes in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koresh, Ori; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Matar, Michael A; Geva, Amir B; Cohen, Hagit

    2016-07-15

    It is unclear whether the poor autonomic flexibility or dysregulation observed in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a pre-trauma vulnerability factor or results from exposure to trauma. We used an animal model of PTSD to assess the association between the behavioral response to predator scent stress (PSS) and the cardiac autonomic modulation in male and female rats. The rats were surgically implanted with radiotelemetry devices to measure their electrocardiograms and locomotor activity (LMA). Following baseline telemetric monitoring, the animals were exposed to PSS or sham-PSS. Continuous telemetric monitoring (24h/day sampling) was performed over the course of 7days. The electrocardiographic recordings were analyzed using the time- and frequency-domain indexes of heart rate variability (HRV). The behavioral response patterns were assessed using the elevated plus maze and acoustic startle response paradigms for the retrospective classification of individuals according to the PTSD-related cut-off behavioral criteria. During resting conditions, the male rats had significantly higher heart rates (HR) and lower HRV parameters than the female rats during both the active and inactive phases of the daily cycle. Immediately after PSS exposure, both the female and male rats demonstrated a robust increase in HR and a marked drop in HRV parameters, with a shift of sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance. In both sexes, autonomic system habituation and recovery were selectively inhibited in the rats whose behavior was extremely disrupted after exposure to PSS. However, in the female rats, exposure to the PSS produced fewer EBR rats, with a more rapid recovery curve than that of the male rats. PSS did not induce changes to the circadian rhythm of the LMA. According to our results, PTSD can be conceptualized as a disorder that is related to failure-of-recovery mechanisms that impede the restitution of physiological homeostasis. PMID

  7. Simvastatin-induced cardiac autonomic control improvement in fructose-fed female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Juliana da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Because autonomic dysfunction has been found to lead to cardiometabolic disorders and because studies have reported that simvastatin treatment has neuroprotective effects, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin treatment on cardiovascular and autonomic changes in fructose-fed female rats. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: controls (n=8, fructose (n=8, and fructose+ simvastatin (n=8. Fructose overload was induced by supplementing the drinking water with fructose (100 mg/L, 18 wks. Simvastatin treatment (5 mg/kg/day for 2 wks was performed by gavage. The arterial pressure was recorded using a data acquisition system. Autonomic control was evaluated by pharmacological blockade. RESULTS: Fructose overload induced an increase in the fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels and insulin resistance. The constant rate of glucose disappearance during the insulin intolerance test was reduced in the fructose group (3.4+ 0.32%/min relative to that in the control group (4.4+ 0.29%/min. Fructose+simvastatin rats exhibited increased insulin sensitivity (5.4+0.66%/min. The fructose and fructose+simvastatin groups demonstrated an increase in the mean arterial pressure compared with controls rats (fructose: 124+2 mmHg and fructose+simvastatin: 126 + 3 mmHg vs. controls: 112 + 2 mmHg. The sympathetic effect was enhanced in the fructose group (73 + 7 bpm compared with that in the control (48 + 7 bpm and fructose+simvastatin groups (31+8 bpm. The vagal effect was increased in fructose+simvastatin animals (84 + 7 bpm compared with that in control (49 + 9 bpm and fructose animals (46+5 bpm. CONCLUSION: Simvastatin treatment improved insulin sensitivity and cardiac autonomic control in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome in female rats. These effects were independent of the improvements in the classical plasma lipid profile and of reductions in arterial pressure. These results

  8. Responses of the autonomic nervous system in altitude adapted and high altitude pulmonary oedema subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Radhakrishnan, U.; Sen Gupta, J.; Nayar, H. S.

    1985-06-01

    Studies were carried out to ascertain the role of sympatho-parasympathetic responses in the process of adaptation to altitude. The assessment of status of autonomic balance was carried out in a group of 20 young male subjects by recording their resting heart rate, blood pressure, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, extremity temperatures, pupillary diameter, cold pressor response, oxygen consumption, cardioacceleration during orthostasis and urinary excretion of catecholamines; in a thermoneutral laboratory. The same parameters were repeated on day 3 and at weekly intervals for a period of 3 weeks, after exposing them to 3,500 m; and also after return to sea level. At altitude, similar studies were carried out in a group of 10 acclimatized lowlanders, 10 high altitude natives and 6 patients who had recently recovered from high altitude pulmonary oedema. In another phase, similar studies were done in two groups of subjects, one representing 15 subjects who had stayed at altitude (3,500 4,000 m) without any ill effects and the other comprising of 10 subjects who had either suffered from high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) or acute mountain sickness (AMS). The results revealed sympathetic overactivity on acute induction to altitude which showed gradual recovery on prolonged stay, the high altitude natives had preponderance to parasympathetic system. Sympathetic preponderance may not be an essential etiological factor for the causation of maladaptation syndromes.

  9. The circadian system and the balance of the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Ruud M; Escobar, Carolina; Swaab, Dick F

    2013-01-01

    Our biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), sets the pace of our life: it provides a rhythmic function to our sleep-wake cycle. In order to do so properly the SCN synchronizes our physiology to behavioral patterns by directing the autonomic and hormonal output of the hypothalamus to the different organs of the body that require a different setting - activity or inactivity - during particular phases of the day or night. In this chapter we show that this delicate balance requires that the SCN should not only provide an output to these organs but also be informed about the physiological state of the organs in order to adapt its output. This occurs via a hypothalamic neuronal network that provides the necessary input to the SCN. We argue that the feedback that the SCN receives from its hypothalamic target structures is essential to maintain a balance in our physiological functions, which fluctuate during the sleep-wake cycle. We propose that this crucial role of the hypothalamus in the homeostatic response is the reason why, e.g., in aging or depression, changes in the functioning of the biological clock, the SCN, lead to the development of pathology. In addition, if this balance is not adequately organized, for example, if the signals of the biological clock are violated by being active and eating during the night, as in shift work, one will be more susceptible to diseases such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

  10. [The present state of knowledge concerning the effect of electromagnetic fields of 50/60 Hz on the circulatory system and the autonomic nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Bortkiewicz, A; Zmyślony, M

    1997-01-01

    Diseases of the circulatory system together with neoplastic diseases are recognised as the major health problem in the contemporary world. Their origin and aggravation may be related to the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) since theoretically, disorders in the functioning of the circulatory system are most likely due to electric impulses generated in it by external magnetic fields. The nervous system, including its autonomic part which regulates, among others, the functioning of the circulatory system, because of its electric nature is another system which may be disturbed by EMFs. From the 1960s, biological studies on the effects of power-line frequency EMFs have been carried out in many countries. In view of the applied study model, four main directions of these studies can be identified: in vitro and in vivo animal experiments, experimental studies on humans, clinical and epidemiological studies. Experimental studies on animals and humans have yielded ambiguous and very often contradictory results. Some of them indicate that EMF contributes to slowing down the cardiac rhythm and the stroke volume of the left ventricle, other results suggest their acceleration, and still other show no differences. The results of clinical studies performed in many countries in different groups of workers exposed to power-line frequency EMFs have not produced the evidence for drawing unequivocal conclusions. Again some studies reveal that those exposed show disorders in neurovegetative and blood pressure regulations (hypotension or hypertension) as well as in cardiac rhythm (bradycardia or tachycardia). Other studies do not confirm harmful effect of EMF on the circulatory system. Therefore, it is not feasible to find out, on the basis of these studies, whether and how chronic exposure to power-line frequency EMFs influences the functioning of the circulatory system, the more so as ECG standard recording has been to date the only diagnostic method, and according to the

  11. Discrimination ability and reproducibility of a new index reflecting autonomic nervous function based on pulsatile amplitude of photoplethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yusuke; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Sugita, Norihiro; Abe, Makoto; Homma, Noriyasu; Tanaka, Akira; Yamauchi, Tsuyoshi; Miura, Hidekazu; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    A new physiological index (μ(PA)) is proposed to represent the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. The index μ(PA) is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio between two different frequency components of the pulsatile amplitude of the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signal. The discrimination ability and the reproducibility of μ(PA) have been compared with other traditional ANS indices. In the experiment, the electrocardiogram, the PPG and continuous blood pressure were measured in 59 healthy young subjects (age 25.7 ± 6.3) and 86 healthy elderly subjects (age 70.2 ± 4.1) at rest. The discrimination ability and the reproducibility were evaluated by Cohen's d between young and elderly groups and by the interclass correlation coefficient, respectively. The results showed that the elderly subjects were significantly (p<;0.001) lower than young subjects in μ(PA) and a few traditional indices introduced to be compared with μ(PA). Therefore, it suggests that μ(PA) is associated with the decrease in the ANS function accompanied by aging. Moreover, it showed that the discrimination ability and the reproducibility of the proposed index are comparable or larger than those of traditional indices. The proposed index based on the PPG signal will be applied to tele-healthcare systems for monitoring people's health in daily life in combination with the ratio of the standard deviation of the R-R intervals to their average value (CVRR). PMID:25570325

  12. Sex-specific effects of intranasal oxytocin on autonomic nervous system and emotional responses to couple conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nater, Urs M.; Schaer, Marcel; La Marca, Roberto; Bodenmann, Guy; Ehlert, Ulrike; Heinrichs, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Unhappy couple relationships are associated with impaired individual health, an effect thought to be mediated through ongoing couple conflicts. Little is known, however, about the underlying mechanisms regulating psychobiological stress, and particularly autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity, during negative couple interaction. In this study, we tested the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin on ANS reactivity during couple conflict in a standardized laboratory paradigm. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 47 heterosexual couples (total n = 94) received oxytocin or placebo intranasally prior to instructed couple conflict. Participants’ behavior was videotaped and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a measure of sympathetic activity, and emotional arousal were repeatedly measured during the experiment. Oxytocin significantly reduced sAA during couple conflict in women, whereas men showed increases in sAA levels (sex × group interaction: B = −49.36, t = −2.68, P = 0.009). In men, these increases were related to augmented emotional arousal (r = 0.286, P = 0.028) and more positive behavior (r = 0.291, P = 0.026), whereas there was no such association in women. Our results imply sex-specific effects of oxytocin on sympathetic activity, to negative couple interaction, with the neuropeptide reducing sAA responses and emotional arousal in women while increasing them in men. PMID:22842905

  13. Assessment of autonomic nervous system by using empirical mode decomposition-based reflection wave analysis during non-stationary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arterial blood pressure (ABP) is an important indicator of cardiovascular circulation and presents various intrinsic regulations. It has been found that the intrinsic characteristics of blood vessels can be assessed quantitatively by ABP analysis (called reflection wave analysis (RWA)), but conventional RWA is insufficient for assessment during non-stationary conditions, such as the Valsalva maneuver. Recently, a novel adaptive method called empirical mode decomposition (EMD) was proposed for non-stationary data analysis. This study proposed a RWA algorithm based on EMD (EMD-RWA). A total of 51 subjects participated in this study, including 39 healthy subjects and 12 patients with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The results showed that EMD-RWA provided a reliable estimation of reflection time in baseline and head-up tilt (HUT). Moreover, the estimated reflection time is able to assess the ANS function non-invasively, both in normal, healthy subjects and in the patients with ANS dysfunction. EMD-RWA provides a new approach for reflection time estimation in non-stationary conditions, and also helps with non-invasive ANS assessment. (paper)

  14. [Progress of Researches on Relationship between Acu-moxibustion Induced Modulation of Small Intestinal Motility and Autonomic Nervous Activity ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Yu, Zhi; Xu, Bin

    2014-12-01

    A large body of evidence of clinical and experimental outcomes showed that acupuncture and moxibustion can effectively treat disorders of small intestinal motility. The present articJe collected related literatures and made an analysis on the correlation between the effect of acupuncture-moxibustion intervention and needle-manipulation techniques, stimulating quantities, acupoint recipes, and the body functional states, as well as the corresponding mechanisms. Results indicate that acupuncture stimulation of acupoints of the limbs mainly enhance the motility of the small intestine, while acupuncture stimulation of acupoints in the abdominal region predominately suppress it, which may be closely associated with its effects on activities of the autonomic nervous system. This conclusion tells us that in clinical treatment of small intestinal hypodynamia, acupoints of the limbs should be selected first while in treating intestinal hyperdynamia, those acupoints in the abdominal region should be taken preferably. In ad- dition, at present, non-invaded detection techniques of the small intestinal motility are definitely and urgently needed and will greatly promote the progress of researches of acu-moxibustion on the mechanism underlying modulation of small intestinal motility. PMID:25632580

  15. Assessment of Fetal Autonomic Nervous System Activity by Fetal Magnetocardiography: Comparison of Normal Pregnancy and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimune Fukushima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To clarify the developmental activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS of the normal fetus and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR cases using fetal magnetocardiography (FMCG. Subjects and Methods. Normal pregnancy (n=35 and IUGR (n=12 cases at 28–39 and 32–37 weeks of gestation, respectively, were included in this study. The R-R interval variability was used to calculate the coefficient of variance (CVRR and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF ratio. Results. The value of CVRR in the normal pregnancy group displayed a slight increasing trend with gestational age. However, no such trend was observed in the IUGR group. In contrast, the LF/HF ratio in both the normal pregnancy group and the IUGR group clearly increased over the gestational period; the normal group showing statistical significance. Conclusion. The development of fetal ANS activity in IUGR cases might differ from that observed in the normal pregnancy group, and this may facilitate early detection of IUGR.

  16. Effect of Forest Walking on Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Middle-Aged Hypertensive Individuals: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorong Song

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing attention on the therapeutic effects of the forest environment. However, evidence-based research that clarifies the physiological effects of the forest environment on hypertensive individuals is lacking. This study provides scientific evidence suggesting that a brief forest walk affects autonomic nervous system activity in middle-aged hypertensive individuals. Twenty participants (58.0 ± 10.6 years were instructed to walk predetermined courses in forest and urban environments (as control. Course length (17-min walk, walking speed, and energy expenditure were equal between the forest and urban environments to clarify the effects of each environment. Heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate were used to quantify physiological responses. The modified semantic differential method and Profile of Mood States were used to determine psychological responses. The natural logarithm of the high-frequency component of HRV was significantly higher and heart rate was significantly lower when participants walked in the forest than when they walked in the urban environment. The questionnaire results indicated that, compared with the urban environment, walking in the forest increased “comfortable”, “relaxed”, “natural” and “vigorous” feelings and decreased “tension-anxiety,” “depression,” “anxiety-hostility,” “fatigue” and “confusion”. A brief walk in the forest elicited physiological and psychological relaxation effects on middle-aged hypertensive individuals.

  17. Assessment of the autonomic nervous system is an appropriate biological marker for the well-being in erectile dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tolga Dogru; Orhan Murat Kocak; Nurper Erberk-Ozen; Murat Basar

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the autonomic nervous system (ANS) components are suitable biological markers for representing well-being in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods: The present study included 74 male patients who had applied for check-ups in the cardiology outpatient clinic at Kirikkale University (Kirikkale, Turkey) and who had been diagnosed as having hyperlipidemia. Of these patients, 26 had an additional diagnosis of ED and made up the patient group. The remaining 48 patients formed the control group. Well-being was assessed with short- form 36 (SF-36). The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) was used as a measure of libido and erectile function. Quantitative assessment of the ANS was made based on the analysis of heart rate variability by means of 24-h holter monitorization. Results: Comparisons between the ED and control groups showed significant differences only in energy scale of SF-36. The ED group also had significantly higher values of sympathetic activity. Except for the general health score of SF-36, which was found to be correlated with parasympathetic activity only in ED group, there were similar correlation patterns within the groups. Although well-being and sympathetic activity were corre- lated negatively, parasympathetic activity and well-being were correlated positively. Conclusion: Quantitative as- sessment of the ANS by heart rate variability analysis might be a suitable marker for well-being of patients with ED. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 643-650)

  18. Effect of intra-abdominal fat accumulation on autonomic nervous function in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong XIAO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the relationship between intra-abdominal fat accumulation and heart rate variability. Methods  A total of 353 patients with hypertension were enrolled in this study, among them there were 197 males and 156 females, aged from 27 to 85 years old with a mean of 55±13 years. All the patients received abdominal fat ultrasonography, 24-hour ambulatory ECG and blood biochemical tests, and they were divided into intra-abdominal fat accumulation group and normal intra-abdominal fat group according to the fat thickness measured by B-mode ultrasound value (male ≥38.5mm, female ≥34.7mm. They were redivided into four subgroups based on interquartile range of the fat thickness for comparing the difference in heart rate variability between 4 groups. Results  Each subject had a 24-hour ECG recording taken and the standard HRV time-domain indices: SDNN (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal RR intervals, reflecting total nervous tension, SDANN (standard deviation of the averages of RR intervals in all 5-minute segments, reflecting sympathetic tone, and RMSSD (the root mean square successive differences and SDNN index (mean of the standard deviations of RR intervals in all 5-minute segments, reflecting vagal nerve tone were determined. Results showed all the aforesaid indices were lower in the intra-abdominal fat group than in the normal intra-abdominal fat group (P 38.0mm group than in 38.0mm group than in 15.6-27.0mm group; SDNN and SDNN index were significantly lower in the 27.1-38.0mm group than in < 15.5mm group; SDNN was significantly lower in the 27.1-38.0mm group than in 15.6-27.0mm group. Linear regression analysis indicated intra-abdominal fat thickness, fasting blood glucose and sex were the main risk factors of the SDNN; abdominal fat thickness and sex were main factors influencing SDANN, and abdominal fat thickness, fasting blood glucose and diastolic blood pressure were main influencial factors of SDNN index

  19. Cardiac Organ Damage and Arterial Stiffness in Autonomic Failure: Comparison With Essential Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Valeria; Maule, Simona; Di Stefano, Cristina; Tosello, Francesco; Totaro, Silvia; Veglio, Franco; Milan, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Autonomic failure (AF) is characterized by orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension, and increased blood pressure (BP) variability. AF patients develop cardiac organ damage, similarly to essential hypertension (EH), and have higher arterial stiffness than healthy controls. Determinants of cardiovascular organ damage in AF are not well known: both BP variability and mean BP values may be involved. The aim of the study was to evaluate cardiac organ damage, arterial stiffness, and central hemodynamics in AF, compared with EH subjects with similar 24-hour BP and a group of healthy controls, and to evaluate determinants of target organ damage in patients with AF. Twenty-seven patients with primary AF were studied (mean age, 65.7±11.2 years) using transthoracic echocardiography, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, central hemodynamics, and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. They were compared with 27 EH subjects matched for age, sex, and 24-hour mean BP and with 27 healthy controls. AF and EH had similar left ventricular mass (101.6±33.3 versus 97.7±28.1 g/m(2), P=0.59) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (9.3±1.8 versus 9.2±3.0 m/s, P=0.93); both parameters were significantly lower in healthy controls (Phypertensive heart disease and increased arterial stiffness, similar to EH with comparable mean BP values. Twenty-four-hour and nighttime systolic BP were determinants of cardiovascular damage, independent of BP variability.

  20. Timing of obstetrical assistance affects peripartal cardiac autonomic function and early maternal behavior of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Levente; Kézér, Fruzsina Luca; Ruff, Ferenc; Szenci, Ottó

    2016-10-15

    Peripartal autonomic nervous system function and early maternal behavior were investigated in 79 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. Animals were allocated into four groups based on the technology of calving management: 1) unassisted calving in a group pen (UCG; N=19), 2) unassisted calving in an individual pen (UCI; N=21), 3) assisted calving with appropriately timed obstetrical assistance (ACA; N=20), and 4) assisted calving with premature obstetrical assistance (ACP; N=19). Heart rate, the high frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability (HRV) as a measure of vagal activity and the ratio between the low frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF ratio) as a parameter of sympathetic nervous system activity were calculated. Heart rate and HRV parameters were presented as areas under the curves (AUC) for the following periods: 1) prepartum period (between 96h before the onset of calving restlessness and the onset of restlessness), 2) parturition (between the onset calving restlessness and delivery), and 3) postpartum period (during a 48-h period after delivery). Pain-related behaviors were recorded during parturition (i.e., the occurrence of vocalization and stretching the neck towards the abdomen) and during a 2-h observation period after calving (i.e., the occurrence of vocalization, stretching the neck towards the abdomen and the duration of standing with an arched back). Early maternal behavior was observed during the first 2h following calving as follows: 1) latency and duration of sniffing calf's head/body, and 2) latency and duration of licking calf's head/body. No difference was found across groups in autonomic function before the onset of calving restlessness. Area under the heart rate curve was higher in ACP cows during parturition (39.6±2.5beats/min×h) compared to UCG, UCI and ACA animals (AUC=13.1±0.9beats/min×h, AUC=22.3±1.4beats/min×h and AUC=25.0±2.1beats/min×h, respectively). Area under the heart rate curve did not differ across the UCG

  1. Heart Rate Variability as a Method for Assessment of the Autonomic Nervous System and the Adaptations to Different Physiological and Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taralov Zdravko Z.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system controls the smooth muscles of the internal organs, the cardiovascular system and the secretory function of the glands and plays a major role in the processes of adaptation. Heart rate variability is a non-invasive and easily applicable method for the assessment of its activity. The following review describes the origin, parameters and characteristics of this method and its potential for evaluation of the changes of the autonomic nervous system activity in different physiological and pathological conditions such as exogenous hypoxia, physical exercise and sleep. The application of heart rate variability in daily clinical practice would be beneficial for the diagnostics, the outcome prognosis and the assessment of the effect of treatment in various diseases.

  2. Heart Rate Variability as a Method for Assessment of the Autonomic Nervous System and the Adaptations to Different Physiological and Pathological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taralov, Zdravko Z; Terziyski, Kiril V; Kostianev, Stefan S

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system controls the smooth muscles of the internal organs, the cardiovascular system and the secretory function of the glands and plays a major role in the processes of adaptation. Heart rate variability is a non-invasive and easily applicable method for the assessment of its activity. The following review describes the origin, parameters and characteristics of this method and its potential for evaluation of the changes of the autonomic nervous system activity in different physiological and pathological conditions such as exogenous hypoxia, physical exercise and sleep. The application of heart rate variability in daily clinical practice would be beneficial for the diagnostics, the outcome prognosis and the assessment of the effect of treatment in various diseases. PMID:27180343

  3. Responses of Six-Weeks Aquatic Exercise on the Autonomic Nervous System, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow and Lung Functions in Young Adults with Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Taweesak Janyacharoen; Narupon Kunbootsri; Preeda Arayawichanon; Seksun Chainansamit; Kittisak Sawanyawisuth

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a chronic respiratory disease. Sympathetic hypofunction is identified in all of the allergic rhinitis patients. Moreover, allergic rhinitis is associated with decreased peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) and impaired lung functions. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of six-week of aquatic exercise on the autonomic nervous system function, PNIF and lung functions in allergic rhinitis patients.Twenty-six allergic rhinitis patients, 12 males and 14 females wer...

  4. Alteration of cardiac autonomic function in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goit, Rajesh K; Jha, Santosh K; Pant, Bhawana N

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV) showed any changes in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy in comparison with controls. Sixty-five patients with epilepsy (38 males and 27 females), aged 30-50 years, who had never previously received treatment with antiepileptic drugs were eligible for inclusion in this study. Resting electrocardiogram (ECG) at spontaneous respiration was recorded for 5 min in supine position. Time-domain analysis, frequency-domain analysis, and Poincare plot of HRV were recorded from ECG In time-domain measures, the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD) and percentage of consecutive RR intervals that differ by more than 50 msec (pNN50) were significantly less in patients with epilepsy. In frequency-domain measures, high frequency [(HF) msec(2)], HF (nu), and low frequency [LF (msec(2))] were significantly less in patients with epilepsy while LF (nu) and LF/HF were significantly high in patients with epilepsy. In Poincare plot, standard deviation perpendicular to line of Poincare plot (SD1) and standard deviation along the line of entity in Poincare plot (SD2) were significantly less in patients with epilepsy. Our results suggest that epileptic patients have an impact on the cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging study of lumbosacral spinal cord nerves before artificial somatic-central nervous system-autonomic reflex pathway establish ment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of MRI as imaging technique for lumbosacral spinal nerves before artificial somatic-central nervous system-autonomic reflex pathway establish ment. Methods: Conventional MRI and T2W CISS 3D were performed in 10 patients with neurogenic bladder planned for the operation of artificial somatic-central nervous system-autonomic reflex pathway. The Three-dimensional data were then constructed into composite images using a standard multiple planar reformation (MPR). Results: Five patients showed tethered spinal cord syndrome, whose spinal cord nerves were circuitous distributed and had abnormity number when penetrated the dura. Of these 5 patients, one patient was accompanied by spinal cord vas malformation. Four patients had vertebral fracture and spinal injury, and the other one patients demonstrated tumor in vertebral canal on MRI examinations. The spinal cord nerves in these 5 patients floated down river and had normal number of spinal cord nerves. Conclusion: Conventional MRI and T2W CISS 3D MRI were essential for the pre-operative planning of artificial somatic-central nervous system-autonomic reflex pathway, especially in patients with tethered spinal cord syndrome. Spinal cord nerves distribute and anterior and posterior roots array can be clearly showed by MPR. (authors)

  6. The Cajal School in the Peripheral Nervous System: The Transcendent Contributions of Fernando de Castro on the Microscopic Structure of Sensory and Autonomic Motor Ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The fine structure of the autonomic nervous system was largely unknown at the beginning of the second decade of the 20th century. Although relatively anatomists and histologists had studied the subject, even the assays by the great Russian histologist Alexander Dogiel and the Spanish Nobel Prize laureate, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, were incomplete. In a time which witnessed fundamental discoveries by Langley, Loewi and Dale on the physiology of the autonomic nervous system, both reputed researchers entrusted one of their outstanding disciples to the challenge to further investigate autonomic structures: the Russian B.I. Lawrentjew and the Spanish Fernando de Castro developed new technical approaches with spectacular results. In the mid of the 1920’s, both young neuroscientists were worldwide recognized as the top experts in the field. In the present work we describe the main discoveries by Fernando de Castro in those years regarding the structure of sympathetic and sensory ganglia, the organization of the synaptic contacts in these ganglia, and the nature of their innervation, later materialized in their respective chapters, personally invited by the editor, in Wilder Penfield’s famous textbook on Neurology and the Nervous System. Most of these discoveries remain fully alive today. PMID:27147984

  7. Changes of autonomic nervous system function in healthy young men during initial phase at acute high-altitude exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Jun; Huang Lan; Tian Kaixin; Yu Shiyong; Yu Yang; Long Min

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function during the initial phase at acute high-altitude exposure. Methods: Ninety-nine healthy sea-level male residents were studied in Chengdu plain and then Tibet plateau. Heart rate variability (HRV), cold pressor test (CPT), resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured at baseline (560 m altitude) and in 2 to 4 d after arriving at Tibet plateau (3 675 m altitude) to assess the ANS function. Results: Compared with baseline, on day 2 in Tibet the standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), high-frequency (HF) power, total power (TP), root mean square of delta RR (rMSSD), percentage of delta RR>50 ms (PNN50), normalized high-frequency (Hfnu) and fractal dimension (FD) decreased significantly (SDNN, HF,TP P<0.01, rMSSD, PNNs0, Hfnu, FD P<0.05), while the normalized low-frequency (Lfnu) and LF/HF increased significantly (P<0.01). During day 3-4 in Tibet, SDNN, rMSSD, HF, TP and Hfnu tended to rebound while Lfnu and LF/HF decreased towards baseline day by day. In addition, in Tibet the increase in systolic pressure (SP) and diastolic pressure (DP) during CPT decreased significantly (P<0.01, 0.05), but resting HR increased compared with baseline (P<0.01). Conclusion: ANS modulation is generally blunted, and the relatively predominant sympathetic control is enhanced originally, then it reverts to the sea level states gradually during the initial days of acute high-altitude exposure.

  8. Cardiac Coherence, Self-Regulation, Autonomic Stability and Psychosocial Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollin eMcCraty

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to alter one’s emotional responses is central to overall well-being and to effectively meeting the demands of life. One of the chief symptoms of events such as trauma, that overwhelm our capacities to successfully handle and adapt to them, is a shift in our internal baseline reference such that there ensues a repetitive activation of the traumatic event. This can result in high vigilance and over-sensitivity to environmental signals which are reflected in inappropriate emotional responses and autonomic nervous system dynamics. In this article we discuss the perspective that one’s ability to self-regulate the quality of feeling and emotion of one’s moment-to-moment experience is intimately tied to our physiology, and the reciprocal interactions among physiological, cognitive and emotional systems. These interactions form the basis of information processing networks in which communication between systems occurs through the generation and transmission of rhythms and patterns of activity. Our discussion emphasizes the communication pathways between the heart and brain, as well as how these are related to cognitive and emotional function and self-regulatory capacity. We discuss the hypothesis that self-induced positive emotions increase the coherence in bodily processes, which is reflected in the pattern of the heart’s rhythm. This shift in the heart rhythm in turn plays an important role in facilitating higher cognitive functions, creating emotional stability and facilitating states of calm. Over time, this establishes a new inner-baseline reference, a type of implicit memory that organizes perception, feelings and behavior. Without establishing a new baseline reference, people are at risk of getting stuck in familiar, yet unhealthy emotional and behavioral patterns and living their lives through the automatic filters of past familiar or traumatic experience.

  9. Timing of obstetrical assistance affects peripartal cardiac autonomic function and early maternal behavior of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Levente; Kézér, Fruzsina Luca; Ruff, Ferenc; Szenci, Ottó

    2016-10-15

    Peripartal autonomic nervous system function and early maternal behavior were investigated in 79 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. Animals were allocated into four groups based on the technology of calving management: 1) unassisted calving in a group pen (UCG; N=19), 2) unassisted calving in an individual pen (UCI; N=21), 3) assisted calving with appropriately timed obstetrical assistance (ACA; N=20), and 4) assisted calving with premature obstetrical assistance (ACP; N=19). Heart rate, the high frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability (HRV) as a measure of vagal activity and the ratio between the low frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF ratio) as a parameter of sympathetic nervous system activity were calculated. Heart rate and HRV parameters were presented as areas under the curves (AUC) for the following periods: 1) prepartum period (between 96h before the onset of calving restlessness and the onset of restlessness), 2) parturition (between the onset calving restlessness and delivery), and 3) postpartum period (during a 48-h period after delivery). Pain-related behaviors were recorded during parturition (i.e., the occurrence of vocalization and stretching the neck towards the abdomen) and during a 2-h observation period after calving (i.e., the occurrence of vocalization, stretching the neck towards the abdomen and the duration of standing with an arched back). Early maternal behavior was observed during the first 2h following calving as follows: 1) latency and duration of sniffing calf's head/body, and 2) latency and duration of licking calf's head/body. No difference was found across groups in autonomic function before the onset of calving restlessness. Area under the heart rate curve was higher in ACP cows during parturition (39.6±2.5beats/min×h) compared to UCG, UCI and ACA animals (AUC=13.1±0.9beats/min×h, AUC=22.3±1.4beats/min×h and AUC=25.0±2.1beats/min×h, respectively). Area under the heart rate curve did not differ across the UCG

  10. A new method of assessing cardiac autonomic function and its comparison with spectral analysis and coefficient of variation of R-R interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toichi, M; Sugiura, T; Murai, T; Sengoku, A

    1997-01-12

    A new non-linear method of assessing cardiac autonomic function was examined in a pharmacological experiment in ten healthy volunteers. The R-R interval data obtained under a control condition and in autonomic blockade by atropine and by propranolol were analyzed by each of the new methods employing Lorenz plot, spectral analysis and the coefficient of variation. With our method we derived two measures, the cardiac vagal index and the cardiac sympathetic index, which indicate vagal and sympathetic function separately. These two indices were found to be more reliable than those obtained by the other two methods. We anticipate that the non-invasive assessment of short-term cardiac autonomic function will come to be performed more reliably and conveniently by this method.

  11. The effects of different styles of musical auditory stimulation on cardiac autonomic regulation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Adriano L; Valenti, Vitor E; Guida, Heraldo L; Campos, Mônica F; Knap, André; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Ferreira, Celso; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The literature investigated the effects of chronic baroque music auditory stimulation on the cardiovascular system. However, it lacks in the literature the acute effects of different styles of music on cardiac autonomic regulation. To evaluate the acute effects of baroque and heavy metal music on heart rate variability (HRV) in women. The study was performed in 21 healthy women between 18 and 30 years old. We excluded persons with previous experience with music instrument and those who had affinity with the song styles. All procedures were performed in the same sound-proof room. We analyzed HRV in the time (standard deviation of normal-to-normal respiratory rate (RR) intervals, root-mean square of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals in a time interval, and the percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms) and frequency (low frequency [LF], high frequency [HF], and LF/HF ratio) domains. HRV was recorded at rest for 10 min. Subsequently they were exposed to baroque or heavy metal music for 5 min through an earphone. After the first music exposure they remained at rest for more 5 min and them they were exposed again to baroque or heavy metal music. The sequence of songs was randomized for each individual. The power analysis provided a minimal number of 18 subjects. Shapiro-Wilk to verify normality of data and analysis of variance for repeated measures followed by the Bonferroni test for parametric variables and Friedman's followed by the Dunn's post-test for non-parametric distributions. During the analysis of the time-domain indices were not changed. In the frequency-domain analysis, the LF in absolute units was reduced during the heavy metal music stimulation compared to control. Acute exposure to heavy metal music affected the sympathetic activity in healthy women. PMID:23771427

  12. Enhancing Predictive Accuracy of Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Using Blood Biochemistry Features and Iterative Multitier Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abawajy, Jemal; Kelarev, Andrei; Chowdhury, Morshed U; Jelinek, Herbert F

    2016-01-01

    Blood biochemistry attributes form an important class of tests, routinely collected several times per year for many patients with diabetes. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of blood biochemistry for improving the predictive accuracy of the diagnosis of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) progression. Blood biochemistry contributes to CAN, and so it is a causative factor that can provide additional power for the diagnosis of CAN especially in the absence of a complete set of Ewing tests. We introduce automated iterative multitier ensembles (AIME) and investigate their performance in comparison to base classifiers and standard ensemble classifiers for blood biochemistry attributes. AIME incorporate diverse ensembles into several tiers simultaneously and combine them into one automatically generated integrated system so that one ensemble acts as an integral part of another ensemble. We carried out extensive experimental analysis using large datasets from the diabetes screening research initiative (DiScRi) project. The results of our experiments show that several blood biochemistry attributes can be used to supplement the Ewing battery for the detection of CAN in situations where one or more of the Ewing tests cannot be completed because of the individual difficulties faced by each patient in performing the tests. The results show that AIME provide higher accuracy as a multitier CAN classification paradigm. The best predictive accuracy of 99.57% has been obtained by the AIME combining decorate on top tier with bagging on middle tier based on random forest. Practitioners can use these findings to increase the accuracy of CAN diagnosis.

  13. Acute Auditory Stimulation with Different Styles of Music Influences Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Ap. F. da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: No clear evidence is available in the literature regarding the acute effect of different styles of music on cardiac autonomic control. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the acute effects of classical baroque and heavy metal musical auditory stimulation on Heart Rate Variability (HRV in healthy men. Patients and Methods: In this study, HRV was analyzed regarding time (SDNN, RMSSD, NN50, and pNN50 and frequency domain (LF, HF, and LF / HF in 12 healthy men. HRV was recorded at seated rest for 10 minutes. Subsequently, the participants were exposed to classical baroque or heavy metal music for five minutes through an earphone at seated rest. After exposure to the first song, they remained at rest for five minutes and they were again exposed to classical baroque or heavy metal music. The music sequence was random for each individual. Standard statistical methods were used for calculation of means and standard deviations. Besides, ANOVA and Friedman test were used for parametric and non-parametric distributions, respectively. Results: While listening to heavy metal music, SDNN was reduced compared to the baseline (P = 0.023. In addition, the LF index (ms2 and nu was reduced during exposure to both heavy metal and classical baroque musical auditory stimulation compared to the control condition (P = 0.010 and P = 0.048, respectively. However, the HF index (ms2 was reduced only during auditory stimulation with music heavy metal (P = 0.01. The LF/HF ratio on the other hand decreased during auditory stimulation with classical baroque music (P = 0.019. Conclusions: Acute auditory stimulation with the selected heavy metal musical auditory stimulation decreased the sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation on the heart, while exposure to a selected classical baroque music reduced sympathetic regulation on the heart.

  14. Cardiac autonomic recovery after a single session of resistance exercise with and without vascular occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Nilo M; Pedro, Rafael E; Leicht, Anthony S; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the heart rate variability (HRV) after resistance training with and without vascular occlusion. It was hypothesized that low intensity (LI) with vascular occlusion (LIO) would elicit comparable postexercise HRV responses with that of high intensity (HI) without vascular occlusion. Nine subjects undertook 4 experimental sessions of leg press exercise on different days: (a) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test, (b) 4 sets of 8 repetitions + 1 set until exhaustion at 80% of 1RM without vascular occlusion (HI), (c) 4 sets of 16 repetitions + 1 set until exhaustion at 40% of 1RM with vascular occlusion (LIO), and (d) 4 sets of 16 repetitions + 1 set with the number of repetitions equal to the last set of LIO but at 40% of 1RM without vascular occlusion (LI). Heart rate variability was analyzed 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 5 hours, and 24 hours after the HI, LIO, and LI sessions. The HI session increased the heart rate (HR) and reduced the root mean square of the successive difference of R-R intervals (RMSSD) and log-transformed high-frequency (lnHF) power during prolonged recovery (HR = 5 hours; RMSSD = 30 minutes; lnHF = 1 hour) at a greater magnitude when compared with LIO and LI. Despite the same intensity of exercise for LIO and LI, the occlusion delayed the recovery of HR and HRV variables. Postexercise blood lactate concentration was moderate to strongly correlated with peak HR (r = 0.87), RMSSD (r = -0.64), and lnHF (r = -0.68). This study has demonstrated that LIO was able to reduce cardiac autonomic stress when compared with HI. PMID:24077384

  15. Pure Autonomic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs GARD Information Navigator FAQs About Rare Diseases Pure autonomic failure Title Other Names: Bradbury Eggleston syndrome; ... Categories: Nervous System Diseases ; RDCRN Summary Summary Listen Pure autonomic failure is characterized by generalized autonomic failure ...

  16. [Cardiac amyloidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Caroline; Angermann, Christiane E; Knop, Stefan; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan

    2008-03-15

    Amyloidoses are a heterogeneous group of multisystem disorders, which are characterized by an extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils. Typically affected are the heart, liver, kidneys, and nervous system. More than half of the patients die due to cardiac involvement. Clinical signs of cardiac amyloidosis are edema of the lower limbs, hepatomegaly, ascites and elevated jugular vein pressure, frequently in combination with dyspnea. There can also be chest pain, probably due to microvessel disease. Dysfunction of the autonomous nervous system or arrhythmias may cause low blood pressure, dizziness, or recurrent syncope. The AL amyloidosis caused by the deposition of immunoglobulin light chains is the most common form. It can be performed by monoclonal gammopathy. The desirable treatment therapy consists of high-dose melphalan therapy twice followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Due to the high peritransplantation mortality, selection of appropriate patients is mandatory. The ATTR amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by the amyloidogenic form of transthyretin, a plasmaprotein that is synthesized in the liver. Therefore, liver transplantation is the only curative therapy. The symptomatic treatment of cardiac amyloidosis is based on the current guidelines for chronic heart failure according to the patient's New York Heart Association (NYHA) state. Further types of amyloidosis with possible cardiac involvement comprise the senile systemic amyloidosis caused by the wild-type transthyretin, secondary amyloidosis after chronic systemic inflammation, and the beta(2)-microglobulin amyloidosis after long-term dialysis treatment. PMID:18344065

  17. Examining the role of TRPA1 in air pollution-induced cardiac arrhythmias and autonomic imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe how air pollution causes cardiac arrhythmogenesis through sensory irritation in the airways. Time-series studies show the risk of adverse cardiac events increases significantly in the hours to days after expos...

  18. Experimental Study of the Effect of Autonomic Nervous System on the Transmural Dispersion of Ventricular Repolarization under Acute Myocardial Ischemia in Vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存泰; 徐大文; 李泱; 刘念; 钟江华; 王琳; 陆再英

    2002-01-01

    Summary: The effect of the autonomic nerves on the transmural dispersion of ventricular repolariza tion (TDR) under acute myocardial ischemia in intact canine was investigated. Using the monophasic action potential (MAP) recording technique, MAPs of the epicardium (Epi), midmyocardium (Mid) and endocardium (Endo) were recorded simultaneously by specially designed plunge-needle electrodes at the left ventricular free wall under acute myocardial ischemia in 12 open-chest dogs.MAPD90 and TDR among three myocardial layers as well as the incidence of the early afterdepolar ization (EAD) before autonomic nervous stimulation and during autonomic nervous stimulation were compared. It was found that 10 min after acute myocardial I~hemia, TDR was increased from 55±8.ms to 86± 15 ms during sympathetic stimulation (P<0. 01). The TDR (53± 9 ms) during parasympathetic stimulation was not significantly different from that of the control (55±8 ms) (P>0.05). The EAD was elicited in the Mid of 2 dogs (16 %) 10 min after acute myocardial ischemia,but the EAD were elicited in the Mid of 7 dogs (58 %) during sympathetic stimulation (P<0. 01).It was concluded that: (1) Sympathetic stimulation can increase the transmural dispersion of repolari zation and induce early afterdepolarizations in the Mid under acute myocardial ischemia, which pro-vide the opportunity for the ventricular arrhythmia developing; (2) Parasympathetic stimulation has no significant effect on the transmural dispersion of repolarization under myocardial ischemia.

  19. Enhanced insulin sensitivity mediated by adipose tissue browning perturbs islet morphology and hormone secretion in response to autonomic nervous activation in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Bilal A; Kvist-Reimer, Martina; Enerbäck, Sven; Ahrén, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance results in a compensatory increase in insulin secretion to maintain normoglycemia. Conversely, high insulin sensitivity results in reduced insulin secretion to prevent hypoglycemia. The mechanisms for this inverse adaptation are not well understood. We utilized highly insulin-sensitive mice, due to adipocyte-specific overexpression of the FOXC2 transcription factor, to study mechanisms of the reversed islet adaptation to increased insulin sensitivity. We found that Foxc2TG mice responded to mild hyperglycemia with insulin secretion significantly lower than that of wild-type mice; however, when severe hyperglycemia was induced, Foxc2TG mice demonstrated insulin secretion equal to or greater than that of wild-type mice. In response to autonomic nervous activation by 2-deoxyglucose, the acute suppression of insulin seen in wild-type mice was absent in Foxc2TG mice, suggesting impaired sympathetic signaling to the islet. Basal glucagon was increased in Foxc2TG mice, but they displayed severely impaired glucagon responses to cholinergic and autonomic nervous stimuli. These data suggest that the autonomic nerves contribute to the islet adaptation to high insulin sensitivity, which is compatible with a neuro-adipo regulation of islet function being instrumental for maintaining glucose regulation.

  20. Influence of yearlong training on the state of cardiovascular, autonomic nervous system and physical performance in female 400 meters runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. L. Mikhalyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research – identification and comparison of heart rate variability, central hemodynamics and physical performance in 400 meters runners from the III category to masters of sports of international class (MSIC in the annual cycle of the training process. Materials and methods. The study included 22 female athletes, 400 meters runners between the ages of 14 and 27 years (mean age – 16.8 ± 0.67 years, running experience – from 2 to 13 years (average – 4.4 ± 0.68 years in the preparatory and competitive periods. Body length and weight of athletes were 167.9 ± 0.91 cm and 52.5 ± 0.98 kg, respectively. For the analysis of the autonomic regulation of cardiac activity mathematical methods of HRV analysis were used. Analysis and evaluation of periodic components of heart rate were carried out by means of the research of spectral parameters of autocorrelation functions. Determination of physical performance was carried out under the practical standard on the cycle ergometer. It was established that in high class sportswomen (n=12 and ones with qualifications of the II–III category (n=10 in the competitive period there were strengthening of parasympathetic effects of ANS, transformation of eukinetic circulation type (CT into hypokinetic CT and absence of sportswomen with hyperkinetic CT. In high class sportswomen there were significant increase of the relative value of physical working capacity (PWC170/kg by 12.33% and tendency to increase of index of functional state (IFS by 9.46%, in sportswomen with qualifications of II–III category PWC170/kg significantly increased by 19.26%, and IFS by 17.87%. Correlation analysis conducted in both periods in the group and separately in high class sportswomen and ones with qualifications of II–III category found the relationship indicating that the increase of PWC170/kg and IFS is associated with the prevalence of hypokinetic CT and parasympathetic ANS influences. In the competitive period

  1. Heart rate variability and the influence of craniosacral therapy on autonomous nervous system regulation in persons with subjective discomforts:a pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanda Girsberger; Ulricke Bnziger; Gerhard Lingg; Harald Lothaller; Peter-Christian Endler

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Subjective discomforts in a preclinical range are often due to imbalanced autonomic nervous system activity, which is a focus of craniosacral therapy. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this work was to determine any changes in heart rate variability (HRV) in a study on craniosacral therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: This is a quasi-experimental (controlled) study with cross-over design. In a private practice, measurements were performed on 31 patients with subjective discomforts before and after a control and an intervention period. HRV was determined using a device that requires a measuring time of 140 s and electrode contact only with the ifngertips. Main PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: HRV change under the inlfuence of a deifned one-time intervention (test intervention) with craniosacral therapy versus control (deifned rest period). RESULTS:Standard deviation of all RR-intervals (ms) and total power of RR-interval variability in the frequency range (ms2) were together interpreted as an indicator of test subjects’ autonomic nervous activity and as a measure of their ability to cope with demands on their health. Neither of these parameters increased during the control period (P>0.05), whereas during the test intervention period there was an increase in both (P0.05). No changes were observed in the low frequency/high frequency ratio (sympathetic-vagal balance) in the course of the control or the test intervention period (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Craniosacral treatment had a favourable effect on autonomic nervous activity. This in itself is an interesting result, but further research will be needed to distinguish speciifc effects of craniosacral therapy technique from less speciifc therapist-client interaction effects.

  2. [Autonomic neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepmann, T; Penzlin, A I; Illigens, B M W

    2013-07-01

    Autonomic neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases that involve damage of small peripheral autonomic Aδ- and C-fibers. Causes of autonomic nerve fiber damage are disorders such as diabetes mellitus and HIV-infection. Predominant symptoms of autonomic neuropathy are orthostatic hypotension, gastro-intestinal problems, urogenital dysfunction, and cardiac arrhythmia, which can severely impair the quality of life in affected patients. Furthermore, autonomic neuropathies can be induced by autoimmune diseases such as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, hereditary disorders such as the lysosomal storage disorder Fabry disease and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies, as well as certain toxins and drugs.

  3. Dynamic analysis of mental sweating and the peripheral vessels for the activity of the autonomic nervous system by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmi, Masato; Takada, Daisuke; Wada, Yuki; Haruna, Masamitsu

    2012-01-01

    OCT is highly potential for dynamic analysis of physiological functions of mental sweating and peripheral vessels as demonstrated by the authors. Both mental sweating and the peripheral vessels reflect the activity of the sympathetic nerve of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The sympathetic nerve also exhibits the LF/HF ratio of the heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper, we demonstrate dynamic analysis of mental sweating and the peripheral vessels for the external stimulus by SS-OCT. In the experiment, the Kraepelin test as a continuous stimulus was applied to the volunteer to discuss in detail dynamics of the physiological function of such small organs in response to the HRV.

  4. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal imaging using PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautamaeki, Riikka; Tipre, Dnyanesh [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bengel, Frank M. [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Balance of the autonomic nervous system is essential for adequate cardiac performance, and alterations seem to play a key role in the development and progression of various cardiac diseases. PET imaging of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has advanced extensively in recent years, and multiple pre- and postsynaptic tracers have been introduced. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PET enables noninvasive quantification of neurophysiologic processes at the tissue level. Ligands for catecholamine receptors, along with radiolabeled catecholamines and catecholamine analogs, have been applied to determine involvement of sympathetic dysinnervation at different stages of heart diseases such as ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmia. This review summarizes the recent findings in neurocardiological PET imaging. Experimental studies with several radioligands and clinical findings in cardiac dysautonomias are discussed. (orig.)

  5. 体位改变对Beagle犬心脏自主神经控制的影响%Effect of Postural Changes on Autonomic Nervous Control of Heart in Beagle Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘永明; 陈亮; 何欢; 徐孝平; 陈民利

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to observe the effect of postural changes on autonomic nervous control of heart in Beagle dogs. Methods Electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded in static posture (lying, standing, sitting and hanging) and moving posture (walking) from conscious and unrestrained female Beagle dogs using a non-invasive telemetry system, and the autonomic nervous function was investigated by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Results In static postures, the RR interval, SDNN, RMSSD, pNNabs (50) , total power (TP) , very low frequency ( VLF) power and normalized high frequency ( HF) power were significantly higher than those in moving posture (P < 0. 05 , P < 0. 01) , while the heart rate, normalized LF and the LF to HF ratio were significantly lowered (P < 0.05, P < 0. 01). Conclusions The parasympathetic nervous activity is dominant in static state of different postures, while sympathetic nervous activity is dominant in moving state. Postural changes can influence the heart rate and inevitably affect the cardiac autonomic nervous control. It depends on the intensity of the vagus nerve activity, and leads to the disturbance of LF/HF balance.%目的 观察体位改变对Beagle犬心脏自主神经控制的影响.方法 利用大动物无创生理遥测技术,监测清醒活动状态下雌性Beagle犬在静态姿势(lying、standing、sitting、hanging)和运动(walking)姿势下的心电图(ECG),并用HRV功率谱分析其自主神经功能.结果 在静态姿势下,Beagle犬RR间期(RRI)、RR间期的标准差SDNN(SDNN)、相邻RR间期差值平方和的均方根RMSSD(RMSSD)、相邻R-R间期差值>50 ms的窦性个数占心搏总数的百分比pNNabs (50)( pNNabs (50))、TP总功率(TP)、VLF极低频功率(VLF)、标准化高频功率(HFnorm)均明显高于运动状态(P <0.05,P<0.01),而心率(HR)、标准化低频功率(LFnorm)和低频功率/高频功率(LF/HF)平衡指数则明显低于运动状态(P<0.05,P<0.01).

  6. Blood pressure and cardiac autonomic modulation at rest, during exercise and recovery time in the young overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Alves de Araújo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to assess the blood pressure (BP, cardiac autonomic modulation at rest, in physical exercise and in the recovery in untrained eutrophic (E and overweight (O youth. The body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, systolic BP-SBP (E: 109.80 ± 10.05; O: 121.85 ± 6.98 mmHg and diastolic BP - DBP (E: 65.90 ± 7.28; O: 73.14 ± 12.22 mmHg were higher in overweight and the heart rate recovery (%HRR was lower as compared with E volunteers. The BMI was associated with SBP (r= 0.54, DBP (r= 0.65, load on the heart rate variability threshold - HRVT (r= -0.46, %HRR 2' (r= -0.48 and %HRR 5' (r= -0.48, and WC was associated with SBP (r= 0.54, DBP (r= 0.64 and HRR 2' (r= -0.49. The %HRR was associated to SBP, DBP and HRVT. In summary, the anthropometric variables, BP and cardiac autonomic modulation in the recovery are altered in overweight youth.

  7. Assessment of cardiac autonomic functions by heart rate recovery, heart rate variability and QT dynamicity parameters in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dural, Muhammet; Kabakcı, Giray; Cınar, Neşe; Erbaş, Tomris; Canpolat, Uğur; Gürses, Kadri Murat; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Oto, Ali; Kaya, Ergün Barış; Yorgun, Hikmet; Sahiner, Levent; Dağdelen, Selçuk; Aytemir, Kudret

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular complications are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in acromegaly. However, there is little data regarding cardiac autonomic functions in these patients. Herein, we aimed to investigate several parameters of cardiac autonomic functions in patients with acromegaly compared to healthy subjects. We enrolled 20 newly diagnosed acromegalic patients (55% female, age:45.7 ± 12.6 years) and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent 24 h Holter recording. Heart rate recovery (HRR) indices were calculated by subtracting 1st, 2nd and 3rd minute heart rates from maximal heart rate. All patients underwent heart rate variability (HRV) and QT dynamicity analysis. Baseline characteristics were similar except diabetes mellitus and hypertension among groups. Mean HRR1 (29.2 ± 12.3 vs 42.6 ± 6.5, p = 0.001), HRR2 (43.5 ± 15.6 vs 61.1 ± 10.8, p = 0.001) and HRR3 (46.4 ± 16.2 vs 65.8 ± 9.8, p = 0.001) values were significantly higher in control group. HRV parameters as, SDNN [standard deviation of all NN intervals] (p = 0.001), SDANN [SD of the 5 min mean RR intervals] (p = 0.001), RMSSD [root square of successive differences in RR interval] (p = 0.001), PNN50 [proportion of differences in successive NN intervals >50 ms] (p = 0.001) and high-frequency [HF] (p = 0.001) were significantly decreased in patients with acromegaly; but low frequency [LF] (p = 0.046) and LF/HF (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in acromegaly patients. QTec (p = 0.009), QTac/RR slope (p = 0.017) and QTec/RR slope (p = 0.01) were significantly higher in patients with acromegaly. Additionally, there were significant negative correlation of disease duration with HRR2, HRR3, SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD, variability index. Our study results suggest that cardiac autonomic functions are impaired in patients with acromegaly. Further large scale studies are needed to exhibit the prognostic significance of impaired autonomic functions in patients with

  8. Hemodynamic and autonomic nervous system responses to mixed meal ingestion in healthy young and old subjects and dysautonomic patients with postprandial hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitz, L. A.; Ryan, S. M.; Parker, J. A.; Freeman, R.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although postprandial hypotension is a common cause of falls and syncope in elderly persons and in patients with autonomic insufficiency, the pathophysiology of this disorder remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS. We examined the hemodynamic, splanchnic blood pool, plasma norepinephrine (NE), and heart rate (HR) power spectra responses to a standardized 400-kcal mixed meal in 11 healthy young (age, 26 +/- 5 years) and nine healthy elderly (age, 80 +/- 5 years) subjects and 10 dysautonomic patients with symptomatic postprandial hypotension (age, 65 +/- 16 years). Cardiac and splanchnic blood pools were determined noninvasively by radionuclide scans, and forearm vascular resistance was determined using venous occlusion plethysmography. In healthy young and old subjects, splanchnic blood volume increased, but supine blood pressure remained unchanged after the meal. In both groups, HR increased and systemic vascular resistance remained stable. Forearm vascular resistance and cardiac index increased after the meal in elderly subjects, whereas these responses were highly variable and of smaller magnitude in the young. Young subjects demonstrated postprandial increases in low-frequency HR spectral power, representing cardiac sympatho-excitation, but plasma NE remained unchanged. In elderly subjects, plasma NE increased after the meal but without changes in the HR power spectrum. Patients with dysautonomia had a large postprandial decline in blood pressure associated with no change in forearm vascular resistance, a fall in systemic vascular resistance, and reduction in left ventricular end diastolic volume index. HR increased in these patients but without changes in plasma NE or the HR power spectrum. CONCLUSIONS. 1) In healthy elderly subjects, the maintenance of blood pressure homeostasis after food ingestion is associated with an increase in HR, forearm vascular resistance, cardiac index, and plasma NE. In both young and old, systemic vascular resistance is

  9. Macaque cardiac physiology is sensitive to the valence of passively viewed sensory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Bliss-Moreau

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system activity is an important component of affective experience. We demonstrate in the rhesus monkey that both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system respond differentially to the affective valence of passively viewed video stimuli. We recorded cardiac impedance and an electrocardiogram while adult macaques watched a series of 300 30-second videos that varied in their affective content. We found that sympathetic activity (as measured by cardiac pre-ejection period increased and parasympathetic activity (as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreased as video content changes from positive to negative. These findings parallel the relationship between autonomic nervous system responsivity and valence of stimuli in humans. Given the relationship between human cardiac physiology and affective processing, these findings suggest that macaque cardiac physiology may be an index of affect in nonverbal animals.

  10. Circadian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system in insulin resistant subjects with normoglycemia, impaired fasting glycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Pietro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In type 2 diabetes mellitus both insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are considered responsible for autonomic dysfunction. The relation between the autonomic activity, impaired fasting glycemia and impaired glucose tolerance is, however, unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the circadian autonomic activity expressed as heart rate variability (HRV measured by 24-hours ECG recording in insulin resistant subjects (IR with characteristics as follow: IR subjects with normal oral glucose tolerance test results, IR subjects with impaired fasting glucose, IR subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Eighty Caucasian insulin resistant subjects (IR and twenty five control subjects were recruited for the study. IR subjects were divided into four groups according to the outcoming results of oral glucose tests (OGTTs: IR subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR, IR subjects with impaired fasting glycemia (IFG, IR subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Autonomic nervous activity was studied by 24-hours ECG recording. Heart rate variability analysis was performed in time and frequency domains: SDNN, RMS-SD, low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF were calculated. Results The total SDNN showed statistically significant reduction in all four groups with insulin resistant subjects (IR when compared to the control group (p Conclusion The results of our study suggest that insulin resistance might cause global autonomic dysfunction which increases along with worsening glucose metabolic impairment. The analysis of sympathetic and parasympathetic components and the sympathovagal balance demonstrated an association between insulin resistance and sympathetic over-activity, especially during night. The results indicated that the sympathetic over-activity is directly correlated to the grade of insulin resistance

  11. Simvastatin-induced cardiac autonomic control improvement in fructose-fed female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Juliana da Silva; Nathalia Bernardes; Janaina de O. Brito; Iris Callado Sanches; Maria Cláudia Irigoyen; Kátia de Angelis

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Because autonomic dysfunction has been found to lead to cardiometabolic disorders and because studies have reported that simvastatin treatment has neuroprotective effects, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin treatment on cardiovascular and autonomic changes in fructose-fed female rats. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: controls (n=8), fructose (n=8), and fructose+ simvastatin (n=8). Fructose overload was induced...

  12. Cardiac autonomic imbalance by social stress in rodents: understanding putative biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Susan K Wood, Phd

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stress or traumatic events can lead to the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition to the debilitating consequences on mental health, patients with psychiatric disorders also suffer from autonomic imbalance, making them susceptible to a variety of medical disorders. Emerging evidence utilizing spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), a reliable non-invasive measure of cardiovascular autonomic regulation, indicates that patients with depression and va...

  13. A case of cardiac sudden death related to abnormality of sympathetic nervous disturbance detected by {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Masaki; Matsukawa, Seishirou; Morishita, Takeshi [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-11-01

    A case of cardiac sudden death was reported. A female, 64 years old patient with multiple myeloma had been treated with total dose of 790 mg of adriamycin. Although treadmill examination, dobutamine-loaded cardiac echography and thallium-loaded myocardial scintigraphy gave normal findings, Holter ECG revealed bigeminy and discontinuous ventricular tachycardia. Mexiletine was not tolerated. {sup 123}I-MIBG image gave deficit of lateral to posterior wall and increased washing rate of 65%. At 36 days after hospitalization, the ventricular tachycardia changed to fatal fibrillation. The sympathetic nervous disturbance detected by the enhanced washing rate of {sup 123}I-MIBG might have participated in the death. (K.H.)

  14. Multi-layer Attribute Selection and Classification Algorithm for the Diagnosis of Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Based on HRV Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert F. Jelinek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN poses an important clinical problem, which often remains undetected due difficulty of conducting the current tests and their lack of sensitivity. CAN has been associated with growth in the risk of unexpected death in cardiac patients with diabetes mellitus. Heart rate variability (HRV attributes have been actively investigated, since they are important for diagnostics in diabetes, Parkinson's disease, cardiac and renal disease. Due to the adverse effects of CAN it is important to obtain a robust and highly accurate diagnostic tool for identification of early CAN, when treatment has the best outcome. Use of HRV attributes to enhance the effectiveness of diagnosis of CAN progression may provide such a tool. In the present paper we propose a new machine learning algorithm, the Multi-Layer Attribute Selection and Classification (MLASC, for the diagnosis of CAN progression based on HRV attributes. It incorporates our new automated attribute selection procedure, Double Wrapper Subset Evaluator with Particle Swarm Optimization (DWSE-PSO. We present the results of experiments, which compare MLASC with other simpler versions and counterpart methods. The experiments used our large and well-known diabetes complications database. The results of experiments demonstrate that MLASC has significantly outperformed other simpler techniques.

  15. Quality of life in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and its predictors : importance of the autonomic nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, MP; Hassink, RJ; Tuinenburg, AE; van Sonderen, EFLP; Lefrandt, JD; de Kam, PJ; van Gelder, IC; Smit, AJ; Sanderman, R; Crijns, HJGM

    2001-01-01

    Aims To determine the impact of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation on quality of life and to determine the predictors of quality of life, particularly the role of symptomatology and autonomic function. Methods and Results The study group comprised 73 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (mean ag

  16. The influence of montelukast on the autonomic nervous system activity in rats with cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrek Lukasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The complex pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis involves arachidonic acid-derived inflammatory mediators, among them leukotrienes. Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, is reported to exert an alleviatory effect in the course of cystitis associated with overactive bladder symptoms. The aim of this study was to verify whether the effect of montelukast is also associated with its influence on autonomic activity. The experiment included 20 rats with cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (75 mg/kg, four doses every second day, among them, 10 treated with oral montelukast (10 mg/kg for 8 days and 10 controls. Time and frequency domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV were conducted in all the rats as an indirect measure of their autonomic activity. The montelukast-treated animals showed an increase in root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD, as well as an increase in HRV spectrum total power (TP and power of very low (VLF spectral component. This suggests that due to its anti-inflammatory and its anti-leukotriene effect, montelukast improves overall autonomic activity, with no preferential influence on either the sympathetic or parasympathetic part. Furthermore, the increase in VLF corresponds to attenuation of inflammatory response. In conclusion, this study showed that aside from its antagonistic effect on leukotriene receptors, montelukast can also modulate autonomic activity.

  17. Cardiac autonomic imbalance by social stress in rodents: understanding putative biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K Wood, Phd

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress or traumatic events can lead to the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition to the debilitating consequences on mental health, patients with psychiatric disorders also suffer from autonomic imbalance, making them susceptible to a variety of medical disorders. Emerging evidence utilizing spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, a reliable noninvasive measure of cardiovascular autonomic regulation, indicates that patients with depression and various anxiety disorders (i.e., panic, social, generalized anxiety disorders, and post traumatic stress disorder are characterized by decreased HRV. Social stressors in rodents are ethologically relevant experimental stressors that recapitulate many of the dysfunctional behavioral and physiological changes that occur in psychological disorders. In this review, evidence from clinical studies and preclinical stress models identify putative biomarkers capable of precipitating the comorbidity between disorders of the mind and autonomic dysfunction. Specifically, the role of corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y and inflammation are investigated. The impetus for this review is to highlight stress-related biomarkers that may prove critical in the development of autonomic imbalance in stress -related psychiatric disorders.

  18. Methods of investigation for cardiac autonomic dysfunction in human research studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardi, Luciano; Spallone, Vincenza; Stevens, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    reviewed the limitations and strengths of the available diagnostic approaches for CAN and the need for developing new tests for autonomic function. It was concluded that the most sensitive and specific approaches currently available to evaluate CAN in clinical research are: 1) heart rate variability, 2...

  19. Method to measure autonomic control of cardiac function using time interval parameters from impedance cardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.H.; Boesveldt, S.; Elbertse, E.; Berendse, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    The time difference between the electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram can be considered as a measure for the time delay between the electrical and mechanical activities of the heart. This time interval, characterized by the pre-ejection period (PEP), is related to the sympathetic autonomous ner

  20. Significance of cardiac sympathetic nervous system abnormality for predicting vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Kawamura, Mitsuharu; Asano, Taku; Hamazaki, Yuji; Tanno, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Youichi [Showa University School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suyama, Jumpei; Shinozuka, Akira; Gokan, Takehiko [Showa University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Neuronal system activity plays an important role for the prognosis of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using {sup 123}I metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) scintigraphy, we investigated whether a cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) abnormality would be associated with an increased risk of vascular events in patients with paroxysmal AF. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 69 consecutive patients (67 {+-} 13 years, 62% men) with paroxysmal AF who did not have structural heart disease. SNS integrity was assessed from the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio on delayed imaging. Serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured before {sup 123}I-MIBG study. During a mean of 4.5 {+-} 3.6 years follow-up, 19 patients had myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure (range: 0.2-11.5 years). SNS abnormality (H/M ratio <2.7) and high CRP ({>=}0.3 mg/dl) were associated with the vascular events (58.3% in 14 of 24 patients with SNS abnormality vs 11.1% in 5 of 45 patients without SNS abnormality, p < 0.0001, 52.4% in 11 of 21 patients with high CRP vs 16.7% in 8 of 48 patients without high CRP, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounding variables such as age, left atrial dimension and left ventricular function, SNS abnormality was an independent predictor of vascular events with a hazard ratio of 4.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-12.6, p = 0.014]. Further, SNS abnormality had an incremental and additive prognostic power in combination with high CRP with an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.1 (95% CI: 1.5-10.9, p = 0.006). SNS abnormality is predictive of vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal AF. (orig.)

  1. Significance of cardiac sympathetic nervous system abnormality for predicting vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuronal system activity plays an important role for the prognosis of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using 123I metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy, we investigated whether a cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) abnormality would be associated with an increased risk of vascular events in patients with paroxysmal AF. 123I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 69 consecutive patients (67 ± 13 years, 62% men) with paroxysmal AF who did not have structural heart disease. SNS integrity was assessed from the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio on delayed imaging. Serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured before 123I-MIBG study. During a mean of 4.5 ± 3.6 years follow-up, 19 patients had myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure (range: 0.2-11.5 years). SNS abnormality (H/M ratio <2.7) and high CRP (≥0.3 mg/dl) were associated with the vascular events (58.3% in 14 of 24 patients with SNS abnormality vs 11.1% in 5 of 45 patients without SNS abnormality, p < 0.0001, 52.4% in 11 of 21 patients with high CRP vs 16.7% in 8 of 48 patients without high CRP, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounding variables such as age, left atrial dimension and left ventricular function, SNS abnormality was an independent predictor of vascular events with a hazard ratio of 4.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-12.6, p = 0.014]. Further, SNS abnormality had an incremental and additive prognostic power in combination with high CRP with an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.1 (95% CI: 1.5-10.9, p = 0.006). SNS abnormality is predictive of vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal AF. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of diabetic autonomic neuropathy by [sup 123]I-metaiodobenzyl-guanidine (MIBG) cardiac imaging. Initial report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osonoi, Takeshi; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Saitou, Miyoko; Kuroda, Yasuhisa; Uchimi, Nobuo; Ishioka, Kuniharu (Mitokyoudou General Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan)); Onuma, Tomio; Suga, Shigeki; Takebe, Kazuo

    1994-11-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography was performed in 52 diabetics and 10 healthy volunteers using MIBG. The diabetics had no particular findings of electrocardiography, echocardiography, or exercise thallium imaging and no cardiovascular episodes. The healthy volunteers had no abnormal findings on exercise thallium imaging or glucose tolerance test. The average relative regional uptake (RRU) was decreased in the inferoposterior wall compared with the anterior or lateral wall in both the diabetics and volunteers. According to the RRU and visual images, we divided the diabetics into the following four groups: 14 who were normal (group N), 30 with segmental defects (group S), 4 with diffuse defects (group D) and 4 without accumulation (group DH). Diabetic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) and hypertension were more frequent in group S than group N. However, there were no significant differences in the physiological evidence of autonomic neuropathy (C.V. of the R-R interval on the ECG and blood pressure response to standing or deep breathing) between groups S and N. Vibration sense was significantly more impaired in group S than in group N. These results suggest that cardiac imaging with MIBG might be a useful examination for the early diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. (author).

  3. Cardiac autonomic functions and the emergence of violence in a highly realistic model of social conflict in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozsef eHaller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the multitude of factors that can transform human social interactions into violent conflicts, biological features received much attention in recent years as correlates of decision making and aggressiveness especially in critical situations. We present here a highly realistic new model of human aggression and violence, where genuine acts of aggression are readily performed and which at the same time allows the parallel recording of biological concomitants. Particularly, we studied police officers trained at the International Training Centre (Budapest, Hungary, who are prepared to perform operations under extreme conditions of stress. We found that aggressive arousal can transform a basically peaceful social encounter into a violent conflict. Autonomic recordings show that this change is accompanied by increased heart rates, which was associated earlier with reduced cognitive complexity of perceptions (attentional myopia and promotes a bias towards hostile attributions and aggression. We also observed reduced heart rate variability in violent subjects, which is believed to signal a poor functioning of prefrontal-subcortical inhibitory circuits and reduces self-control. Importantly, these autonomic particularities were observed already at the beginning of social encounters i.e. before aggressive acts were initiated, suggesting that individual characteristics of the stress-response define the way in which social pressure affects social behavior, particularly the way in which this develops into violence. Taken together, these findings suggest that cardiac autonomic functions are valuable external symptoms of internal motivational states and decision making processes, and raise the possibility that behavior under social pressure can be predicted by the individual characteristics of stress responsiveness.

  4. The significance of amlodipine on autonomic nervous system adjustment (ANSA method: A new approach in the treatment of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardiovascular autonomic modulation is altered in patients with essential hypertension. Objective To evaluate acute and long-term effects of amlodipine on cardiovascular autonomic function and haemodynamic status in patients with mild essential hypertension. Methods. Ninety patients (43 male, mean age 52.12 ±10.7 years with mild hypertension were tested before, 30 minutes after the first 5 mg oral dose of amlodipine and three weeks after monotherapy with amlodipine. A comprehensive study protocol was done including finger blood pressure variability (BPV and heart rate variability (HRV beat-to-beat analysis with impedance cardiography, ECG with software short-term HRV and nonlinear analysis, 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring with QT and HRV analysis, 24-hour blood pressure (BP monitoring with systolic and diastolic BPV analysis, cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests, cold pressure test, mental stress test. The patients were also divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic groups, depending on predominance in short time spectral analysis of sympathovagal balance according to low frequency and high frequency values. Results. We confirmed a significant systolic and diastolic BP reduction, and a reduction of pulse pressure during day, night and early morning hours. The reduction of supraventricular and ventricular ectopic beats during the night was also achieved with therapy, but without statistical significance. The increment of sympathetic activity in early phase of amlodipine therapy was without statistical significance and persistence of sympathetic predominance after a few weeks of therapy detected based on the results of short-term spectral HRV analysis. All time domain parameters of long-term HRV analysis were decreased and low frequency amongst spectral parameters. Amlodipne reduced baroreflex sensitivity after three weeks of therapy, but increased it immediately after the administration of the first dose. Conclusion. The results

  5. Network representation of cardiac interbeat intervals for monitoring restitution of autonomic control for heart transplant patients

    CERN Document Server

    Makowiec, Danuta; Graff, Beata; Makowiec, Joanna Danuta; Kryszewski, Stanislaw; Graff, Beata; Wdowczyk-Szulc, Joanna; Buchnowiecka, Marta Zarczynska-; Gruchala, Marcin; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The aim is to present the ability of a network of transitions as a nonlinear tool providing a graphical representation of a time series. This representation is used for cardiac RR-intervals in follow-up observation of changes in heart rhythm of patients recovering after heart transplant.

  6. The effects of chewing versus caffeine on alertness, cognitive performance and cardiac autonomic activity during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Mark; Pavy, Alan; van den Heuvel, Cameron

    2006-12-01

    Chewing has been shown to alleviate feelings of sleepiness and improve cognitive performance during the day. This study investigated the effect of chewing on alertness and cognitive performance across one night without sleep as well as the possible mediating role of cardiac autonomic activity. Fourteen adults participated in a randomized, counterbalanced protocol employing a chewing, placebo and caffeine condition. Participants completed tasks assessing psychomotor vigilance, tracking, grammatical reasoning, alertness and sleepiness each hour across the night. All participants received either placebo or caffeine (200 mg), while the chewing condition also chewed on a tasteless and odorless substance for 15 min each hour. Heart rate (HR), root mean square of the successive differences in R-R intervals on the ECG (RMSSD), and preejection period (PEP) were simultaneously recorded. Alertness and cognitive performance amongst the chewing condition did not differ or were in fact worse when compared with placebo. Similarly, measures of HR and RMSSD remained the same between these two conditions; however, PEP was reduced in the later part of the night in the chewing condition compared with a relative increase for placebo. Caffeine led to improved speed and accuracy on cognitive tasks and increased alertness when compared with chewing. Relative increases in RMSSD and reductions in HR were demonstrated following caffeine; however, no change in PEP was seen. Strong associations between cardiac parasympathetic activity and complex cognitive tasks, as well as between subjective alertness and simpler cognitive tasks, suggest a differential process mediating complex versus simple cognitive performance during sleep deprivation.

  7. Neuron-glia crosstalk in the autonomic nervous system and its possible role in the progression of metabolic syndrome: A new hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO eDEL RIO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is characterized by the following physiological alterations: increase in abdominal fat, insulin resistance, high concentration of triglycerides, low levels of HDL, high blood pressure and a generalized inflammatory state. One of the pathophysiological hallmarks of this syndrome is the presence of neurohumoral activation, which involve autonomic imbalance associated to hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system. Indeed, enhanced sympathetic drive has been linked to the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarct and obstructive sleep apnea. Glial cells, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system, control synaptic transmission and regulate neuronal function by releasing bioactive molecules called gliotransmitters. Recently, a new family of plasma membrane channels called hemichannels has been described to allow the release of gliotransmitters and modulate neuronal firing rate. Moreover, a growing amount of evidence indicates that uncontrolled hemichannel opening could impair glial cell functions, affecting synaptic transmission and neuronal survival. Given that glial cell functions are disturbed in various metabolic diseases, we hypothesize that progression of MS may relies on hemichannel-dependent impairment of glial-to-neuron communication by a mechanism related to dysfunction of inflammatory response and mitochondrial metabolism of glial cells. In this manuscript, we discuss how glial cells may contribute to the enhanced sympathetic drive observed in MS, and shed light about the possible role of hemichannels in this process.

  8. Neuron-Glia Crosstalk in the Autonomic Nervous System and Its Possible Role in the Progression of Metabolic Syndrome: A New Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Rodrigo; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A; Orellana, Juan A; Retamal, Mauricio A

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by the following physiological alterations: increase in abdominal fat, insulin resistance, high concentration of triglycerides, low levels of HDL, high blood pressure, and a generalized inflammatory state. One of the pathophysiological hallmarks of this syndrome is the presence of neurohumoral activation, which involve autonomic imbalance associated to hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system. Indeed, enhanced sympathetic drive has been linked to the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarct, and obstructive sleep apnea. Glial cells, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system, control synaptic transmission, and regulate neuronal function by releasing bioactive molecules called gliotransmitters. Recently, a new family of plasma membrane channels called hemichannels has been described to allow the release of gliotransmitters and modulate neuronal firing rate. Moreover, a growing amount of evidence indicates that uncontrolled hemichannel opening could impair glial cell functions, affecting synaptic transmission and neuronal survival. Given that glial cell functions are disturbed in various metabolic diseases, we hypothesize that progression of MS may relies on hemichannel-dependent impairment of glial-to-neuron communication by a mechanism related to dysfunction of inflammatory response and mitochondrial metabolism of glial cells. In this manuscript, we discuss how glial cells may contribute to the enhanced sympathetic drive observed in MS, and shed light about the possible role of hemichannels in this process.

  9. Moderate Exercise Restores Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function and Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Obese Rats Induced by High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mello Gomes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Metabolic syndrome has been identified as one of the most significant threats to human health in the 21st century. Exercise training has been shown to counteract obesity and metabolic syndrome. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of moderate exercise training on pancreatic beta-cell function and autonomic nervous system (ANS activity in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Methods: Weaning rats were divided into four groups: rats fed a standard chow or HFD (sedentary, Control-SED and HFD-SED; or exercised, Control-EXE and HFD-EXE, respectively. Exercised rats ran (from 21- to 91-days-old for 60 minutes (3 times/week over a 10-week period. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. Pancreatic islets were isolated to study glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS. Parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve electrical signals were measured, and liver samples were processed and histologically analyzed. Results: Exercise prevented obesity, insulin resistance, and liver steatosis as well as improved total cholesterol, ALT, and AST levels. Islets from HFD rats showed insulin hypersecretion which was ameliorated by exercise. Exercise decreased vagal nerve activity in the HFD-EXE group and increased the activity of the sympathetic nervous system in both exercised groups. Conclusion: Exercise prevents obesity and liver steatosis and restores pancreatic beta-cell function and ANS activity in HFD-obese rats.

  10. The effects of stimulation of the autonomic nervous system via perioperative nutrition on postoperative ileus and anastomotic leakage following colorectal surgery (SANICS II trial): a study protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Emmeline G; Smeets, Boudewijn JJ; Dekkers, Marloes; Buise, Marc D; de Jonge, Wouter J.; Slooter, Gerrit D; Reilingh, Tammo S de Vries; Wegdam, Johannes A; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard AP; Rutten, Harm JT; de Hingh, Ignace HJT; Hiligsmann, Mickael; Buurman, Wim A.; Luyer, Misha DP

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative ileus and anastomotic leakage are important complications following colorectal surgery associated with short-term morbidity and mortality. Previous experimental and preclinical studies have shown that a short intervention with enriched enteral nutrition dampens inflammation via stimulation of the autonomic nervous system and thereby reduces postoperative ileus. Furthermore, early administration of enteral nutrition reduced anastomotic leakage. This study will investig...

  11. The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder versus resilience on nocturnal autonomic nervous system activity as functions of sleep stage and time of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Bell, Kimberly; Mellman, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with sleep disturbances including alterations in sleep stages and recently, elevated nocturnal autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal (i.e., dominance of the sympathetic nervous system over the parasympathetic nervous system). Data suggest that sleep contributes to the regulation of ANS activity. In our previous ambulatory heart rate variability (HRV) monitoring study, strong relationships between sleep and nocturnal ANS activity in resilient participants (i.e., individuals who had never had PTSD despite exposure to high-impact trauma) were not seen with PTSD. In this study, we examined the impact of PTSD vs. resilience on ANS activity as a function of sleep stage and time of sleep. Participants (age 18-35) with current PTSD (n=38) and resilience (n=33) completed two overnight polysomnography recordings in a lab setting. The second night electrocardiogram was analyzed for frequency domain HRV parameters and heart rate within rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep periods. Results indicated that ANS arousal indexed by HRV was greater during REM compared with NREM sleep and that the REM-NREM difference was greater in the PTSD than in the resilient participants. This effect of PTSD was reduced to non-significance when analyses controlled for REM sleep percentage, which was lower with PTSD. Exploratory analyses revealed that the REM-NREM difference in HRV was correlated with REM sleep percentage in resilient participants, but not with PTSD. In contrast with our data from home settings, the present study did not find increased overall nocturnal ANS arousal with PTSD. Analyses did reveal higher heart rate during initial NREM sleep with more rapid decline over the course of NREM sleep with PTSD compared with resilience. Findings suggest that elevated ANS arousal indexed by heart rate with PTSD is specific to the early part of sleep and possible impairment in regulating ANS activity with PTSD related to

  12. Reduced cardiac autonomic response to deep breathing: A heritable vulnerability trait in patients with schizophrenia and their healthy first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Wen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Kuo, Terry B J; Huang, San-Yuan; Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An

    2016-09-30

    Reduced resting heart rate variability (HRV) has been observed in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, suggesting genetic predispositions. However, findings have not been consistent. We assessed cardiac autonomic response to deep breathing in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (n=45; 26 female; aged 39.69±14.82 years). Data were compared to healthy controls (n=45; 26 female; aged 38.27±9.79 years) matched for age, gender, body mass index and physical activity as well as to unmedicated patients with acute schizophrenia (n=45; 25 female; aged 37.31±12.65 years). Electrocardiograms were recorded under supine resting and deep-breathing conditions (10-12breaths/min). We measured HRV components including variance, low-frequency (LF) power, which may reflect baroreflex function, high-frequency (HF) power, which reflects cardiac parasympathetic activity, and LF/HF ratio, which may reflect sympatho-vagal balance. Patients rather than relatives exhibited lower resting-state HRV (variance, LF, and HF) than controls. As expected, deep breathing induced an increase in variance and HF-HRV in controls. However, such a response was significantly reduced in both patients and their relatives. In conclusion, the diminished cardiac autonomic reactivity to deep breathing seen in patients and their unaffected relatives indicates that this pattern of cardiac autonomic dysregulation may be regarded as a genetic trait marker for schizophrenia. PMID:27442977

  13. Depression and Cardiac Disease: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Jeff C.; Christopher M Celano; Beach, Scott R.; Shweta R. Motiwala; Januzzi, James L.

    2013-01-01

    In patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), depression is common, persistent, and associated with worse health-related quality of life, recurrent cardiac events, and mortality. Both physiological and behavioral factors—including endothelial dysfunction, platelet abnormalities, inflammation, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and reduced engagement in health-promoting activities—may link depression with adverse cardiac outcomes. Because of the potential impact of depression on quality of...

  14. Relationship between the mismatch of 123I-BMIPP and 201Tl myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography and autonomic nervous system activity in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the mismatch of thallium-201 (Tl) and iodine-123-beta-methyl-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and autonomic nervous system activity in myocardial infarction (MI) patients. The subjects were 40 patients (34 males, 6 females) who underwent examinations by 123I-BMIPP and 201Tl myocardial SPECT imaging and 24-hour Holter monitoring within a 3-day period 3 weeks after the onset of their first MI. R-R intervals were analyzed every hour over a period of 24 hours by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). High frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) were defined as markers of cardiac vagal activity in the former and the LF/HF ratio as sympathetic activity. Greater or more extensive decreases in the BMIPP image than that in the Tl image were defined as a positive mismatch. Patients were divided into positive and negative mismatch groups of 20 patients each. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in age, sex, site of infarction, max CK (creatine kinase), max CK-MB, or left ventricular ejection fraction. The incidences of clinical signs suggesting residual myocardial ischemia were significantly greater in the positive than in the negative mismatch group (P123I-BMIPP and 201Tl myocardial SPECT 3 weeks after a first acute myocardial infarction with uncomplicated moderate or severe heart failure and decreased heart rate variability are related to residual myocardial ischemia. A combined assessment of heart rate variability in 24 hour Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring and perfusion-metabolism mismatch in 123I-BMIPP and 201Tl myocardial SPECT is useful for determining residual myocardial ischemia in the follow-up of those with acute myocardial infarction. (author)

  15. Autonomic involvement in Parkinson's disease: pathology, pathophysiology, clinical features and possible peripheral biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cersosimo, Maria G; Benarroch, Eduardo E

    2012-02-15

    Autonomic nervous system involvement occurs at early stages in both Parkinson's disease (PD) and incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD), and affects the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems (ENS). It has been proposed that alpha-synuclein (α-SYN) pathology in PD has a distal to proximal progression along autonomic pathways. The ENS is affected before the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), and distal axons of cardiac sympathetic nerves degenerate before there is loss of paravertebral sympathetic ganglion neurons. Consistent with neuropathological findings, some autonomic manifestations such as constipation or impaired cardiac uptake of norepinephrine precursors, occur at early stages of the disease even before the onset of motor symptoms. Biopsy of peripheral tissues may constitute a promising approach to detect α-SYN neuropathology in autonomic nerves and a useful early biomarker of PD.

  16. Imaging of cardiac innervation: when will it reach clinical value?; Bildgebung der kardialen Innervation: Wann gelingt der Sprung in die Klinik?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefers, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany); Inst. fuer Arterioskleroseforschung, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ., Muenster (Germany); Schober, O. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    The autonomic nervous system is involved in the regulation of the majority of basic cardiac and vascular functions, e.g. the control of perfusion, rhythm, metabolism and contraction. This results in an involvement of the autonomic nervous system in many pathophysiologic processes affecting the heart. Furthermore, in clinical medicine the autonomic nervous system is a target of specific pharmacological treatment such as {beta}-blockade. Imaging of the autonomic nervous system in a clinical context should therefore proof useful in clinical decision making and therapy control of cardiovascular diseases. Today, scintigraphic techniques are a unique mean to image and quantify sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac innervation non-invasively in vivo. Although these technologies are already available, these are not yet implemented in clinical algorithms. (orig.)

  17. Heart rate variability and the anxious client: cardiac autonomic and behavioral associations with therapeutic alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Trisha; Meara, Alan; Psychotherapy, M Gestalt; Lal, Sara

    2014-08-01

    This exploratory study was designed to investigate the link between a client's heart rate variability (HRV) and the forming of a therapeutic alliance (TA) during psychotherapy. Change in HRV is associated with many psychological and physiological situations, including cardiac mortality. Cardiac effects were evaluated during therapy in 30 symptomatically anxious clients using HRV during six weekly 1-hour therapy sessions (S1-S6). Therapeutic index (TI), a measure of TA, was evaluated using skin conductance resonance between client and therapist. The Working Alliance Inventory provides a subjective measure of TA. State and trait anxiety and mood states were also assessed. Most HRV parameters were highest during S4. The sympathovagal balance was highest in S1 but stabilized after S2. In S4, TI was linked to high HRV parameters. Overall higher anxiety levels seem to be associated to lower HRV parameters. Conversely, in S4, high HRV parameters were linked to higher mood scores. This study found that a subjective measure of TA contradicted the physiological outcome. Results suggest that physiological data collected during therapy are a more accurate barometer of TA forming. These research findings suggest a need for further research identifying physiological markers in clients with a variety of mental health disorders over long-term therapy. PMID:25010104

  18. Early life adversities and adolescent antisocial behavior: The role of cardiac autonomic nervous system reactivity in the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, J J; Van Roon, A M; Groot, P F C; Riese, H

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, the role of pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was studied in the association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior in adolescence. PEP and RSA task reactivity and recovery to a public speaking task were assessed in adolescents from a longitudinal population-based study (N=624, Mage=16.14 years, 49.2% boys). Perinatal adversities were unrelated to antisocial behavior, but experiencing more stressful adversities between age 0 and 15 was associated with antisocial behavior at age 16 in boys with blunted PEP reactivity and smaller PEP differences from rest to recovery. Number of adversities between age 0 and 15 was associated with antisocial behavior in boys with blunted and girls with heightened RSA reactivity and larger PEP differences from rest to recovery. The association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior were small in effect size and depended upon sex and PEP and RSA reactivity and recovery.

  19. Early life adversities and adolescent antisocial behavior : The role of cardiac autonomic nervous system reactivity in the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J. J.; Van Roon, A. M.; Groot, P. F. C.; Riese, H.

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, the role of pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was studied in the association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior in adolescence. PEP and RSA task reactivity and recovery to a public speaking task were assessed in adolescents from a l

  20. A study on cardiac autonomic modulation during pregnancy by non-invasive heart rate variability measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritesh Hariprasad Gandhi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Remarkable and uncontrollable changes with modification during pregnancy are connected with the autonomic control and consequently with the heart rate variability (HRV. Heart rate variability is a sum of different mechanisms and if pregnancy is a state of change, these modifications could be extracted from HRV analysis. Objective: To assess the effect of pregnancy on heart rate variability among pregnant mothers during first trimester of pregnancy and third trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: HRV was measured for 5 minutes of continuous recording of electrocardiogram (ECG lead II, using windows based HRV analysis system variowin-HR after obtaining permission from the Institutional Review Board of Government Medical College, Bhavnagar and written consent from 30 pregnant subjects and 30 non-pregnant control subjects at autonomic function lab, Dept of Physiology, Bhavnagar. Result: Frequency domain parameters, very low frequency (VLF, low frequency (LF, high frequency (HF and HF normalized unit (nu were significantly decreased and LF (nu and LF/HF significantly increased in pregnant subject in 3 rd trimester as compared to their 1 st trimester of pregnancy. Time Domain parameters like SDNN, RMSSD, SDSD, NN50 count, pNN50, SD1/SD2, triangular HRV index and average R-R interval were significantly decreased during 3 rd trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion: The inhibition of resting parasympathetic activity or vagal blockage and an increment of the sympathetic modulation during the 3 rd third trimester of gestation in pregnancy as compared to their 1 st trimester and healthy non-pregnant subjects. Sympathovagal imbalance and abnormally low HRV may more pronounce during later stage of normal pregnancy.

  1. Evaluation of cardiac autonomic nerves by iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy and ambulatory electrocardiography in patients after arterial switch operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Hajime; Maeda, Masanobu; Miyahara, Ken [Shakaihoken Chukyo Hospital, Nagoya (Japan)] [and others

    2000-05-01

    The autonomic cardiac nerves reach the heart after passing through the vicinity of the aortic root and the pulmonary trunk. The arterial switch operation (ASO) completely transects the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. Therefore, this surgical procedure virtually denerves the heart. Cardiac sympathetic denervation and reinnervation were evaluated in patients after ASO using iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy and parasympathetic denervation and reinnervation using ambulatory electrocardiography [Holter electrocardiogram (ECG)]. MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 14 patients who underwent ASO (ASO group) and 3 patients who underwent other open heart surgery (control group). All patients in the ASO group underwent the operation in the neonatal or infantile period. Planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of the myocardium were obtained. Defect score was determined by the SPECT images as a semi-quantitative index. The mean interval between ASO and MIBG scintigraphy was 25.6{+-}14.6 months. Holter ECG was also performed in 14 patients in the ASO group and 19 age-matched normal children. The Holter ECGs were plotted on a Lorenz plot. The H index, which is related to vagal tone for the cardiovascular system, was calculated from the R-R intervals. The mean interval between the ASO and Holter ECG was 8.3{+-}9.7 months. MIBG scintigraphy in the control group demonstrated an almost normal homogeneous tracer uptake, but showed extremely reduced tracer uptake and significantly higher defect score in the ASO group. The extent and degree of the reduction of MIBG uptake improved with time after the ASO. The heart-to-mediastinum MIBG count ratio tended to increase with time. The H index of the ASO group was lower than that of normal children (<12 months: Control group 0.0280{+-}0.0068 vs ASO group 0.0219{+-}0.0083), and gradually increased with time (1-3 years: 0.0470{+-}0.0157 vs 0.0314{+-}0.0124). (author)

  2. [sup 123]I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in diabetic patients. Relationship with [sup 201]Tl uptake and cardiac autonomic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Kurose, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Takashi; Flores, L.G. II; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Futami, Shigemi; Tamura, Shozo; Matsukura, Shigeru (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan))

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of diabetic myocardial damage (suspected myocardial damage; SMD) diagnosed by [sup 201]Tl-SPECT and diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy (AN) on myocardial MIBG uptake in patients with NIDDM. Eighty-seven diabetic patients divided into four subgroups: 23 with SMD (+) AN (+); 19 with SMD (+) AN (-); 27 with SMD (-) AN (+); 18 with SMD (-) AN (-), and 10 controls were studied. Both planar and SPECT images were taken at 30 minutes (early) and 3 hours (delayed) after [sup 123]I-MIBG injection. The heart to mediastinum uptake ratio (H/M) and washout ratio of [sup 123]I-MIBG (WR) were obtained from both planar images. Similarly, the difference between the [sup 201]Tl image and the [sup 123]I-MIBG image in the total uptake score (TUS) was taken as the difference in the total uptake score ([Delta]TUS) representing cardiac sympathetic denervation without SMD. On both early and delayed planar images, the mean H/M value in the subgroups of diabetic patients was significantly lower in the SMD (+) AN (+) group than in the control group, but among those subgroups, there was statistically significant difference between the SMD (+) AN (+) and SMD (-) AN (-) groups only on the delayed images. Regarding the WR value, there was no statistically significant difference among subjects. On SPECT image analysis, the diabetic subgroup with AN or SMD had statistically significant lower values for TUS than those of the control group. Among diabetics, there was a statistically significant differences between SMD [+] AN [+] and SMD [-] AN [-] on both early and delayed images. Similarly, the SMD [+] AN [-] group also had significantly lower values than those of SMD [-] AN [-] on early images. Regarding [Delta]TUS, there was a statistically significant differences between AN [+] subgroups and controls. Similarly, the mean value for [Delta]TUS was much higher in AN [+] subgroups than in AN [-] subgroups with or without SMD in diabetes

  3. {sup 123}I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in diabetic patients. Relationship with {sup 201}Tl uptake and cardiac autonomic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Kurose, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Takashi; Flores, L.G. II; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Futami, Shigemi; Tamura, Shozo; Matsukura, Shigeru [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of diabetic myocardial damage (suspected myocardial damage; SMD) diagnosed by {sup 201}Tl-SPECT and diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy (AN) on myocardial MIBG uptake in patients with NIDDM. Eighty-seven diabetic patients divided into four subgroups: 23 with SMD (+) AN (+); 19 with SMD (+) AN (-); 27 with SMD (-) AN (+); 18 with SMD (-) AN (-), and 10 controls were studied. Both planar and SPECT images were taken at 30 minutes (early) and 3 hours (delayed) after {sup 123}I-MIBG injection. The heart to mediastinum uptake ratio (H/M) and washout ratio of {sup 123}I-MIBG (WR) were obtained from both planar images. Similarly, the difference between the {sup 201}Tl image and the {sup 123}I-MIBG image in the total uptake score (TUS) was taken as the difference in the total uptake score ({Delta}TUS) representing cardiac sympathetic denervation without SMD. On both early and delayed planar images, the mean H/M value in the subgroups of diabetic patients was significantly lower in the SMD (+) AN (+) group than in the control group, but among those subgroups, there was statistically significant difference between the SMD (+) AN (+) and SMD (-) AN (-) groups only on the delayed images. Regarding the WR value, there was no statistically significant difference among subjects. On SPECT image analysis, the diabetic subgroup with AN or SMD had statistically significant lower values for TUS than those of the control group. Among diabetics, there was a statistically significant differences between SMD [+] AN [+] and SMD [-] AN [-] on both early and delayed images. Similarly, the SMD [+] AN [-] group also had significantly lower values than those of SMD [-] AN [-] on early images. Regarding {Delta}TUS, there was a statistically significant differences between AN [+] subgroups and controls. Similarly, the mean value for {Delta}TUS was much higher in AN [+] subgroups than in AN [-] subgroups with or without SMD in diabetes

  4. Renal denervation in an animal model of diabetes and hypertension: Impact on the autonomic nervous system and nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Ubiratan F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of renal denervation on cardiovascular reflexes and markers of nephropathy in diabetic-hypertensive rats have not yet been explored. Methods Aim: To evaluate the effects of renal denervation on nephropathy development mechanisms (blood pressure, cardiovascular autonomic changes, renal GLUT2 in diabetic-hypertensive rats. Forty-one male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR ~250 g were injected with STZ or not; 30 days later, surgical renal denervation (RD or sham procedure was performed; 15 days later, glycemia and albuminuria (ELISA were evaluated. Catheters were implanted into the femoral artery to evaluate arterial pressure (AP and heart rate variability (spectral analysis one day later in conscious animals. Animals were killed, kidneys removed, and cortical renal GLUT2 quantified (Western blotting. Results Higher glycemia (p vs. nondiabetics (p vs. SHR. Conclusions Renal denervation in diabetic-hypertensive rats improved previously reduced heart rate variability. The GLUT2 equally overexpressed by diabetes and renal denervation may represent a maximal derangement effect of each condition.

  5. Short-term ECG recording for the identification of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in people with diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Herbert F.; Pham, Phuong; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Spence, Ian

    2007-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious and increasing health problem worldwide. Compared to non-diabetics, patients experience an increased risk of all cardiovascular diseases, including dysfunctional neural control of the heart. Poor diagnoses of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) may result in increased incidence of silent myocardial infarction and ischaemia, which can lead to sudden death. Traditionally the Ewing battery of tests is used to identify CAN. The purpose of this study is to examine the usefulness of heart rate variability (HRV) analyses of short-term ECG recordings as a method for detecting CAN. HRV may be able to identify asymptomatic individuals, which the Ewing battery is not able to do. Several HRV parameters are assessed, including time and frequency domain, as well as nonlinear parameters. Eighteen out of thirty-eight individuals with diabetes were positive for two or more of the Ewing battery of tests indicating CAN. Approximate Entropy (ApEn), log normalized total power (LnTP) and log normalized high frequency (LnHF) power demonstrate a significant difference at p ECG recordings. Our study paves the way to assess the utility of nonlinear parameters in identifying asymptomatic CAN.

  6. Using the Initial Systolic Time Interval to assess cardiac autonomic function in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Meijer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI has been defined as the time difference between the peak electrical and peak mechanical activity of the heart. ISTI is obtained from the electro-cardiogram and the impedance cardiogram. The response of ISTI while breathing at rest and to a deep breathing stimulus was studied in a group of patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD and a group of healthy control subjects. ISTI showed substantial variability during these manoeuvres. The tests showed that the variability of RR and ISTI was substantially different between PD patients and controls. It is hypothesized that in PD patients the sympathetic system compensates for the loss of regulatory control function of the blood-pressure by the parasympathetic system. It is concluded that ISTI is a practical, additional and independent parameter that can be used to assist other tests in evaluating autonomic control of the heart in PD patients.doi:10.5617/jeb.216 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 98-101, 2011

  7. Usefulness of Cardiac Sympathetic Nerve Imaging Using (123)Iodine-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Scintigraphy for Predicting Sudden Cardiac Death in Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the human heart. Activation of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system is a cardinal pathophysiological abnormality associated with the failing human heart. Myocardial imaging using (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), an analog of norepinephrine, can be used to investigate the activity of norepinephrine, the predominant neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system. Many clinical trials have demonstrated that (123)I-MIBG scintigraphic parameters predict cardiac adverse events, especially sudden cardiac death, in patients with heart failure. In this review, we summarize results from published studies that have focused on the use of cardiac sympathetic nerve imaging using (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy for risk stratification of sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure.

  8. Sensitivity of the autonomic nervous system to visual and auditory affect across social and non-social domains in Williams syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maaria Järvinen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although individuals with Williams syndrome (WS typically demonstrate an increased appetitive social drive, their social profile is characterized by dissociations, including socially fearless behavior coupled with anxiousness, and distinct patterns of peaks and valleys of ability. The aim of this study was to compare the processing of social and non-social visually and aurally presented affective stimuli, at the levels of behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS responsivity, in individuals with WS contrasted with a typically developing (TD group, with the view of elucidating the highly sociable and emotionally sensitive predisposition noted in WS. Behavioral findings supported previous studies of enhanced competence in processing social over non-social stimuli by individuals with WS; however, the patterns of ANS functioning underlying the behavioral performance revealed a surprising profile previously undocumented in WS. Specifically, increased heart rate (HR reactivity, and a failure for electrodermal activity (EDA to habituate were found in individuals with WS contrasted with the TD group, predominantly in response to visual social-affective stimuli. Within the auditory domain, greater arousal linked to variation in heart beat period was observed in relation to music stimuli in individuals with WS. Taken together, the findings suggest that the pattern of ANS response in WS is more complex than previously noted, with increased arousal to face and music stimuli potentially underpinning the heightened behavioral emotionality to such stimuli. The lack of habituation may underlie the increased affiliation and attraction to faces characterizing individuals with WS. Future research directions are suggested.

  9. Responses of Six-Weeks Aquatic Exercise on the Autonomic Nervous System, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow and Lung Functions in Young Adults with Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweesak Janyacharoen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is a chronic respiratory disease. Sympathetic hypofunction is identified in all of the allergic rhinitis patients. Moreover, allergic rhinitis is associated with decreased peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF and impaired lung functions. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of six-week of aquatic exercise on the autonomic nervous system function, PNIF and lung functions in allergic rhinitis patients.Twenty-six allergic rhinitis patients, 12 males and 14 females were recruited in this study. Subjects were diagnosed by a physician based on history, physical examination, and positive reaction to a skin prick test. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. The control allergic rhinitis group received education and maintained normal life. The aquatic group performed aquatic exercise for 30 minutes a day, three days a week for six weeks. Heart rate variability, PNIF and lung functions were measured at the beginning, after three weeks and six weeks.There were statistically significant increased low frequency normal units (LF n.u., PNIF and showed decreased high frequency normal units (HF n.u. at six weeks after aquatic exercise compared with the control group.Six weeks of aquatic exercise could increase sympathetic activity and PNIF in allergicrhinitis patients.

  10. Physical therapy for airway clearance improves cardiac autonomic modulation in children with acute bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia P. Jacinto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effects of physical therapy on heart rate variability (HRV, especially in children, are still inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of conventional physical therapy (CPT for airway clearance and nasotracheal suction on the HRV of pediatric patients with acute bronchiolitis. METHOD: 24 children were divided into two groups: control group (CG, n=12 without respiratory diseases and acute bronchiolitis group (BG, n=12. The heart rate was recorded in the BG at four different moments: basal recording (30 minutes, 5 minutes after the CPT (10 minutes, 5 minutes after nasotracheal suction (10 minutes, and 40 minutes after nasotracheal suction (30 minutes. The CG was subjected to the same protocol, except for nasotracheal suction. To assess the HRV, we used spectrum analysis, which decomposes the heart rate oscillations into frequency bands: low frequency (LF=0.04-0.15Hz, which corresponds mainly to sympathetic modulation; and high frequency (HF=0.15-1.2Hz, corresponding to vagal modulation. RESULTS: Under baseline conditions, the BG showed higher values in LF oscillations, lower values in HF oscillations, and increased LF/HF ratio when compared to the CG. After CPT, the values for HRV in the BG were similar to those observed in the CG during basal recording. Five minutes after nasotracheal suction, the BG showed a decrease in LF and HF oscillations; however, after 40 minutes, the values were similar to those observed after application of CPT. CONCLUSIONS: The CPT and nasotracheal suction, both used for airway clearance, promote improvement in autonomic modulation of HRV in children with acute bronchiolitis.

  11. 123I-MIBG lung uptake in patients with diabetes mellitus. Correlation with cardiac autonomic neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between 123I-MIBG lung uptake and autonomic neuropathy (AN) in patients with diabetes mellitus. For the quantitative analysis, lung to upper mediastinum uptake ratio (L/M) and heart to upper mediastinum uptake ratio (H/M) were obtained from chest planar image. In addition, both lung washout ratio (%WR-L) and heart washout ratio (%WR-H) were calculated from early and delayed images. Similarly, exercised myocardial scintigraphy using 201Tl-chloride was done to rule out ischemia and lung to upper mediastinum uptake ratio (L/M-Tl) and heart to upper mediastinum uptake ratio (H/M-Tl) were obtained from chest planar image. Each indexes were compared in both diabetic group and control group. Both mean value of H/M and %WR-H in AN (+) group were significantly higher than those of control group. Mean value of L/M in each diabetic group was significantly higher than that of control group. Particularly, L/M of AN (+) group is higher than that of AN (-) group on early study. Mean value of %WR-L in AN (+) group was also significantly higher than that of control group. Regarding the 201Tl-uptake index, there was no statistical significance among in each group. The current study showed that abnormal pulmonary 123I-MIBG uptake in the lung existed in patients with diabetes mellitus. The phenomenon might be related with sympathetic dysfunction or severity of diabetes mellitus. (author)

  12. Aromatic effects of a Japanese citrus fruit—yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka)—on psychoemotional states and autonomic nervous system activity during the menstrual cycle: a single-blind randomized controlled crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Tamaki; Kimura, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Background Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), a yellow-golden colored citrus fruit, has traditionally been used to promote psychosomatic health in Japan. While the yuzu produces a distinctive, pleasing aroma of citrus and floral, the efficacy of its fragrance remains unknown. The present study investigated the soothing effects of the fragrance of yuzu essential oil from the perspective of autonomic nervous system activity, which plays a crucial role in the integrity of the mind-body connect...

  13. Aromatic effects of a Japanese citrus fruit-yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka)-on psychoemotional states and autonomic nervous system activity during the menstrual cycle: A single-blind randomized controlled crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Tamaki; Kimura, Tetsuya; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), a yellow-golden colored citrus fruit, has traditionally been used to promote psychosomatic health in Japan. While the yuzu produces a distinctive, pleasing aroma of citrus and floral, the efficacy of its fragrance remains unknown. The present study investigated the soothing effects of the fragrance of yuzu essential oil from the perspective of autonomic nervous system activity, which plays a crucial role in the integrity of the mind-body connec...

  14. Exposure to medium and high ambient levels of ozone causes adverse systemic inflammatory and cardiac autonomic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Wong, Hofer; Donde, Aneesh; Frelinger, Jessica; Dalton, Sarah; Ching, Wendy; Power, Karron; Balmes, John R

    2015-06-15

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to ozone increases cardiovascular morbidity. However, the specific biological mechanisms mediating ozone-associated cardiovascular effects are unknown. To determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of ozone causes changes in biomarkers of cardiovascular disease including heart rate variability (HRV), systemic inflammation, and coagulability, 26 subjects were exposed to 0, 100, and 200 ppb ozone in random order for 4 h with intermittent exercise. HRV was measured and blood samples were obtained immediately before (0 h), immediately after (4 h), and 20 h after (24 h) each exposure. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 20 h after exposure. Regression modeling was used to examine dose-response trends between the endpoints and ozone exposure. Inhalation of ozone induced dose-dependent adverse changes in the frequency domains of HRV across exposures consistent with increased sympathetic tone [increase of (parameter estimate ± SE) 0.4 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.1 in low- to high-frequency domain HRV ratio per 100 ppb increase in ozone at 4 h and 24 h, respectively (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01)] and a dose-dependent increase in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) across exposures at 24 h [increase of 0.61 ± 0.24 mg/l in CRP per 100 ppb increase in ozone (P = 0.01)]. Changes in HRV and CRP did not correlate with ozone-induced local lung inflammatory responses (BAL granulocytes, IL-6, or IL-8), but changes in HRV and CRP were associated with each other after adjustment for age and ozone level. Inhalation of ozone causes adverse systemic inflammatory and cardiac autonomic effects that may contribute to the cardiovascular mortality associated with short-term exposure.

  15. How to Calculate Renyi Entropy from Heart Rate Variability, and Why it Matters for Detecting Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eCornforth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN is a disease that involves nerve damage leading to an abnormal control of heart rate. An open question is to what extent this condition is detectable from Heart Rate Variability (HRV, which provides information only on successive intervals between heart beats, yet is non-invasive and easy to obtain from a 3-lead ECG recording. A variety of measures may be extracted from HRV, including time domain, frequency domain and more complex non-linear measures. Among the latter, Renyi Entropy has been proposed as a suitable measure that can be used to discriminate CAN from controls. However, all entropy methods require estimation of probabilities, and there are a number of ways in which this estimation can be made. In this work, we calculate Renyi entropy using several variations of the histogram method, and a density method based on sequences of RR intervals. In all, we calculate Renyi entropy using nine methods, and compare their effectiveness in separating the different classes of participants. We find that the histogram method using single RR intervals yields an entropy measure that is either incapable of discriminating CAN from controls, or that it provides little information that could not be gained from the standard deviation of the RR intervals. In contrast, probabilities calculated using a density method, based on sequences of RR intervals, yield an entropy measure that provides good separation between groups of participants, and provides information not available from the standard deviation. The main contribution of this work is that different approaches to calculating probability may affect the success of detecting disease. Our results bring new clarity to the methods used to calculate the Renyi entropy in general, and in particular, to the successful detection of CAN.

  16. Uncertainty in anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension is modulated by the autonomic nervous system--a fMRI study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Amandine; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Pellissier, Sonia; Ly, Huynh Giao; Dupont, Patrick; de Micheaux, Hugo Lafaye; Tack, Jan; Dantzer, Cécile; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Bonaz, Bruno

    2015-02-15

    The human brain responds both before and during the application of aversive stimuli. Anticipation allows the organism to prepare its nociceptive system to respond adequately to the subsequent stimulus. The context in which an uncomfortable stimulus is experienced may also influence neural processing. Uncertainty of occurrence, timing and intensity of an aversive event may lead to increased anticipatory anxiety, fear, physiological arousal and sensory perception. We aimed to identify, in healthy volunteers, the effects of uncertainty in the anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension, and the impact of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and anxiety-related psychological variables on neural mechanisms of anticipation of rectal distension using fMRI. Barostat-controlled uncomfortable rectal distensions were preceded by cued uncertain or certain anticipation in 15 healthy volunteers in a fMRI protocol at 3T. Electrocardiographic data were concurrently registered by MR scanner. The low frequency (LF)-component of the heart rate variability (HRV) time-series was extracted and inserted as a regressor in the fMRI model ('LF-HRV model'). The impact of ANS activity was analyzed by comparing the fMRI signal in the 'standard model' and in the 'LF-HRV model' across the different anticipation and distension conditions. The scores of the psychological questionnaires and the rating of perceived anticipatory anxiety were included as covariates in the fMRI data analysis. Our experiments led to the following key findings: 1) the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) is the only activation site that relates to uncertainty in healthy volunteers and is directly correlated to individual questionnaire score for pain-related anxiety; 2) uncertain anticipation of rectal distension involved several relevant brain regions, namely activation of sgACC and medial prefrontal cortex and deactivation of amygdala, insula, thalamus, secondary somatosensory cortex, supplementary

  17. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance. PMID:25807003

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF MONTELUKAST ON THE ACTIVITY OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ESTIMATED BY HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN EXPERIMENTAL PARTIAL BLADDER OUTLET OBSTRUCTION IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrek, Łukasz; Skowron, Beata; Baranowska, Agnieszka; Zurowski, Daniel; Thor, Piotr Jan

    2016-01-01

    Due to their paracrine action, leukotrienes released from the urothelium are involved in control of the bladder function. Anti-leukotriene agents appear to exert an ameliorating effect in bladder overactivity. It is unknown, whether their possible, modulatory impact on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity may also contribute to the potentially beneficial effect of those compounds. Therefore, our aim was to indirectly estimate the ANS function using the heart rate variability (HRV) study in rats with experimental partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO), reflecting human benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), treated with leukotriene receptor antagonist - montelukast (MLKT). Twenty rats with surgically induced PBOO lasting for 14 days, divided into two groups: group 1 (10 control subjects) and group 2 (10 MLKT-treated rats; 2 mg/rat/day) were subjected to HRV recordings, preceded by daily urine collection and a subsequent cystectomy with histopathological evaluation of collected bladders. Standard HRV time and spectral parameters were calculated. MLKT-treated animals demonstrated an increase in power of non-normalized LF (low frequency) and HF (high frequency) components with no change of the total HRV power. Moreover, an increase and decrease in normalized nLF and nHF, respectively, were assessed in those animals compared to the control. Additionally, a decrease in daily diuresis measurement was demonstrated in MLKT-treated animals. Montelukast treatment resulted in the functional ANS status re-arrangement, with sympathetic overdrive and parasympathetic withdrawal. Those changes may contribute to alleviation of bladder overactivity symptoms, independently on leukotriene receptors blockade. PMID:27476297

  19. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Roland Teixeira

    Full Text Available The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive

  20. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance.

  1. Usefulness of 123I-Meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy for evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nervous system function in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cardiac sympathetic nervous system function of diabetic patients with no definite cardiovascular complications other than hypertension was evaluated by 123I -MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. The subjects consisted of 82 diabetic patients, 59 men, 23 women, mean age 57 years, 17 with hypertension and 65 with normal blood pressure, and they were compared with normal controls (8 men and 3 women, mean age 54 years). Myocardial scintigraphy was performed 10 minutes and 4 hours after administration of MIBG. The superior mediastinum and whole myocardium were set as regions of interest, and the heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M ratio) and the washout rate (%WR) were calculated. The mean observation period was 18±12 months, and 17 of the 65 diabetic patients with normal blood pressure before the study developed hypertension during the observation period. There were significant differences in H/M ratio and %WR between the diabetic patients and normal controls (H/M ratio; 1.96±0.34 vs 2.27±0.20, %WR; 24.71±16.99% vs 12.89±11.94). The diabetic patients with hypertension had higher morbidity with diabetic retinopathy and a lower H/M ratio. The 17 patients who developed hypertension during the observation period showed an increase in %WR and a reduction in the H/M ratio. Five patients who died during the observation period had a reduced H/M ratio and increased of %WR. 123I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in diabetic patients was shown to be useful for detecting cardiac sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, predicting the development of hypertension, and identifying patients who had a poor outcome. Diabetic patients with abnormal signals on MIBG myocardial scintigraphy need to be monitored much more carefully. (K.H.)

  2. Usefulness of {sup 123}I-Meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy for evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nervous system function in diabetic patients.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Koji; Nakatani, Yuko; Doi, Kenji; Adachi, Gakuji; Takada, Kou

    2001-11-01

    The cardiac sympathetic nervous system function of diabetic patients with no definite cardiovascular complications other than hypertension was evaluated by {sup 123}I -MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. The subjects consisted of 82 diabetic patients, 59 men, 23 women, mean age 57 years, 17 with hypertension and 65 with normal blood pressure, and they were compared with normal controls (8 men and 3 women, mean age 54 years). Myocardial scintigraphy was performed 10 minutes and 4 hours after administration of MIBG. The superior mediastinum and whole myocardium were set as regions of interest, and the heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M ratio) and the washout rate (%WR) were calculated. The mean observation period was 18{+-}12 months, and 17 of the 65 diabetic patients with normal blood pressure before the study developed hypertension during the observation period. There were significant differences in H/M ratio and %WR between the diabetic patients and normal controls (H/M ratio; 1.96{+-}0.34 vs 2.27{+-}0.20, %WR; 24.71{+-}16.99% vs 12.89{+-}11.94). The diabetic patients with hypertension had higher morbidity with diabetic retinopathy and a lower H/M ratio. The 17 patients who developed hypertension during the observation period showed an increase in %WR and a reduction in the H/M ratio. Five patients who died during the observation period had a reduced H/M ratio and increased of %WR. {sup 123}I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in diabetic patients was shown to be useful for detecting cardiac sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, predicting the development of hypertension, and identifying patients who had a poor outcome. Diabetic patients with abnormal signals on MIBG myocardial scintigraphy need to be monitored much more carefully. (K.H.)

  3. Sensorized Garments and Textrode-Enabled Measurement Instrumentation for Ambulatory Assessment of the Autonomic Nervous System Response in the ATREC Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Llerena

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in textile materials, technology and miniaturization of electronics for measurement instrumentation has boosted the development of wearable measurement systems. In several projects sensorized garments and non-invasive instrumentation have been integrated to assess on emotional, cognitive responses as well as physical arousal and status of mental stress through the study of the autonomous nervous system. Assessing the mental state of workers under stressful conditions is critical to identify which workers are in the proper state of mind and which are not ready to undertake a mission, which might consequently risk their own life and the lives of others. The project Assessment in Real Time of the Stress in Combatants (ATREC aims to enable real time assessment of mental stress of the Spanish Armed Forces during military activities using a wearable measurement system containing sensorized garments and textile-enabled non-invasive instrumentation. This work describes the multiparametric sensorized garments and measurement instrumentation implemented in the first phase of the project required to evaluate physiological indicators and recording candidates that can be useful for detection of mental stress. For such purpose different sensorized garments have been constructed: a textrode chest-strap system with six repositionable textrodes, a sensorized glove and an upper-arm strap. The implemented textile-enabled instrumentation contains one skin galvanometer, two temperature sensors for skin and environmental temperature and an impedance pneumographer containing a 1-channel ECG amplifier to record cardiogenic biopotentials. With such combinations of garments and non-invasive measurement devices, a multiparametric wearable measurement system has been implemented able to record the following physiological parameters: heart and respiration rate, skin galvanic response, environmental and peripheral temperature. To ensure the proper functioning of the

  4. Study of the association between left ventricular diastolic impairment and cardiac autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients using [{sup 123}I] metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Rokuro; Tanaka, Shiro; Tojo, Osamu; Ishii, Tomofusa; Sato, Toshihiko; Fujii, Satoru [Osaka City General Hospital (Japan); Tumura, Kei

    1994-12-01

    The association between left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and myocardial MIBG accumulation was investigated. The subjects were 14 Type II diabetic patients who had no evidence of ischemic heat disease, LV hypertrophy or dilated cardiomyopathy as determined by exercise Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy and echocardiography. In 14 diabetic patients, isovolumic relaxation time (IRT) was measured by M-mode echocardiography, and the subjects were subdivided into two groups: Group1, 8 patients with impaired left ventricular diastolic function (IRT{>=}80 msec), and Group 2, 6 patients with normal left ventricular diastolic function (IRT<80 msec). {sup 123}I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy was performed, and the myocardial accumulation of {sup 123}I-MIBG was investigated. The ratio of myocardial to mediastinal MIBG uptake was significantly (p<0.01) lower in Group 1 than in Group 2. And scintigraphic defects were significantly (p<0.05) more numerous in Group 1 than in Group 2. Patients in Group 1 had a greater frequency of cardiac autonomic neuropathy evaluated by QTc interval and coefficient of variation of R-R interval, when compared with Group 2. These data suggest that, in diabetic patients with no evidence of ischemic heart disease, LV hypertrophy or dilated cardiomyopathy, impairment of left ventricular diastolic function is associated with cardiac autonomic neuropathy. (author).

  5. Investigation of Autonomic Nervous System Function and Influencing Factors of Employees in Changchun%长春市企业员工自主神经系统功能状况及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵璐; 张秀敏; 刘红箭; 李晶华; 吴方园; 刘妍妤; 刘莹圆; 王云

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过测量长春市企业员工的心率变异性,了解其自主神经系统功能状况,分析相关影响因素,为改善企业员工自主神经系统功能提供参考依据。方法:采用整群抽样的方法,以自填式调查问卷的形式收集企业员工的基本信息,采用SUN-8800健康检测系统对长春市两家企业427名员工进行心率变异性测定。结果:调查人群自主神经系统活性偏低的检出率为75.2%,调节功能异常的检出率为63.0%。多元线性回归分析显示,性别、年龄、企业性质、BMI指数、吸烟、饮酒对该人群的心率变异性频域指标的影响具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:长春市企业员工中普遍存在自主神经系统活性减低和调节功能失衡的现象,男性、大龄、超重与肥胖、吸烟、饮酒是企业员工自主神经系统功能的危险因素,其中,超重与肥胖、吸烟、饮酒是应进行干预的重要危险因素。%Objective: To know the status of autonomic nervous system function, analyze influencing factors, provide scientific basis for making policy of autonomic nervous system function improvement of employees in Changchun by measuring their heart rate variability. Methods:Questionnaire and SUN - 8800 health detecting system were conducted among 427 employees of 2 enterprises to gather essential information and determine heart rate variability through cluster sampling method. Results:There were 75. 2% of the survey population with lower functional ac⁃tiveness of the autonomic nervous system and 63. 0% with unbalanced regulation of autonomic nervous system. The results of multiple linear re⁃gression analysis indicated that there were statistical differences(P<0. 05) in frequency-domain indicators of heart rate variability because of different sex, age, type of enterprise, BMI index, smoking and drinking. Conclusion: The autonomic nervous system function of employees in

  6. Autonomic, locomotor and cardiac abnormalities in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy: targeting the renin–angiotensin system

    OpenAIRE

    Sabharwal, Rasna; Chapleau, MarkW.

    2013-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetic muscle diseases characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy. Mutations in sarcoglycans and other subunits of the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex cause muscular dystrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy in animals and humans. Aberrant autonomic signalling is recognized in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. We hypothesized that activation of the renin–angiotensin system contributes to skeletal muscle and autonomic dysfunction in mice defi...

  7. Macro-micro imaging of cardiac-neural circuits in co-cultures from normal and diseased hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bub, Gil; Burton, Rebecca-Ann B

    2015-07-15

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the modulation of normal cardiac rhythm, but is also implicated in modulating the heart's susceptibility to re-entrant ventricular and atrial arrhythmias. The mechanisms by which the autonomic nervous system is pro-arrhythmic or anti-arrhythmic is multifaceted and varies for different types of arrhythmia and their cardiac substrates. Despite decades of research in this area, fundamental questions related to how neuron density and spatial organization modulate cardiac wave dynamics remain unanswered. These questions may be ill-posed in intact tissues where the activity of individual cells is often experimentally inaccessible. Development of simplified biological models that would allow us to better understand the influence of neural activation on cardiac activity can be beneficial. This Symposium Review summarizes the development of in vitro cardiomyocyte cell culture models of re-entrant activity, as well as challenges associated with extending these models to include the effects of neural activation.

  8. Evaluation of cardiac sympathetic neuronal integrity in diabetic patients using iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Jung [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 134 Shincheon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Doo [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 134 Shincheon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Young Hoon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 134 Shincheon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Pyoung [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 134 Shincheon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Yong Woon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 134 Shincheon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hyung Sik [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 134 Shincheon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Yun [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 134 Shincheon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Seung Gil [Department of Endocrinology, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 134 Shincheon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is associated with increased mortality in diabetic patients. To evaluate the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in these patients, a prospective study was undertaken using iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The study groups consisted of ten diabetic patients with cardiac autonomic neuropathy (group I) and six without autonomic neuropathy (group II). Autonomic nervous function tests, thallium scan, radionuclide ventriculographic data including ejection fraction and wall motion study, and 24-h urine catecholamine levels were evaluated. {sup 123}I-MIBG SPET was performed at 30 min and 4 h following injection of 3 mCi of {sup 123}I-MIBG in groups I and II and in normal subjects (n=4). On planar images, the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio was measured. Defect pattern and severity of MIBG uptake were qualitatively analysed on SPET. Compared with control subjects, diabetic patients had a reduced H/M ratio regardless of the presence of clinical autonomic neuropathy. There was no difference in H/M ratio between groups I and II. On SPET images, focal or diffuse defects were demonstrated in all patients in group I, and in five of the six patients in group II. The extent of defects tended to be more pronounced in group I than in group II. In conclusion, {sup 123}I-MIBG scan was found to be a more sensitive method than clinical autonomic nervous function tests for the detection of autonomic neuropathy in diabetes. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The oral cavity as a guide for the application of low level laser energy and its direct effect on the autonomic nervous system providing true energy healing for all health practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolin, Herbert S.

    2008-03-01

    This manuscript is intended to demonstrate the important role that dentistry plays in regulating the balance of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) through the proprioceptive feedback of the posterior teeth to the brain. An old paradigm called Dental Distress Syndrome, relatively unknown in dentistry today, has at its core, the importance of the height of the posterior (back) teeth and its impact on total body health which is greatly aided by low level laser energy. The rationale behind the belief that the alteration of the posterior teeth affects the ANS begins with basic concepts in embryology. The functioning of the ANS will support the fact of Dental Distress Syndrome. Health practitioners of all disciplines can learn to recognize Dental Distress Syndrome and initiate non-invasive treatment and team with a trained dentist to enhance the wellness and health of the patient if they so desire. A synopsis of my oral paper presented to the Academy of Laser Dentistry demonstrating temporary balancing of the Autonomic Nervous System with three minutes of cold laser energy, as well as my rationale as to why results vary with different cold lasers will be discussed. Clinical case studies will be presented.

  10. 高血压前期与自主神经功能改变关系分析%The Relationship between prehypertension and the Changes of Autonomic Nervous System Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琳; 聂连涛; 李中健

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨高血压前期( prehypertension,PHT)与自主神经功能改变的关系,为预防高血压发生提供依据。方法根据纳入、排除标准,选取2013年1月—2014年3月来河南大学淮河医院就诊的患者520例。根据《中国高血压指南》(2010)中PHT的诊断标准,将520例患者分为对照组(非PHT组)和研究组( PHT组)。其中,对照组200例,研究组320例,根据收缩压和舒张压升高情况,将研究组分为3个亚组。应用美国DMS公司12.0TOP版动态心电图分析软件,监测心率减速力( deceleration capacity of rate,DC)和心率变异性( heart rate variability,HRV)两个自主神经功能指标,定性、定量分析两组自主神经功能改变情况。结果研究组DC低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论 PHT的发生可能与自主神经功能失调有关。DC和HRV可以定性、定量了解PHT人群自主神经功能改变情况,及时调整自主神经功能有助于预防高血压的发生。%Objective To explore the relationship between prehypertension and the changes of autonomic nervous sys-tem function,and to provide evidence for the prevention of hypertension. Methods By random sampling method,520 patients visiting in Huaihe Hospital of Henan University from January 2013 to March 2014 were selected and divided into control group (non PHT group,n=200)and research group(PHT group,n=320)according to the diagnostic criteria for PHT mentioned in the" Chinese Hypertension Guide",the latter being subdivided into three groups according to the rise of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Two autonomic nervous function indexes,the deceleration capacity of rate( deceleration capacity of rate,DC) and heart rate variability( heart rate variability,HRV)were detected to compare the two groups' autonomic function change qualitatively and quantitatively,by DMS 12. 0 TOP version,a kind of dynamic ECG analysis software

  11. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Reichmann, Heinz

    2010-02-15

    Symptoms of cardiovascular dysautonomia are a common occurrence in Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition to this dysautonomia as part of PD itself, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) can be triggered as a side-effect of drug treatment interacting with the ANS or - if prominent and early - an indication of a different disease such as multiple system atrophy (MSA). Various diagnostic tests are available to demonstrate autonomic failure. While autonomic function tests can differentiate parasympathetic from sympathetic dysfunction, cardiac imaging can define the pathophysiologically involved site of a lesion. Standard tests such as 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements can identify significant autonomic failure which needs treatment. The most frequent and disturbing symptom of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is orthostatic hypotension. Symptoms include generalized weakness, light-headiness, mental "clouding" up to syncope. Factors like heat, food, alcohol, exercise, activities which increase intrathoraric pressure (e.g. defecation, coughing) and certain drugs (e.g. vasodilators) can worsen a probably asymptomatic orthostatic hypotension. Non-medical and medical therapies can help the patient to cope with a disabling symptomatic orthostatic hypotension. Supine hypertension is often associated with orthostatic hypotension. The prognostic role of cardiovagal and baroreflex dysfunction is still not yet known.

  12. Effect of resistance training on autonomic nervous function of essential hypertension patients%抗阻训练对高血压患者自主神经功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察长期规律抗阻训练对原发性高血压患者自主神经功能的调节作用,探讨运动降压可能的神经生物学机制。方法:36名原发性高血压患者随机分为实验组和对照组。实验组进行16周抗阻训练,对照组保持日常生活习惯不变。实验前后分别测定心率、血压、心率变异性(HRV)、血压变异性(BPV)和压力反射敏感性(BRS)。结果:运动前,两组各参数均无显著性差异(P >0.05)。运动后,实验组心率无显著性变化( P >0.05),收缩压(P 0.05);对照组所有指标均无显著性变化(P >0.05)。结论:16周渐进性抗阻训练减弱了原发性高血压患者交感缩血管神经活动,降低心脏迷走调制,对压力反射功能无明显影响。%Objective:To observe the regulative role of resistance training on autonomic nervous function of essential hypertension patients and to investigate the possible mechanism of exercise-induced blood pressure reduction. Methods:36 essential hypertension patients were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. Subjects of experimental group conducted resistance training of 16 weeks and control group sustained normal life. Before and after test, heart rate,blood pressure,heart rate variability(HRV),blood pressure variability( BPV) and baroreflex sensitivity(BRS)were measured. Results:Before the experiment,all indexes of the two groups had no difference(P > 0. 05). After the experiment,heart rate had no change (P > 0. 05),SBP and DBP decreased(P 0. 05)in experimental group;there are no significant differences of all indicators in control group(P > 0. 05). Conclusion:Progressive resistance training of 16 weeks attenuated sympathetic vasoconstrictive nerve activity,depress cardiac vagal modulation but had no effect on baroreflex function in essential hypertension patients.

  13. Patterns of Sensitivity to Emotion in Children with Williams Syndrome and Autism: Relations Between Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity and Social Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Grichanik, Mark; Arnold, Andrew J; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2015-08-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with atypical social-emotional functioning. Affective visual stimuli were used to assess autonomic reactivity and emotion identification, and the social responsiveness scale was used to determine the level social functioning in children with WS and ASD contrasted with typical development (TD), to examine syndrome-specific and syndrome-general features. Children with ASD exhibited the highest arousal in response to faces, with a lack of difference in autonomic sensitivity across different emotional expressions, unlike in WS and TD. The WS group demonstrated unique deficits in identifying neutral stimuli. While autonomic responsivity to neutral faces was associated with social functioning in all children, converging profiles characterized children with WS contrasted with TD and ASD. PMID:25800866

  14. Patterns of Sensitivity to Emotion in Children with Williams Syndrome and Autism: Relations between Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity and Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Grichanik, Mark; Arnold, Andrew J.; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with atypical social-emotional functioning. Affective visual stimuli were used to assess autonomic reactivity and emotion identification, and the social responsiveness scale was used to determine the level social functioning in children with WS and ASD contrasted with typical…

  15. Relationship Between Cardiac Autonomic Function of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Glucose Metabolism%2型糖尿病患者心脏植物神经功能改变与血糖代谢的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成功

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究2型糖尿病患者心脏植物神经功能改变与血糖代谢之间的关系。方法选取我院60例2型糖尿病患者,分别检测患者心脏植物神经功能和糖化血红蛋白水平,研究分析患者心脏植物神经功能改变与血糖代谢的关系。结果60例患者中心脏植物神经功能正常者糖化血红蛋白浓度为(6.2±1.2)%,异常者糖化血红蛋白浓度为(8.4±2.3)%,心脏植物神经功能异常者糖化血红蛋白浓度高于正常者(P<0.05),数据比较存在统计学差异。心脏植物神经功能严重病变患者糖化血红蛋白浓度均高于早期病变者和典型病变者(P<0.05),数据比较差异均存在统计学意义。结论2型糖尿病患者的心脏植物神经功能改变与其糖化血红蛋白浓度之间关系密切,及时、有效控制患者血糖,降低患者糖化血红蛋白浓度,对改善2型糖尿病患者心脏植物神经功能,减轻其心脏植物神经病变程度具有重要作用。%ObjectiveTo explore the relationship between type 2 cardiac autonomic function changes and glucose metabolism in diabetic patients.Methods 60 cases in our hospital patients with type 2 diabetes were detected in patients with cardiac autonomic function and glycated hemoglobin levels, the researchers analyzed the relationship between cardiac autonomic function changes with glucose metabolism.Results60 patients with normal cardiac autonomic function glycated hemoglobin concentration(6.2 ± 1.2)%,abnormal glycated hemoglobin concentration(8.4 ± 2.3)%,cardiac autonomic dysfunction glycated hemoglobin concentration was significantly higher than normal(P<0.05),there was significant difference data comparison. Cardiac autonomic function in patients with severe disease glycated hemoglobin concentration were higher than early lesions and typical lesions(P<0.05),the data were statistically significant differences. Conclusion The close relationship between

  16. Pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in girls - a double neuro-osseous theory involving disharmony between two nervous systems, somatic and autonomic expressed in the spine and trunk: possible dependency on sympathetic nervous system and hormones with implications for medical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulton Alan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anthropometric data from three groups of adolescent girls - preoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, screened for scoliosis and normals were analysed by comparing skeletal data between higher and lower body mass index subsets. Unexpected findings for each of skeletal maturation, asymmetries and overgrowth are not explained by prevailing theories of AIS pathogenesis. A speculative pathogenetic theory for girls is formulated after surveying evidence including: (1 the thoracospinal concept for right thoracic AIS in girls; (2 the new neuroskeletal biology relating the sympathetic nervous system to bone formation/resorption and bone growth; (3 white adipose tissue storing triglycerides and the adiposity hormone leptin which functions as satiety hormone and sentinel of energy balance to the hypothalamus for long-term adiposity; and (4 central leptin resistance in obesity and possibly in healthy females. The new theory states that AIS in girls results from developmental disharmony expressed in spine and trunk between autonomic and somatic nervous systems. The autonomic component of this double neuro-osseous theory for AIS pathogenesis in girls involves selectively increased sensitivity of the hypothalamus to circulating leptin (genetically-determined up-regulation possibly involving inhibitory or sensitizing intracellular molecules, such as SOC3, PTP-1B and SH2B1 respectively, with asymmetry as an adverse response (hormesis; this asymmetry is routed bilaterally via the sympathetic nervous system to the growing axial skeleton where it may initiate the scoliosis deformity (leptin-hypothalamic-sympathetic nervous system concept = LHS concept. In some younger preoperative AIS girls, the hypothalamic up-regulation to circulating leptin also involves the somatotropic (growth hormone/IGF axis which exaggerates the sympathetically-induced asymmetric skeletal effects and contributes to curve progression, a concept with therapeutic

  17. Autonomic Nervous System Mediates the Hypotensive Effects of Aqueous and Residual Methanolic Extracts of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum Leaves in Anaesthetized Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, A.; Mohamed, M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Wan Ahmad, W. A. N.

    2013-01-01

    Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum leaves are consumed as a traditional Malay treatment of hypertension. This study investigates hypotensive potential of aqueous (AESP) and residual methanolic (met-AESP) extracts of S. polyanthum leaves and possible involvement of autonomic receptors. AESP and met-AESP (20 to 100 mg/kg) were intravenously administered into anaesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Blood pressure and heart were monitored for 20 ...

  18. Sexual features of the old rats’ autonomic nervous system response to the development of necrotic process in heart on the background of melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Khara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. An effect of melatonin on the autonomic regulation of the heart in terms of damage was studied in adult and old male and female rats. Methods and results. Necrotic process in the myocardium was caused by the injection of epinephrine (1 mg / kg, single dose, intramuscular 1 h after injection of melatonin (5 mg / kg intravenous. In 1 and 24 hours after administration of epinephrine heart rate was determined and features of autonomic regulation of the heart on indicators Mo (mode, AMo (mode amplitude, ΔH (variation range of cardio intervals, and SI (stress index of regulatory mechanisms were evaluated. It was found that the effects of melatonin aimed at increasing the role of cholinergic ANS link in the formation of heart rate and reducing the adrenergic participation in the body of older individuals significantly decreased. To a greater extent this applies to older males. In the dynamics of adrenalin necrosis the character of vegetative regulation of heart rate of old rats reflects greater, than in adults, role of adrenergic link in animals of both sexes and reduce of the impact of cholinergic one – only in older males, which resulted in a significant tension of regulatory mechanisms. Conclusion. The obtained results show that with increasing age in rats effectiveness of melatonin as a drug which can affect the autonomic regulation of the heart by activating cardio-protective effects decreases, especially in male rats.

  19. Autonomic Nervous System Mediates the Hypotensive Effects of Aqueous and Residual Methanolic Extracts of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum Leaves in Anaesthetized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A; Mohamed, M; Sulaiman, S A; Wan Ahmad, W A N

    2013-01-01

    Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum leaves are consumed as a traditional Malay treatment of hypertension. This study investigates hypotensive potential of aqueous (AESP) and residual methanolic (met-AESP) extracts of S. polyanthum leaves and possible involvement of autonomic receptors. AESP and met-AESP (20 to 100 mg/kg) were intravenously administered into anaesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Blood pressure and heart were monitored for 20 min. AESP and met-AESP induced significant dose-dependent hypotension, but only 100 mg/kg AESP caused mild bradycardia (n = 5). AESP-induced hypotension was more potent than that of met-AESP in WKY. AESP has a faster onset time than that of met-AESP in both WKY and SHR. However, met-AESP-induced hypotension was more sustained than that of AESP in SHR. Blockages of autonomic ganglion and α -adrenergic receptors using hexamethonium and phentolamine (n = 5 for each group) partially attenuated AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of α -adrenergic receptors. Blockages of autonomic ganglion, β -adrenergic, cholinergic receptors, and nitric oxide production using hexamethonium, propranolol, atropine, and N- ω -nitro-l arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (n = 5 for each group) partially attenuated met-AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of β -adrenergic and cholinergic receptors via nitric oxide production. PMID:24454508

  20. Autonomic Nervous System Mediates the Hypotensive Effects of Aqueous and Residual Methanolic Extracts of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight Walp. var. polyanthum Leaves in Anaesthetized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium polyanthum (Wight Walp. var. polyanthum leaves are consumed as a traditional Malay treatment of hypertension. This study investigates hypotensive potential of aqueous (AESP and residual methanolic (met-AESP extracts of S. polyanthum leaves and possible involvement of autonomic receptors. AESP and met-AESP (20 to 100 mg/kg were intravenously administered into anaesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR rats. Blood pressure and heart were monitored for 20 min. AESP and met-AESP induced significant dose-dependent hypotension, but only 100 mg/kg AESP caused mild bradycardia (n=5. AESP-induced hypotension was more potent than that of met-AESP in WKY. AESP has a faster onset time than that of met-AESP in both WKY and SHR. However, met-AESP-induced hypotension was more sustained than that of AESP in SHR. Blockages of autonomic ganglion and α-adrenergic receptors using hexamethonium and phentolamine (n=5 for each group partially attenuated AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of α-adrenergic receptors. Blockages of autonomic ganglion, β-adrenergic, cholinergic receptors, and nitric oxide production using hexamethonium, propranolol, atropine, and N-ω-nitro-l arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (n=5 for each group partially attenuated met-AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of β-adrenergic and cholinergic receptors via nitric oxide production.

  1. 自主神经介导性晕厥儿童消化道症状临床分析%Clinical significance of abdominal pain and other gastrointestinal manifestations in children with autonomic nervous-mediated syncope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫辉; 张春雨; 杜军保; 金红芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 认识自主神经介导性晕厥患儿中腹痛等消化道表现的临床意义.方法 2009年1月至2012年3月在北京大学第一医院儿科住院诊断为自主神经介导性晕厥及心因性发作的患儿共108例,对患儿发作前及直立倾斜试验(HUT)中诱发的腹痛、恶心、呕吐等消化道症状进行临床研究.结果 108例患儿中,男49例(45.4%),女59例(54.6%).年龄5~ 17岁(中位年龄11岁).共33例(35.5%)自主神经介导性晕厥患儿在发作前出现胃肠道不适,15例(16.1%)表现为腹痛,20例(21.5%)恶心,12例(12.9%)呕吐.27例(40.9%)在HUT时诱发出胃肠道表现,6例(9.1%)HUT时诱发出腹痛,24例(36.4%)恶心.共39例(59.1%)在发作前或HUT时出现消化道表现.HUT时出现的消化道表现在体位性心动过速综合征(POTS)患儿和血管迷走性晕厥(vvs)患几分别达到40%及41.5%,心因性发作组为0;发作前及HUT时患儿消化道表现在POTS及VVS组分别达到60%及58.5%,明显高于心因性发作(10%)组(P<0.05).自主神经介导性晕厥患儿发作前及HUT时出现消化道症状的危险度是心因性发作患儿的13倍(95%CI均>1).结论 消化道表现是自主神经介导性晕厥的常见症状之一,对于发作前及HUT时发生腹痛、恶心患儿,需注意自主神经介导性晕厥的可能.剧烈腹痛可作为自主神经介导性晕厥的伴随症状.%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of abdominal pain and other gastrointestinal manifestations in autonomic nervous-mediated syncope in children. Methods A total of 108 cases treated in our hospital because of autonomic nervous-mediated syncope or psychogenic pseudosyncope from Jan. 2009 to Mar. 2012 were recruited. The incidences of gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting before the onset of syncope attack and during upright tilt test processes were analyzed in children with autonomic nervous system-mediated syncope

  2. Cardiac lesions in patients with lethal central nervous system trauma Daño cardíaco en pacientes con trauma mortal del sistema nervioso central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Cardona

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Fifteen men with lethal central nervous system trauma were studied to look for the presence of cardiac lesions. They were between 16 and 60 years of age with an average of 32. There were five gunshot wounds and nine central nervous system contusions; four of these occurred in traffic accidents. The remaining patient was wounded with a machete. AII patients were adequately treated since the beginning of their hospital stay and 14 were surgically managed. Average survival after trauma was 6.6 days. In every case there were ECG alterations, the most frequent being sinusal tachycardia. Creatine phosphokinase levels were high in all and the MB fraction was above normal levels in three patients in whom heart damage was confirmed at autopsy. In 40% of cases heart lesions were found and the most common was subendocardial hemorrhage. In an era of increasing need of organs for transplantation potential donors have to be thoroughly studied to determine if heart lesions have occurred and to decide if they are suitable as transplant organs.

    Analizamos los casos de 15 hombres con trauma mortal del sistema nervioso central. Sus edades fluctuaron entre 16 y 60 años con un promedio de 32. Las lesiones más frecuentes fueron por proyectil de arma de fuego (5 casos y por contusión (9 casos, cuatro de ellos en accidente de tránsito. El paciente restante fue lesionado con arma corto contundente. En todos los pacientes el manejo fue adecuado desde el principio de la hospitalización ya 14 se les hizo tratamiento quirúrgico. El promedio de sobrevida después del trauma fue 6.6 días. Sin excepción el estudio electrocardiográfico mostró alteraciones; la taquicardia sinusal fue la más frecuente. La CPK estuvo elevada en todos los pacientes; en 3 de ellos, con da

  3. High Frequency Yoga Breathing: A Review of Nervous System Effects and Adjunctive Therapeutic and Premeditation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Andaházy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High frequency yoga breathing (HFYB results in a shifting of the autonomic nervous system balance towards sympathetic nervous system dominance. In an effort to more fully understand the complex effects of this form of yogic breath-work, tests are being conducted on practitioners’ physiological and neurological response processes. Studies on heart rate variability (HRV indicating cardiac autonomic control have shown a resulting reduction of vagal activity following HFYB, leading to passive sympathetic dominance without overt excitation or exhaustion. Comparative cognitive tests taken after the practice have shown that HFYB results in reduced auditory and visual reaction times, and a decrease in optical illusion. The vigilant, wakeful, yet relaxed state induced by HFYB has been associated with improvements in attention, memory, sensorimotor performance, and mood. As breathing bridges conscious and unconscious functions, the potential role of HFYB as an adjunctive therapeutic intervention as well as its possible application in preparation for meditation is considered.

  4. Exercise and autonomic function in health and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwinkel, E T; Bloomfield, D M; Arwady, M A; Goldsmith, R L

    2001-08-01

    Autonomic nervous system activity contributes to the regulation of cardiac output during rest, exercise, and cardiovascular disease. Measurement of HRV has been particularly useful in assessing parasympathetic activity, while its utility for assessing sympathetic function and overall sympathovagal balance remains controversial. Studies have revealed that parasympathetic tone dominates the resting state, while exercise is associated with prompt withdrawal of vagal tone and subsequent sympathetic activation. Conversely, recovery is characterized by parasympathetic activation followed by sympathetic withdrawal, although clarification of the normal trajectory and autonomic basis of heart rate decay following exercise is needed. Abnormalities in autonomic physiology--especially increased sympathetic activity, attenuated vagal tone, and delayed heart rate recovery--have been associated with increased mortality. Exercise training is associated with a relative enhancement of vagal tone, improved heart rate recovery after exercise, and reduced morbidity in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, whether exercise training leads to reduced mortality in this population because of its ability to specifically modulate autonomic function is unknown at the present time. Although the results of a recent randomized study in patients with CHF and a meta-analysis in the setting of a recent myocardial infarction determined that exercise training leads to improved outcomes in these populations, neither study measured autonomic function. Improved autonomic function due to exercise training is a promising rationale for explaining improvements in outcome, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:11570111

  5. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients with diabetes and no symptoms of coronary artery disease: comparison of {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy and heart rate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholte, Arthur J.H.A.; Schuijf, Joanne D.; Delgado, Victoria; Kok, Jurriaan A.; Bus, Mieke T.J.; Maan, Arie C.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Bax, Jeroen J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Albinusdreef 2, PO Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Stokkel, Marcel P.; Dibbets-Schneider, Petra [Leiden University Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands); Kharagitsingh, Antje V. [Medisch Centrum Haaglanden, Department of Internal Medicine, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes, truly asymptomatic for coronary artery disease (CAD), using heart rate variability (HRV) and {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-mIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. The study group comprised 88 patients with type 2 diabetes prospectively recruited from an outpatient diabetes clinic. In all patients myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, CAN by HRV and {sup 123}I-mIBG myocardial scintigraphy were performed. Two or more abnormal tests were defined as CAN-positive (ECG-based CAN) and one or fewer as CAN-negative. CAN assessed by {sup 123}I-mIBG scintigraphy was defined as abnormal if the heart-to-mediastinum ratio was <1.8, the washout rate was >25%, or the total defect score was >13. The prevalence of CAN in patients asymptomatic for CAD with type 2 diabetes and normal myocardial perfusion assessed by HRV and {sup 123}I-mIBG scintigraphy was respectively, 27% and 58%. Furthermore, in almost half of patients with normal HRV, {sup 123}I-mIBG scintigraphy showed CAN. The current study revealed a high prevalence of CAN in patients with type 2 diabetes. Secondly, disagreement between HRV and {sup 123}I-mIBG scintigraphy for the assessment of CAN was observed. (orig.)

  6. Autonomic innervation of the heart. Role of molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slart, Riemer H.J.A; Elsinga, Philip H. [Univ. Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Tio, Rene A. [Univ. Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Thorax Center Cardiology; Schwaiger, Markus (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik

    2015-03-01

    Reviews in detail the value of SPECT-CT and PET-CT in the imaging of cardiac innervation. Details the role of imaging in a range of conditions and diseases. Includes important background on pathophysiology, tracers, radiopharmaceutical production, and kinetic modeling software. This book explains in detail the potential value of the hybrid modalities, SPECT-CT and PET-CT, in the imaging of cardiac innervation in a wide range of conditions and diseases, including ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, amyloidosis, heart transplantation, and ventricular arrhythmias. Imaging of the brain-heart axis in neurodegenerative disease and stress and of cardiotoxicity is also discussed. The roles of the various available tracers are fully considered, and individual chapters address radiopharmaceutical development under GMP, imaging physics, and kinetic modeling software. Highly relevant background information is included on the autonomic nervous system of the heart and its pathophysiology, and in addition future perspectives are discussed. Awareness of the importance of autonomic innervation of the heart for the optimal management of cardiac patients is growing, and there is an evident need for objective measurement techniques or imaging modalities. In this context, Autonomic Innervation of the Heart will be of wide interest to clinicians, researchers, and industry.

  7. Autonomic innervation of the heart. Role of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviews in detail the value of SPECT-CT and PET-CT in the imaging of cardiac innervation. Details the role of imaging in a range of conditions and diseases. Includes important background on pathophysiology, tracers, radiopharmaceutical production, and kinetic modeling software. This book explains in detail the potential value of the hybrid modalities, SPECT-CT and PET-CT, in the imaging of cardiac innervation in a wide range of conditions and diseases, including ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, amyloidosis, heart transplantation, and ventricular arrhythmias. Imaging of the brain-heart axis in neurodegenerative disease and stress and of cardiotoxicity is also discussed. The roles of the various available tracers are fully considered, and individual chapters address radiopharmaceutical development under GMP, imaging physics, and kinetic modeling software. Highly relevant background information is included on the autonomic nervous system of the heart and its pathophysiology, and in addition future perspectives are discussed. Awareness of the importance of autonomic innervation of the heart for the optimal management of cardiac patients is growing, and there is an evident need for objective measurement techniques or imaging modalities. In this context, Autonomic Innervation of the Heart will be of wide interest to clinicians, researchers, and industry.

  8. {sup 123}I-MIBG lung uptake in patients with diabetes mellitus. Correlation with cardiac autonomic neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Flores, L.G. II; Ohnishi, Takashi; Tamura, Shozo; Watanabe, Katsushi; Kurose, Takeshi; Matsukura, Sigeru [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between {sup 123}I-MIBG lung uptake and autonomic neuropathy (AN) in patients with diabetes mellitus. For the quantitative analysis, lung to upper mediastinum uptake ratio (L/M) and heart to upper mediastinum uptake ratio (H/M) were obtained from chest planar image. In addition, both lung washout ratio (%WR-L) and heart washout ratio (%WR-H) were calculated from early and delayed images. Similarly, exercised myocardial scintigraphy using {sup 201}Tl-chloride was done to rule out ischemia and lung to upper mediastinum uptake ratio (L/M-Tl) and heart to upper mediastinum uptake ratio (H/M-Tl) were obtained from chest planar image. Each indexes were compared in both diabetic group and control group. Both mean value of H/M and %WR-H in AN (+) group were significantly higher than those of control group. Mean value of L/M in each diabetic group was significantly higher than that of control group. Particularly, L/M of AN (+) group is higher than that of AN (-) group on early study. Mean value of %WR-L in AN (+) group was also significantly higher than that of control group. Regarding the {sup 201}Tl-uptake index, there was no statistical significance among in each group. The current study showed that abnormal pulmonary {sup 123}I-MIBG uptake in the lung existed in patients with diabetes mellitus. The phenomenon might be related with sympathetic dysfunction or severity of diabetes mellitus. (author)

  9. Autonomic nervous system response patterns in freshmen with different resilience in a military university%某军校不同心理弹性水平的大一新生自主神经反应特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳佳; 彭李; 李敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究不同心理弹性水平军校大学生自主神经反应特点.方法 采用成人心理弹性量表(resilience scale for adults,RSA)对重庆某军校大一新生进行心理测评,筛选出心理弹性高分组和低分组被试共144名,再从中选取愿意参加本实验的心理弹性高分组和低分组被试各27名,其进行自主神经反应(心率、皮电、皮温、指端血容振幅)特点的实验研究.结果 ①静息状态下,心理弹性高分组和低分组被试的自主神经反应没有统计学差异(P>0.05).②悲伤情绪诱导下,心理弹性高分组在皮电上低于心理弹性低分组(t=-2.077,P=0.043).③悲伤情绪诱导后,心理弹性高分组和心理弹性低分组的各个指标的恢复时间上均无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论 心理弹性水平不同的大学生的自主神经活动模式可能存在一定程度的差异.%Objective To investigate the autonomic nervous system response pattern in military college students with different levels of resilience. Methods Resilience Scale for Adults (R.SA) was applied to test 144 college students, and based on the RSA score 54 freshmen who accepted to join the test were selected and were divided into a high resilience group and a low resilience group. Each 27 freshmen of the two groups were tested for autonomic nervous system response pattern. Results ① At resting state, students of the high resilience group and low resilience group did not show significant differences in heart rate ( HR) , skin conductance (SC), skin temperature (ST) and blood volume pulse (BVP) (P>0. 05). ② Compared with those indices obtained at resting state, students of the high resilience group scored lower in HR, SC and ST under sad mood induction, but higher in BVP; students of the low resilience group scored higher in HR and SC under sad mood induction, but lower in ST and BVP. Sad mood induction showed that SC of the high resilience group was significantly lower than that of the

  10. The Mechanism of Autonomic Nervous Activity that Underlies Positive Emotions Speeding up Recovery from Cardiovascular Reactivity%积极情绪加速心血管反应恢复的自主神经活动机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振宏; 李娜

    2012-01-01

    The existing studies showed that positive emotions speed up recovery from the cardiovascular aftereffects of negative emo- tions. But the studies provided insufficient evidence for this recovery. What the mechanism of the autonomic nervous activity that brings about the recovery? Few studies focused on this question. This study aims to reexamine the phenomenon that positive emotions speed up recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions and to explore the mechanism of the autonomic nervous activity underly- ing the recovery. In the experiment, after 180 seconds baseline period, participants were asked to view an emotionally evocative film that induced fear. Immediately following fear arousal, the participants were randomly assigned to view emotionally evocative videos that in- duced amusement, sadness, or neutrality for 220 seconds each. Then, they were kept in a relaxing state for 120 seconds. A total of 96 participants recruited from college students attended the experiment. The results of experiment indicated that, compared with the partici- pants who viewed the neutral and sad secondary videos, those who viewed the positive film exhibited more rapid returns to pre - film lev- els of cardiovascular reactivity. Moreover, compared to participants who viewed the neutral and sad secondary videos, those who viewed the positive film exhibited stronger vagal rebound in recovery periods. Positive emotions speed up recovery from cardiovascular response to negative emotions. The underlying mechanism of the autonomic nervous activity was the fact that stronger vagal rebound was generated in the state of positive emotions.%通过对不同情绪唤醒状态下的心率变异性(HRV)和呼吸性窦性心率不齐(RSA)分析,探讨了积极情绪加速高唤醒消极情绪引起的心血管反应向基线恢复的自主神经活动机制。实验表明:与在观看高唤醒恐惧影片结束后观看悲伤影片和中性视频比较,观看高唤

  11. Catecholamines and diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1995-01-01

    In diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy plasma noradrenaline concentration, used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity, is low. This decrease is, however, only found in patients with a long duration of diabetes with clinically severe autonomic neuropathy. This apparent insensitivity...... of plasma catecholamine measurements is not due to changes in the clearance of catecholamines in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The physiological responses to infused adrenaline and to noradrenaline are enhanced, for noradrenaline mainly cardiovascular responses. Adrenoceptors (alpha and beta adrenoceptors......) are not altered in circulating blood cells in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Thus, a generalized up-regulation of adrenoceptors does not occur in diabetic autonomic neuropathy....

  12. Comparing the accuracy of ES-BC, EIS-GS, and ES Oxi on body composition, autonomic nervous system activity, and cardiac output to standardized assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis JE; Tannenbaum SL; Gao J; Melillo AB; Long EG; Alonso Y; Konefal J; Woolger JM; Leonard S; Singh PK; Chen L; Tiozzo E

    2011-01-01

    John E Lewis1, Stacey L Tannenbaum1, Jinrun Gao3, Angelica B Melillo1, Evan G Long1, Yaima Alonso2, Janet Konefal1, Judi M Woolger2, Susanna Leonard1, Prabjot K Singh1, Lawrence Chen1, Eduard Tiozzo1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3State Farm Insurance, Bloomington, IL, USA Background and purpose: The Electro Sensor Complex (ESC) is software that combines three devices using bioelectrical i...

  13. Modulation by Central MAPKs/PI3K/sGc of the TNF-α/iNOS-dependent Hypotension and Compromised Cardiac Autonomic Control in Endotoxic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Marwa Y; El-Gowilly, Sahar M; Abdel-Galil, Abdel-Galil A; El-Mas, Mahmoud M

    2016-08-01

    Reduced blood pressure (BP) and cardiac autonomic activity are early manifestations of endotoxemia. We investigated whether these effects are modulated by central mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and related phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) signaling in conscious rats. The effect of pharmacologic inhibition of these molecular substrates on BP, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) responses evoked by intravascular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 mg/kg) were assessed. LPS (1) lowered BP (2) increased HR, (3) reduced time [SD of beat-to-beat intervals (SDNN), and root mean square of successive differences in R-R intervals (rMSSD)], and frequency domain indices of HRV (total power and spectral bands of low and high-frequency), and (4) elevated serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. The inhibition of TNF-α (pentoxifylline) or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, aminoguanidine) abolished hemodynamic, HRV, and inflammatory actions of LPS. Intracisternal (i.c.) injection of ODQ (sGC inhibitor), wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor), and SP600125 (MAPKJNK inhibitor) mitigated the hypotensive and tachycardic actions of LPS but failed to affect associated decreases in HRV. MAPKp38 inhibition by i.c. SB203580 produced exactly opposite effects. None of the LPS effects was altered after i.c. PD98059 (MAPKERK1/2 inhibitor). Overall, central MAPKs/PI3K/sGC pathways variably contribute to the TNF-α/iNOS-dependent reductions in BP and HRV seen during endotoxic shock. PMID:27110744

  14. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: 1 describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, 2 outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, 3 illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and 4 highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with

  15. Autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using “PNEUMOCARD”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Funtova, I. I.; Diedrich, A.; Chernikova, A. G.; Drescher, J.; Baranov, V. M.; Tank, J.

    2009-10-01

    Investigations of blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) during long term space flights on board the "ISS" have shown characteristic changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, alterations of the autonomic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for in- and post-flight disturbances. The device "Pneumocard" was developed to further investigate autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory function aboard the ISS. The hard-software diagnostic complex "Pneumocard" was used during in-flight experiment aboard ISS for autonomic function testing. ECG, photoplethysmography, respiration, transthoracic bioimpedance and seismocardiography were assessed in one male cosmonaut (flight lengths six month). Recordings were made prior to the flight, late during flight, and post-flight during spontaneous respiration and controlled respiration at different rates. HR remained stable during flight. The values were comparable to supine measurements on earth. Respiratory frequency and blood pressure decreased during flight. Post flight HR and BP values increased compared to in-flight data exceeding pre-flight values. Cardiac time intervals did not change dramatically during flight. Pulse wave transit time decreased during flight. The maximum of the first time derivative of the impedance cardiogram, which is highly correlated with stroke volume was not reduced in-flight. Our results demonstrate that autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using "Pneumocard" is feasible and generates data of good quality. Despite the decrease in BP, pulse wave transit time was found reduced in space as shown earlier. However, cardiac output did not decrease profoundly in the investigated cosmonaut. Autonomic testing during space flight detects individual changes in cardiovascular control and may add important information to standard medical control. The recent plans to support a flight to Mars, makes these kinds of observations all the more relevant

  16. Autonomic dysfunction in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Møller, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are frequently associated with signs of circulatory dysfunction and peripheral polyneuropathy, which includes defects of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction, which is seen in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and increases wit...... liver disease. A description is given of its aetiology and the typical circulatory dysfunction with characteristic hyperdynamic and hyporeactive circulation and heart failure, and the most important tests of the autonomic nervous system....

  17. Cardiac arrest during gamete release in chum salmon regulated by the parasympathetic nerve system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Makiguchi

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta at the moment of gamete release for 7.39+/-1.61 s in females and for 5.20+/-0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release.

  18. Swimming training increases cardiac vagal activity and induces cardiac hypertrophy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Medeiros

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of swimming training (ST on vagal and sympathetic cardiac effects was investigated in sedentary (S, N = 12 and trained (T, N = 12 male Wistar rats (200-220 g. ST consisted of 60-min swimming sessions 5 days/week for 8 weeks, with a 5% body weight load attached to the tail. The effect of the autonomic nervous system in generating training-induced resting bradycardia (RB was examined indirectly after cardiac muscarinic and adrenergic receptor blockade. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by cardiac weight and myocyte morphometry. Plasma catecholamine concentrations and citrate synthase activity in soleus muscle were also determined in both groups. Resting heart rate was significantly reduced in T rats (355 ± 16 vs 330 ± 20 bpm. RB was associated with a significantly increased cardiac vagal effect in T rats (103 ± 25 vs 158 ± 40 bpm, since the sympathetic cardiac effect and intrinsic heart rate were similar for the two groups. Likewise, no significant difference was observed for plasma catecholamine concentrations between S and T rats. In T rats, left ventricle weight (13% and myocyte dimension (21% were significantly increased, suggesting cardiac hypertrophy. Skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity was significantly increased by 52% in T rats, indicating endurance conditioning. These data suggest that RB induced by ST is mainly mediated parasympathetically and differs from other training modes, like running, that seems to mainly decrease intrinsic heart rate in rats. The increased cardiac vagal activity associated with ST is of clinical relevance, since both are related to increased life expectancy and prevention of cardiac events.

  19. Diabetes mellitus and sudden cardiac death: what are the data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Daniel W; Goldberger, Jeffrey J

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has long been linked to an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, the magnitude of this association, and the mechanism accounting for this phenomenon, have not been precisely defined. In this review, we evaluate the epidemiological data pertaining to the association between diabetes mellitus and sudden cardiac death and discuss various proposed mechanisms that may account for this relationship. Potential factors contributing to the increased risk of sudden cardiac death observed in patients with diabetes mellitus include silent myocardial ischemia, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, abnormal cardiac repolarization, hypoglycemia, a hypercoaguable state secondary to diabetes mellitus, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and impaired respiratory response to hypoxia and hypercapnea. We conclude that diabetes mellitus does appear to be associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Although this increased risk is relatively modest, given the large number of diabetic patients worldwide, the absolute number of sudden cardiac deaths attributable to diabetes mellitus remains significant. Little evidence exists to support any specific mechanism(s) accounting for this association. Further investigation into the pathophysiology of sudden cardiac death in diabetes mellitus may yield improved risk stratification tools as well as identify novel therapeutic targets.

  20. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Jia

    Full Text Available Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise.

  1. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tiantian; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise. PMID:26840532

  2. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tiantian; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise.

  3. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise. PMID:26840532

  4. Autonomic nervous system activity assessment in recreational half marathon runners [Hodnocení aktivity autonomního nervového systému u rekreačních účastníků půlmaratonského běhu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smékal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spectral analysis (SA of heart rate variability (HRV is considered to be a non invasive method for the quantification of autonomic cardiac activity in relationship to the sinoatrial node. It is well known that autonomic regulation is affected by various stress factors such as anxiety and/or physical activity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pre-competitive anxiety on the autonomic nervous system (ANS activity and, further, to monitor the time course of ANS recovery as well as perceived fatigue during 24 hours of a post-half marathon period in amateur runners. METHODS: The SA HRV method was used for the evaluation of autonomic cardiac regulation. ANS activity was assessed one week before a competition and on the day of the competition. During the post-competition period ANS activity was measured at the 1st, the 12th, and the 24th hour. ANS activity was represented by the standard spectral parameters and complex indexes of SA HRV. Precompetition anxiety was evaluated by means of a modified Likert 10 point scale. The competitors' subjective feelings of fatigue were scored on a 6 point scale. RESULTS: Perception of anxiety was significantly higher on the day of the competition than one week before the competition. The significant decrease in the complex index of sympathovagal balance on day of the competition implies l for and testifies to an increase in sympathetic activity. No significant differences between any selected HRV variables at the 12th hour as well as at the 24th hour of recovery compared to both pre-competition levels were found. Perceived fatigue remained significantly elevated up to the 24th hour of recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that elevated pre-competitive anxiety induced sympathetic predominance in autonomic regulation particularly during the period of orthostatic stimulation. ANS activity returned to its pre-competition level during the 12th hour after the finish of the

  5. Autonomic and surgical substrate modulation of atrial fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Krul, S.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the effects of fibrosis and the autonomic nervous system on conduction in patients with atrial fibrillation and the surgical ablation of the atria and autonomic nervous system as treatment of atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia and results from multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. Both fibrosis and the autonomic nervous system influence the occurrence and maintenance of AF. Animal and clinical studies have shown that the parasympath...

  6. 星状神经节阻滞治疗围绝经期自主神经系统功能不稳定症状的疗效%Curative Effect of Stellate Ganglion Block on Function Disorders of Autonomic Nervous System in Perimenopause Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲玲; 马杰; 张海泉; 张宝琴; 赵树华; 房丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨星状神经节阻滞治疗围绝经期自主神经系统功能不稳定症状的疗效.方法 对30例主要表现自主神经系统功能不稳定症状如失眠、眩晕、心悸,皮肤感觉异常等的围绝经期患者.采用前入路星状神经节阻滞(Stellate Canglion Block,SGB)每日1次,左右交替进行,每10次为1个疗程,均治疗2个疗程.观察血中E2,FSH的水平及自主神经系统功能不稳定症状改善情况.结果 运用星状神经阻滞法治疗后,围绝经期患者自主神经系统功能不稳定症状明显改善,血中E2水平显著升高,FSH下降(P<0.05).结论 星状神经节阻滞可以治疗围绝经期自主神经系统功能不稳定,其症状明显缓解或消失.%[ Objective] To observe the curative effect of stellate ganglion block on function disorders of autonomic nervous system in perimenopause women. [ Methods ] 30 perimenopause women with function disorders of autonomic nervous system were collected, which the symptoms included insomnia, vertigo, palpitation and paresthesia. The patients were given anterior approach stellate ganglion block (SGB) once a day, alternating left and right, 10 times was one course, and all patients were treated for two courses. The levels of E2 and FSH in blood, and improvement of disorders symptoms of autonomic nervous system were observed. [ Results] After SGB treatment, symptoms of function disorders of autonomic nervous system in perimenopause women improved significantly, level of blood E2 increased significantly, whereas FSH level decreased (P < 0.05). [ Conclusion ] SGB has good effect on the function disorders of autonomic nervous system in perimenopause women, the symptoms are significantly alleviated or disappeared.

  7. [sup 123]I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in diabetic patients. Association with autonomic neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamachi, Shigeki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Takashi; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi; Nakatsuru, Kuninobu; Toshimori, Toshitaka; Matsukura, Shigeru (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan))

    1994-09-01

    [sup 123]I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 20 diabetic patients (NIDDM) and 8 control subjects to investigate the association between clinical autonomic nerve dysfunction and myocardial accumulation of MIBG. We used coefficient variance of R-R interval (CV[sub R-R]) as a index of the autonomic neuropathy and categorized diabetes into two groups (CV[sub R-R][>=]2.0: non-autonomic neuropathy. CV[sub R-R]<2.0: autonomic neuropathy). In planar imaging studies, heart to mediastinum MIBG uptake ratio (H/M) was calculated on both early and delayed images. The washout ratio of [sup 123]I-MIBG in the heart (%WR) was also obtained using myocardial tracer activity on the both images. Mean value of these indices in diabetic group did not reveal any significant difference with the value in the control group. On the SPECT images, low uptake was observed in the posterior-inferior wall with normal uptake of [sup 201]Tl in diabetic patients with non-autonomic neuropathy. These areas extended in patients with autonomic neuropathy. The mean value of count ratio of posterior-interior to anterior wall (posterior-inferior/anterior ratio: PI/A) in the diabetic autonomic neuropathy group was significantly higher than in the control group on the both early and delayed images. And the mean value of regional %WR in the posterior-inferior wall calculated by the both MIBG SPECT images was significantly higher in the non-autonomic neuropathy group than in the control group. In the diabetic patients, retention mechanism of [sup 123]I-MIBG was considered to be involved at an early stage without autonomic nerve dysfunction clinically. As autonomic neuropathy progressed severely, uptake mechanism was also supposed to be involved. Therefore, [sup 123]I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy was useful for early detection of cardiac sympathetic nervous dysfunction in diabetic patients. (author).

  8. Cardiac echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Krstić Branislava A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatid disease is rare. We report on an uncommon hydatid cyst localized in the right ventricular wall, right atrial wall tricuspid valve left atrium and pericard. A 33-year-old woman was treated for cough, fever and chest pain. Cardiac echocardiograpic examination revealed a round tumor (5.8 x 4 cm in the right ventricular free wall and two smaller cysts behind that tumor. There were cysts in right atrial wall and tricuspidal valve as well. Serologic tests for hydatidosis were positive. Computed tomography finding was consistent with diagnosis of hydatid cyst in lungs and right hylar part. Surgical treatment was rejected due to great risk of cardiac perforation. Medical treatment with albendazole was unsuccessful and the patient died due to systemic hydatid involvement of the lungs, liver and central nervous system.

  9. STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS IN CONGENITALLY DEAF CHILDREN

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    Veena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Majority of congenitally deaf children are at risk of cardiac abnormalities in the form of long QT syndrome which could be due to an intracardiac abnormality or autonomic dysfunction. Altered sympathetic/parasympathetic balance as a result of the absence of auditory stimuli on the autonomic nervous system results in lower mean heart rate in congenitally deaf children. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the cardiovascular autonomic functions are altered in congenitally deaf children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 30 congenitally deaf children aged between 14 - 18 yrs and 30 age matched controls were included for the study. Parasympathetic activity was assessed by observing the heart rate changes to immediate standing from lying down position, heart rate changes during deep breathing and heart rate changes during valsalva maneuver. Sympathetic activity was assessed by observing blood pressure changes on immediate standing from lying down position and blood pressure changes during sustained hand grip. RESULTS: The results of the present study showed statistically significant decrease in the systolic blood pressure in response to immediate standing among congenitally deaf children suggestive of sympathetic imbalance and an early stage of autonomic dysfunction.

  10. [Cardiovascular autonomic reflexes on the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjelloun, Ho; Benjelloun, Ha; Aboudrar, S; Coghlan, L; Benomar, M

    2009-02-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is an inadequately understood pathology because its diagnosis is not based on the conventional methods of investigation. The orthostatic test allows to make the diagnosis easily. The objective of this study is to determine cardiovascular autonomic reflexes of 70 patients having POTS. The tests of exploration of the autonomic nervous system practised are: deep breathing, hand grip, mental stress and orthostatic test. The analysis of orthostatic test showed that the increase of the cardiac frequency, relative to the state of "beta" peripheral sympathetic hyperactivity occurred before the 2nd minute in 80% of patients. The POTS was considered "florid" in 43% of patients and had complicated of a rough and severe fall of systolic blood pressure inferior to 70 mmHg in four patients, after the fifth minute of the test. The analysis of the different tests had shown vagal hyperactivity in 63% of patients on deep breathing, in 93% of patients on hand grip and in 100% on orthostatic test. The "alpha" central sympathetic activity was increased in 76% of the cases and "beta" central sympathetic activity was high in 83% of cases. The "alpha" peripheral hyperactivity was observed in 63% of patients on hand grip, and in 44% on orthostatic test. The analysis of cardiovascular autonomic reflexes in patients affected by POTS allowing the determination of their autonomic profile, will contribute probably to a better understanding of this pathology and to a better orientation of its care.

  11. Depression and Cardiac Disease: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff C. Huffman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD, depression is common, persistent, and associated with worse health-related quality of life, recurrent cardiac events, and mortality. Both physiological and behavioral factors—including endothelial dysfunction, platelet abnormalities, inflammation, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and reduced engagement in health-promoting activities—may link depression with adverse cardiac outcomes. Because of the potential impact of depression on quality of life and cardiac outcomes, the American Heart Association has recommended routine depression screening of all cardiac patients with the 2- and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaires. However, despite the availability of these easy-to-use screening tools and effective treatments, depression is underrecognized and undertreated in patients with CVD. In this paper, we review the literature on epidemiology, phenomenology, comorbid conditions, and risk factors for depression in cardiac disease. We outline the associations between depression and cardiac outcomes, as well as the mechanisms that may mediate these links. Finally, we discuss the evidence for and against routine depression screening in patients with CVD and make specific recommendations for when and how to assess for depression in this high-risk population.

  12. Regulation of sympathetic nervous system function after cardiovascular deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasser, E. M.; Moffitt, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Humans subjected to prolonged periods of bed rest or microgravity undergo deconditioning of the cardiovascular system, characterized by resting tachycardia, reduced exercise capability, and a predisposition for orthostatic intolerance. These changes in cardiovascular function are likely due to a combination of factors, including changes in control of body fluid balance or cardiac alterations resulting in inadequate maintenance of stroke volume, altered arterial or venous vascular function, reduced activation of cardiovascular hormones, and diminished autonomic reflex function. There is evidence indicating a role for each of these mechanisms. Diminished reflex activation of the sympathetic nervous system and subsequent vasoconstriction appear to play an important role. Studies utilizing the hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rat, an animal model of deconditioning, evaluated the potential role of altered arterial baroreflex control of the sympathetic nervous system. These studies indicate that HU results in blunted baroreflex-mediated activation of both renal and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity in response to a hypotensive stimulus. HU rats are less able to maintain arterial pressure during hemorrhage, suggesting that diminished ability to increase sympathetic activity has functional consequences for the animal. Reflex control of vasopressin secretion appears to be enhanced following HU. Blunted baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitation appears to involve altered central nervous system function. Baroreceptor afferent activity in response to changes in arterial pressure is unaltered in HU rats. However, increases in efferent sympathetic nerve activity for a given decrease in afferent input are blunted after HU. This altered central nervous system processing of baroreceptor inputs appears to involve an effect at the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Specifically, it appears that tonic GABAA-mediated inhibition of the RVLM is enhanced after HU. Augmented inhibition apparently

  13. Particles Alter Diesel Exhaust Gases-Induced Hypotension, Cardiac Arrhythmia,Conduction Disturbance, and Autonomic Imbalance in Heart Failure-Prone Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that acute exposures to vehicular traffic and particulate matter (PM) air pollution are key causes of fatal cardiac arrhythmia, especially in those with preexisting cardiovascular disease. Researchers point to electrophysiologic dysfunction and auto...

  14. Impact of early detection and treatment of diabetes on the 6-year prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in people with screen-detected diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charles, Morten; Fleischer, J; Witte, Daniel Rinse;

    2013-01-01

    Baggrund: Der er begrænset viden om hvordan tidlig multifaktoriel behandling forbedrer konsekvenser af diabetes. Kardiel autonom neuropati (KAN) hos personer med diabetes indikerer omfattende skade på det autonome nervesystem og er relateret til mortalitet og livskvalitet. I dette studie fra...... ADDITION Danmark undersøgte vi effekten af tidlig opsporing og efterfølgende intensive behandling af type 2 diabetes i almen praksis på hyppigheden af kardiel autonom neuropati 6 år efter diagnose. Resultater: Prævalensen af tidlig KAN var 15,1% i rutine behandlingsgruppen (RG) og 15.5% i intensive...... kardiovaskulære risikofaktorer er således ikke nok til at forebygge at mange diabetes patienter udvikler KAN....

  15. Assessment of autonomic dysfunction following spinal cord injury: rationale for additions to International Standards for Neurological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassioukov, Andrei V; Karlsson, Ann-Katrin; Wecht, Jill M; Wuermser, Lisa-Ann; Mathias, Christopher J; Marino, Ralph J

    2007-01-01

    We present a preliminary report of the discussion of the joint committee of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society concerning the development of assessment criteria for general autonomic function testing following spinal cord injury (SCI). Elements of this report were presented at the 2005 annual meeting of the ASIA. To improve the evaluation of neurological function in individuals with SCI and therefore better assess the effects of therapeutic interventions in the future, we are proposing a comprehensive set of definitions of general autonomic nervous system dysfunction following SCI that should be assessed by clinicians. Presently the committee recommends the recognition and assessment of the following conditions: neurogenic shock, cardiac dysrhythmias, orthostatic hypotension, autonomic dysreflexia, temperature dysregulation, and hyperhidrosis. PMID:17551864

  16. Autonomic and endocrine control of cardiovascular function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard; Gordan; Judith; K; Gwathmey; Lai-Hua; Xie

    2015-01-01

    The function of the heart is to contract and pump oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs.To achieve this goal,a normal human heart must beat regularly and continuously for one’s entire life.Heartbeats originate from the rhythmic pacing discharge from the sinoatrial(SA) node within the heart itself.In the absence of extrinsic neural or hormonal influences,the SA node pacing rate would be about 100 beats per minute.Heart rate and cardiac output,however,must vary in response to the needs of the body’s cells for oxygen and nutrients under varying conditions.In order to respond rapidly to the changing requirements of the body’s tissues,the heart rate and contractility are regulated by the nervous system,hormones,and other factors.Here we review how the cardiovascular system is controlled and influenced by not only a unique intrinsic system,but is also heavily influenced by the autonomic nervous system as well as the endocrine system.

  17. Acupuncture Effects on Cardiac Functions Measured by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Feline Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hsou Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of acupuncture (AP as a complementary and/or alternative therapy in animals is well established but more research is needed on its clinical efficacy relative to conventional therapy, and on the underlying mechanisms of the effects of AP. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI, an important tool in monitoring cardiovascular diseases, provides a reliable method to monitor the effects of AP on the cardiovascular system. This controlled experiment monitored the effect electro-acupuncture (EA at bilateral acupoint Neiguan (PC6 on recovery time after ketamine/xylazine cocktail anesthesia in healthy cats. The CMRI data established the basic feline cardiac function index (CFI, including cardiac output and major vessel velocity. To evaluate the effect of EA on the functions of the autonomic nervous and cardiovascular systems, heart rate, respiration rate, electrocardiogram and pulse rate were also measured. Ketamine/xylazine cocktail anesthesia caused a transient hypertension in the cats; EA inhibited this anesthetic-induced hypertension and shortened the post-anesthesia recovery time. Our data support existing knowledge on the cardiovascular benefits of EA at PC6, and also provide strong evidence for the combination of anesthesia and EA to shorten post-anesthesia recovery time and counter the negative effects of anesthetics on cardiac physiology.

  18. Acupuncture effects on cardiac functions measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in a feline model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jen-Hsou; Shih, Chen-Haw; Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Tseng, Weng-Yih; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2010-06-01

    The usefulness of acupuncture (AP) as a complementary and/or alternative therapy in animals is well established but more research is needed on its clinical efficacy relative to conventional therapy, and on the underlying mechanisms of the effects of AP. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI), an important tool in monitoring cardiovascular diseases, provides a reliable method to monitor the effects of AP on the cardiovascular system. This controlled experiment monitored the effect electro-acupuncture (EA) at bilateral acupoint Neiguan (PC6) on recovery time after ketamine/xylazine cocktail anesthesia in healthy cats. The CMRI data established the basic feline cardiac function index (CFI), including cardiac output and major vessel velocity. To evaluate the effect of EA on the functions of the autonomic nervous and cardiovascular systems, heart rate, respiration rate, electrocardiogram and pulse rate were also measured. Ketamine/xylazine cocktail anesthesia caused a transient hypertension in the cats; EA inhibited this anesthetic-induced hypertension and shortened the post-anesthesia recovery time. Our data support existing knowledge on the cardiovascular benefits of EA at PC6, and also provide strong evidence for the combination of anesthesia and EA to shorten post-anesthesia recovery time and counter the negative effects of anesthetics on cardiac physiology. PMID:18955311

  19. The role of autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy in pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Pejičić Snježana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetes is strongly associated with macrovascular complications, among which ischemic heart disease is the major cause of mortality. Autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of complications, which calls for an early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine both presence and extent of cardiac autonomic neuropathy, in regard to the type of diabetes mellitus, as well as its correlation with coronary disease and major cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. We have examined 90 subjects, classified into three groups, with 30 patients each: those with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and control group of healthy subjects. All patients underwent cardiovascular tests (Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing test, response to standing, blood pressure response to standing sustained, handgrip test, electrocardiogram, treadmill exercise test and filled out a questionnaire referring to major cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Results. Our results showed that cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was more frequent in type 2 diabetes, manifesting as autonomic neuropathy. In patients with autonomic neuropathy, regardless of the type of diabetes, the treadmill test was positive, i.e. strongly correlating with coronary disease. In regard to coronary disease risk factors, the most frequent correlation was found for obesity and hypertension. Discussion Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is considered to be the principal cause of arteriosclerosis and coronary disease. Our results showed that the occurrence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy increases the risk of coronary disease due to dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Conclusions. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes that significantly correlates with coronary disease. Early diagnosis of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy points to increased cardiovascular risk, providing a basis for preventive

  20. Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumor of the stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed N.; Al-Garni, Ayed A.; Sami A Al-Momen; Al-Nahawi, Mamdouh; Abu Subaih, Jawad

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 32 Final Diagnosis: Gastrintestinal Autonomic Nerve Tumor (GANT) Symptoms: anemia • anorexia • fatigue • fever • hearburn • nausea • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors (GANT) are extremely rare tumors that are related to gastrointestinal autonomic nervous plexuses. They are distinguished from stromal tumors by their unique ultrastructural feature...

  1. Agent, autonomous

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The expression autonomous agents, widely used in virtual reality, computer graphics, artificial intelligence and artificial life, corresponds to the simulation of autonomous creatures, virtual (i.e. totally computed by a program), or embodied in a physical envelope, as done in autonomous robots.

  2. Autonomic disturbances in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazzi, Giuseppe; Moghadam, Keivan Kaveh; Maggi, Leonardo Serra; Donadio, Vincenzo; Vetrugno, Roberto; Liguori, Rocco; Zoccoli, Giovanna; Poli, Francesca; Pizza, Fabio; Pagotto, Uberto; Ferri, Raffaele

    2011-06-01

    Narcolepsy is a clinical condition characterized mainly by excessive sleepiness and cataplexy. Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis complete the narcoleptic tetrad; disrupted night sleep, automatic behaviors and weight gain are also usual complaints. Different studies focus on autonomic changes or dysfunctions among narcoleptic patients, such as pupillary abnormalities, fainting spells, erectile dysfunction, night sweats, gastric problems, low body temperature, systemic hypotension, dry mouth, heart palpitations, headache and extremities dysthermia. Even if many studies lack sufficient standardization or their results have not been replicated, a non-secondary involvement of the autonomic nervous system in narcolepsy is strongly suggested, mainly by metabolic and cardiovascular findings. Furthermore, the recent discovery of a high risk for overweight and for metabolic syndrome in narcoleptic patients represents an important warning for clinicians in order to monitor and follow them up for their autonomic functions. We review here studies on autonomic functions and clinical disturbances in narcoleptic patients, trying to shed light on the possible contribute of alterations of the hypocretin system in autonomic pathophysiology.

  3. 恶劣心境患者述情障碍与自主神经功能的相关研究%A correlative study of alexithymia and autonomic nervous function in patients with dysthymic disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小溪; 吴爱勤

    2012-01-01

    .01). The SDNN.PNN50 and HF of DD group were significantly lower than MD and NC groups, the LF and LF/HF were higher than other two groups. (P<0.05). The correlation between the TAS-20-C total score,factor I and somatization,anxiety,psychopathic deviate, hypomania were significant ( |r| =0.25 -0.38,0.40-0.44,0.47 -0.59,0.43 -0.42, P <0. 01 or P < 0.05 ) , the score of faceor Ⅱ was correlated with anxiety and psychopathic deviate ( | r | = 0.31,0.31 ,P<0.05) :the somatization and anxiety were correlated with SDNN.VLF and LF ( | r | = 0.26 -0.27,0.39-0.27: |r| =0.36-0.28,P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: Alexithymia, anxiety produced by their personality characters and autonomic nervous system dysfunction are found in patients with dysthymic disorder.

  4. Influence of cigarette smoking on human autonomic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermaier, O. N.; Smith, M. L.; Beightol, L. A.; Zukowska-Grojec, Z.; Goldstein, D. S.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although cigarette smoking is known to lead to widespread augmentation of sympathetic nervous system activity, little is known about the effects of smoking on directly measured human sympathetic activity and its reflex control. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied the acute effects of smoking two research-grade cigarettes on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and on arterial baroreflex-mediated changes of sympathetic and vagal neural cardiovascular outflows in eight healthy habitual smokers. Measurements were made during frequency-controlled breathing, graded Valsalva maneuvers, and carotid baroreceptor stimulation with ramped sequences of neck pressure and suction. Smoking provoked the following changes: Arterial pressure increased significantly, and RR intervals, RR interval spectral power at the respiratory frequency, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity decreased. Plasma nicotine levels increased significantly, but plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y levels did not change. Peak sympathetic nerve activity during and systolic pressure overshoots after Valsalva straining increased significantly in proportion to increases of plasma nicotine levels. The average carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex relation shifted rightward and downward on arterial pressure and RR interval axes; average gain, operational point, and response range did not change. CONCLUSIONS. In habitual smokers, smoking acutely reduces baseline levels of vagal-cardiac nerve activity and completely resets vagally mediated arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses. Smoking also reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity but augments increases of sympathetic activity triggered by brief arterial pressure reductions. This pattern of autonomic changes is likely to influence smokers' responses to acute arterial pressure reductions importantly.

  5. Resposta taquicárdica e controle autonômico no exercício físico em modelo genético de insuficiência cardíaca Tachycardic response and autonomic control in physical exercise in genetic model of cardiac insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma F. Cunha

    2009-08-01

    ática e menor efeito vagal observados. Essa resposta taquicárdica exacerbada nos camundongos α2A/α2CKO está presente mesmo quando ainda não se observa disfunção cardíaca.Increase of sympathetic nervous activity and tachycardia at rest or during physical exertions are associated with increase of morbimortality, even in the absence of clinical signs of cardiac disease. Considering the importance of the α2A/α2C-adrenergic receptors in the modulation of the nervous activity and heart rate (HR, the present study uses a genetic model of cardiomyopathy induced by excess of circulating catecholamine in the gene inactivation of the α2A/α2 -adrenergic receptors in mice (α2A/α2CKO to verify the HR response to physical exercise (PE, as well as the sympathetic-vagal control of the HR to PE. The hypothesis is that there would be exacerbated tachycardic response during PE in α2A/α2CKO mice even when the cardiac function was still preserved at rest, being the α2A-adrenergic receptor the main reason for this response. Male mice of the C57Bl6J lineage, control (CO and with gene inactivation for the a2A (α2AKO, α2C α2CKO and α2A/α2CKO receptors were submitted to tolerance to a physical exercise test. Two other groups of mice, CO and α2A/α2CKO, were submitted to pharmacological blocking of the muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptors as well as to progressive PE to assess the sympathetic-vagal contribution to PE tachycardia. Intolerance to physical exercise (1.220 ± 18 and 1.460 ± 34 vs. 2.630 ± 42m, respectively and higher tachycardia to PE (765 ± 16 e 792 ± 13 vs. 603 ± 18 bpm, respectively in the α2AKO and α2A/α2CKO vs. CO mice was observed. Moreover, the autonomic balance was altered in the α2A/α2CKO mice by the sympathetic hyperactivity and lower cardiac vagal effect. These outcomes demonstrated the importance of the α2A/α2C-adrenergic receptors in autonomic control not only at rest, but also during PE, being theα2A-adrenergic receptor responsible for

  6. Plasticity and Neural Stem Cells in the Enteric Nervous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Karl-Herbert; Van Ginneken, Chris; Copray, Sjef

    2009-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a highly organized part of the autonomic nervous system, which innervates the whole gastrointestinal tract by several interconnected neuronal networks. The ENS changes during development and keeps throughout its lifespan a significant capacity to adapt to microenv

  7. Impaired autonomic function predicts dizziness at onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, MP; Hassink, RJ; Tuinenburg, AE; Lefrandt, JD; de Kam, PJ; Crijns, HJGM

    2001-01-01

    Background: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is associated with various symptoms, including dizziness, which presumably reflects hemodynamic deterioration. Given the importance of the autonomic nervous system in mitigating the hemodynamic effect of atrial fibrillation, we hypothesized that autonomic f

  8. The administration of the Rorschach inkblot method and changes in autonomic nervous system activity [Aplikace Rorschachovy metody a změny v aktivitě autonomního nervového systému

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Šiška

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The administration of some psychological methods can be a temporary source of stress and evoke in some patients a pathophysiological reaction with a negative health outcome. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out whether the administration of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM can change the autonomic nervous system (ANS activity in terms of shifting the sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic activity. METHODS: The RIM test was applied to 39 healthy females (22.8 ± 2.4 years. ANS activity was measured by the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV before, during, and after the RIM test. The same algorithm as in the previous procedure was employed in 30 healthy females (21.41 ± 1.7 years, however the Stroop color word test (SCWD, a very powerful stressor with a marked impact on ANS activity, instead of the RIM, was administered. Five relative parameters of SA HRV were used: percentages of VLF (very low frequency, LF (low frequency and HF (high frequency components (from the spectral power total and VLF/HF and LF/HF ratios. Changes in VLF/HF and LF/HF during the RIM and SCWT tests were used to compare the tests. RESULTS: During the RIM administration, a significant decrease in spectral power in HF (%, a significant increase in VLF (% and LF (%, and a significant increase in LF/HF and VLF/HF ratios have been shown. No significant differences in VLF/HF (markers of stressful situations among the RIM and the SCWT were found. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of the RIM can act as a powerful stressor and causes a significant decrease in parasympathetic activity and the shift of sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic activity. Administration of RIM and SCWT tests can produce stress of comparable intensity, with a similar impact on ANS activity. [VÝCHODISKA: Použití některých psychologických metod může přechodně působit jako zdroj stresu a u některých pacientů vyvolat patofyziologické reakce s negativn

  9. Autonomic dysfunction in primary sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglis, Mitchell G

    2016-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the coordination of many important physiologic functions during sleep. Many patients with untreated sleep disorders will describe symptoms of autonomic impairment, and a majority of patients with autonomic impairment have some form of sleep disorder. This article will explore possible explanations for this connection, as well as review the current literature on autonomic impairment in common primary sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, narcolepsy, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. PMID:27198946

  10. Analysis of autonomic modulation after an acute session of resistance exercise at different intensities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolino J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juliana Nicolino,1 Dionei Ramos,1 Marceli Rocha Leite,1 Fernanda Maria Machado Rodrigues,1 Bruna Spolador de Alencar Silva,1 Guilherme Yassuyuki Tacao,1 Alessandra Choqueta de Toledo,2 Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei,1 Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos1 1Department of Physiotherapy, Paulista State University (UNESP, Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Pathology, School of Medicine of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Purpose: Physical exercises are employed as part of the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; however information regarding cardiac autonomic modulation after an acute session of resistance exercise (RE is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiac autonomic modulation, via heart rate variability after an acute session of RE applied at different intensities in COPD patients. Patients and methods: Twelve COPD patients underwent an acute session of RE with an intensity of 60% and another of 90% of the one repetition maximum test. For analysis of autonomic modulation, heart rate was recorded beat-by-beat for 20 minutes at rest and after the training session. Heart rate variability indexes were obtained in the time and frequency domains for the assessment of autonomic modulation. Results: Regardless of exercise intensity, RE acute sessions influenced the autonomic modulation when the recovery period was compared with the baseline. An increase in standard deviation of normal to normal RR intervals was observed throughout recovery time after the RE, as compared to baseline in both protocols: 60% and 90% of the one repetition maximum test. The spectral component of low frequency index (ms was higher throughout recovery when compared to baseline in both protocols. The same was also observed in the spectral component of high frequency index (ms for the protocols of 60% and 90%. Conclusion: RE sessions impact on the autonomic modulation of COPD patients by promoting

  11. Effects of Weekly Low-Frequency rTMS on Autonomic Measures in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Casanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The term autism spectrum disorder (ASD describes a range of conditions characterized by impairments in social interactions, communication, and by restricted and repetitive behaviors. ASD may also present with symptoms suggestive of autonomic nervous system (ANS dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 18 sessions of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS on autonomic function in children with ASD by recording electrocardiogram (EKG and electrodermal activity pre-, post- and during each rTMS session. The autonomic measures of interest in this study were R-R cardiointervals in EKG (R-R, time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV and skin conductance level (SCL. HRV measures such as R-R intervals, standard deviation of cardiac intervals, pNN50 (percentage of cardiointervals>50 ms different from preceding interval, power of high frequency (HF and low frequency (LF components of HRV spectrum, LF/HF ratio, were then derived from the recorded EKG. We expected that the course of 18 weekly inhibitory low-frequency rTMS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC would enhance autonomic balance by facilitating frontal inhibition of limbic activity thus resulting in decreased overall heart rate, increased HRV (in a form of increased HF power, decreased LF power (resulting in decreased LF/HF ratio, and decreased SCL. Behavioral evaluations post-18 TMS showed decreased irritability, hyperactivity, stereotype behavior and compulsive behavior ratings while autonomic measures indicated a significant increase in cardiac interval variability and a decrease of tonic SCL. The results suggest that 18 sessions of low frequency rTMS in ASD results in increased cardiac vagal control and reduced sympathetic arousal.

  12. Autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1983-01-01

    The diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy is often difficult to establish, since clinical symptoms generally appear late in the course of the disease, and may be non-specific. A number of recently developed quantifiable and reproducible autonomic nerve function tests are reviewed, with emphasis on th...

  13. Evaluation of acceleration and deceleration cardiac processes using phase-rectified signal averaging in healthy and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Rosana; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Valencia, Jose F; Voss, Andreas; de Luna, Antonio Bayés; Caminal, Pere

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of the Phase-Rectified Signal Averaging (PRSA) method for improved risk prediction in cardiac patients. Moreover, this technique, which separately evaluates acceleration and deceleration processes of cardiac rhythm, allows the effect of sympathetic and vagal modulations of beat-to-beat intervals to be characterized. Holter recordings of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) patients were analyzed: high-risk (HR), who suffered sudden cardiac death (SCD) during the follow-up; and low-risk (LR), without any kind of cardiac-related death. Moreover, a control group of healthy subjects was analyzed. PRSA indexes were analyzed, for different time scales T and wavelet scales s, from RR series of 24 h-ECG recordings, awake periods and sleep periods. Also, the behavior of these indexes from simulated data was analyzed and compared with real data results. Outcomes demonstrated the PRSA capacity to significantly discriminate healthy subjects from IDC patients and HR from LR patients on a higher level than traditional temporal and spectral measures. The behavior of PRSA indexes agrees with experimental evidences related to cardiac autonomic modulations. Also, these parameters reflect more regularity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in HR patients. PMID:25585858

  14. Autonomic Function in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are highly debilitating and often lead to severe morbidity and even death. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease. According to the Braak staging study, the progressionof PD starts in the medulla oblongata......, which includes the cardiac centre and controls autonomic functions, and therefore autonomic dysfunction may be experienced early in the disease course. Sleep disturbances are also common non-motor complications of PD, and therefore PD patients undergo polysomnography at the Danish Center for Sleep...... Medicine to assess the sleep disturbances. The aim of this PhD dissertation was to: 1) Develop a method to investigate autonomic changes during sleep in neurodegenerative diseases, and apply this method on PD, iRBD and narcolepsy patients to evaluate the autonomic function in these diseases. 2) Validate...

  15. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain and Nervous System Print ... is quite the juggler. Anatomy of the Nervous System If you think of the brain as a ...

  16. Autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1980-01-01

    In order to elucidate the physiological significance of autonomic neuropathy in juvenile diabetics, cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic functions have been investigated in three groups of juvenile diabetics: One group had no signs of neuropathy, one group had presumably slight autonomic...... neuropathy (reduced beat-to-beat variation in heart rate during hyperventilation) and one group had clinically severe autonomic neuropathy, defined by presence of orthostatic hypotension. In all three experimental situations we found sympathetic dysfunction causing cardiovascular and/or hormonal...... maladjustments in patients with autonomic neuropathy. Regarding metabolic functions we found normal responses to graded exercise and insulin-induced hypoglycemia in patients with autonomic neuropathy in spite of blunted catecholamine responses, suggesting increased sensitivity of glycogen stores and adipose...

  17. 射频消融改良心脏自主神经治疗缓慢型心律失常%Radiofrequency Ablation of Bradyarrhythmia by Modification of Cardiac Autonomic Innervation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芳

    2012-01-01

    心脏神经消融是治疗迷走神经介导的缓慢型心律失常的新方法.射频消融可选择性地造成迷走神经的损伤,改良窦房结和房室结的神经支配.对于部分间歇性高度房室传导阻滞、功能性窦房结功能障碍、神经心源性晕厥等患者,有可能作为起搏器和药物治疗的替代治疗手段.%Radiofrequency catheter ablation is a new technique for management of patients with dominantly adverse parasympathetic autonomic influence. Catheter ablation may inflict the vagal innervation of the sinus and atrioventricular nodes selectively. Cardiac vagal den-ervation may prevent pacemaker implantation in some patients with functional atrioventricular block, sinus dysfunction, and neurocardiogenic syncope.

  18. Type 2 diabetes affects the autonomic nervous system function of the eye%2型糖尿病对眼部自主神经功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章伟利; 胡慧丽; 李金瑛; 吴承高; 张纯

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate autonomic nervous function lesions in eyes with type 2 diabetes mellitus by investigating pupil diameters under the natural state and drug-induced dilated conditions and maximum binocular amplitude adjustment.Methods In this prospective cohert study, 80 type 2 diabetic patients from Peking University Shenzhen Hospital were divided into two groups based on the results of fundus fluorescene angiography (FFA), a preclinical group and a non-proliferative group with 40 patients in each group.Thirty age-matched healthy people were selected as controls.Maximum binocular amplitude adjustment was tested with a comprehensive refractometer, pupil diameters under the natural state and drug-induced dilated conditions were measured with corneal topography.A one-way ANOVA was used for data analysis.Results The mean pupil diameters of the two eyes under the natural state in the control group, preclinical group and non-proliferative group were the same, 2.92±0.47 mm, 3.14±0.65 mm, and 3.24±0.58 mm, respectively.The differences between the groups were not statistically significant (F=2.637, P>0.05).For the right eyes, the mean pupil diameters under the drug-induced dilated conditions were 7.28±0.64 mm, 6.66±0.95 mm, and 6.42±1.32 mm, respectively.The differences between the groups were not statistically significant (F=6.008, P<0.05).The mean diameters for the left eyes were 7.37±0.63 mm, 6.50±1.21 mm, and 6.51±1.04 mm, respectively.The differences between the groups were statistically significant (F=7.737, P<0.05).For the right eyes, the mean dilation ratios were 1.56%±0.47%, 1.16%±0.32%, and 0.98%±0.32%, respectively.The differences between the groups were statistically significant (F=21.620, P<0.05).The ratios for the left eyes were 1.59%±0.47%, 1.11%±0.36%, and 1.04%±0.32%, respectively.The differences between the groups were significant (F=20.289, P<0.05).The mean maximum binocular amplitude adjustments were

  19. Visualization of short-term heart period variability with network tools as a method for quantifying autonomic drive

    CERN Document Server

    Makowiec, Danuta; Kaczkowska, Agnieszka; Graff, Grzegorz; Wejer, Dorota; Wdowczyk, Joanna; Zarczynska-Buchowiecka, Marta; Gruchala, Marcin; Struzik, Zbigniew R

    2014-01-01

    Signals from heart transplant recipients can be considered to be a natural source of information for a better understanding of the impact of the autonomic nervous system on the complexity of heart rate variability. Beat-to-beat heart rate variability can be represented as a network of increments between subsequent $RR$-intervals, which makes possible the visualization of short-term heart period fluctuations. A network is constructed of vertices representing increments between subsequent $RR$-intervals, and edges which connect adjacent $RR$-increments. Two modes of visualization of such a network are proposed. The method described is applied to nocturnal Holter signals recorded from healthy young people and from cardiac transplant recipients. Additionally, the analysis is performed on surrogate data: shuffled RR-intervals (to display short-range dependence), and shuffled phases of the Fourier Transform of RR-intervals (to filter out linear dependences). Important nonlinear properties of autonomic nocturnal reg...

  20. 心电图对功能性心血管疾病自主神经功能评价的意义%Significance of electrocardiogram in the evaluation of the autonomic nerve function in functional cardiovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽萍; 王成

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system(ANS) activity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease,including organic cardiovascular disease(such as hypertension,coronary artery disease,etc) and functional cardiovascular disease (such as vasovagal syncope,postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome,etc).Many methods was used to evaluate ANS function.Heart rate variability is a widely accepted method to assess cardiac autonomic nerve function.Autonomic nervous affected cardiac action potential and let electrocardiogram changes.Through the sympathetic and parasympathetic neurotransmitters which acting on the corresponding receptors.Electrocardiogram changes reflects autonomic nervous function.Present researches suggest that electrocardiogram has an important significance in the evaluation of autonomic nerve function in functional cardiovascular disease.%自主神经系统对心血管疾病的发生发展起重要调节作用,包括器质性心血管疾病(如高血压、冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病等)及功能性心血管疾病(如血管迷走性晕厥、体位性心动过速综合征等).评估自主神经功能的方法有很多,心率变异性分析是公认的评估心脏自主神经功能的方法.自主神经系统通过交感神经和副交感神经作用于相应受体,影响心肌动作电位导致心电图变化.因此,心电图能反映心脏自主神经功能变化,对功能性心血管疾病的自主神经功能评估具有重要意义.

  1. Impaired Neural Structure and Function Contributing to Autonomic Symptoms in Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M Harper

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS patients show major autonomic alterations in addition to their better-known breathing deficiencies. The processes underlying CCHS, mutations in the PHOX2B gene, target autonomic neuronal development, with frame shift extent contributing to symptom severity. Many autonomic characteristics, such as impaired pupillary constriction and poor temperature regulation, reflect parasympathetic alterations, and can include disturbed alimentary processes, with malabsorption and intestinal motility dyscontrol. The sympathetic nervous system changes can exert life-threatening outcomes, with dysregulation of sympathetic outflow leading to high blood pressure, time-altered and dampened heart rate and breathing responses to challenges, cardiac arrhythmia, profuse sweating, and poor fluid regulation. The central mechanisms contributing to failed autonomic processes are readily apparent from structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, which reveal substantial cortical thinning, tissue injury, and disrupted functional responses in hypothalamic, hippocampal, posterior thalamic, and basal ganglia sites and their descending projections, as well as insular, cingulate, and medial frontal cortices, which influence subcortical autonomic structures. Midbrain structures are also compromised, including the raphe system and its projections to cerebellar and medullary sites, the locus coeruleus, and medullary reflex integrating sites, including the dorsal and ventrolateral medullary nuclei. The damage to rostral autonomic sites overlaps metabolic, affective and cognitive regulatory regions, leading to hormonal disruption, anxiety, depression, behavioral control, and sudden death concerns. The injuries suggest that interventions for mitigating hypoxic exposure and nutrient loss may provide cellular protection, in the same fashion as interventions in other conditions with similar malabsorption, fluid turnover

  2. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  3. Autonomic Activation in Insomnia: The Case for Acupuncture

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wei; Kutner, Nancy; Bliwise, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Current conceptualizations of the biological basis for insomnia typically invoke central nervous system and/or autonomic nervous system arousal. Acupuncture may represent a unique avenue of treatment for poor sleep by virtue of its direct effects on peripheral nerves and muscles, which, in turn, modulate autonomic tone and central activation. In this review, we summarize both basic and clinical research indicating that acupuncture exerts profound influences via a wide variety of potential neu...

  4. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSN/HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders of the peripheral nervous system that predominantly affect the sensory and autonomic neurons. Hallmark features comprise not only prominent sensory signs and symptoms and ulcerative mutilations but also variable autonomic and motor disturbances. Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance has been reported. Molecular genetics studies have identified disease-causing mutations in 11 genes. Some of the affected proteins have nerve-specific roles but underlying mechanisms have also been shown to involve sphingolipid metabolism, vesicular transport, structural integrity, and transcription regulation. Genetic and functional studies have substantially improved the understanding of the pathogenesis of the HSN/HSAN and will help to find preventive and causative therapies in the future.

  5. Correlation between arterial wall stiffness, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiac autonomic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Aleksandrovna Serhiyenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess arterial wall stiffness, plasma levels of of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, as well as functional state and structure of the myocardium in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN.Materials and Methods. The study involved a total of 65 patients with T2DM. 12 had no evidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD or CAN, 14 were diagnosed with subclinical stage of CAN, 18 – with functional stage, and 21 – with organic stage. We measured aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV, aortic augmentation index (AIx, brachial artery AIx, ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI and plasma levels of NT-proBNP. Clinical examination included ECG, Holter monitoring, ambulatory BP measurement and echocardiography.Results. Patients with isolated T2DM showed a trend for increased vascular wall stiffness. PWV was increased in patients with subclinical stage of CAN. Aortic and brachial AIx, PWV and AASI were elevated in patients with functional stage of CAN, PWV being significantly higher vs. subclinical CAN subgroup. Organic stage was characterized by pathologically increased values of all primary parameters; PWV and AASI were significantly higher compared with other groups. Development and progression of CAN was accompanied by an increase in NT-proBNP plasma levels. Concentration of NT-proBNP was in direct correlation with left ventricular mass (LVM and PWV. PWV and LVM values also directly correlated between themselves.Conclusion. Development and progression of CAN in patients with T2DM is accompanied by an increase in vascular wall stiffness. The elevation of plasma NT-proBNP in patients with T2DM correlates with the development of CAN and is significantly and independently associated with an increase in LVM and PWV. Our data suggests the pathophysiological interconnection between metabolic, functional and structural myocardial abnormalities in patients with T2DM and CAN.

  6. Effects of autonomic nervous biofeedback training on heat rate, heart rate variability and blood pressure of the military personnel stationed on plateau%自主神经调节反馈训练对高原驻训军事人员心率、心率变异性及血压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆峰; 宋华淼; 陈勇胜; 曹征涛; 彭飞; 杨蕾; 周玉彬; 罗永昌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of autonomic nervous biofeedback training on heart rate variabitity (HRV) and blood pressure of the military personnel stationed on plateau and to supply them with psychological support.Methods Seventy-one male military personnel (average age:27.6±6.5 yr) were selected as subjects.They were stationed on plateau of 3780 m for 60 d.Autonomic nervous biofeedback training that combined deep breath with HRV biofeedback was performed on them.HR,HRV and blood pressure of subjects were collected at sitting state and biofeedback state.Only 47 subjects' blood pressures were collected becauseof experimental condition limitation.Results ①Mean heart rate under autonomic nervous biofeedback state was significantly lower than that under sitting state (t=2.010,P<0.05).Subjects' standard deviation of HRV in N-N interval and low frequency under autonomic nervous biofeedback state were significantly higher than those under sitting state (t 3.700,5.401,P<0.01).②Ratio of diastolic pressure higher than 90 mm Hg was 31.91%under sitting state.Both systolic pressure and diastolic pressure under biofeedback state were significantly lower than those under sitting state (t=4.062,7.632,P<0.01).The level of blood pressure was positively correlated to age under both states (r=0.363-0.605,P < 0.05).Conclusions Autonomic nervous biofeedback training can reduce heart rate and blood pressure,but increase HRV of the subjects on plateau.It is suggested to strengthen psychological support for the military personnel stationed on plateau because of its benefits on moderating the hypoxia effects on physiology and improving mental state.%目的 研究自主神经调节反馈训练对高原环境驻训军人的心率变异性和血压的影响,为高原驻训心理卫生保障提供技术方法. 方法 71名高原驻训军人,平均年龄(27.6±6.5)岁,在进驻高原(海拔3780 m) 60 d后,进行深呼吸和心率变异性生物反馈相结合的自主神经调

  7. Effects of metronome breathing on the assessment of autonomic control using heart rate variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaksma, J; Brouwer, J; vandenBerg, MP; Dijk, WA; Dassen, WRM; Crijns, HJGM; Mulder, Lambertus; Mulder, Gysbertus

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of Heart Rate Variability is a non-invasive quantitative tool to study the influence of the autonomic nervous system on the heart. Rapid variations in heart rate, related to breathing are primarily mediated by the vagal limb of the autonomic nervous system. The resulting variations in heart

  8. Autonomic Impairment in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Laboratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Anna; Klonsky, E. David; Hajcak, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that emotional dysfunction in psychiatric disorders can be reflected in autonomic abnormalities. The present study examines sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system activity in individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) before, during, and following a social stressor task. Data were obtained…

  9. Autonomic dysfunction in diabetes : a consequence of cardiovascular damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefrandt, J D; Smit, A J; Zeebregts, C J; Gans, R O B; Hoogenberg, K H

    2010-01-01

    In 1976, D.J. Ewing showed a clear survival disadvantage for diabetic patients that had 'diabetic autonomic neuropathy', as assessed by heart rate and blood pressure variations during a battery of bedside tests. However, these variations do not solely depend on autonomic nervous system function, but

  10. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Niño Mantilla

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available the dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is a serious problem in diabetic patients. The cardiovacular autonomic neuropathy is the most important autonomic dysfuntion for it´s implication in the increasesof the mortality rate in diabetis patients. tis ethiopatogenesis is the result of a multifactorial process caused by chronic hyperglycemia, ending up in damage of the autonomic fibers thet innervate the heart and blood vessels, leading to dysfuntional hearth rate control and abnormal vascular dynamics. the associated clinical manifestations include orthotatic hypotension, excecise intolerance, intraoperative cardiovascular liability and silent myocardial ischemia. Being important its recognition, quantitative test to evaluate the cardiovascular funtion, to value its evolution and the effects of the treatment ahould be done, being the most used, the hearth rate response to standing test, and teh valsalva maneuver. the handling of this entity is done improving control of glucose blood levels its the most effective way to prevent the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic patients.

  11. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  12. Heart Rate Variability and Autonomic Modulations in Preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaza M Musa

    Full Text Available Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not well understood, autonomic nervous system imbalance is suggested as one of the main factors.To investigate heart rate variability (HRV and autonomic modulations in Sudanese pregnant women with preeclampsia.A case-control study (60 women in each arm was conducted at Omdurman Maternity Hospital-Sudan, during the period from June to August, 2014. Cases were women presented with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women were the controls. Studied groups were matched for important determinants of HRV. Natural logarithm (Ln of total power (TP, high frequency (HF, low frequency (LF and very low frequency (VLF were used to determine HRV. Normalized low and high frequencies (LF Norm and HF Norm were used to evaluate sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic modulations respectively.Patients with preeclampsia achieved significantly higher LF Norm [49.80 (16.25 vs. 44.55 (19.15, P = 0.044] and LnLF/HF [0.04 (0.68 vs. -0.28 (0.91, P = 0.023] readings, but lower HF Norm [49.08 (15.29 vs. 55.87 (19.56, P = 0.012], compared with healthy pregnant women. Although all other HRV measurements were higher in the patients with preeclampsia compared with the controls, only LnVLF [4.50 (1.19 vs. 4.01 (1.06, P = 0.017] and LnLF [4.01 (1.58 vs. 3.49 (1.23, P = 0.040] reached statistical significance.The study adds further evidence for the dominant cardiac sympathetic modulations on patients with preeclampsia, probably secondary to parasympathetic withdrawal in this group. However, the higher LnVLF and LnLF readings achieved by preeclamptic women compared with the controls are unexpected in the view that augmented sympathetic modulations usually depresses all HRV parameters including these two measures.

  13. Autonomic Conditions in Tinnitus and Implications for Korean Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Eun Ji Choi; Younghee Yun; Seungyeon Yoo; Kyu Seok Kim; Jeong-Su Park; Inhwa Choi

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus patients suffer from not only auditory sensations but also physical, mental, and social difficulties. Even though tinnitus is believed to be associated with the autonomic nervous system, changes in autonomic conditions in tinnitus patients are not receiving much research attention. The aims of this study were to investigate the autonomic condition of tinnitus patients and to consider Korean medicine in the treatment of tinnitus with an evidence-based approach. We performed a retrospe...

  14. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  15. Short-Term Effects of Isotonic Handgrip Exercise on Cardiovascular Autonomic Reactivity in Healthy Young Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nileshkumar H Patel, Hasmukh D Shah, Wasim A Shaikh, Sushil K Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Exercise is a potent stimulus for sympathetic nervous system activation. But the compliance of people for routine form of exercise for BP control has not been very encouraging. Objective of the study was to determine the short-term effects of isotonic handgrip exercise on cardiovascular autonomic reactivity in healthy adolescents and to find a user friendly exercise which help in reducing blood pressure. Method and Materials: Present study was conducted on 50 young healthy adolescents in the age group of 17–19 years. Isotonic handgrip exercise was performed for 20 minutes at the rate 12 contractions per minute (2 sec contraction/3 sec relaxation at an intensity of 30%MVC using Ball-Squeeze Dynamometer. Vascular sympathetic reactivity and cardiac parasympathetic reactivity were tested at baseline and during recovery period (Immediate- post-exercise and 1 hour–post-exercise. Result: There were no changes in the parameters (Expiration: Inspiration ratio and Valsalva Ratio measuring parasympathetic reactivity. Sympathetic reactivity as evaluated by diastolic blood pressure responses to isometric handgrip test (HGT and cold pressor test (CPT showed no significant decreases. No significant difference was observed in cardiovascular autonomic reactivity during immediate and 1 hr post-exercise recovery in both boys and girls. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the exercise regime under consideration could not produce any short-term beneficial effects with respect to cardiovascular autonomic reactivity."

  16. Alternative Quantitative Tools in the Assessment of Diabetic Peripheral and Autonomic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinik, A I; Casellini, C; Névoret, M-L

    2016-01-01

    Here we review some seldom-discussed presentations of diabetic neuropathy, including large fiber dysfunction and peripheral autonomic dysfunction, emphasizing the impact of sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and contributes additional risks in the aging adult. Loss of sensory perception, loss of muscle strength, and ataxia or incoordination lead to a risk of falling that is 17-fold greater in the older diabetic compared to their young nondiabetic counterparts. A fall is accompanied by lacerations, tears, fractures, and worst of all, traumatic brain injury, from which more than 60% do not recover. Autonomic neuropathy has been hailed as the "Prophet of Doom" for good reason. It is conducive to increased risk of myocardial infarction and sudden death. An imbalance in the autonomic nervous system occurs early in the evolution of diabetes, at a stage when active intervention can abrogate the otherwise relentless progression. In addition to hypotension, many newly recognized syndromes can be attributed to cardiac autonomic neuropathy such as orthostatic tachycardia and bradycardia. Ultimately, this constellation of features of neuropathy conspire to impede activities of daily living, especially in the patient with pain, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. The resulting reduction in quality of life may worsen prognosis and should be routinely evaluated and addressed. Early neuropathy detection can only be achieved by assessment of both large and small- nerve fibers. New noninvasive sudomotor function technologies may play an increasing role in identifying early peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, allowing rapid intervention and potentially reversal of small-fiber loss.

  17. Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälinen Mervi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR to carbacholine (CCh and isoprenaline (Iso were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA temperatures. Results Inhibitory action of CCh was much stronger on atrial contractility than HR. CCh reduced force of atrial contraction at an order of magnitude lower concentrations (EC50 2.75-3.5·10-8 M in comparison to its depressive effect on HR (EC50 1.23-2.02·10-7 M (P -8 M and 10-7 M CCh, respectively (P + current, IK,CCh, with an EC50 value of 3-4.5·10-7 M and inhibited Ca2+ current (ICa by 28 ± 8% and 51 ± 6% at 10-7 M and 10-6 M, respectively. These currents can explain the shortening of AP. Iso did not elicit any responses in crucian carp sinoatrial preparations nor did it have any effect on atrial ICa, probably due to the saturation of the β-adrenergic cascade in the basal state. Conclusion In the crucian carp, HR and force of atrial contraction show cardio-depressive responses to the cholinergic agonist, but do not have any responses to the β-adrenergic agonist. The scope of inhibitory regulation by CCh is increased by the high basal tone of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP cascade. Higher concentrations of CCh were required to induce IK,CCh and inhibit ICa than was needed for CCh's negative inotropic effect on atrial muscle suggesting that neither IK,CCh nor ICa alone can mediate CCh's actions but they might synergistically reduce AP duration and atrial force production. Autonomic responses were similar in CA winter fish and WA summer fish indicating that cardiac sensitivity to external modulation by the autonomic nervous system is not involved in seasonal acclimatization of the crucian carp heart to cold and anoxic

  18. Dysautonomia due to reduced cholinergic neurotransmission causes cardiac remodeling and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Aline; Damasceno, Denis D; Pires, Rita; Gros, Robert; Gomes, Enéas R; Gavioli, Mariana; Lima, Ricardo F; Guimarães, Diogo; Lima, Patricia; Bueno, Carlos Roberto; Vasconcelos, Anilton; Roman-Campos, Danilo; Menezes, Cristiane A S; Sirvente, Raquel A; Salemi, Vera M; Mady, Charles; Caron, Marc G; Ferreira, Anderson J; Brum, Patricia C; Resende, Rodrigo R; Cruz, Jader S; Gomez, Marcus Vinicius; Prado, Vania F; de Almeida, Alvair P; Prado, Marco A M; Guatimosim, Silvia

    2010-04-01

    Overwhelming evidence supports the importance of the sympathetic nervous system in heart failure. In contrast, much less is known about the role of failing cholinergic neurotransmission in cardiac disease. By using a unique genetically modified mouse line with reduced expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and consequently decreased release of acetylcholine, we investigated the consequences of altered cholinergic tone for cardiac function. M-mode echocardiography, hemodynamic experiments, analysis of isolated perfused hearts, and measurements of cardiomyocyte contraction indicated that VAChT mutant mice have decreased left ventricle function associated with altered calcium handling. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and Western blotting, and the results indicated that VAChT mutant mice have profound cardiac remodeling and reactivation of the fetal gene program. This phenotype was attributable to reduced cholinergic tone, since administration of the cholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine for 2 weeks reversed the cardiac phenotype in mutant mice. Our findings provide direct evidence that decreased cholinergic neurotransmission and underlying autonomic imbalance cause plastic alterations that contribute to heart dysfunction.

  19. Autonomic responses to cold face stimulation in sickle cell disease: a time-varying model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalacheva, Patjanaporn; Kato, Roberta M; Sangkatumvong, Suvimol; Detterich, Jon; Bush, Adam; Wood, John C; Meiselman, Herbert; Coates, Thomas D; Khoo, Michael C K

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by sudden onset of painful vaso-occlusive crises (VOC), which occur on top of the underlying chronic blood disorder. The mechanisms that trigger VOC remain elusive, but recent work suggests that autonomic dysfunction may be an important predisposing factor. Heart-rate variability has been employed in previous studies, but the derived indices have provided only limited univariate information about autonomic cardiovascular control in SCD. To circumvent this limitation, a time-varying modeling approach was applied to investigate the functional mechanisms relating blood pressure (BP) and respiration to heart rate and peripheral vascular resistance in healthy controls, untreated SCD subjects and SCD subjects undergoing chronic transfusion therapy. Measurements of respiration, heart rate, continuous noninvasive BP and peripheral vascular resistance were made before, during and after the application of cold face stimulation (CFS), which perturbs both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. Cardiac baroreflex sensitivity estimated from the model was found to be impaired in nontransfused SCD subjects, but partially restored in SCD subjects undergoing transfusion therapy. Respiratory-cardiac coupling gain was decreased in SCD and remained unchanged by chronic transfusion. These results are consistent with autonomic dysfunction in the form of impaired parasympathetic control and sympathetic overactivity. As well, CFS led to a significant reduction in vascular resistance baroreflex sensitivity in the nontransfused SCD subjects but not in the other groups. This blunting of the baroreflex control of peripheral vascular resistance during elevated sympathetic drive could be a potential factor contributing to the triggering of VOC in SCD. PMID:26177958

  20. Autonomic responses to cold face stimulation in sickle cell disease: a time-varying model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalacheva, Patjanaporn; Kato, Roberta M; Sangkatumvong, Suvimol; Detterich, Jon; Bush, Adam; Wood, John C; Meiselman, Herbert; Coates, Thomas D; Khoo, Michael C K

    2015-07-14

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by sudden onset of painful vaso-occlusive crises (VOC), which occur on top of the underlying chronic blood disorder. The mechanisms that trigger VOC remain elusive, but recent work suggests that autonomic dysfunction may be an important predisposing factor. Heart-rate variability has been employed in previous studies, but the derived indices have provided only limited univariate information about autonomic cardiovascular control in SCD. To circumvent this limitation, a time-varying modeling approach was applied to investigate the functional mechanisms relating blood pressure (BP) and respiration to heart rate and peripheral vascular resistance in healthy controls, untreated SCD subjects and SCD subjects undergoing chronic transfusion therapy. Measurements of respiration, heart rate, continuous noninvasive BP and peripheral vascular resistance were made before, during and after the application of cold face stimulation (CFS), which perturbs both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. Cardiac baroreflex sensitivity estimated from the model was found to be impaired in nontransfused SCD subjects, but partially restored in SCD subjects undergoing transfusion therapy. Respiratory-cardiac coupling gain was decreased in SCD and remained unchanged by chronic transfusion. These results are consistent with autonomic dysfunction in the form of impaired parasympathetic control and sympathetic overactivity. As well, CFS led to a significant reduction in vascular resistance baroreflex sensitivity in the nontransfused SCD subjects but not in the other groups. This blunting of the baroreflex control of peripheral vascular resistance during elevated sympathetic drive could be a potential factor contributing to the triggering of VOC in SCD. PMID:26177958

  1. ROLE OF YOGA ON CARDIC AUTONOMIC FUNCTION TESTS AND COGNITION IN TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, Santhakumari Nagothu; Indla, Yogananda Reddy; Archana, R; Rajesh, P

    2016-01-01

    According to International Diabetic Federation, type 2 diabetic population is on the rise globally and cognitive decline is one of the complications seen in type 2 diabetes. The present study is aimed at exploring the role of regular practice of yoga on cognition in type 2 diabetes and also to study the relation between the cognition and functional status of autonomic nervous system by considering the Cardiac Autonomic (CAN) function tests. Ten type 2 diabetic subjects of both the sex, aged between 35-55 years, who practiced yoga for a period of six months at Yogi Vemana Yoga Research Institute were recruited as test group. Age and sex matched ten type 2 diabetic subjects were recruited as control group; both the group subjects are on oral hypoglycemic agents. Glycosylated hemoglobin concentration was estimated with Bio-Rad instrument, cognition was assessed with Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised battery and Cardiac autonomic function tests were also conducted. Unpaired student t test was performed and p<0.05 is considered statistically significant. The mean HbA1c concentration in control and test group subjects is 7.8±1.84 and 6.9±0.4% (p=0.03) respectively. Mean cognitive scores in test and control group subjects are 93±4.5 and 85±4.0 (p=0.008) respectively. CAN test results didn't showed any significance between the test and control group. But CAN functions are affected in both the groups. Regular practice of yoga in combination with oral hypoglycemic agents has a positive effect on cognition in type 2 diabetes. PMID:27390720

  2. Capsaicin Stimulation on Autonomic Nervous System in Human by Heart Rate Variability Analysis%心率变异性分析评价辣椒素致痛对自主神经活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周芳; 房泽; 张健; 申岱

    2015-01-01

    second card (Sigma Tel c-major Audio) of the laptop (DELL INSPIRON 501) was used to collect the ECG of volunteers. Results The VAS scores after the stimulation of capsaicin was 63.36 ± 11.21. The hemodynamic features of pa⁃tients showed the contrast within the two groups, the value of HR at T1 was significantly increased (P>0.05). The results of time-domain analysis showed the value of SDNN and RMSSD at T1 significantly increased (P<0.05). Frequency-analysis showed the value of TP, LF, HF and LF/HF at T1 significantly increased (P<0.05). The result of scatter diagram showed the value of SD1 and SD2 at T1 significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion It is feasible to build the capsaicin pain model. During the stimulation of capsaicin, the action of the autonomic nerve has significantly increased. Both the sympathetic nerve and the pneumogastric nerve can be enhanced. The heart rate variability can be used as the indicator to the evaluation of pain.

  3. Autonomous Search

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadi, Youssef; Saubion, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Decades of innovations in combinatorial problem solving have produced better and more complex algorithms. These new methods are better since they can solve larger problems and address new application domains. They are also more complex which means that they are hard to reproduce and often harder to fine-tune to the peculiarities of a given problem. This last point has created a paradox where efficient tools are out of reach of practitioners. Autonomous search (AS) represents a new research field defined to precisely address the above challenge. Its major strength and originality consist in the

  4. The nicotine paradox: effect of smoking on autonomic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, T W; Epstein, L H

    1986-01-01

    Smoking reduces negative affect while it increases sympathetic nervous system activity. However, theories of emotion predict that increased autonomic arousal should increase rather than reduce negative affect. One explanation for this paradox is that nicotine interferes with perception of autonomic activity. We evaluated the effect of smoking on autonomic activity perception by measuring performance on a heartbeat detection task after a high or low dose of nicotine or not smoking. A group of nonsmokers also completed the task. Results failed to support the hypothesis. In light of previous research, the results suggest EMG perception may be more important to the negative affect reduction phenomenon than perception of autonomic activity. PMID:3739820

  5. Autonomic dysregulation in headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Jason J; Glaros, Alan G

    2013-12-01

    To analyze autonomic nervous system activity in headache subjects, measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), skin temperature, skin conductance, and respiration were compared to a matched control group. HRV data were recorded in time and frequency domains. Subjects also completed self-report questionnaires assessing psychological distress, fatigue, and sleep dysfunction. Twenty-one headache and nineteen control subjects participated. In the time domain, the number of consecutive R-to-R intervals that varied by more than 50 ms and the standard deviation of the normalized R-to-R intervals, both indices of parasympathetic nervous system activity, were significantly lower in the headache group than the control group. Groups did not differ statistically on HRV measures in the frequency domain. Self-report measures showed significantly increased somatization, hostility, anxiety, symptom distress, fatigue, and sleep problems in the headache group. The results suggest headache subjects have increased sympathetic nervous system activity and decreased parasympathetic activity compared to non-headache control subjects. Headaches subjects also showed greater emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep problems. The results indicate an association between headaches and cardiovascular functioning suggestive of sympathetic nervous system activation in this sample of mixed migraine and tension-type headache sufferers. PMID:23912525

  6. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Eijk, L.T.G.J. van; Zwaag, J.; Wildenberg, J. van den; Sweep, F.C.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot b

  7. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of an autonomic neuropathy in the developed world. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy causes a constellation of symptoms and signs affecting cardiovascular, urogenital, gastrointestinal, pupillomotor, thermoregulatory, and sudomotor systems. Several discrete syndromes associated with diabetes cause autonomic dysfunction. The most prevalent of these are: generalized diabetic autonomic neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy associated with the prediabetic state, treatment-induced painful and autonomic neuropathy, and transient hypoglycemia-associated autonomic neuropathy. These autonomic manifestations of diabetes are responsible for the most troublesome and disabling features of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and result in a significant proportion of the mortality and morbidity associated with the disease.

  8. Altered cardiovascular autonomic regulation in overweight children engaged in regular physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Daniela; de Giacomi, Gaia; Tosi, Fabio; Malacarne, Mara; Respizzi, Stefano; Pagani, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Overweight (OW) and obesity in children are important forerunners of cardiovascular risk, possibly through autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation, while physical exercise exerts a beneficial influence. In this observational study we hypothesise that OW might influence ANS profile even in a population performing high volume of supervised exercise. We study 103 young soccer players, homogeneous in terms of gender (all male), cultural background, school, age (11.2 ± 1 years) and exercise routine, since they all belong to the same soccer club, thus guaranteeing equality of supervised training and similar levels of competitiveness. ANS is evaluated by autoregressive spectral analysis of heart rate and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) variabilities. We estimate also the accumulated weekly Metabolic Equivalents and time spent in sedentary activities. We subdivide the entire population in two subgroups (normal weight and OW) based on the International Obesity Task Force criteria. In OW soccer players (10.7% of total group) we observe an altered profile of autonomic cardiovascular regulation, characterised by higher values of SAP (113 ± 4 vs 100 ± 1 mm Hg, 39.7 ± 3 vs 66.2 ± 10%), higher Low Frequency variability power of SAP (an index of vasomotor sympathetic regulation) (12 ± 3 vs 4.5 mm Hg(2)) and smaller spontaneous baroreflex gain (an index of cardiac vagal regulation) (19 ± 3 vs 33 ± 3 ms/mm Hg) (all (p < 0.02)). Moreover Correlation analysis on the entire study population shows a significant link between anthropometric and autonomic indices. These data show that OW is associated to a clear autonomic impairment even in children subjected to an intense aerobic training. PMID:23086975

  9. Effects of Inhaled Rosemary Oil on Subjective Feelings and Activities of the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Sayorwan, Winai; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Piriyapunyporn, Teerut; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich; Siripornpanich, Vorasith

    2012-01-01

    Rosemary oil is one of the more famous essential oils widely used in aroma-therapy. However, the effects of rosemary oil on the human body, in particular the nervous system, have not been sufficiently studied. This study investigates the effects of the inhalation of rosemary oil on test subjects’ feelings, as well as its effects on various physiological parameters of the nervous system. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. All subjects underwent autonomic nervous system (...

  10. Autonomic activity during sleep predicts memory consolidation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Lauren N; Cellini, Nicola; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Duggan, Katherine A; Mednick, Sara C

    2016-06-28

    Throughout history, psychologists and philosophers have proposed that good sleep benefits memory, yet current studies focusing on the relationship between traditionally reported sleep features (e.g., minutes in sleep stages) and changes in memory performance show contradictory findings. This discrepancy suggests that there are events occurring during sleep that have not yet been considered. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) shows strong variation across sleep stages. Also, increases in ANS activity during waking, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), have been correlated with memory improvement. However, the role of ANS in sleep-dependent memory consolidation has never been examined. Here, we examined whether changes in cardiac ANS activity (HRV) during a daytime nap were related to performance on two memory conditions (Primed and Repeated) and a nonmemory control condition on the Remote Associates Test. In line with prior studies, we found sleep-dependent improvement in the Primed condition compared with the Quiet Wake control condition. Using regression analyses, we compared the proportion of variance in performance associated with traditionally reported sleep features (model 1) vs. sleep features and HRV during sleep (model 2). For both the Primed and Repeated conditions, model 2 (sleep + HRV) predicted performance significantly better (73% and 58% of variance explained, respectively) compared with model 1 (sleep only, 46% and 26% of variance explained, respectively). These findings present the first evidence, to our knowledge, that ANS activity may be one potential mechanism driving sleep-dependent plasticity. PMID:27298366

  11. Multiple hemodynamic effects of endogenous hydrogen sulfide on central nervous system in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yong-sheng; WU Sheng-ying; WANG Xing-jun; YU Fang; ZHAO Jing; TANG Chao-shu; OUYANG Jing-ping; GENG Bin

    2011-01-01

    Background Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is a new neuromodulator which takes part in the regulation of central nervous system physiology and diseases.Whether endogenous hydrogen sulfide in the central nervous system regulates cardiovascular activity is not known.In the present study,we observed the hemodynamic changes of hydrogen sulfide or its precursor by intracerebroventricular injection,and investigate the possible roles of endogenous digitalis like factors and sympathetic activity in the regulation.Methods Ninety-four Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a right cerebroventricular puncture,then the hydrogen sulfide saturation buffer or its precursor injected by intrcerebroventricular catheter.A heperin-filled catheter was inserted into the right femoral artery or into the left ventricle,and changes of blood pressure or cardiac function recorded by a Powerlab/4S instrument.Phentolamine or metoprolol were pre-injected to observe the possible role in autonomic nerve activity.After rats were sacrificed,plasma was collected and endogenous digitalis-like factors were measured with a commercial radioimmunoassay kit.The aortic,cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles were isolated and the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase was measured as ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis under maximal velocity conditions by measuring the release of inorganic phosphate from ATP.Unpaired Student's ttest for two groups or analysis of variances (ANOVA) for multiple groups were used to compare the differences of the changes.Results Intracerebroventricular injection of hydrogen sulfide induced a transient hypotension,then dramatic hypertenive effects in a dose-dependent manner.Bolus injection of L-cysteine or beta-mercaptopyruvate also increased mean arterial pressure (P <0.01),whereas hydroxylamine-a cystathionine beta synthase inhibitor decreased the arterial pressure (P <0.01).Hydrogen sulfide and L-cysteine increased mean arterial pressure,left ventricular develop pressure and left-ventricle maximal rate of

  12. Cerebral Hemispheric Lateralization Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis May Affect Interictal Cardiovascular Autonomic Functions in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokia Ghchime

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is linked to the autonomic nervous system dysfunctions. Seizures alter the function of different systems such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible factors which may be involved in interictal cardiovascular autonomic function in temporal lobe epilepsy with complex partial seizures, and with particular attention to hippocampal sclerosis. The study was conducted in 30 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (19 with left hippocampal sclerosis, 11 with right hippocampal sclerosis. All subjects underwent four tests of cardiac autonomic function: heart rate changes in response to deep breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure variations throughout resting activity and during hand grip, mental stress, and orthostatic tests. Our results show that the right cerebral hemisphere predominantly modulates sympathetic activity, while the left cerebral hemisphere mainly modulates parasympathetic activity, which mediated tachycardia and excessive bradycardia counterregulation, both of which might be involved as a mechanism of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients (SUDEP.

  13. 心脏自主神经节消融治疗睡眠呼吸暂停并发心房颤动的实验研究%Effects of cardiac autonomic ganglia ablation on atrial fibrillation associated with sleep apnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余小梅; 鲁志兵; 何文博; 何勃; 黄兵; 赵劲波; 江洪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of cardiac autonomic ganglionated plexus (GP)ablation on atrial fibrillation(AF) associated with sleep apnea(SA).Methods Thirteen dogs were randomly divided into two groups.GP ablation was performed after SA in the first group(n=7) and before SA in the second group (n =6).Surface electrocardiograms and blood were collected.Effective refractory period (ERP) and window of vulnerability(WOV) of the atrium,pulmonary veins and superior vena cava were measured in the baseline state,at the end of SA which was lasted for 1 hour and after GP ablation,respectively.Changes of heart rate,blood pressure,arterial blood gas analysis,heart rate viability (HRV),ERP and WOV were compared between the two groups before and after GP ablation.Results In the first group,during the process of SA,the heart rate and blood pressure increased and then decreased.At the end of 1 h SA,the HRV analysis revealed that the ratio of low frequency/high frequency(LF/HF) reduced compare to the level of baseline state [(0.6±0.2)vs.(O.8± 0.2),P<0.05] ; ERP was significantly shortened,and ∑WOV was significantly increased(P<0.05).After GP ablation,LF/HF was significantly increased[(1.1±0.3)vs(0.8±0.2),P<0.05],ERP was significantly prolonged,and ∑WOV was decreased (P<0.05).In the second group,during SA process following GP ablation,the heart rate and blood pressure were increased and then decreased.ERP was shortened at several sites.However,there were no significant changes of LF/HF and ∑WOV.In both groups,hypoxemia,hypercapnia and acidosis were observed after 1 h SA.Conclusion The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the occurrence of AF associated with SA.GP ablation may reverse and prevent AF caused by SA.%目的 研究心脏自主神经节(GP)消融对睡眠呼吸暂停(SA)并发心房颤动(房颤)的影响.方法 成年杂种犬13只,采用随机数字法分为2组.第1组先制作SA模型再行GP消融(n=7),

  14. Cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Article.jsp. Accessed June 16, 2014. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Approach to cardiac arrest and life-threatening ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 63. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Cardiac arrest and audden aardiac death. In: ...

  15. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Yong Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN. Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed.

  16. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E;

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  17. Diesel Exhaust Inhalation Increases Cardiac Output, Bradyarrhythmias, and Parasympathetic Tone in Aged Heart Failure-Prone Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute air pollutant inhalation is linked to adverse cardiac events and death, and hospitalizations for heart failure. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major air pollutant suspected to exacerbate preexisting cardiac conditions, in part, through autonomic and electrophysiologic disturbance...

  18. Bypassing damaged nervous tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Shneider, M N

    2016-01-01

    We show the principal ability of bypassing damaged demyelinated portions of nervous tissue, thereby restoring its normal function for the passage of action potentials. We carry out a theoretical analysis on the basis of the synchronization mechanism of action potential propagation along a bundle of neurons, proposed recently in [1]. And we discuss the feasibility of implement a bypass to restore damaged nervous tissue and creating an artificial neuron network.

  19. The clinical value of cardiac sympathetic imaging in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Emil; Kjaer, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the pathology of heart failure. The single-photon emission computed tomography tracer iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123) I-MIBG) can be used to investigate the activity of the predominant neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous...

  20. Leg vasoconstriction during head-up tilt in patients with autonomic failure is not abolished

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, J.T.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Deinum, J.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining blood pressure during orthostatic challenges is primarily achieved by baroreceptor-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which can be divided into preganglionic and postganglionic parts. Despite their preganglionic autonomic failure, spinal cord-injured individuals demon

  1. Evaluation of Autonomic Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Turan Evlice

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system, which controls the body's internal organs is called Autonomic Nervous System. Parkinson's disease, vascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and Guilllain-Barre syndrome cause to disotonomia. Recent studies has been shown, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome cause to disotonomia too. To investigate disotonomia in in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome , should be preferred the methods like analysis of heart rate variability and sympathetic skin response which have low cost and easy applicability. Thus, it will be possible to prevent morbidity and mortality due to autonomic dysfuncion. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 109-121

  2. Personality Change at the Intersection of Autonomic Arousal and Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Daniel; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that personality change in children would be predicted by the interaction of family risk with susceptibility to autonomic arousal, with children characterized by both families at high risk and highly reactive autonomic nervous systems showing maladaptive change. This hypothesis was tested in a six-year longitudinal study in which personality prototype, problem behavior, and negative emotional intensity were measured at two-year intervals. The results indicated that children wi...

  3. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Macey, Paul M.; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Kumar, Rajesh; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and ...

  4. Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, autonomic balance and serotonergic activity in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the acute autonomic effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program (TM) and resolve the conflict arising from discrepant neurochemical and psychophysiological data. Three experimental investigations were performed. The first examined beta{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors (AR's) on peripheral blood lymphocytes, via (I{sup 125})iodocyanopindolol binding, in 10 male mediating and 10 age matched non-meditating control subjects, to test the hypothesis that the long-term practice of TM and the TM Sidhi Program (TMSP) reduces end organ sensitivity to adrenergic agonists. The second investigated respiratory sinus arrhythmia (an indirect measure of cardiac Parasympathetic Nervous System tone), and skin resistance (a measure of Sympathetic Nervous System tone) during periods of spontaneous respiratory apneusis, a phenomenon occurring during TM that is known to mark the subjective experience of transcending. The third was within subject investigation of the acute effects of the TMSP on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity. Platelet 5-HT was assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, plasma prolactin (PL) and lutenizing hormone (LH) by radioimmunoassay, tryptophan by spectrofluorimetry, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, a modulator of 5-HT uptake) by radial immunodiffusion assay.

  5. Cardiac hypertrophy, arrhythmogenicity and the new myocardial phenotype. II. The cellular adaptational process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swynghedauw, B; Chevalier, B; Charlemagne, D; Mansier, P; Carré, F

    1997-07-01

    Ventricular fibrosis is not the only structural determinant of arrhythmias in left ventricular hypertrophy. In an experimental model of compensatory cardiac hypertrophy (CCH) the degree of cardiac hypertrophy is also independently linked to ventricular arrhythmias. Cardiac hypertrophy reflects the level of adaptation, and matches the adaptational modifications of the myocardial phenotype. We suggest that these modifications have detrimental aspects. The increased action potential (AP) and QT duration and the prolonged calcium transient both favour spontaneous calcium oscillations, and both are potentially arrhythmogenic and linked to phenotypic changes in membrane proteins. To date, only two ionic currents have been studied in detail: Ito is depressed (likely the main determinant in AP durations), and If, the pacemaker current, is induced in the overloaded ventricular myocytes. In rat CCH, the two components of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, namely Ca(2+)-ATPase and ryanodine receptors, are down-regulated in parallel. Nevertheless, while the inward calcium current is unchanged, the functionally linked duo composed of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanged and (Na+, K+)-ATPase, is less active. Such an imbalance may explain the prolonged calcium transient. The changes in heart rate variability provide information about the state of the autonomic nervous system and has prognostic value even in CCH. Transgenic studies have demonstrated that the myocardial adrenergic and muscarinic receptor content is also a determining factor. During CCH, several phenotypic membrane changes participate in the slowing of contraction velocity and are thus adaptational. They also have a detrimental counterpart and, together with fibrosis, favour arrhythmias. PMID:9302342

  6. The effect of endotoxin on the controllability of cardiac rhythm in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) has both diagnostic and prognostic value in patients with sepsis. However, it is not known whether reduced HRV in sepsis reflects an altered input from the autonomic nervous system or a remodeling of the cardiac pacemaker cells by inflammatory mediators. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of endotoxin on the heart rate dynamics of a denervated isolated heart in rats. Saline or endotoxin was injected into rats and their hearts were isolated and perfused. Atrial electrical activity was recorded and memory length in the time-series was assessed using inverse statistical analysis. Memory was defined as a statistical feature that lasts for a period of time and distinguishes the time-series from a random process. Endotoxaemic hearts exhibited a prolonged memory compared to the controls with respect to observing rare events. This indicates that a sudden decelerating event could potentially affect the cardiac rhythm of an endotoxaemic heart for a longer time than the controls. The prolongation of memory is indirectly linked to a reduced controllability in a complex system; therefore our data may provide evidence for a reduced controllability in cardiac rhythm following endotoxaemia. (paper)

  7. Upper extremity subclinical autonomic and peripheral neuropathy in systemic lupus erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud M Fathalla; Mohja A El-Badawy

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune, multiorgan disease that affects connective tissues of many organs or systems, including the nervous system, where it affects the autonomic, the peripheral, and the central nervous system. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association of subclinical autonomic and peripheral neuropathy with SLE and to correlate neurophysiological parameters with clinical and laboratory data. Patients and methods ...

  8. Autonomic dysfunction in chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frith J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available James Frith, Julia L NewtonNIHR Biomedical Research Centre in Ageing, Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UKAbstract: It is becoming increasingly clear that quality of life (QOL is impaired in those with chronic liver disease (CLD. One of the most important contributors to impaired QOL is the symptomatic burden which can range from slight to debilitating. Autonomic dysfunction accounts for a significant proportion of these symptoms, which can be common, non-specific and challenging to treat. Investigating the autonomic nervous system can be straight forward and can assist the clinician to diagnose and treat specific symptoms. Evidence-based treatment options for autonomic symptoms, specifically in CLD, can be lacking and must be extrapolated from other studies and expert opinion. For those with severely impaired quality of life, liver transplantation may offer an improvement; however, more research is needed to confirm this.Keywords: quality of life, treatment, fatigue, angiotensin II

  9. Um modelo experimental de ablação do Sistema Nervoso Intrínseco Cardíaco reduz a contratilidade do coração de ratos A new experimental model of chemical ablation of the Intrinsic Cardiac Nervous System reduces heart contractility and causes a type of dilated cardiopathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Scorzoni Filho

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A função do Sistema Nervoso Intrínseco Cardíaco e o seu papel na doença cardíaca permanecem pobremente compreendidos. Sabe-se que o cloreto de benzalcônio (CB induz a desnervação intrínseca do tubo digestivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi tentar produzir um modelo experimental de desnervação intrínseca do coração utilizando o CB. MÉTODO: Trinta ratos Wistar foram submetidos à aplicação intrapericárdica de CB (0,3% e trinta animais controle receberam a solução salina. Após 15 dias, os animais foram divididos em três grupos, com 10 animais tratados e 10 controles em cada. Os animais do grupo I foram submetidos a estudo radiológico e histopatológico. A área cardíaca e o índice cardiotorácico (ICT foram medidos nas radiografias. Os animais do grupo II foram submetidos a estudo hemodinâmico com registro da pressão arterial, freqüência cardíaca e débito cardíaco. No grupo III, a integridade da inervação parassimpática extrínseca do coração foi avaliada por estimulação vagal direita. O sistema de condução foi avaliado pelo ECG basal. RESULTADOS: A aplicação de CB acarretou aumento do ICT, da área cardíaca, pressão arterial e débito cardíaco, bem como do peso ponderal e do fígado. Nestes animais, a análise histopatológica mostrou redução do número de neurônios atriais e congestão passiva crônica do fígado. A estimulação vagal não mostrou diferenças entre os grupos experimentais. CONCLUSÃO: A ablação do sistema nervoso intrínseco propiciou o aparecimento de cardiopatia dilatada com insuficiência cardíaca direita e esquerda. Esse modelo experimental inédito deverá nortear futuros estudos na tentativa da elucidação da relação entre lesão neuronal e miocardiopatia.OBJECTIVE: The function of Intrinsic Cardiac Nervous System is largely unknown, as is its role in heart disease. In the digestive system, a topic aplication of Benzalkonium chloride (BC leads to intrinsic

  10. Larval nervous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    as the adult central nervous system (CNS). Two structures can be recognized, viz. a pair of cerebral ganglia, which form the major part of the adult brain, and a blastoporal (circumblastoporal) nerve cord, which becomes differentiated into a perioral loop, paired or secondarily fused ventral nerve cords......, and the nervous systems of echinoderms and enteropneusts appear completely enigmatic. The ontogeny of the chordate CNS can perhaps be interpreted as a variation of the ontogeny of the blastoporal nerve cord of the protostomes, and this is strongly supported by patterns of gene expression. The presence...

  11. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1985-01-01

    Defective blood pressure responses to standing, exercise and epinephrine infusions have been demonstrated in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. The circulatory mechanisms underlying blood pressure responses to exercise and standing up in these patients are well characterized: In both...... experimental situations insufficient contraction of resistance vessels has been demonstrated. The vasoconstrictor defects demonstrated are of a magnitude sufficient to account for the prevailing hypotension. Furthermore, during exercise cardiac output is low in patients with autonomic neuropathy, a finding...... which may contribute to exercise hypotension in these patients. During hypoglycemia, blood pressure regulation seems intact in patients with autonomic neuropathy. This is probably due to release of substantial amounts of catecholamines during these experiments. During epinephrine infusions a substantial...

  12. Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed 9/2/2015. Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy Summary. Dysautonomia International . http://www.dysautonomiainternational.org/page.php?ID= ... page Basic Information In Depth Information Basic Information Dysautonomia International offers an information page on Autoimmune autonomic ...

  13. The Nervous System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbitt, Cynthia; Carpenter, Molly

    2006-01-01

    For many children, especially those with reading difficulties, a motor-kinesthetic learning activity may be an effective tool to teach complex concepts. With this in mind, the authors developed and tested a game designed to teach fourth- to sixth-grade children some basic principles of nervous system function by allowing the children themselves to…

  14. Gender differences in autonomic cardiovascular regulation: spectral, hormonal, and hemodynamic indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. M.; Ziegler, M. G.; Patwardhan, A. R.; Ott, J. B.; Kim, C. S.; Leonelli, F. M.; Knapp, C. F.

    2001-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system drives variability in heart rate, vascular tone, cardiac ejection, and arterial pressure, but gender differences in autonomic regulation of the latter three parameters are not well documented. In addition to mean values, we used spectral analysis to calculate variability in arterial pressure, heart rate (R-R interval, RRI), stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance (TPR) and measured circulating levels of catecholamines and pancreatic polypeptide in two groups of 25 +/- 1.2-yr-old, healthy men and healthy follicular-phase women (40 total subjects, 10 men and 10 women per group). Group 1 subjects were studied supine, before and after beta- and muscarinic autonomic blockades, administered singly and together on separate days of study. Group 2 subjects were studied supine and drug free with the additional measurement of skin perfusion. In the unblocked state, we found that circulating levels of epinephrine and total spectral power of stroke volume, TPR, and skin perfusion ranged from two to six times greater in men than in women. The difference (men > women) in spectral power of TPR was maintained after beta- and muscarinic blockades, suggesting that the greater oscillations of vascular resistance in men may be alpha-adrenergically mediated. Men exhibited muscarinic buffering of mean TPR whereas women exhibited beta-adrenergic buffering of mean TPR as well as TPR and heart rate oscillations. Women had a greater distribution of RRI power in the breathing frequency range and a less negative slope of ln RRI power vs. ln frequency, both indicators that parasympathetic stimuli were the dominant influence on women's heart rate variability. The results of our study suggest a predominance of sympathetic vascular regulation in men compared with a dominant parasympathetic influence on heart rate regulation in women.

  15. [Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, M Yu; Piradov, M A; Suanova, E T; Sineva, N A

    2015-01-01

    Review of literature on the trigeminal autonomic cephalgias are presented. Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias are primary headaches with phenotype consisting of trigeminal pain with autonomic sign including lacrimation, rhinorrhea and miosis. Discussed are issues of classification, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of this headache. Special attention is paid to cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT syndrome, hemicrania continua.

  16. Cutaneous autonomic denervation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Otano, Judith; Casanova-Mollà, Jordi; Morales, Merche; Valls-Solé, Josep; Tolosa, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Numerous studies have detailed involvement of the peripheral autonomic nervous system (PANS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We assessed autonomic innervation of dermal annexes through quantitative fluorescence measurement from skin obtained via punch biopsies at distal leg region in PD and control subjects. We defined a ratio between the area corresponding to protein gen product (PGP) immunoreactivity and the area corresponding to blood vessel or sweat gland as a quantitative measure of autonomic innervation. Presence of alpha-synuclein (AS) deposits in dermis and hypodermis was also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Skin biopsies form six PD patients and six healthy controls were studied. Autonomic innervation scores were lower in PD than in controls in both blood vessels and sweat glands. No AS or phosphorylated AS (pAS) immunoreactivity was detected in dermis or hypodermis in any of the studied subjects. The results of this investigation suggest that autonomic innervation of dermal annexes in living patients with PD is reduced compared to controls. AS or pAS deposits were not found in dermis or hypodermis suggesting that distal leg skin study is not useful for in vivo detection of AS in PD.

  17. Cardiac Malpositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Shi Joon; Im, Chung Gie; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Hasn, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Cardiac Malposition refers to any position of the heart other than a left-sided heart in a situs solitus individual. Associated cardiac malformations are so complex that even angiocardiographic and autopsy studies may not afford an accurate information. Although the terms and classifications used to describe the internal cardiac anatomy and their arterial connections in cardiac malpositions differ and tend to be confusing, common agreement exists on the need for a segmental approach to diagnosis. Authors present 18 cases of cardiac malpositions in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between 1971 and 1979. Authors analyzed the clinical, radiographic, operative and autopsy findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases with cardiac malpositions, 6 cases had dextrocardia with situs inversus, 9 cases had dextrocardia with situs solitus and 3 cases had levocardia with situs inversus. 2. There was no genuine exception to visceroatrial concordance rule. 3. Associated cardiac malpositions were variable and complex with a tendency of high association of transposition and double outlet varieties with dextrocardia in situs solitus and levocardia in situs inversus. Only one in 6 cases of dextrocardia with situs inversus had pure transposition. 4. In two cases associated pulmonary atresia was found at surgery which was not predicted by angiocardiography. 5. Because many of the associated complex lesions can be corrected surgically provided the diagnosis is accurate, the selective biplane angiocardiography with or without cineradiography is essential.

  18. Service Oriented Approach for Autonomous Exception Management in Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Guarnaschelli, Armando; Chiotti, Omar; Salomone, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Risk and uncertainty are inherent to Supply Chains; at the execution level unexpected events can disrupt the normal flow of supply processes creating a gap between planned operations and what is actually executed. These disruptions increment rescheduling frequency, generating reconfiguration costs and system's nervousness. This work proposes a web service based Business Process to support Autonomous Exception Management in Supply chains.

  19. Sex Differences in Autonomic Correlates of Conduct Problems and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hong, James; Marsh, Penny

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate group differences in autonomic nervous system (ANS) responding between males and females with conduct problems and determine whether aggression accounts for variance in ANS responding over the effects of conduct problems. The results indicated marked differences in psycho-physiological responses between males and females.

  20. The Human Sympathetic Nervous System Response to Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Andrew C.; Diedrich, Andre; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, Rose Marie; Lane, Lynda D.; Shiavi, Richard; Robertson, David

    2003-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is an important part of the autonomic (or automatic) nervous system. When an individual stands up, the sympathetic nervous system speeds the heart and constricts blood vessels to prevent a drop in blood pressure. A significant number of astronauts experience a drop in blood pressure when standing for prolonged periods after they return from spaceflight. Difficulty maintaining blood pressure with standing is also a daily problem for many patients. Indirect evidence available before the Neurolab mission suggested the problem in astronauts while in space might be due partially to reduced sympathetic nervous system activity. The purpose of this experiment was to identify whether sympathetic activity was reduced during spaceflight. Sympathetic nervous system activity can be determined in part by measuring heart rate, nerve activity going to blood vessels, and the release of the hormone norepinephrine into the blood. Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter discharged from active sympathetic nerve terminals, so its rate of release can serve as a marker of sympathetic nervous system action. In addition to standard cardiovascular measurements (heart rate, blood pressure), we determined sympathetic nerve activity as well as norepinephrine release and clearance on four crewmembers on the Neurolab mission. Contrary to our expectation, the results demonstrated that the astronauts had mildly elevated resting sympathetic nervous system activity in space. Sympathetic nervous system responses to stresses that simulated the cardiovascular effects of standing (lower body negative pressure) were brisk both during and after spaceflight. We concluded that, in the astronauts tested, the activity and response of the sympathetic nervous system to cardiovascular stresses appeared intact and mildly elevated both during and after spaceflight. These changes returned to normal within a few days.

  1. Nervous System Problems and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language: Fact Sheet 505 Nervous System Problems and Dementia WHAT ARE NERVOUS SYSTEM PROBLEMS? WHAT ARE THE ... of AIDS these were all called “HIV-Associated Dementia.” However, a broader range of problems is showing ...

  2. Central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that roentgenological examination plays an important role in diagnosis of central nervous system diseases in children. The methods of roentgenological examinations are divided into 3 groups: roentgenography without contrast media (conventional roentgenography), roentgenography with artificial contrasting of liquor space (ventriculopneumoencelography, myelography) and contrasting of brain and spinal blood vessels (angiography). Conventional contrastless roentgenography of skull and vertebral column occupies leadership in diagnosis of brain neoplasms and some vascular diseases

  3. A modified algorithm of the combined ensemble empirical mode decomposition and independent component analysis for the removal of cardiac artifacts from neuromuscular electrical signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuronal and muscular electrical signals contain useful information about the neuromuscular system, with which researchers have been investigating the relationship of various neurological disorders and the neuromuscular system. However, neuromuscular signals can be critically contaminated by cardiac electrical activity (CEA) such as the electrocardiogram (ECG) which confounds data analysis. The purpose of our study is to provide a method for removing cardiac electrical artifacts from the neuromuscular signals recorded. We propose a new method for cardiac artifact removal which modifies the algorithm combining ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and independent component analysis (ICA). We compare our approach with a cubic smoothing spline method and the previous combined EEMD and ICA for various signal-to-noise ratio measures in simulated noisy physiological signals using a surface electromyogram (sEMG). Finally, we apply the proposed method to two real-life sets of data such as sEMG with ECG artifacts and ambulatory dog cardiac autonomic nervous signals measured from the ganglia near the heart, which are also contaminated with CEA. Our method can not only extract and remove artifacts, but can also preserve the spectral content of the neuromuscular signals. (paper)

  4. Clinical analysis of autonomic nervous system dysfunction in patients with vasovagal syncope during head-up tilt test%血管迷走性晕厥患者倾斜试验中自主神经功能异常的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文博; 汪巍; 张逸杰

    2016-01-01

    , all these four indices were not changed. Conclusion The dysfunction of autonomic nervous sys-tem may exist during HUTT in patients with vasovagal syncope. The absence of proper antonomic regulation may cause the occurrence of syncope.

  5. Your Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Brain & Nervous System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Brain & Nervous System Print A A A Text Size What's in ... spinal cord and nerves — known as the nervous system — that let messages flow back and forth between ...

  6. [Autonomic neuropathy: a high risk complication for type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss-Freitas, Maria Cristina; Marques Junior, Wilson; Foss, Milton Cesar

    2008-03-01

    The pathological alteration of the nervous system in diabetic patients is extensive and frequently severe. The prevalence of the diabetic neuropathy reach high levels with the evolution of the diabetes, often showing frequencies higher than 50% in several groups of patients. The neurological lesion in this pathological situation is extensive in the diabetic patient, including widely the peripheral nervous system with its components sensory, motor and autonomic: with typical symptoms and in accordance with the pathogenesis of metabolic origin and/or microvascular disease. The autonomic nervous system is a main regulator of many systems in the human body. Then its lesion can promote significant alterations in the function of the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital system, that can be related to increased motality. This review anlyses the abnormalities related to lesion of the autonomic nervous system, particularly in type 1 diabetic patients, trying to characterize the risk of morbidity and mortality.

  7. Autoimmune Basis for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome; Postural Tachycardia Syndrome; Tachycardia; Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Autonomic Nervous System Diseases; Orthostatic Intolerance; Cardiovascular Diseases; Primary Dysautonomias

  8. Effect of Sleep/Wake Cycle on Autonomic Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the association between irregular sleep/wake cycle in shift workers and autonomic regulation. Study Design: Cross-sectional, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Dow University Hospital, Karachi, from August to November 2013. Methodology: All health care providers working in rotating shifts making a total (n=104) were included. Instrument was an integrated questionnaire applied to assess autonomic regulation, taken from Kroz et al. on scoring criteria, ranging from 18 - 54, where higher rating signifies strong autonomic regulation, indicating a stable Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and vice versa. Participants were interviewed and their response was recorded by the investigator. Influence of sleep misalignment was measured quantitatively to extract index of autonomic activity. Results: There was a reduced trend in autonomic strength amongst shift workers. The mean score obtained on the Autonomic Scale was 37.8 ± 5.9. Conclusion: Circadian misalignment has an injurious influence on ANS which might be valuable in controlling autonomic dysfunction that leads to fatal triggers in rotating shift workers. (author)

  9. Cardiac rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attack or other heart problem. You might consider cardiac rehab if you have had: Heart attack Coronary heart disease (CHD) Heart failure Angina (chest pain) Heart or heart valve surgery Heart transplant Procedures such as angioplasty and stenting In some ...

  10. Electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias in structural brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Kosmidou, Maria; Giannopoulos, Sotirios

    2013-07-31

    Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiographic abnormalities are frequently observed after acute cerebrovascular events. The precise mechanism that leads to the development of these arrhythmias is still uncertain, though increasing evidence suggests that it is mainly due to autonomic nervous system dysregulation. In massive brain lesions sympathetic predominance and parasympathetic withdrawal during the first 72 h are associated with the occurrence of severe secondary complications in the first week. Right insular cortex lesions are also related with sympathetic overactivation and with a higher incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities, mostly QT prolongation, in patients with ischemic stroke. Additionally, female sex and hypokalemia are independent risk factors for severe prolongation of the QT interval which subsequently results in malignant arrhythmias and poor outcome. The prognostic value of repolarization changes commonly seen after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, such as ST segment, T wave, and U wave abnormalities, still remains controversial. In patients with traumatic brain injury both intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion correlate with low heart rate variability and increased mortality. Given that there are no firm guidelines for the prevention or treatment of the arrhythmias that appear after cerebral incidents this review aims to highlight important issues on this topic. Selected patients with the aforementioned risk factors could benefit from electrocardiographic monitoring, reassessment of the medications that prolong QTc interval, and administration of antiadrenergic agents. Further research is required in order to validate these assumptions and to establish specific therapeutic strategies.

  11. Maneuvering in Nervous Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veel, Kristin Eva Albrechtsen

    2012-01-01

    Reinhard Jirgl is an important and challenging but still relatively understudied contemporary German writer. This article looks at his novel Abtrünnig: Roman aus der nervösen Zeit from 2005, focusing on the function of the hyperlinks boxes, which dominate the textual layout. It shows that Abtrünn...... as an enhancement of the plot and the story it wants to tell. The hyperlinks are thus not merely a formal feature, but an integrated part of the novel's depiction of contemporary conditions of life in the “nervous times” it portrays....

  12. Autonomic hyper-vigilance in post-infective fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Yumiko; Cooper, Gavin; Burton, Alexander R; Lemon, Jim; Schall, Ulrich; Lloyd, Andrew; Vollmer-Conna, Ute

    2010-09-01

    This study examined whether post-infective fatigue syndrome (PIFS) is associated with a disturbance in bidirectional autonomic signalling resulting in heightened perception of symptoms and sensations from the body in conjunction with autonomic hyper-reactivity to perceived challenges. We studied 23 patients with PIFS and 25 healthy matched control subjects. A heartbeat discrimination task and a pressure pain threshold test were used to assess interoceptive sensitivity. Cardiac response was assessed over a 4-min Stroop task. PIFS was associated with higher accuracy in heartbeat discrimination and a lower pressure pain threshold. Increased interoceptive sensitivity correlated strongly with current symptoms and potentiated differences in the cardiac response to the Stroop task, which in PIFS was characterized by insensitivity to task difficulty and lack of habituation. Our results provide the first evidence of heightened interoceptive sensitivity in PIFS. Together with the distinct pattern in cardiac responsivity these findings present a picture of physiological hyper-vigilance and response inflexibility. PMID:20678991

  13. From Here to Autonomicity: Self-Managing Agents and the Biological Metaphors that Inspire Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    We seek inspiration for self-managing systems from (obviously, pre-existing) biological mechanisms. Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward for integrating and designing reliable systems, while agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems. This paper looks at other biological metaphors such as reflex and healing, heart- beat monitors, pulse monitors and apoptosis for assisting in the realization of autonomicity.

  14. Funções autonômica cardíaca e mecânica ventricular na cardiopatia chagásica crônica assintomática Cardiac autonomic and ventricular mechanical functions in asymptomatic chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel França Vasconcelos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A associação das funções autonômica cardíaca e ventricular sisto-diastólica variavelmente alteradas ainda é controversa e pouco explorada na cardiopatia chagásica crônica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar em que extensão as funções autonômica cardíaca e mecânica ventricular estão alteradas e se ambas estão relacionadas na cardiopatia chagásica assintomática. MÉTODOS: EM 13 cardiopatas chagásicos assintomáticos e 15 indivíduos normais (grupo controle, foram avaliadas e correlacionadas a modulação autonômica da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca durante cinco minutos, nos domínios temporal e espectral, nas posições supina e ortostática, e a função ventricular com base em variáveis morfofuncionais Doppler ecocardiográficas. A análise estatística empregou o teste de Mann-Whitney e a correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Em ambas as posições, os índices temporais (p = 0,0004-0,01 e as áreas espectrais total (p = 0,0007-0,005 e absoluta, de baixa e alta frequências (p = 0,0001-0,002, mostraram-se menores no grupo chagásico. O balanço vagossimpático mostrou-se semelhante em ambas as posturas (p = 0,43-0,89. As variáveis ecocardiográficas não diferiram entre os grupos (p = 0,13-0,82, exceto o diâmetro sistólico final do ventrículo esquerdo que se mostrou maior (p = 0,04, correlacionando-se diretamente com os reduzidos índices da modulação autonômica global (p = 0,01-0,04 e parassimpática (p = 0,002-0,01, nos pacientes chagásicos, em posição ortostática. CONCLUSÃO: AS DEpressões simpática e parassimpática com balanço preservado associaram-se apenas a um indicador de disfunção ventricular. Isso sugere que a disfunção autonômica cardíaca pode preceder e ser independentemente mais severa que a disfunção ventricular, não havendo associação causal entre ambos os distúrbios na cardiopatia chagásica crônica.BACKGROUND: The association of variably altered cardiac autonomic and

  15. Cardiac Arrhythmias and Abnormal Electrocardiograms After Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthirago, Doungporn; Julayanont, Parunyou; Tantrachoti, Pakpoom; Kim, Jongyeol; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities occur frequently but are often underrecognized after strokes. Acute ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in some particular area of brain can disrupt central autonomic control of the heart, precipitating cardiac arrhythmias, ECG abnormalities, myocardial injury and sometimes sudden death. Identification of high-risk patients after acute stroke is important to arrange appropriate cardiac monitoring and effective management of arrhythmias, and to prevent cardiac morbidity and mortality. More studies are needed to better clarify pathogenesis, localization of areas associated with arrhythmias and practical management of arrhythmias and abnormal ECGs after acute stroke. PMID:26802767

  16. 迷走神经在心律失常发生中的研究进展%Role of vagal nerve in cardiac arrhythmia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯璇; 臧伟进; 周筠

    2012-01-01

    作为遗传性心律失常之一的长QT综合征(LQTS),现已发现有12型,其中在中国以LQT2为常见,可诱发尖端扭转型室性心动过速及室颤,临床上以反复发作的晕厥及常导致的猝死为特征.自主神经通过释放神经递质作用于受体调节离子通道,从而对某些心律失常起到一定的作用,而迷走神经通过直接或间接作用对多种心律失常具有一定的保护作用.本文主要对LQT2的研究进展、迷走神经与LQT2的关系以及其在心律失常中发挥的作用作一综述.%As one of the familial abnormalities of cardiac rhythm, Long QT syndrome ( LQTS) has been found in 12 different genes. LQT2 is one of the most common LQTS in China, which can lead to Torsade de Points (TdP) and ventricular fibrillation ( VF). Clinically it is characterized by recurrent syncope and sudden cardiac death. The autonomic nervous system plays a vital role in some cases of cardiac arrhythmia through the release of neurotransmitter to regulate ion channel. Recently, studies have shown that vagal nerve can reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of cardiac arrhythmia and may play an important role in maintaining normal cardiac rhythm and rate. This paper mainly reviews the recent advances of LQT2, the complex relationship between vagal nerve and LQT2, and the role of vagal nerve in cardiac arrhythmia.

  17. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular