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Sample records for card sort task

  1. Perspective Taking and Cognitive Flexibility in the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS) Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef; Aichhorn, Markus; Schmidhuber, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    In a study with 79 3-year-olds, we confirm earlier findings that separating the sorting dimensions improve children's performance on the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS) task. We also demonstrate that the central reason for this facilitation is that the two sorting dimensions are not integral features of a single object. Spatial separation…

  2. The dynamics of development on the Dimensional Change Card Sorting task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M.C.W. van Bers; I. Visser; T.J.P. van Schijndel; D.J. Mandell; M.E.J. Raijmakers

    2011-01-01

    A widely used paradigm to study cognitive flexibility in preschoolers is the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS) task. The developmental dynamics of DCCS performance was studied in a cross-sectional design (N = 93, 3 to 5 years of age) using a computerized version of the standard DCCS task. A mod

  3. Development of the Biology Card Sorting Task to Measure Conceptual Expertise in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Julia I.; Combs, Elijah D.; Nagami, Paul H.; Alto, Valerie M.; Goh, Henry G.; Gourdet, Muryam A. A.; Hough, Christina M.; Nickell, Ashley E.; Peer, Adrian G.; Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    There are widespread aspirations to focus undergraduate biology education on teaching students to think conceptually like biologists; however, there is a dearth of assessment tools designed to measure progress from novice to expert biological conceptual thinking. We present the development of a novel assessment tool, the Biology Card Sorting Task, designed to probe how individuals organize their conceptual knowledge of biology. While modeled on tasks from cognitive psychology, this task is un...

  4. Development of the Biology Card Sorting Task to Measure Conceptual Expertise in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia I.; Combs, Elijah D.; Nagami, Paul H.; Alto, Valerie M.; Goh, Henry G.; Gourdet, Muryam A. A.; Hough, Christina M.; Nickell, Ashley E.; Peer, Adrian G.; Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    There are widespread aspirations to focus undergraduate biology education on teaching students to think conceptually like biologists; however, there is a dearth of assessment tools designed to measure progress from novice to expert biological conceptual thinking. We present the development of a novel assessment tool, the Biology Card Sorting Task,…

  5. Improving Postswitch Performance in the Dimensional Change Card-Sorting Task: The Importance of the Switch and of Pretraining by Redescribing the Test Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The dimensional change card-sorting task (DCCS) is used to assess the executive abilities of young children. Typically, 3-year-olds have difficulty in performing this task. However, the exact nature of this difficulty is still being debated. In the standard DCCS, children need to sort, for example, test cards with a blue flower or a red car into…

  6. Automatic Shifts of Attention in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task: Subtle Changes in Task Materials Lead to Flexible Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Anna V.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments tested a hypothesis that reducing demands on executive control in a Dimensional Change Card Sort task will lead to improved performance in 3-year-olds. In Experiment 1, the shape dimension was represented by two dissimilar values ("stars" and "flowers"), and the color dimension was represented by two similar values ("red" and…

  7. Visual Scanning Patterns during the Dimensional Change Card Sorting Task in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cognitive flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been reported in previous literature. The present study explored ASD children’s visual scanning patterns during the Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS task using eye-tracking technique. ASD and typical developing (TD children completed the standardized DCCS procedure on the computer while their eye movements were tracked. Behavioral results confirmed previous findings on ASD children’s deficits in executive function. ASD children’s visual scanning patterns also showed some specific underlying processes in the DCCS task compared to TD children. For example, ASD children looked shorter at the correct card in the postswitch phase and spent longer time at blank areas than TD children did. ASD children did not show a bias to the color dimension as TD children did. The correlations between the behavioral performance and eye moments were also discussed.

  8. Executive function in young children and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): evidence from a nonverbal dimensional change card sort task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Tanaka, Masayuki; Itakura, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors compared chimpanzees' executive function with that of children. They developed a nonverbal dimensional change card sorting task, which indexed the development of executive function. Three pairs of mother and offspring chimpanzees and 30 typically developed 5-year-old children were presented with 2 target stimuli and a test stimulus comprising 2 dimensions (size and shape) on a display; they were required to sort the test stimulus according to 1 dimension (e.g., shape). After 5 consecutive correct trials, the participants had to sort the test stimulus according to the other dimension (e.g., size). The results showed that the chimpanzees often failed to sort the test stimuli according to the first and reversed dimensions. On the other hand, the children were correctly able to use both dimensions. These results indicate that chimpanzees may have less developed executive skills than children. PMID:21902004

  9. Dual routes to cognitive flexibility: learning and response-conflict resolution in the dimensional change card sort task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramscar, Michael; Dye, Melody; Gustafson, Jessica W; Klein, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control, the ability to align our actions with goals or context, is largely absent in children under four. How then are preschoolers able to tailor their behavior to best match the situation? Learning may provide an alternative route to context-sensitive responding. This study investigated this hypothesis in the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS), a classic test of cognitive control that most under-fours fail. A training intervention based on learning theoretic principles proved highly effective: Three-year-olds who learned about DCCS rules and game contexts in a card-labeling task, subsequently transferred this knowledge to sorting in the DCCS, passing at more than 3 times the rate of controls (N = 47). This surprising finding reveals much about the nature of the developing mind. PMID:23311677

  10. Preschool Children's Performance in Task Switching on the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task: Separating the Dimensions Aids the Ability to Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Adele; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Beck, Danielle M.

    2005-01-01

    Fifty-seven children (53% female) at 3 ages (2½, 3, and 3½ years) were tested on the standard Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) task with integrated stimuli (e.g., a red truck) and on a separated-dimensions version where colorless shapes were presented on a colored background (e.g., a black truck on a red background). Roughly twice as many children successfully switched sorting dimensions when color was a property of the background than when color was a property of the shape itself. Childre...

  11. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Affects Performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task during Provision of Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Ko

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Early functional neuroimaging studies of tasks evaluating executive processes, such as the Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST, only assessed trials in blocks that may contain a large amount of different cognitive processes. More recently, we showed using event-related fMRI that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC significantly increased activity during feedback but not matching periods of the WCST, consistent with its proposed role in the monitoring of information in working memory. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a method that allows to disrupt processing within a given cortical region and to affect task performance for which this region is significantly solicited. Here we applied rTMS to test the hypothesis that the DL-PFC stimulation influences monitoring of working memory without interfering with other executive functions. We applied rTMS to the right DL-PFC and the vertex (control site in different time points of the WCST. When rTMS was applied to the DL-PFC specifically during the period when subjects were receiving feedback regarding their previous response, WCST performance deteriorated, while rTMS did not affect performance during matching either when maintaining set or during set-shifting. This selective impairment of the DL-PFC is consistent with its proposed role in monitoring of events in working memory.

  12. Card Sorts, State Tests, and Meaningful Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvot, Jennifer B.; Benson, Sharon L. D.

    2008-01-01

    This article shares card-sorting activities that involve state-mandated test items to use with prospective and practicing mathematics teachers to teach about accountability measures while exploring reform-minded mathematics instruction recommendations. (Contains 2 figures.)

  13. Integration through a Card-Sort Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kris; Ricca, Bernard P.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to compute integrals via the various techniques of integration (e.g., integration by parts, partial fractions, etc.) is difficult for many students. Here, we look at how students in a college level Calculus II course develop the ability to categorize integrals and the difficulties they encounter using a card sort-resort activity. Analysis…

  14. A Comparison of Card-sorting Analysis Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how the choice of analysis method for card sorting studies affects the suggested information structure for websites. In the card sorting technique, a variety of methods are used to analyse the resulting data. The analysis of card sorting data helps user experience (UX...... the recurrent patterns found and thus has consequences for the resulting website design. This paper draws an attention to the choice of card sorting analysis and techniques and shows how it impacts the results. The research focuses on how the same data for card sorting can lead to different website structures...

  15. Guest Editorial: Card sort methodology: An objective measure in rehabilitation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham Jahrami, PhD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Card sort clinical tests such as the Wisconsin Card Sort Test and Activity Card Sort are well known in several clinical practices, including psychiatry, neurology, neuropsychology, and learning disabilities. However, card sort methodology is less famous as a research methodology. This editorial attempts to shed light on the novelty of the card sort methodology and its relevance to rehabilitation research.

  16. Guest Editorial: Card sort methodology: An objective measure in rehabilitation research

    OpenAIRE

    Haitham Jahrami, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Card sort clinical tests such as the Wisconsin Card Sort Test and Activity Card Sort are well known in several clinical practices, including psychiatry, neurology, neuropsychology, and learning disabilities. However, card sort methodology is less famous as a research methodology. This editorial attempts to shed light on the novelty of the card sort methodology and its relevance to rehabilitation research.

  17. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902

  18. Combining card sorts and in-depth interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, MNK

    2012-01-01

    Trust research invariably asks questions about sensitive issues, highlighting the need to build rapport and trust between the researcher and participant. It may also be necessary to ensure participants are not sensitized to the focus on trust. This chapter outlines the use of a card sort, concurrent with an in-depth interview to help overcome these issues.

  19. Empirical Approach to Interpreting Card-Sorting Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven F.; Dougherty, Daniel P.; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Since it was first published 30 years ago, the seminal paper of Chi "et al." on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [Cogn. Sci. 5 121 (1981)]. These studies frequently encompass "card-sorting" exercises whereby the participants group problems.…

  20. An empirical approach to interpreting card-sorting data

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Steven F; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Since it was first published 30 years ago, Chi et al.'s seminal paper on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [Chi et al. Cognitive Science 5, 121 - 152 (1981)]. These studies frequently encompass "card-sorting" exercises whereby the participants group problems. While this technique certainly allows insights into problem solving approaches, simple descriptive statistics more often than not fail to find significant differences between experts and novices. In moving beyond descriptive statistics, we describe a novel microscopic approach that takes into account the individual identity of the cards and uses graph theory and models to visualize, analyze, and interpreting problem categorization experiments. We apply these methods to an introductory physics (mechanics) problem categorization experiment, and find that most of the variation in sorting outcome is not due to the sorter being an expert versus a novice, b...

  1. Sorting out Ideas about Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Amy F.; Malik, LuAnn

    2013-01-01

    Card sorting has the potential to provide opportunities for exploration of a variety of topics and levels. In a card-sorting task, each participant is presented with a set of cards--each of which depicts a relationship--and is asked to sort the cards into categories that make sense to him or her. The concept of function is critical to…

  2. Card-Sorting Usability Tests of the WMU Libraries' Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the card-sorting techniques used by several academic libraries, reports and discusses the results of card-sorting usability tests of the Western Michigan University Libraries' Web site, and reveals how the WMU libraries incorporated the findings into a new Web site redesign, setting the design direction early on. The article…

  3. Empirical approach to interpreting card-sorting data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F. Wolf1,2,*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Since it was first published 30 years ago, the seminal paper of Chi et al. on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [ Cogn. Sci. 5 121 (1981]. These studies frequently encompass “card-sorting” exercises whereby the participants group problems. While this technique certainly allows insights into problem solving approaches, simple descriptive statistics more often than not fail to find significant differences between experts and novices. In moving beyond descriptive statistics, we describe a novel microscopic approach that takes into account the individual identity of the cards and uses graph theory and models to visualize, analyze, and interpret problem categorization experiments. We apply these methods to an introductory physics (mechanics problem categorization experiment, and find that most of the variation in sorting outcome is not due to the sorter being an expert versus a novice, but rather due to an independent characteristic that we named “stacker” versus “spreader.” The fact that the expert-novice distinction only accounts for a smaller amount of the variation may explain the frequent null results when conducting these experiments.

  4. Card Sorting as Collaborative Method for User-Driven Information Organizing on a Website: Recommendations for Running Collaborative Group Card Sorts in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Friis Bjerre

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Card sorting is an easy-to-use, quick, inexpensive, yet powerful usability method for information organizing on a website as it generates usable input directly from end-users as to how they would expect to find information on a website. When run collaboratively in groups, the discussion between the users about the content of the cards and their relatedness provides valuable insight into the users’ mental models. Focusing on epistemic asymmetry in the group discussion, this article highlights important issues which may affect the outcome of group card sorting. It is demonstrated that group card sorting demands great attention from the test manager in relation to the composition of the group, i.e. the number of users per group and the users’ educational level and formal organizational positions, in order to ensure a result that is representative of the group as a whole.

  5. Investigation of Biases and Compensatory Strategies Using a Probabilistic Variant of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Alexis B; Phillips, Matthew E; Zaldivar, Andrew; Bhattacharyya, Rajan; Krichmar, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) evaluates a subject's ability to shift to a new pattern of behavior in response to the presentation of unexpected negative feedback. The present study introduces a novel version of the traditional WCST by integrating a probabilistic component into its traditional rule shifting to add uncertainty to the task, as well as the option to forage for information during any particular trial. These changes transformed a task that is trivial for neurotypical individuals into a challenging environment useful for evaluating biases and compensatory strategizing. Sixty subjects performed the probabilistic WCST at four uncertainty levels to determine the effect of uncertainty on subject performance and strategy. Results revealed that increasing the level of uncertainty during a run of trials correlated with a reduction in rational strategizing in favor of both random choice and information foraging, evoking biases and suboptimal strategies such as satisfaction of search, negativity bias, and probability matching. PMID:26834686

  6. The role of audience participation and task relevance on change detection during a card trick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Smith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Magicians utilize many techniques for misdirecting audience attention away from the secret sleight of a trick. One technique is to ask an audience member to participate in a trick either physically by asking them to choose a card or cognitively by having them keep track of a card. While such audience participation is an established part of most magic the cognitive mechanisms by which it operates are unknown. Failure to detect changes to objects while passively viewing magic tricks has been shown to be conditional on the changing feature being irrelevant to the current task. How change blindness operates during interactive tasks is unclear but preliminary evidence suggests that relevance of the changing feature may also play a role (Triesch, Ballard, Hayhoe & Sullivan, 2003. The present study created a simple on-line card trick inspired by Triesch and colleagues’ (2003 that allowed playing cards to be instantaneously replaced without distraction or occlusion as participants were either actively sorting the cards (active condition or watching another person perform the task (passive conditions. Participants were given one of three sets of instructions. The relevance of the card color to the task increased across the three instructions. During half of the trials a card changed color (but retained its number as it was moving to the stack. Participants were instructed to immediately report such changes. Analysis of the probability of reporting a change revealed that actively performing the sorting task led to more missed changes than passively watching the same task but only when the changing feature was irrelevant to the sorting task. If the feature was relevant during either the pick-up or put-down action change detection was as good as during the passive block. These results confirm the ability of audience participation to create subtle dynamics of attention and perception during a magic trick and hide otherwise striking changes at the center of

  7. Participation in Occupational Performance: Reliability and Validity of the Activity Card Sort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Noomi; Karpin, Hanah; Lak, Arit; Furman, Tania; Hartman-Maeir, Adina

    2003-01-01

    A study assessed the reliability and validity of the Activity Card Sort (ACS) within different adult groups (n=263): healthy adults, healthy older adults, Alzheimer's caregivers, multiple sclerosis patients, and stroke survivors. Found that the ACS had high internal consistency for daily living and social-cultural activities and a lower…

  8. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Naglaa M; Tawfik, A; Marzok, Mohamed A; Khamis, Soheir M

    2015-11-01

    Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan. PMID:26644937

  9. HomesteadCreator:Using card sorting in search for culture-aware categorizations of interface objects

    OpenAIRE

    Rodil, Kasper; Rehm, Matthias; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

    2013-01-01

    Designing intuitive interfaces for rural African users requires us to understand the users' conceptual model. We acknowledge differences in categorization approaches based on cultural factors, among others. In the absence of comprehensive literature and theories, we explore card sorting as a means to derive a local categorization of interface objects for one of our prototypes. Results indicate a locational-relational categorization scheme among Herero elders in Namibia.

  10. A Comparison of Remediation Techniques on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jimmy; Kurtz, Matthew M.

    2008-01-01

    A wealth of evidence has revealed that deficits on a commonly used measure of executive-function, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), can be improved through a variety of methods of instruction in patients with schizophrenia. Relatively little is known however, which of these remediation methods produce strongest and most durable effects and whether these effects generalize to other, untrained executive-function measures. Two of the most commonly studied methods for remediation on the WCS...

  11. Cross Cultural Task Cards: Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jeanette; Carty, Elaine

    Twenty cross-cultural learning tasks focus on concepts developed through units on food, clothing, shelter, and natural resources. The tasks progress from simple to complex. They focus on concepts and vocabulary on culture, beginning with a discussion of housing and clothing and concluding with discussions on slavery and the Bill of Rights. Each…

  12. O Card Sorting no ensino de biblioteconomia: uma experiência em sala de aula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Oliveira Solano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo demonstra a experiência na aplicação da técnica do Card Sorting em sala de aula no âmbito de duas disciplinas da graduação em Biblioteconomia, na Escola de Ciência da Informação da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais: Modelagem conceitual a partir dos princípios de Ranganathan e Arquitetura de informação e acessibilidade digital. Foram utilizados os aportes da categorização no contexto da Organização da Informação, salientando elementos que subsidiam a discussão em torno do delineamento do Card Sorting. Percebeu-se que é importante o entendimento e domínio da técnica supracitada para os profissionais da informação atuarem no tratamento, categorização e organização da informação em ambientes informacionais digitais como também, na estruturação do fluxo navegacional nesses ambientes. Do ponto de vista do ensino de Biblioteconomia e Ciência da informação, a experiência mostrou o potencial de uma prática interdisciplinar, na execução de trabalhos integrativos e de parceria entre diferentes disciplinas.

  13. Pinpointing the Deficit in Executive Functions in Adolescents with Dyslexia Performing the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with dyslexia exhibit well-established impairments in executive abilities. The Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) is an executive test that yields surprisingly inconsistent results with this population. The current study aimed to shed light on the contradictory findings in the literature regarding the performance levels by individuals…

  14. The Relationship between Working Memory, Inhibition, and Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Children with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullane, Jennifer C.; Corkum, Penny V.

    2007-01-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has frequently been used to assess executive functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We first compared the performance of 15 children with ADHD to 15 children of a control group (age range 6 to 11) on the WCST and then examined the relationship among working memory,…

  15. Intellectual ability as a predictor of performance on the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Mark K; Whitaker, Ashley M; O'Callaghan, Erin T; Murray, Joan; Houskamp, Beth M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and executive functioning in youth. More specifically, the authors hypothesized that there would be a positive correlation between scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition General Ability Index (GAI) and understanding of sorting principles as measured by percent conceptual-level responses on the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST). One hundred eighty-five children and adolescents completed neuropsychological evaluations. Results revealed a curvilinear regression with bright youth (GAI = 115-129) and gifted youth (GAI ≥130) performing better than average youth (GAI = 90-114) and no difference in performance between bright and gifted youth. Additionally, post-hoc analyses revealed intelligence in children 5 to 8 years of age and 12 to 16 years of age did not significantly predict percent conceptual-level responses, while intelligence predicted more than 19% of the variance in percent conceptual-level responses for children ages 9 to 11 years old. Findings revealed new evidence about the role of intellectual ability in executive functioning among different age ranges and have important implications for psychologists, caregivers, educators, and other professionals working with this population. PMID:24083565

  16. Failure to identify an acute exercise effect on executive function assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Chih Wang; Chia-Hao Shih; Caterina Pesce; Tai-Fen Song; Tsung-Min Hung; Yu-Kai Chang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Acute exercise has been linked to the facilitation of executive function, but little is known regarding executive function assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The present research consisted of two experiments aimed to determine whether acute aerobic exercise influences successive WCST performance. Methods: In Study 1, 27 young adults were randomly assigned to the exercise or reading control group and then instructed to perform the WCST before and after assigned tre...

  17. A new category of “future planning” in the activity card sort: Continuity versus novelty in old age

    OpenAIRE

    Naor Demeter; Pola Weissman; Tsameret Ricon

    2013-01-01

    The Activity Card Sort (ACS) is a widely used measure for assessing participation in instrumental, leisure, and social-cultural activities. The ACS addresses previous and current activities but not future activity plans. The purpose of the study was to extend the ACS to include future planning. Previous research indicates that participation in activities and future planning is positively related to life satisfaction, and increased well-being and that these positive effects were most pronounc...

  18. Task Card Instruction: The Effect of Different Cue Sequences on Students' Learning in Tennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Madou, Bob; Elen, Jan; Behets, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In physical education, task cards are often used in student-centred learning models. Consequently, a better understanding of how to deliver effective instructions by means of task cards would make a contribution to the literature. In this study, 80 right-handed university students in kinesiology were randomized across three experimental conditions…

  19. Effects of asthma on stability of Wisconsin card sorting test measures A twin study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixiao Fu; Huaqing Meng; Hengshu Zhang; Lu Jia; Qinghua Luo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The four measures used to assess the stability of the Wisconsin card sorting test (WEST),that is,the number of preservative errors,percentage of preservative errors,number of categories completed,and the number of trials to complete the first category,reflect the function of the frontal lobe.OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to investigate the effects of asthma on the stability of WCST measurements through the use of a twin study,and to analyze whether egg-type difference exists.DESIGN:A cohort study.SETTING:Mental Health Center,the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University.PARTICIPANTS:Fifty-nine pairs of twins,aged 6-16 years,were primarily selected from schools between August 2005 and February 2007 and the WeST and Zygosity identification test was applied.Twins with achromatopsia,severe upper limb diseases,somatic diseases,or mental disorders were excluded.According to disease history of asthmatic attack,children were assigned into asthma(n=16)and non-asthma(n=43)groups.METHODS:Four WCST measurements were determined in the 59 pairs of twins,and egg-type differences were identified in conjunction.RESULTS:All 59 pairs of twins were included in the final analysis.Among the pairs of twins,28 (48.5%)were monozygotic twins,and 31(52%)were dizygotic twins.Among the monozygotic and dizygotic twins,the number of preservative errors and percentage of preservative errors were significantly higher in the asthma group than in the non-asthma group(P0.05).CONCLUSION:Asthma may affect the stability of WCST measures,but egg-type differences do not exist.

  20. Relationship between 99mTc-ECD SPECT images and performance of the Wisconsin card sorting test in healthy humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between 99mTc-ECD SPECT and performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in normal young and aged volunteers through the semi-quantitative analysis of the baseline and cognition activated rCBF images. Methods: 18 young and 17 aged volunteers were enrolled. The education level of the two groups was matched. All subjects were healthy and CT results of all the aged volunteers were normal. Both baseline and cognition activated 99mTc-ECD SPECT were performed on all the subjects. The cognition activated brain SPECT: The cognitive task was WCST. 1110 MBq 99mTc-ECD was administered by intravenous bolus injection 5 minutes after the onset of the WCST. The images were reconstructed and semiquantitatively analyzed. WCST were scored through 9 items: 1) period, 2) categories, 3) total corrects, 4) conceptual level (%), 5) perseverative responses, 6) total errors, 7) perseverative errors, 8) perseverative error (%), 9) non-perseverative errors. Results: 1) Compared with the baseline, the activated rCBF values of frontal, left temporal and left parietal lobes were higher in young subjects. 2) The activated rCBF values of right frontal lobe is slightly higher than those of baseline in aged group. 3) WCST scores: the young had significantly better scores than the aged in 7 items. 4) The baseline and activated rCBF values of the frontal lobes and anterior cingule were closely related to the scores of categories, perseverative responses, total errors and non-perseverative errors. Conclusions: 1) The distribution patterns of 99mTc-ECD are different between young and aged volunteers. 2) The performance of WCST mainly relates to frontal lobes. The mild hypoperfusion of the frontal lobe in aged group may be the cause of poor conceptual and thinking ability. 3) First found the significant correlation between anterior cingule and performance of WCST

  1. Making Sense of Iconic Symbols: A Study of Preschool Children Conducting a Refuse-Sorting Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta; Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth; Ottosson, Torgny; Beach, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This article is part of a larger project focusing upon explanatory illustrations that children encounter in pre- and primary school education. The research questions concerned (a) how preschool children make sense of iconic symbols when placing items of refuse on illustrations of refuse bins in a sorting task and (b) what stumbling blocks they…

  2. Card Sorting: noções sobre a técnica para teste e desenvolvimento de categorizações e vocabulários / Card Sorting: principles on a method to test and development of categorizations and vocabularies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marques de Faria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o Card Sorting, técnica de análise e organização de vocabulários controlados, e tem por finalidade explorar a relação dos usuários com o desenvolvimento de serviços de informação. A chave da utilização é a participação de usuários finais no processo, permitindo entender como eles categorizam as informações disponíveis num processo de busca, identificando qual terminologia é a mais usual, qual pode gerar confusões e que termos são mais difíceis de categorizar. Esta técnica pode ser utilizada em arquitetura da informação na definição de estruturas de web sites ou a criação de taxonomias e tesauros. É um método extremamente simples e barato, de grande flexibilidade, que permite uma grande interação entre bibliotecários e seu público. Existem duas formas básicas de Card Sorting a ‘aberta’ onde o usuário participa ativamente na sugestão do vocabulário e a ‘fechada’ onde é definida uma estrutura hierárquica lógica utilizando termos pré-definidos.

  3. Effects of Peer Mediated Instruction with Task Cards on Motor Skill Acquisition in Tennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Madou, Bob; Vergauwen, Lieven; Behets, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the motor skill effects of a peer teaching format by means of task cards with a teacher-centered format. Tennis performance of eighth grade students (n = 55) was measured before and after a four week intervention period in a regular physical education program. Results show that peer mediated learning with task cards…

  4. Forest, Trees, Dynamics: Results from a novel Wisconsin Card Sorting Test variant Protocol for Studying Global-Local Attention and Complex Cognitive Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eCowley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecognition of objects and their context relies heavily on the integrated functioning of global and local visual processing. In a realistic setting such as work, this processing becomes a sustained activity, implying a consequent interaction with executive functions.MotivationThere have been many studies of either global-local attention or executive functions; however it is relatively novel to combine these processes to study a more ecological form of attention. We aim to explore the phenomenon of global-local processing during a task requiring sustained attention and working memory.MethodsWe develop and test a novel protocol for global-local dissociation, with task structure including phases of divided ('rule search' and selective ('rule found' attention, based on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task.We test it in a laboratory study with 25 participants, and report on behaviour measures (physiological data was also gathered, but not reported here. We develop novel stimuli with more naturalistic levels of information and noise, based primarily on face photographs, with consequently more ecological validity.ResultsWe report behavioural results indicating that sustained difficulty when participants test their hypotheses impacts matching-task performance, and diminishes the global precedence effect. Results also show a dissociation between subjectively experienced difficulty and objective dimension of performance, and establish the internal validity of the protocol.ContributionWe contribute an advance in the state of the art for testing global-local attention processes in concert with complex cognition. With three results we establish a connection between global-local dissociation and aspects of complex cognition. Our protocol also improves ecological validity and opens options for testing additional interactions in future work.

  5. The effect of verbalization strategy on wisconsin card sorting test performance in schizophrenic patients receiving classical or atypical antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallaro Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of reports showed en encouraging remediation in some patients' executive deficits thanks to the use of 'information processing strategies'. Moreover the impact of antipsychotics on cognitive functions of the schizophrenics is an important issue, especially if an integrated psychosocial treatment is needed. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different executive performance and response to verbalization, a strategy of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST remediation, in subjects on classical vs atypical antipsychotic (AP treatment. Methods Sixty-three schizophrenic subjects undertook the WCST under standard and modified (verbalization administration. Subjects were stratified by the kind of WCST response (i.e. good, poor and remediable and AP treatment (i.e. atypical vs. classical. Results Subjects on atypical APs showed a better performance than those on classical ones. More poor performers who did not remediate were seen in the sample with classical Aps while subjects who remediated the performance were seen in the subgroup with atypical APs only. An increase of perseverative and total errors was seen in poor performers subjects on classical APs. Conclusion Subjects on atypicals showed a better cognitive pattern in terms of WCST performance. Since the naturalistic assignment of medication we cannot draw conclusions about its effect on cognitive performance and its interaction with cognitive remediation potential. However the data lead us to hypothesize that subjects with potential room for remediation did so with the atypical APs.

  6. Modulatory effects of psychopathy on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera-Guardiola, Vanessa; Batalla, Iolanda; Bosque, Javier; Kosson, David; Pifarré, Josep; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Goldberg, Ximena; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Menchón, José M; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Cardoner, Narcís

    2016-01-30

    Neuropsychological deficits in executive functions (EF) have been linked to antisocial behavior and considered to be cardinal to the onset and persistence of severe antisocial and aggressive behavior. However, when psychopathy is present, prior evidence suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is unaffected leading to intact EF. Ninety-one male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) and 24 controls completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). ASPD individuals were grouped in three categories according to Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scores (low, medium and high). We hypothesized that ASPD offenders with high PCL-R scores will not differ from healthy controls in EF and will show better EF performance in comparison with subjects with low PCL-R scores. Results showed that ASPD offenders with low PCL-R scores committed more perseverative errors and responses than controls and offenders with high PCL-R scores, which did not differ from healthy controls. Moreover, scores on Factor 1 and the interpersonal facet of the PCL-R were predictors of better WCST performance. Our results suggest a modulatory role of psychopathy in the cognitive performance of ASPD offenders, and provide further evidence supporting that offenders with ASPD and psychopathy are characterized by a cognitive profile different from those with ASPD without psychopathy. PMID:26708441

  7. The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Westwood, H.; D. Stahl; Mandy, W.; Tchanturia, K.

    2016-01-01

    Difficulties in set-shifting are commonly reported in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) populations. Despite this, it is not known whether this cognitive profile persists across different ages, or whether the profiles seen in ASD and AN are comparable. This systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to compare the set-shifting profiles, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in adults and younger people with either ASD or AN, relative to healthy contr...

  8. The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Westwood, H.; D. Stahl; Mandy, W.; Tchanturia, K.

    2016-01-01

    Difficulties in set-shifting are commonly reported in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) populations. Despite this, it is not known whether this cognitive profile persists across different ages, or whether the profiles seen in ASD and AN are comparable. This systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to compare the set-shifting profiles, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in adults and younger people with either ASD or AN, relative to healthy contr...

  9. Brief Report: Performance on the Dimensional Change Card Sort and Backward Digit Span by young children with autism without intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Faja, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    The early development of executive function (EF) and its relation to autism symptom expression is of considerable theoretical interest, particularly in children without general cognitive delay. Executive function was tested in 23 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without intellectual disability and 20 age- and IQ-matched typically developing children. Even though performance was equivalent between the two groups on tests of general intelligence, flexibility in card sorting was low...

  10. Executive function assessment in patients with subcortical cerebral infarction using the Trail Making Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess executive function in patients with subcortical cerebral infarctions, we implemented a Trail Making Test (TMT) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). We recruited 19 patients who had subcortical cerebral infarction on magnetic resonance images (MRI). The patients were classified into two categories depending on the degree of deep white matter hyperintensity (DWMH) on MRI. On comparing MRI and pathological findings, the punctate DWMH was not associated with infarction, but large confluent DWMH suggests subcortical ischemia. On this basis, the low grade DWMH group consisted of 12 patients with punctate foci, and seven patients with large confluent areas were classified in the high grade DWMH group. All patients were right-handed and without symptomatic hemiparesis. To exclude demented patients, cognitive function was examined. The vascular lesions were confirmed by brain magnetic resonance angiography and ultrasonography of the carotid arteries, and we excluded patients with severe stenotic or occlusive vascular lesions in cerebral or carotid arteries. On TMT, we analyzed the time required for Part A and Part B, and the difference in time required (required time difference). We also subtracted the time required for Part A form that required for Part B. To exclude the influence of potential hemiparesis, we also calculated the time required ratio expressed as follows; time required for Part B/time required for Part A. There was no significant increase in the time required for Part A, but we found significant increase in the time required for Part B, the required time difference and the required time ratio in the high grade DWMH group. There was no significant difference on WCST. On pathological examination in normal elderly subjects, punctate foci can be found, but not large confluent DWMH. In this study, we found that patients with severe DWMH may have impaired executive functions. These results might be induced by the pathological features of subcortical

  11. A Meta-analysis of the Wisconsin Card Sort Task in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Oriane; Al-Taie, Shems

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 31 studies, spanning 30 years, utilizing the WCST in participants with autism. We calculated Cohen's d effect sizes for four measures of performance: sets completed, perseveration, failure-to-maintain-set, and non-perseverative errors. The average weighted effect size ranged from 0.30 to 0.74 for each measure, all statistically greater than 0. No evidence was found for reduced impairment when WCST is administered by computer. Age and PIQ predicted perseverative error rates, while VIQ predicted non-perseverative error rates, and both perseverative and non-perseverative error rates in turn predicted number of sets completed. No correlates of failure-to-maintain set errors were found; further research is warranted on this aspect of WCST performance in autism. PMID:26614085

  12. A simulated reality scenario compared with the computerized Wisconsin card sorting test: an analysis of preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, J S; Rubin, E; Rosenthal, S; Skoff, B; Prather, P

    2001-08-01

    Neuropsychologists and other clinicians often comment on the minimal relationship that frequently exists between formal assessments of executive functions, analysis of findings, recommendations, and the person's real-life functioning. The authors' believe that current assessments of executive functions do not transfer easily to real-world behavior. There are limitations in the current examinations and in the settings in which they are given. The tests are artificial and the test settings lack the usual stresses, distractions, and multiple demands common to real life. The interactions are unlike what they experience in everyday life. The examiner often, but unintentionally orients the participant to relevant information that in turn can help the person compensate for the difficulties with executive control processes and bias the findings. We believe that virtual reality (VR) more closely approximates real life settings, the distractions, and the common interchanges (VR) provides a "life-like," three-dimensional (3-D) highly interactive environment, and safety from potential dangers that could arise in actual situations. VR can increase motivation because of its gaming, interactive, and immersive qualities and features are easily modified and allow for multiple applications. Our goal is to develop VR assessments that can be administered under controlled and safe conditions, but which are more sensitive to difficulties with executive control processes critical to safe, independent living. This initial study compares several functions assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) with our three-dimensional, stereographic scenario, Look for a Match (LFAM) Study participants completed questionnaires, alternately began with either the WCST or LFAM, and then took the second test. All participants completed motion sickness and follow-up questionnaires. The results demonstrated that the study participants found LFAM to be more enjoyable and interesting, but found the

  13. Iowa Gambling Task with non-clinical participants: Effects of using real + virtual cards and additional trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H Overman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT in clinical populations can be interpreted only in relation to established base line performance in normal populations. As in all comparisons of assessment tools, the normal base line must reflect performance under conditions in which subjects can function at their best levels. In this review, we show that a number of variables enhance IGT performance in non-clinical participants. First, optimal performance is produced by having participants turn over real cards while viewing virtual cards on a computer screen. The use of only virtual cards results in significantly lower performance than the combination of real + virtual cards. Secondly, administration of more than 100 trials also enhances performance. When using the real/virtual card procedure, performance is shown to significantly increase from early adolescence through young adulthood. Under these conditions young (mean age 19 years and older (mean age 59 years adults perform equally. Females, as a group, score lower than males because females tend to choose cards from high-frequency-of-gain Deck B. Groups of females with high or low gonadal hormones perform equally. Concurrent tasks, e.g., presentation of aromas, decrease performance in males. Age and gender effects are discussed in terms of a dynamic between testosterone and orbital prefrontal cortex.

  14. Card sorting, test d'oculométrie et test d'utilisabilité sur le site web du Service d'information scientifique du CERN

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, Alizée; Schilt, Arnaud van; Schneider, René

    2016-01-01

    Ce travail de Bachelor a pour objectif l’évaluation du site web du Service d’information scientifique du CERN. Cette évaluation est basée sur les méthodes utilisées en User Centered Design (UCD). Pour effectuer cette évaluation, nous avons sélectionné trois tests : un card sorting, un test d’oculométrie et un test d’utilisabilité. Selon la norme ISO 9241-11 :1998, l’utilisabilité se définit par « le degré selon lequel un produit peut être utilisé, par des utilisateurs identifiés, pour atteind...

  15. Reciprocal Peer Learning with Task Cards: Analysis of Behaviour and Verbal Interactions in Structured and Unstructured Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is a part of a larger research project where the effect of instructional guidance in terms of role definition and role switching was investigated on students' learning of Basic Life Support (BLS) during a 20-minute reciprocal learning episode with task cards. BLS is a lifesaving skill consisting of nine sub skills to be…

  16. Brief report: cognitive flexibility and focused attention in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism as measured on the computerized version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaland, Nils; Smith, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    ,6) on the computerized version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The participants in the AS/HFA group performed less well than the controls on all categories of the WCST, but the differences did not reach conventional statistical significance on most categories of the WCST. On the category failure to maintain...

  17. An Optimal Sorting of Pulse Amplitude Sequence Based on the Phased Array Radar Beam Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Sheng∗,Yongshun Zhang; Wenlong Lu

    2016-01-01

    The study of phased array radar ( PAR) pulse amplitude sequence characteristics is the key to understand the radar’s working state and its beam’s scanning manner. According to the principle of antenna pattern formation and the searching and tracking modes of beams, this paper analyzes the characteristics and differences of pulse amplitude sequence when the radar beams work in searching and tracking modes respectively. Then an optimal sorting model of pulse amplitude sequence is established based on least⁃squares and curve⁃fitting methods. This method is helpful for acquiring the current working state of the radar and recognizing its instantaneous beam pointing by sorting the pulse amplitude sequence without the necessity to estimate the antenna pattern.

  18. Hemodynamic and affective correlates assessed during performance on the Columbia card task (CCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holper, Lisa; Murphy, Ryan O

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to test the potential of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in combination with electrodermal activity (EDA) in a decision paradigm by means of the Columbia card task (CCT). The CCT is a dynamic decision task characterized by assessing subjects' risk-taking via eliciting voluntary stopping points in a series of incrementally increasingly risky choices. Using the combined fNIRS-EDA approach, we aim to examine the hemodynamic and affective correlates of both decision and outcome responses during performance on the CCT. Twenty healthy subjects completed the Cold and Hot CCT version while fNIRS over prefrontal cortex and EDA were recorded. Results showed that (1) in the decision phase fNIRS revealed larger total hemoglobin concentration changes [tHb] in the Cold as compared to the Hot CCT, whereas EDA revealed an opposite pattern with larger skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the Hot as compared to the Cold CCT. (2) No significant [tHb] signals or SCRs were found in the outcome phase. (3) Coherence calculations between fNIRS and EDA in the heart rate frequency showed a significant increase during the Hot as compared to the Cold CCT. Our findings designate fNIRS as suitable tool for monitoring decision-making processes. The combination of fNIRS and EDA demonstrates the potential of simultaneously assessing the interaction between hemodynamic and affective responses which can provide additional information concerning the relationship between these two physiological systems for various research areas. PMID:24242358

  19. Failure to identify an acute exercise effect on executive function assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chih Wang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute aerobic exercise failed to influence executive function as assessed by the WCST, revealing that this classical neuropsychological test tapping executive function may not be sensitive to acute exercise. Our findings suggest that acute exercise does not broadly affect the entire family of executive functions, or its effect on a specific aspect of executive function may be task-dependent, as proposed by Etnier and Chang (2009.

  20. The Utility of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Differential Diagnosis of Cognitive Disorders in Iranian Psychiatric Patients and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Hashemi, MA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Wisconsin Test Card Sorting Test (WCST is a neuropsychological test that has been suggested as a more specific test for frontal lobes dysfunctions. This study was designed to determine whether WCST is able to differentiate between Iranian psychiatric patients with cognitive disorders and normal subjects, and whether WCST scores are related to severity of symptoms in depressive and schizophrenic patients.Method: Participants were four groups: schizophrenics with positive symptoms (n=25; schizophrenics with negative symptoms (n=25; major depressives (n=25; and normal subjects (n=25. All subjects were tested individually using WCST. To analyze the data, various descriptive statistics, ANOVA, t-test and multiple regression analysis were used.Results: Regarding the number of categories (P<0.001 and the rate of perseverative errors (P<0.01, according to the results, the normal subjects performed significantly better than patient groups on WCST, although the differences between patient groups were not significant. Our results also showed that greater positive or depressive symptoms were not associated with poorer scores on WCST performance. Only the level of severity of negative symptoms predicted scores on perseverative errors.Conclusion: It is concluded that WCST can differentiate Iranian psychiatric patients with cognitive disorders from normal subjects, but it is not able to clearly differentiate schizophrenic patients with negative symptoms from those with positive symptoms and depressives. Only severity of negative symptoms affects WCST performance

  1. Card sorting, test d’oculométrie et test d’utilisabilité sur le site web du Service d’information scientifique du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Marchand, Alizée; Schneider, René

    Ce travail de Bachelor a pour objectif l’évaluation du site web du Service d’information scientifique du CERN. Cette évaluation est basée sur les méthodes utilisées en User Centered Design (UCD). Pour effectuer cette évaluation, nous avons sélectionné trois tests : un card sorting, un test d’oculométrie et un test d’utilisabilité. Selon la norme ISO 9241-11 :1998, l’utilisabilité se définit par « le degré selon lequel un produit peut être utilisé, par des utilisateurs identifiés, pour atteindre les buts définis avec efficacité, efficience et satisfaction, dans un contexte d’utilisation spécifié ». Les tests que nous avons réalisés nous ont permis d’identifier les problèmes d’utilisabilité du site du Service, en nous appuyant sur les caractéristiques d’utilisabilité définies dans cette norme. Pour ce faire, nous avons élaboré les tests en nous basant sur les pratiques utilisées par les spécialistes en UCD. Nous avons ensuite proposé à des employés du CERN, ...

  2. Correlación entre los puntajes del Wisconsin Card Sorting Test y la actividad electroncefalográfica en mujeres en la posmenopausia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Solís-Ortiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue correlacionar los puntajes obtenidos en la ejecución de la prueba Wisconsin Card Sorting Test con las medidas de la actividad electroencefalográfica (EEG en 48 mujeres entre 48 y 65 años de edad en la posmenopausia. La actividad EEG fue registrada en reposo en F3, F4, F7, F8, FC3, FC4, C3, C4, CP3, CP4, P3, P4, O1, O2, FT7, FT8, Fz, Cz, CPz, Pz y Oz. Se obtuvo la potencia de delta, theta, alfa1, alfa2, beta1 y beta2 y se correlacionaron con el número de categorías completadas, cartas presentadas, errores cometidos, errores perseverativos, número de ensayos y errores a las categorías de la prueba. La banda de beta2 se correlacionó positivamente con el número de categorías completadas (p = 0.04 y negativamente con el número de errores perseverativos (p = 0.03 y con el número de errores cometidos (p = 0.03. Estos resultados indican que un estado de activación cortical de frecuencias rápidas es necesario para ejecutar exitosamente pruebas que involucren funciones ejecutivas en mujeres con bajos niveles de estrógenos debidos a la posmenopausia.

  3. Matching worker skills to job tasks in the Netherlands: Sorting into cities for better careers

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Matches between workers and jobs are better in thick labour markets than in thin ones. This CPB Discussion Paper measures match quality by the gap between worker skills and their job tasks in the Netherlands. The smaller the gap, the better the match between skills and tasks. The measured gaps are 14 percent of a standard deviation smaller in cities than in the Dutch countryside. The location of work explains the observed higher quality of matches, while the location of residence does not. Ro...

  4. The role of audience participation and task relevance on change detection during a card trick

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tim J.

    2015-01-01

    Magicians utilize many techniques for misdirecting audience attention away from the secret sleight of a trick. One technique is to ask an audience member to participate in a trick either physically by asking them to choose a card or cognitively by having them keep track of a card. While such audience participation is an established part of most magic the cognitive mechanisms by which it operates are unknown. Failure to detect changes to objects while passively viewing magic tricks has been sh...

  5. The set-shifting profiles of anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, H; Stahl, D; Mandy, W; Tchanturia, K

    2016-07-01

    Difficulties in set-shifting are commonly reported in both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) populations. Despite this, it is not known whether this cognitive profile persists across different ages, or whether the profiles seen in ASD and AN are comparable. This systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to compare the set-shifting profiles, as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in adults and younger people with either ASD or AN, relative to healthy controls (HCs) and to statistically compare performance on the WCST between ASD and AN. In all, 24 studies on ASD and 22 studies on AN were identified. In ASD, there were significant differences between the clinical group and HCs, with the ASD group making significantly more perseverative errors, indicating greater difficulty in set-shifting [pooled effect size of d = 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53-0.81, p ⩽ 0.001]. This effect was consistent across the age span. For AN studies, there was a significant difference between adults with AN and HCs (d = 0.52, 95% CI 0.36-0.68, p ⩽ 0.001) but a non-significant effect in child studies (d = 0.25, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.55, z = 1.66, p = 0.096). Meta-regression indicated no effect of diagnosis (AN or ASD) on performance in adult studies but there was a non-significant trend (p = 0.053) towards children with ASD performing worse than children with AN. While difficulties with set-shifting appear to be stable in ASD, there may be differences between children and adults with AN, which warrant further investigation. PMID:27109830

  6. Job Analysis Techniques for Restructuring Health Manpower Education and Training in the Navy Medical Department. Attachment 11. Pharmacy QPCB Task Sort for Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technomics, Inc., McLean, VA.

    This publication is Attachment 11 of a set of 16 computer listed QPCB task sorts, by career level, for the entire Hospital Corps and Dental Technician fields. Statistical data are presented in tabular form for a detailed listing of job duties in pharmacy. (BT)

  7. Dual Routes to Cognitive Flexibility: Learning and Response-Conflict Resolution in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramscar, Michael; Dye, Melody; Gustafson, Jessica W.; Klein, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control, the ability to align our actions with goals or context, is largely absent in children under four. How then are preschoolers able to tailor their behavior to best match the situation? Learning may provide an alternative route to context-sensitive responding. This study investigated this hypothesis in the Dimensional Change Card…

  8. Setting Goals to Switch between Tasks: Effect of Cue Transparency on Children's Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Blaye, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments examined the difficulty of translating cues into verbal representations of task goals by varying the degree of cue transparency (auditory transparent cues, visual transparent cues, visual arbitrary cues) in the Advanced Dimensional Change Card Sort, which requires switching between color- and shape-sorting rules on the basis of…

  9. Cognitive Bias in Spider Fear and Control Children: Assessment of Emotional Interference by a Card Format and a Single-Trial Format of the Stroop Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Merel; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Attempted to clarify whether fear is related to distorted cognitive processing of fear-related information. Administered card and single-trial formats of Stroop task to spider-fearing and control children. Found bias for spider words in both, regardless of format; further, processing biases assessed by the formats did not correlate, suggesting…

  10. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum disorder."…

  11. Sorting Out Sorts

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan B. Berk

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the theoretical implications of sorting data into groups and then running asset pricing tests within each group. We show that the way this procedure is implemented introduces a severe bias in favor of rejecting the model under consideration. By simply picking enough groups to sort into even the true asset pricing model can be shown to have no explanatory power within each group.

  12. Replication Improves Sorting-Task Results Analyzed by DISTATIS in a Consumer Study of American Bourbon and Rye Whiskeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahne, Jacob; Collins, Thomas S; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2016-05-01

    In consumer food-sensory studies, sorting and closely related methods (for example, projective mapping) have often been applied to large product sets which are complex and fatiguing for panelists. Analysis of sorting by Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) is common, but this method discards relevant individual decisions; analysis by DISTATIS, which accounts for individual differences, is gaining acceptance. This research posits that replication can improve DISTATIS analysis by stabilizing consumer sensory maps, which are often extremely unstable. As a case study a fatiguing product set was sorted: 10 American whiskeys-5 bourbons and 5 ryes-were sorted into groups by 21 consumers over 2 replications. These products were chosen because American whiskeys are some of the most important distilled beverages in today's market; in particular, "bourbon" (mashbill more than 50% corn) and "rye" (more than 50% rye) whiskeys are important and assumed to be products with distinct sensory attributes. However, there is almost no scientific information about their sensory properties. Data were analyzed using standard and aggregated DISTATIS and MDS. No significant relationship between mashbill and consumer categorization in whiskeys was found; instead, there was evidence of producer and aging effects. aggregated DISTATIS was found to provide more stable results than without replication, and DISTATIS results provided a number of benefits over MDS, including bootstrapped confidence intervals for product separation. In addition, this is the first published evidence that mashbill does not determine sensory properties of American whiskey: bourbons and ryes, while legally distinct, were not separated by consumers. PMID:27088440

  13. Lucid dreaming and ventromedial versus dorsolateral prefrontal task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neider, Michelle; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Forselius, Erica; Pittman, Brian; Morgan, Peter T

    2011-06-01

    Activity in the prefrontal cortex may distinguish the meta-awareness experienced during lucid dreams from its absence in normal dreams. To examine a possible relationship between dream lucidity and prefrontal task performance, we carried out a prospective study in 28 high school students. Participants performed the Wisconsin Card Sort and Iowa Gambling tasks, then for 1 week kept dream journals and reported sleep quality and lucidity-related dream characteristics. Participants who exhibited a greater degree of lucidity performed significantly better on the task that engages the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (the Iowa Gambling Task), but degree of lucidity achieved did not distinguish performance on the task that engages the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (the Wisconsin Card Sort Task), nor did it distinguish self-reported sleep quality or baseline characteristics. The association between performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and lucidity suggests a connection between lucid dreaming and ventromedial prefrontal function. PMID:20829072

  14. Set Shifting Training with Categorization Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Soveri; Otto Waris; Matti Laine

    2013-01-01

    The very few cognitive training studies targeting an important executive function, set shifting, have reported performance improvements that also generalized to untrained tasks. The present randomized controlled trial extends set shifting training research by comparing previously used cued training with uncued training. A computerized adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test was utilized as the training task in a pretest-posttest experimental design involving three groups of university s...

  15. Job Analysis Techniques for Restructuring Health Manpower Education and Training in the Navy Medical Department. Attachment 4. Clinic QPCB Task Sort for Clinical Physician Assistants--Dermatology, ENT, Opththalmology, Orthopedics, and Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technomics, Inc., McLean, VA.

    This publication is Attachment 4 of a set of 16 computer listed QPCB task sorts, by career level, for the entire Hospital Corps and Dental Technician fields. Statistical data are presented in tabular form for a detailed listing of job duties for clinical physician assistants. (BT)

  16. Attention as a Cueing Function during Kindergarten Children's Dimensional Change Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldren, Jeffrey T.; Colombo, John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to test whether shift flexibility in kindergarten children is a joint function of rule-usage and inhibition of attention. Sixty-six children were given either a distraction or facilitation condition in a computerized version of the dimensional change card sort task. In the distraction condition, the background of…

  17. Christmas cards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国勤

    2002-01-01

    Every December,millions of Christmas cards go through the post offices.There're pictures of stars,snow or Christmas tree on the cards. In these days it's hard to think of a Christmas without cards,yet 150 years ago there were no cards at all.Here's jus! one story about the Christmas cards.Some boys of those days who were at boarding school had to write a special piece of English at Christmas time。

  18. Card Reader

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Xinzhen

    2012-01-01

    Huo Haizhong,a farmer in Zhuning Village,Shanxi Province,holds a special card in his hand,a card that will help his future.It's not a credit card,nor a debit card or spccial membership-it's a farmer's card,a large note card where Huo records informarion about crop yield,farm animals and his family's income.It's also a place where Huo can jot down problems on his farm and make suggestions to the local government.The farmer's card is being promoted across Zuoquan County.The county began promoting the card in 2008 on a trial basis,and now all 204 villages under its administration have introduced the card.

  19. The scaling behavior of hand motions reveals self-organization during an executive function task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Jason R.; Stephen, Damian G.; Dixon, James A.

    2011-05-01

    Recent approaches to cognition explain cognitive phenomena in terms of interaction-dominant dynamics. In the current experiment, we extend this approach to executive function, a construct used to describe flexible, goal-oriented behavior. Participants were asked to perform a widely used executive function task, card sorting, under two conditions. In one condition, participants were given a rule with which to sort the cards. In the other condition, participants had to induce the rule from experimenter feedback. The motion of each participant’s hand was tracked during the sorting task. Detrended fluctuation analysis was performed on the inter-point time series using a windowing strategy to capture changes over each trial. For participants in the induction condition, the Hurst exponent sharply increased and then decreased. The Hurst exponents for the explicit condition did not show this pattern. Our results suggest that executive function may be understood in terms of changes in stability that arise from interaction-dominant dynamics.

  20. 基于半带滤波分块采样的计算任务排序算法%Computing Task Sorting Algorithm Based on Half Band Filter Sub Block Sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩霞

    2015-01-01

    在计算机信息管理中,需要对计算任务按优先级或复杂度进行优化排序,实现计算效益优化.研究云计算信息系统中的计算任务优化排序算法,提高数据管理和调度的效率.传统方法采用子带合成滤波方法进行任务排序,计算开销和执行时效性方面性能不好,提出一种基于带滤波分块采样的计算任务排序算法.计算在整个计算机信息管理基站的每个站点的合计成本,根据信息匹配相关度进行资源搜索,计算任务分配时半滤波分块采样的收敛函数,得到基于半滤波分块采样的任务排序二元假设检验分配模型,实现任务优先级排序优化.仿真结果表明,采用该算法对云计算信息系统中的计算任务进行排序,能有效准确地确定计算任务的优先级,减少任务冲突,提高任务执行效率,在计算机信息管理和任务分配中具有较高应用价值.%In computer information management, the need for computing tasks according to priority or complexity of the opti-mized sorting, realize the calculation efficiency optimization. The research of cloud computing optimization algorithm of computing tasks in information system, improve the efficiency of data management and scheduling. The traditional method is using the sub-band synthesis filter method for task sequencing, the computation and the execution time of the perfor-mance is not good, put forward a sort of computing tasks with filtering algorithm based on block sampling. In the calculation of total cost of each site of the whole computer information management of base station, according to the information match-ing of resources search, calculation convergence function is assigned half filter block sampling, get the distribution sort half filter block sampling of two element hypothesis test model based on task priority scheduling optimization, implementation. The simulation results show that, the cloud computing tasks in information systems are

  1. Priority sorting approach of maintenance task during mission based on Back-Propagation neural networks%基于BP神经网络的维修任务优先级分类方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕学志; 范保新; 尹建; 王宪文

    2014-01-01

    在任务执行期合理、科学地确定维修任务的优先级别对于有序、高效地组织维修保障活动具有重要意义。提出了一种基于BP神经网络的维修任务优先级分类方法。详细介绍了神经网络模型的建模过程,其中重点介绍了模型设计,包括输入数据准备、输出数据准备与神经网络结构。所建立的神经网络模型通过对输入与输出的训练,可以学习准则与维修任务优先级之间的复杂关系,获得并表示决策者的偏好,有效地辅助决策者对维修任务优先级进行分类。%During mission, determining priority categories of maintenance task rationally and scientifically is valuable to effectiveness and efficiency of maintenance support. A priority sorting approach of maintenance task during mission based on BP neural networks is proposed. Modeling process of neural networks model is discussed in detail, and it focuses on model design that includes input data preparation, output data preparation and neural networks structure. Through training of input and output, established neural networks can learn complex relationship between criteria and priority of mainte-nance tasks, obtain preference of decision makers, help decision maker sort maintenance tasks according to their priority.

  2. Monitoring supports performance in a dual-task paradigm involving a risky decision-making task and a working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eGathmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Performing two cognitively demanding tasks at the same time is known to decrease performance. The current study investigates the underlying executive functions of a dual-tasking situation involving the simultaneous performance of decision making under explicit risk and a working memory task. It is suggested that making a decision and performing a working memory task at the same time should particularly require monitoring - an executive control process supervising behavior and the state of processing on two tasks. To test the role of a supervisory/monitoring function in such a dual-tasking situation we investigated 122 participants with the Game of Dice Task plus 2-back task (GDT plus 2-back task. This dual task requires participants to make decisions under risk and to perform a 2-back working memory task at the same time. Furthermore, a task measuring a set of several executive functions gathered in the term concept formation (Modified Card Sorting Test, MCST and the newly developed Balanced Switching Task (BST, measuring monitoring in particular, were used. The results demonstrate that concept formation and monitoring are involved in the simultaneous performance of decision making under risk and a working memory task. In particular, the mediation analysis revealed that BST performance partially mediates the influence of MCST performance on the GDT plus 2-back task. These findings suggest that monitoring is one important subfunction for superior performance in a dual-tasking situation including decision making under risk and a working memory task.

  3. Derivation of sorting programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Joseph; Loganantharaj, Rasiah

    1990-01-01

    Program synthesis for critical applications has become a viable alternative to program verification. Nested resolution and its extension are used to synthesize a set of sorting programs from their first order logic specifications. A set of sorting programs, such as, naive sort, merge sort, and insertion sort, were successfully synthesized starting from the same set of specifications.

  4. Wallet Card

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Information Products and Data Analysis, OIPDA, produces the CMS Wallet Card as a quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and...

  5. Smart Card

    OpenAIRE

    Floarea NASTASE

    2006-01-01

    Reforms in electronic business have presented new opportunities to use smart card technology as an enabling tool. The network-centric applications, where resources are located throughout the Internet and access to them is possible from any location, require authenticated access and secured transactions. Smart cards represent an ideal solution: they offers an additional layer of electronic security and information assurance for user authentication, confidentiality, non-repudiation, information...

  6. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  7. k -Bitonic sort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高庆狮; 胡玥; 刘志勇

    1999-01-01

    A k-bitonic sort which generalizes the bitonic sort is proposed. The theorem of the bitonic sort, which merges two monotonic sequences into one order sequence, is extended into the theorem of k-bitonic sort. The k-bitonic sort merges K (=2k or 2k-1) monotonic sequences into one order sequence in steps, where k=[K/2] is an integer and k≥1. The k-bitonic sort is the Batcher’s bitonic sort when k=1.

  8. Avi Sorting Network

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Bansal; Kamal Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Sorting network is an abstract mathematical modelwhich can be used as a multiple-input, multiple-output switchingnetwork to sort the data in ascending or descending order [1].Sorting has been one of the most critical applications on parallelcomputing machines. Many classic textbooks on algorithms likeThomas H. Cormen, therefore consider this problem in greatdetail and list many sorting network for this purpose [2]. Thereare many sorting algorithms as the Bubble / Insertion sorter,Odd-Even sor...

  9. Avi Sorting Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Bansal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorting network is an abstract mathematical modelwhich can be used as a multiple-input, multiple-output switchingnetwork to sort the data in ascending or descending order [1].Sorting has been one of the most critical applications on parallelcomputing machines. Many classic textbooks on algorithms likeThomas H. Cormen, therefore consider this problem in greatdetail and list many sorting network for this purpose [2]. Thereare many sorting algorithms as the Bubble / Insertion sorter,Odd-Even sorter, Sort the data in O(log2 n2 time complexity andsome other sorter have O(n2 as time complexity, where n is thenumber of elements. In this paper we propose a sorting networkcalled “Avi S orter” having time complexity O(n log2 n which isbased on just similar to bubble sort algorithm. This sortingnetwork provides the easy way to understand and manipulate theconcept of sorting network.

  10. Smart Cards and Card Operating Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Jong, de Eduard K.

    1996-01-01

    The operating system of an IC card should provide an appropriate interface to applications using IC cards. An incorrect choice of operations and data renders the card inefficient and cumbersome. The design principles of the UNIX operating system are most appropriate for IC card operating system desi

  11. What is a Sorting Function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    What is a sorting function—not a sorting function for a given ordering relation, but a sorting function with nothing given? Formulating four basic properties of sorting algorithms as defining requirements, we arrive at intrinsic notions of sorting and stable sorting: A function is a sorting funct...

  12. Roterende sorte huller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerslev, Kristian

    Sorte huller har normalt været anset som statiske, mens alle andre legemer i Universet roterer. Dette stemmer imidlertid ikke overens med den nylige opdagelse af et roterende sort hul i midten af galaksen NGC 1365. Hvilken effekt har rotationen af et sort hul på legemer i dets nærhed, og hvordan...... kan astronomer i det hele taget måle, at sorte huller roterer?...

  13. Smart Cards and Card Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Jong, de, J.

    1996-01-01

    The operating system of an IC card should provide an appropriate interface to applications using IC cards. An incorrect choice of operations and data renders the card inefficient and cumbersome. The design principles of the UNIX operating system are most appropriate for IC card operating system design. The actual design that we recognise as UNIX (or any other current operating system for that matter) is not appropriate for IC cards.

  14. Sorting Algorithms with Restrictions

    CERN Document Server

    Aslanyan, Hakob

    2011-01-01

    Sorting is one of the most used and well investigated algorithmic problem [1]. Traditional postulation supposes the sorting data archived, and the elementary operation as comparisons of two numbers. In a view of appearance of new processors and applied problems with data streams, sorting changed its face. This changes and generalizations are the subject of investigation in the research below.

  15. CREDIT CARD FRAUD

    OpenAIRE

    Lăcrămioara BALAN; POPESCU, MIHAI

    2011-01-01

    Credit card fraud is the misuse of a credit card to make purchases without authorization or counterfeiting a credit card. Credit cards are the most often used electronic payment instrument. Types of credit card fraud are: online credit card fraud, advance payments, stolen card numbers, shave and paste, de-emboss/re-emboss etc. If current growth rates continue, credit cards and debit cards will each exceed the number of paid checks before the end of the decade. As the industry continues to exp...

  16. Optimal Payment Cards Fees

    OpenAIRE

    Assaf Eilat

    2007-01-01

    Credit card rebates, which are paid to all credit card users regardless of borrowing, have grown substantially. This paper analyzes this phenomenon by comparing the socially and privately optimal interchange fees in debit and credit cards. Compared to debit cards, credit cards raise efficiency by allowing convenient borrowing, but also tax nonholders in order to finance the rebates paid to credit card users. A welfare enhancing and legally feasible policy is suggested, under which the regress...

  17. Sorting a distribution theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Hosam M

    2011-01-01

    A cutting-edge look at the emerging distributional theory of sorting Research on distributions associated with sorting algorithms has grown dramatically over the last few decades, spawning many exact and limiting distributions of complexity measures for many sorting algorithms. Yet much of this information has been scattered in disparate and highly specialized sources throughout the literature. In Sorting: A Distribution Theory, leading authority Hosam Mahmoud compiles, consolidates, and clarifies the large volume of available research, providing a much-needed, comprehensive treatment of the

  18. Teste Wisconsin de classificação de cartas: uma revisão sistemática de 1952 a 2009 The Wisconsin card sorting test: systematic review (1952-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto da Silva-Filho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O WCST é um teste neuropsicológico de resolução de problemas. Os critérios de resolução são inicialmente desconhecidos e mutantes, exigindo do respondente uma compreensão dos princípios lógicos do problema. Diante da relevância do WCST na avaliação neuropsicológica, este trabalho descreve uma revisão bibliográfica dos artigos que fazem referência ao teste. Realizou-se uma busca bibliográfica em três bases internacionais: Medline, Science Direct, PsycINFO, usando como descritor o unitermo "WCST". Foram identificados 1.076 artigos científicos, desde 1952 até 2009, observando-se significativo aumento das publicações com WCST a partir de 1993, com proporções crescentes a cada ano. Os países que mais publicaram sobre este teste neuropsicológico foram Holanda, Estados Unidos e Reino Unido, sendo os principais descritores das revistas que publicaram sobre o WCST: Psiquiatria, Neuropsicologia, Psicologia e Cérebro. O presente trabalho demonstra, ainda, que os periódicos que publicaram 10 ou mais artigos sobre o WCST têm elevado fator de impacto (JCR.The WCST is a problem-solving, neuropsychological test, with solving criteria initially unknown and mutant. Such task requires the respondent to understand the logical principles of the proposed problem. Considering the relevance of such test for neuropsychological assessment, this present study describes a bibliographic review of articles mentioning the WSCT. Such articles were searched for in three international databases (Medline, Science Direct and PsycINFO, with WSCT used as the descriptor. From 1952 to 2009, 1076 scientific articles were indentified, with a significant increase of publications from 1993 on. The countries with most studies on the WSCT were the Netherlands, USA, and UK. The main descriptors of journals that published these studies were Psychiatry, Neuropsychology, Psychology and Brain. This present study also demonstrates that the journals that published 10

  19. Comparison Of Hybrid Sorting Algorithms Implemented On Different Parallel Hardware Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik Zurek; Marcin Pietron; Maciej Wielgosz; Kazimierz Wiatr

    2013-01-01

    Sorting is a common problem in computer science. There are lot of well-known sorting algorithms created for sequential execution on a single processor. Recently, hardware platforms enable to create wide parallel algorithms. We have standard processors consist of multiple cores and hardware accelerators like GPU. The graphic cards with their parallel architecture give new possibility to speed up many algorithms. In this paper we describe results of implementation of a few different sorting alg...

  20. Comparison Of Hybrid Sorting Algorithms Implemented On Different Parallel Hardware Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Zurek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorting is a common problem in computer science. There are lot of well-known sorting algorithms created for sequential execution on a single processor. Recently, hardware platforms enable to create wide parallel algorithms. We have standard processors consist of multiple cores and hardware accelerators like GPU. The graphic cards with their parallel architecture give new possibility to speed up many algorithms. In this paper we describe results of implementation of a few different sorting algorithms on GPU cards and multicore processors. Then hybrid algorithm will be presented which consists of parts executed on both platforms, standard CPU and GPU.

  1. Fuel sorting evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of functions and requirements associated with sorting fuel from the Hanford K Basins is presented to support design issue resolution decisions for achieving interim fuel storage. Potential requirements are recommended for implementation in design activities. The recommendations are provided as input to a management decision process where decisions are finalized and the sorting issue is closed

  2. Three Sorts of Naturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In "Two sorts of Naturalism" John McDowell is sketching his own sort of naturalism in ethics as an alternative to "bald naturalism". In this paper I distinguish materialist, idealist and absolute conceptions of nature and of naturalism in order to provide a framework for a clearer understanding o...

  3. Sorting to Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; McPherson, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The world of higher education is a world of sorting, selecting, and ranking--on both sides of the market. Colleges select students to recruit and then to admit; students choose where to apply and which offer to accept. The sorting process that gets the most attention is in the higher reaches of the market, where it is not too much to say that…

  4. Layers in sorting practices: Sorting out patients with potential cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Naja Holten; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    sorting mechanism, but is handled by informal sorting mechanisms. We identify two informal sorting mechanisms with large impact on the sorting practices, namely subtle categorizing and collective remembering. These informal sorting mechanisms have implications for the design of electronic booking systems...

  5. An Unsupervised Online Spike-Sorting Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knieling, Simeon; Sridharan, Kousik S; Belardinelli, Paolo; Naros, Georgios; Weiss, Daniel; Mormann, Florian; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular neuronal microelectrode recordings can include action potentials from multiple neurons. To separate spikes from different neurons, they can be sorted according to their shape, a procedure referred to as spike-sorting. Several algorithms have been reported to solve this task. However, when clustering outcomes are unsatisfactory, most of them are difficult to adjust to achieve the desired results. We present an online spike-sorting framework that uses feature normalization and weighting to maximize the distinctiveness between different spike shapes. Furthermore, multiple criteria are applied to either facilitate or prevent cluster fusion, thereby enabling experimenters to fine-tune the sorting process. We compare our method to established unsupervised offline (Wave_Clus (WC)) and online (OSort (OS)) algorithms by examining their performance in sorting various test datasets using two different scoring systems (AMI and the Adamos metric). Furthermore, we evaluate sorting capabilities on intra-operative recordings using established quality metrics. Compared to WC and OS, our algorithm achieved comparable or higher scores on average and produced more convincing sorting results for intra-operative datasets. Thus, the presented framework is suitable for both online and offline analysis and could substantially improve the quality of microelectrode-based data evaluation for research and clinical application. PMID:26711713

  6. Credit Card Security

    OpenAIRE

    G.C., Anup

    2013-01-01

    Author: Anup G.C. Year: 2013 Subject of thesis: Credit Card Security Number of pages: 36+2 Credit Card is a widely used electronic chip for easy transactions. The main purpose of the report was to show the security measures of transaction by credit cards. The purpose was to give information about credit cards and how they were introduced. The thesis reportcontained the types of card theft with examples and sited the various protocols used for online ...

  7. Payment cards security

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Michal

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims to identify and evaluate the risks related to payment cards and their use. The main focus is the methods used to commit card related fraud and possible methods of protection related to this topic. First of all, the technology that is nowadays used in relation with the payment cards is analyzed and its weaknesses and attacks used to gather card information are described. After that, statistical data related to card fraud are analyzed in relation with different world regions. Q...

  8. Direct send compositing for parallel sort-last rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Eilemann, S; Pajarola, R.

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to sort-first, sort-last parallel rendering has the distinct advantage that the task division for parallel geometry processing and rasterization is simple, and can easily be incorporated into most visualization systems. However, the efficient final depth-compositing for polygonal data, or alpha-blending for volume data of partial rendering results is the key to achieve scalability in sort-last parallel rendering. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficiency as well as ...

  9. Wage Sorting Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Vejlin, Rune Majlund; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001. The...... nonstationary wage sorting pattern is not due to compositional changes in the labor market, primarily occurs among high wage workers, and comprises 41 percent of the increase in the standard deviation of log real wages between 1980 and 2006. We show that the wage sorting trend is associated with worker...

  10. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Health Library Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...

  11. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  12. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  13. Introduction of Smart Card

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Smart Card PrimerA smart card is a device that includes an embedded integrated circuit chip (ICC) that can be either a secure microcontroller or equivalent intelligence with internal memory or a memory chip alone.

  14. CMS Wallet Card

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Wallet Card is a quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and financial data. The CMS Wallet Card is available for each year from 2004...

  15. Ready, steady, SORT!

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    The selective or ecological sorting of waste is already second nature to many of us and concerns us all. As the GS Department's new awareness-raising campaign reminds us, everything we do to sort waste contributes to preserving the environment.    Placemats printed on recycled paper using vegetable-based ink will soon be distributed in Restaurant No.1.   Environmental protection is never far from the headlines, and CERN has a responsibility to ensure that the 3000 tonnes and more of waste it produces every year are correctly and selectively sorted. Materials can be given a second life through recycling and re-use, thereby avoiding pollution from landfill sites and incineration plants and saving on processing costs. The GS Department is launching a new poster campaign designed to raise awareness of the importance of waste sorting and recycling. "After conducting a survey to find out whether members of the personnel were prepared to make an effort to sort a...

  16. Microfluidic sorting of microtissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschke, D G; Resto, P; Schumacher, N; Cox, B; Tallavajhula, A; Vivekanandan, A; Eliceiri, K W; Williams, J C; Ogle, B M

    2012-03-01

    Increasingly, invitro culture of adherent cell types utilizes three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds or aggregate culture strategies to mimic tissue-like, microenvironmental conditions. In parallel, new flow cytometry-based technologies are emerging to accurately analyze the composition and function of these microtissues (i.e., large particles) in a non-invasive and high-throughput way. Lacking, however, is an accessible platform that can be used to effectively sort or purify large particles based on analysis parameters. Here we describe a microfluidic-based, electromechanical approach to sort large particles. Specifically, sheath-less asymmetric curving channels were employed to separate and hydrodynamically focus particles to be analyzed and subsequently sorted. This design was developed and characterized based on wall shear stress, tortuosity of the flow path, vorticity of the fluid in the channel, sorting efficiency and enrichment ratio. The large particle sorting device was capable of purifying fluorescently labelled embryoid bodies (EBs) from unlabelled EBs with an efficiency of 87.3% ± 13.5%, and enrichment ratio of 12.2 ± 8.4 (n = 8), while preserving cell viability, differentiation potential, and long-term function. PMID:22505992

  17. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  18. An Evaluation of the Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Some Sorting Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabiyisi S.O.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sorting allows information or data to be put into a meaningful order. As efficiency is a major concern of computing, data are sorted in order to gain the efficiency in retrieving or searching tasks. The factors affecting the efficiency of shell, Heap, Bubble, Quick and Merge sorting techniques in terms of running time, memory usage and the number of exchanges were investigated. Experiment was conducted for the decision variables generated from algorithms implemented in Java programming and factor analysis by principal components of the obtained experimental data was carried out in order to estimate the contribution of each factor to the success of the sorting algorithms. Further statistical analysis was carried out to generate eigenvalue of the extracted factor and hence, a system of linear equations which was used to estimate the assessment of each factor of the sorting techniques was proposed. The study revealed that the main factor affecting these sorting techniques was time taken to sort. It contributed 97.842%, 97.693%, 89.351%, 98.336% and 90.480% for Bubble sort, Heap sort, Merge sort, Quick sort and Shell sort respectively. The number of swap came second contributing 1.587% for Bubble sort, 2.305% for Heap sort, 10.63% for Merge sort, 1.643% for Quick sort and 9.514% for Shell sort. The memory used was the least of the factors contributing negligible percentage for the five sorting techniques. It contributed 0.571% for Bubble sort, 0.002% for Heap sort, 0.011% for Merge sort, 0.021% for Quick sort and 0.006% for Shell sort.

  19. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR/SOC

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), in order to fill in a 'fiche individuelle' form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format. The French card in their possession. An A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done...

  20. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  1. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel are asked to go to the cards office (33/1-015), taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, The French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested to take these items to the c...

  2. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...

  3. Set shifting training with categorization tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Soveri

    Full Text Available The very few cognitive training studies targeting an important executive function, set shifting, have reported performance improvements that also generalized to untrained tasks. The present randomized controlled trial extends set shifting training research by comparing previously used cued training with uncued training. A computerized adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test was utilized as the training task in a pretest-posttest experimental design involving three groups of university students. One group received uncued training (n = 14, another received cued training (n = 14 and the control group (n = 14 only participated in pre- and posttests. The uncued training group showed posttraining performance increases on their training task, but neither training group showed statistically significant transfer effects. Nevertheless, comparison of effect sizes for transfer effects indicated that our results did not differ significantly from the previous studies. Our results suggest that the cognitive effects of computerized set shifting training are mostly task-specific, and would preclude any robust generalization effects with this training.

  4. Inexpensive Data Acquisition with a Sound Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Umer; Pervaiz, Saad; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh

    2011-01-01

    Signal generators, oscilloscopes, and data acquisition (DAQ) systems are standard components of the modern experimental physics laboratory. The sound card, a built-in component in the ubiquitous personal computer, can be utilized for all three of these tasks and offers an attractive option for labs in developing countries such as…

  5. Sorting quantum systems efficiently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705

  6. Gold ore sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for sorting lumps of gold-bearing ore according to their gold content is described. It includes means for irradiating the lumps of ore with neutrons, e.g. a neutron tube adapted to produce at least 1010 neutrons per second with an energy of less than 4.5 MeV. The resulting intensity of 297 keV gamma rays arising from the nuclear reaction 197Au(n,n'#betta#) 197Au is measured. The measured gamma ray intensity from a given lump of ore is used to sort that lump of ore from other lumps. The apparatus includes various cylinders and a vibrator for presenting the lumps of ore to the neutrons in a geometrical configuration such as to enable the lumps to be irradiated uniformly. (author)

  7. Lipoprotein sorting in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and processed into mature forms on the cytoplasmic membrane. A lipid moiety attached to the N terminus anchors these proteins to the membrane surface. Many bacteria are predicted to express more than 100 lipoproteins, which play diverse functions on the cell surface. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes the localization of Escherichia coli lipoproteins to the outer membrane. Some lipoproteins play vital roles in the sorting of other lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and β-barrel proteins to the outer membrane. On the basis of results from biochemical, genetic, and structural studies, we discuss the biogenesis of lipoproteins in bacteria, their importance in cellular functions, and the molecular mechanisms underlying efficient sorting of hydrophobic lipoproteins to the outer membrane through the hydrophilic periplasm. PMID:21663440

  8. Sorting quantum systems efficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) - which direct photons according to their polarization - and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705

  9. Heideggers sorte arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Gosvig

    2015-01-01

    Martin Heidegger var antisemit, men er hans tænkning og intellektuelle arv det også? Søren Gosvig Olesen opsøger den store tyske tænkers arvinger og bindene fra 1938-48 i Heideggers efterladte ’Sorte hæfter’, hvor den lille mands meninger blander sig med en stor tænkers tanker......Martin Heidegger var antisemit, men er hans tænkning og intellektuelle arv det også? Søren Gosvig Olesen opsøger den store tyske tænkers arvinger og bindene fra 1938-48 i Heideggers efterladte ’Sorte hæfter’, hvor den lille mands meninger blander sig med en stor tænkers tanker...

  10. Event shape sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopečná, Renata; Tomášik, Boris

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable ( e.g., v_2 , v_3 , q_2 . It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution.

  11. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  12. Chip-based droplet sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  13. Teaching Sorting in ICT

    OpenAIRE

    Szlávi, Péter; Törley, Gábor

    2009-01-01

    This article is aimed at considering how an algorithmic problem - more precisely a sorting problem - can be used in an informatics class in primary and secondary education to make students mobilize the largest possible amount of their intellectual skills in the problem solving process. We will be outlining a method which essentially forces students to utilize their mathematical knowledge besides algorithmization in order to provide an efficient solution. What is more, they are expected to ...

  14. Credit Cards and Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    John Geanakoplos; Pradeep Dubey

    2009-01-01

    The introduction and widespread use of credit cards increases trading efficiency but, by also increasing the velocity of money, it causes inflation, in the absence of monetary intervention. If the monetary authority attempts to restore pre-credit card price levels by reducing the money supply, it might have to sacrifice the efficiency gains. When there is default on credit cards, there is even more inflation, and less efficiency gains. The monetary authority might then have to accept less tha...

  15. CERN access cards

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Holders of CERN access cards are reminded that the card is an official document. It is important to carry it with you at all times when you are on the site. This applies also to those on standby duty who are called out for emergency interventions. As announced in Weekly Bulletin 13/2006, any loss or theft of access cards must be declared to the competent external authorities.

  16. Breastfeeding Report Card 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The CDC Breastfeeding Report Card provides state-by-state data to help public health practitioners, health professionals, community members, child care ...

  17. Pair Wise Sorting: A New Way of Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jahangir Alam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for sorting numerical data in an efficient way. The numbers of comparisons i.e. the running time of this technique is dependent on distribution or diversity of the value of data items as like as other efficient algorithms. When the total number of data is even, this method groups that data into a collection of pairs and therefore establishes the sorting constraints on each of the pairs. The control is traversed through the list of elements by changing the position of each pair which is the major principle of this technique. On the other hand, when the total number of elements is odd, this method sorts all elements except the last one in the same was as mentioned earlier and the last element is sorted using the general Insertion Sort. This algorithm is therefore a hybrid sorting method that sorts elementary numeric data in a faster and efficient manner.

  18. Catalog card production with a programmable terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTigue, E; Robinson, M E; Saver, B; Schultz, C K

    1977-01-01

    Application of a programmable terminal and printer to the cataloging task of a small medical library is described. The application is independent of a computer; the terminal is used in "local" mode only. Full sets of catalog cards are produced, following a single typing of descriptive cataloging data and tracings. Books can be cataloged the same day they are received. Actual cost per book is just over a dollar, for equipment rental, card stock, and the cataloger's time at the console, after call number, tracings, and main entry for the book have been determined. PMID:831883

  19. Pre-paid cards

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Ledingham

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the similarities and difference between pre-paid cards and other payment instruments such as currency and debit cards, as well as examining some of the policy issues involved such as implications for the Reserve Bank's currency issue.

  20. Fluorescence activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, W. A.; Hulett, H. R.; Sweet, R. G.; Herzenberg, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    An instrument has been developed for sorting biological cells. The cells are rendered differentially fluorescent and incorporated into a small liquid stream illuminated by a laser beam. The cells pass sequentially through the beam, and fluorescent light from the cells gives rise to electrical signals. The stream is broken into a series of uniform size drops downstream of the laser. The cell signals are used to give appropriate electrostatic charges to drops containing the cells. The drops then pass between two charged plates and are deflected to appropriate containers. The system has proved capable of providing fractions containing large numbers of viable cells highly enriched in a particular functional type.

  1. Method card design dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.

    2013-01-01

    There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers....... The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...... and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design....

  2. Selective sorting of waste

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Not much effort needed, just willpower In order to keep the cost of disposing of waste materials as low as possible, CERN provides two types of recipient at the entrance to each building: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metal one for general refuse. For some time now we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing negligence as far as selective sorting is concerned, with, for example, the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc. …We have been able to ascertain, after careful checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of the personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Non-sorted waste entails heavy costs for CERN. For information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned...

  3. Chromosome analysis and sorting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Jaroslav; Kubaláková, Marie; Suchánková, Pavla; Kovářová, Pavlína; Bartoš, Jan; Šimková, Hana

    Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2007 - (Doležel, J.; Greilhuber, J.; Suda, J.), s. 373-403 ISBN 978-3-527-31487-4 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/04/0607; GA ČR GP521/05/P257; GA ČR GD521/05/H013; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Grant ostatní: Mendelova zemědělská a lesnická univerzita v Brně / Agronomická fakulta(CZ) ME 844 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Plant flow cytometry * chromosome sorting * flow cytogenetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://books. google .com/books?id=3cwakORieqUC&pg=PA373&lpg=PA373&dq=Chromosome+analysis+and+sorting&source=web&ots=8IyvJlBQyq&sig=_NlXyQQgBCwpj1pTC9YITvvVZqU

  4. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  5. A gigabit ethernet link source card.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, R. E.; Dawson, J. W.; Drake, G.; Haberichter, W. N.; Schlereth, J. L.

    2002-09-18

    A Link Source Card (LSC) has been developed which employs Gigabit Ethernet as the physical medium. The LSC is implemented as a mezzanine card compliant with the S-Link specifications, and is intended for use in development of the Region of Interest Building (ROIB) in the Level 2 Trigger of ATLAS. The LSC will be used to bring Region of Internet Fragments from Level 1 Trigger elements to the ROIB, and to transfer compiled Region of Interest Records to Supervisor Processors. The card uses the LSI 8101/8104 Media Access Controller (MAC) [1] and the Agilent HDMP-1636 Transceiver. An Altera 10K50A FPGA [2] is configured to provide several state machines which perform all the tasks on the card, such as formulating the Ethernet header, read/write registers in the MAC, etc. An on-card static RAM provides storage for 512K S-Link words, and a FIFO provides 4K buffering of input S-Link words. The LSC has been tested in a setup where it transfers data to a NIC in the PCI bus of a PC.

  6. A gigabit ethernet link source card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Link Source Card (LSC) has been developed which employs Gigabit Ethernet as the physical medium. The LSC is implemented as a mezzanine card compliant with the S-Link specifications, and is intended for use in development of the Region of Interest Building (ROIB) in the Level 2 Trigger of ATLAS. The LSC will be used to bring Region of Internet Fragments from Level 1 Trigger elements to the ROIB, and to transfer compiled Region of Interest Records to Supervisor Processors. The card uses the LSI 8101/8104 Media Access Controller (MAC) [1] and the Agilent HDMP-1636 Transceiver. An Altera 10K50A FPGA [2] is configured to provide several state machines which perform all the tasks on the card, such as formulating the Ethernet header, read/write registers in the MAC, etc. An on-card static RAM provides storage for 512K S-Link words, and a FIFO provides 4K buffering of input S-Link words. The LSC has been tested in a setup where it transfers data to a NIC in the PCI bus of a PC

  7. Bio-Thentic Card: Authentication concept for RFID Card

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that employs basic identifier of an object embedded in a chip, transmitted via radio wave, for identification. An RFID Card responds to query or interrogation irrespective of "Who" holds the Card; like a key to a door. Since an attacker can possess the card, access to such object can therefore be easily compromised. This security breach is classified as an unauthorized use of Card, and it forms the bedrock for RFID Card compromise especial...

  8. CREDIT CARDS: FRAUDS &PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Malik; Rahul Dev Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    A Credit or cash card in its various avatars is a money payment device rather a device for taking loan or making purchase on credit. They are used extensively. Business worth trillions of rupees is being transacted through credit cards annually worldwide. The credit card is used only at certain specified mercantile centers without paying the cost of merchandise to the merchant at the spot. In other words purchase are made on credit. The merchant has already an agreement to collect the sale mo...

  9. Mafia cards game

    OpenAIRE

    Segarra Suriñach, Xavi

    2015-01-01

    This final project is focused on creating an RPG card game titled Mafia cards game for the Android operating system that allows both the game for a single player and multi player online game. Aquest treball final de projecte es centra en la creació d'un joc de cartes de rol amb el títol Mafia cards game per al sistema operatiu Android que permeti tant el joc per a un únic jugador com el joc multi jugador per Internet. Este trabajo final de proyecto se centra en la creación de un juego d...

  10. Gender Differences in Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    and causing the most productive female workers to seek better jobs in more female-friendly firms in which they can pursue small career advancements. Nonetheless, gender differences in promotion persist and are found to be similar in all firms when we focus on large career advancements. These results......In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...... provide evidence of the sticky floor hypothesis, which, together with the costs associated with changing employer, generates persistent gender gaps....

  11. Teleoperated robotic sorting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Charles E.; Sommer, Edward J.; Parrish, Robert H.; Russell, James R.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for classifying materials utilizing a computerized touch sensitive screen or other computerized pointing device for operator identification and electronic marking of spatial coordinates of materials to be extracted. An operator positioned at a computerized touch sensitive screen views electronic images of the mixture of materials to be sorted as they are conveyed past a sensor array which transmits sequences of images of the mixture either directly or through a computer to the touch sensitive display screen. The operator manually "touches" objects displayed on the screen to be extracted from the mixture thereby registering the spatial coordinates of the objects within the computer. The computer then tracks the registered objects as they are conveyed and directs automated devices including mechanical means such as air jets, robotic arms, or other mechanical diverters to extract the registered objects.

  12. Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Ian; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Ninghui

    Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a particular merchant. We call the scheme dynamic because the virtual credit card numbers can be generated without online contact with the credit card issuers. These numbers can be processed without changing any of the infrastructure currently in place; the only changes will be at the end points, namely, the card users and the card issuers. We analyze the security requirements for dynamic virtual credit card numbers, discuss the design space, propose a scheme using HMAC, and prove its security under the assumption the underlying function is a PRF.

  13. Credit Card Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students design credit cards and discover for themselves the mathematical realities of buying on credit. Employs multiple-intelligence theory to increase the chance that all students will be reached. (YDS)

  14. Genetics Blood Card Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection of blood for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect DNA sample using a whole blood blot card

  15. Credit card interchange fees

    OpenAIRE

    Rochet, Jean-Charles; Wright, Julian

    2009-01-01

    We build a model of credit card pricing that explicitly takes into account credit functionality. We show that a monopoly card network always selects an interchange fee that exceeds the level that maximizes consumer surplus. If regulators only care about consumer surplus, a conservative regulatory approach is to cap interchange fees based on retailers’ net avoided costs from not having to provide credit themselves. In the model, this always raises consumer surplus compared to the unregulated o...

  16. Resolving sorting mechanisms into exosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Willem

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of mechanisms driving protein sorting into exosomes is only beginning to emerge. In a paper recently published in Cell Research, Roucourt et al. report that trimming of heparan sulfate side chains of syndecans by endosomal heparanase facilitates sorting into exosomes by the formation

  17. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB): list sorting test to measure working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Kisala, Pamela A; Mungas, Dan; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The List Sorting Working Memory Test was designed to assess working memory (WM) as part of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. List Sorting is a sequencing task requiring children and adults to sort and sequence stimuli that are presented visually and auditorily. Validation data are presented for 268 participants ages 20 to 85 years. A subset of participants (N=89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. As expected, the List Sorting Test had moderately high correlations with other measures of working memory and executive functioning (convergent validity) but a low correlation with a test of receptive vocabulary (discriminant validity). Furthermore, List Sorting demonstrates expected changes over the age span and has excellent test-retest reliability. Collectively, these results provide initial support for the construct validity of the List Sorting Working Memory Measure as a measure of working memory. However, the relationship between the List Sorting Test and general executive function has yet to be determined. PMID:24959983

  18. Do newspaper articles on card fraud affect debit card usage?

    OpenAIRE

    Kosse, Anneke

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of newspaper publications about debit card skimming fraud on debit card usage in the Netherlands using daily information from January 1st 2005 to December 31st 2008. Time-series analyses are employed to assess the daily fluctuations in aggregate debit card usage. The results show that newspaper articles that somehow make mention of the phenomenon of skimming fraud significantly affect the number of debit card payments. The direction of the effect depends on ...

  19. Time card entry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montierth, B.S.

    1996-05-01

    The Time Card Entry System was developed to interface with the DOE Headquarters Electronic Time and Attendance (ETA) system. It features pop-up window pick lists for Work Breakdown Structure Numbers and Hour Codes and has extensive processing that ensures that time and attendance reported by the employee fulfills US Government/OMB requirements before Timekeepers process the data at the end of the two week payroll cycle using ETA. Tours of Duty (e.g. ten hour day, four day week with Friday through Sunday off), established in the ETA system, are imported into the Time Card Entry System by the Timekeepers. An individual`s Tour of Duty establishes the basis for validation of time of day and number of hours worked per day. At the end of the two week cycle, data is exported by the Timekeepers from the Time Card Entry System into ETA data files.

  20. The Credit CARD act of 2009 and prepaid cards

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Keitel

    2009-01-01

    Recently enacted federal legislation contains a number of provisions that will affect the prepaid card industry. This note highlights some of these provisions, discusses how they might shape the prepaid card industry, and outlines the debate over whether prepaid cards should be defined as "monetary instruments" under federal law.

  1. NCDC Punched Card Reference Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation for using and reading punched cards kept at the National Weather Records Center (NWRC, previous name for NCDC and NCEI). Many of these punched card...

  2. Denture Marking for Forensic Identification Using Memory Card: An Innovative Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Luthra, Reena; Arora, Saryu; Meshram, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Identification of individuals in crime or mass disaster is a daunting task for the forensic experts. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a memory card for the forensic identification of dentures. The memory card was programmed with all the relevant information regarding the patient identification and the photograph of the patient. A recess was made in the maxillary denture’s polished surface on the palatal aspect. The card was wrapped in cellophane, placed in the...

  3. On Approximability of Block Sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanaswamy, N S

    2011-01-01

    Block Sorting is a well studied problem, motivated by its applications in Optical Character Recognition (OCR), and Computational Biology. Block Sorting has been shown to be NP-Hard, and two separate polynomial time 2-approximation algorithms have been designed for the problem. But questions like whether a better approximation algorithm can be designed, and whether the problem is APX-Hard have been open for quite a while now. In this work we answer the latter question by proving Block Sorting to be Max-SNP-Hard (APX-Hard). The APX-Hardness result is based on a linear reduction of Max-3SAT to Block Sorting. We also provide a new lower bound for the problem via a new parametrized problem k-Block Merging.

  4. Disruption - Access cards service

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    We would like to inform you that between 10 November and 15 December 2014, the access cards service in Building 55 will be disrupted, as the GS Department has decided to improve the facilities for users of this building. During the work, you will find the registration, biometric registration and dosimeter exchange services on the second floor of Building 55 and the vehicle sticker service on the ground floor along with the access cards service. We thank you for your understanding and apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  5. Credit cards: Facts and theories

    OpenAIRE

    Carol C. Bertaut; Haliassos, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We use data from several waves of the Survey of Consumer Finances to document credit and debit card ownership and use across US demographic groups. We then present recent theoretical and empirical contributions to the study of credit and debit card behavior. Utilization rates of credit lines and portfolios of card holders present several puzzles. Credit line increases initiated by banks lead households to restore previous utilization rates. High-interest credit card debt co-exists with substa...

  6. Consumer credit and payment cards

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Wilko; Foote, Elizabeth; Schmiedel, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    We consider debit and credit card networks. Our contribution is to introduce the role of consumer credit into these payment networks, and to assess the way this affects competition and equilibrium fees. We analyze a situation in which overdrafts are associated with current accounts and debit cards, and larger credit lines with ‘grace’ periods are associated with credit cards. If we just introduce credit cards, we find their merchant fees depend not only on the networks’ cost of funds and the ...

  7. The Methods and Goals of Teaching Sorting Algorithms in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernát, Péter

    2014-01-01

    The topic of sorting algorithms is a pleasant subject of informatics education. Not only is it so because the notion of sorting is well known from our everyday life, but also because as an algorithm task, whether we expect naive or practical solutions, it is easy to define and demonstrate. In my paper I will present some of the possible methods…

  8. Follow Up: Credit Card Caution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Timothy P.

    2007-01-01

    In "Pushing Plastic," ("The New England Journal of Higher Education", Summer 2007), John Humphrey notes that many college administrators justify their credit card solicitations by suggesting that credit card access will help students learn to manage their own finances. Instead, credit card debt will teach thousands of students a lesson they will…

  9. Store Security. Credit Card Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockway, Jerry

    The manual, intended for use by adults and not in the high school classroom situation, presents material directed toward assisting in the reduction of credit card crime. This teaching guide is organized in three sections which deal with the nature of and major reasons for credit card fraud, the types of hot card runners, and methods of reducing…

  10. Effects of Task and Category Membership on Representation Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Audrey; Urdapilleta, Isabel; Houix, Olivier; Manetta, Celine

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the within-subject stability of 150 participants who performed both a sorting task and a property-generation task over multiple sessions, focusing on three concrete concept categories (food, animals and bathroom products). We hypothesized that (1) the within-subject stability would be higher in the sorting task than in the…

  11. MalaCards: an integrated compendium for diseases and their annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Noa; Nativ, Noam; Stelzer, Gil; Twik, Michal; Guan-Golan, Yaron; Stein, Tsippi Iny; Bahir, Iris; Belinky, Frida; Morrey, C Paul; Safran, Marilyn; Lancet, Doron

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive disease classification, integration and annotation are crucial for biomedical discovery. At present, disease compilation is incomplete, heterogeneous and often lacking systematic inquiry mechanisms. We introduce MalaCards, an integrated database of human maladies and their annotations, modeled on the architecture and strategy of the GeneCards database of human genes. MalaCards mines and merges 44 data sources to generate a computerized card for each of 16 919 human diseases. Each MalaCard contains disease-specific prioritized annotations, as well as inter-disease connections, empowered by the GeneCards relational database, its searches and GeneDecks set analyses. First, we generate a disease list from 15 ranked sources, using disease-name unification heuristics. Next, we use four schemes to populate MalaCards sections: (i) directly interrogating disease resources, to establish integrated disease names, synonyms, summaries, drugs/therapeutics, clinical features, genetic tests and anatomical context; (ii) searching GeneCards for related publications, and for associated genes with corresponding relevance scores; (iii) analyzing disease-associated gene sets in GeneDecks to yield affiliated pathways, phenotypes, compounds and GO terms, sorted by a composite relevance score and presented with GeneCards links; and (iv) searching within MalaCards itself, e.g. for additional related diseases and anatomical context. The latter forms the basis for the construction of a disease network, based on shared MalaCards annotations, embodying associations based on etiology, clinical features and clinical conditions. This broadly disposed network has a power-law degree distribution, suggesting that this might be an inherent property of such networks. Work in progress includes hierarchical malady classification, ontological mapping and disease set analyses, striving to make MalaCards an even more effective tool for biomedical research. Database URL: http

  12. The Eggen Card Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvis, G.

    2014-06-01

    (Abstract only) Olin Eggen, noted astronomer (1919-1998), left to us all his raw observation records recorded on 3x5 cards. This project is to make all this data available as an online resource. History and progress of the project will be presented. Project details available at: https://sites.google.com/site/eggencards/home.

  13. ALGORITHM FOR SORTING GROUPED DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    It is often desirable to sort data sets in ascending or descending order. This becomes more difficult for grouped data, i.e., multiple sets of data, where each set of data involves several measurements or related elements. The sort becomes increasingly cumbersome when more than a few elements exist for each data set. In order to achieve an efficient sorting process, an algorithm has been devised in which the maximum most significant element is found, and then compared to each element in succession. The program was written to handle the daily temperature readings of the Voyager spacecraft, particularly those related to the special tracking requirements of Voyager 2. By reducing each data set to a single representative number, the sorting process becomes very easy. The first step in the process is to reduce the data set of width 'n' to a data set of width '1'. This is done by representing each data set by a polynomial of length 'n' based on the differences of the maximum and minimum elements. These single numbers are then sorted and converted back to obtain the original data sets. Required input data are the name of the data file to read and sort, and the starting and ending record numbers. The package includes a sample data file, containing 500 sets of data with 5 elements in each set. This program will perform a sort of the 500 data sets in 3 - 5 seconds on an IBM PC-AT with a hard disk; on a similarly equipped IBM PC-XT the time is under 10 seconds. This program is written in BASIC (specifically the Microsoft QuickBasic compiler) for interactive execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series operating under PC-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 40K of 8 bit bytes. A hard disk is desirable for speed considerations, but is not required. This program was developed in 1986.

  14. No evidence of association between Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met genotype and performance on neuropsychological tasks in children with ADHD: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donovan Michael C

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested an association between the functional Val158Met polymorphism in the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene and neurocognitive performance. Two studies showed that subjects with the low activity Met allele performed better on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and another study found an effect on processing speed and attention. Methods We set out to examine the association between the Val158Met polymorphism and performance on neurocognitive tasks including those tapping working memory, attention and speed, impulsiveness and response inhibition in a sample of 124 children with ADHD. Task performance for each genotypic group was compared using analysis of variance. Results There was no evidence of association with performance on any of the neurocognitive tasks. Conclusions We conclude that Val158Met COMT genotype is not associated with neurocognitive performance in our sample.

  15. REMINDER REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  16. Science Shorts: Sort It out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Many children enjoy collecting items such as seashells, state quarters, and trading cards. Asking students to think about the ways in which similar items differ, how objects can be grouped by a common characteristic, and how groups can be subsets of a larger category leads to an understanding of fundamental mathematics and science concepts: sets,…

  17. Sorting and selection in posets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Karp, Richard M.; Mossel, Elchanan;

    2011-01-01

    Classical problems of sorting and searching assume an underlying linear ordering of the objects being compared. In this paper, we study these problems in the context of partially ordered sets, in which some pairs of objects are incomparable. This generalization is interesting from a combinatorial...... from two decades ago by Faigle and Turán. In particular, we present the first algorithm that sorts a width-$w$ poset of size $n$ with query complexity $O(n(w+\\log n))$ and prove that this query complexity is asymptotically optimal. We also describe a variant of Mergesort with query complexity $O......(wn\\log\\frac{n}{w})$ and total complexity $O(w^{2}n\\log\\frac{n}{w})$; an algorithm with the same query complexity was given by Faigle and Turán, but no efficient implementation of that algorithm is known. Both our sorting algorithms can be applied with negligible overhead to the more general problem of reconstructing...

  18. Hybrid optical and acoustic force based sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahoney, Paul; Brodie, Graham W.; Wang, Han; Demore, Christine E. M.; Cochran, Sandy; Spalding, Gabriel C.; MacDonald, Michael P.

    2014-09-01

    We report the combined use of optical sorting and acoustic levitation to give particle sorting. Differing sizes of microparticles are sorted optically both with and without the aid of acoustic levitation, and the results compared to show that the use of acoustic trapping can increase sorting efficiency. The use of a transparent ultrasonic transducer is also shown to streamline the integration of optics and acoustics. We also demonstrate the balance of optical radiation pressure and acoustic levitation to achieve vertical sorting.

  19. A Heapify Based Parallel Sorting Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A.A.A. Hija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Quick sort is a sorting algorithm whose worst case running time is θ(n2 on an input array of n numbers. It is the best practical for sorting because it has the advantage of sorting in place. Problem statement: Behavior of quick sort is complex, we proposed in-place 2m threads parallel heap sort algorithm which had advantage in sorting in place and had better performance than classical sequential quick sort in running time. Approach: The algorithm consisted of several stages, in first stage; it splits input data into two partitions, next stages it did the same partitioning for prior stage which had been spitted until 2 m partitions was reached equal to the number of available processors, finally it used heap sort to sort respectively ordered of non internally sorted partitions in parallel. Results: Results showed the speed of algorithm about double speed of classical Quick sort for a large input size. The number of comparisons needed was reduced significantly. Conclusion: In this study we had been proposed a sorting algorithm that uses less number of comparisons with respect to original quick sort that in turn requires less running time to sort the same input data.

  20. Credit Card Debt Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Haliassos, Michael; Reiter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Most US credit card holders revolve high-interest debt, often combined with substantial (i) asset accumulation by retirement, and (ii) low-rate liquid assets. Hyperbolic discounting can resolve only the former puzzle (Laibson et al., 2003). Bertaut and Haliassos (2002) proposed an 'accountant-shopper' framework for the latter. The current paper builds, solves, and simulates a fully-specified accountant-shopper model, to show that this framework can actually generate both types of co-existence...

  1. Comprehensive aerological reference data set (CARDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskridge, R.E.; Polansky, A.C.; Alduchov, O.A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Asheville, NC (United States). National Climatic Data Center] [and others

    1997-11-01

    The possibility of anthropogenic climate change has reached the attention of Government officials and researchers. However, one cannot study climate change without climate data. The CARDS project will produce high-quality upper-air data for the research community and for policy-makers. The authors intend to produce a dataset which is: easy to use, as complete as possible, as free of random errors as possible. They will also attempt to identify biases and remove them whenever possible. In this report, they relate progress toward their goal. They created a robust new format for archiving upper-air data, and designed a relational database structure to hold them. The authors have converted 13 datasets to the new format and have archived over 10,000,000 individual soundings from 10 separate data sources. They produce and archive a metadata summary of each sounding they load. They have researched station histories, and have built a preliminary upper-air station history database. They have converted station-sorted data from their primary database into synoptic-sorted data in a parallel database. They have tested and will soon implement an advanced quality-control procedure, capable of detecting and often repairing errors in geopotential height, temperature, humidity, and wind. This unique quality-control method uses simultaneous vertical, horizontal, and temporal checks of several meteorological variables. It can detect errors other methods cannot.

  2. A Mechanism for Anonymous Credit Card Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper proposes a mechanism for anonymous credit card systems, in which each credit card holder can conceal individual transactions from the credit card company, while enabling the credit card company to calculate the total expenditures of transactions of individual card holders during specified periods, and to identify card holders who executed dishonest transactions. Based on three existing mechanisms, i.e. anonymous authentication, blind signature and secure statistical data gathering, together with implicit transaction links proposed here, the proposed mechanism enables development of anonymous credit card systems without assuming any absolutely trustworthy entity like tamper resistant devices or organizations faithful both to the credit card company and card holders.

  3. Neuronal spike sorting based on radial basis function neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghavi Kani M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Studying the behavior of a society of neurons, extracting the communication mechanisms of brain with other tissues, finding treatment for some nervous system diseases and designing neuroprosthetic devices, require an algorithm to sort neuralspikes automatically. However, sorting neural spikes is a challenging task because of the low signal to noise ratio (SNR of the spikes. The main purpose of this study was to design an automatic algorithm for classifying neuronal spikes that are emitted from a specific region of the nervous system."n "nMethods: The spike sorting process usually consists of three stages: detection, feature extraction and sorting. We initially used signal statistics to detect neural spikes. Then, we chose a limited number of typical spikes as features and finally used them to train a radial basis function (RBF neural network to sort the spikes. In most spike sorting devices, these signals are not linearly discriminative. In order to solve this problem, the aforesaid RBF neural network was used."n "nResults: After the learning process, our proposed algorithm classified any arbitrary spike. The obtained results showed that even though the proposed Radial Basis Spike Sorter (RBSS reached to the same error as the previous methods, however, the computational costs were much lower compared to other algorithms. Moreover, the competitive points of the proposed algorithm were its good speed and low computational complexity."n "nConclusion: Regarding the results of this study, the proposed algorithm seems to serve the purpose of procedures that require real-time processing and spike sorting.

  4. Deformability-based capsule sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Anne; Munier, Nadege; Maire, Pauline; Edwards-Levy, Florence; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2015-11-01

    Many microfluidic devices have been developed for cancer diagnosis applications, most of which relying on costly antibodies. Since some cancer cells display abnormal mechanical properties, new sorting tools based on mechanical sensing are of particular interest. We present a simple, passive pinched flow microfluidic system for capsule sorting. The device consists of a straight microchannel containing a cylindrical obstacle. Thanks to a flow-focusing module placed at the channel entrance, capsules arrive well-centered in the vicinity of the obstacle. Pure size-sorting can be achieved at low shear rate. When increasing the shear rate, capsules are deformed in the narrow space between the pillar and the wall. The softer the capsule, the more tightly it wraps around the obstacle. After the obstacle, streamlines diverge, allowing for the separation between soft capsules, that follow central streamlines, and stiff capsules, that drift away from the obstacle with a wider angle. This proves that we have developed a flexible multipurpose sorting microsystem based on a simple design.

  5. Correlation between clinical syndromes and neuropsychological tasks in unmedicated patients with recent onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daban, Claire; Amado, Isabelle; Baylé, Franck; Gut, Anne; Willard, Dominique; Bourdel, Marie-Chantal; Loo, Henri; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Millet, Bruno; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Poirier, Marie-France

    2002-12-15

    The aim of this study is to circumscribe the cognitive deficits according to schizophrenic syndromes in a population of sub-acute untreated patients. We have studied the cross-sectional correlation between cognitive deficits and schizophrenic symptoms, in a group of 24 untreated patients (including 17 neuroleptic-naive patients) with recent onset of the disease. A task of alertness, a working memory (WM) test (including two levels of difficulty) and an abbreviated version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were selected. WM deficits and poor performance on the WCST were highly correlated with disorganized symptoms, modestly with the positive syndrome and not with the negative syndrome. Thus, disorganized symptoms, more than any other, appear to be related to the impairment of executive function and WM in recent onset unmedicated patients with schizophrenia. PMID:12467948

  6. Neural correlates of deductive reasoning: An ERP study with the Wason Selection Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Tim R H; Halford, Graeme S; Wang, Ya; Ramm, Brentyn J; Spokes, Tara; Shum, David H K

    2015-12-01

    The Wason Selection Task (WST) is a well-known test of reasoning in which one turns over cards to test a rule about the two faces. Modifications were made to the WST to enable more direct and analytical investigation of reasoning processes. The modifications included extensive training to reduce variations in task interpretation, isolation of working memory in the decision phase, a separate rule for each card and variations in the form of the rule (number-letter as well as letter-number), separate scoring for each card, and inclusion of control cards that could be recognized by features without relational processing. The cognitive complexity of each card was also analyzed to enable investigation of this factor. Behavioral and event-related potential data were recorded. Negative cards differed from positive cards and control cards were differentiated from cards involved in inferences. The N2 component differentiated the negative conditions (not-P, not-Q cards) from the positive conditions (P, Q cards). The P3 component was largest for control and P cards (the simpler conditions). The late slow wave tended to show more sustained processing of not-P, not-Q and Q cards and was little influenced by the simpler control and P cards. Effects were interpreted in terms of cognitive complexity. In particular, the negative conditions had a larger N2 response than the positive conditions, reflecting greater cognitive complexity of the former and their sustained processing. PMID:26160047

  7. Parallel Sorted Neighborhood Blocking with MapReduce

    CERN Document Server

    Kolb, Lars; Rahm, Erhard

    2010-01-01

    Cloud infrastructures enable the efficient parallel execution of data-intensive tasks such as entity resolution on large datasets. We investigate challenges and possible solutions of using the MapReduce programming model for parallel entity resolution. In particular, we propose and evaluate two MapReduce-based implementations for Sorted Neighborhood blocking that either use multiple MapReduce jobs or apply a tailored data replication.

  8. Smart Card: Turning Point of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Mahajan; Akash Verma; Dhruv Pahuja

    2014-01-01

    A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (icc) is any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits. Smart Cards are secure portable storage devices used for several applications especially security related ones involving access to system’s database either online or offline. Smart cards are made of plastic, generally polyvinyl chloride, but sometimes polyethylene terephthalate based polyesters, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene orpolycarbonate. This research is chie...

  9. Sorted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, S

    1997-04-01

    Each year in Accident and Emergency an increasing number of young people present with acute problems related to social drugs. These problems range from mild symptoms to life-threatening conditions, many of which can be extremely difficult and time consuming for staff to manage. It has become apparent that as with sex the experimental age for taking drugs is getting younger as youths are now far more 'streetwise' than their predecessors. This is one of the main reasons for this paper being written; it is imperative that staff are equipped with the appropriate knowledge to deal with the challenge and are educated about the problems associated with current drug trends. This potentially improves the quality of care and, in turn, good communication improves relationships. Ecstasy is once again becoming increasingly popular within mainstream clubs, as recently highlighted in the media, and with it reappear its problems. This article discusses the historical aspects of Ecstasy and aims to educate staff about its use and effects and provides health promotion advice for those who are involved in the care of people who take Ecstasy. PMID:9171546

  10. EuCARD-HFM dipole model design options

    CERN Document Server

    Bruchon, Mélanie; Durante, Maria; Karppinen, Mikko; Kircher, François; Manil, Pierre; Milanese, Attilio; Oberli, Luc; Perez, Juan Carlos; Rifflet, Jean-Michel; Rondeaux, Françoise; Todesco, Ezio

    2010-01-01

    The EuCARD-HFM task aims at realizing a 13 T dipole magnet with an aperture of 100 mm, which is a challenging step towards very high field accelerator magnets. This dipole, utilizing Nb3Sn superconductor, will be used in the Fresca test facility at CERN. A preliminary design study has compared two possible design layouts for the EuCARD-HFM magnet: the cos-θ and the block. This report summarizes the conclusions of this study and justifies, on the base of quantitative and qualitative arguments, our decision to pursue the detailed design with the block layout.

  11. Swarm-Based Spatial Sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To present an algorithm for spatially sorting objects into an annular structure. Design/Methodology/Approach: A swarm-based model that requires only stochastic agent behaviour coupled with a pheromone-inspired "attraction-repulsion" mechanism. Findings: The algorithm consistently generates high-quality annular structures, and is particularly powerful in situations where the initial configuration of objects is similar to those observed in nature. Research limitations/implications: Experimental evidence supports previous theoretical arguments about the nature and mechanism of spatial sorting by insects. Practical implications: The algorithm may find applications in distributed robotics. Originality/value: The model offers a powerful minimal algorithmic framework, and also sheds further light on the nature of attraction-repulsion algorithms and underlying natural processes.

  12. Lipid sorting revealed by SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the lipid sorting in a binary small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) composed of cone-shaped (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DHPC) and cylinder-shaped (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPPC) lipids. In order to reveal the lipid sorting we adopted a contrast matching technique of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), which extracts the distribution of deuterated lipids in the bilayer quantitatively. The SANS profile of deuterated SUVs at the contrast matching condition showed a characteristic scattering profile, indicating an asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer. The fitting of the observed SANS profile revealed that most DHPC molecules are localized in the outer leaflet, which supports that the shape of the lipid is strongly coupled with the membrane curvature. We compared the obtained asymmetric distribution of the cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer with the theoretical prediction based on the curvature energy model. (author)

  13. Single beam atom sorting machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We create two overlapping one-dimensional optical lattices using a single laser beam, a spatial light modulator and a high numerical aperture lens. These lattices have the potential to trap single atoms, and using the dynamic capabilities of the spatial light modulator may shift and sort atoms to a minimum atom-atom separation of 1.52 μm. We show how a simple feedback circuit can compensate for the spatial light modulator's intensity modulation

  14. Swarm-Based Spatial Sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Amos, Martyn; Don, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To present an algorithm for spatially sorting objects into an annular structure. Design/Methodology/Approach: A swarm-based model that requires only stochastic agent behaviour coupled with a pheromone-inspired "attraction-repulsion" mechanism. Findings: The algorithm consistently generates high-quality annular structures, and is particularly powerful in situations where the initial configuration of objects is similar to those observed in nature. Research limitations/implications: Exp...

  15. Dual Card,Double Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As Christmas Day and New Year Day draw near, why not treat yourself with a smart digital gizmo. Then, the Samsung Dual-card Cellphone is what you are longing for. Samsung B5712C, the first dual-card model released by Samsung,

  16. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system

  17. Electronic payments using payment cards

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Waaij, B. D.; Siljee, B.I.J.; Broekhuijsen, B.J.; Ponsioen, C.; Maas, A.; Aten, R.M.; Hoepman, J.H.; Loon, J.H. van; Smit, M.

    2009-01-01

    A method of making a payment uses a mobile communication device (1) and a payment card (2), both the mobile communication device (1) and the payment card (2) being provided with a respective near field communication unit (11, 21) and at least the mobile communication device (1) being provided with an input unit (12) for inputting data. The method comprises the steps of: etc.

  18. Word Sorts for General Music Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Word sorts are standard practice for aiding children in acquiring skills in English language arts. When included in the general music classroom, word sorts may aid students in acquiring a working knowledge of music vocabulary. The author shares a word sort activity drawn from vocabulary in John Lithgow's children's book "Never Play…

  19. Sorting device suitable for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device is described for handling and sorting various items and especially linen from laundry bags of a nuclear plant for separation of contaminated and non contaminated objects before washing. It includes reception means, a glove box type enclosure for sorting and exit means of sorted items. Preferentially a ventilation maintains a depression inside

  20. On the Construction of Sorted Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We develop a theory of sorted bigraphical reactive systems. Every application of bigraphs in the literature has required an extension, a sorting, of pure bigraphs. In turn, every such application has required a redevelopment of the theory of pure bigraphical reactive systems for the sorting at hand...

  1. Design of Garbage Sorting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Adzimah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Domestic waste collection, sorting and disposal are major problems in many developing countries such as Ghana. It is an undeniable fact that the environment has been engulfed in filth. This filth comprises of the garbage and waste generated in homes, workplace and industrial setups. Most of this waste has found its way into the streets, gutters, in and around the homes, dung hills and worst of all, water bodies, many of which are sources of the drinking water treated at high costs or not treated at all. Approach: Garbage needs to be sorted into various components and each of such components like textile materials, polythene, foodstuffs, metals and glassware would then have to be handled separately at the disposal or recycling site. Such a process required a certain degree of literacy, discipline and certain basic equipment, for example separate collector bins or sorting bags. In the developed world this is not much a problem because every home has different polythene bags into which the various constituents of domestic waste are put right at the generation point. Separate collection bins were also provided at vantage points for the various types of domestic garbage collection. In the developing countries these arrangements have not been feasible because of the level of literacy, lack of appreciation of the problem, non-availability of the different types of polythene bags and poverty. Currently, most garbage collection in the developing countries is done by depositing every thing into a single container from where they are hauled to be dumped in landfills or burned in incinerators. Refuse disposal by land filling requires a sizeable land for the sole purpose of refuse disposal. This may lead to (1: Encumbering large tracks of prime land, which could not be put to other uses (2: Pollution of ground water by the leachate from the landfills (3: Breeding of leaches, rodents, mosquitoes and (4: Generation of strong stench coming

  2. Implementation of Java Card Virtual Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嵩岩; 毛志刚; 叶以正

    2000-01-01

    Java card is a new system for programming smart cards, which is based on the Java language and Virtual Machine. Java card programs (applets)run in Java Card Runtime Environment (JCRE) including the Java Card Virtual Machine (JCVM), the framework, the associated native methods and the API (Application Programming Interface). JCVM is implemented as two separate pieces:off-card VM (Virtual Machine) and on-card VM. The stack model and heap memory structure used by on-card VM and exception handling are introduced. Because there are limited resources within smart card environment, and garbage collection is not supported in JCVM, the preferred way to exception handling does not directly involve the use of throw, although the throw keyword is supported. Security is the most important feature of smart card. The Java card applet security feature is also discussed.

  3. How does the Shift-insertion sort behave when the sorting elements follow a Normal distribution?

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Mita; Mahanti, N C

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examines the behavior of Shift-insertion sort (insertion sort with shifting) for normal distribution inputs and is in continuation of our earlier work on this new algorithm for discrete distribution inputs, namely, negative binomial. Shift insertion sort is found more sensitive for main effects but not for all interaction effects compared to conventional insertion sort.

  4. BEHAVIOR BASED CREDIT CARD FRAUD DETECTION USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dheepa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with the great increase of internet and e-commerce, the use of credit card is an unavoidable one. Due to the increase of credit card usage, the frauds associated with this have also increased. There are a lot of approaches used to detect the frauds. In this paper, behavior based classification approach using Support Vector Machines are employed and efficient feature extraction method also adopted. If any discrepancies occur in the behaviors transaction pattern then it is predicted as suspicious and taken for further consideration to find the frauds. Generally credit card fraud detection problem suffers from a large amount of data, which is rectified by the proposed method. Achieving finest accuracy, high fraud catching rate and low false alarms are the main tasks of this approach.

  5. Polarized sorting and trafficking in epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinwang Cao; Michal A Surma; Kai Simons

    2012-01-01

    The polarized distribution of proteins and lipids at the surface membrane of epithelial cells results in the formation of an apical and a basolateral domain,which are separated by tight junctions.The generation and maintenance of epithelial polarity require elaborate mechanisms that guarantee correct sorting and vectorial delivery of cargo molecules.This dynamic process involves the interaction of sorting signals with sorting machineries and the formation of transport carriers.Here we review the recent advances in the field of polarized sorting in epithelial cells.We especially highlight the role of lipid rafts in apical sorting.

  6. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Korir, George

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes a series of operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series ...

  7. Hydrodynamics on graphic cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of high-energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC ideal and dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is used to calculate the evolution of hot and dense QCD matter. A large body of current numerical tools employs relativistic hydrodynamics in various facets. The acceleration of relativistic hydrodynamics using graphic cards (GPUs) is therefore of highest relevance to this fields. The results reported here are based on the Sharp And Smooth Transport Algorithm SHASTA, which is employed in many hydrodynamical models and hybrid simulation packages, e.g. the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD). We have redesigned the SHASTA using the OpenCL computing framework to work on accelerators like graphic processing units (GPUs) as well as on multi-core processors. With the redesign of the algorithm the hydrodynamic calculations have been accelerated by a factor 160 allowing for event-by-event calculations and better statistics in hybrid calculations.

  8. Marital Sorting and Parental Wealth

    OpenAIRE

    Kerwin Kofi Charles; Erik Hurst; Alexandra Killewald

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), this paper studies the degree to which spouses sort in the marriage market on the basis of parental wealth. We estimate a variety of models, including transition matrices, OLS and TSLS models to deal with measurement error in wealth reports. Our various results show that men and women in the U.S. marry spouses whose parents have wealth similar to that of their own parents; and are very unlikely to marry persons from very different par...

  9. Microfluidic systems for optical sorting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Jan; Pilát, Zdeněk; Šerý, Mojmír; Kaňka, Jan; Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Zemánek, Pavel

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2012, 86970W: 1-9. ISBN 978-0-8194-9481-8. [CPS 2012. Czech-Polish-Slovak Optical Conference on Wave and Quantum Aspects of Contemporary Optics /18./. Ostravice (CZ), 03.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/433; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP205/11/1687 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : microfluidic * cell sorting * optical tweezers * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  10. 12 CFR 541.8 - Debit card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debit card. 541.8 Section 541.8 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.8 Debit card. The term debit card means a card that enables...

  11. Credit Cards. Bulletin No. 721. (Revised.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Linda Kirk

    This cooperative extension bulletin provides basic information about credit cards and their use. It covers the following topics: types of credit cards (revolving credit, travel and entertainment, and debit); factors to consider when evaluating a credit card (interest rates, grace period, and annual membership fee); other credit card costs (late…

  12. Payment Cards Market Competition Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2005-01-01

    China is widely recognized to be one of the domestic payment card markets with greatest potential. According to statistics from the People's Bank of China, the country's central bank, the number of bank cards in China had risen to 76z million as of the end of 2004, a figure that included 663 million debit cards and 98 million credit cards.

  13. The c-cards game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    C-cards are an easy-to-reify, graphical formalism capable of expressing computational systems, discrete both in time and in space. The main goal of the project aims at scaling-down the learning complexity of Computer Science core contents. We argue that our cards present many dimensions...... of flexibility, resulting in a highly customizable learning object, that gives teachers and pedagogues freedom with respect to reification and deployment strategies. The correlation between the c-cards game and children's soft skills is also discussed....

  14. Sorting and Selection in Posets

    CERN Document Server

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Mossel, Elchanan; Riesenfeld, Samantha; Verbin, Elad

    2007-01-01

    Classical problems of sorting and searching assume an underlying linear ordering of the objects being compared. In this paper, we study a more general setting, in which some pairs of objects are incomparable. This generalization is relevant in applications related to rankings in sports, college admissions, or conference submissions. It also has potential applications in biology, such as comparing the evolutionary fitness of different strains of bacteria, or understanding input-output relations among a set of metabolic reactions or the causal influences among a set of interacting genes or proteins. Our results improve and extend results from two decades ago of Faigle and Tur\\'{a}n. A measure of complexity of a partially ordered set (poset) is its width. Our algorithms obtain information about a poset by queries that compare two elements. We present an algorithm that sorts, i.e. completely identifies, a width w poset of size n and has query complexity O(wn + nlog(n)), which is within a constant factor of the in...

  15. A secure additive protocol for card players

    CERN Document Server

    Cordon-Franco, Andres; Fernandez-Duque, David; Joosten, Joost J; Soler-Toscano, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Consider three players Alice, Bob and Cath who hold a, b and c cards, respectively, from a deck of d=a+b+c cards. The cards are all different and players only know their own cards. Suppose Alice and Bob wish to communicate their cards to each other without Cath learning whether Alice or Bob holds a specific card. Considering the cards as consecutive natural numbers 0,1,..., we investigate general conditions for when Alice or Bob can safely announce the sum of the cards they hold modulo an appropriately chosen integer. We demonstrate that this holds whenever a,b>2 and c=1. Because Cath holds a single card, this also implies that Alice and Bob will learn the card deal from the other player's announcement.

  16. From EuCARD to EuCARD-2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chaudron, M

    2013-01-01

    The one word that best describes the spirit of the EuCARD ’13 event (see here) that took place from 10 to 14 June at CERN is "collaboration". The event brought together more than 180 accelerator specialists from all over the world to celebrate the conclusion of the EuCARD project and to kick off its successor, EuCARD-2.   EuCARD-2 brings a global view to particle accelerator research in order to address challenges for future generations of accelerators. The project officially began on 1 May 2013 and will run for four years. With a total budget of €23.4 million, including an €8 million EU contribution, it will build upon the success of EuCARD and push it into an even more innovative regime. EuCARD-2 aims to significantly enhance multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators and will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science. This will be accomplished by promoting complementary expertise, cross-d...

  17. Fast Parallel Sorting Algorithms on GPUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Jan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the three widely used parallel sorting algorithms: Odd-Even sort, Rank sort and Bitonic sort in terms of sorting rate, sorting time and speed-up on CPU anddifferent GPU architectures. Alongside we have implemented novel parallel algorithm: min-max butterflynetwork, for finding minimum and maximum in large data sets. All algorithms have been implementedexploiting data parallelism model, for achieving high performance, as available on multi-core GPUsusing the OpenCL specification. Our results depicts minimum speed-up19x of bitonic sort against oddevensorting technique for small queue sizes on CPU and maximum of 2300x speed-up for very largequeue sizes on Nvidia Quadro 6000 GPU architecture. Our implementation of full-butterfly networksorting results in relatively better performance than all of the three sorting techniques: bitonic, odd-evenand rank sort. For min-max butterfly network, our findings report high speed-up of Nvidia quadro 6000GPU for high data set size reaching 224 with much lower sorting time.

  18. Recyclable Waste Paper Sorting Using Template Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiur Rahman, Mohammad; Hussain, Aini; Scavino, Edgar; Hannan, M. A.; Basri, Hassan

    This paper explores the application of image processing techniques in recyclable waste paper sorting. In recycling, waste papers are segregated into various grades as they are subjected to different recycling processes. Highly sorted paper streams will facilitate high quality end products, and save processing chemicals and energy. Since 1932 to 2009, different mechanical and optical paper sorting methods have been developed to fill the demand of paper sorting. Still, in many countries including Malaysia, waste papers are sorted into different grades using manual sorting system. Due to inadequate throughput and some major drawbacks of mechanical paper sorting systems, the popularity of optical paper sorting systems is increased. Automated paper sorting systems offer significant advantages over human inspection in terms of fatigue, throughput, speed, and accuracy. This research attempts to develop a smart vision sensing system that able to separate the different grades of paper using Template Matching. For constructing template database, the RGB components of the pixel values are used to construct RGBString for template images. Finally, paper object grade is identified based on the maximum occurrence of a specific template image in the search image. The outcomes from the experiment in classification for White Paper, Old Newsprint Paper and Old Corrugated Cardboard are 96%, 92% and 96%, respectively. The remarkable achievement obtained with the method is the accurate identification and dynamic sorting of all grades of papers using simple image processing techniques.

  19. Energy efficient data sorting using standard sorting algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Bunse, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Protecting the environment by saving energy and thus reducing carbon dioxide emissions is one of todays hottest and most challenging topics. Although the perspective for reducing energy consumption, from ecological and business perspectives is clear, from a technological point of view, the realization especially for mobile systems still falls behind expectations. Novel strategies that allow (software) systems to dynamically adapt themselves at runtime can be effectively used to reduce energy consumption. This paper presents a case study that examines the impact of using an energy management component that dynamically selects and applies the "optimal" sorting algorithm, from an energy perspective, during multi-party mobile communication. Interestingly, the results indicate that algorithmic performance is not key and that dynamically switching algorithms at runtime does have a significant impact on energy consumption. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  20. SEPA, efficiency, and payment card competition

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Wilko; Schmiedel, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the welfare implications of creating a Single Euro Payments Area. We study the effects of increased network compatibility and payment scale economies on consumer and merchant card fees and its impact on card usage. In particular, we model competition among debit cards and between debit and credit cards. We show that competitive pressures dampen merchant fees and increase total card acceptance. The paper argues that there is room for multilateral interchange fee arrangement...

  1. Prepaid card models: a study in diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Julia S. Cheney

    2005-01-01

    Summary: On January 13, 2005, the Payment Cards Center of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia sponsored a workshop led by Gary Palmer, chief operating officer and co-founder of WildCard Systems, to examine the developing market for prepaid card products. Palmer described several distinct types of prepaid card value propositions, each with its own set of operational needs and customer servicing requirements. In addition, Palmer described new roles that exist in prepaid card programs that ...

  2. An integrated development environment for Java Card

    OpenAIRE

    Attali, I.; Caromel, D.; Courbis, C.; Henrio, L.; Nilsson, H

    2001-01-01

    This article describes a Java Card programming environment which to a large extent is generated from formal specifications of the syntax and semantics of Java Card, the Java Card Runtime Environment (JCRE), and the Java Card APIs. The resulting environment consists of a set of tightly integrated and somewhat smart tools, such as a Java-specific structure editor and a simulator which allows an application to be tested before being downloaded to a card. Furthermore, the simulator analyses the a...

  3. Credit card debt and payment use

    OpenAIRE

    Sprenger, Charles; Stavins, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Approximately half of credit card holders in the United States regularly carry unpaid credit card debt. These so-called "revolvers" exhibit payment behavior that differs from that of those who repay their entire credit card balance every month. Previous literature has focused on the adoption of debit cards by people who carry credit card balances, but so far there has been no empirical analysis exploring the relationship between revolving behavior and patterns of payment use, such as substitu...

  4. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  5. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  6. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: ­ a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) ­ the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  7. All Cards On the Table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Foreign-funded banks were allowed to issue bank cards after securing renminbi business for Chinese citizens last December, ushering in toe-to-toe competition between Chinese and foreign banks The China Banking Regulatory Commission(CBRC) began

  8. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  9. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  10. UK Punched Card Reference Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation for using and reading punched cards kept at the UK Met Office. Includes five Marine and one upper air manual, dated from 1953-1981.

  11. Stream processing health card application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Seda; Gündem, Taflan Imre

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a data stream management system embedded to a smart card for handling and storing user specific summaries of streaming data coming from medical sensor measurements and/or other medical measurements. The data stream management system that we propose for a health card can handle the stream data rates of commonly known medical devices and sensors. It incorporates a type of context awareness feature that acts according to user specific information. The proposed system is cheap and provides security for private data by enhancing the capabilities of smart health cards. The stream data management system is tested on a real smart card using both synthetic and real data. PMID:22127523

  12. NOC rate card: Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    These catalogues list all items that will be available for the National Olympic Committees through the Rio 2016 Rate Card portal. They contain also the terms and conditions for all the NOC's purchases.

  13. Partner rate card: Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Welcome to the London 2012 Partner Rate Card catalogue, the easy way to order the products, services and facilities you will need to deliver hospitality programmes at the Olympic Hospitality Centre and showcasing facilities at the Olympic Park.

  14. Fixing the Sorting Algorithm for Android, Java and Python

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, C.P.T. de; Boer, F.S. de

    2015-01-01

    Tim Peters developed the Timsort hybrid sorting algorithm in 2002. TimSort was first developed for Python, a popular programming language, but later ported to Java (where it appears as java.util.Collections.sort and java.util.Arrays.sort). TimSort is today used as the default sorting algorithm in Ja

  15. OPENING HOURS FOR CARDS OFFICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Due to the extra workload generated by the global renewal of French cards and in order to preserve the level of service offered by the cards office, please note that this office will in future be open every morning from 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. until further notice. The service can be contacted by telephone during the same hours. Thank you for your understanding.

  16. Customer interest in greeting cards

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis project is to research the consumer interest in greeting cards in Espoo, Finland. Therefore, this thesis can give elaborate information about customer preferences in greeting cards’ features in Espoo for the case company, Active Paper, an enterprise focused on the development of bioactive paper based product. Moreover, the main objective of this thesis is to figure out the customer interest in greeting card in Espoo to provide information about consumer behavior not...

  17. Payment cards on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Vybíralová, Simona

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with payment options on the Internet and is primarily focused on payment cards both in terms of their risks of use, and their popularity from the perspective of merchants and customers. The thesis is divided into six chapters. The first part talks about available payment methods when paying in Czech e-shops. The second part is relates to payment cards in terms of the brief description of its development, current situation, classification, security, security risks and securit...

  18. Credit cards on the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Kvasnička, David

    2009-01-01

    Fast development of modern technologies brings new opportunities, which carry new risks. This work is aimed at options of using credit cards and electronic wallets, younger competitors of credit cards, on the internet. Huge amount of funds flows through those systems every year. Competitive environment forces companies provide more comfortable and more sophisticated systems. Together with new technologies come new risks. Situation is more complex with unsolved old troubles replaced by new one...

  19. Authentication System based on ID-Network Smart Cards (ID-NSCards) for Critical Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Cámara, José María

    2008-01-01

    Researchers in the Information Security area in the Carlos III University of Madrid (Spain) are interested to exploit the potential of an emerging technology: network smart cards. These new devices have a number of additional advantages for communications security in networked systems, comparing with the traditional smart cards. These interesting features could be applied to individuals identification procedures in environments where critical tasks or operations take place. The required colla...

  20. A nonparametric Bayesian alternative to spike sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Frank; Black, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of extra-cellular neural recordings typically begins with careful spike sorting and all analysis of the data then rests on the correctness of the resulting spike trains. In many situations this is unproblematic as experimental and spike sorting procedures often focus on well isolated units. There is evidence in the literature, however, that errors in spike sorting can occur even with carefully collected and selected data. Additionally, chronically implanted electrodes and arrays ...

  1. SawjaCard: A Static Analysis Tool for Certifying Java Card Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Besson, Frédéric; Jensen, Thomas; Vittet, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a static analysis tool for certifying Java Card applications, according to security rules defined by the smart card industry. Java Card is a dialect of Java designed for programming multi-application smart cards and the tool, called SawjaCard, has been specialised for the particular Java Card programming patterns. The tool is built around a static analysis engine which uses a combination of numeric and heap analysis. It includes a model of...

  2. Fast algorithms for sorting and searching strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, J.L. [Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Sedgewick, R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1997-06-01

    We present theoretical algorithms for sorting and searching multikey data, and derive from them practical C implementations for applications in which keys are character strings. The sorting algorithm blends Quicksort and radix sort; it is competitive with the best known C sort codes. The searching algorithm blends tries and binary search trees; it is faster than hashing and other commonly used search methods. The basic ideas behind the algorithms date back at least to the 1960s, but their practical utility has been overlooked. We also present extensions to more complex string problems, such as partial-match searching.

  3. The Loyalty Card: Issues in Evaluating Loyalty Program Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Acatrinei; Teodora Viviana Puiu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper addresses the issue of correctly evaluating the impact of a loyalty program in retail stores when it is difficult to establish causality relations in what concerns joining a particular program. Since there are numerous costs related to technology, human resources and promotion associated with the choice of introducing a loyalty card, retail managers are faced with the very difficult and essential task to estimate the future benefits. The research conducted as a support for t...

  4. Design and realization of sort manipulator of crystal-angle sort machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-shun; Chen, Shu-ping; Guan, Shou-ping; Zhang, Yao-wei

    2005-12-01

    It is a current tendency of development in automation technology to replace manpower with manipulators in working places where dangerous, harmful, heavy or repetitive work is involved. The sort manipulator is installed in a crystal-angle sort machine to take the place of manpower, and engaged in unloading and sorting work. It is the outcome of combing together mechanism, electric transmission, and pneumatic element and micro-controller control. The step motor makes the sort manipulator operate precisely. The pneumatic elements make the sort manipulator be cleverer. Micro-controller's software bestows some simple artificial intelligence on the sort manipulator, so that it can precisely repeat its unloading and sorting work. The combination of manipulator's zero position and step motor counting control puts an end to accumulating error in long time operation. A sort manipulator's design in the practice engineering has been proved to be correct and reliable.

  5. Comparison of spike sorting and thresholding of voltage waveforms for intracortical brain-machine interface performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Breanne P.; Tat, Derek M.; Irwin, Zachary T.; Gilja, Vikash; Nuyujukian, Paul; Foster, Justin D.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Thompson, David E.; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. For intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), action potential voltage waveforms are often sorted to separate out individual neurons. If these neurons contain independent tuning information, this process could increase BMI performance. However, the sorting of action potentials (‘spikes’) requires high sampling rates and is computationally expensive. To explicitly define the difference between spike sorting and alternative methods, we quantified BMI decoder performance when using threshold-crossing events versus sorted action potentials. Approach. We used data sets from 58 experimental sessions from two rhesus macaques implanted with Utah arrays. Data were recorded while the animals performed a center-out reaching task with seven different angles. For spike sorting, neural signals were sorted into individual units by using a mixture of Gaussians to cluster the first four principal components of the waveforms. For thresholding events, spikes that simply crossed a set threshold were retained. We decoded the data offline using both a Naïve Bayes classifier for reaching direction and a linear regression to evaluate hand position. Main results. We found the highest performance for thresholding when placing a threshold between -3 and -4.5 × Vrms. Spike sorted data outperformed thresholded data for one animal but not the other. The mean Naïve Bayes classification accuracy for sorted data was 88.5% and changed by 5% on average when data were thresholded. The mean correlation coefficient for sorted data was 0.92, and changed by 0.015 on average when thresholded. Significance. For prosthetics applications, these results imply that when thresholding is used instead of spike sorting, only a small amount of performance may be lost. The utilization of threshold-crossing events may significantly extend the lifetime of a device because these events are often still detectable once single neurons are no longer isolated.

  6. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher (Modesto, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA)

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  7. Engineering a Cache-Oblivious Sorting Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Vinther, Kristoffer

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an algorithmic engineering study of cache-oblivious sorting. We investigate by empirical methods a number of implementation issues and parameter choices for the cache-oblivious sorting algorithm Lazy Funnelsort, and compare the final algorithm with Quicksort, the established standard...

  8. Data Sorting Using Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Mišić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphics processing units (GPUs have been increasingly used for general-purpose computation in recent years. The GPU accelerated applications are found in both scientific and commercial domains. Sorting is considered as one of the very important operations in many applications, so its efficient implementation is essential for the overall application performance. This paper represents an effort to analyze and evaluate the implementations of the representative sorting algorithms on the graphics processing units. Three sorting algorithms (Quicksort, Merge sort, and Radix sort were evaluated on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA platform that is used to execute applications on NVIDIA graphics processing units. Algorithms were tested and evaluated using an automated test environment with input datasets of different characteristics. Finally, the results of this analysis are briefly discussed.

  9. Approach to recognition of flexible form for credit card expiration date recognition as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshkus, Alexander; Nikolaev, Dmitry P.; Ingacheva, Anastasia; Skoryukina, Natalya

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we consider a task of finding information fields within document with flexible form for credit card expiration date field as example. We discuss main difficulties and suggest possible solutions. In our case this task is to be solved on mobile devices therefore computational complexity has to be as low as possible. In this paper we provide results of the analysis of suggested algorithm. Error distribution of the recognition system shows that suggested algorithm solves the task with required accuracy.

  10. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  11. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  12. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR DIVISION

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  13. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  14. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  15. Card Sort Technique in Vocational Guidance/Career Counseling: Pilot Study about Career Values

    OpenAIRE

    Tülin ACAR; DEMİR, Yalçın; Korkut, Fidan; HASKAN, Özlem; Tuğba KABALCI; Dilşad KUTSAL; İlker Mustafa PEKİN; Esra TURHAN

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and to pilot a not-test technique for assessing career and work values. This instrument was developed during a Career Counseling course taught by one of the authors of this paper. The first stage of development was the generation of a master list of career and work values, as reflected in the current literature related to theories and vocational research. From this master list 38 career values were selected resulting in the final deck that was used i...

  16. From subprime mortgages to subprime credit cards

    OpenAIRE

    Margo Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Since the 2005 changes to bankruptcy law made subprime products safer for credit card companies, they are promoting more cards to consumers with poor credit. High up-front fees and penalties may call for consumer caution.

  17. Anticompetitive Regulation in the Payment Card Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Mann

    2011-01-01

    The Credit CARD Act and the Durbin Amendment in the Dodd-Frank Act, despite their purpose, may end up concentrating the payment card industry and harming small banking institutions. Ronald Mann (Columbia)

  18. NCDC Punched Card Inventory - 1950s

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Index of foreign weather data available on punched cards held at the Joint Punched Card Library in Asheville NC, produced in the late 1950s, and also station/data...

  19. An Anonymous Credit Card System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven

    Credit cards have many important benefits; however, these same benefits often carry with them many privacy concerns. In particular, the need for users to be able to monitor their own transactions, as well as bank’s need to justify its payment requests from cardholders, entitle the latter to maintain a detailed log of all transactions its credit card customers were involved in. A bank can thus build a profile of each cardholder even without the latter’s consent. In this paper, we present a practical and accountable anonymous credit system based on ecash, with a privacy preserving mechanism for error correction and expense-reporting.

  20. Embedded Eavesdropping on Java Card

    OpenAIRE

    Barbu, Guillaume; Giraud, Christophe; Guerin, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present the first Combined Attack on a Java Card targeting the APDU buffer itself, thus threatening both the security of the platform and of the hosted applications as well as the privacy of the cardholder. We show that such an attack, which combines malicious application and fault injection, is achievable in practice on the latest release of the Java Card specifications by presenting several case studies taking advantage for instance of the well-known GlobalPlatform and (U...

  1. Calibration of TOB+ Thermometer's Cards

    CERN Document Server

    Banitt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Motivation - Under the new upgrade of the CMS detector the working temperature of the trackers had been reduced to -27 Celsius degrees. Though the thermal sensors themselves (Murata and Fenwal thermistors) are effective at these temperatures, the max1542 PLC (programmable logic controller) cards, interpreting the resistance of the thermal sensors into DC counts usable by the DCS (detector control system), are not designed for these temperatures in which the counts exceed their saturation and therefor had to be replaced. In my project I was in charge of handling the emplacement and calibration of the new PLC cards to the TOB (tracker outer barrel) control system.

  2. 26 CFR 301.6311-2 - Payment by credit card and debit card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment by credit card and debit card. 301.6311-2 Section 301.6311-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Collection General Provisions § 301.6311-2 Payment by credit card and debit card....

  3. Enhancement of Selection, Bubble and Insertion Sorting Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq Umar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In everyday life there is a large amount of data to arrange because sorting removes any ambiguities and make the data analysis and data processing very easy, efficient and provides with cost less effort. In this study a set of improved sorting algorithms are proposed which gives better performance and design idea. In this study five new sorting algorithms (Bi-directional Selection Sort, Bi-directional bubble sort, MIDBiDirectional Selection Sort, MIDBidirectional bubble sort and linear insertion sort are presented. Bi-directional Selection Sort and MIDBiDirectional Selection Sort are the enhancement on basic selection sort while Bidirectional bubble sort and MIDBidirectional bubble sort are the enhancement on basic bubble sort by changing the selection and swapping mechanism of data for sorting. Enhanced sorting algorithms reduced the iteration by half and quarter times respectively. Asymptotically complexities of these algorithms are reduced to O (n2/2 and O (n2/4 from O (n2. Linear insertion sort is the enhancement of insertion sort by changing the design of algorithm (convert two loops to one loop. So asymptotically this algorithm is converted to linear time complexity from quadratic complexity. These sorting algorithms are described using C. The proposed algorithms are analyzed using asymptotic analysis and also using machine-running time and compared with their basic sorting algorithms. In this study we also discuss how the performance and complexity can be improved by optimizing the code and design.

  4. Oligopoly Model of a Debit Card Network

    OpenAIRE

    Manchev, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The paper builds an oligopoly model of a debit card network. It examines the competition between debit card issuers. We show that there is an optimal pricing for the debit card network, which maximizes all issuer's revenues. The paper also shows that establishing a link between debit card networks averages the costs provided that there is no growth in the customer's usage of the networks, resulting from the link.

  5. Credit Card Usage and Knowledge in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sangsutisearee, Wanna

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between the characteristics of credit card holders and the extent of credit card usage, the level of credit card knowledge, and the consumer's choice perspectives. The characteristics of credit card holders studied were (a) gender, (b) age, (c) marital status, (d) education, (e) income, and (f) occupation. Data for this study were collected in Bangkok, Thailand by telephone interviews during July- August 1993. The sample consisted of 1...

  6. An evaluation of the Java Card environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rippert, Christophe; Hagimont, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present the experiment we have conducted to evaluate the suitability of Java cards for advanced applications. We developed a resource-consuming application in a Java card using only the specified Java Card environment, and noted which missing features could have been useful to improve the functionalities of our application or to ease its development. We then propose new system services to improve the Java Card environment.

  7. MESURE Tool to benchmark Java Card platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Paradinas; Julien Cordry; Samia Bouzefrane

    2009-01-01

    The advent of the Java Card standard has been a major turning point in smart card technology. With the growing acceptance of this standard, understanding the performance behavior of these platforms is becoming crucial. To meet this need, we present in this paper a novel benchmarking framework to test and evaluate the performance of Java Card platforms. MESURE tool is the first framework which accuracy and effectiveness are independent from the particular Java Card platform tested and CAD used.

  8. Data transfer based on intelligent ethernet card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intelligent Ethernet Cards are widely used in systems where the network throughout is very large, such as the DAQ systems for modern high energy physics experiments, web service. With the example of a commercial intelligent Ethernet card, this paper introduces the architecture, the principle and the process of intelligent Ethernet cards. In addition, the results of several experiments showing the differences between intelligent Ethernet cards and general ones are also presented. (authors)

  9. Smart Card Driving License System in Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Gujarat was the first state in India which introduced the smart card license system in 1999. It was the first place in the world which introduced this innovative system and, thus, its implementation was a real challenge. As of now, Gujarat Government has issued 5 million smart card driving licenses to its people. This card is basically a plastic card having ISO 7810 certification and integrated circuit,capable of storing and verifying information according to its programming. To avoid corrupt...

  10. Debit card competition: signature versus pin

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Lubasi

    2005-01-01

    This article explores costs and benefits of two types of debit card authorization methods—signature and PIN (personal identification number)—for merchants, consumers, and financial institutions. It also considers competition between signature- and PIN-based debit cards in the United States and looks at Canada's predominant usage of PIN-based debit cards.

  11. Development of an Active SERCOS Card

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu,Yanqiang; Huan,Ji

    2004-01-01

    SERCOS is a data exchange protocol between CNCcontroller and digital drives. The author developed an Active SERCOS Card based on PC ISA bus. With this card, we can control digital drives with SERCOS interfaces without any detailed knowledge of SERCOS. This paper introduces the hardware and software architectures of the card.

  12. Engineering software development with HyperCard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    The successful and unsuccessful techniques used in the development of software using HyperCard are described. The viability of the HyperCard for engineering is evaluated and the future use of HyperCard by this particular group of developers is discussed.

  13. Creating Greeting Cards: A Business Brings Pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The learning experiences in the teacher's guide provide second, third, and fourth grade students at the primary level with the opportunity to participate in the creation and production of greeting cards. Students explore different kinds of cards and become involved in the production process of a simulated greeting card company. They learn about…

  14. Chinese Credit Card Interest Rate: Recent Credit Card Pricing Model Progress and the Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ting

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, while the cost of funds has fallen, credit card rates have remained stubbornly high, spurring legislators to consider imposing interest rate ceilings on credit card rates. The fast development of the credit card business depends on its potential high profit. Internationally, the credit card annual interest rate maintains 18% ~ 24%. Moreover, it does not change along with the benchmark interest rate. Chinese credit card interest rate formulated in 1996 was "the date intere...

  15. The economics of payment card fee structure: what drives payment card rewards?

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Hayashi

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates potential market forces that cause payment card rewards even when providing payment card rewards is not the most efficient. Three factors-oligopolistic merchants, output-maximizing card networks, and the merchant's inability to set different prices across payment methods-may potentially explain the prevalence of payment card rewards programs in the United States today. The paper also points out that competition among card networks may potentially make payment rewards t...

  16. Security of Visa card and MasterCard for e-transaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2009-01-01

    With the rapidly growth of information and technology, e-business is becoming a buzz word. It has been brought enormous benefits. But there are still hidden dangers for these businesses. The security of payment card is essential for e-transactions. So it is vital for businesses to protect the security of payment card. MasterCard and Visa Card are two types of card that are widely used by most people for online transaction (Davis. & Bensmati, 2003).

  17. A puzzle of card payment pricing : why are merchants still accepting card payments?

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Hayashi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents models that explain why merchants accept payment cards even when the fees they face exceed the transactional benefits they receive from a card transaction. Such merchant behaviors can be explained by competition among merchants and/or the effectiveness of the merchant’s card acceptance in shifting cardholders’ demand for goods upward. The prevalent assumption used in payment card literature—merchants accept cards only when their transactional benefits are higher than the f...

  18. Improving Institutional Report Card Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Institutional report cards are increasingly being used by higher educational institutions to present academic outcomes to external audiences of prospective students and parents, as well as program and institutional evaluators. While some prospective students are served by national transparency measures most users mine information from the…

  19. Resource Cards on California Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This convenient spiral-bound volume contains the latest data on school finance as well as information on students, teachers, and California's accountability system. The 37-card 2007 edition provides fingertip access to the latest information about California's education system. They are separated into sections that cover related topics. Each…

  20. Selection sorting Algorithm Visualization Using Flash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sutopo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to develop an algorithm visualization, particularly selection sorting for an Algorithm and Programming course. Algorithm visualization technology graphically illustrates howalgorithms work. This visualization can be used to explain how all data move to the proper position in order to be sorted in a display computer for education. This research consists of 6 steps which areconcept, design, obtaining content material, assembly, testing, and distribution. During the testing step, the application is run and checked to confirm that it performs exactly what the author has intended and the students can learn selection sorting algorithm by studying the visualization. Subjects of the research were students at Department of Informatics Universitas Persada Indonesia YAI for implementation of the learning. The data were analysed using the analytic descriptive method and interpreted in a narrativeway based on the research findings. The algorithm visualization indicates that students increase their motivation and ability to program variety of sorting in programming language they learn.

  1. Quantum Database Search can do without Sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, A

    2001-01-01

    Sorting is a fundamental computational process, which facilitates subsequent searching of a database. It can be thought of as factorisation of the search process. The location of a desired item in a sorted database can be found by classical queries that inspect one letter of the label at a time. For an unsorted database, no such classical quick search algorithm is available. If the database permits quantum queries, however, then mere digitisation is sufficient for efficient search. Sorting becomes redundant with the quantum superposition of states. A quantum algorithm is written down which locates the desired item in an unsorted database a factor of two faster than the best classical algorithm can in a sorted database. This algorithm has close resemblance to the assembly process in DNA replication.

  2. Cell sorting by deterministic cell rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sungyoung; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Karnik, Rohit

    2011-01-01

    This communication presents the concept of “deterministic cell rolling”, which leverages transient cell-surface molecular interactions that mediate cell rolling to sort cells with high purity and efficiency in a single step.

  3. Upgrade of the CSC Endcap Muon Port Card at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveev, M; Padley, P, E-mail: matveev@rice.ed [Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The Muon Port Card (MPC) provides optical transmission of Level 1 Trigger primitives from 60 Endcap peripheral crates to the Track Finder (TF) crate within the CMS Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) sub-detector at the CMS experiment at CERN. The system has been in operation since 2008 and comprises 180 1.6 Gbps optical links. The proposed Super-LHC (SLHC) upgrade implies higher data volumes to be transmitted through the trigger chain and more sophisticated trigger algorithms. We expect to upgrade the MPC boards within the next few years to accommodate these requirements. The paper presents the first results of simulation and prototyping with the goal of improving the sorting algorithms and using parallel 12-channel optical links and a more powerful Virtex-5 FPGA.

  4. Sorting pathways of mitochondrial inner membrane proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Mahlke, Kerstin; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Martin, Jörg; Horwich, Arthur; Hartl, Franz-Ulrich; Neupert, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Two distinct pathways of sorting and assembly of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial inner membrane proteins are described. In the first pathway, precursor proteins that carry amino-terminal targeting signals are initially translocated via contact sites between both mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. They become proteolytically processed, interact with the 60-kDa heat-shock protein hsp60 in the matrix and are retranslocated to the inner membrane. The sorting of subunit 9 of Neur...

  5. Another Definition of Order—Sorted Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何自强

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the definition of order-sorted algebra is generalized by introducing transformation functions between subtypes and supertypes.According to our definition,a type needn't be a subset of its supertype and a record model may form an order-sorted algebra.A new definition of equation is given.It has also been proved that equational theories and describing single inheritance have the initial model.

  6. Association between two distinct executive tasks in schizophrenia: a functional transcranial Doppler sonography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoridou Anastasia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder involving impairments in executive functioning, which are important cognitive processes that can be assessed by planning tasks such as the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC, and tasks of rule learning/abstraction such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. We undertook this study to investigate the association between performance during separate phases of SOC and WCST, including mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV measurements in chronic schizophrenia. Methods Functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD was used to assess bilateral MFV changes in the middle (MCA and anterior (ACA cerebral arteries. Twenty-two patients with chronic schizophrenia and 20 healthy subjects with similar sociodemographic characteristics performed SOC and WCST during fTCD measurements of the MCA and the ACA. The SOC was varied in terms of easy and difficult problems, and also in terms of separate phases, namely mental planning and movement execution. The WCST performance was assessed separately for maintaining set and set shifting. This allowed us to examine the impact of problem difficulty and the impact of separate phases of a planning task on distinct intervals of WCST. Simultaneous registration of MFV was carried out to investigate the linkage of brain perfusion during the tasks. Results In patients, slowing of movement execution during easy problems (SOC was associated with slowing during maintaining set (WCST (P Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate performance and brain perfusion abnormalities in the association pattern of two different tasks of executive functioning in schizophrenia, and they support the notion that executive functions have a pathological functional correlate predominantly in the lateral hemispheres of the brain. This study also underpins the scientific potential of fTCD in assessing brain perfusion in patients with schizophrenia.

  7. A nonparametric Bayesian alternative to spike sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frank; Black, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of extra-cellular neural recordings typically begins with careful spike sorting and all analysis of the data then rests on the correctness of the resulting spike trains. In many situations this is unproblematic as experimental and spike sorting procedures often focus on well isolated units. There is evidence in the literature, however, that errors in spike sorting can occur even with carefully collected and selected data. Additionally, chronically implanted electrodes and arrays with fixed electrodes cannot be easily adjusted to provide well isolated units. In these situations, multiple units may be recorded and the assignment of waveforms to units may be ambiguous. At the same time, analysis of such data may be both scientifically important and clinically relevant. In this paper we address this issue using a novel probabilistic model that accounts for several important sources of uncertainty and error in spike sorting. In lieu of sorting neural data to produce a single best spike train, we estimate a probabilistic model of spike trains given the observed data. We show how such a distribution over spike sortings can support standard neuroscientific questions while providing a representation of uncertainty in the analysis. As a representative illustration of the approach, we analyzed primary motor cortical tuning with respect to hand movement in data recorded with a chronic multi-electrode array in non-human primates. We found that the probabilistic analysis generally agrees with human sorters but suggests the presence of tuned units not detected by humans. PMID:18602697

  8. Rapid cognitive flexibility of rhesus macaques performing psychophysical task-switching

    OpenAIRE

    Avdagic, Ema; Jensen, Greg; Altschul, Drew; Terrace, Herbert S.

    2013-01-01

    Three rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performed a simultaneous chaining task in which stimuli had to be sorted according to their visual properties. Each stimulus could vary independently along two dimensions (luminosity and radius), and a cue indicating which dimension to sort by was random trial to trial. These rapid and unpredictable changes constitute a task-switching paradigm, in which subjects must encode task demands and shift to whichever task-set is presently activated. In contrast t...

  9. Hash sort: A linear time complexity multiple-dimensional sort algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Gilreath, William F.

    2004-01-01

    Sorting and hashing are two completely different concepts in computer science, and appear mutually exclusive to one another. Hashing is a search method using the data as a key to map to the location within memory, and is used for rapid storage and retrieval. Sorting is a process of organizing data from a random permutation into an ordered arrangement, and is a common activity performed frequently in a variety of applications. Almost all conventional sorting algorithms work by comparison, and ...

  10. Market structure and credit card pricing: what drives the interchange?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Wang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the credit card industry, where oligopolistic card networks price their products in a complex marketplace with competing payment instruments, rational consumers/merchants, and competitive card issuers/acquirers. The analysis suggests that card networks demand higher interchange fees to maximize card issuers' profits as card payments become more efficient. At equilibrium, consumer rewards and card transaction volume also increase, while consumer surplus and merc...

  11. WHAT INFLUENCE CREDIT CARD DEBTS IN YOUNG CONSUMERS IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Syed Shah; Rahim, Ruzita Abdul; Ridhwanul HAQ; Atiqur Rahman KHAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines empirically antecedents of the credit card debts in young consumers in Malaysia. We examine whether easy access to credit card, credit card related knowledge, aggressive promotion by credit card industry, low minimum payment requirement and attitude towards credit cards influence credit card debts in the younger generation. Regression model was used to meet the objectives. These findings based on a sample of 240 young credit card holders, show that the factors that affect ...

  12. Review of sound card photogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Mellar, Janos [Department of Technical Informatics, University of Szeged, Arpad ter 2, 6720 Szeged (Hungary); Makra, Peter, E-mail: gingl@inf.u-szeged.hu [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Szeged, Dom ter 9, 6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2011-07-15

    Photogates are probably the most commonly used electronic instruments to aid experiments in the field of mechanics. Although they are offered by many manufacturers, they can be too expensive to be widely used in all classrooms, in multiple experiments or even at home experimentation. Today all computers have a sound card - an interface for analogue signals. It is possible to make very simple yet highly accurate photogates for cents, while much more sophisticated solutions are also available at a still very low cost. In our paper we show several experimentally tested ways of implementing sound card photogates in detail, and we also provide full-featured, free, open-source photogate software as a much more efficient experimentation tool than the usually used sound recording programs. Further information is provided on a dedicated web page, www.noise.physx.u-szeged.hu/edudev.

  13. Chinese Green Cards Go Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHUA

    2005-01-01

    THE otherwise happy and fulfilling life of Canadian Louise Cadieux is marred by the nagging worry that she may not be able to get to her octogenarian mother in Canada at short notice, should the need arise.Louise is currently language consultant at the French Edition of China Today,and has lived and worked in China for 10 years. She explains, """"I hold an annually extendable Foreigners' Residential Card,

  14. Valutazione economica dello studio CARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona de Portu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: cardiovascular diseases (CVD are the major component of premature mortality, generate disability and are a relevant source of cost. The growing incidence of CVD is associated with lifestyle and other modifiable risk factors. Prevention and preclinical detection of CVD reduce morbidity and mortality. Type 2 diabetes is associated with a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: the aim of the study was to evaluate the health economic consequence of medical therapy with atorvastatin for primary prevention of major cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes in Italy. Materials and method: in order to reach our objective we drew clinical information from the CARDS study. This economic evaluation was carried out conducting a cost/effectiveness analysis from the perspective of National Health Service (NHS. The analysis was applied to a time horizon in conformity with the observational period adopted in the CARDS study (3.9 years. An incremental cost/effectiveness ratio (ICER was calculated and is expressed as cost per life years gained (LYG. In order to test the robustness of the results, a one-way sensitivity analysis was performed. Results: the total cost of atorvastatin therapy over 3.9 years amounts to around 1.5 million of euros per 1,000 patients. The total cost of adding atorvastatin to standard care in people treated for primary prevention of major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes as those involved in the CARDS study would entail an additional cost of about 1,2 million of euros per 1,000 patients treated per 3.9 years, with an incremental cost/effectiveness ratio (ICER equivalent to 36,566 euros per patient per LYG. Discussion: the current study is the first economic evaluation of CARDS study to the Italian situation. The results of the current study show that hypolipemic therapy with atorvastatin 10 mg in diabetic individuals is to be considered cost effective.

  15. Rh-flash acquisition card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rh-flash card main purpose is to convert and store the image of the analog data present at input into an output buffer, namely in a given timing window besides a stop signal (like a digital oscilloscope). It is conceived in VME format 1U wide with an additional connector. Novelty of this card is its ability to sample at a high frequency, due to flash coders, and this at a high repetition rate. To do that the card allows the storage of the data considered 'useful' and that is done by storing only the data exceeding a certain threshold. This can be useful for instance for viewing peaks in a spectrum, and obtaining their relative location. The goal is to stock and process the data sampled before and after the arrival of a stop signal (what entails a storage depth). A threshold is defined and any peak exceeding its level will really be stored in the output buffer which is readable through the VME bus. The peak values will be stored as well as m preceding and n subsequent values (both programmable). Obviously, if the threshold is zero the system of data processing is off and all data will be stored. The document is structured on six sections titled: 1. Description; 2. Specifications; 3. Explaining the design of channels; 4. Explaining the shared part of the design; 5. Addressing (→ user guide); 6. Software precautions. (author)

  16. Rh-flash acquisition card

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrion, O

    2003-01-01

    The rh-flash card main purpose is to convert and store the image of the analog data present at input into an output buffer, namely in a given timing window besides a stop signal (like a digital oscilloscope). It is conceived in VME format 1U wide with an additional connector. Novelty of this card is its ability to sample at a high frequency, due to flash coders, and this at a high repetition rate. To do that the card allows the storage of the data considered 'useful' and that is done by storing only the data exceeding a certain threshold. This can be useful for instance for viewing peaks in a spectrum, and obtaining their relative location. The goal is to stock and process the data sampled before and after the arrival of a stop signal (what entails a storage depth). A threshold is defined and any peak exceeding its level will really be stored in the output buffer which is readable through the VME bus. The peak values will be stored as well as m preceding and n subsequent values (both programmable). Obviously,...

  17. Card Product Use and Perception of Marketing Communication by Card Issuers among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđana Ozretić Došen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Student population is a very interesting and important segment of the market to the marketing practitioners involved in card business. The services and products offered by card issuers to students are created with a view to attracting the kind of users who will grow accustomed to a long-term, loyal use of a chosen card brand, i.e. beyond the point at which they complete their academic education. This paper describes the exploratory research on card products designed for the student population which was conducted in the Republic of Croatia. Student awareness of card products and their habits associated with card use were also examined. Additional areas of research were student attitudes and perceptions with regard to card products and to the appeal of the marketing communications which target this specific market segment. Results showed that the majority of students hold debit cards of the banks in which they have their current accounts. Students use cards actively, most of all for the purpose of withdrawing cash at automated teller machines (ATMs and least of all for Internet purchases. They assess card use as being simple, and card holders are also aware of the various benefits provided through it. However, the recall of advertisements for card products point to the conclusion that card issuers do not communicate with students in a manner which the latter would find appealing.

  18. Oxide inspecting/sorting concepts. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the preferred methods for inspecting and sorting plutonium and uranium oxides in preparation for future processing. A limited number of commercially available systems were investigated in preparation for selecting the preferred candidate(s). A complete listing and description of all the oxides to be processed can be located in ''Materials Disposition Acceptance Specifications for the Plutonium Immobilization Project'', document number PIP-98-047. For the purposes of this document, they will be referred to simply as oxides, unless there is a specific characteristic requiring further explanation. The physical transfer of the oxides from a convenience can into a standard oxide can will occur in the High Contamination section of the Unpackaging/Sorting glovebox. The degree of oxide inspecting and sorting performed will depend on the processing that will occur after Unpackaging/Sorting, on the known condition of the oxide when it is first received and the degree of confidence in its condition. The order in which the steps are performed and what occurs in the individual steps may vary depending on the method selected. For the purpose of organization and to help clarify what may occur in the individual steps, the following guidelines are proposed for the Unpackaging/Sorting glovebox. Sorting will involve the capture and removal of foreign particles and/or to detain hard lumps for additional processing in Crush and Grind. Part of the sorting stage will involve reducing workable lumps (de-lumping) into a smaller particle size in preparation for the sizing stage. Sizing will involve classifying/grading the oxide powder into a particle size that is acceptable for the next processing stage. It could involve some mild form of processing (screening, eTc.), but is not expected to include any sophisticated type of processing. Inspection refers to the inspection of the final product to ensure it meets the particle size requirements for

  19. EuCARD and CARE - development of accelerator technology in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    EuCARD (2009-1013) and CARE (2004-2008) are examples of big European R&D projects for building integrated accelerator infrastructures in Europe. Several research teams from a number of European countries are participating in this consolidated effort. Here we summarize the tasks done by some teams from Poland on a more general background.

  20. Sorting by Restricted-Length-Weighted Reversals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thach Cam Nguyen; Hieu Trung Ngo; Nguyen Bao Nguyen

    2005-01-01

    Classical sorting by reversals uses the unit-cost model, that is, each reversal consumes an equal cost. This model limits the biological meaning of sorting by reversal.Bender and his colleagues extended it by assigning a cost function f(l) = lα for all α≥ 0, where l is the length of the reversed subsequence. In this paper, we extend their results by considering a model in which long reversals are prohibited. Using the same cost function above for permitted reversals, we present tight or nearly tight bounds for the worst-case cost of sorting by reversals. Then we develop algorithms to approximate the optimal cost to sort a given 0/1 sequence as well as a given permutation. Our proposed problems are more biologically meaningful and more algorithmically general and challenging than the problem considered by Bender et al. Furthermore, our bounds are tight and nearly tight, whereas our algorithms provide good approximation ratios compared to the optimal cost to sort 0/1 sequences or permutations by reversals.

  1. Discount medical cards: innovation or illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, Mila; Libster, Jennifer; Bangit, Eliza

    2005-03-01

    Discount medical cards have come under increasing scrutiny by regulators and law enforcement officials as a result of mounting consumer-reported problems. For their study, the authors tested five cards available in the Washington, D.C., metro area; interviewed card company representatives, state attorneys general insurance regulators, and insurance agents; and reviewed court and administrative actions. While some cards provide a measure of value, other cards were found to have serious drawbacks, including: high-pressure sales tactics; misleading or inaccurate promotion; exaggerated claims of savings; difficulty finding participating doctors; and providers who failed to give cardholders promised discounts. Some discount card companies are seeking to reform the market through a trade association and voluntary code of conduct. Still, legislative and regulatory interventions will be needed to protect consumers in an unregulated and growing market. PMID:15765567

  2. Is the debit card revolution finally here?

    OpenAIRE

    Caskey, John P.; Gordon H. Sellon

    1994-01-01

    For three decades, experts on payments systems have forecast the imminent arrival of a completely electronic, paperless payment system. In this vision of the future, households, businesses, and government agencies would replace paper transactions with faster, more efficient electronic payments. The centerpiece of this new payment world is the debit card, a magnetically encoded plastic card that would eliminate cash, checks, and even credit cards in most retail transactions.> While some parts ...

  3. How many cards do you use?

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how buyers allocate their spending among debit, credit, and prepaid cards. Using the 2012 Diary of Consumer Payment Choice, I show that consumers tend to concentrate the majority of their transactions and a large value of their transactions on a single type of card. The paper also investigates whether buyers concentrate their spending on one of the card networks, a behavior known as "single-homing."

  4. Do consumers really want credit card reform?

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn L. Combs; Stacey L. Schreft

    1999-01-01

    Earlier this year, several bills were introduced in Congress to curb what many consumer advocates have described as abusive credit card practices. These bills were intended to keep credit card issuers from penalizing consumers for paying their card balances in full each month. In unveiling one of the measures, Congressman John LaFalce declared, "[Consumers] should not be tricked or trapped into escalating interest rates and unnecessary fees. And they clearly deserve better than to be punished...

  5. Credit card borrowing, delinquency, and personal bankruptcy

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Stavins

    2000-01-01

    Credit card delinquencies and personal bankruptcy rates increased during the mid 1990s, despite the strength of the U.S. economy. Even though per capita income rose during that period, household borrowing grew at an even faster pace. The rise in revolving debt-mainly credit card loans-was especially noticeable, and the increase in personal bankruptcy rates was also substantial. This article examines the relationship between consumer credit card borrowing, delinquency rates, and personal bankr...

  6. Credit Card Selection Criteria: Singapore Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia L. Gan; Ramin Cooper Maysami

    2006-01-01

    This study used factor analysis to examine credit card selection criteria among Singaporeans. The results showed that convenience of use and protection, economics, and flexibility were the main drivers, while the reputation of card was the least important in determining credit card selection in Singapore. Demographic results showed that high-income earners, the better educated, the elderly, married and the professional preferred the convenience-protection factor to the economic-promotional fa...

  7. Augmenting C-cards with music actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Valente, Andrea; Lyon, Kirstin Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The paper proposes a new way of introducing music to classes of 8 to 10 years old pupils, by adopting a recent educational tool for teaching Computer Science. Our proposal builds in fact on computational cards (or c-cards), a playful and intuitive mind-tool, that has been applied to a variety...... of Computer Science concepts. Here a simple extension to c-cards is presented, that enables pupils to build and play with tangible musical machine....

  8. C-cards in Music Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Lyon, Kirstin Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a new way of introducing music to classes of 8 to 10 years old pupils, by adopting a recent educational tool for teaching Computer Science. Our proposal builds in fact on computational cards (or c-cards), a playful and intuitive mind-tool, that has been applied to a variety...... of Computer Science concepts. Here a simple extension to c-cards is presented, that enables pupils to build and play with tangible musical machine....

  9. Developing JAVA Card Application with RMI API

    Science.gov (United States)

    JunWu, Xu; JunLing, Liang

    This paper describes research in the use of the RMI to develop Java Card applications. the Java Card RMI (JCRMI), which is based on the J2SE RMI distributed-object model. In the RMI model a server application creates and makes accessible remote objects, and a client application obtains remote references to the server's remote objects, and then invokes remote methods on them. In JCRMI, the Java Card applet is the server, and the host application is the client.

  10. Prepaid cards: vulnerable to money laundering?

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley J. Sienkiewicz

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential money laundering threat that prepaid cards face as they enter the mainstream of consumer payments. Over the past year, several government agencies have issued reports describing the threat to the U.S. financial system, including the use of prepaid cards by money launderers. Also, this paper incorporates the presentations made at a workshop hosted by the Payment Cards Center at which Patrice Motz, executive vice president, Premier Compliance Solutions, and Pa...

  11. The Market for Electronic Cash Cards

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz; Tarkka , Juha

    1998-01-01

    We develop a theoretical framework aimed to model the pricing of electronic money (electronic cash cards) and the market domain in which it will be used. We first calculate the fee structures of electronic cash- and charge-card industries for the monopoly and competitive cases. We show that the different market structures do not affect the domain of electronic cash cards and the displacement of currency in daily transactions. We provide a welfare analysis to determine whether a market equilib...

  12. Relay attacks of NFC smart cards

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Xiqing

    2014-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is a set of standards, which allows two devices to transfer messages over a short range of distance of 10 cm. NFC based smart cards and applications are widely used for public transportation, ticketing system and security critical identity cards. NFC contains mainly two proximity smart card specifications ISO 14443 and ISO 18092 for lower level data exchange. However, none of the specifications above provides security mechanism to protect communication between s...

  13. Card Payments in Romania – a Slow Transition From Cash to Card

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Catalina (Vint) Turkes

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the evolution of the number and volume of transactions of payment with cards, the evolution of the value transactions at POS and cash withdrawals from ATMs, registered in Romania between 2009-2014. Aim of the study is to represent identification of the existing connection: A. between number of payments with cards and value payments with debit and credit cards; B. between value transactions at POSs with cards and number of POSs existing in the country; C. between value tr...

  14. Enhancing and Optimization Sorting Algorithms: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    KARIMIZADEH, Mohammad Mehdi; RAFEAZADEH, Ehsan; AMIRI, Pouran; KHOLGHNIK, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Sorting algorithms are used to sort a list of data. Also sorting is used in other computer operations such as searching, merging, and normalization. Since the sorting is considered as a one of the key operation in computer science, recognition of an optimization approaches can develop this science considerably. Optimization in the sorting algorithms, even in small scale, can cause saving a lot of time.  The main discussion of the paper is on those algorithms which present optimized ...

  15. Development of a Prototype Automated Sorting System for Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Wahab; Hussain, A.; Scavino, E.; Mustafa, M.M.; Basri, H.

    2006-01-01

    Automated sorting for plastic recyclables has been seen as the way forward in the plastic recycling industry. Automated sorting provides significant improvements in terms of efficiency and consistency in the sorting process. In the case of macro sorting, which is the most common type of automated sorting, efficiency is determined by the mechanical details of the material handling system as well as the detection system. This paper provides a review on the state of-the-art technologies that hav...

  16. [Validity of hypotheses about the father/mother interpretation of Rorschach cards: tested by using a card selecting method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yoshikazu; Miyake, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Tsuyoshi; Moritsu, Makoto; Tohyama, Bin; Yamashita, Keiko; Okada, Shingo

    2011-08-01

    This study tests the validity of hypotheses about the interpretations of Rorschach father/mother cards by having subjects select the cards. The results showed that regardless of the subject's gender, Card IV is far more often selected as the father card. However Card VII is not more often chosen as the mother card, if anything, the Color Cards are usually selected. The result of a correspondence analysis suggest that a certain combination of father and mother cards is more often selected. When the frequency of card selection is applied to the cluster of cards obtained in the study of Fukui et al (2008), the mother card is predominantly selected from the feminine/maternity-cards cluster. However, the father card was selected equally often from three clusters, indicating variation of the father figure. The results indicate the predominance of Card IV as the father card, and also confirm the lack of individuality with Card VII. Therefore, Card IV fulfills prerequisites for the father card hypothesis, while Card VII does not meet the criteria. The results do not support the validity of the hypothesis about the mother card interpretation. PMID:21919302

  17. Software information sorting code 'PLUTO-R'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A software information sorting code PLUTO-R is developed as one of the supporting codes of the TRITON system for the fusion plasma analysis. The objective of the PLUTO-R code is to sort reference materials of the codes in the TRITON code system. The easiness in the registration of information is especially pursued. As experience and skill in the data registration are not required, this code is usable for construction of general small-scale information system. This report gives an overall description and the user's manual of the PLUTO-R code. (author)

  18. Sorting with Asymmetric Read and Write Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Blelloch, Guy E.; Fineman, Jeremy T.; Gibbons, Phillip B.; Gu, Yan; Shun, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Emerging memory technologies have a significant gap between the cost, both in time and in energy, of writing to memory versus reading from memory. In this paper we present models and algorithms that account for this difference, with a focus on write-efficient sorting algorithms. First, we consider the PRAM model with asymmetric write cost, and show that sorting can be performed in $O\\left(n\\right)$ writes, $O\\left(n \\log n\\right)$ reads, and logarithmic depth (parallel time). Next, we conside...

  19. Radionuclide methods of sorting materials on conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide methods suitable for sorting multi-component lump materials transported on conveyors are discussed. The methods considered use the different interaction of gamma- and X-radiations with materials of different atomic numbers. A comparison is made between a simple absorption method, a method using simultaneous absorption of photons of two different energies and a combination of the absorption and back-scattering methods. The fields of application of these methods serving to obtain output signals for the control of mechanical or pneumatic sorting devices are outlined. (author)

  20. An optimal procedure for magnet sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new magnet sorting method for accelerators is developed. It is based on the linearized analysis of the effects of errors on accelerators. It is implementable in two steps. The first step is completely analytical in character while the second step involves the comparison of computed values with the measured error values. The whole process is repeated at most ''n'' times, where ''n'' is the number of magnets to be chosen from at a time. Simulations of the method, using Mathematica reg-sign, have been implemented for sorting the APS injector synchrotron dipoles and quadrupoles with excellent results

  1. Smart Card Security; Technology and Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Taherdoost

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Newly, smart card technology are being used in a number of ways around the world, on the otherhand, security has become significant in information technology, especially in those applicationinvolving data sharing and transactions through the internet. Furthermore, researches ininformation technology acceptance have identified the security as one of the factor that caninfluence on smart card adoption. This research is chiefly to study the security principals of smartcard and assess the security aspects’ affect on smart card technology adoption. In order toachieve this purpose, a survey was conducted among the 640 university students to measure theacceptance of smart card technology from security aspects.

  2. Java Card: an analysis of the most successful smart card operating system to date

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Eduard; Hartel, Pieter; Peyret, Patrice; Cattaneo, Peter

    2005-01-01

    To explain why the Java Card operating system has become the most successful smart card operating system to date, we analyze the realized features of the current Java Card version, we argue it could be enhanced by adding a number of intended features and we discuss a set of complementary features th

  3. The "Negative" Credit Card Effect: Credit Cards as Spending-Limiting Stimuli in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Celia; Hunt, Maree; Peters, Heather L.; Veliu, Bahrie; Harper, David

    2010-01-01

    The "credit card effect" describes a finding where greater value is given to consumer items if credit card logos are present. One explanation for the effect is that credit cards elicit spending behavior through associative learning. If this is true, social, economic and historical contexts should alter this effect. In Experiment 1, Year 1 New…

  4. Construction of BAC Libraries from Flow-Sorted Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Cloned DNA libraries in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) are the most widely used form of large-insert DNA libraries. BAC libraries are typically represented by ordered clones derived from genomic DNA of a particular organism. In the case of large eukaryotic genomes, whole-genome libraries consist of a hundred thousand to a million clones, which make their handling and screening a daunting task. The labor and cost of working with whole-genome libraries can be greatly reduced by constructing a library derived from a smaller part of the genome. Here we describe construction of BAC libraries from mitotic chromosomes purified by flow cytometric sorting. Chromosome-specific BAC libraries facilitate positional gene cloning, physical mapping, and sequencing in complex plant genomes. PMID:27511172

  5. ANALISIS ALGORITMA INSERTION SORT, MERGE SORT DAN IMPLEMENTASINYA DALAM BAHASA PEMROGRAMAN C++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Hendra Saptadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini mengetengahkan kajian implementasi dan performa proses pengurutan menggunakan dua algoritma yang berbeda, yaitu Insertion Sort dan Merge Sort. Pada tahap pertama, kedua algoritma tersebut diimplementasikan dalam bahasa C++ untuk mengurutkan sejumlah angka yang diketikkan oleh pengguna. Pada tahap kedua, kode sumber untuk kedua algoritma tersebut diubah untuk dapat mengurutkan angka yang dihasilkan secara acak dengan jumlah angka sebanyak permintaan dari pengguna. Untuk mengetahui seberapa baik performa dalam mengurutkan data, maka dalam tahap terakhir, kedua algoritma tersebut mengurutkan sejumlah angka acak dengan rentang jumlah yang sudah ditentukan dan hasilnya kemudian dibandingkan. Dari eksperimen yang sudah dilakukan, algoritma merge sort telah memperlihatkan performa yang lebih baik, khususnya untuk jumlah data yang banyak (> 10000. Adapun algoritma insertion sort memiliki keuntungan dalam hal kompleksitas algoritma yang lebih rendah terutama dalam kondisi best case dan karena tidak menggunakan rutin rekursi dalam proses pengurutan, maka tidak membutuhkan ruang penyimpanan atau memori sebanyak algoritma Merge Sort. Kata kunci : Algoritma, Insertion Sort, Merge Sort, Performa, Bahasa C++

  6. Nomis VisitorCard -sovelluskehitys

    OpenAIRE

    Villanen, Jussi

    2010-01-01

    Tämän insinöörityön aiheena on .NET-tekniikalla toteutettu selainpohjainen Nomis VisitorCard -vierailijakorttijärjestelmä. Tavoitteena oli toteuttaa vuoden 2010 aikana uusi versio jo olemassa olevasta Nomis Vierailijajärjestelmästä siten, että nykyinen MS Outlook -tuotteen riippuvuus saatiin purettua ja samalla laajennettua käyttöä Internet-selaimella toimivaksi. Selainpohjaisuuden ja Outlook-riippumattomuuden lisäksi sovelluksen toimintoja kehitettiin vastaamaan myös kasvavan tietoturvan vaa...

  7. Toronto Smog Summit Report Card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 'report card' provides a summary of actions taken, and progress achieved by the federal government, the provincial government and the City of Toronto, respectively, in response to various previous commitments regarding air quality, sustainable transportation, climate and atmospheric research, investing in green infrastructure (federal government), environmental assessment regulations, transboundary air pollution, improved monitoring and reporting regulations. Ratings also cover efforts in imposing emissions caps on the electric industry, emissions reduction trading system, toll-free public air pollution hotline, regulation of ozone depleting substances (provincial government), public education campaign on smog reduction, energy efficiency initiatives, corporate smog alert response plan, and a number of other environmental issues (City of Toronto)

  8. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed in a...

  9. CSP description of some parallel sorting algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linck, M.H.

    1982-11-01

    Hoare's CSP notation is used to describe 3 parallel sorting algorithms. The first algorithm uses n/2 processes working in parallel, the second uses an array of n parallel processes and the third algorithm is a parallel version of quicksort. 12 references.

  10. SELECTION SORTING ALGORITHM VISUALIZATION USING FLASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sutopo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to develop an algorithm visualization, particularly selection sorting for an Algorithm and Programming course. Algorithm visualization technology graphically illustrates how algorithms work. This visualization can be used to explain how all data move to the proper position in order to be sorted in a display computer for education. This research consists of 6 steps which are concept, design, obtaining content material, assembly, testing, and distribution. During the testing step, the application is run and checked to confirm that it performs exactly what the author has intended and the students can learn selection sorting algorithm by studying the visualization. Subjects of the research were students at Department of Informatics Universitas Persada Indonesia YAI for implementation of the learning. The data were analysed using the analytic descriptive method and interpreted in a narrative way based on the research findings. The algorithm visualization indicates that students increase their motivation and ability to program variety of sorting in programming language they learn.

  11. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  12. Gymnasielærerprofessionens sorte boks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Aase

    eleverne destabiliserer idealiserede indre billeder af den gode lærer, og at flertydige erfaringer med lærer-elevrelationen i forlængelse deraf helst gemmes og glemmes i professionens sorte boks. Dermed indskrænkes mulighederne for professionel refleksion og diskussion af denne vigtige relations betydning...

  13. Systematic Sorting: Teacher Characteristics and Class Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna; Beteille, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Although prior research has documented differences in the distribution of teacher characteristics across schools serving different student populations, few studies have examined the extent to which teacher sorting occurs within schools. This study uses data from one large urban school district and compares the class assignments of teachers who…

  14. A multispectral sorting device for wheat kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    A low-cost multispectral sorting device was constructed using three visible and three near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LED) with peak emission wavelengths of 470 nm (blue), 527 nm (green), 624 nm (red), 850 nm, 940 nm, and 1070 nm. The multispectral data were collected by rapidly (~12 kHz) blin...

  15. Payment Card Rewards Programs and Consumer Payment Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Andrew; Hayashi, Fumiko

    2008-01-01

    Card payments have been growing very rapidly. To continue the growth, payment card networks keep adding new merchants and card issuers try to stimulate their existing customers’ card usage by providing rewards. This paper seeks to analyze the effects of payment card rewards programs on consumer payment choice, by using consumer survey data. Specifically, we examine whether credit/debit reward receivers use credit/debit cards relatively more often than other consumers, if so how much more ofte...

  16. Governance, Issuance Restrictions, And Competition In Payment Card Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck

    2007-01-01

    I discuss the antitrust suit brought by the U.S. Department of Justice against Visa and MasterCard in 1998. Banks that issue Visa cards are free to also issue MasterCard cards, and vice versa, and many banks issue the cards of both networks. However, both Visa and MasterCard had rules prohibiting member banks from also issuing the cards of other networks, in particular American Express and Discover. In addition, most banks are members of both the Visa and MasterCard networks, so governance is...

  17. EuCARD Newsletter Issue 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K L M; Pascoli, S; Palladino, V; Zimmermann, F; Assmann, R; Caldwell, A; Xia, G; Lotov, K; Pukhov, A

    2009-01-01

    European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development (EuCARD) Newsletter Issue 2: July - September 2009 * A word from the Governing Board Chairman * Amassing the neutrino community * Start by probing the crab cavities * Breaking news for Proton "Surfatrons" * For EuCARD members: Interim reporting

  18. CARD FRAUD EVOLUTION REGULATION AND PREVENTION MEASURES

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Bojan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I presented the most frequently appeared card frauds, useful tips andindications to fight against this type of frauds Due to his great utility and effectiveness, debit andcredit cards have a big impact on entire economical and social activity. They became the mostprofitable and the most common used of all costumers’ financial products.

  19. 75 FR 10414 - Researcher Identification Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (74 FR 48892) for a 60-day public comment period. The... function as a debit card in Washington, DC, area research rooms. The regulation is being clarified to.... * * * * * 0 8. Revise Sec. 1254.84 to read as follows: Sec. 1254.84 How may I use a debit card for copiers...

  20. BHI Purchase Card System user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the purchase card system (P-Card System) is to apply enhanced acquisition tools for increased return on ERC internal resources, and to reduce the cost of off-the-shelf commercial items through the use of credit cards by authorized personnel. The P-Card may be used to make transactions either over the counter, by mail, or via telephone. For Project employees, the P-Card provides and easier, direct method of acquisition that requires less process time than requisitioning. The P-C eliminates the involvement of the procurement organization in low value-added acquisitions and low-risk transactions. Controller reduces the expenditure of resources in the support of low dollar value products and services acquisition. The P- Card System has been initiated in agreement with American Express Travel Related Services, Inc.; the credit card is and American Express Corporate Purchasing Card. The integrated network application for cardholder reconciliation and reallocation of costs was originally government furnished software developed by the U.S. DOE. Currently, the software application (version 3.0 and beyond) is copyrighted by a Bechtel Hanford, Inc. subcontractor

  1. Cognitive Credit Cards: Acquiring Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Alan L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Cognitive Credit Card, an individualized approach to helping students with learning disabilities select and apply appropriate learning strategies. The CCC is a credit card-sized laminated set of cognitive or metacognitive cues for a specific topic. Feedback from students, teachers, and parents has been highly positive. (DB)

  2. College Student Performance and Credit Card Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd Starr

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between credit card usage, employment, and academic performance among a group of college students with credit cards. Results reveal that the students differed significantly in the level of anxiety felt from carrying debt, perceived need to work, and perceived impact of employment on academic performance. (Contains 57…

  3. A Simple Homemade Polarised Sunglasses Test Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamdad, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    In this article construction of a simple and inexpensive test card which can be used to demonstrate the polarisation ability of sunglasses is described. The card was fabricated simply by using a piece of polariser sheet with one to three layers of cellophane tape fixed on it.

  4. A Simulation of Coevolution Using Playing Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatina, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a simulation of a coevolutionary "arms race" and introduce a way of teaching it that lets students use the theory of natural selection to explain the outcomes of the simulation. The simulation uses the numerical cards from an UNO[R] playing card deck to represent the speeds of individuals in populations of…

  5. A simple homemade polarised sunglasses test card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamdad, Farzad

    2016-05-01

    In this article construction of a simple and inexpensive test card which can be used to demonstrate the polarisation ability of sunglasses is described. The card was fabricated simply by using a piece of polariser sheet with one to three layers of cellophane tape fixed on it.

  6. An Excel-lent Card Trick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, Holly S.

    2011-01-01

    Card tricks based on mathematical principles can be a great way to get students interested in exploring some important mathematical ideas. In this article, the author discusses a simple spreadsheet implementation that shows students why the card trick works and allows them to explore several variations. As an added bonus, students are introduced…

  7. Point card compatible automatic vending machine for canned drink; Point card taio kan jido hanbaiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    A point card compatible automatic vending machine for canned drinks is developed, which provides drink manufacturers with a powerful tool to acquire selling sites and attract consumers. Since the machine is equipped with a device to handle point cards, regular customers have increased and sales have picked up. A point card issuing device is also installed, and the new machine issues a point card whenever a customer wants. The drink manufacturers are evaluating high of the vending machine because it will contribute to the diffusion of the point card system and because a sales promotion campaign may be conducted through the vending machine for instance by exchanging a fully marked card with a giveaway on the spot. In the future, a bill validator (paper money identifier) will be integrated even with small size machines for the diffusion of point card compatible machines. (translated by NEDO)

  8. Extension of the sorting instructions for household plastic packaging and changes in exposure to bioaerosols at materials recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, O; Déportes, I Z; Facon, B; Fromont, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how extending the sorting instructions for plastic packaging would affect the exposure of workers working at materials recovery facility (MRF) to dust, endotoxins, fungi and bacteria, taking into consideration other factors that could have an influence on this exposure. Personal sampling was carried out at four MRFs during six sampling campaigns at each facility, both in sorting rooms and when the workers were involved in "mobile tasks" away from the rooms. The data was analysed by describing the extension of sorting instructions both using a qualitative variable (after vs before) and using data for the pots and trays recycling stream, including or excluding plastic film. Overall, before the extension of the sorting guidelines, the geometric mean of personal exposure levels in sorting rooms was 0.3mg/m(3) for dust, 27.7 EU/m(3) for endotoxins, 13,000 CFU/m(3) for fungi and 1800 CFU/m(3) for bacteria. When workers were involved in mobile tasks away from the rooms, these averages were 0.5mg/m(3), 25.7 EU/m(3), 28,000 CFU/m(3) and 5100 CFU/m(3) respectively.The application by households of instructions to include pots, trays and film with other recyclable plastic packaging led to an increase in exposure to endotoxins, fungi and bacteria at MRFs. For an increase of 0.5 kg per inhabitant per year in the pots, trays and film recycling stream, exposure in sorting rooms rose by a factor of 1.4-2.2, depending on the biological agent. Exposure during mobile tasks increased by a factor of 3.0-3.6. The age of the waste amplified the effect of the extension of sorting instructions on exposure to fungi, bacteria and endotoxins. Factors that had a significant influence on the exposure of workers to dust and/or bioaerosols included the presence of paper, newspapers and magazines in the sorted waste, the order in which incoming waste was treated and the quality of the ventilation system in the sorting rooms. The levels of exposure observed in

  9. Development of a Prototype Automated Sorting System for Plastic Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Wahab

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated sorting for plastic recyclables has been seen as the way forward in the plastic recycling industry. Automated sorting provides significant improvements in terms of efficiency and consistency in the sorting process. In the case of macro sorting, which is the most common type of automated sorting, efficiency is determined by the mechanical details of the material handling system as well as the detection system. This paper provides a review on the state of-the-art technologies that have been deployed by some of the recycling facilities abroad. The design and development of a cost effective prototype automated system for sorting plastic recyclables is proposed and discussed.

  10. C-cards in Music Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Lyon, Kirstin Catherine

    Music and Computer Science share a dual nature: theory and practice relate in complex ways, and seem to be equally central for learners; for this no standard teaching approach for children has yet emerged in either of these two areas. Computational cards is a tabletop game, where cards act...... as computational elements. Computing machines can be defined, physically built and animated by disposing cards on a table, and moving objectified symbols on top of them, following formal rules. We provide each card with one associated action. The action is performed each time a peg lands on one of the four ports...... of the card; if the action is to generate a sound, then the circuit will effectively became a music machine....

  11. Hybrid Approach for Credit Card Fraud Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kumar Tripathi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to a rapid growth in the e-commerce technology, the use of credit cards has increased. As credit card becomes the most popular mode of payment for both online as well as normal purchase, cases of credit card fraud also rising. Financial fraud is increasing significantly with the development of modern technology and the global superhighways of communication, resulting in the loss of billions of dollars worldwide each year. The fraudulent transactions are scattered with genuine transactions and simple pattern matching techniques are not often sufficient to detect those frauds accurately. Implementation of efficient fraud detection systems has thus become imperative for all credit card issuing banks to minimize their losses. Many modern techniques were proposed & implemented in literature, they have their own advantages and disadvantages. We proposed hybrid approach used in credit card fraud detection mechanism.

  12. PhySortR: a fast, flexible tool for sorting phylogenetic trees in R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Timothy G.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Ragan, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    A frequent bottleneck in interpreting phylogenomic output is the need to screen often thousands of trees for features of interest, particularly robust clades of specific taxa, as evidence of monophyletic relationship and/or reticulated evolution. Here we present PhySortR, a fast, flexible R package for classifying phylogenetic trees. Unlike existing utilities, PhySortR allows for identification of both exclusive and non-exclusive clades uniting the target taxa based on tip labels (i.e., leaves) on a tree, with customisable options to assess clades within the context of the whole tree. Using simulated and empirical datasets, we demonstrate the potential and scalability of PhySortR in analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees without a priori assumption of tree-rooting, and in yielding readily interpretable trees that unambiguously satisfy the query. PhySortR is a command-line tool that is freely available and easily automatable. PMID:27190724

  13. Smart Sort: Design and Analysis of a Fast, Efficient and Robust Comparison Based Internal Sort Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Niraj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Smart Sort algorithm is a "smart" fusion of heap construction procedures (of Heap sort algorithm) into the conventional "Partition" function (of Quick sort algorithm) resulting in a robust version of Quick sort algorithm. We have also performed empirical analysis of average case behavior of our proposed algorithm along with the necessary theoretical analysis for best and worst cases. Its performance was checked against some standard probability distributions, both uniform and non-uniform, like Binomial, Poisson, Discrete & Continuous Uniform, Exponential, and Standard Normal. The analysis exhibited the desired robustness coupled with excellent performance of our algorithm. Although this paper assumes the static partition ratios, its dynamic version is expected to yield still better results.

  14. WHAT INFLUENCE CREDIT CARD DEBTS IN YOUNG CONSUMERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shah ALAM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines empirically antecedents of the credit card debts in young consumers in Malaysia. We examine whether easy access to credit card, credit card related knowledge, aggressive promotion by credit card industry, low minimum payment requirement and attitude towards credit cards influence credit card debts in the younger generation. Regression model was used to meet the objectives. These findings based on a sample of 240 young credit card holders, show that the factors that affect credit card debts are credit card related knowledge, aggressive promotion by credit card industry and low minimum payment requirements. These findings also provide insights for both bank management and policy-makers to improve the bank performance in terms of credit card debts.

  15. An integrated dielectrophoretic chip for continuous bioparticle filtering, focusing, sorting, trapping, and detecting

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, I-Fang; Chang, Hsien-Chang; Hou, Diana; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2007-01-01

    Multi-target pathogen detection using heterogeneous medical samples require continuous filtering, sorting, and trapping of debris, bioparticles, and immunocolloids within a diagnostic chip. We present an integrated AC dielectrophoretic (DEP) microfluidic platform based on planar electrodes that form three-dimensional (3D) DEP gates. This platform can continuously perform these tasks with a throughput of 3 μL∕min. Mixtures of latex particles, Escherichia coli Nissle, Lactobacillus, and Candida...

  16. Individual differences in aging and cognitive control modulate the neural indexes of context updating and maintenance during task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Barceló, Francisco

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the combined influence of age and cognitive control on the behavioural and electrophysiological indicators of local, restart and mixing costs. Two groups of middle-aged (49-60 y.o., N=40) and older (61-80 y.o., N=40) adults were split according to their overall z-score in a composite of six neuropsychological measures of executive function. All participants performed a task-cueing version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) adapted for measuring event-related potentials, whereby tonal cues instructed to switch or repeat the task rule. A single-task condition with identical sensory and motor response demands was used to aid interpretation of behavioural and brain responses to cues and target events. Working memory updating of stimulus-response mappings, as putatively indexed by local switch costs and cue-locked P3 activity (350-460 msec post-cue onset), was preserved in both older and low control adults. In turn, low control adults showed larger restart costs and enhanced cue-locked P2 amplitudes (190-250 msec) in the task-switching condition only, suggesting lesser preparatory control in the presence of interference. Low control adults showed comparatively larger mixing costs and smaller cue-locked fronto-central slow negativities (500-700 msec), suggesting an inefficient online maintenance of task-set information over time. In contrast, target-locked brain responses were mostly sensitive to age-related effects, with older adults showing two well-known effects: (1) an "anterior shift" in target P3 activity (350-460 msec), and (2) an attenuation of fronto-central slow negativities in single-task and task-switching conditions, respectively. The additive association found between age and cognitive control for different behavioural indexes of task-switch costs suggests a differential influence of these factors upon two successive information processing stages: individual differences in cognitive control mainly influenced the neural

  17. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R. [Thermo Nuclear Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina.

  18. A microprocessor card software server to support the Quebec health microprocessor card project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, P; Bérubé, J; Lavoie, G; Gamache, A; Ardouin, P; Papillon, M J; Fortin, J P

    1995-01-01

    The Quebec Health Smart Card Project is advocating the use of a memory card software server[1] (SCAM) to implement a portable medical record (PMR) on a smart card. The PMR is viewed as an object that can be manipulated by SCAM's services. In fact, we can talk about a pseudo-object-oriented approach. This software architecture provides a flexible and evolutive way to manage and optimize the PMR. SCAM is a generic software server; it can manage smart cards as well as optical (laser) cards or other types of memory cards. But, in the specific case of the Quebec Health Card Project, SCAM is used to provide services between physicians' or pharmacists' software and IBM smart card technology. We propose to expose the concepts and techniques used to provide a generic environment to deal with smart cards (and more generally with memory cards), to obtain a dynamic an evolutive PMR, to raise the system global security level and the data integrity, to optimize significantly the management of the PMR, and to provide statistic information about the use of the PMR. PMID:8591193

  19. Gender Sorting at the Application Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Roberto; Friedrich, Colette

    2011-01-01

    We document gender sorting of candidates into gender-typed jobs at the point of initial application to a company. At this step of the hiring process, the firm has implemented a policy whereby organizational screeners’ discretion has been eliminated such that there is no opportunity for contact between hiring agents and applicants. Thus, the job choices studied here offer unique insight as they are uncontaminated by screeners’ steering of candidates toward gender-typed jobs. Eve...

  20. Micro-fluidic chip for cell sorting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerý, Mojmír; Pilát, Zdeněk; Ježek, Jan; Kaňka, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel

    Munich : EOS, 2015. ISBN 978-952-93-5069-8. [EOS Conferences at the World of Photonics Congress 2015. Munich (DE), 22.06.2015-25.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14069; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA TA ČR TA03010642; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Micro-fluidic chip * cell sorting Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  1. Loudness effect on pairwise comparisons and sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Susini, Patrick; Houix, Olivier; SAINT PIERRE, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Effect of loudness on the perceptual structure underlying a corpus of sounds is investigated bytwo experimental methods: pairwise comparisons and sorting. Both methods are applied to a corpus of recordingssounds presented with their ecological, non normalized loudness, and to the same corpus equalized in loudness. Twotypes of perceptual structures (multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis) are derived. Domination ofone auditory attribute ? loudness ? on less salient ones is ...

  2. Parallel Algorithms for Neuronal Spike Sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Bergheim, Thomas Stian; Skogvold, Arve Aleksander Nymo

    2011-01-01

    Neurons communicate through electrophysiological signals, which may be recorded using electrodes inserted into living tissue.When a neuron emits a signal, it is referred to as a spike, and an electrode can detect these from multiple neurons.Neuronal spike sorting is the process of classifying the spike activity based on which neuron each spike signal is emitted from.Advances in technology have introduced better recording equipment, which allows the recording of many neurons at the same time.H...

  3. Fluorescence-Activated Nucleolus Sorting in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Boyer-Clavel, Myriam; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Nucleolar isolation allows exhaustive characterization of the nucleolar content. Centrifugation-based protocols are not adapted to isolation of nucleoli directly from a plant tissue because of copurification of cellular debris. We describe here a method that allows the purification of nucleoli using fluorescent-activated cell sorting from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. This approach requires the expression of a specific nucleolar protein such as fibrillarin fused to green fluorescent protein in planta. PMID:27576720

  4. Sorting Network for Reversible Logic Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; Mahmud, Abdullah Al; karim, Muhammad Rezaul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have introduced an algorithm to implement a sorting network for reversible logic synthesis based on swapping bit strings. The algorithm first constructs a network in terms of n*n Toffoli gates read from left to right. The number of gates in the circuit produced by our algorithm is then reduced by template matching and removing useless gates from the network. We have also compared the efficiency of the proposed method with the existing ones.

  5. Optical sorting due to optical binding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Vítězslav; Zemánek, Pavel

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2013, 881027:1-8. ISSN 0277-786X. [Optical Trapping and Optical Micromanipulation /10./. San Diego (US), 25.08.2013-29.08.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP205/12/P868 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : optical binding * optical sorting * particles * optical trapping * bessel beam s * code division multiplexing * numerical simuklations Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s

  6. A sorting network in bounded arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 4 (2011), s. 341-355. ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * sorting network * proof complexity * monotone sequent calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007210001272

  7. Active sorting switch for biological objects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerý, Mojmír; Pilát, Zdeněk; Jonáš, Alexandr; Ježek, Jan; Jákl, Petr; Zemánek, Pavel; Samek, Ota; Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, M.

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2010, 776210: 1-7. ISBN 978-0-8194-8258-7. [Optical Trapping and Optical Micromanipulation /7./. San Diego (US), 01.08.2010] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/433; GA MŠk OC08034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : laser tweezers * laser diode * optical sorting * microfluidics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  8. How Schwann Cells Sort Axons: New Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltri, M Laura; Poitelon, Yannick; Previtali, Stefano Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral nerves contain large myelinated and small unmyelinated (Remak) fibers that perform different functions. The choice to myelinate or not is dictated to Schwann cells by the axon itself, based on the amount of neuregulin I-type III exposed on its membrane. Peripheral axons are more important in determining the final myelination fate than central axons, and the implications for this difference in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes are discussed. Interestingly, this choice is reversible during pathology, accounting for the remarkable plasticity of Schwann cells, and contributing to the regenerative potential of the peripheral nervous system. Radial sorting is the process by which Schwann cells choose larger axons to myelinate during development. This crucial morphogenetic step is a prerequisite for myelination and for differentiation of Remak fibers, and is arrested in human diseases due to mutations in genes coding for extracellular matrix and linkage molecules. In this review we will summarize progresses made in the last years by a flurry of reverse genetic experiments in mice and fish. This work revealed novel molecules that control radial sorting, and contributed unexpected ideas to our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control radial sorting of axons. PMID:25686621

  9. Card - Electronic Money. Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodica TIRLEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This type of coin and appeared as a result of the needs for a proper management of the financial resources available in the market, but also to improve the payments system in our country. The card is an alternative to the conventional instruments of payment is a payment instrument with and without cash by means of which the holder disposes of the current account. It is a standardized, secure information and individualized, through which you can perform operations of cash withdrawal, payment for the goods or services purchased, payment obligations by the public administration authorities and funds transfers between accounts, other than those ordered and executed by financial institutions, carried out through the electronic payment instrument.

  10. Relativistic Hydrodynamics on Graphic Cards

    CERN Document Server

    Gerhard, Jochen; Bleicher, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We show how to accelerate relativistic hydrodynamics simulations using graphic cards (graphic processing units, GPUs). These improvements are of highest relevance e.g. to the field of high-energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC where (ideal and dissipative) relativistic hydrodynamics is used to calculate the evolution of hot and dense QCD matter. The results reported here are based on the Sharp And Smooth Transport Algorithm (SHASTA), which is employed in many hydrodynamical models and hybrid simulation packages, e.g. the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD). We have redesigned the SHASTA using the OpenCL computing framework to work on accelerators like graphic processing units (GPUs) as well as on multi-core processors. With the redesign of the algorithm the hydrodynamic calculations have been accelerated by a factor 160 allowing for event-by-event calculations and better statistics in hybrid calculations.

  11. Insider protection: A report card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced security measures against external threats (e.g., terrorists, criminals) have been implemented at most facilities that handle special nuclear material, classified information, or other assets critical to national security. Attention is now focusing on insider protection, and safeguards managers are attempting to provide balanced protection against insider and outsider threats. Potential insider threats include attempts by facility employees to steal special nuclear material (SNM), to cause a radiological hazard to the public, to sabotage critical facilities, or to steal property or classified information. This paper presents a report card on the status of insider protection at Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed facilities, with emphasis on SNM theft. The authors discuss the general trends in insider protection and the limitations of protection measures currently in use. They also discuss the most critical needs for improved procedures, technology, analytical tools, and education for safeguards personnel

  12. Sorting of Lipids and Proteins in Membrane Curvature Gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, A.; Baumgart, T.

    2009-01-01

    The sorting of lipids and proteins in cellular trafficking pathways is a process of central importance in maintaining compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells. However, the mechanisms behind these sorting phenomena are currently far from being understood. Among several mechanistic suggestions, membrane curvature has been invoked as a means to segregate lipids and proteins in cellular sorting centers. To assess this hypothesis, we investigate the sorting of lipid analog dye trace components be...

  13. Categorizing Variations of Student-Implemented Sorting Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Korhonen, Ari; Malmi, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined freshmen students' sorting algorithm implementations in data structures and algorithms' course in two phases: at the beginning of the course before the students received any instruction on sorting algorithms, and after taking a lecture on sorting algorithms. The analysis revealed that many students have insufficient…

  14. Applying Single Kernel Sorting Technology to Developing Scab Resistant Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are using automated single-kernel near-infrared (SKNIR) spectroscopy instrumentation to sort fusarium head blight (FHB) infected kernels from healthy kernels, and to sort segregating populations by hardness to enhance the development of scab resistant hard and soft wheat varieties. We sorted 3 r...

  15. Gender Sorting across K-12 Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C.; Conger, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    This article documents evidence of nonrandom gender sorting across K-12 schools in the United States. The sorting exists among coed schools and at all grade levels, and it is highest in the secondary school grades. We observe some gender sorting across school sectors and types: for instance, males are slightly underrepresented in private schools…

  16. My eSorts and Digital Extensions of Word Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Invernizzi, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    "My eSorts" is a strategy for helping children learn to read and spell in a socially motivated context. It is based on developmental spelling research and the word study approach to teaching phonics and spelling. "eSorting" employs digital desktop publishing tools that allow children to author their own electronic word sorts and then share these…

  17. 25 CFR 11.422 - Unauthorized use of credit cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... misdemeanor if he or she uses a credit card for the purpose of obtaining property or services with knowledge... other reason his or her use of the card is unauthorized by the issuer. (b) Credit card means a writing... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use of credit cards. 11.422 Section...

  18. 19 CFR 112.43 - Form of identification card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of identification card. 112.43 Section 112.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.43 Form of identification card. The identification card shall be issued...

  19. Improving the Security of CardSpace

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed A. Alrodhan; Mitchell, Chris J

    2009-01-01

    CardSpace (formerly known as InfoCard) is a digital identity management system that has recently been adopted by Microsoft. In this paper we identify two security shortcomings in CardSpace that could lead to a serious privacy violation. The first is its reliance on user judgements of the trustworthiness of service providers, and the second is its reliance on a single layer of authentication. We also propose a modification designed to address both flaws. The proposed approach is compatible wit...

  20. Insuficiencia cardíaca y diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Thierer

    2006-01-01

    La prevalencia de la insuficiencia cardíaca y la diabetes continúa creciendo. Ambas están fuertemente asociadas. La diabetes es un fuerte predictor de aparición de insuficiencia cardíaca. Las razones son la presencia de enfermedad coronaria y los trastornos metabólicos vinculados con la resistencia a la insulina que generan disfunción contráctil. Los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca que son diabéticos tienen peor evolución. Los Betabloqueantes, vasodilatadores y los inhibidores de la en...

  1. PERIOD OF VALIDITY OF CERN CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    Reminder The period of validity of CERN cards not bearing an expiry date has been extended from 30 June to 31 December 2002 (see paragraph 17.4 of the Implementation Measures relating to Operational Circular n° 2). Holders of such cards are kindly requested to have their cards renewed either at the Users Office (in the case of Users) or at the Registration Service (all the others) from 1 August 2002 onwards. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  2. Authoring of digital games via card games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    propose a new scenario in which trading card games help making sense and re-design computer games, to support players express themselves aesthetically and in a highly creative way. Our aim is to look for a middle ground between players becoming programmers and simply editing levels. The main contributions...... are to show how card games can represent digital games, how playful play can emerge in card games and digital games, and to begin defining a new way to express game behavior without the use of universal programming languages....

  3. SD card projects using the PIC microcontroller

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Dogan

    2010-01-01

    PIC Microcontrollers are a favorite in industry and with hobbyists. These microcontrollers are versatile, simple, and low cost making them perfect for many different applications. The 8-bit PIC is widely used in consumer electronic goods, office automation, and personal projects. Author, Dogan Ibrahim, author of several PIC books has now written a book using the PIC18 family of microcontrollers to create projects with SD cards. This book is ideal for those practicing engineers, advanced students, and PIC enthusiasts that want to incorporate SD Cards into their devices. SD cards are che

  4. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  5. Financial Fitness: Selecting a Credit Card

    OpenAIRE

    Gorham, Liz, PhD; Goetting, Marsha A., PhD

    1998-01-01

    Consumers who want to save interest charges on large loans, such as a home mortgage or auto loan, usually comparison shop for the "best deal." Comparison shopping for a credit card is also an excellent practice because terms and conditions of the account can make a difference in how much consumers pay for the privilege of borrowing. Consumers are often amazed at some of the "hidden" costs of some credit cards. With information in this fact sheet, Utahns can compare credit card terms they have...

  6. Thermal transfer structures coupling electronics card(s) to coolant-cooled structure(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Milnes P; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Parida, Pritish R; Schmidt, Roger R

    2014-12-16

    Cooling apparatuses and coolant-cooled electronic systems are provided which include thermal transfer structures configured to engage with a spring force one or more electronics cards with docking of the electronics card(s) within a respective socket(s) of the electronic system. A thermal transfer structure of the cooling apparatus includes a thermal spreader having a first thermal conduction surface, and a thermally conductive spring assembly coupled to the conduction surface of the thermal spreader and positioned and configured to reside between and physically couple a first surface of an electronics card to the first surface of the thermal spreader with docking of the electronics card within a socket of the electronic system. The thermal transfer structure is, in one embodiment, metallurgically bonded to a coolant-cooled structure and facilitates transfer of heat from the electronics card to coolant flowing through the coolant-cooled structure.

  7. An analysis of a war-like card game

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Boris

    2010-01-01

    In his book "Mathematical Mind-Benders", Peter Winkler poses the following open problem, originally due to the first author: "[In the game Peer Pressure,] two players are dealt some number of cards, initially face up, each card carrying a different integer. In each round, the players simultaneously play a card; the higher card is discarded and the lower card passed to the other player. The player who runs out of cards loses. As the number of cards dealt becomes larger, what is the limiting probability that one of the players will have a winning strategy?" We show that the answer to this question is zero, as Winkler suspected. Moreover, assume the cards are dealt so that one player receives r >= 1 cards for every one card of the other. Then if r phi, it is one.

  8. CARDS - comprehensive aerological reference data set. Station history, Version 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The possibility of anthropogenic climate change has reached the attention of Government officials and researchers. However, one cannot study climate change without climate data. The CARDS project will produce high-quality upper-air data for the research community and for policy-makers. The authors intend to produce a dataset which is: easy to use, as complete as possible, as free of random errors as possible. They will also attempt to identify biases and remove them whenever possible. In this report, they relate progress toward their goal. They created a robust new format for archiving upper-air data, and designed a relational database structure to hold them. The authors have converted 13 datasets to the new format and have archived over 10,000,000 individual soundings from 10 separate data sources. They produce and archive a metadata summary of each sounding they load. They have researched station histories, and have built a preliminary upper-air station history database. They have converted station-sorted data from their primary database into synoptic-sorted data in a parallel database. They have tested and will soon implement an advanced quality-control procedure, capable of detecting and often repairing errors in geopotential height, temperature, humidity, and wind. This unique quality-control method uses simultaneous vertical, horizontal, and temporal checks of several meteorological variables. It can detect errors other methods cannot. This report contains the station histories for the CARDS data set.

  9. Credit Cards and Debit Cards in the United States and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Ronald-J

    2002-01-01

    This article examines differences in credit-card and debit-card usage between the United States and Japan. Although I do not doubt that social and psychological factors have some significance, I contend that four institutional factors also have useful explanatory power: the freedom of banks to enter the industry; the size of retailers; the level of telecommunications costs; and the size of the national economy. Generally, credit cards in Japan are used for a smaller share of transactions, wit...

  10. Credit Card Fraud Detection using Decision Tree for Tracing Email and IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathiri.P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Credit card fraud is a wide-ranging term for theft and fraud committed using a credit card or any similar payment mechanism as a fraudulent source of funds in a transaction. The purpose may be to obtain goods without paying, or to obtain unauthorized funds from an account. Transactions completed with credit cards seem to become more and more popular with the introduction of online shopping and banking. Correspondingly, the number of credit card frauds has also increased .Currently; data mining is a popular way to combat frauds because of its effectiveness. Data mining is a well-defined procedure that takes data as input and produces output in the forms of models or patterns. In other words, the task of data mining is to analyze a massive amount of data and to extract some usable information that we can interpret for future uses. Frauds has also increased .Currently, data mining is a popular way to combat frauds because of its effectiveness. Data mining is a well-defined procedure that takes data as input and produces output in the forms of models or patterns. In other words, the task of data mining is to analyze a massive amount of data and to extract some usable information that we can interpret for future uses.

  11. Card Product Use and Perception of Marketing Communication by Card Issuers among Students

    OpenAIRE

    Đurđana Ozretić Došen; Bernarda Vajda

    2011-01-01

    Student population is a very interesting and important segment of the market to the marketing practitioners involved in card business. The services and products offered by card issuers to students are created with a view to attracting the kind of users who will grow accustomed to a long-term, loyal use of a chosen card brand, i.e. beyond the point at which they complete their academic education. This paper describes the exploratory research on card products designed for the student population...

  12. Consumers' use of debit cards: patterns, preferences, and price response

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Borzekowski; Elizabeth K. Kiser; Shaista Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Debit card use at the point of sale has grown dramatically in recent years in the U.S., and now exceeds the number of credit card transactions. However, many questions remain regarding patterns of debit card use, consumer preferences when using debit, and how consumers might respond to explicit pricing of card transactions. Using a new nationally representative consumer survey, this paper describes the current use of debit cards by U.S. consumers, including how demographics affect use. In add...

  13. Drivers of Credit Cards Adoption and Usage: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Seow Fun

    2009-01-01

    The competition among different credit card issuers has become more intense, leading to increased challenge for market growth opportunities in terms of credit cards circulation and share of wallet in terms of credit card usage. In response to competition from existing players and possible new entrants to the credit card market, credit card issuers need to be creative and innovative in their marketing strategies to gain competitive advantage. It is crucial for marketing practitioners in the cr...

  14. The Regulation of the Credit Card Market in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Aysan, Ahmet Faruk; Lerzan, Yildiz

    2006-01-01

    The rapid growth in Turkish credit card market brought together new issues. Card holders and consumer unions complain about the high interest rates, economists complain about the default rates and banks complain about the amnesties. After all of these complaints coinciding with the accelerating suicide incidences due to credit card debts, regulation has been enacted in the credit card market in Turkey. In 2003, credit cards had been taken into the scope of the Consumer Protection Law. This wa...

  15. Credit card spending limit and personal finance: system dynamics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Pejić Bach; Jovana Zoroja; Marjana Merkač Skok

    2014-01-01

    Credit cards have become one of the major ways for conducting cashless transactions. However, they have a long term impact on the well being of their owner through the debt generated by credit card usage. Credit card issuers approve high credit limits to credit card owners, thereby influencing their credit burden. A system dynamics model has been used to model behavior of a credit card owner in different scenarios according to the size of a credit limit. Experiments with the model demonstrate...

  16. Funding credit card loans: current and future considerations

    OpenAIRE

    James van Opstal

    2013-01-01

    Many factors influence credit-card-issuing banks’ decisions about how to fund credit card loans. These factors include the size and structure of the institution, economic conditions, and the regulatory environment. Against the backdrop of a much smaller market for credit card asset-backed securitization, the Payment Cards Center (PCC) wanted to better understand how changes in any of the above factors and in the funding sources accessible to credit-card-issuing banks are affecting funding str...

  17. CREDIT CARD OWNERSHIP AND DEBT STATUS IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    YIING JIA LOKE; Yen, Steven T.; ANDREW K. G. TAN

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of socio-demographic and credit consumption tendencies in affecting credit card ownership and debt status. Based on a sample of 938 individuals from three major cities in Malaysia, card holders' debt status is measured in relation to credit card expenditure, which in turn is categorized into convenience users, low-risk credit revolvers and high-risk credit revolvers. While socio-demographic factors play significant roles in determining card ownership, card holders...

  18. The Development and Application of Blowing-carding Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海涛

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the development,compositions and characteristics of the domestic and foreign blowing-carding technique,discusses the technology of blowing-carding machines and the structures and functions of the main machines,analyses the production experiments of three types of blowing-carding flow lines in detail,and puts forward the effective measures to control the main quality index of blowing-carding sliver and the trend of blowing-carding technique development.

  19. Pricing and welfare implications of payment card network competition

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines how competition among payment card networks three-party scheme networks and four-party scheme networks affects pricing as well as the welfare of various parties. A competing network has an incentive to provide rewards to its card users. By providing more generous rewards than its rival networks, the network can increase its own card transactions because multihoming cardholders who hold multiple networks cards choose to use its card instead of using its rivals. Although a m...

  20. THE EVOLUTION OF THE INTELLIGENT CARDS AND THE ROMANIAN MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Pricopi; Alina Elena Oprescu

    2011-01-01

    This paper will try to describe the close relationship between the economic evolution and technology, especially how the technical aspects of debit/credit cards interact with the economical aspects. There are approached concepts related to smart card and especially the use of cards in different economic purposes. Since the introduction of the first cards there has been an accelerated growth of the use of smart cards. One of the essential growth factors has been the progress in the electronic ...

  1. College Student Credit Card Usage and Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Kathryn M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the concerns related to credit card usage by college students. Offers information student affairs professionals can use to help college students make responsible choices. (Contains 26 references.) (GCP)

  2. CRC-cards for Product Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer

    2003-01-01

    , transportation, service and decommissioning. A main challenge when building product models is to collect and document the product related data, information and knowledge in a structured way. CRC cards are index cards (or computerized versions of these) which are used to record proposed classes, the behavior...... of the classes, their responsibilities, and their relationship to other classes (collaboration). CRC modelling gives an effective, low-tech method for domain-experts, programmers and users to work closely together to identify, structure, understand and document a product model. CRC cards were originally...... introduced back in 1989 for software developers in general as a tool for defining an object oriented analysis model. In this paper CRC cards and the associated object oriented modelling techniques are adapted to product modelling. CRC modelling includes for instance: Organizing the CRC modelling team...

  3. FRENCH CARDS - NEW PROCEDURE FOR INITIAL APPLICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Human Resources Division would like to remind members of personnel that they are obliged to submit an application form for a French card as soon as they have a permanent address in either Switzerland or in France and they are actually living there. Following the rationalization of our administrative procedures, as of October 1st, 2002, the initial application procedure for a French card will now be as follows: The member of personnel should complete an application form. If necessary, an application form must also be completed for family members. These forms must then be transferred via e-mail to the appropriate Divisional Administrative Officer (DAO) who will forward them to the Cards Service. In parallel, the member of personnel should submit the necessary supporting documents to the Cards Service. The application form (Word format only), the procedural details, the necessary supporting documents as well as the conditions of issue are available here.   Human Resources Division Tel. 74469

  4. Antibiotic 'Report Card' Drills Guidelines into Dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160702.html Antibiotic 'Report Card' Drills Guidelines Into Dentists Seeing their prescription rates leads some to change ... 30, 2016 TUESDAY, Aug. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Dentists are less likely to prescribe antibiotics for patients ...

  5. EuCARD final project report

    CERN Document Server

    Koutchouk, J P

    2014-01-01

    After four years of activity, EuCARD has most of its objectives fulfilled, with some new objectives added and a few others on excellent tracks while requiring additional time. The management has been active in reinforcing the collaborative links between partners and projects, contributing to the preparation of FP7-EuCARD2, initiating FP7-HiLumi-LHC Design Study, to favour sustained collaborations beyond EuCARD. An out-of-contract network has been successfully launched on laser plasma acceleration, to combine forces between accelerator, laser and plasma communities. Communication and dissemination activities have led to two highlights: Accelerating News, an accelerator R&D newsletter initiated by EuCARD and now common to all FP7 accelerator projects (over 1000 subscribers) and a series of monographs on accelerator sciences that is progressively finding its public. The scientific networks have more than fulfilled their initial objectives: roadmaps are defined for neutrino facilities, submitted to the Europe...

  6. 25 CFR 249.3 - Identification cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the issuance of an appropriate identification card to any Indian entitled thereto as prima facie... any Federal, State, or tribal enforcement officer shall be prima facie evidence that the person is...

  7. Student Musicians' Self- and Task-Theories of Musical Performance: The Influence of Primary Genre Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Allan

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-five undergraduate music students studying in Scotland completed a 30-statement Q-sort to describe their self- and task-theories of musical performance. Statements reflected the importance of effort, confidence, technical ability, significant others and luck/chance in determining a successful performance. The Q-sorts were…

  8. Sorting N-Elements Using Natural Order: A New Adaptive Sorting Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Akhter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Researchers focused their attention on optimally adaptive sorting algorithm and illustrated a need to develop tools for constructing adaptive algorithms for large classes of measures. In adaptive sorting algorithm the run time for n input data smoothly varies from O(n to O(nlogn, with respect to several measures of disorder. Questions were raised whether any approach or technique would reduce the run time of adaptive sorting algorithm and provide an easier way of implementation for practical applications. Approach: The objective of this study is to present a new method on natural sorting algorithm with a run time for n input data O(n to O(nlogm, where m defines a positive value and surrounded by 50% of n. In our method, a single pass over the inputted data creates some blocks of data or buffers according to their natural sequential order and the order can be in ascending or descending. Afterward, a bottom up approach is applied to merge the naturally sorted subsequences or buffers. Additionally, a parallel merging technique is successfully aggregated in our proposed algorithm. Results: Experiments are provided to establish the best, worst and average case runtime behavior of the proposed method. The simulation statistics provide same harmony with the theoretical calculation and proof the method efficiency. Conclusion: The results indicated that our method uses less time as well as acceptable memory to sort a data sequence considering the natural order behavior and applicable to the realistic researches. The parallel implementation can make the algorithm for efficient in time domain and will be the future research issue.

  9. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. PMID:21194917

  10. CARDS MARKET - A RESISTANT MARKET TO CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Vechiu Camelia; Gherman Liliana - Victoria; Tudose Geanina - Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    At the same time with the development of market and consumer behavior of Romanians, the growth rate of cards market accelerated. Of course, infrastructure and acceptance network were very important, they are the factors that allowed the widespread use of cards. Currently, any natural person or legal entity is engaged in commercial relationships involving financial transactions, the electronic payments having an important role, representing virtually future transactions, both nationally and ac...

  11. Credit card pricing developments and their disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Furletti

    2003-01-01

    Public data, proprietary issuer data, and data collected by the author from a review of over 150 lender-borrower contracts from 15 of the largest issuers in the U.S. suggest that, over the past 10 years, credit card issuers have drastically changed the way that they price their product. This paper outlines the history and dynamics of credit card pricing over the past 10 years and examines how new pricing methods are addressed by current regulatory disclosure requirements.

  12. Prototype ALICE front-end card

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    This circuit board is a prototype 48-channel front end digitizer card for the ALICE time projection chamber (TPC), which takes electrical signals from the wire sensors in the TPC and shapes the data before converting the analogue signal to digital data. A total of 4356 cards will be required to process the data from the ALICE TPC, the largest of this type of detector in the world.

  13. Consumer credit counseling: credit card issuers' perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Furletti

    2003-01-01

    On Friday, May 23, 2003, the Payment Cards Center hosted a workshop led by collections managers from J.P. Morgan Chase and Juniper Bank. The managers provided the credit card issuers' perspective on the consumer credit counseling industry. The day's discussion complemented an earlier workshop at which representatives from local consumer credit counseling services (CCCS) discussed their business model. After describing the ways in which new market entrants have affected the counseling industry...

  14. Smart Card Security; Technology and Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Taherdoost; Shamsul Sahibuddin; Neda Jalaliyoon

    2011-01-01

    Newly, smart card technology are being used in a number of ways around the world, on the otherhand, security has become significant in information technology, especially in those applicationinvolving data sharing and transactions through the internet. Furthermore, researches ininformation technology acceptance have identified the security as one of the factor that caninfluence on smart card adoption. This research is chiefly to study the security principals of smartcard and assess the securit...

  15. Research for the Smart Card of 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Cucinelli, B.

    2001-01-01

    In preparation for the activities to be launched under the 6th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities (FP61), the European Commission’s Information Society Directorate-General organised a meeting to consult the industrial and academic research community on current and future RTD needs in the domain of smart card technology. Those attending this meeting, which was held in Brussels on 23 May 2001, all agreed that the European smart card industry...

  16. Stochastic Models of Vesicular Sorting in Cellular Organelles

    CERN Document Server

    Vagne, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    The proper sorting of membrane components by regulated exchange between cellular organelles is crucial to intra-cellular organization. This process relies on the budding and fusion of transport vesicles, and should be strongly influenced by stochastic fluctuations considering the relatively small size of many organelles. We identify the perfect sorting of two membrane components initially mixed in a single compartment as a first passage process, and we show that the mean sorting time exhibits two distinct regimes as a function of the ratio of vesicle fusion to budding rates. Low ratio values leads to fast sorting, but results in a broad size distribution of sorted compartments dominated by small entities. High ratio values result in two well defined sorted compartments but is exponentially slow. Our results suggests an optimal balance between vesicle budding and fusion for the rapid and efficient sorting of membrane components, and highlight the importance of stochastic effects for the steady-state organizati...

  17. Multidimensional Skills, Sorting, and Human Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Postel-Vinay; Jeremy Lise

    2015-01-01

    We construct a structural model of on-the-job search in which workers differ in skills along several dimensions (cognitive, manual, interpersonal) and sort themselves into jobs with heterogeneous skill requirements along those same dimensions. We further allow for skills to be accumulated when used, and eroded away when not used. We estimate the model using occupation-level measures of skill requirements based on O*NET data, combined with a worker-level panel from the NLSY79. We use the estim...

  18. Lateral chirality-sorting optical forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Amaury; Mueller, J. P. Balthasar; Capasso, Federico

    2015-01-01

    The transverse component of the spin angular momentum of evanescent waves gives rise to lateral optical forces on chiral particles, which have the unusual property of acting in a direction in which there is neither a field gradient nor wave propagation. Because their direction and strength depends on the chiral polarizability of the particle, they act as chirality-sorting and may offer a mechanism for passive chirality spectroscopy. The absolute strength of the forces also substantially exceeds that of other recently predicted sideways optical forces. PMID:26453555

  19. "ChemMend": A Card Game to Introduce and Explore the Periodic Table While Engaging Students' Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Centelles, Vicente; Rubio-Magnieto, Jenifer

    2014-01-01

    Deep knowledge of the periodic table is one of the most important keys to understand the basic principles of Chemistry. Memorizing the elements of the groups and periods is one of the most commonly used strategies to learn the position of each element in the periodic table; nevertheless, it is a hard task for most students. The use of card games…

  20. Sorting waste - A question of good will

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department - FM Group

    2006-01-01

    In order to minimise waste-sorting costs, CERN provides two types of container at the entrance of buildings: a green plastic container for paper/cardboard and a metal container for household-type waste. We regret that recently there has been a significant decrease in the extent to which these types of waste are sorted, for example green containers have been found to hold assorted waste such as cardboard boxes filled with polystyrene, bubble-wrap or even plastic bottles, yoghurt pots, etc. Checks have shown that this 'non-compliant' waste does not come from the rubbish bins emptied by the cleaners but is deposited there directly by inconsiderate users. During the months of October and November alone, for example, only 15% of the waste from the paper/cardboard containers was recycled and the remaining 85% had to be incinerated, which entails a high cost for CERN. You should note that once an item of non-compliant waste is found in a green container its contents are immediately sent as waste to be incinerated ...

  1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging study of neuronal activation during cognitive tasks related to frontal lobe functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous neurological studies and brain activation studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI) have suggested frontal lobe dysfunctions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, no f-MRI study has used cognitive tasks reflecting fluency of ideas and memory related to frontal lobe functions. The purposes of this study are to assess the neuropsychological examinations and brain activities of OCD patients using f-MRI, as well as, to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and frontal lobe functions. The subjects were 22 right-handed persons consisting of 11 outpatients who had received a diagnosis of OCD based on diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fourth edition (DMS-IV) and age- and sex-matched 11 healthy controls. All subjects were examined using Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd edition (WAIS-III), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Modified Stroop Test (MST), Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Idea Fluency Test (IFT), and Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The brain activities were measured with f-MRI during three cognitive tasks; Task 1: idea generation (IFT), Task 2: word generation (VFT), and Task 3: remembrance of words (RAVLT). The block design was used in the trials, in which rest and activating tasks were alternated for five times in each task. The neuropsychological examinations revealed significant differences in the numbers of categories achieved and total errors in WCST, times of Part I in MST, scores of VFT and IFT, and the results of RAVLT between the OCD patients and healthy controls. Using functional brain imaging with f-MRI, noticeable activations were found in the superior, middle, inferior frontal gyri, and the cingulate gyrus during all tasks in both the OCD and control groups. The OCD patients had significantly higher activation in the cingulate gyrus than normal controls during Task 1 (IFT

  2. Problem and solution of tally segment card in MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrong results may be given when FS card (tally segment card) was used for tally with other tally cards in Monte Carlo code MCNP. According to the comparison of segment tally results which were obtained by FS card of three different models of the same geometry, the tally results of fuel regions were found to be wrong in fill pattern. The reason is that the fuel cells were described by Universe card and FILL card, and the filled cells were always considered at Universe card definition place. A proposed solution was that the segment tally for filled cells was done at Universe card definition place. Radial flux distribution of one example was calculated in this way. The results show that the fault of segment tally with FS card in fill pattern could be solved by this method. (authors)

  3. The role of children's expertise in a Strategie memory task

    OpenAIRE

    Gaultney, Jane F.; Bjorklund, David F.; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    In a study intended to replicate and extend the findings from a recent experiment by Schneider and Bjorklund (1992), the expert/novice paradigm was used with second- and fourth-grade children in a sort/recall task. Children were classified as experts or novices for their knowledge of baseball, then given two sort/recall tasks, with a list consisting of either baseball or nonbaseball terms. Experts recalled more than novices on the baseball list only. While both groups used organizational stra...

  4. Pricing Debit Card Payments Services: An IO approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, W.; Tieman, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a theoretic framework to analyse pricing structures in debit card schemes. Card-holders value debit cards only to the extent that these are accepted by retailers, while retailers in turn benefit from a widespread usage of cards. This points to the two-sided nature of the market for debit cards. In setting its prices, the network routing switch, which in our model controls the electronic debit card network and is jointly owned by the banks, needs to consider getting bo...

  5. Sorting during Migration of Aeolian Megaripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Zimbelman, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Aeolian sediments commonly are well sorted. However, aeolian megaripples (aka coarse-grained ripples or granule ripples) have bimodal grain size-frequencies. Distinguishing aeolian megaripple deposits from mixed grain size fluvial deposits is important, particularly for martian sedimentary rocks where implications for flowing water in the martian past (if revealed by legitimate fluvial deposits) are important mission drivers for rovers and landers. Aeolian megaripples are relatively minor components of terrestrial aeolian settings (e.g., as interdune features), but on Mars, megaripples have been encountered in many locations by landers and rovers, are durable due to indurated, armoring surface layers of very coarse sand, and therefore are likely candidates for preservation in the martian sedimentary rock record. Unfortunately, megaripple deposits preserved in martian sedimentary rocks must be recognized with much less data or context than obtained typically during terrestrial fieldwork. We have undertaken wind tunnel experiments and fieldwork to assist interpretations distinguishing aeolian megaripple deposits from mixed grain fluvial materials. Lags of coarse or very coarse sand from ancient aeolian environments within the White Rim Sandstone, Canyonlands NP, UT, and at some localities along the J2 Unconformity at Buckhorn Wash, UT, are well sorted, with a sharply defined maximum grain size in each case. We conducted wind tunnel experiments to explore whether the well-sorted, sharp cutoff in maximum grain size of the coarse fraction in these deposits could be diagnostic of aeolian megaripple formation and migration. Wind tunnel experiments involved 250 μm sand saltating against 600-2800 μm grains. For a given wind tunnel speed, only a narrow grain size range appeared on megaripple surfaces as these bedforms developed spontaneously from the bed; somewhat finer grains migrated rapidly downwind, while slightly coarser grains remained immobile. The physics of

  6. Faster Radix Sort via Virtual Memory and Write-Combining

    CERN Document Server

    Wassenberg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Sorting algorithms are the deciding factor for the performance of common operations such as removal of duplicates or database sort-merge joins. This work focuses on 32-bit integer keys, optionally paired with a 32-bit value. We present a fast radix sorting algorithm that builds upon a microarchitecture-aware variant of counting sort. Taking advantage of virtual memory and making use of write-combining yields a per-pass throughput corresponding to at least 88 % of the system's peak memory bandwidth. Our implementation outperforms Intel's recently published radix sort by a factor of 1.5. It also compares favorably to the reported performance of an algorithm for Fermi GPUs when data-transfer overhead is included. These results indicate that scalar, bandwidth-sensitive sorting algorithms remain competitive on current architectures. Various other memory-intensive applications can benefit from the techniques described herein.

  7. FRENCH CARDS - NEW PROCEDURE FOR INITIAL APPLICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Human Resources Division would like to remind members of personnel that they are obliged to submit an application form for a French card as soon as they have a permanent address in either Switzerland or in France and they are actually living there. Following the rationalization of our administrative procedures, as of October 1st, 2002, the initial application procedure for a French card will now be as follows: The member of personnel should complete an application form. If necessary, an application form must also be completed for family members. These forms must then be transferred via e-mail to the appropriate Divisional Administrative Officer (DAO) who will forward them to the Cards Service. In parallel, the member of personnel should submit the necessary supporting documents to the Cards Service. Users are requested to apply for a French card through the Users Office. The application form (Word format only), the procedural details, the necessary supporting documents as well as the conditions of issue a...

  8. Preferences and Choice Constraints in Marital Sorting: Evidence From Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Soohyung Lee

    2008-01-01

    Marital sorting along education, income and other salient dimensions is well-documented for many countries. The degree of marital sorting may influence income inequality, intergenerational mobility, and household labor supply, and other economic outcomes. Marital sorting is thought to arise from some combination of people’s preferences and constraints on their choice sets. However, separating these two causes is difficult because typical data sets provide information on either a person’s spou...

  9. Sort sourceof pea in Ukraine and in the world

    OpenAIRE

    ШЕВЧЕНКО А.М.

    2006-01-01

    The sorts different by economic-biologic character of unshed seed, breeded in Ukraine and abroad obtained wide spreading in production. Expediency using lugansky or samarsky type of determinant stability to healthy growth. Breeding sorts with tendril type of leaf give the positive results in increase stability of the plants to damping-off. The sorts combining named recessive character with another aconomic-value traits of grain pea made and suggested to production.

  10. Statistical Characteristics of Single Sort of Grape Bulgarian Wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadzhiev, D.

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the differences in the values of the 8 basic physicochemical indices of single sort of grape Bulgarian wines (white and red ones), obligatory for the standardization of ready production in the winery. Statistically significant differences in the values of various sorts and vintages are established and possibilities for identifying the sort and the vintage on the base of these indices by applying discriminant analysis are discussed.

  11. Radiometric sorting of Rio Algom uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ore sample of about 0.2 percent uranium from Quirke Mine was subjected to radiometric sorting by Ore Sorters Limited. Approximately 60 percent of the sample weight fell within the sortable size range: -150 + 25 mm. Rejects of low uranium content (2 (2 counts/in2) but only 7.6 percent of the ore, by weight, was discarded. At 0.8-0.9 counts/cm2 (5-6 counts/in2) a significant amount of rejects was removed (> 25 percent) but the uranium loss was unacceptably high (7.7 percent). Continuation of the testwork to improve the results is proposed by trying to extend the sortable size range and to reduce the amount of fines during crushing

  12. Utjecaj sorte jabuke na kvalitetu suhog proizvoda

    OpenAIRE

    Dobričević, Nadica; Voća, Sandra; Pliestić, Stjepan; Magdić, D.

    2008-01-01

    Sorte jabuka Gloster, Jonagold, Idared, Melrose i Mutsu s pro-izvodnog područja sjeverozapadne Hrvatske ubrane su u tehnološkoj zriobi i skladištene u rashladnom prostoru na prosječnoj temperaturi od 2,0 oC i relativnoj vlazi zraka od 98% do užitne dospjelosti. Plodovi jabuka namijenjeni za sušenje očišćeni su i rezani na kockice veličine 1x1x1 cm. Količina mesa u analiziranim sortama je 63,37-75,46 %, količina kožica je 9,11-12,85 %, količina sjemene lože je 10,82-20,34 % i količina neupo...

  13. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-03

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  14. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-05

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  15. Machine-vision based optofluidic cell sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew

    available light and creating 2D or 3D beam distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam’s propagation and its interaction with the laser catapulted and sorted cells....... machine vision1. This approach is gentler, less invasive and more economical compared to conventional FACS-systems. As cells are less responsive to plastic or glass objects commonly used in the optical manipulation literature2, and since laser safety would be an issue in clinical use, we develop efficient...... approaches in utilizing lasers and light modulation devices. The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method3-9 that can be used for efficiently illuminating spatial light modulators10 or creating well-defined contiguous optical traps11 is supplemented by diffractive techniques capable of integrating the...

  16. Solution structure of human sorting nexin 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jikui; Zhao, Kate Qin; Newman, Carrie L Loushin; Vinarov, Dmitriy A; Markley, John L

    2007-05-01

    The sorting nexins (SNXs) constitute a large group of PX domain-containing proteins that play critical roles in protein trafficking. We report here the solution structure of human sorting nexin 22 (SNX22). Although SNX22 has <30% sequence identity with any PX domain protein of known structure, it was found to contain the alpha/beta fold and compact structural core characteristic of PX domains. Analysis of the backbone dynamics of SNX22 by NMR relaxation measurements revealed that the two walls of the ligand binding cleft undergo internal motions: on the picosecond timescale for the beta1/beta2 loop and on the micro- to millisecond timescale for the loop between the polyproline motif and helix alpha2. Regions of the SNX22 structure that differ from those of other PX domains include the loop connecting strands beta1 and beta2 and the loop connecting helices alpha1 and alpha2, which appear to be more mobile than corresponding loops in other known structures. The interaction of dibutanoyl-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (dibutanoyl-PtdIns(3)P) with SNX22 was investigated by an NMR titration experiment, which identified the binding site in a basic cleft and indicated that ligand binding leads only to a local structural rearrangement as has been found with other PX domains. Because motions in the loops are damped out when dibutanoyl-PtdIns(3)P binds, entropic effects could contribute to the lower affinity of SNX22 for this ligand compared to other PX domains. PMID:17400918

  17. Learning sorting algorithms through visualization construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ibrahim; Andrews-Larson, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Recent increased interest in computational thinking poses an important question to researchers: What are the best ways to teach fundamental computing concepts to students? Visualization is suggested as one way of supporting student learning. This mixed-method study aimed to (i) examine the effect of instruction in which students constructed visualizations on students' programming achievement and students' attitudes toward computer programming, and (ii) explore how this kind of instruction supports students' learning according to their self-reported experiences in the course. The study was conducted with 58 pre-service teachers who were enrolled in their second programming class. They expect to teach information technology and computing-related courses at the primary and secondary levels. An embedded experimental model was utilized as a research design. Students in the experimental group were given instruction that required students to construct visualizations related to sorting, whereas students in the control group viewed pre-made visualizations. After the instructional intervention, eight students from each group were selected for semi-structured interviews. The results showed that the intervention based on visualization construction resulted in significantly better acquisition of sorting concepts. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to students' attitudes toward computer programming. Qualitative data analysis indicated that students in the experimental group constructed necessary abstractions through their engagement in visualization construction activities. The authors of this study argue that the students' active engagement in the visualization construction activities explains only one side of students' success. The other side can be explained through the instructional approach, constructionism in this case, used to design instruction. The conclusions and implications of this study can be used by researchers and

  18. The influence of caches on the performance of sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMarca, A.; Ladner, R.E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    We investigate the effect that caches have on the performance of sorting algorithms both experimentally and analytically. To address the performance problems that high cache miss penalties introduce we restructure heapsort, mergesort and quicksort in order to improve their cache locality. For all three algorithms the improvement in cache performance leads to a reduction in total execution time. We also investigate the performance of radix sort. Despite the extremely low instruction count incurred by this linear sorting algorithm, its relatively poor cache performance results in worse overall performance than the efficient comparison based sorting algorithms.

  19. A many-sorted calculus based on resolution and paramodulation

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Christoph

    1987-01-01

    A Many-Sorted Calculus Based on Resolution and Paramodulation emphasizes the utilization of advantages and concepts of many-sorted logic for resolution and paramodulation based automated theorem proving.This book considers some first-order calculus that defines how theorems from given hypotheses by pure syntactic reasoning are obtained, shifting all the semantic and implicit argumentation to the syntactic and explicit level of formal first-order reasoning. This text discusses the efficiency of many-sorted reasoning, formal preliminaries for the RP- and ?RP-calculus, and many-sorted term rewrit

  20. Parallel particle identification and separation for active optical sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Palima, Darwin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    An instrument for rapidly and non-invasively sorting different cell specimens is a valuable tool in biological and medical research. Parallel identification of target specimens through image analysis can sort based on highly tuneable selection criteria and can enable high-speed optical sorting when...... matched with a rapidly reconfigurable optical sorting field. We demonstrate the potential of such a system using colloidal polystyrene microspheres. By combining machine vision with a parallel add-on optical manipulation scheme, we were able to move identified particles over a distance of several hundred...

  1. A Sort-Last Rendering System over an Optical Backplane

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuhiro Kirihata; Jason Leigh; Chaoyue Xiong; Tadao Murata

    2005-01-01

    Sort-Last is a computer graphics technique for rendering extremely large data sets on clusters of computers. Sort-Last works by dividing the data set into even-sized chunks for parallel rendering and then composing the images to form the final result. Since sort-last rendering requires the movement of large amounts of image data among cluster nodes, the network interconnecting the nodes becomes a major bottleneck. In this paper, we describe a sort-last rendering system implemented on a cluste...

  2. Pattern matching based active optical sorting of colloids/cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report active optical sorting of colloids/cells by employing a cross correlation based pattern matching technique for selection of the desired objects and thereafter sorting using dynamically controllable holographic optical traps. The problem of possible collision between the different sets of objects during sorting was avoided by raising one set of particles to a different plane. We also present the results obtained on using this approach for some representative applications such as sorting of silica particles of two different sizes, of closely packed colloids and of white blood cells and red blood cells from a mixture of the two. (paper)

  3. Sorting and recycling of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O; Ebbehøj, N; Hansen, A M; Ivens, U I; van Lelieveld, D; Malmros, P; Matthiasen, L; Nielsen, B H; Nielsen, E M

    1995-05-19

    airborne fungal spores and thermophilic actinomycetes. At plants sorting separated domestic waste, e.g. the combustible fraction of waste composed of paper, cardboard and plastics, the workers may have an increased risk of gastrointestinal symptoms and irritation of the eyes and skin. At such plants the bioaerosol exposure levels are in general low, but at some work tasks, e.g. manual sorting and work near the balers, exposure levels may occasionally be high enough to be potentially harmful. Workers handling the source-sorted paper or cardboard fraction do not appear to have an elevated risk of occupational health problems related to bioaerosol exposure, and the bioaerosol exposure is generally low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7610383

  4. Data card system for filmless radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data cards using the sample principles as music compact discs can store 4 MB of digital data. This is sufficient for 4 uncompressed radiographic images or 16 images with 4:1 average compression. Radiograph memory screens (stimulable phosphors) can be scanned at 1023 lines to provide the input signals. A filmless radiographic x-ray system is described which uses digital data cards of the size of common credit cards. These can be used in the same way as films are now used: placed in patient folders, copied, mailed, seen on view boxes, etc. The techniques of data acquisition, processing, compression, storage and display are described. The advantages of the system are explained in terms of economies, elimination of film (chemicals and processing), and compatibility with other data transmission methods. Suggestions are made for standardization of data storage and control so that this method may be used for other medical imaging applications, such as CT and ultrasound

  5. Authoring of digital games via card games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Literature and previous studies show that creative play is easy to emerge when children interact with tangible, low-tech toys and games than with digital games. This paradoxical situation is linked to the long-standing problem of end-users (or players) authoring of digital contents and systems. We...... propose a new scenario in which trading card games help making sense and re-design computer games, to support players express themselves aesthetically and in a highly creative way. Our aim is to look for a middle ground between players becoming programmers and simply editing levels. The main contributions...... are to show how card games can represent digital games, how playful play can emerge in card games and digital games, and to begin defining a new way to express game behavior without the use of universal programming languages....

  6. RENEWAL OF CRIMINAL LAW AGAINST ABUSE OF CREDIT CARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Nugraha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of credit cards for payment in lieu of cash since the introduction of the first credit card ever more widely known and used by people.   On the early introduction of this credit card, the wearer is limited to certain circles. However, a few decades later the credit card industry primarily enter the end of the Decade of the 1970s, has penetrated almost throughout all parts of the world, including Indonesia.   A credit card is issued by most commonly used by the public and apply the current International consists of a range of brands, among others, a very popular one is Visa and Master Card are each issued by the credit card company international and Master Card International.In practice many found the works in banking that may be subject to sanctions as set forth in the book of the law of criminal law (Criminal Code.

  7. Barber's Point, Oahu, Hawaii Drift Card Study 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drift cards were be released from Barber's Point, Oahu, approximately once a month during the two year span to get an idea of the distribution of card drift under...

  8. SORT:Ed - An Interactive Educational Game for HealthCare Students

    OpenAIRE

    Currell, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This short paper outlines an academic’s entrepreneurial journey from idea conception to the market place. Sort Ed is an interactive board game designed for paediatric student nurses and it set in a child’s ward. There is a huge market demand for this type of educational games in the UK especially by institutions that run healthcare management courses. This learning tool is a major contribution to the limited number of interactive educational games currently available to healthcare tutors and ...

  9. Payment cards and money demand in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Laura

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the impact of payment cards use on the amount of money in circulation in Belgium. In all developed countries the amout of notes and coins has decreased over the past years. Such tendency can be attributed to a slow, but continuous process of substitution of cash by other means of payment for everyday transactions. If the substitution was first due to a widespread used of cheques, more recently this was intensified by cards' diffusion. This claim is supporte...

  10. Graphics card as a cheap supercomputer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Jan

    Prague: Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 2013 - (Chleboun, J.; Segeth, K.; Šístek, J.; Vejchodský, T.), s. 162-167 ISBN 978-80-85823-62-2. [Programy a algoritmy numerické matematiky /16./. Dolní Maxov (CZ), 03.06.2012-08.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01030603; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB091015 Keywords : GPU * graphics card * Matlab * Jacket * CUDA Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/AS/prikryl-graphics card as a cheap supercomputer.pdf

  11. FBCT fast intensity measurement using TRIC cards

    CERN Document Server

    Allica, J C; Belohrad, D; Jensen, L; Lenardon, F; SØby, L

    2015-01-01

    At the CERN PS complex, precise fast intensity measurements are very important in order to optimize the transfer efficiencies between the different accelerators. Over the last two years a complete renovation has been ongoing, where the old electronics, based on analogue integrators, have been replaced by a fully digital system enclosed in a single VME based card. This new system called TRIC (Transformer Integration Card) is based on a 12 bit, 212 MS/s ADC and an FPGA for the signal processing. Also located on the same board one finds a 250 V/1.5 W DCDC converter used to generate precise calibration pulses.

  12. Memory Forensics of a Java Card Dump

    OpenAIRE

    Lanet, Jean-Louis; Bouffard, Guillaume; Lamrani, Rokia; Chakra, Ranim; Mestiri, Afef; Monsif, Mohammed; Fandi, Abdellatif

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays several papers have shown the ability to dump the EEPROM area of several Java Cards leading to the disclosure of already loaded applet and data structure of the card. Such a reverse engineering process is costly and prone to errors. Currently there are no tools available to help the process. We propose here an approach to find in the raw data obtained after a dump, the area containing the code and the data. Then, once the code area has been identified, we propose to rebuilt the origi...

  13. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness

  14. An analytical comparison of the information in sorted and non-sorted cosine-tuned spike activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, D. S.; Tiesinga, P. H. E.; Henriquez, C. S.; Wolf, P. D.

    2007-09-01

    Spike sorting is a technologically expensive component of the signal processing chain required to interpret population spike activity acquired in a neuromotor prosthesis. No systematic analysis of the value of spike sorting has been carried out, and little is known about the effects of spike sorting error on the ability of a brain-machine interface (BMI) to decode intended motor commands. We developed a theoretical framework to examine the effects of spike processing on the information available to a BMI decoder. We computed the mutual information in neural activity in a simplified model of directional cosine tuning to compare the effects of pooling activity from up to four neurons to the effects of sorting with varying amounts of spike error. The results showed that information in a small population of cosine-tuned neurons is maximized when the responses are sorted and there is diverse tuning of units, but information was affected little when pooling units with similar preferred directions. Spike error had adverse effects on information, such that non-sorted population activity had 79-92% of the information in its sorted counterpart for reasonable amounts of detection and sorting error and for units with moderate differences in preferred direction. This quantification of information loss associated with pooling units and with spike detection and sorting error will help to guide the engineering decisions in designing a BMI spike processing system.

  15. Welfare Analysis of Debit Card Interchange Fee Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sablik, Timothy; Wang, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Merchants pay interchange fees to card issuers when they accept credit or debit cards as payment. Many merchants have complained that the fees far exceed issuers' costs for processing such transactions. In response to those complaints, Congress directed the Federal Reserve to impose a cap on debit card interchange fees. The cap lowered interchange fees for most merchants, but it yielded some unintended consequences. An analysis of the payment-card market suggests several factors to consider, ...

  16. The Use of Card Payment Instruments : A Panel Data Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dagdemir, Canan; Sauer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth in the use of non-cash payment instruments, specifically debit and credit cards, has become a prominent feature of modern economies. With an interest in the explanation of this phenomenon and differences in use across countries, we apply a model of payment instrument use to model the relationship between the dependent variables (total volume of card transactions, debit card transactions, and credit card transactions) and the five independent variables based on income, infrast...

  17. The Impact of the Microchip on the Card Frauds

    OpenAIRE

    Ardizzi, Guerino

    2012-01-01

    The issue of frauds through payment cards has received a great deal of attention from authorities. A large share of card frauds can be ascribed to the phenomenon of counterfeiting of debit cards, widely used payment instrument in “face-to-face” transactions. With the advent of the Single Euro Payment Area, the European banking community has shared and almost reached the ambitious goal of replacing all the cards (and accepting terminals) with chip compatible ones, which are supposed to be hard...

  18. Card acceptance and surcharging: the role of costs and competition

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The payment cards market is a two-sided market. Cost sensitivity of both consumers and merchants for card services influences total demand. Survey data of Dutch merchants shows that costs, and competition affect acceptance as well as surcharging decisions. Merchants who find payment cards expensive are less likely to accept them and more likely to surcharge their customers for using them. Merchants who face any competition accept debit card payments relatively more often than merchants with m...

  19. Application of smart cards in physical and information security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart Cards, integrated circuits embedded into credit cards, have been proposed for many computer and physical security applications. The cards have shown promise in improving both the security and monitoring of systems ranging from computer network identification through physical protection and access control. With the increasing computational power embedded within these cards, advanced encryption techniques such as public key cryptography can now be realized, enabling more sophisticated uses

  20. Present-biased preferences and credit card borrowing

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Stephan; Sprenger, Charles D.

    2009-01-01

    Some individuals borrow extensively on their credit cards. This paper tests whether present-biased time preferences correlate with credit card borrowing. In a field study, we elicit individual time preferences with incentivized choice experiments, and match resulting time preference measures to individual credit reports and annual tax returns. The results indicate that present-biased individuals are more likely to have credit card debt, and to have significantly higher amounts of credit card ...

  1. Cost sensitive credit card fraud detection using bayes minimum risk

    OpenAIRE

    Bahnsen, A. C.; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Aouada, D.; Ottersten, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Credit card fraud is a growing problem that affects card holders around the world. Fraud detection has been an interesting topic in machine learning. Nevertheless, current state of the art credit card fraud detection algorithms miss to include the real costs of credit card fraud as a measure to evaluate algorithms. In this paper a new comparison measure that realistically represents the monetary gains and losses due to fraud detection is proposed. Moreover, using the proposed cost measure a c...

  2. Recent trends in the profitability of credit card banks

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Meyercord

    1994-01-01

    Competition among credit card issuers has increased sharply over the past few years. Despite this trend, the profitability of credit card banks not only remains high relative to the rest of the banking industry but continues to grow. This article examines recent trends in credit card bank profitability and, by looking beyond the aggregate data, uncovers some important differences between credit card banks owned by bank holding companies and those owned by nonbank firms.

  3. Cooperation Among Competitors: The Economics of Credit Card Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Rochet, Jean-Charles; Tirole, Jean

    1999-01-01

    The paper analyzes two controversial features of the credit card industry. The first is the cooperative determination of the interchange fee by member banks in credit card associations (Visa and MasterCard). The interchange fee is the ``access charge'' paid by the merchants' banks, the acquirers, to cardholders' banks, the issuers. The second practice is the prohibition for merchants accepting a card from charging different prices depending on the payment method (the no-discrimination or no-c...

  4. Credit card fraud and detection techniques: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Delamaire, Linda; Abdou, Hussein; Pointon, John

    2009-01-01

    Fraud is one of the major ethical issues in the credit card industry. The main aims are, firstly, to identify the different types of credit card fraud, and, secondly, to review alternative techniques that have been used in fraud detection. The sub-aim is to present, compare and analyze recently published findings in credit card fraud detection. This article defines common terms in credit card fraud and highlights key statistics and figures in this field. Depending on the type of f...

  5. Sample Development on Java Smart-Card Electronic Wallet Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Cristian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, are highlighted concepts as: complete Java card application, life cycle of an applet, and a practical electronic wallet sample implemented in Java card technology. As a practical approach it would be interesting building applets for ID, Driving License, Health-Insurance smart cards, for encrypt and digitally sign documents, for E-Commerce and for accessing critical resources in government and military field. The end of this article it is presented a java card electronic wallet application.

  6. Analysis of payment cards at selected Czech banks

    OpenAIRE

    Rybová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    This thesis concerns with payment cards - one of the most popular banking instruments of the modern world. Theoretical part describes origin and history of payment cards, characteristics and usage. There is also a classification of payment cards according to several criteria and the brief description of technology background. In the practical part, there is an analysis of payment cards offered by two major Czech banks operating in the Czech Republic – Československá obchodní banka, a. s. and ...

  7. Effects of Spatial Distance and Paid Card on Price Promotions

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Dazhang; Ye Naiyi

    2015-01-01

    Paid card is an important mean of companies to maintain the customers and increase gain. It is applied extensively in retailing, fitness center, and by other service delivers. However, there is lack of studies focused on promotion mechanisms of paid card in the literature. In this paper, the promotion mechanisms of paid card based on the theories of mental accounting, construal level, and customer’s perceived value. The study has the results that the intention to purchase of paid card holders...

  8. Can demand elasticities explain sticky credit card rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Stavins

    1996-01-01

    Sticky interest rates on credit card plans have long been a mystery. One possible explanation is that banks maintain high rates because consumers' demand for credit card loans is inelastic. This study tests and rejects that hypothesis. Demand for credit card loans is found to be elastic with respect to interest rates charged, and the amount of delinquent loans is found to increase significantly more than total credit card loans when interest rates drop.> The results show that banks face an ad...

  9. Modelling Smart Card Security Protocols in SystemC TLM

    OpenAIRE

    Bushager, Aisha; Zwolinski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Smart cards are an example of advanced chip technology. They allow information transfer between the card holder and the system over secure networks, but they contain sensitive data related to both the card holder and the system, that has to be kept private and confidential. The objective of this work is to create an executable model of a smart card system, including the security protocols and transactions, and to examine the strengths and determine the weaknesses by running tests on the model...

  10. 76 FR 43477 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... July 20, 2011 Part III Federal Reserve System 12 CFR Part 235 Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing... Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 235 RIN 7100-AD 63 Debit Card Interchange Fees and... in Regulation II (Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing) adopted in accordance with Section...

  11. Credit Cards and College Students: Who Pays, Who Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Jennifer; Hirt, Joan B.

    1998-01-01

    Survey of college students who managed credit cards wisely and those who did not (N=310), revealed that responsible users were more likely to have acquired credit cards before matriculating in college. Discusses implications for future personal-debt management and for institutions of higher education with regard to credit-card vendors. (EMK)

  12. Credit Card Attitudes and Behaviors of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, S.-H.; Grable, J. E.; Bagwell, D. C.

    2005-01-01

    At a southwestern public university, 242 students responded to a questionnaire about their credit-card use and attitudes. The results revealed that about 70 percent of the students held one or more credit cards, and about 10 percent had five or more credit cards. Twenty-two percent never kept copies of their charge slips, and only 49 percent paid…

  13. 76 FR 76628 - Disclosure of Certain Credit Card Complaint Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Chapter X Disclosure of Certain Credit Card Complaint Data AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... statement (the ``Policy Statement'') that addresses the CFPB's proactive disclosure of credit card complaint data. The CFPB receives credit card complaints from consumers under the terms of the Consumer...

  14. Crib Card Use During Tests: Helpful or a Crutch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The authors experimentally investigated the effect of crib cards on exam performance and student learning. Fifty-one students expected to use their prepared crib cards during an exam. However, they first completed an unexpected pretest without their crib card. Students performed significantly worse on the pretest than on identical questions when…

  15. 19 CFR 112.42 - Application for identification card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for identification card. 112.42 Section 112.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.42 Application for identification card. An application for...

  16. Precautionary Borrowing and the Credit Card Debt Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druedahl, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Casper Nordal

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the credit card debt puzzle using a generalization of the buffer-stock consumption model with long-term revolving debt contracts. Closely resembling actual US credit card law, we assume that card issuers can always deny their cardholders access to new debt, but that they cannot...

  17. 22 CFR 50.9 - Card of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Card of identity. 50.9 Section 50.9 Foreign... of United States Nationality of a Person Abroad § 50.9 Card of identity. When authorized by the Department, consular offices or designated nationality examiners may issue a card of identity for travel...

  18. Tradeoffs Between Branch Mispredictions and Comparisons for Sorting Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    ) comparisons performs Omega(nlogd n) branch mispredictions. We show that Multiway MergeSort achieves this tradeoff by adopting a multiway merger with a low number of branch mispredictions. For adaptive sorting algorithms we similarly obtain that an algorithm performing O(dn(1+log (1+Inv/n))) comparisons must...

  19. Magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of secondary polyolefins from waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Di Maio, F.; Hu, B.; Houzeaux, G...; Baltes, L.; Tierean, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the researches made on the FP7 project „Magnetic Sorting and Ultrasound Sensor Technologies for Production of High Purity Secondary Polyolefins from Waste” in order to develop a magnetic fluid equipment for sorting of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) from polymers mixed wa

  20. NEW TOBACCO SORTS POTENTIAL FOR TOBACCO INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homutova S. A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The review of the latest tobacco selection researches is given in the article. The basic aim of these researches is creation of new sort material, which is ecologically stable, and corresponding to energy conservation demands. New tobacco sorts are presented

  1. Supramolecular fibres: Self-sorting shows its true colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Emily R.; Adams, Dave J.

    2016-08-01

    Self-sorting events in supramolecular assembly lead to complex systems that are attractive for the design of functional materials, but have remained difficult to understand and control. Now, the growth of self-sorted supramolecular nanofibres has been elucidated by direct imaging through real-time in situ confocal microscopy.

  2. The Use of Binary Search Trees in External Distribution Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David; Lynch, Michael F.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests new method of external distribution called tree partitioning that involves use of binary tree to split incoming file into successively smaller partitions for internal sorting. Number of disc accesses during a tree-partitioning sort were calculated in simulation using files extracted from British National Bibliography catalog files. (19…

  3. The PreferenSort: A Holistic Instrument for Career Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Adi; Sagiv, Lilach

    2013-01-01

    We present the PreferenSort, a career counseling instrument that derives counselees' vocational interests from their preferences among occupational titles. The PreferenSort allows for a holistic decision process, while taking into account the full complexity of occupations and encouraging deliberation about one's preferences and…

  4. Cache-Aware and Cache-Oblivious Adaptive Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Two new adaptive sorting algorithms are introduced which perform an optimal number of comparisons with respect to the number of inversions in the input. The first algorithm is based on a new linear time reduction to (non-adaptive) sorting. The second algorithm is based on a new division protocol ...

  5. A FORTRAN Computer Program for Q Sort Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, William R.

    1978-01-01

    The Q Sort method is a rank order procedure. A FORTRAN program is described which calculates a total value for any group of cases for the items in the Q Sort, and rank orders the items according to this composite value. (Author/JKS)

  6. Processes of Overall Similarity Sorting in Free Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Fraser; Longmore, Christopher A.; Wills, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    The processes of overall similarity sorting were investigated in 5 free classification experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that increasing time pressure can reduce the likelihood of overall similarity categorization. Experiment 3 showed that a concurrent load also reduced overall similarity sorting. These findings suggest that overall…

  7. Multiple pathways for vacuolar sorting of yeast proteinase A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westphal, V; Marcusson, E G; Winther, Jakob R.; Emr, S D; van den Hazel, H B

    1996-01-01

    The sorting of the yeast proteases proteinase A and carboxypeptidase Y to the vacuole is a saturable, receptor-mediated process. Information sufficient for vacuolar sorting of the normally secreted protein invertase has in fusion constructs previously been found to reside in the propeptide of...

  8. A Pattern of Perseveration in Cocaine Addiction May Reveal Neurocognitive Processes Implicit in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woicik, Patricia A.; Urban, Catherine; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Henry, Ashley; Maloney, Thomas; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to adapt behavior in a changing environment is necessary for humans to achieve their goals and can be measured in the lab with tests of rule-based switching. Disease models, such as cocaine addiction, have revealed that alterations in dopamine interfere with adaptive set switching, culminating in perseveration. We explore perseverative…

  9. Multiphase ferrofluid flows for micro-particle sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran; Wang, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Utilizing negative magnetophoresis, ferrofluids have demonstrated great potential for sorting nonmagnetic micro-particles by size. Most of the existing techniques use single phase ferrofluids by pushing micro-particles to channel walls; the sorting speed is thus hindered. We demonstrate a novel sorting strategy by co-flowing a ferrofluid and a non-magnetic fluid in microchannels. Due to the magnetic force, the particles migrate across the ferrofluid stream at size-dependent velocities as they travel downstream. The laminar interface between the two fluids functions as a virtual boundary to accumulate particles, resulting in effective separation of particles. A stable and sharp interface is important to the success of this sorting technique. We investigate several factors that affect sorting efficiency, including magnetic field, susceptibility difference of the fluids, flow velocity, and channel geometry.

  10. Efficient External Sorting on Flash Memory Embedded Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Cossentine

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many embedded system applications involve storing and querying large datasets. Existing research in thisarea has focused on adapting and applying conventional database algorithms to embedded devices.Algorithms designed for processing queries on embedded devices must be able to execute given the smallamount of available memory and energy constraints. Most embedded devices use flash memory to storelarge amounts of data. Flash memory has unique performance characteristics that can be exploited toimprove algorithm performance. In this paper, we describe the Flash MinSort external sorting algorithmthat uses an index, generated at runtime, to take advantage of fast random reads in flash memory. Thisalgorithm adapts to the amount of memory available and performs best in applications where sort keys areclustered. Experimental results show that Flash MinSort is two to ten times faster than previousapproaches for small memory sizes where external merge sort is not executable.

  11. Help the planet by sorting your waste!

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Paper and cardboard waste comes in various forms, from newspapers to the toughest cardboard. Every year CERN dispatches about 200 tonnes of paper and cardboard to a recycling plant, but this is still too little when you take into consideration the tonnes of paper and cardboard that are still thrown out as part of ordinary rubbish or are incorrectly sorted into other rubbish skips.   Each office is equipped with a wastepaper bin, and a paper and cardboard container is available near every building. Cardboard boxes should be folded before they are placed in the containers in order to save space. Please note: Here are some sobering statistics: - 2 to 3 tonnes of wood pulp are required to manufacture 1 tonne of paper. - Each tonne of recycled paper means that we can save approximately 15 trees and substantial amounts of the water that is needed to extract cellulose (60 litres of water per kilo of paper). - A production of 100% recycled paper represents a 90% saving in water. - 5000 kWh of e...

  12. Microfluidic-chip platform for cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sarul; Balyan, Prerna; Akhtar, J.; Agarwal, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    Cell sorting and separation are considered to be very crucial preparatory steps for numerous clinical diagnostics and therapeutics applications in cell biology research arena. Label free cell separation techniques acceptance rate has been increased to multifold by various research groups. Size based cell separation method focuses on the intrinsic properties of the cell which not only avoids clogging issues associated with mechanical and centrifugation filtration methods but also reduces the overall cost for the process. Consequentially flow based cell separation method for continuous flow has attracted the attention of millions. Due to the realization of structures close to particle size in micro dimensions, the microfluidic devices offer precise and rapid particle manipulation which ultimately leads to an extraordinary cell separation results. The proposed microfluidic device is fabricated to separate polystyrene beads of size 1 µm, 5 µm, 10 µm and 20 µm. The actual dimensions of blood corpuscles were kept in mind while deciding the particle size of polystyrene beads which are used as a model particles for study.

  13. Nanoplasmonic lenses for bacteria sorting (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangchao; Yanik, Ahmet A.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate that patches of two dimensional arrays of circular plasmonic nanoholes patterned on gold-titanium thin film enables subwavelength focusing of visible light in far field region. Efficient coupling of the light with the excited surface plasmon at metal dielectric interface results in strong light transmission. As a result, surface plasmon plays an important role in the far field focusing behavior of the nanohole-aperture patches device. Furthermore, the focal length of the focused beam was found to be predominantly dependent on the overall size of the patch, which is in good agreement with that calculated by Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral formula. The focused light beam can be utilized to separate bio-particles in the dynamic range from 0.1 μm to 1 μm through mainly overcoming the drag force induced by fluid flow. In our proposed model, focused light generated by our plasmonic lenses will push the larger bio-particles in size back to the source of fluid flow and allow the smaller particles to move towards the central aperture of the patch. Such a new kind of plasmonic lenses open up possibility of sorting bacterium-like particles with plasmonic nanolenses, and also represent a promising tool in the field of virology.

  14. Artist Trading Cards: Connecting with Other Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovio, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Creating and exchanging Artist Trading Cards (ATCs) has been a rapidly growing trend. These miniature works of art are fun to make--and even more fun to share. The intrigue of developing these handmade treasures begins with the intent of creating art simply for the love of art. In this article, the author describes how her students made their…

  15. Dealing with Student Credit Card Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, William E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the danger of college students accumulating a level of credit card debt that can seriously undermine their future lives. Offers 10 suggestions for colleges including controlling solicitations, offering workshops to freshmen, adding credit information to the campus Web site, communicating with the senior class, and discouraging or…

  16. Insuficiencia cardíaca y diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Thierer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La prevalencia de la insuficiencia cardíaca y la diabetes continúa creciendo. Ambas están fuertemente asociadas. La diabetes es un fuerte predictor de aparición de insuficiencia cardíaca. Las razones son la presencia de enfermedad coronaria y los trastornos metabólicos vinculados con la resistencia a la insulina que generan disfunción contráctil. Los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca que son diabéticos tienen peor evolución. Los Betabloqueantes, vasodilatadores y los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora ejercen una influencia favorable, en tanto que el uso de glitazonas todavía es controversial. La insuficiencia cardíaca puede a su vez generar diabetes, debido a la activación del sistema nervioso simpático y al efecto del tratamiento. La comprensión adecuada de estos hechos es fundamental para tomar decisiones correctas y mejorar la suerte de los pacientes.

  17. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...

  18. Melting Metal on a Playing Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Many of us are familiar with the demonstration of boiling water in a paper cup held over a candle or a Bunsen burner; the ignition temperature of paper is above the temperature of 100°C at which water boils under standard conditions. A more dramatic demonstration is melting tin held in a playing card. This illustration is from Tissandier's book on…

  19. Looking at Debit and Credit Card Fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkess, Roger; Mason, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This article, written jointly by a mathematician and a barrister, looks at some of the statistical issues raised by court cases based on fraud involving chip and PIN cards. It provides examples and insights that statistics teachers should find helpful. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  20. The Nation's Report Card: Mathematics Highlights, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This issue of The Nation's Report Card highlights mathematics in 2003. It includes sections on Average Scale Scores, Students Reaching NAEP Achievement Levels, Percentile Results, 2003 Assessment Design, State Results, Subgroup Results, Sample Mathematics Questions, Technical Notes, Additional Data Tables, and NAEP on the Web. (AMT)