Sample records for cardamom elettaria cardamomum

  1. Gastroprotective effect of cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum Maton. fruits in rats. (United States)

    Jamal, A; Javed, Kalim; Aslam, M; Jafri, M A


    Cardamom, the fruits of Elettaria cardamomum Maton. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as "Heel khurd" is used in Unani system of medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders. A crude methanolic extract (TM), essential oil (EO), petroleum ether soluble (PS) and insoluble (PI) fractions of methanolic extract, were studied in rats at doses of 100-500, 12.5-50, 12.5-150 and 450 mg/kg, respectively for their ability to inhibit the gastric lesions induced by aspirin, ethanol and pylorous ligature. In addition their effects on wall mucus and gastric acid output were recorded. All fractions (TM, EO, PS, PI) significantly inhibited gastric lesions induced by ethanol and aspirin but not those induced by pylorus ligation. TM proved to be active reducing lesions by about 70% in the EtOH-induced ulcer model at 500 mg/kg. The PS fraction reduced the lesions by 50% at 50 and 100mg/kg (no dose response was observed) with similar effect than the PI fraction at 450 mg/kg. In the aspirin-induced gastric ulcer, the best gastroprotective effect was found in the PS fraction, which inhibited lesions by nearly 100% at 12.5mg/kg. In our experimental conditions, the PS extract at doses >or=12.5mg/kg proved to be more active than ranitidine at 50mg/kg.

  2. Fumigant Toxicity and Oviposition Deterrency of the Essential Oil from Cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum, Against Three Stored—product Insects (United States)

    Abbasipour, Habib; Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Rastegar, Fahimeh; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Hossein


    Use of insecticides can have disruptive effects on the environment. Replacing the chemical compounds in these insecticides with plant materials, however, can be a safe method with low environmental risk. In the current study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of the essential oil from cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum L. (Maton) (Zingiberales: Zingiberaceae) on the adults of three stored product pests was investigated. Results indicated that essential oil of E. cardamomum toxic to the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Adults of E. kuehniella were more sensitive than the Coleoptera. Also, the highest mortality of these insects was seen after 12 hours. Results of the LT50 tests showed that the lethal time of mortality occurred between 10–20 hours in various test concentrations. Essential oil of E. cardamomum had a good efficacy on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus females, too. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. The major constituents of cardamom were identified as 1,8-cineol, α-terpinyl acetate, terpinene and fenchyl alcohol. These results suggest that essential oil of E. cardamomum is a good choice for control of stored product pests. PMID:22242564

  3. Domestication of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) in Western Ghats, India: divergence in productive traits and a shift in major pollinators. (United States)

    Kuriakose, Giby; Sinu, Palatty Allesh; Shivanna, K R


    Elettaria cardamomum, a highly priced spice, is native to the Western Ghats of South India. Wild populations still occur in isolated patches in their natural habitats; however, much of today's commercial product comes from cultivated sources. There is no information on domestication-related traits of this species; the main objective of this study was to compare wild and cultivated populations of cardamom in terms of vegetative and reproductive features in order to identify domestication syndromes and to examine whether the two populations have developed reproductive barriers. Two wild populations and five cultivated plantations were used for the present study. Vegetative and floral traits, flowering phenology, pollination biology and breeding systems of wild and cultivated populations were compared. Effective pollinators amongst floral visitors were identified by confirming pollen transfer as well as by fruit set following their visit to virgin flowers. Manual pollinations were carried out in order to study the breeding systems of the two populations and reproductive barriers, if any, between them. Several productive traits including the number of branches, number of inflorescences, and total number of flowers per clump, number of flowers that open each day, the duration of flowering, the length of the flower and the amount of nectar per flower are significantly greater in cultivated cardamom. The principal pollinators in wild cardamom are solitary bees, Megachile sp. and two species of Amegilla, whereas those in cultivated cardamom are the social bees Apis dorsata, A. cerana and Trigona iridipennis. Both the wild and cultivated populations are self-compatible and there are no reproductive barriers between the two populations. Domestication in cardamom has brought about significant changes in vegetative and reproductive traits and a shift in effective pollinators from native solitary bees to social bees. The shift in pollinators seems to be due to the availability

  4. Dissipation kinetics and effect of processing on imidacloprid and its metabolites in cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton). (United States)

    Pratheeshkumar, N; Chandran, M; Beevi, S Naseema; Mathew, Thomas Biju; George, Thomas; Paul, Ambily; Xavier, George; Ravi, K Prathibha; Kumar, S Visal; Rajith, R


    Dissipation behaviour of the chloronicotinyl insecticide, imidacloprid (Tatamida 17.8 % SL), in fresh and cured cardamom capsules was studied following application at doses 20 and 40 g a.i. ha(-1) in a cardamom plantation of Indian Cardamom Hills (ICH), Idukki, Kerala, India. A single-laboratory ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the estimation of imidacloprid and its six metabolites (5-hydroxy, olefin, guanidine, urea, 6-chloronicotinic acid and nitrosimine) in fresh and cured cardamom. At the lower dose, the initial deposits of total imidacloprid residues were 1.91 and 7.23 μg g(-1), respectively, in fresh and cured cardamom. At the higher dose, the initial residues were 3.94 and 14.72 μg g(-1), respectively, in fresh and cured capsules. The residues dissipated below the quantitation level of 0.01 μg g(-1) after 21 and 28 days at lower dose and after 28 days for both at higher dose. The half-lives of imidacloprid in fresh and cured cardamom were 4.02 and 3.63 days, respectively, at lower dose and 3.61 days for both at higher dose. The waiting periods of imidacloprid on fresh and cured cardamom at lower and higher doses were 21.40, 27.10, 23.85 and 30.70 days, respectively. The mean processing factor of imidacloprid was 3.96 at 20 g a.i. ha(-1). Amongst metabolites of imidacloprid, urea had maximum residues in fresh and cured cardamom followed by 5-hydroxy and guanidine. Other metabolites such as 6-chloronicotinic acid, olefin and nitrosimine were not detected either in fresh or cured cardamom.

  5. Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum perinatal exposure effects on the development, behavior and biochemical parameters in mice offspring

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    Gasem Mohammad Abu-Taweel


    Full Text Available Cardamom is a strong antioxidant plant, so it is called the queen of spices. In the present study, we explored the potentials of cardamom on developmental, learning ability and biochemical parameters of mice offspring. Thirty pregnant mice were allocated to three groups of ten animals in each. Groups Π and Ш received pilsbury's Diet containing 10 and 20% of cardamom (w/w respectively, whereas Group I used as control. Cardomom was administered from the first day of pregnancy and was continued until post-natal day 15 (PD 15 and thereafter the mothers were switched to plain pilsbury's Diet. During the weaning period, three pups in each litter were color marked from the others, and were subjected to various tests (Physical assessment such body weight and eye opening and hair appearance; the neuromaturation of reflexes like righting, rotating, and cliff avoidance reflexes; learning ability and memory retention; estimation of monoamines neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin, non-enzymatic oxidative stress such as TBARS and GSH in forebrain at different ages of pups. The results indicated that the body weight gain was declining significantly. Hair appearance and eyes opening were delayed significantly. Righting, rotating, and cliff avoidance reflexes were delayed in treated animals. Exposure to cardamom led to enhance learning and memory retention as compared to control. Monoamines (DA, 5-HT and GSH were elevated, whereas TBARS was inhibited significantly. In conclusion, perinatal cardamom exposure enhanced learning and memory as compared to control. Cardamom and its benefit compounds were transported via placenta or/and milk during lactation. Cardamom needs more researches to investigate its benefits on other kinds of behavior.

  6. cardamomo (Elettaria cardamomum

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    Full Text Available El cardamomo (Elettaria cardamomum es un producto agrícola con potencial industrial y comercial. En este artículo se reportan los resultados encontrados en la investigación para la extracción del aceite esencial de cardamomo, evaluando tres métodos: arrastre con vapor, hidrodestilación y extracción con solventes. Los componentes del aceite se identificaron y cuantificaron por técnicas de cromatografía gaseosa asociada con espectrometría de masas y detector TCD. Los rendimientos obtenidos están alrededor del 4.7% para arrastre con vapor, 3.7% para hidrodestilación, y 6.5% para extracción con solventes. Los pricipales compuestos identificados son: cineol, acetato de terpinilo, linalol y β-pineno. No se detectó agua en las muestras de aceite, y la concentración máxima de solvente residual en el aceite fue de 72.4 p.p.m. Los resultados obtenidos permiten determinar las principales variables operacionales para dimensionar una planta piloto para extracción del aceite.

  7. Estimation of Diafenthiuron Residues in Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum (L. Maton Using Normal Phase HPLC: Dissipation Pattern and Safe Waiting Period in Green and Cured Cardamom Capsules

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    Johnson Stanley


    Full Text Available Diafenthiuron is an effective insecticide used for pest management in cardamom. Residues of diafenthiuron and its degradation/dissipation pattern in cardamom were determined to work out safe waiting period. Samples were collected after three sprays of diafenthiuron @ 400 and 800 g a.i ha−1 and the residues extracted in acetonitrile and quantified in normal phase HPLC in UV detector. Diafenthiuron was detected in 6.61±0.1 min. The limits of detection (LOD and limits of quantification (LOQ were determined to be 0.01 and 0.05 μgmL−1. The initial deposits were found to be 3.82 and 4.10 μg g−1 after sprays of diafenthiuron @ 400 g a.i ha−1 in the first and second experiments, respectively. Nearly cent percent of residues dissipated at 10 days after treatment in the recommended dose of diafenthiuron 400 g a.i ha−1 and the half life varied from 2.0 to 2.8 days with a waiting period of 5.5 to 6.7 days in green capsules of cardamom. The waiting period was 5.4 to 7.0 days in cured capsules of cardamom. With harvest being the focal point for enforcement of residue tolerances, the suggested waiting period of seven days is safe without the problem of pesticide residues in harvestable produce.

  8. In vitro investigation of the potential immunomodulatory and anti-cancer activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum). (United States)

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Carr, Ronald I


    Although the immunomodulatory effects of many herbs have been extensively studied, research related to possible immunomodulatory effects of various spices is relatively scarce. Here, the potential immunomodulatory effects of black pepper and cardamom are investigated. Our data show that black pepper and cardamom aqueous extracts significantly enhance splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent, synergistic fashion. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments reveal that black pepper and cardamom significantly enhance and suppress, respectively, T helper (Th)1 cytokine release by splenocytes. Conversely, Th2 cytokine release by splenocytes is significantly suppressed and enhanced by black pepper and cardamom, respectively. Experimental evidence suggests that black pepper and cardamom extracts exert pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively. Consistently, nitric oxide production by macrophages is significantly augmented and reduced by black pepper and cardamom, respectively. Remarkably, it is evident that black pepper and cardamom extracts significantly enhance the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells, indicating their potential anti-cancer effects. Our findings strongly suggest that black pepper and cardamom exert immunomodulatory roles and antitumor activities, and hence they manifest themselves as natural agents that can promote the maintenance of a healthy immune system. We anticipate that black pepper and cardamom constituents can be used as potential therapeutic tools to regulate inflammatory responses and prevent/attenuate carcinogenesis.

  9. Comparison of the efficacy of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats

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    G M Nitasha Bhat


    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of cardamom with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats. There were four groups of 6 rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received cardamom suspension 1 g/kg/10 mL of 2% gum acacia orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Third group received pioglitazone 45 mg/kg orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Fourth group did not receive any medication and was considered as normal control. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, blood sugar 2 h after glucose load, liver weight, liver volume were recorded, and histopathological analysis was done. The effects of cardamom were compared with that of pioglitazone. Dexamethasone caused hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Both pioglitazone and cardamom significantly reduced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia (P < 0.01. Reduction of blood sugar levels after glucose load was significant with pioglitazone in comparison to cardamom (P < 0.01. Cardamom has comparable efficacy to pioglitazone in preventing dexamethasone-induced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and fasting hyperglycemia.

  10. Optimization of multi-residue method for targeted screening and quantitation of 243 pesticide residues in cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis. (United States)

    Ahammed Shabeer, T P; Girame, Rushali; Utture, Sagar; Oulkar, Dasharath; Banerjee, Kaushik; Ajay, D; Arimboor, Ranjith; Menon, K R K


    Higher matrix interference makes the multi-residue pesticide analysis in spices more challenging. A simple, sensitive, and robust large-scale multi-residue method was developed for the rapid analysis of 243 pesticides in cardamom matrix by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Prehydration of cardamom in 1:4 sample:water for 30 min improved the homogeneity and extractability. QuEChERS extraction followed by cleanup with 25 mg primary secondary amine, 100 mg C18, and 10 mg graphitized carbon black to 1 ml supernatant was used for sample preparation. Reconstitution of final extract in ethyl acetate reduced matrix co-extract up to 60%. The method was validated according to the SANTE/11,945/2015 guidelines. The limit of quantification was ≤0.01 mg kg-1, and the recovery was within 70.0-120.0%, with ≤20% RSD for the majority of pesticides. The method was used for screening market samples, and the detected residues were devoid of any risk of acute toxicity related to dietary exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of Elettaria cardamomum extract on anxiety-like behavior in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder. (United States)

    Masoumi-Ardakani, Yaser; Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Mirzaei, Amin; Esmaeilpour, Khadijeh; Ghazvini, Hamed; Khalifeh, Solmaz; Sepehri, Gholamreza


    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric condition which develops in 6-8% of the general population. Current standard pharmacological treatments for PTSD cannot be widely used due to having various side effects. Nowadays, various pharmacological properties have been related to Elettaria cardamomum L. (family of Zingiberaceae). The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of E. cardamomum methanolic extract on anxiety-like behavior in a rat model of PTSD. Adult male Wistar rats (200-250gr) were used in this study. The rats underwent single prolonged stress (SPS) or control and intraperitoneally received either saline or different dosages (200, 400, and 800mg/kg) of E. cardamomum methanolic extract before and after stress sessions. Moreover, open field, elevated plus-maze, and rotarod tests were used to evaluate locomotion and anxiety-like behavior in the rats. Findings demonstrated that E. Cardamomum methanolic extract, particularly at the dose of 400mg/kg, significantly (Panxiety-like behavior in a rat model of PTSD, as examined by the open field, elevated plus-maze, and rotarod tests. Administration of E. cardamomum methanolic extract after stress might help to prevent the formation of anxiety-like behavior in the animals. However, further studies are requiredto clarify the exact mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Evaluation of in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant characterizations of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae), Piper cubeba L. f. (Piperaceae), and Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae). (United States)

    Ahmed, Afnan Sh; Ahmed, Qamaruddin; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Jamal, Parveen


    Inhibition of intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase is an important strategy to regulate diabetes mellitus (DM). Antioxidants from plants are widely regarded in the prevention of diabetes. Fruits of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba L. f. (Piperaceae) and flowers of Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae) are traditionally used to cure DM in different countries. However, the role of these plants has been grossly under reported and is yet to receive proper scientific evaluation with respect to understand their traditional role in the management of diabetes especially as digestive enzymes inhibitors. Hence, methanol and aqueous extracts of the aforementioned plants were evaluated for their in vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition at 1 mg/mL and quantification of their antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP tests, total phenolic and total flavonoids contents). In vitro optimization studies for the extracts were also performed to enhance in vitro biological activities. The % inhibition of α-glucosidase by the aqueous extracts of the fruits of E. cardamomum, P. cubeba and flowers of P. rubra were 10.41 (0.03), 95.19 (0.01), and -2.92 (0.03), while the methanol extracts exhibited % inhibition 13.73 (0.02), 92.77 (0.01), and -0.98 (0.01), respectively. The % inhibition of α-amylase by the aqueous extracts were 82.99 (0.01), 64.35 (0.01), and 20.28 (0.02), while the methanol extracts displayed % inhibition 39.93 (0.01), 31.06 (0.02), and 39.40 (0.01), respectively. Aqueous extracts displayed good in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. Moreover, in vitro optimization experiments helped to increase the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of E. cardamomum. Our findings further justify the traditional claims of these plants as folk medicines to manage diabetes, however, through digestive enzymes inhibition effect.

  13. Assessment of hormone-like activities in Ginkgo biloba, Elettaria cardamomum and Plantago ovata extracts using in vitro receptor-specific bioassays. (United States)

    Real, Macarena; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Jimenez, Jesús; Diéguez, Horacio R; Fernández, Mariana F; Olea, Nicolás


    Medicinal plants are widely used for the treatment of diseases and for the development of new drugs. This study was designed to determine the presence of hormone-like activities dependent on the activation of human estrogen receptor alpha (hERa) and/or androgen receptor (hAR) in methanol extracts prepared from three medicinal plants historically and currently used for therapeutic purposes: Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL), Elettaria cardamomum seeds (ECS) and Plantago ovata seeds (POS). After a solid-liquid extraction (SLE) step, their effects on hERa function were assessed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells using the E-Screen bioassay, and their ability to induce hAR-mediated reporter gene expression was evaluated using the androgen-sensitive stable prostatic PALM cell line. Unlike POS extracts, GBL and ECS extracts showed estrogenic (0.07 and 0.20 nM E2Eq mg(-1), respectively) and anti-estrogenic (0.01 and 0.02 μM ICI182780Eq mg(-1), respectively) activities. ECS extracts evidenced androgenic activity (0.30 nM R1881Eq mg(-1)) and POS extracts anti-androgenic activity (22.30 μM ProcEq mg(-1)). According to these findings, these plant extracts may interfere with the endocrine system via one or more hormonal receptors, and further investigation is warranted into their role as endocrine disrupters in humans.

  14. Development of Cardamom (Amomum cardamomum Herbal Coffee Beverages: A study of physicochemical characteristic and consumer perception towards sensory properties

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    Noor Ariefandi


    Full Text Available Herbal coffee is one of the coffee diversivication product that has been well recognized in the market. The addition of herbs or spices, such as ginger, pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia, Panax (from the genus of Panax L. and Habbatussauda (black cumin/black seed/Nigella sativa in the coffee, not only offer an enhanced flavor characteristic, but more importantly also offer the consumer to gain a health benefit which are possessed by the herbs used. Cardamom (Amonum cardomum is commonly recognized as a food spices to add flavor to dishes. Cardamom is also known as a herb that possess health benefit such as the medicine for tonsil and throat inflammation, fever, asthma and fatigue reliever. This research was aimed to develop a herbal coffee containing the extract of cardamom and to study the characteristic of herbal coffee obtained physicochemically and by sensory analysis. Crystallized coffee and sugar mixture was blended with cardamom extract by several ratio, which were 90%:10%, 80%:20%, 70%:30%, 60%:40% and 50%:50% to obtain ready to drink cardamom herbal coffee. The mixtures and control (without the addition of cardamom were then subjected for consumer perception by testing it to 30 panelist based on hedonic sensory test. The 3 mixtures that were choosen were then analysed for its physicochemical characteristic such as its powder and brewing appearrance, insoluble solids, reducing sugar and caffein concentration. The result showed that the addition of 10%, 20% and 30% cardamom extracthad good preferences to consumer, which 10% of addition resulted the highest preferences. The hedonic sensory test resulted the preferences of the aforementioned herbal coffee on color, aroma, taste and flavor was 3.37; 3.14; 3.30; 3.27 and 3.37 (on scale 1 to 5, respectively, representing moderately like to like preferences.The physiscochemical analysis show that the mixture contain 0.17% of insoluble solid, 0.13% of reducing sugar and 0.45% caffeine which comply

  15. Development of Cardamom (Amomum cardamomum) Herbal Coffee Beverages: A study of physicochemical characteristic and consumer perception towards sensory properties


    Noor Ariefandi; Viki Maulina Rizki; . Djumarti


    Herbal coffee is one of the coffee diversivication product that has been well recognized in the market. The addition of herbs or spices, such as ginger, pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia), Panax (from the genus of Panax L.) and Habbatussauda (black cumin/black seed/Nigella sativa) in the coffee, not only offer an enhanced flavor characteristic, but more importantly also offer the consumer to gain a health benefit which are possessed by the herbs used. Cardamom (Amonum cardomum) is commonly reco...

  16. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Black Pepper, Cumin, Coriander and Cardamom Against Some Pathogenic Microorganisms

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    Teneva Desislava


    Full Text Available Four popular spices black pepper (Piper nigrum L., cumin (Cuminum cyminum L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum were analyzed for their oil composition by GC-MS. Thirty compounds were identified in the black pepper oil and the main components were β-caryophyllene (20.225 %, sabinene (18.054 %, limonene (16.924 %, α-pinene (9.171 % and α-phellandrene (5.968 %. Twenty five compounds were identified in the cumin oil – cuminaldehyde (30.834 %, 3-caren-10-al (17.223 %, β-pinene (14.837 %, γ–terpinene (11.928 %, 2-caren-10-al (8.228 % and pcymene (6.429 %. Twenty nine compounds were identified in the coriander oil – β-linalool (58.141 %, α-pinene (8.731 %, γ-terpinene (6.347 % and p-cymene (5.227 %. Twenty nine compounds were identified in the cardamom oil – α-terpinyl acetate (39.032 %, eucalyptol (31.534 %, β-linalool (4.829 %, sabinene (4.308 % and α-terpineol (4.127 %. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils against pathogenic (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella sp. (clinical isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P, Proteus vulgaris G microorganisms by disc-diffusion method was examined. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the oils (inhibition zones being between 8 and 12.5 mm and the minimum inhibitory concentration was more than 600 ppm; Gram-negative bacteria were less sensitive. The obtained essential oils are suitable for use as biopreservative agents.

  17. Pengaruh Minyak Atsiri Kapulaga (Amomum cardamomum terhadap Kadar Metil Merkaptan yang Dihasilkan Bakteri Porphyromonas gingivalis (Kajian In Vitro

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    Nuning Wahyu Utami


    : Halitosis is caused by the formation of sulfur compounds or Volatile Sulfur Compound (VSC by bacteria. Methyl merkaptan is the main compound that causes halitosis. Antibacterial agents are often used to treat halitosis by reducing level of methyl merkaptan produced by bacteria. One of the antibacterial agents derived from natural plant oil is cardamom (Amomum cardamomum. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of essential oil of cardamom (Amomum cardamomum on methyl mercaptan level produced by porphyromonas gingivalis. Method: Essential oil of cardamom (Amomum cardamomum was expelled on every well on microplate in concentration of 0% (as negative control 6,25%, 12,5%, 25%, 50%. All wells that have been expelled with cardamom essential oil in different concentration then etched with porphyromonas gingivalis bacterial suspension in TSB media and were incubated anaerobically for 48 hours. Each treatment group had 5 samples so that 25 wells were needed. After that, all the wells etched with DTNB methionine and were incubated anaerobically for 12 hours. The result of those incubation were observed the absorbance of methyl mercaptan with microplate reader. Result: absorbation level of methyl mercaptan were produced cardamom essential oil in concentration 0%, 6,25%, 12,5%, 25%, 50% in sequence1,38, 0,217, 0,215, 0,204, 0,196. The essential oil of cardamom (Amomum cardamomum affected the levels of methy mercaptan produced porphyromonas gingivalis. There was significant difference between group of cardamom essential oils in concentration 0% as negative control with group of cardamomum essential oil in concentration of  6,25%, 12,5%, 25%, 50%. Conclusion: the essential oil of cardamom (Amomum cardamomum couid decrease methyl mercaptan level produced by porphyromonas gingivalis.

  18. Mishra et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(3):390 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Pyrethrine, inulin, volatile oil. Coriander. Corriandrum sativum Linn. Fruit. Coriandrol, borneol, citronwllol, pyrazine, pyridine, Coriandrin. Vansalocana. Bambusa arundinacea Retz. Siliceous concretions. Cellulose, pentosans , silica. Cardamom. Elettaria cardamomum White et. Mason. Seed. Cineole, Borneol, Teripineol.

  19. Feeding and oviposition deterrent activities of microencapsulated cardamom oleoresin and eucalyptol against Cydia pomonella

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    Orkun Baris Kovanci


    Full Text Available Behavioral manipulation of codling moth with spice-based deterrents may provide an alternative control strategy. Microencapsulation technology could lead to more effective use of spice essential oils and oleoresins in the field by extending their residual activity. The feeding and oviposition deterrent potential of the microencapsulated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum [L.] Maton oleoresin (MEC-C and eucalyptol (MEC-E were evaluated against codling moth, Cydia pomonella Linnaeus, 1758. MEC-C capsules contained both 1,8-cineole and a-terpinyl acetate, whereas MEC-E capsules contained only 1,8-cineole. In larval feeding bioassays, MEC-E exhibited the lowest feeding deterrent activity (33% while MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 had the highest (91%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity against gravid females was also shown by MEC-C at 100 mg mL-1 with 84% effective repellency. In 2010 and 2011, two apple orchards were divided into four 1 ha blocks and sprayed with the following treatments in ultra-low volume sprays: (a MEC-E at 100 g L-1, (b MEC-C at 50 g L-1, (c MEC-C at 100 g L-1, and (d MEC-pyrethrin at 15 mL L-1. Water-treated abandoned orchards were used as negative controls. Moth catches were monitored weekly using Ajar traps baited with the combination of codlemone, pear ester, and terpinyl acetate. Based on pooled data, mean cumulative moth catch per trap per week was significantly higher in the MEC-E blocks (26.3 male and 13.5 female moths than those in other treatments except the abandoned blocks. At mid-season and pre-harvest damage assessment, the percentage of infested fruits with live larvae in the high dose MEC-C-treated blocks was reduced to 1.9% and 2.3% in 2010 and to 1.1% and 1.8% in 2011, respectively. Since fruit damage exceeded the economic damage threshold of 1%, high-dose MEC-C treatment may only offer supplementary protection against codling moth in integrated pest management programs.

  20. untranslated regions among geographical isolates of Cardamom ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    aphid-transmission to seedlings of CV-37 cultivar of cardamom. Six symptomatologically distinct subgroups of CdMV were identified (table 1) based on the inocu- ..... Gal-On A, Meiri E, Raccah B and Gaba V 1998 Recombination of engineered defective RNA species produces infective potyvirus in planta; J. Virol. 72 5268– ...

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on medicinal plants and spices (2): Piper cubeba, piper nigrum, piper retrofractum, amomum cardamomum, and myristica fragrans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chosdu, R.; Hilmy, N.; Bagiawati, S.; Sudiro, S. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)


    Effects of gamma irradiation on essential oils of five medicinal plants i.e. dried seeds of piper cubeba(cubeb), piper nigrum(black pepper), piper retrofractum, amomum cardamomum(cardamom) and myristica fragrans(mace), packed in low density polyethylene bag of 0.13 mm thickness have been investigated. After being irradiated at doses of 5 and 10 kGy, a part of the samples was analysed, and the rest were stored for six months at temperature of 30 +- 2 degC, and humidity ranging from 70 to 95%. The essential oil characteristics of control, irradiated and six month stored samples were analysed using infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometers, HPLC, GLC and refractometer. Other parameters observed were moisture content and essential oil content of the samples. Results showed that irradiation up to a dose of 10 kGy do not give any significant effect on these parameters. Significant changes were only found in the essential oil content of piper cubeba, caused by storage treatment.

  2. Caracterización del aceite microencapsulado de cardamomo (Elettaria cardamomum extraído por fluidos supercríticos a escala semi-industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Villada Ramírez


    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo radicó en encontrar las condiciones óptimas para la obtención de un aceite de cardamomo, extraído por FSC a escala semi-industrial, con rendimientos iguales o superiores a los métodos convencionales, pero con calidad sensorial y técnica competitiva para los mercados internacionales, así como la producción de microcápsulas del aceite que permitieran incrementar la solubilidad, sin afectar las características sensoriales como aroma y sabor. Las semillas de cardamomo se obtuvieron en el municipio de Tarso, (Antioquia, Colombia, se acondicionaron para ser extraídas por FSC a escala de laboratorio a 200.400 bar y 50 °C, 60 °C, con tres réplicas al centro a 300 bar y 55 °C, de acuerdo a un diseño central compuesto y la optimización de los resultados por superficie de respuesta según el rendimiento (% y contenido de 1,8-cineol y acetato de α-terpenilo. Las condiciones finales (50 °C, 400 bar se escalaron a un extractor semi-industrial hasta obtener un aceite con un rendimiento de 8,54 ± 1,09% y una concentración de 1,8-cineol (28,37 ± 1,80% p/p y acetato de α-terpenilo (32,93 ± 1,24% p/p, analizados por GC-FID. La caracterización complementaria del aceite se encaminó al perfil sensorial y pruebas fisicoquímicas, con un resultado de atributos balanceados (herbal: 3,0, menta: 2,6, floral: 2,4 y cítrico: 2,3 e índice de color entre (+2 y +20. El aceite fue microencapsulado por secado por aspersión con una mezcla de goma arábiga, maltodextrina y almidón modificado (4/6, 1/6, 1/6 respectivamente. Se obtuvieron microcápsulas con un tamaño de partícula entre 12,2 y 25,78 µm y una distribución de la misma en solución acuosa de 13,18 µm, lo que permitió el aumento de la solubilidad del aceite en una matriz polar a temperatura ambiente.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafsah Riyanti


    Full Text Available Oxidative stress in a patient with diabetes known to decrease the activity of GSH-PX and increase the level of blood glucose. Glibenclamide is commonly used by patients with diabetes to lower the blood glucose. However, the long-term use of glibenclamide may induce the damage of pancreatic β-cells. The extract containing flavonoids and vitamin C of cardamoms leaf can reduce free radicals. The effect of cardamoms leaf extract on the enzymes activity and the level of blood glucose in diabetic rats is yet unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cardamoms leaf extract administration in the GSH-PX activities and the level of blood glucose of diabetic rats. The method used in this study was experimental with completely randomized design (CRD. There were three groups with five replicates for each. The first group, diabetic rats as control group were given no treatment; the second group, diabetic rats were given cardamoms leaf extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight; the third group, the diabetic rat were given glibenclamide at the dose of 2 mg/kg of body weight. Blood samples were taken three times at 0, 7, and 14 days after each treatment. Parameters measured were GSH-PX activity and the level of blood glucose. The data were analyzed using ANOVA F-test with a confidence level of 95%. The result of this study showed that the cardamoms leaf extract treatment decreased the activity of GSH-PX activity and decreased the level of blood glucose at a significant level (p < 0.05 from 278.8 to 101.4 mg/dl.

  4. The effect of cardamom supplementation on serum lipids, glycemic indices and blood pressure in overweight and obese pre-diabetic women: a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qorbani, Mostafa; Rahimi, Abbas; Doostan, Farideh; Siassi, Fereydoun; Koohdani, Fariba; Sotoudeh, Gity; Fatemeh, Yaghooblou


    .... Cardamom is one of this spices; therefore, this study is designed to determine the effect of cardamom supplementation on serum lipids, glycemic indices, and blood pressure in pre-diabetic women...

  5. Efficacy of Neem Oil on Cardamom Thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi Ramk., and Organoleptic Studies

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    Johnson Stanley


    Full Text Available The neem tree contains promising pest control substances which are effective against many pests. Oil extracted from neem seeds was used against cardamom thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi, a severe and economic pest of cardamom. Neem oil formulations, namely, Tamil Nadu Agricultural univeristy neem oil (TNAU NO (acetic acid & citric acid, were found effective against the pest with a overall damage reduction of 30% after 14 days of treatment. The percent damage reduction in capsules over control after three consecutive sprays of TNAU NO(C 2% and TNAU NO(A 2% was 78.3 and 75.2 percent, respectively. The newly extracted and unformulated neem oil, though found inferior to the formulated one, still found to cause 50% and 70% reduction in damage caused by thrips at two and three rounds of sprays, making it useful in pest management. Organoleptic tests conducted on cardamom capsules sprayed with neem oil revealed no significant difference in taste, aroma, and overall acceptability of cow milk boiled with cardamom. Thus, TNAU NO (A and C 2% was found effective against cardamom thrips with no adverse organoleptic properties and can be recommended.

  6. Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

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    Maharshi Bhaswant


    Full Text Available Both black (B and green (G cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular remodelling and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 3% dried B or G for the final eight weeks only. The major volatile components were the closely related terpenes, 1,8-cineole in B and α-terpinyl acetate in G. HB (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + black cardamom rats showed marked reversal of diet-induced changes, with decreased visceral adiposity, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and structure and function of the heart and liver. In contrast, HG (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + green cardamom rats increased visceral adiposity and total body fat mass, and increased heart and liver damage, without consistent improvement in the signs of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that black cardamom is more effective in reversing the signs of metabolic syndrome than green cardamom.

  7. Protective Effects of Cardamom in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

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    Sameer N. Goyal


    Full Text Available Cardamom is a popular spice that has been commonly used in cuisines for flavor since ancient times. It has copious health benefits such as improving digestion, stimulating metabolism, and exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The current study investigated the effect of cardamom on hemodynamic, biochemical, histopathological and ultrastructural changes in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarction. Wistar male albino rats were randomly divided and treated with extract of cardamom (100 and 200 mg/kg per oral or normal saline for 30 days with concomitant administration of ISO (85 mg/kg, subcutaneous on 29th and 30th days, at 24 h interval. ISO injections to rats caused cardiac dysfunction evidenced by declined arterial pressure indices, heart rate, contractility and relaxation along with increased preload. ISO also caused a significant decrease in endogenous antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, depletion of cardiomyocytes enzymes, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase and increase in lipid peroxidation. All these changes in cardiac and left ventricular function as well as endogenous antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and myocyte enzymes were ameliorated when the rats were pretreated with cardamom. Additionally, the protective effects were strengthened by improved histopathology and ultrastructural changes, which specifies the salvage of cardiomyocytes from the deleterious effects of ISO. The present study findings demonstrate that cardamom significantly protects the myocardium and exerts cardioprotective effects by free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities.

  8. Cardamom extract induces cell proliferation by increasing potassium currents in NIH3T3 cell line. (United States)

    Siddiqui, Sonia; Hassan, Sohail; Imran, Sumaira; Khan, Faisal; Ahmed, Faheem; Dar, Asim


    Amommum subulatum (Roxb.) or Cardamom extract is known to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects towards many gastrointestinal related problems. However, uptill now different fractions of cardamom extract on fibroblasts with respect to potassium channel activity have not been investigated. Therefore, present study investigated the effects of different fractions of cardamom extract on potassium channels in non-tumor NIH3T3 cell line. Phytochemical analysis of hydroalcoholic, n-hexane, butane and ethyl acetate fractions of cardamom extracts were purified and isolated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). 3T3 cells were cultured and incubated with hydroalcohol (1-2 μ/ml), n-hexane (1 μ/ml), butane (2 μ/ml) and ethyl acetate (1-2 μ/ml) for 5 hrs at 37°C. Modulation in potassium currents were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp method. The data showed two constituents Cineol (C 10 H 18 O) and Terpinyl acetate (C10H17OOCCH3) by TLC method. The present study shows that the constituents in n-hexane, hydro alcohol (1 μ/ml) and ethyl acetate (2 μ/ml) significantly increased (p<0.01) the potassium outward rectifying currents from NIH3T3 cells when compared to untreated controls cells. Whereas, butanol fraction (2 μ/ml) significantly decreased (p<0.01) the inward rectifying currents when compared to controls. Moreover hydroalcoholic and n-hexane fractions have increased the proliferation in 3T3 cell line. On the other hand butanol and ethyl acetate did not induce proliferation in 3T3 cells. Taken together, our data suggested that cardamom extract contains constituents that increased K+ currents, cell migration and proliferation and are involved in wound healing.

  9. Performance of an Age Series of Alnus–Cardamom Plantations in the Sikkim Himalaya: Productivity, Energetics and Efficiencies (United States)



    Biomass, net primary productivity, energetics and energy efficiencies were estimated in an age series of Alnus–cardamom plantations in the eastern Himalaya. The impact of stand age (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years) on the performance of mixtures of N2‐fixing (Alnus nepalensis) and non‐N2‐fixing (large cardamom) plants was studied. Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) is the most important perennial cash crop in the region and is cultivated predominantly under Alnus trees. Net primary productivity was lowest (7 t ha–1 per year) in the 40‐year‐old stand and was more than three times higher (22 t ha–1 per year) in the 15‐year‐old stand. Agronomic yield of large cardamom peaked between 15 and 20 years of age. Cardamom productivity doubled from the 5‐ to the 15‐year‐old stand, and then decreased with plantation age to reach a minimum in the 40‐year‐old stand. Performance of cardamom in association of N2‐fixing Alnus remained beneficial until 20 years of age. Annual net energy fixation was highest (444 × 106 kJ ha –1 per year) in the 15‐year‐old stand, being 1·4 times that of the 5‐year‐old stand and 2·9‐times that of the 40‐year‐old stand. Inverse relationships of production efficiency, energy conversion efficiency and energy utilized in N2‐fixation against stand age, and a positive relationship between production efficiency and energy conversion efficiency suggest that the younger plantations are more productive. The Alnus–cardamom plantation system will be sustainable by adopting a rotational cycle of 15 to 20 years. PMID:12096738

  10. Development of cardamom herbal coffee beverages: a study of physicochemical characteristic and consumer perception towards sensory properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ariefandie Febrianto


    Full Text Available Herbal coffee is one of the coffee diversification products that has been well recognized in the market. Addition of herbs or spices in coffee, not only offer an enhanced flavor characteristic, but more importantly also offer the consumer to gain a health benefit. Cardamom (Amonum cardomum is commonly recognized as a herb and a food spice to add flavor to dishes. This research was aimed to develop a herbal coffee containing the extract of cardamom and to study the characteristics of herbal coffee obtained physicochemically and by sensory analysis. Crystallized coffee and sugar mixture was blended with cardamom extracts 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% to obtain ready to drink cardamom herbal coffee. The mixtures and control (without addition of cardamom were then subjected for consumer perception by testing it to 30 panelists based on hedonic sensory test. The three mixtures that were choosen were then analysed for its physicochemical characteristics such as its powder and brewing appearrance, insoluble solids, reducing sugar and caffein concentration. The result showed that the addition of 10%, 20%, and 30% cardamom extract had good preferences to consumer, which 10% of addition resulted the highest preferences. The hedonic sensorytest resulted the preferences of the afore mentioned herbal coffee on color, aroma, taste and flavor was 3.37; 3.14; 3.30; 3.27; and 3.37 (on scale 1 to 5, respectively, representing moderately like to like preferences.The physicochemical analysis showed that the mixture contained 0.17% of insoluble solid, 0.13% of reducing sugar and 0.45% caffeine which comply the Indonesia standard of SNI 4446:1998. This result showed that the cardamom herbal coffee is potential to be developed as one of coffee diversification products.

  11. Do frogs really eat cardamom? Understanding the myth of crop damage by amphibians in the Western Ghats, India. (United States)

    Kanagavel, Arun; Parvathy, Sethu; Nirmal, Nithula; Divakar, Nithin; Raghavan, Rajeev


    In the Western Ghats of India, amphibians are culled at cardamom plantations since they are perceived to consume cardamom. To better understand the relationship between amphibians and cardamom, a study was undertaken at these plantations, which harbor numerous threatened and range-restricted amphibians. We undertook questionnaire surveys with 298 respondents at 148 plantations across southern India. Time-activity budget and diet analysis surveys were undertaken to determine whether amphibians really consumed cardamom. The conception that amphibians eat cardamom was found to be widespread especially among small-sized plantations, leading to negative perceptions and a lack of interest in amphibian conservation. The plantation community perceives a substantial economic loss due to amphibians, even though this is non-existent as revealed by our field surveys. These perceptions would lead to a continued intolerance of amphibian presence in plantations. A suitable outreach initiative re-affirming facts and spreading awareness on the positive role of amphibians would need to be conducted to negate this age-old myth.

  12. Variations in pollinator density and impacts on large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. crop yield in Sikkim Himalaya, India

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    Kailash S. Gaira


    Full Text Available Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb., a perennial cash crop, cultivated under an agroforestry system in the eastern Himalaya of India, is well recognized as a pollination-dependent crop. Observations on pollinator abundance in Mamlay watershed of Sikkim Himalaya were collected during the blooming season to evaluate the pollinator abundance across sites and time frames, and impact of pollinator abundance on crop yield from 2010 to 2012. The results revealed that the bumblebees and honeybees are most frequent visitors of large cardamom flowers. The abundance of honeybees, however, varied between sites for the years 2010–2012, while that of bumblebees varied for the years 2011 and 2012. The abundance of honeybees resulted in a variation within time frames for 2010 and 2011, while that of bumblebees varied for 2010 and 2012 (p<0.01. The density of pollinators correlated positively with the number of flowers of the target crop. The impact of pollinator abundance revealed that the increasing bumblebee visitation resulted in a higher yield of the crop (i.e. 17–41 g/plant and the increasing abundance of all bees (21–41 g/plant was significant (p<0.03. Therefore, the study concluded that the large cardamom yield is sensitive to pollinator abundance and there is a need for adopting the best pollinator conservation and management practices toward sustaining the yield of large cardamom.

  13. Development of spectrophotometric fingerprinting method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    bisobolene and sesqui phellandrene, gingerosol in the oleo-resin. Pippali. Piper longum fruits. 48. Piperine, Piperlongumine,. Piperlonguminine,. Essential Oils. Vinsa rocana. Bombusa bambos. Sc. 60. Cyanogenic glucoside- taxiphyllin. Ela. Elettaria cardamomum. Sd. 6. Essential oil. Tvak. Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Stem.

  14. Cardamom powder supplementation prevents obesity, improves glucose intolerance, inflammation and oxidative stress in liver of high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats. (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Alam, Mohammad Nazmul; Ulla, Anayt; Sumi, Farzana Akther; Subhan, Nusrat; Khan, Trisha; Sikder, Bishwajit; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Alam, Md Ashraful


    Cardamom is a well-known spice in Indian subcontinent, used in culinary and traditional medicine practices since ancient times. The current investigation was untaken to evaluate the potential benefit of cardamom powder supplementation in high carbohydrate high fat (HCHF) diet induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats (28 rats) were divided into four different groups such as Control, Control + cardamom, HCHF, HCHF + cardamom. High carbohydrate and high fat (HCHF) diet was prepared in our laboratory. Oral glucose tolerance test, organs wet weight measurements and oxidative stress parameters analysis as well as liver marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were assayed on the tissues collected from the rats. Plasma lipids profiles were also measured in all groups of animals. Moreover, histological staining was also performed to evaluate inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in liver. The current investigation showed that, HCHF diet feeding in rats developed glucose intolerance and increased peritoneal fat deposition compared to control rats. Cardamom powder supplementation improved the glucose intolerance significantly (p > 0.05) and prevented the abdominal fat deposition in HCHF diet fed rats. HCHF diet feeding in rats also developed dyslipidemia, increased fat deposition and inflammation in liver compared to control rats. Cardamom powder supplementation significantly prevented the rise of lipid parameters (p > 0.05) in HCHF diet fed rats. Histological assessments confirmed that HCHF diet increased the fat deposition and inflammatory cells infiltration in liver which was normalized by cardamom powder supplementation in HCHF diet fed rats. Furthermore, HCHF diet increased lipid peroxidation, decreased antioxidant enzymes activities and increased advanced protein oxidation product level significantly (p > 0.05) both in plasma and liver tissue which were modulated by

  15. Antioxidative effects of the spice cardamom against non-melanoma skin cancer by modulating nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 and NF-κB signalling pathways. (United States)

    Das, Ila; Acharya, Asha; Berry, Deborah L; Sen, Supti; Williams, Elizabeth; Permaul, Eva; Sengupta, Archana; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Saha, Tapas


    The role of dietary factors in inhibiting or delaying the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has been investigated for many years. Cardamom, which is a dietary phytoproduct, has been commonly used in cuisines for flavour and has numerous health benefits, such as improving digestion and stimulating metabolism and having antitumorigenic effects. We have investigated the efficacy of dietary cardamom against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin papillomatogenesis in Swiss albino mice that closely resembles human NMSC. Mice were grouped into normal wild type (untreated), vehicle-treated (acetone), carcinogen-treated (DMBA), and DMBA and cardamom-treated (DMBA+CARD) to delineate the role of cardamom against DMBA-induced papillomatogenesis. Oral administration of cardamom to DMBA-treated mice up-regulated the phase II detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase, probably via activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 transcription factor in 'DMBA+CARD' mice. Furthermore, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were also up-regulated by cardamom in the same 'DMBA+CARD' group of mice compared with DMBA-treated mice. Cardamom ingestion in DMBA-treated mice blocked NF-κB activation and down-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression. As a consequence, both the size and the number of skin papillomas generated on the skin due to the DMBA treatment were reduced in the 'DMBA+CARD' group. Thus, the results from the present study suggest that cardamom has a potential to become a pivotal chemopreventive agent to prevent papillomagenesis on the skin.

  16. Expression, purification and molecular modeling of the NIa protease of Cardamom mosaic virus. (United States)

    Jebasingh, T; Pandaranayaka, Eswari P J; Mahalakshmi, A; Kasin Yadunandam, A; Krishnaswamy, S; Usha, R


    The NIa protease of Potyviridae is the major viral protease that processes potyviral polyproteins. The NIa protease coding region of Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) is amplified from the viral cDNA, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. NIa protease forms inclusion bodies in E.coli. The inclusion bodies are solubilized with 8 M urea, refolded and purified by Nickel-Nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Three-dimensional modeling of the CdMV NIa protease is achieved by threading approach using the homologous X-ray crystallographic structure of Tobacco etch mosaic virus NIa protease. The model gave an insight in to the substrate specificities of the NIa proteases and predicted the complementation of nearby residues in the catalytic triad (H42, D74 and C141) mutants in the cis protease activity of CdMV NIa protease.

  17. Reduced Emission from Deforestation and Degradation in the Southern Cardamom Ecosystem, Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, K.; Hansfort, S.L.; Van Beukering, P.J.H.; Van der Leeuw, K.


    The aim of this study is to estimate the potential for generating carbon credits from Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in a region known as the Southern Cardamoms Ecosystem, Southwest Cambodia. Through the last decade, the Southern Cardamom Ecosystem has seen increasing pressures on the forest resources. The Royal government of Cambodia struggled to control degrading forest activities in the area alone and therefore sought the assistance of the NGO Wildlife Alliance in 2002. The option to attain carbon credits from REDD now offers an opportunity to achieve various goals: (1) to conserve the forest, (2) reduce CO2 emissions, (3) support and develop local communities; and (4) generate revenues for the Cambodian government and the NGO Wildlife Alliance. The potential amount of carbon benefits that can be generated has been estimated through an analysis of what is technically possible given the conditions of the project area, such as carbon density and deforestation rate. This technical assessment was complimented by an analysis of the current institutional and social conditions/barriers that can affect the actual quantity of marketable carbon. It was found that the technical potential lies in the range between 0.4 and 1.3 million tCO2/yr. However, the actual emission reductions that can be captured by REDD is dependent on how much deforestation can be reduced, and how effectively the project deals with the issues of permanence and leakage. These three aspects are in turn dependent of several institutional and social-economic factors. While the project is currently in the early phase of development, emphasis must be put on generating benefits for the local people who in reality bear the cost of reducing deforestation. Local people are a vital component to the overall success of the REDD project. Encouraging their participation and cooperation in the project can ensure long-term permanent emission reductions.

  18. Using the CARDAMOM framework to retrieve global terrestrial ecosystem functioning properties (United States)

    Exbrayat, Jean-François; Bloom, A. Anthony; Smallman, T. Luke; van der Velde, Ivar R.; Feng, Liang; Williams, Mathew


    Terrestrial ecosystems act as a sink for anthropogenic emissions of fossil-fuel and thereby partially offset the ongoing global warming. However, recent model benchmarking and intercomparison studies have highlighted the non-trivial uncertainties that exist in our understanding of key ecosystem properties like plant carbon allocation and residence times. It leads to worrisome differences in terrestrial carbon stocks simulated by Earth system models, and their evolution in a warming future. In this presentation we attempt to provide global insights on these properties by merging an ecosystem model with remotely-sensed global observations of leaf area and biomass through a data-assimilation system: the CARbon Data MOdel fraMework (CARDAMOM). CARDAMOM relies on a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to retrieve confidence intervals of model parameters that regulate ecosystem properties independently of any prior land-cover information. The MCMC method thereby enables an explicit representation of the uncertainty in land-atmosphere fluxes and the evolution of terrestrial carbon stocks through time. Global experiments are performed for the first decade of the 21st century using a 1°×1° spatial resolution. Relationships emerge globally between key ecosystem properties. For example, our analyses indicate that leaf lifespan and leaf mass per area are highly correlated. Furthermore, there exists a latitudinal gradient in allocation patterns: high latitude ecosystems allocate more carbon to photosynthetic carbon (leaves) while plants invest more carbon in their structural parts (wood and root) in the wet tropics. Overall, the spatial distribution of these ecosystem properties does not correspond to usual land-cover maps and are also partially correlated with disturbance regimes. For example, fire-prone ecosystems present statistically significant higher values of carbon use efficiency than less disturbed ecosystems experiencing similar climatic conditions. These results

  19. Cardamom, Cumin, and Dill Weed Essential Oils: Chemical Compositions, Antimicrobial Activities, and Mechanisms of Action against Campylobacter spp. (United States)

    Mutlu-Ingok, Aysegul; Karbancioglu-Guler, Funda


    Natural antimicrobials as well as essential oils (EOs) have gained interest to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms and to control food borne diseases. Campylobacter spp. are one of the most common causative agents of gastroenteritis. In this study, cardamom, cumin, and dill weed EOs were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using agar-well diffusion and broth microdilution methods, along with the mechanisms of antimicrobial action. Chemical compositions of EOs were also tested by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that cardamom and dill weed EOs possess greater antimicrobial activity than cumin with larger inhibition zones and lower minimum inhibitory concentrations. The permeability of cell membrane and cell membrane integrity were evaluated by determining relative electric conductivity and release of cell constituents into supernatant at 260 nm, respectively. Moreover, effect of EOs on the cell membrane of Campylobacter spp. was also investigated by measuring extracellular ATP concentration. Increase of relative electric conductivity, extracellular ATP concentration, and cell constituents' release after treatment with EOs demonstrated that tested EOs affected the membrane integrity of Campylobacter spp. The results supported high efficiency of cardamom, cumin, and dill weed EOs to inhibit Campylobacter spp. by impairing the bacterial cell membrane.

  20. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci (United States)

    Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee


    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The antibacterial effect of the extracts was studied using the well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was carried out by χ2 test using SPSS 17 software. Results Only cinnamon and ginger were found to have activity against all the isolates, whereas cumin and cloves had a variable effect on the strains. Fenugreek, black pepper and cardamom did not show any effect on the isolates. The zone diameter of inhibition obtained for cinnamon, ginger, cloves and cumin was in the range 31–34 mm, 27–30 mm, 25–26 mm and 19–20 mm respectively. Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Z. officinale showed the maximum antibacterial activity against the enterococcal isolates followed by S. aromaticum and C. cyminum. The findings of the study show that spices used in the study can contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in the anti-enterococcal treatment regimen. PMID:26322099

  1. Evaluation of the gastric antiulcerogenic effect of large cardamom (fruits of Amomum subulatum Roxb). (United States)

    Jafri, M A; Farah; Javed, K; Singh, S


    Large cardamom (fruit of Amomum subulatum Roxb, N.O. Zingiberaceae) commonly known as 'Heel kalan' or 'Bari Ilaichi' is used in Unani system of medicine in gastrointestinal disorders. A crude methanolic extract and its different fractions, viz. essential oil, petroleum ether (60-80 degrees ), ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions, were studied in rats for their ability to inhibit the gastric lesions induced by aspirin, ethanol and pylorus ligature. In addition their effects on wall mucus, output of gastric acid and pepsin concentration were recorded. The crude methanolic extract of A. subulatum and its fractions, viz. essential oil, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate, inhibited gastric lesions induced by ethanol significantly, but not those which were induced by pylorus ligation and aspirin. However, ethyl acetate fraction increased the wall mucus in pylorus ligated rats. The results suggest a direct protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction on gastric mucosal barrier. While the observation of decrease in gastric motility by essential oil and petroleum ether fractions suggests the gastroprotective action of the test drug. These investigations validate the use of 'Heel kalan' in gastrointestinal disorders by Unani physicians.

  2. The effect of cardamom supplementation on serum lipids, glycemic indices and blood pressure in overweight and obese pre-diabetic women: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Fatemeh, Yaghooblou; Siassi, Fereydoun; Rahimi, Abbas; Koohdani, Fariba; Doostan, Farideh; Qorbani, Mostafa; Sotoudeh, Gity


    Spice consumption helps the treatment of diseases due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory contents. Cardamom is one of this spices; therefore, this study is designed to determine the effect of cardamom supplementation on serum lipids, glycemic indices, and blood pressure in pre-diabetic women. Eighty overweight or obese pre-diabetic women were randomly allocated to two groups. The intervention group received 3 g of green cardamom and the placebo group received 3 g of rusk powder for 2 months. The physical activity level, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, Blood pressure, fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), insulin, body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance, and insulin sensitivity were measured before and after intervention. After intervention, mean TC (p = 0.02) and LDL-C (p = 0.01) significantly decreased and insulin sensitivity (p = 0.03) increased in the cardamom group. In the control group, mean HDL-C (p = 0.02) significantly decreased after the study. We observed no significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glycemic indices, and serum lipids values in the cardamom group compared to the placebo group. Green cardamom supplementation may have a protective effect on HDL-C level in pre-diabetic subjects. It improves some blood parameters in these subjects; however, its effects are not different from placebo. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, IRCT2014060817254N2. Registered 2 September 2014.

  3. Effect of Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. on blood lipids, fibrinolysis and total antioxidant status in patients with ischemic heart disease

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    Surendra Kumar Verma


    Full Text Available Objective: Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. fruit powder (seeds with pericarp was evaluated for its effect on some of the cardiovascular risk factors in patients with ischemic heart disease. Methods: Thirty male individuals (50-70 years with ischemic heart disease (old MI>6 months were selected for the study and divided into two groups of fifteen each. Group I (Treated received 3 g cardamom powder in two divided doses while Group II (Placebo received matched placebo capsules for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected initially and at 6 and 12 weeks for analysis of lipid profile, fibrinolytic activity and total antioxidant status. Results: Administration of Greater cardamom significantly (P<0.001 reduced atherogenic lipids without significant alteration in HDL-cholesterol. Plasma fibrinolytic activity and serum total antioxidant status were also enhanced significantly (P<0.05 at the end of the study. The placebo group however did not show significant alteration in any of these parameters. It was tolerated well without any untoward effects. Conclusions: Dietary supplementation of Greater cardamom favorably modifies lipid profile and significantly enhances fibrinolytic activity and total antioxidant status in patients with ischemic heart disease.

  4. Encapsulation of cardamom essential oil in chitosan nano-composites: In-vitro efficacy on antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens and cytotoxicity studies.

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    Bushra Jamil


    Full Text Available Natural antimicrobial agents, particularly essential oils present an excellent alternative to current antibiotics due to their potent and broad-spectrum antimicrobial potential, unique mechanisms of action and low tendency to induce resistance. However their potential as a viable therapeutic alternative is greatly compromised due to their hydrophobic and volatile nature. The objective of the current research was to explore the anti-pathogenic potential of essential oils in a bio-based nano-carrier system. Six different essential oils were tested on multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens. However, cardamom oil was selected for nano-encapsulation because of most potent anti-microbial activity. Cardamom oil loaded chitosan nano-particles were prepared by ionic gelation method with an encapsulation efficiency of more than 90% and size was estimated to be 50-100 nm. The Zeta potential was more than +50 mV that indicate a stable nano-dispersion. Cytotoxicity analysis indicated non haemolytic and non-cytotoxic behaviour on Human Corneal Epithelial Cells and HepG2 cell lines. Cardamom oil loaded chitosan nano-particles were found to exhibit excellent anti-microbial potential against extended spectrum β lactamase producing Escherichia coli and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggested safety and efficacy of cardamom oil loaded chitosan nano-particles for treating multi drug resistant pathogens hence offer an effective alternative to current antibiotic therapy.

  5. Field-usable lateral flow immunoassay for the rapid detection of a macluravirus, large cardamom chirke virus. (United States)

    Maheshwari, Yogita; Vijayanandraj, Selvaraj; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Mandal, Bikash


    A simple and rapid lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was developed by utilizing gold nanoparticles conjugated to a polyclonal antibody against coat protein of large cardamom chirke virus (LCCV). The LFIA based on the principle of sandwich immunoassay detected LCCV within ∼10 min and the result could be evaluated visually. The colloidal gold (CG) was made using 1% gold chloride solution. The LCCV IgG (1 μg/μl) and Mouse IgG (0.5 μg/μl) were conjugated with CG individually and coated onto a conjugate pad at 1:1 ratio. A sample extraction procedure was optimized in order to get adequate clear leaf sap of large cardamom leaf within few minutes. The sensitivity limit of the detection was 1:40 dilution of LCCV infected leaf sap. The diagnostic performance of LFIA was compared with ELISA using field samples. The LFIA was free from false positive as no visible test line was developed with healthy and potyviruses such as papaya ringspot virus and potato virus Y. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of LFIA was 100% and 90%, respectively. The Cohen's kappa coefficient (0.701) suggested a very good agreement between the ELISA and LFIA. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that LFIA was a robust method as the area under the curve (0.950) is significantly (P <0.0001) broader. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils]. (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I


    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  7. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices

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    Duliu, Octavian G. [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail:; Georgescu, Rodica [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering -Horia Hulubei, C.P. MG-6, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Ali, Shaban Ibrahim [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, Magurele, C.P. MG-11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania)


    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray irradiated cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger ((Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After {gamma}-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 {sup o}C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.

  8. EPR investigation of some traditional oriental irradiated spices (United States)

    Duliu, Octavian G.; Georgescu, Rodica; Ali, Shaban Ibrahim


    The 9.50 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of unirradiated and 60Co γ-ray irradiated cardamom ( Elettaria cardamomum L. Maton, Zingiberaceae), ginger (( Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), and saffron ( Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) have been investigated at room temperature. All unirradiated spices presented a weak resonance line with g-factors around free-electron ones. After γ-ray irradiation at an absorbed dose of up to 11.3 kGy, the presence of EPR spectra whose amplitude increase monotonously with the absorbed dose has been noticed with all spices. A 100 °C isothermal annealing of 11.3 kGy irradiated samples has shown a differential reduction of amplitude of various components that compose initial spectra, but even after 3.6 h of thermal treatment, the remaining amplitude represents no less then 30% of the initial ones. The same peculiarities have been noticed after 83 days storage at room temperature but after 340 days storage at ambient conditions only irradiated ginger displays a weak signal that differs from those of unirradiated sample. All these factors could be taken into account in establishing at which extent the EPR is suitable to evidence any irradiation treatment applied to these spices.

  9. Molecular modeling and in-silico engineering of Cardamom mosaic virus coat protein for the presentation of immunogenic epitopes of Leptospira LipL32. (United States)

    Kumar, Vikram; Damodharan, S; Pandaranayaka, Eswari P J; Madathiparambil, Madanan G; Tennyson, Jebasingh


    Expression of Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) coat protein (CP) in E. coli forms virus-like particles. In this study, the structure of CdMV CP was predicted and used as a platform to display epitopes of the most abundant surface-associated protein, LipL32 of Leptospira at C, N, and both the termini of CdMV CP. In silico, we have mapped sequential and conformational B-cell epitopes from the crystal structure of LipL32 of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni str. Fiocruz L1-130 using IEDB Elipro, ABCpred, BCPRED, and VaxiJen servers. Our results show that the epitopes displayed at the N-terminus of CdMV CP are promising vaccine candidates as compared to those displayed at the C-terminus or at both the termini. LipL32 epitopes, EP2, EP3, EP4, and EP6 are found to be promising B-cell epitopes for vaccine development. Based on the type of amino acids, length, surface accessibility, and docking energy with CdMV CP model, the order of antigenicity of the LipL32 epitopes was found to be EP4 > EP3 > EP2 > EP6.

  10. Gastroprotective effects of combination of hot water extracts of turmeric (Curcuma domestica L.), cardamom pods (Ammomum compactum S.) and sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera DC.) against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. (United States)

    Mutmainah; Susilowati, Rina; Rahmawati, Nuning; Nugroho, Agung Endro


    To investigate the protective effect of the combination of turmeric (Curcuma domestica), cardamom pods (Amomum compactum) and sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) on gastric mucosa in aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model rats. Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g were divided into 6 groups. Four groups were administered with the hot water extracts combination consisted of cardamom pods 36.6 mg/200 g body weight and sembung leaf 91.5 mg/200 g body weight (fixed doses). The herbal extracts combination were also consisted of turmeric in various doses i.e. 10 mg/200 g body weight in the second group, 30 mg/200 g body weight in the first and third groups, and 50 mg/200 g body weight in the fourth group. The fifth group rats received sucralfate 72 mg /200 g body weight. Ten minutes after receiving herbal extracts combinations or sucralfate, the rats were induced with aspirin 90 mg/200 g body weight except the first group. Another group (sixth group) only received aspirin without any protective agent. All treatments were adsministered orally for seven days. The number and area of the gastric ulcers were counted and measured macroscopically. Score of mucosal damage and the number of eosinophils as well as the number of mast cells were observed in paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin eosin and toluidine blue, respectively. The groups receiving herbal infuse combination exhibited less number and smaller area of gastric ulcers as well as smaller score of mucosal damage in comparison to those of aspirin group (Pturmeric (Curcuma domestica), cardamom pods (Amomum compactum) and sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) has potential gastroprotective effects.

  11. Prokinetic Effect of Polyherbal Formulation on Gastrointestinal Tract


    D. Srinivasan; Ramaswamy, S.; S Sengottuvelu


    PHF, a polyherbal formulation, consist of seven known herbs namely, Aegle marmelos, Elettaria cardamomum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Citrus aurantifolia, Rosa damascene, Cissus quadrangularis and Saccharum officinarum. The PHF was evaluated for acute toxicity, gastrointestinal motility and gastric emptying rate in mice and rats. Based on acute toxicity study, the PHF was considered as safe and 3 dose (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) levels were employed for further pharmacological studies. The gastrointesti...

  12. EKSTRAK DAUN KAPULAGA MENURUNKAN INDEKS ATHEROGENIK DAN KADAR GULA DARAH TIKUS DIABETES INDUKSI ALLOXAN (Cardamom Extract Leaves Decreased Atherogenic Indexs and Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Rats Alloxans-Induced

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    Hery Winarsi


    Full Text Available Cardamom (Amomum Cardomomum leaves has antioxidant in vitro, which was supported by a high flavonoids and vitamin C contents. It has been reported that antioxidants improved atherogenic index and insulin secretion. The aims of this study were to explore the potential of cardamom leaves extracts as atherogenicity and blood glucose levels controlling in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The animal experiments were 45 rats (Rattus norvegicus L. Sprague Dawley strain, male, aged 2-3 months, weighing 210-310 g. After acclimatization for 1 week, rats were fasted overnight and then induced alloxan monohydrate at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight. One week later, the rats in the test blood glucose levels using the Nesco Multi Check Glucose, Kemel Int’l Corp.  via the lateral tail vein of rats, blood glucose check attached to the equipment, and after 5 seconds glucose levels was read. Atherogenic index was determined by the formula: {( Chol-tot –HDL}/HDL. Blood samples for analysis of total-cholesterol and chol-HDL taken from the eye vein, after the rat anesthetized using ketamine. Rats with blood glucose levels > 200 mg / dL, were selected as experimental animals, and then divided into 3 groups of 15 each. Group I, fed standard and cardamom leaves extract; Group II, fed standard and glibenclamide, whereas group III, only fed standard for 2 weeks. At the beginning diabetic, their weight dropped from 247.63+28.5 to 220.9+26.6 g (P0.05, the blood glucose levels decreased from 199.25+100.5 to 102.88+17 mg/dL (P 200 mg/dL, dipilih sebagai hewan percobaan, kemudian dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok masing-masing 15 ekor. Kelompok I, diberi pakan standar dan ekstrak daun kapulaga; kelompok II, diberi pakan standar dan glibenklamid; sedangkan kelompok III, hanya diberi pakan standar selama 2 minggu. Saat awal diabetes, berat badannya turun dari 247,63+28,5 menjadi 220,9+26,6 g (P0.05, kadar glukosa darahnya menurun dari 199,25+100,5 menjadi 102,88+17 mg/dL (P<0.05, dan

  13. The Roman and Islamic spice trade: New archaeological evidence. (United States)

    Van der Veen, Marijke; Morales, Jacob


    Tropical spices have long been utilized in traditional medicine and cuisine. New archaeological evidence highlights temporal changes in the nature and scale of the ancient spice trade and in the ancient usage of these plants. Furthermore, a study of their 'materiality' highlights that the impact of spices extends beyond their material properties. Here the botanical remains of spices recovered from archaeological excavations at a port active in the Roman and medieval Islamic spice trade are evaluated. Recent excavations at Quseir al-Qadim, an ancient port located on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, have provided new evidence for the spice trade. Due to the arid conditions ancient botanical remains were preserved in abundance and these included spices, as well as a wide range of other food plants. Quseir al-Qadim was active as a transport hub during both the Roman and Islamic periods (ca. AD 1-250, known as Myos Hormos, and again during ca. AD 1050-1500, known as Kusayr), and the remains thus facilitate a study of temporal change in the trade and usage of these spices. Standard archaeobotanical methods were used to recover, identify and analyze these remains. At least seven tropical spices were recovered from the excavations, as well as several other tropical imports, including black pepper (Piper nigrum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), turmeric (Curcuma sp.), fagara (cf. Tetradium ruticarpum), myrobalan (Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula) and betelnut (Areca catechu). A marked contrast between the two chronological periods in the range of spices recovered points to changes in the nature and scale of the trade between the Roman and medieval Islamic periods, while differences in the contexts from which they were recovered help to identify temporal changes in the way in which the spices were utilized during those periods. Archaeological and textual evidence suggest that in antiquity spices were used in ritual (funeral rites

  14. Effect of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron and ginger consumption on blood pressure and a marker of endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial. (United States)

    Azimi, Paria; Ghiasvand, Reza; Feizi, Awat; Hosseinzadeh, Javad; Bahreynian, Maryam; Hariri, Mitra; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein


    Herbal medicines with high amounts of phytochemicals have been shown to have beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP), endothelial function and anthropometric measures. This study aimed to determine the effect of herbal treatment on BP, endothelial function and anthropometric measures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This clinical trial included 204 T2DM patients randomly assigned to four intervention groups receiving 3 g cinnamon, 3 g cardamom, 1 g saffron or 3 g ginger with three glasses of black tea, and one control group consuming only three glasses of tea without any herbals, for 8 weeks. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), systolic and diastolic BP and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. No significant difference was found between various medicinal plants in terms of influencing BP, serum soluble (s)ICAM-1 concentrations and anthropometric measures. However, in within-group comparison saffron and ginger intakes significantly reduced sICAM-1 concentrations (340.9 ± 14.4 vs 339.69 ± 14.4 ng/ml, p = 0.01, and 391.78 ± 16.0 vs 390.97 ± 15.8 ng/ml, p = 0.009, respectively) and ginger intake affected systolic BP (143.06 ± 0.2 vs 142.07 ± 0.2 mmHg, p = 0.02). Although administration of these herbal medicines as supplementary remedies could affect BP and sICAM-1 concentrations, there was no significant difference between the plants in terms of influencing anthropometric measures, BP and endothelial function.

  15. Insecticidal and biochemical effect of some dried plants against Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera-Silvanidae

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    A.M. Al Qahtani


    Full Text Available Dry powders of three plants, namely ginger (Zingiber afficinale, hail (Elettaria cardamomum and shammar (Foeniculum vulgare were tested, for their toxicity, against the adult beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis, as date pest threatens the date product in Saudi Arabia. All the tested plants showed insecticidal activity against O. surinamensis. Ginger is the most potent plant, recording the lowest LC50 value (0.14 mg/g followed by hail and shammar (LC50 = 0.4 and 0.7 mg/g respectively. Tested plants alter the protein configuration of O. surinamensis after using PAGE for protein analysis. Ginger and shammar increased the insect protein subfractions than normal; while hail reduced separated bands, especially proteins of moderate molecular weight.

  16. Determination of elements by atomic absorption spectrometry in medicinal plants employed to alleviate common cold symptoms. (United States)

    Küçükbay, F Zehra; Kuyumcu, Ebru


    Eleven important medicinal plants generally used by the people of Turkey for the treatment of common cold have been studied for their mineral contents. Eleven minor and major elements (essential, non-essential and toxic) were identified in the Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. , Althaea officinalis L. , Verbascum phlomoides L., Euphorbia chamaesyce L., Zizyphus jujube Miller, Peganum harmala L., Arum dioscoridis Sm., Sambucus nigra L., Piperlongum L., Tussilago farfara L. and Elettaria cardamomum Maton by employing flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Microwave digestion procedure for total concentration was applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal plants. Plant based biological certified reference materials (CRMs) served as standards for quantification. These elements are found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied plants. The baseline data presented in this work can be used in understanding the role of essential, non-essential and toxic elements in nutritive, preventive and therapeutic properties of medicinal plants.

  17. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus midgut cell line to evaluate insecticidal potency of different plant essential oils. (United States)

    Rizwan-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Aljabr, Ahmed Mohammed


    Cell cultures can be a potent and strong tool to evaluate the insecticidal efficiency of natural products. Plant essential oils have long been used as the fragrance or curative products around the world which means that they are safer to be used in close proximity of humans and mammals. In this study, a midgut cell line, developed from Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (RPW-1), was used for screening essential oils from nine different plants. Assays revealed that higher cell mortality was observed at 500 ppm which reached to 86, 65, 60, 59, 56, 54, 54, 53, and 53%, whereas lowest cell mortality at 1 ppm remained at 41, 23, 20, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, and 10%, for Azadirachta indica, Piper nigrum, Mentha spicata, Cammiphora myrrha, Elettaria cardamomum, Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa, Schinus molle, and Rosmarinus officinalis, respectively. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay revealed the percentage of cell growth inhibition was highest at 500 ppm and remained at 48, 45, 42, 37, 34, 29, 24, 22, and 18% against A. indica, P. nigrum, M. spicata, C. myrrha, E. cardamomum, Z. officinale, C. longa, S. molle, and R. officinalis, respectively. Lowest LC50 value (7.98 ppm) was found for A. indica, whereas the highest LC50 (483.11 ppm) was against R. officinalis. Thus, in this study, essential oils of A. indica exhibited the highest levels of toxicity, whereas those from R. officinalis exhibited the lowest levels of toxicity toward RPW-1 cells.

  18. Formação de biofilme por Pseudomonas aeruginosa sobre aço inoxidável em contato com leite e seu controle por óleos essenciais

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    Nádia Nara BATISTA


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a ação bacteriostática e bactericida de diferentes óleos essenciais sobre células planctônicas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, bem como verificar a ação sanitizante, dos óleos essenciais que apresentarem a menor Concentração Mínima Inibitória (CMI, sobre o biofilme formado por esta espécie, Material e Métodos: A ação bacteriostática foi realizada por meio da determinação das CMIs dos óleos de Zingiber officinale, Eugenia caryophyllus, Elettaria cardamomum, Citrus limon e Citrus reticulata v, tangerine, O tempo de morte bacteriana foi determinado utilizando-se as CMIs de cada óleo essencial submetidos a diferentes tempos de contato, O biofilme de P, aeruginosa foi desenvolvido em cupons de aço inoxidável AISI 304 dispostos em placa de Petri contendo leite tratado por Ultra Alta Temperatura (UAT, sendo incubado sob agitação de 70 rpm, a 37 °C/96 horas, Células aderidas foram removidas através de swabs e enumeradas por contagem em placas após submissão a diferentes tratamentos, Resultados: Todos os óleos essenciais apresentaram efeito bacteriostático, se destacando Z, officinale, E, caryophyllus e E, cardamomum, por apresentarem menor CMI, O tempo de morte de P, aeruginosa foi de 10 minutos quando utilizadas soluções a base de E, cardamomum e E, caryophyllus, No entanto, quando testados em biofilme, apenas E, caryophyllus eliminou as células bacterianas viáveis de P, aeruginosa, Conclusão: E, caryophyllus é uma nova alternativa para o controle do biofilme de P, aeruginosa na indústria de alimentos, pois, além de sua alta atividade antimicrobiana, é um composto natural, o que atende as exigências do mercado consumidor.

  19. Solubility investigation of ether and ester essential oils in water using spectrometry and GC/MS

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    B. Khodabandeloo


    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Essential oils (volatiles are aromatic oily liquids prepared from different parts of plants and demonstrate various therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The dissolution of essential oils are not desirable in water, therefore the aim of this research was evaluation and selection the best co-solvents for increasing their solubility and bio availability. Methods:The solubility of six  plants essential oils were investigated in presence of propylene glycol (PG, polyethylene glycol 300 (PEG, glycerin and ethanol as solvent and tween 80 or lecithin as co-solvent by observation and spectrophotometric assay. Chemical composition of the essential oils and supersaturated 50% ethanol (SSE and 50% PG or PEG (SSP solutions were analyzed by GC/MS, too. Results: Ester (Lavandula dentata, Heracleum persicum and, Elettaria cardamomum essential oils showed the best solubility in ethanol and PG, respectively. Ether (Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Petroselinum crispum essential oils had the best solubility in ethanol and PEG, respectively. In ester class, mixture of ethanol/water was the best solvent according to solubility and total amounts of major compounds of the essential oils. In ether class, all samples had better solubility in mixtures of ethanol/water than PEG, but the amounts of total phenols or ethers in SSP of some samples were higher than SSE. Therefore selecting the best solvent for these class need more experiments. Conclusion: Selecting the solvent for essential oils changes their chemical composition; therefore the best solvent was different for various purposes.

  20. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants. (United States)

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam


    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy.

  1. Medicinal Plants Targeting Cardiovascular Diseases in View of Avicenna. (United States)

    Sobhani, Zahra; Nami, Saeed Reza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Javadi, Behjat


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a spectrum of diseases involving the heart and blood vessels, and the first cause of mortality worldwide. Medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years to treat CVD. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), there is a special focus on heart diseases. Avicenna, a Persian physician of the eleventh century compiled a book devoted to this field named "The treatise on cardiac drugs" which is a compendium of TPM knowledge on CVD. Avicenna mentioned 50 cardiovascular active plants and described their therapeutic effects in the treatment of CVDs. Here, we perform a detailed search in scientific databases to verify the cardiovascular activities of the medicinal plants suggested by Avicenna. Also, we discussed cardiovascular activities of a number of the most important suggested plants as well as their efficacy in clinical studies. Major bioactive compounds identified from these plants are also discussed. Pharmacological studies have revealed that the majority of these plants are effective in cardiovascular health with various mechanisms. Among them, Crocus sativus L., Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Presl, Punica granatum L., Ocimum basilicum L., Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton, Melissa officinalis L. and Phyllanthus emblica L. have proved to be more effective. The above-mentioned plants can be rich sources for developing new and effective pharmaceuticals for the treatment of CVDs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  2. Will rising atmospheric CO2affect leaf litter quality and in situ decomposition rates in native plant communities? (United States)

    Hirschel, G; Körner, C; Arnone Iii, J A


    Though field data for naturally senesced leaf litter are rare, it is commonly assumed that rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations will reduce leaf litter quality and decomposition rates in terrestrial ecosystems and that this will lead to decreased rates of nutrient cycling and increased carbon sequestration in native ecosystems. We generally found that the quality of␣naturally senesced leaf litter (i.e. concentrations of C, N and lignin; C:N, lignin:N) of a variety of native plant species produced in alpine, temperate and tropical communities maintained at elevated CO 2 (600-680 μl l -1 ) was not significantly different from that produced in similar communities maintained at current ambient CO 2 concentrations (340-355 μl l -1 ). When this litter was allowed to decompose in situ in a humid tropical forest in Panama (Cecropia peltata, Elettaria cardamomum, and Ficus benjamina, 130 days exposure) and in a lowland temperate calcareous grassland in Switzerland (Carex flacca and a graminoid species mixture; 261 days exposure), decomposition rates of litter produced under ambient and elevated CO 2 did not differ significantly. The one exception to this pattern occurred in the high alpine sedge, Carex curvula, growing in the Swiss Alps. Decomposition of litter produced in situ under elevated CO 2 was significantly slower than that of litter produced under ambient CO 2 (14% vs. 21% of the initial litter mass had decomposed over a 61-day exposure period, respectively). Overall, our results indicate that relatively little or no change in leaf litter quality can be expected in plant communities growing under soil fertilities common in many native ecosystems as atmospheric CO 2 concentrations continue to rise. Even in situations where small reductions in litter quality do occur, these may not necessarily lead to significantly slower rates of decomposition. Hence in many native species in situ litter decomposition rates, and the time course of decomposition, may

  3. Integrated plant nutrient system - with special emphasis on mineral nutriton and biofertilizers for Black pepper and cardamom - A review. (United States)

    K P, Sangeeth; R, Suseela Bhai


    Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS) as a concept and farm management strategy embraces and transcends from single season crop fertilization efforts to planning and management of plant nutrients in crop rotations and farming systems on a long-term basis for enhanced productivity, profitability and sustainability. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the required increase in crop production in developing countries will have to come from yield increases from lands already under cultivation. IPNS enhances soil productivity through a balanced use of soil nutrients, chemical fertilizers, combined with organic sources of plant nutrients, including bio-inoculants and nutrient transfer through agro-forestry systems and has adaptation to farming systems in both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. Horticultural crops, mainly plantation crops, management practices include application of fertilizers and pesticides which become inevitable due to the depletion of soil organic matter and incidence of pests and diseases. The extensive use of chemical fertilizers in these crops deteriorated soil health that in turn affected the productivity. To revitalize soil health and to enhance productivity, it is inexorable to enrich the soil using microorganisms. The lacunae observed here is the lack of exploitation of indigenous microbes having the potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N) and to solubilize Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K). The concept of biofertilizer application appears to be technically simple and financially feasible, but the task of developing biofertilizers with efficient strains in appropriate combinations in a consortia mode is not easier. More than developing consortia, a suitable delivery system to discharge the microbial inoculants warranted much effort. This review focuses on the integrated plant nutrition system incorporating biofertilizer with special emphasis on developing and formulating biofertilizer consortium.

  4. Paleomagnetism of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds from the Cardamom Mountains, southwestern Cambodia: Tectonic deformation of the Indochina Peninsula (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, Yukiho; Zaman, Haider; Sotham, Sieng; Samuth, Yos; Sato, Eiichi; Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Uno, Koji; Tsumura, Kosuke; Miki, Masako; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro


    Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds of the Phuquoc Formation were sampled at 33 sites from the Sihanoukville and Koah Kong areas of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin, southwestern Cambodia. Two high-temperature remanent components with unblocking temperature ranging 650°-670 °C and 670-690 °C were identified. The magnetization direction for the former component (D = 5.2 °, I = 18.5 ° with α95 = 3.1 ° in situ) reveals a negative fold test that indicates a post-folding secondary nature. However, the latter component, carried by specular hematite, is recognized as a primary remanent magnetization. A tilt-corrected mean direction of D = 43.4 °, I = 31.9 ° (α95 = 3.6 °) was calculated for the primary component at 11 sites, corresponding to a paleopole of 47.7°N, 178.9°E (A95 = 3.6 °). When compared with the 130 Ma East Asian pole, a southward displacement of 6.0 ° ± 3.5 ° and a clockwise rotation of 33.1 ° ± 4.0 ° of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin (as a part of the Indochina Block) with respect to East Asia were estimated. This estimate of the clockwise rotation is ∼15° larger than that of the Khorat Basin, which we attribute to dextral motion along the Wang Chao Fault since the mid-Oligocene. The comparison of the herein estimated clockwise rotation with the counter-clockwise rotation reported from the Da Lat area in Vietnam suggests the occurrence of a differential tectonic rotation in the southern tip of the Indochina Block. During the southward displacement of the Indochina Block, the non-rigid lithosphere under its southern tip moved heterogeneously, while the rigid lithosphere under the Khorat Basin moved homogeneously.

  5. Soil and biomass carbon pools in model communities of tropical plants under elevated CO2. (United States)

    Arnone, J A; Körner, Ch


    plant-derived soil organic matter)-averaged 815 and 910 g m -2 year -1 at ambient and elevated CO 2 , respectively. These NPPs are remarkably similar to those of many natural moist tropical forested ecosystems. At the same time net productivity of soil organic matter reached 7000 g dry matter equivalent per m 2 and year (i.e. 3500 g C m -2 year -1 ). Very slight yet statistically significant CO 2 -induced shifts in the abundance of groups of species occurred by the end of the experiment, with one group of species (Elettaria cardamomum, Ficus benjamina, F. pumila, Epipremnum pinnatum) gaining slightly, and another group (Ctenanthe lubbersiana, Heliconia humilis, Cecropia peltata) losing. Our results show that: (1) enormous amounts of C can be deposited in the ground which are normally not accounted for in estimates of NPP and net ecosystem productivity; (2) any enhancement of C sequestration under elevated atmospheric CO 2 may be substantially smaller than is believed will occur (yet still very important), especially under growth conditions which permit close to natural NPP; and (3) species dominance in plant communities is likely to change under elevated CO 2 , but that changes may occur rather slowly.

  6. Inativação termoquímica de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella enterica Enteritidis por óleos essenciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcilene de Abreu Pereira


    Full Text Available O controle do crescimento microbiano tanto na indústria de alimentos quanto em ambientes hospitalares é de extrema importância. Entretanto, observa-se aumento da resistência dos microrganismos aos desinfetantes mais empregados, observando-se a necessidade de estudos com novos antimicrobianos. Assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e a curva de morte termoquímica de soluções desinfetantes de óleos essenciais sobre Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella Enteritidis. Foram utilizados os óleos essenciais de Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Elettaria cardamomum (cardamomo, Eugenia caryophyllus (cravo botão e Foeniculum vulgare dulce (funcho doce. As concentrações mínimas inibitórias foram determinadas utilizando-se a técnica de diluição em placas. As concentrações testadas foram de (%: 0,00; 0,25; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5; 4,0; 4,5; e 5,0. Escherichia coli foi a única bactéria sensível a todos os óleos em concentrações abaixo de 5%. Cravo da índia não inibiu o crescimento de S. aureus nas concentrações testadas. Somente o óleo essencial de tomilho inibiu o crescimento de Salmonella Enteritidis. Observando-se as curvas de morte termoquímica de S. aureus, nota-se que a solução desinfetante contendo óleo essencial de tomilho foi a mais eficiente, tanto a 25 quanto a 40°C, sendo necessário apenas 10min. de contato para não serem mais detectadas células viáveis. A solução desinfetante contendo 0,25% de óleo essencial de tomilho, tanto a 25 quanto a 40°C, eliminou as células de S. Enteritidis após10min. de contato. Já pra E. coli , os melhores resultados foram obtidos com as soluções desinfetantes contendo óleos essenciais de funcho doce e cravo da índia a 25 e 40°C e tomilho a 40°C. Todos os tratamentos, exceto aqueles contendo óleo essencial de cardamomo, reduziram o número de células viáveis das bactérias testadas em pelo menos 5 ciclos log, sendo


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Prasetyo dan Efri .


    Full Text Available The effect of some plant extracts on Deightoniella torulosa  Syd. Ellis the causative agent of black tip disease of banana.  An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of some plant extracts on the growth and reproduction of Deightonella torulosa. The plants  used in this experiments were Zingiber cassumunar, Acorus calamus, and Amomum cardamomum. The treatments of the factorial (3x4 experiment were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The first factor (plant extracts consisted of  Z. cassumunar,  A. calamus, and A. cardamomum extracts. The second factor (extract concentration consisted of  0, 100, 200, and 300 mg/l. Variables examined were  the colony diameter and conidial density of D. torulosa. The result of the experiment shows that extract of Z. cassumunar,  A. calamus, and  A. cardamomum extracts suppressed fungal colony diameter. On Z. cassumunar and A. calamus extracts, the higher the concentration the higher fungal colony diameter suppressed. The most effective suppression by the extract was at 300 mg/l.  A. calamus extract was more effective than Z. cassumunar and  A. cardamomum at 100 mg/ml. Z. cassumunar and A. calamus extracts had the same effectivity at 200 mg/l, and both was more effective compared to A. cardamomum.  Z. cassumunar  was more effective  compared to A. calamus and  A. cardamomum at 300 mg/l. The results of the experiment also showed that Z. cassumunar, A. calamus,  and  A. cardamomum suppressed  conidial production  of D. torulosa.   Z. cassumunar most effectively suppressed   conidia production at 300 mg/l.  A. calamus  extract suppressed conidial production the most effectively  at 200 and 300 mg/l. A. cardamomum  extract significantly suppressed conidia production only at 300 mg/l. Z. cassumunar and  A. calamus  extracts were more effective to suppress conidia production compared to A. cardamomum for all level of concentration except control. The

  8. Pemodelan Matematik Kinerja Pengering Surya Efek Rumah Kaca (ERK-Hibrid Menggunakan Rak Berputar secara Vertikal (Mathematical Modeling Performance of Greenhouse Effect (GHE-Hybrid Solar Dryer with a Vertical Rotating Rack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Triwahyudi


    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance test and mathematical modeling of greenhouse effect (GHE-Hybrid solar dryer with vertical rotating rack. The dryer consists of a greenhouse dryer (1100 × 860 × 1300 mm with eight rack and additional heating system consists of a flat plate collector (1,04 m2, a hot water storage tank (197 liters and a heat exchanger. To investigate the performance of solar greenhouse dryer, five experimental variation speed of rack were conducted (1, 4, 7, 10 rpm and without rotation. Materials used in the experiment are local cardamom (Amomum cardamomum Wild. Weight of each experiment  about  9 to 10 kg. The average temperature of the hot water storage tank varies from 50.0 to 55.0 °C, drying air  temperature between 38.9 to 45.9 °C, while the relative humidity (RH of drying chamber ranged from 32.1 to 47.4 %. Variation of rotational speed affects on the uniformity of product temperature and water content in each rack drying. At rotation 1 rpm  (experiment II, obtained  as the best conditions (temperature and moisture content are most uniform. Increasing rotational speed of rack causes increasing in standard deviation of  product temperature and moisture content. To simulate the performance of the dryer, mathematical modeling based on heat  and mass transfer and a thin layer drying  approaches were conducted. Equations solved numerically using the finite difference Euler with Visual Basic Application (VBA program on Excel. Validation was conducted by comparing the calculation results of mathematical modeling (data prediction with measurement data (data observation. Criterion validity was determined by  the value of the coefficient of determination (R2, the value of RMSD and MAPD. Mathematical models that have been developed can be described precisely the temperature of the hot water storage tank, temperature of the drying chamber, temperature of the product as well as a moisture content decrease.   ABSTRAK Makalah

  9. Eucalyptol, sabinene and cinnamaldehyde: potent inhibitors of salmonella target protein l-asparaginase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vimal, Archana; Pal, Dharm; Tripathi, Timir; Kumar, Awanish


    .... In the present in silico study, a novel drug target l-asparaginase was tested against three ligands eucalyptol, sabinene, and cinnamaldehyde, major components of cardamom, nutmeg, and cinnamon, respectively...

  10. Anti-oxidative, physico-chemical and sensory attributes of burfi affected by incorporation of different herbs and its comparison with synthetic anti-oxidant (BHA). (United States)

    Prasad, Writdhama; Khamrui, Kaushik; Mandal, Surajit; Badola, Richa


    Six different herbs, viz., turmeric, ginger, clove, curry leaves, basil leaves and small cardamom, were incorporated (@1% of khoa) into burfi, a heat desiccated-sweetened milk product, for their ability to act as natural anti-oxidant and were compared against butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Anti-oxidative potential of burfi significantly increased with herbs incorporation, which was in the order of clove > turmeric > basil leaves > curry leaf > ginger > cardamom. However, it was lower when compared to BHA added samples. Gross compositional attributes of burfi remained unaffected upon herb incorporation, however, significant lowering in water activity was observed upon cardamom and clove addition. Hunter color analysis revealed that cloves decreased lightness and increased redness, turmeric increased yellowness, and basil and curry leaves increased greenness in burfi. Texture attributes viz., hardness, springiness and gumminess were significantly higher for clove and cardamom burfi. Sensory evaluation revealed that among the different herbs, cardamom is highly preferred in burfi followed by ginger, turmeric, clove, curry leaves and basil leaves. However, no significant difference in sensory attributes were observed between control, cardamom and BHA added burfi samples.

  11. Concise and informative title: evaluation of selected spices in extending shelf life of paneer. (United States)

    Eresam, E Krishna Kumari; Pinto, Suneeta; Aparnathi, K D


    Black pepper, cardamom, cinnamon and clove were tested for their relative efficacy in improving shelf life of paneer. All the spices were incorporated in paneer @ 0 (control), 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 % by wt. of expected yield of paneer. Addition of black pepper, cardamom or clove at the rate of 0.6 % by weight or cinnamon at the rate of 0.4 % by weight was found to be acceptable. Therefore, paneer was prepared by incorporating black pepper, cardamom and clove i.e. Bp, Ca and Cl @ 0.6 % and cinnamon (Ci) @ 0.4 % by wt. of expected yield of paneer. All the paneer samples viz. Bp, Ca, Cl and Ci were subjected to sensory evaluation when fresh and after interval of 7 days during storage at 7 ± 1 °C up to 28 days. Results indicated that control remained acceptable up to 7 days, Bp up to 14 days of storage and Cl up to 21st day of storage. The overall acceptability score of Ca remained well above the acceptable level even on 28th day of the storage. Results of changes in chemical characteristics indicate that amongst all the spices studied, cardamom had maximum ability to control the rate of increase in acidity, free fatty acids content and soluble nitrogen content in paneer during storage. The order of the relative effectiveness in enhancing shelf life of paneer was cardamom > cinnamon > clove > black pepper. The effect of cardamom on microbial counts of paneer viz. standard plate counts (SPC), yeast and mould count and coliform count were evaluated. Among the spices studied, cardamom was found to be the best spice to improve shelf life of paneer up to 28 days of storage at 7 ± 1 °C.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Compounds from Aromatic Plants by Means of Dynamic Headspace Extraction and Multiple Headspace Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omar, Jone; Olivares, Maitane; Alonso, Ibone; Vallejo, Asier; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Etxebarria, Nestor


    Seven monoterpenes in 4 aromatic plants (sage, cardamom, lavender, and rosemary) were quantified in liquid extracts and directly in solid samples by means of dynamic headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DHS-GC-MS) and multiple headspace extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  13. High genetic diversity in the coat protein and 3'untranslated regions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 5. High genetic diversity in the coat protein and 3' untranslated regions among geographical isolates of Cardamom mosaic virus from south India. T Jacob T Jebasingh M N Venugopal R Usha. Articles Volume 28 Issue 5 September 2003 pp 589-595 ...

  14. Vertical structure of orographic precipitating clouds observed over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 8. Vertical ... The Western Ghats contains the highest fraction of the shallow echo-top clouds followed by the adjacent eastern Arabian Sea, while the Khasi Hills in Meghalaya and Cardamom Mountains in Cambodia contain the least fraction of them.

  15. Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya. (United States)

    Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R


    The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable.

  16. Pengaruh Keanekaragaman Mesofauna dan Makrofauna Tanah terhadap Dekomposisi Bahan Organik Tanaman di Bawah Tegakan Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The purposes of the research were to know the influences of crop organic matters to diversity of soil mesofauna and macrofauna under paraserianthes’ stand (Paraserianthes falcataria, rate of organic matters decomposition, as well as the relationship between the rate of organic matters decomposition and diversity of soil mesofauna and macrofauna. The framework of thinking of this research was the crop organic matters which were given to the soil would influence the soil mesofauna and macrofauna diversities. The presence of soil fauna would help the decomposition process of organic matters which fertilize the soil. This research was established under paraseanthes’ stand, with 7 treatments of crop organic matters, i.e. cardamom, pineapple, cocoyam, cardamom- pineapple, cardamom-cocoyam, pineapple-cocoyam, cardamom-pineapple- cocoyam, and the treatment without crop organic matters (control. The sampling of mesofauna data used soil extraction “Barlesse-Tulgreen” method, meanwhile the macrofauna data were obtained from “Hand- Sorting” method and “Fill-Trapp” method. The sampling of decomposition rate data used Pudjiharta’s method (1995. The data which have been obtained were analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANAVA and continued with DMRT test. The Correlation test was done to find out the relationship between the rate of decomposition of crop organic matters and the soil mesofauna and macrofauna diversities. It can be concluded that the applying of crop organic matters influenced the soil mesofauna and macrofauna diversities. The highest coefficient value index of soil mesofauna diversity was 1.36 by using cardamom-cocoyam organic matters. The highest coefficient value index of the soil macrofauna diversity was1.11 by using pineapple organic matters. The highest coefficient value indexof macrofauna diversity on the surface of the soil was 1.27 by using pineapple organic matters. The crop organic matters of cardamom-cocoyam has

  17. Drug: D03404 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ate [CPD:C12300], alpha-pinene [CPD:C09880], 1,8-Cineole [CPD:C09844], Linalool [CPD:C03985], Nerolidol [CPD... Major component: Terpinyl acetate [CPD:C12300] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicin... drugs D03404 Cardamon (JP16); Cardamom seed (NF) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude D

  18. Antioxidant effect of Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica L) blended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant activity of Coffea Arabica L in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice. Methods: A decoction of Arabian coffee blended with or without cardamom or cloves was orally administered to HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice for a period of 60 days. At the end of the treatment, blood and tissue samples ...

  19. Antioxidant effect of Arabian coffee ( Coffea arabica L) blended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antioxidant activity of Coffea Arabica L in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice. Methods: A decoction of Arabian coffee blended with or without cardamom or cloves was orally administered to HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice for a period of 60 days. At the end of the treatment, blood and tissue samples ...

  20. Efektivitas Obat Kumur Yang Mengandung Ekstrak Kapulaga 2,5% Dibanding Dengan Klorheksidin 0,12% Terhadap Penurunan Akumulasi Plak Pada Mahasiswa Fkg Usu Angkatan 2013


    Audina, Febrina


    Plaque control is completed with adding some active products that contain herbal or synthetic products as antibacterial component which can be available in the form of mouthwash. The most-used synthetic mouthwash in society is clorhexidine. But if you use it for along time, it caused some side effects. One of herbal products that can be used as mouthwash is cardamom which contains antibacterial and antiplaque component so it can inhibit plaque growth. This study aims to determine difference...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Widiyanto


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the implementation one of the social forestry program in Ciamis, particularly related to the activity and time allocation of farmers during the program. This study used questionnaires and interviews with a total sample of respondents were 90 people, who came from three farmer groups or Lembaga Masyarakat Desa Hutan/ LMDH (each 30 people. Three LMDH represented three different planting patterns, namely; pine-coffee, teak-cardamom, and teak-papaya. The results indicate that during the first four years of the program, coffee farmers spent the longest time in the program (227 days, followed by cardamom farmers (174 days and the last papaya farmer (108 days. Based on the activities, the longest activity for coffee farmers is maintenance, whereas for cardamom and papaya farmers are harvesting. Pine-coffee pattern can provide the greatest benefit to farmers because crop cultivation activity (coffee that lasts a long time (20 years compared cardamom (10 years and papaya (2 years. In addition pine harvest waiting period also faster (30 years compare to teak (up to 40 years. However, coffee farmers only earn twice from wood thinning activities, compared cardamom and papaya farmers, who earn six times from wood thinning. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan untuk mengetahui implementasi salah satu program perhutanan sosial di Ciamis, khususnya terkait dengan aktivitas dan curahan waktu petani selama program. Penelitian ini menggunakan kuesioner dan wawancara dengan total sampel responden adalah sebanyak 90 orang, yang berasal dari tiga kelompok tani atau Lembaga Masyarakat Desa Hutan/LMDH (masing-masing 30 orang. Tiga LMDH ini mewakili tiga pola tanam yang berbeda, yaitu; pinus-kopi, jati-kapulaga, dan jati-pepaya. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa selama empat tahun pertama program, petani kopi mencurahkan waktu paling lama dalam program (227 hari, disusul petani kapulaga (174 hari dan terakhir petani papaya (108 hari

  2. Potential Health Risk Assessment of Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn for Human Population via Consumption of Commercial Spices; a Case Study of Hamedan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhanardakani S.* PhD


    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Spices are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the taste of food as well as affecting the digestion and metabolism. Along with that, they may also contain some substances as heavy metals, which have harmful effects on the body. The aim of present study was to assess the potential health risk of Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn contents of cardamom, curry powder and turmeric in Hamedan City, Iran. Instrument & Methods: 18 industrially packaged and weighted spice samples (cardamom, curry powder and turmeric belonging to 6 famous brands were bought from different supermarkets of Hamedan City, Iran, in 2015. The human health risks posed by chronic exposure to the heavy metals were assessed by computing the average daily intake of metal. The health risk index (HRI for the local population through the consumption of spice was assessed using DIM/RfD formula. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, DMS post-hoc, Tukey HSD and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests. Findings: Cr was detected in spice samples in 0.08-1.67mg/kg, Cu 0.05-1.28mg/kg, Fe 1.04-6.89mg/kg and Zn 0.40-2.25mg/kg. The mean concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn were lower than MPL. The DIM values for the examined spice samples were below the recommended values. Conclusion: The levels of Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn are less than the MPL in cardamom, curry powder and turmeric in Hamedan City, Iran.

  3. Enantiomeric Distribution of Some Linalool Containing Essential Oils and Their Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hüsnü Can Başer


    Full Text Available The enantiomeric composition of linalool was determined in 42 essential oils using chiral columns. Essential oils were analyzed by multidimentional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a non-chiral and chiral FSC columns combination with modified g -cyclodextrine (Lipodex E as the chiral stationary phase without previous isolation of the compound from the mixture. The essential oils of Achillea, Ballota, Calamintha, Micromeria, Hedychium, Tanacetum, Coriandrum, Xanthoxylum, Ocimum, Thymus, Lavandula, Elettaria, Cinnamomum, Salvia, Origanum, Satureja, Nepeta, Stachys were used as source material for enantiomeric separation of linalool. Enantiomeric distribution of linalool showed (--linalool was much more common than the (+-linalool in the essential oils in this study. (-- and (+-linalool enantiomers were evaluated for antimicrobial, antifungal and antimalarial activities. Both enantiomers demonstrated approximately 50% growth inhibition of Botrytis cinerea at 48 hrs.

  4. Global evaluation of gross primary productivity in the JULES land surface model v3.4.1 (United States)

    Slevin, Darren; Tett, Simon F. B.; Exbrayat, Jean-François; Bloom, A. Anthony; Williams, Mathew


    This study evaluates the ability of the JULES land surface model (LSM) to simulate gross primary productivity (GPP) on regional and global scales for 2001-2010. Model simulations, performed at various spatial resolutions and driven with a variety of meteorological datasets (WFDEI-GPCC, WFDEI-CRU and PRINCETON), were compared to the MODIS GPP product, spatially gridded estimates of upscaled GPP from the FLUXNET network (FLUXNET-MTE) and the CARDAMOM terrestrial carbon cycle analysis. Firstly, when JULES was driven with the WFDEI-GPCC dataset (at 0. 5° × 0. 5° spatial resolution), the annual average global GPP simulated by JULES for 2001-2010 was higher than the observation-based estimates (MODIS and FLUXNET-MTE), by 25 and 8 %, respectively, and CARDAMOM estimates by 23 %. JULES was able to simulate the standard deviation of monthly GPP fluxes compared to CARDAMOM and the observation-based estimates on global scales. Secondly, GPP simulated by JULES for various biomes (forests, grasslands and shrubs) on global and regional scales were compared. Differences among JULES, MODIS, FLUXNET-MTE and CARDAMOM on global scales were due to differences in simulated GPP in the tropics. Thirdly, it was shown that spatial resolution (0. 5° × 0. 5°, 1° × 1° and 2° × 2°) had little impact on simulated GPP on these large scales, with global GPP ranging from 140 to 142 PgC year-1. Finally, the sensitivity of JULES to meteorological driving data, a major source of model uncertainty, was examined. Estimates of annual average global GPP were higher when JULES was driven with the PRINCETON meteorological dataset than when driven with the WFDEI-GPCC dataset by 3 PgC year-1. On regional scales, differences between the two were observed, with the WFDEI-GPCC-driven model simulations estimating higher GPP in the tropics (5° N-5° S) and the PRINCETON-driven model simulations estimating higher GPP in the extratropics (30-60° N).

  5. Application of EPR Spectroscopy to Examination of the Effect of Sterilization Process on Free Radicals in Different Herbs


    Paw?owska-G?ral, Katarzyna; Ramos, Pawe?; Pilawa, Barbara; Kurzeja, Ewa


    Free radicals in the original and sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom were studied. An X-band (9.3?GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was the experimental technique. Effect of microwave power in the range of 2.2?70?mW on amplitudes, linewidths, and lineshape parameters of the EPR spectra was tested. Free radicals concentrations in the non- and sterilized herb samples were compared. The aim of this work was to determine properties and concentration of free radi...

  6. The effect of sodium reduction and the use of herbs and spices on the quality and safety of bologna sausage

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    Carla Ivone Carraro


    Full Text Available In this study, the replacement of 50% NaCl by KCl in Bologna sausage with the addition of herbs and spice blends (coriander, onion, white pepper, cardamom, and Jamaican pepper was evaluated. The formulations tested showed a significant reduction in the sodium content with no major alterations in the emulsion stability, texture, and microbiological characteristics. The use of 50% KCl caused a reduction in the sensory quality leading to a significant decrease in the consumers' purchase intention. The formulations with the addition of herbs and spice blends presented better results in the sensory evaluation indicating that this strategy can reduce the negative effects resulting from the use of KCl.

  7. Microbial contamination of spices used in production of meat products

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    Marcela Klimešová


    Full Text Available There was investigated microbial quality of spices used in production of meat products (black pepper, allspice, coriander, juniper, cumin, cinnamon, badian, mustard, bay leaf, paprika, rosemary, garlic, ginger, thyme, cardamom. The spices were analysed on the presence of total count of mesophilic, thermoresistant and coliforming microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, methicilin resistant S. aureus (MRSA, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis and moulds. For the detection of fungal contamination was used agar with glucose, yeast extract and oxytetracyklin and dichloran-glycerol agar. The cultivation was performed at 25 ±1°C for 5 - 7 days. The microscopic method was used for species identification. The aflatoxin presence was confirmed by ELISA test in all of tested spices and was performed in ppb (pars per billion = μg/kg. TCM ranged from 200 to 5600000 cfu/g, TRM from 20 to 90000 cfu/g and coliforming bacteria from 30 to 3200 cfu/g. B. cereus was present in juniper, mustard, bay leaf, thyme and cardamom (32%, while B. licheniformis was confirmed in 58% of cases (allspice, pepper, ground juniper, badian, bay leaf, paprika, garlic, thyme and cardamom. S. aureus was detected in whole coriander, cinnamon, badian and mustard but only in law number (30, 40, 20 and 10 cfu/g respectively. No strains S. aureus was identified as MRSA. The presence of Salmonella spp. and E. coli was not confirmed. The fungal contamination was found in 14 spices and the their count varied from 0 to 1550 cfu/g. There were confirmed the presence of Aspergillus flavus (allspice whole and ground, black pepper whole and ground, whole coriander, ground cumin, ground bay leaf, Aspergillus niger (allspice whole and ground, black pepper ground, ground juniper, cumin ground, bay leaf ground, ground rosemary, ground thyme, Penicillium glaucum (allspice whole and ground, whole juniper, whole cinnamon, Penicillium claviforme (whole black pepper

  8. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

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    Full Text Available Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five habitat types (two natural habitats: Sub-montane forest and Pitawala Patana grassland; three modified habitats: cardamom, pinus and abandoned tea plantations in Northern Flank of KMFR using birds as the indicator group. Bird communities were surveyed using point count method. A total of 1,150 individuals belonging to 56 species were observed. The highest species richness was reported from the cardamom plantation where as sub-montane forest had the highest feeding guild diversity in terms of Shannon Weiner index. The abandoned tea plantation and the Pitawala Patana grasslands with fairly open habitats, showed relatively lower levels of feeding guild diversities. It is clear that the structurally complex habitats contribute more to the area’s biological and functional diversities and need to be taken into consideration when developing conservation plans.

  9. The impact of forest conversion on bird communities in the northern flank of the Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

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    Kalya Subasinghe


    Full Text Available Initiating proper conservation and management strategies requires assessing the consequences of forest conversion into human land use systems on tropical biodiversity. This study characterized bird species diversity and composition and vegetation structural components in four land use types in the northern flank of the Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, which is a part of a world heritage site in Sri Lanka: an undisturbed forest and three human-modified land uses for cardamom, pinus, and abandoned tea plantations. Using the fixed radius point count method, 1,023 individuals belonging to 51 bird species were recorded. The cardamom plantation with native shade trees had a bird species richness and composition comparable to an undisturbed forest (one-way analysis of variance; p > 0.05, Jaccard index = 0.56. Based on the Shannon–Wiener index, the overall species diversity was highest in the undisturbed forest. Pearson's correlation coefficient suggested a strong positive linear relationship between bird species richness with canopy cover (r = 0.738 and vertical stratification (r = 0.813. Land use systems formed by considerable alterations to vegetation structure significantly reduce bird diversity and supports a bird community that is less comparable to an undisturbed forest.

  10. Anti-fungal activity of cold and hot water extracts of spices against fungal pathogens of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in vitro. (United States)

    Touba, Eslaminejad Parizi; Zakaria, Maziah; Tahereh, Eslaminejad


    Crude extracts of seven spices, viz. cardamom, chilli, coriander, onion, garlic, ginger, and galangale were made using cold water and hot water extraction and they were tested for their anti-fungal effects against the three Roselle pathogens i.e. Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai and Rhizoctonia solani using the 'poisoned food technique'. All seven spices studied showed significant anti-fungal activity at three concentrations (10, 20 and 30% of the crude extract) in-vitro. The cold water extract of garlic exhibited good anti-fungal activity against all three tested fungi. In the case of the hot water extracts, garlic and ginger showed the best anti-fungal activity. Of the two extraction methods, cold water extraction was generally more effective than hot water extraction in controlling the pathogens. Against P. exigua, the 10% cold water extracts of galangale, ginger, coriander and cardamom achieved total (100%) inhibition of pathogen mycelial growth. Total inhibition of F. nygamai mycelial growth was similarly achieved with the 10% cold water extracts garlic. Against R. solani, the 10% cold water extract of galangale was effective in imposing 100% inhibition. Accordingly, the 10% galangale extract effectively controlled both P. exigua and R. solani in vitro. None of the hot water extracts of the spices succeeded in achieving 100% inhibition of the pathogen mycelial growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of biogas production potential of kitchen waste in the presence of spices. (United States)

    Sahu, Nidhi; Sharma, Abhinav; Mishra, Priyanka; Chandrashekhar, B; Sharma, Ganesh; Kapley, Atya; Pandey, R A


    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of kitchen waste (KW) for biogas production is a major challenge to all over the world due to significant compositional variations in KW, such as different types and quantities of spices used for preparing food. Spices may affect the AD process owing to their antimicrobial activity. In this paper, the effect of spices (garlic, red chili, cinnamon, coriander, clove, turmeric, cardamom, black pepper) on AD of KW has been investigated. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the maximum biogas production potential, methane production rate and lag phase for biogas production. Analysis of the results revealed different magnitude of inhibition of the AD process of KW in the presence of different spices. Cinnamon, cardamom and clove resulted >85%, black pepper resulted 75%, while coriander, chili, turmeric and garlic resulted 55-70% reduction in cumulative biogas yield. Elemental analysis showed high concentration of heavy metals in the spices, which along with other bioactive components of the spices could be responsible for the inhibitory effect of the spices on biomethanation. Microbial examination of the digestate also showed a decrease in population of fermentative and methanogenic bacteria in the presence of spices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of EPR Spectroscopy to Examination of the Effect of Sterilization Process on Free Radicals in Different Herbs. (United States)

    Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna; Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara; Kurzeja, Ewa


    Free radicals in the original and sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom were studied. An X-band (9.3 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was the experimental technique. Effect of microwave power in the range of 2.2-70 mW on amplitudes, linewidths, and lineshape parameters of the EPR spectra was tested. Free radicals concentrations in the non- and sterilized herb samples were compared. The aim of this work was to determine properties and concentration of free radicals in steam sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom. It was pointed out that free radicals (~10(18) spin/g) exist in both the original and sterilized herbs. Complex free radical system with oxygen and carbon paramagnetic centers characterizes the examined herbs. Homogeneously dipolar broadened EPR spectra were measured for all the tested herbs. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in the examined samples. Practical usefulness of EPR method in food technology was discussed.

  13. Comparison of insect biodiversity between organic and conventional plantations in Kodagu, Karnataka, India

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    S. Mone


    Full Text Available We undertook a comparative analysis of ground insects and fruit eating butterflies on 29 different plantations in Kodagu District of Karnataka which is one of the rich biodiversity zones of the Western Ghats. These included organic and conventional coffee and cardamom plantations using different levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. A total number of 457 ground insect species were collected using pit-fall traps which included 92 species of ants and 123 species of beetles, among other insect taxa that we measured. Similarly, 25 species of butterflies belonging to the family Nymphalidae were collected using bait traps. We found a clear negative effect on the ground insect species diversity (Shannon index and evenness (Shannon evenness index in pesticide treated plantations as compared to the organic plantations. A similar negative effect was observed for butterfly diversity in plantations using pesticides. Our results corroborate the value of organic plantations in supporting higher levels of biodiversity.

  14. Microgomphus alani (Odonata, Gomphidae) sp. nov. from Cambodia. (United States)

    Kosterin, Oleg E


    Microgomphus alani sp. nov. is described from two males from the coastal southwestern foothills of the Cardamom Mts. in southwestern Cambodia (type locality: Cambodia, Koh Kong Province, 17 km ENE of Koh Kong, 'Macromia Rivulet', 11°40'17'' N, 103°07'28'' E, 296 m a.s.l., 3 vi 2014, RMNH). The species is characterised by its small size (hindwing 21-23 mm), cerci with outer angulations, truncated apices and crescent-shaped inner arms sprouting from their middle and not reaching their apices, synthorax with two parallel black lateral stripes and dorsal and collar yellow stripes fused in 7-like manner. Probably females of the same species were earlier reported from Phrae Province in northern Thailand.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of the bioactive components of essential oils from Pakistani spices against Salmonella and other multi-drug resistant bacteria (United States)


    Background The main objective of this study was the phytochemical characterization of four indigenous essential oils obtained from spices and their antibacterial activities against the multidrug resistant clinical and soil isolates prevalent in Pakistan, and ATCC reference strains. Methods Chemical composition of essential oils from four Pakistani spices cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), cardamom (Amomum subulatum) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) were analyzed on GC/MS. Their antibacterial activities were investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Thin-Layer Chromatography-Bioautographic (TLC-Bioautographic) assays against pathogenic strains Salmonella typhi (D1 Vi-positive), Salmonella typhi (G7 Vi-negative), Salmonella paratyphi A, Escherichia coli (SS1), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus licheniformis (ATCC 14580). The data were statistically analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Significant Difference (LSD) method to find out significant relationship of essential oils biological activities at p spices can be pursued against multidrug resistant bacteria. PMID:24119438

  16. Total antioxidant capacity of commonly used fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices of Pakistan. (United States)

    Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Sharif, Muhammad Junaid Hassan; Rauf, Khalid; Mahmood, Wajahat; Khan, Ikarmullah; Abbas, Ghulam


    The current study was aimed at investigating the total antioxidant activity (TAC) of various fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices habitat in Pakistan. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to measure the TAC of various extracts (aqueous, ethanolic and aqueous-ethanolic). Following is the potency order for fruits (guava >strawberry >Pomegranate >apple >kinnow >melon >lemon >banana), vegetables (spinach >Cabbage (Purple) >Jalapeno >Radish >Brinjal >Bell Pepper >Lettuce >Carrot >Cabbage (White) >Onion >Potato >Tomato >Cucumber) and herbs/spices (clove >Rosemary >Thyme >Oregano >Cinnamon >Cumin >Kalonji >Paprika >Neem (Flower) >Fennel >Black Cardamom >Turmeric >Coriander >Ginger >Garlic). In conclusion, the guava, spinach and clove provide the best natural dietary option for treatment / prevention of oxidative stress and thus could alleviate several associated ailments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anoopkumar


    Full Text Available One serious issue which creates far reaching repercussions in the commercial agriculture sector of India is the heightened instability in price both at the inter-year and intra-year level. An exploration of intra-year price instability, which is rarely addressed in the empirical studies, is attempted in this paper by selecting the case of four major commercial crops of India namely, Small Cardamom, Black Pepper, Natural Rubber and Tea. The study concludes that even in the scenario of integrated market setting price instability at the intra-year level is guided mainly by the seasonal character of supply. Hence, market offers high price to the farmers only when they have less to offer in the market and vice versa, which makes their income unstable in the short run, highlighting the need for stabilizing producers’ returns.

  18. Modelling the Ozone-Based Treatments for Inactivation of Microorganisms. (United States)

    Brodowska, Agnieszka Joanna; Nowak, Agnieszka; Kondratiuk-Janyska, Alina; Piątkowski, Marcin; Śmigielski, Krzysztof


    The paper presents the development of a model for ozone treatment in a dynamic bed of different microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. pumilus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aspergillus niger, Eupenicillium cinnamopurpureum) on a heterogeneous matrix (juniper berries, cardamom seeds) initially treated with numerous ozone doses during various contact times was studied. Taking into account various microorganism susceptibility to ozone, it was of great importance to develop a sufficiently effective ozone dose to preserve food products using different strains based on the microbial model. For this purpose, we have chosen the Weibull model to describe the survival curves of different microorganisms. Based on the results of microorganism survival modelling after ozone treatment and considering the least susceptible strains to ozone, we selected the critical ones. Among tested strains, those from genus Bacillus were recognized as the most critical strains. In particular, B. subtilis and B. pumilus possessed the highest resistance to ozone treatment because the time needed to achieve the lowest level of its survival was the longest (up to 17.04 min and 16.89 min for B. pumilus reduction on juniper berry and cardamom seed matrix, respectively). Ozone treatment allow inactivate microorganisms to achieving lower survival rates by ozone dose (20.0 g O₃/m³ O₂, with a flow rate of 0.4 L/min) and contact time (up to 20 min). The results demonstrated that a linear correlation between parameters p and k in Weibull distribution, providing an opportunity to calculate a fitted equation of the process.

  19. Ginger species in Besiq Bermai forest, East Borneo: Inventory and collection (United States)



    This research is aimed to inventory and collect ginger species from Borneo, especially from Besiq Bermai forest, East Borneo forest. This research was conducted by surveys and using a purposive sampling method. The characterization of Borneo gingers also used a guide to ginger of Borneo. The results showed that there are 19 species which have been recorded in this forest. Amomum, Alpinia, Plagiostachys, Globba, Hornstedtia, Plagiostachys, Zingiber, is genus that found in the forest. The life collections are conserved in Purwodadi Botanical Gardens. The species of Zingiberaceae are Alpinia pubiflora (Benth.) K. Schum., Alpinia aquatica (Retz.) Roscoe, Alpinia capitellata Jack, Alpinia beamanii R.M.Sm. Amomum oliganthum K. Schum, Etlingera pauciflora (Ridl.) R.M.Sm, Elettaria surculosa (K.Schum) B.L. Burrt&R.M. Sm, Hornstedtia rumphii (Sm.) Valeton, Hornstedtia conica Ridl, Hornstedtia reticosa Valeton, Globba pumila Ridl, Plagiostachys bracteolata R.M. Sm, Plagiostachys albiflora Ridl, Plagiostachysbreviramosa Cowley, Zingiber aromaticum Noronha, Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiber montanum (J.Koenig) Link ex A. Dietr, and Zingiber leptostachyum Valeton.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Compounds from Aromatic Plants by Means of Dynamic Headspace Extraction and Multiple Headspace Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Omar, Jone; Olivares, Maitane; Alonso, Ibone; Vallejo, Asier; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Etxebarria, Nestor


    Seven monoterpenes in 4 aromatic plants (sage, cardamom, lavender, and rosemary) were quantified in liquid extracts and directly in solid samples by means of dynamic headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DHS-GC-MS) and multiple headspace extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MHSE), respectively. The monoterpenes were 1st extracted by means of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed by an optimized DHS-GC-MS. The optimization of the dynamic extraction step and the desorption/cryo-focusing step were tackled independently by experimental design assays. The best working conditions were set at 30 °C for the incubation temperature, 5 min of incubation time, and 40 mL of purge volume for the dynamic extraction step of these bioactive molecules. The conditions of the desorption/cryo-trapping step from the Tenax TA trap were set at follows: the temperature was increased from 30 to 300 °C at 150 °C/min, although the cryo-trapping was maintained at -70 °C. In order to estimate the efficiency of the SFE process, the analysis of monoterpenes in the 4 aromatic plants was directly carried out by means of MHSE because it did not require any sample preparation. Good linearity (r2) > 0.99) and reproducibility (relative standard deviation % plants obtaining concentrations in the range of 2 to 6000 ng/g and 0.25 to 110 μg/mg, respectively. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Selective toxicity of diafenthiuron to non-target organisms: honey bees, coccinellids, chelonus, earthworms, silkworms and fish

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    Stanley Johnson


    Full Text Available Diafenthiuron, an insecticide widely used in the management of pests of cardamom and cotton, was assessed for its toxicity-effect on beneficials commonly found in these ecosystems. Diafenthiuron was found to be toxic to honey bees, the prime pollinators of crop plants. Diafenthiuron at the highest tested dose caused 40% mortality to the coccinelid grubs at 48 h after treatment so, diafenthiuron was found to be slightly harmful. Monocrotophos, on the other hand has been found to be a highly toxic pesticide. Diafenthiuron is moderately harmful to the adults of Chelonus blackburni L. The testing was done using the insecticide diafenthiuron. An insecticidecoated vial (scintillation bioassay was performed. It was found that there was 86.67% mortality in 48 h, at the recommended dose. Diafenthiuron is highly toxic to the silkworm, killing more than 80% of the caterpillars in 24 h, at all the doses tested. Diafenthiuron, even in the highest dose tested, is non-toxic to the earthworm, Perionyx excavatus, which was found to have a 3.33% mortality. As far as fish are concerned, the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., is found to be highly susceptible to diafenthiuron and even doses 10 times lower than the field dose can kill the fish within 6 h.

  2. Modelling Spatial and Temporal Forest Cover Change Patterns (1973-2020): A Case Study from South Western Ghats (India). (United States)

    Giriraj, Amarnath; Irfan-Ullah, Mohammed; Murthy, Manchi Sri Ramachandra; Beierkuhnlein, Carl


    This study used time series remote sensing data from 1973, 1990 and 2004 to assess spatial forest cover change patterns in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR), South Western Ghats (India). Analysis of forest cover changes and its causes are the most challenging areas of landscape ecology, especially due to the absence of temporal ground data and comparable space platform based data. Comparing remotely sensed data from three different sources with sensors having different spatial and spectral resolution presented a technical challenge. Quantitative change analysis over a long period provided a valuable insight into forest cover dynamics in this area. Time-series maps were combined within a geographical information system (GIS) with biotic and abiotic factors for modelling its future change. The land-cover change has been modelled using GEOMOD and predicted for year 2020 using the current disturbance scenario. Comparison of the forest change maps over the 31-year period shows that evergreen forest being degraded (16%) primarily in the form of selective logging and clear felling to raise plantations of coffee, tea and cardamom. The natural disturbances such as forest fire, wildlife grazing, invasions after clearance and soil erosion induced by anthropogenic pressure over the decades are the reasons of forest cover change in KMTR. The study demonstrates the role of remote sensing and GIS in monitoring of large-coverage of forest area continuously for a given region over time more precisely and in cost-effective manner which will be ideal for conservation planning and prioritization.

  3. Modelling Spatial and Temporal Forest Cover Change Patterns (1973-2020: A Case Study from South Western Ghats (India

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    Carl Beierkuhnlein


    Full Text Available This study used time series remote sensing data from 1973, 1990 and 2004 to assess spatial forest cover change patterns in the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR, South Western Ghats (India. Analysis of forest cover changes and its causes are the most challenging areas of landscape ecology, especially due to the absence of temporal ground data and comparable space platform based data. Comparing remotely sensed data from three different sources with sensors having different spatial and spectral resolution presented a technical challenge. Quantitative change analysis over a long period provided a valuable insight into forest cover dynamics in this area. Time-series maps were combined within a geographical information system (GIS with biotic and abiotic factors for modelling its future change. The land-cover change has been modelled using GEOMOD and predicted for year 2020 using the current disturbance scenario. Comparison of the forest change maps over the 31-year period shows that evergreen forest being degraded (16% primarily in the form of selective logging and clear felling to raise plantations of coffee, tea and cardamom. The natural disturbances such as forest fire, wildlife grazing, invasions after clearance and soil erosion induced by anthropogenic pressure over the decades are the reasons of forest cover change in KMTR. The study demonstrates the role of remote sensing and GIS in monitoring of large-coverage of forest area continuously for a given region over time more precisely and in cost-effective manner which will be ideal for conservation planning and prioritization.

  4. Possibility of fighting food borne bacteria by egyptian folk medicinal herbs and spices extracts. (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F


    Phytotherapy (herbal medicine) have a long-standing history in Egypt. Current study investigated the antimicrobial potentialities of twenty five herbs and spices which are widely used in folk medicine by Egyptian housewives to treat gastrointestinal disorders against seven bacterial strains, mostly food borne including pathogens. They were tested by using paper disc diffusion technique as qualitative assay and agar dilution method for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of herbs extracts. Among screened plants, basil, cardamom, cinnamon, clove, lemon grass, mustard, oregano, rosemary, sage and thyme extracts exhibited notable antimicrobial activities against most of the tested strains. Cinnamon extract was the most inhibitor followed by clove, whereas extracts of chamomile, rose of Jericho, safflower and turmeric showed weak antibacterial activities against most of the tested strains. The most sensitive strain to plant extracts was B. subtilis and the most resistant strain was Ps. fluorescens. herbs and spices extracts -used in Egyptian folk medicine for treating many gastrointestinal disorders - could be successfully applied as natural antimicrobials for elimination of food borne bacteria and pathogens growth.

  5. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Extracts and Active Principles of Commonly Consumed Indian Spices. (United States)

    Patra, Kartick; Jana, Samarjit; Mandal, Deba Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Shamee


    Accumulating evidence suggests that free radical reactions play a key part in the development of degenerative diseases and that an antioxidant-rich diet is a major defense against these free radical reactions. In this study, we explore comparative antioxidant capacities of extracts of some commonly used in Indian spices (anise, cardamom, Ceylon cinnamon, and clove) along with their purified components (anethole, eucalyptol, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol, respectively). Eugenol shows the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide scavenging and reducing power activity in terms of weight; however, this was not found when compared in terms of equivalence. Extracts of the other three spices were found to be more potent antioxidants than their corresponding active components. Interestingly, clove extract, despite possessing the highest phenol and flavonoid content, is not the most potent radical scavenger. At low concentrations, both the crude extracts and their purified components (except for anethole and eugenol) have low hemolytic activity, but at higher concentrations purified components are more toxic than their respective crude extract. This study suggests that spices as a whole are more potent antioxidants than their purified active components, perhaps reflecting the synergism among different phytochemicals present in spice extracts.

  6. A Review of Temperature, pH, and Other Factors that Influence the Survival of Salmonella in Mayonnaise and Other Raw Egg Products

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    Thilini Piushani Keerthirathne


    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is one of the main causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide, with outbreaks predominately linked to contamination of eggs and raw egg products, such as mayonnaise. This review explores previous studies that have investigated Salmonella control mechanisms utilized in the production of raw egg mayonnaise and other food products. Apart from the use of pasteurized eggs, the main control mechanism identified is the pH of the raw egg products, which plays an important role in the consistency and stability while affecting the survival of Salmonella spp. However, currently there is no consensus regarding the critical pH limit for the control of Salmonella. The effectiveness of pH as a control mechanism is influenced by the type of acid used, with the effectiveness of lemon juice compared with vinegar highly debated. Additionally, Salmonella susceptibility to pH stresses may also be influenced by storage temperature (in some studies refrigeration temperatures protected Salmonella spp. from acidulants and is further complicated by the development of Salmonella cross-tolerance-induced responses, pH homeostasis achieved by the cellular antiport and symport systems, and acid tolerance response (ATR. These mechanisms all provide Salmonella with an added advantage to ensure survival under various pH conditions. Other confounding factors include the fat content, and the addition of NaCl, garlic and plant essential oils (PEOs from mint, cinnamon, cardamom and clove.

  7. Early Historic Material Culture in Karnataka with Particular Reference to Banavasi, North Kanara, India

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    Hema Thakur


    Full Text Available In this paper I have tried to reconstruct the pattern of development at the early historic settlement of Banavasi, Karnataka. Karnataka has been broadly divided between forested Malnad and Maidan which is relatively more open and flat. The settlement of Banavasi lies in Malnad. Malnad has good drainage and enjoys cool climatic conditions. It is well-known for the cultivation of cash crops such as cashew, pepper, cardamom and cinnamon. Cool climate and heavy rains have resulted in a thick forest cover. Forests have given valuable products such as Teak, Ebony, Bamboo, Sandalwood, etc. Further, Malnad enjoys the benefit of having metals and minerals. The author has tried to explain that favourable climate and natural resources were the major factors responsible for rich habitation and over-all prosperity. This prosperity was manifested by rich archaeological assemblage that included structures, pottery, beads, terracottas, sculptures, coins, inscriptions, etc. The aim of this paper has been to have a comprehensive understanding of the socio-political and economic development and to contextualize it in relation to the local geographical setting. The main engagement has been with the basic issues concerning subsistence of the settlement, the early beginnings of social stratification and ruling authority and the contemporary religious beliefs. The principal concern of the author is to understand the patterns about human lifeways as indicated by the material remains of the period.

  8. A Pan-African thermal event in southern India (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan S.; Santosh, M.; Pressley, Rachel A.; Clements, Alina S.; Rogers, John J. W.

    UPb zircon data from five igneous suites confirm previous studies that demonstrated widespread Pan-African magmatism in the Granulite Terrain of southern India. Ages determined here are ˜560 Ma for the Peralimala Granite and ˜555 Ma for the Kalpatta Granite, both north of the Palghat-Cauvery lineament, and ˜585 Ma for a charnockite in the Cardamom massif south of the lineament. Zircon from a pegmatite in the Kerala khondalite belt at Melankode yields an age of 512 Ma. Resetting of zircons in the 2500-Ma Arsikere Granite of the western Dharwar craton probably occurred at ˜450 Ma. These ages and the concentration of Pan-African granitic magmatism around the Indian portion of a broad region of granulite-facies metamorphism in East Gondwana demostrates generation of a restricted area of high temperature either above a rising plume or a zone of rifting. Mantle-derived fluids continued to move upward through the crust of southern India for at least 100 m.y. after the peak of magmatism, and the entire region was still cooling at 400 Ma.

  9. Aromatherapy as treatment for postoperative nausea: a randomized trial. (United States)

    Hunt, Ronald; Dienemann, Jacqueline; Norton, H James; Hartley, Wendy; Hudgens, Amanda; Stern, Thomas; Divine, George


    Postoperative nausea (PON) is a common complication of anesthesia and surgery. Antiemetic medication for higher-risk patients may reduce but does not reliably prevent PON. We examined aromatherapy as a treatment for patients experiencing PON after ambulatory surgery. Our primary hypothesis was that in comparison with inhaling a placebo, PON will be reduced significantly by aromatherapy with (1) essential oil of ginger, (2) a blend of essential oils of ginger, spearmint, peppermint, and cardamom, or (3) isopropyl alcohol. Our secondary hypothesis was that the effectiveness of aromatherapy will depend upon the agent used. A randomized trial of aromatherapy with patients who reported nausea in the postanesthesia care unit was conducted at one ambulatory surgical center. Eligibility criteria were adult, able to give consent, and no history of coagulation problems or allergy to the aromatherapy agents. Before surgery, demographic and risk factors were collected. Patients with a nausea level of 1 to 3 on a verbal descriptive scale (0-3) received a gauze pad saturated with a randomly chosen aromatherapy agent and were told to inhale deeply 3 times; nausea (0-3) was then measured again in 5 minutes. Prophylactic and postnausea antiemetics were given as ordered by physicians or as requested by the patient. A total of 1151 subjects were screened for inclusion; 303 subjects reporting nausea were enrolled (26.3%), and 301 meeting protocol were analyzed (26.2%). The change in nausea level was significant for the blend (P aromatherapy was also significantly reduced with ginger or blend aromatherapy versus saline (P = 0.002 and P aromatherapy would be effective as a treatment for PON was supported. On the basis of our results, future research further evaluating aromatherapy is warranted. Aromatherapy is promising as an inexpensive, noninvasive treatment for PON that can be administered and controlled by patients as needed.

  10. Development of a Sauce Using Gymnema sylvestre Leaves

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    O. D. A. N. Perera


    Full Text Available Plant derived products have attracted enormous attention due to their diverse range of biological and therapeutic properties. Gymnema sylvestre is an underutilized medicinal herb that is widely distributed in different parts of the world. It is rich in phytochemicals with antidiabetic and antiobesity properties; however, it is less popular due to its bitter taste. This study was focused on developing a sauce using leaves of Gymnema sylvestre. The most acceptable composition (17.2% water, 4.8% vinegar, 3.2% sweet potato, 2.6% chili, 2.0% sugar, 2.0% cinnamon, 2.0% cardamom, 1.8% ginger, 1.8% garlic, 1.2% onion, 1.2% salt, 0.1% citric acid, and 0.1% sodium benzoate of the sauce was with 60% leaf extract. Final product contains 73.54% ± 1.68 moisture, 19.92% ± 2.59 carbohydrate, 2.98% ± 0.44 ash, 2.61% ± 0.58 protein, 0.88% ± 0.05 fiber, and 0.05% ± 0.01 fat. The total flavonoid content was 243.67 ± 8.57 µ moles of rutin equivalent, total phenolic content was 65.44 ± 0.51 µ moles of gallic acid equivalent, and % of inhibition of DPPH of total antioxidant capacity was 43.70 ± 0.72. Sauce formulated with 1000 ppm sodium benzoate had six weeks of shelf life. The results showed that development of a sauce from G. sylvestre leaves is an effective way of delivering the health benefits to the potential consumers.

  11. Anti-oncogenic perspectives of spices/herbs: A comprehensive review. (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Naz, Ambreen; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir Muhammad Nasir


    Contemporary nutrition regime has focused the attention of the researchers on phytochemicals enriched spices to mitigate various oncological threats. Numerous chemopreventive strategies against malignancy have been developed considering the anticancer perspectives of allied nutraceutical constituents. Current evidences have proven an inverse association of spices with that of oncological incidences. The high antioxidant activity of spices derived bioactives triggers the free radicals scavenging ability at cellular level thereby alleviating various metabolic syndromes. Promising compounds including curcumin and curcuminoids (turmeric), limonene (cardamom), allicin, allyl isothiocyanate (garlic), cinnamic aldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde and eugenol (cinnamon), gingerol, zingiberone, zingiberene (ginger), dipropyle disulfides and quercetin (onion), piperidine piperine, limonene, α- and β-pinene (black pepper), crocetin, crocin and safranal (saffron) have been identified as chemopreventing agents against various malignancies. Chemopreventive properties of spices are mediated by functional bioactive ingredients that arrest the activity of cytochrome P450 and isozymes CYP 1A1, cyclooxygenase-2, reducing activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and signal transducer. They are closely associated with tumorigenesis activated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptors and epidermal growth factor (EGF) relate to an array of tumors. The bioactive constituents altering the expression of protein involved in cell cycle, activating caspases killer and suppressing Kappa-B activation. Alongside, they also restrain causative agents of cell structure damage as in lipid and protein membrane system and DNA that shifting healthy body towards cancerous state. Spices phytochemicals have established as carcinogenesis blockers by modulating cell proliferation pathways transformation, inflammation, metastasis etc. Furthermore, spices as functional ingredients may act as immune boosters and diminish

  12. Essential Oils Modulate Gene Expression and Ochratoxin A Production in Aspergillus carbonarius

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    Rachelle El Khoury


    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin, mainly produced on grapes by Aspergillus carbonarius, that causes massive health problems for humans. This study aims to reduce the occurrence of OTA by using the ten following essential oils (E.Os: fennel, cardamom, anise, chamomile, celery, cinnamon, thyme, taramira, oregano and rosemary at 1 µL/mL and 5 µL/mL for each E.O.As a matter of fact, their effects on the OTA production and the growth of A. carbonarius S402 cultures were evaluated, after four days at 28 °C on a Synthetic Grape Medium (SGM. Results showed that A. carbonarius growth was reduced up to 100%, when cultured with the E.Os of cinnamon, taramira, and oregano at both concentrations and the thyme at 5 µL/mL. As for the other six E.Os, their effect on A. carbonarius growth was insignificant, but highly important on the OTA production. Interestingly, the fennel E.O at 5 µL/mL reduced the OTA production up to 88.9% compared to the control, with only 13.8% of fungal growth reduction. We further investigated the effect of these E.Os on the expression levels of the genes responsible for the OTA biosynthesis (acOTApks and acOTAnrps along with the acpks gene as well as the two regulatory genes laeA and vea, using the quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR method. The results revealed that these six E.Os reduced the expression of the five studied genes, where the ackps was downregulated by 99.2% (the highest downregulation in this study with 5 µL/mL of fennel E.O.As for the acOTApks, acOTAnrps, veA and laeA, their reduction levels ranged between 10% and 96% depending on the nature of the E.O and its concentration in the medium.

  13. Spices: Therapeutic Potential in Cardiovascular Health. (United States)

    Rastogi, Subha; Pandey, Madan Mohan; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh


    Dietary factors play a key role in the development as well as prevention of certain human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Currently there has been an increase in global interest to identify medicinal plants that are pharmacologically effective and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine. Culinary herbs and spices are an important part of human nutrition in all the cultures of the world. There is a growing amount of literature concerning the potential benefits of these herbs and spices from a health perspective especially in conferring protection against cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this review is to provide information on the recent scientific findings on some common spices that have a distinct place in folk medicine in several of the Asian countries as well as on their traditional uses for the role they can play in the management of heart diseases and which may be useful in defining cost effective and inexpensive interventions for the prevention and control of CVDs. Systematic literature searches were carried out and the available information on various medicinal plants traditionally used for cardiovascular disorders was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, GoogleScholar, JCCC@INSTIRC and Web of Science) and a library search for articles published in peerreviewed journals. No restrictions regarding the language of publication were imposed. This article highlights the recent scientific findings on four common spices viz. Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), for the role they can play in the management of heart diseases. Although they have been used by many cultures since ancient times and have been known to exhibit several medicinal properties, current research shows that they can also be effectively used for the prevention and control of CVDs. Although scientific evidences supporting

  14. Assessing the response of the Australian carbon balance to climate variability by assimilating satellite observations in a distributed ecosystem model (United States)

    Exbrayat, Jean-François; Bloom, A. Anthony; Smallman, T. Luke; Williams, Mathew


    Terrestrial ecosystems offset about 25% of anthropogenic emissions of fossil fuel responsible for the current global warming. This long-term carbon sink exhibits a large inter-annual variability that recent studies have associated to the response of semi-arid ecosystems to variations in climate conditions and especially the occurrence of extreme events. For example, wet conditions during the 2010-2011 La Niña episode led to the strongest annual terrestrial carbon sink ever observed. Satellite observations of plant productivity and modelling experiments indicate that this anomalous sink was mostly located in the southern hemisphere where Australia experienced record-breaking rainfall. However, the durability of this extra-sink has yet to be assessed as dry conditions returned in northern Australia at the end of 2011, causing large-scale fires. In this paper we investigate the influence of climate variability on Australian ecosystems and we particularly focus on the resilience of the La Niña driven 2010-2011 sink to subsequent dry years. Therefore, we use the CARbon Data MOdel fraMework (CARDAMOM) data-assimilation system to retrieve the 21st century Australian terrestrial carbon cycle simulated by an ecosystem model in agreement with climate data and Earth Observations relevant to the biosphere: burned area, leaf area index and biomass. Accordingly with previous studies results indicate a strong influence of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation on the inter-annual variability of the Australian carbon balance at the continent-scale. More precisely, in 2010-2011 the La Niña-driven wet conditions led the continent to become a strong sink of atmospheric carbon. Then, dry conditions accompanied by intense fires returned at the end of 2011 and our analyses indicate that the totality of the northern Australian sink (north of 30°S) was re-emitted by late 2011 as fires immediately burnt the extra-fuel produced during the record wet seasons. These results raise concerns on

  15. Free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts from herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil

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    Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti


    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from 23 different dried herbs and spices commercialized in Brazil were investigated for their free radical scavenging properties using the stable free radicals 2,2'-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, and Trolox as reference (TEAC for both radicals. The kinetic curves for both radicals showed to follow the first order kinetics model and the decay rate constant (k obs was calculated. For all the samples, the two methods showed a good linear TEAC correlation, indicating that the average reactivity of the compounds present in the ethanolic extracts was similar. Sage and rosemary extracts showed the highest free radical scavenging capacities, while onion showed negligible activity and colorifico, one of the most consumed spices in Brazil, showed low ABTS•+ scavenging activity. Three distinct situations were found for the extracts concerning the DPPH• scavenging capacities: (1 extracts, like rosemary and laurel, that presented the same efficient concentrations (EC50 but differed in the TEAC values and velocities of action (k obs, (2 extracts, such as garlic and basil, that showed similar EC50 and TEAC values, but different k obs values and (3 extracts that reacted at the same velocities but completely differed in the free radical scavenging capacities, like black pepper, savory, nutmeg, rosemary and sage. Similar considerations could be done for the ABTS•+ results. For the first time the ABTS•+ scavenging activity for allspice, basil, cardamom, chives, colorifico, cumin, dill, laurel, marjoram, parsley and tarragon was reported.Extratos etanólicos de 23 ervas e condimentos desidratados comercializados no Brasil foram analisados quanto as suas propriedades antioxidantes utilizando os radicais 2,2'-difenil-β-picrilhidrazil (DPPH• e ácido 2,2'-azino-bis(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico (ABTS•+, Trolox foi usado como referência para ambos radicais

  16. Use of lysozyme from chicken egg white as a nitrite replacer in an Italian-type chicken sausage

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    Nalaka Sandun Abeyrathne


    Full Text Available Background: Sodium or potassium nitrite is widely used as a curing agent in sausages and other cured meat products. Nitrite has strong antimicrobial and antioxidant effects and generates cured meat color. Nitrite, however, can react with secondary or tertiary amines in meat to form carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic N-nitroso compounds. Several findings have been suggested that high consumption of processed meat may increase the risk of cancer, and emphasized that dietary nitrosamines are positively associated with cancer. Lysozyme is one of the major egg proteins that have antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics. Therefore, lysozyme can be used in meat processing to prevent microbial growth and oxidative degradation in meat products during storage. This study is focused on evaluating the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of lysozyme extracted from egg white as a replacer of nitrite in a cooked Italian-type chicken sausage. Methods: Four curing treatments including 100% nitrite (control, 100% lysozyme (treatment 1, 25% nitrite + 75% lysozyme (treatment 2 and 50% nitrite + 50% lysozyme (treatment 3 were used to prepare Italian-type chicken sausage samples. Recipe was developed with 64% (w/w meat, 17% (w/w binder (bread crumble, 12% (w/w ice, 4% (w/w vegetable oil, 2% (w/w salt, 1% (w/w spices (chili, black pepper, cardamom. Prepared samples were cooked in an 80 °C smoke house to a core temperature of 65 °C and cooled in cold water to 20-25 °C subsequently packed in polyethylene and stored in a freezer (-18 °C. The antimicrobial effect lysozyme was tested using Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The growth of these pathogens at 0, 3 and 5 days of storage of spore inoculation was determined. The antioxidant activity of lysozyme was determined using the TBARS value during the 25 d storage period. The redness (a*, lightness (L*, and yellowness (b* of sausages were analyzed using a Minolta color meter (CR 410, Konica Minolta Inc