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Sample records for carcinomeby holmium-166 radionuclide

  1. Preparation of Holmium-166 Labelled Macroaggregates for radionuclide synovectomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kropáček, Martin; Melichar, František; Eigner-Henke, Kateřina; Konopková, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2003), s. 1-4. ISSN 1506-9680 Grant ostatní: GA MZd(CZ) NM6828 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : Holmium -166 * Macroaggregate * Radionuclide Synovectomy Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry

  2. Holmium-166m: multi-gamma standard to determine the activity of radionuclides in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency and calibration curves as function of gamma-ray energy for a germanium detector are usually established by using many standard gamma ray sources of radionuclides decaying with few gamma rays or radionuclides having complex decay scheme, as 152Eu or 133Ba. But these radionuclides cannot be used alone, because they have a few gamma lines with high intensity and these lines have a irregular distribution in the energy spectrum. 166mHo is found to be a convenient single source for such calibration, because it decays by β- with subsequent emission of about 40 strong and well distributed gamma lines between 80 and 1500 keV. Moreover, its long half - life (1200 years) and X-rays characteristics between 40 and 50 keV makes it a good standard for calibration of germanium detectors. However, it is necessary to know with accuracy and precision the gamma ray intensities of their main lines, due to the fact that literature has showed discrepant values. Then, a methodology to determine the emission probability of its main lines is proposed by means of combined use of gamma spectrometry and coincidence 4πβ -γ techniques. The experimental results show consistence to the others authors, with lower or compatible uncertainties. (author)

  3. Ocular brachytherapy with a holmium-166 irradiator device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ocular brachytherapy is a method that allows controlling ocular tumors. However, the irradiation of the ocular area in high doses can bring damages mainly to the surrounding healthy tissue, such as lens, retina and bone tissue of the orbital area in growth phase. Brachytherapy in comparison to teletherapy allows a large reduction of the absorbed doses in the adjacent tissues avoiding deleterious effects. Various types of radionuclides can be applied to ocular brachytherapy. Those radionuclides shall be encapsulated and placed juxtaposed to the sclera, back to the tumor. Herein, a new device was developed to encapsulate the radioactive material. It can easily place back of the eyeball. A computational model of the ocular area was developed in order to simulate the spatial dose distribution promoted by the holmium-166 nuclide distributed inside the irradiator device. The simulations addressed a device placed on the surface of the sclera, rotated 90 deg taken at the normal axis forward to the lens. The simulation was carried on the code Monte Carlo MCNP5. The computational simulation generates the spatial dose distribution in the treated volume. All continuous beta and the discrete gamma and X-ray spectra emitted by the holmium-166 were incorporated on simulations. The results allow comparing the space dose distribution to other types of sources used for the same end. The sclera absorbed dose, the maximum apical tumor dose, as well as on the tumor base were investigated. Indeed, the tumor thickness defines the conditions of irradiation. The holmium-166 dose distribution provides a tool to propose a better and optimized protocol for ocular brachytherapy. (author)

  4. Automated production of no carrier added Holmium-166

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmium-166 (166Ho) is used in radiotherapeutic applications such as radio-immunospecific pharmaceuticals, bone marrow ablation and radiation synovectomy and can be produced with moderate specific activity by the 165Ho[n,γ166Ho reaction. Higher specific activity carrier-free 166Ho can be obtained from the decay of dysprosium-166 (166Dy), produced by the double neutron capture reaction 164Dy[n.γ]165Dy[n,γ]166Dy. 166Ho can be separated from 166Dy by reverse phase ion exchange chromatography in high radionuclidic purity. An automated system has been developed to process the irradiated dysprosium oxide (Dy2O3) targets, carry out HPLC separation and deliver 166Ho in a form suitable for radiolabelling proteins and pharmaceuticals. (author)

  5. Quantitative Monte Carlo-based holmium-166 SPECT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Quantitative imaging of the radionuclide distribution is of increasing interest for microsphere radioembolization (RE) of liver malignancies, to aid treatment planning and dosimetry. For this purpose, holmium-166 (166Ho) microspheres have been developed, which can be visualized with a gamma camera. The objective of this work is to develop and evaluate a new reconstruction method for quantitative 166Ho SPECT, including Monte Carlo-based modeling of photon contributions from the full energy spectrum.Methods: A fast Monte Carlo (MC) simulator was developed for simulation of 166Ho projection images and incorporated in a statistical reconstruction algorithm (SPECT-fMC). Photon scatter and attenuation for all photons sampled from the full 166Ho energy spectrum were modeled during reconstruction by Monte Carlo simulations. The energy- and distance-dependent collimator-detector response was modeled using precalculated convolution kernels. Phantom experiments were performed to quantitatively evaluate image contrast, image noise, count errors, and activity recovery coefficients (ARCs) of SPECT-fMC in comparison with those of an energy window-based method for correction of down-scattered high-energy photons (SPECT-DSW) and a previously presented hybrid method that combines MC simulation of photopeak scatter with energy window-based estimation of down-scattered high-energy contributions (SPECT-ppMC+DSW). Additionally, the impact of SPECT-fMC on whole-body recovered activities (Aest) and estimated radiation absorbed doses was evaluated using clinical SPECT data of six 166Ho RE patients.Results: At the same noise level, SPECT-fMC images showed substantially higher contrast than SPECT-DSW and SPECT-ppMC+DSW in spheres ≥17 mm in diameter. The count error was reduced from 29% (SPECT-DSW) and 25% (SPECT-ppMC+DSW) to 12% (SPECT-fMC). ARCs in five spherical volumes of 1.96–106.21 ml were improved from 32%–63% (SPECT-DSW) and 50%–80% (SPECT-ppMC+DSW) to 76%–103

  6. Radiation dose measurements for staff members involved in holmium-166 preclinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Neutron-activated holmium-166 (166Ho) is an excellent radionuclide for internal radiation therapy (Eβmax = 1.84 MeV) with an appropriate half-life (26.8 h), which emits photons (81 keV, 6.2%) suitable to be detected by gamma cameras. Preparing and injecting radiopharmaceuticals containing beta/gamma emitting holmium-166 implies a risk of exceeding the upper limit for skin and hand radiation equivalent doses (500 mSv/an). This study was aimed to estimate the whole body and finger exposure for staff responsible for dose preparation, dose dispensing, and dose injection of holmium-166 therapy. Methods: To measure the finger dose from external exposure, all staff members wore TLD dosimeters. Personal dose equivalents Hp(10) were measured using electronic personal dosimeters (EPD MK2, Thermo Fischer Scientific) placed on the left side of the chest. During our study, staff members administered more than 40 166Ho-based therapies for preclinical trial. Appropriate radiation safety procedures and shielding were applied at each stage. Results: In this study, the whole body doses were 2.80 ± 1.56 nSv MBq−1 for one 166Ho-therapy preparation/formulation, and 2.68 ± 1.70 nSv MBq−1 for one intravenous injection. Maximum finger doses were 2.9 ± 0.2 μSv MBq−1 and 2.5 ± 0.3 μSv MBq−1 for preparation and injection, respectively (activities injected: 72 ± 3 MBq). Conclusion: Extrapolated annual doses from 300 166Ho radionuclide therapies were lower than the annual limit doses for skin and the whole body, 500 mSv and 20 mSv, respectively, reported in the European Directive EURATOM 96/29 when applying appropriate radiation protection standards. However, these doses have to be added to other diagnostic or therapeutic protocols, performed in preclinical facilities. - Highlights: • Radiation measurements for staff performing 166 Holmium radionuclide therapy was evaluated. • Hand exposure was estimated using TLD dosimeter. • Whole body doses was evaluated using EPD

  7. Experimental radiation synovectomy in rabbit knee with holmium-166 ferric hydroxide macroaggregate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmium-166 ferric hydroxide macroaggregate (Ho-166 FHMA) particles possess two important properties for radiosynovectomy; relatively short half-life of the radioisotope and appropriate carrier size. Both these minimize radioactive leakage from the treated joint. This study was conducted to assess the effects of Ho-166 FHMA on synovium and synovial fluid in rabbit knee joints. Whole-knee autoradiography was utilized to determine distribution of radioactivity after intra-articular Ho-166 FHMA injection. Intra-articular injection of Ho-166 FHMA resulted in focal acute radiation necrosis in synovial lining but no hyperplasia of synoviocytes. Later, subsynovial fibrosis became evident. White blood cell and total protein levels in the joint fluid were elevated because of intra-articular inflammation due to the acute effects of radiation. Whole knee autoradiograms showed uneven distribution of the radionuclide along the synovium and extraarticular leakage on the third day after treatment

  8. Quantitative Monte Carlo-based holmium-166 SPECT reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elschot, Mattijs; Smits, Maarten L. J.; Nijsen, Johannes F. W.; Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Jong, Hugo W. A. M. de [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Viergever, Max A. [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Quantitative imaging of the radionuclide distribution is of increasing interest for microsphere radioembolization (RE) of liver malignancies, to aid treatment planning and dosimetry. For this purpose, holmium-166 ({sup 166}Ho) microspheres have been developed, which can be visualized with a gamma camera. The objective of this work is to develop and evaluate a new reconstruction method for quantitative {sup 166}Ho SPECT, including Monte Carlo-based modeling of photon contributions from the full energy spectrum.Methods: A fast Monte Carlo (MC) simulator was developed for simulation of {sup 166}Ho projection images and incorporated in a statistical reconstruction algorithm (SPECT-fMC). Photon scatter and attenuation for all photons sampled from the full {sup 166}Ho energy spectrum were modeled during reconstruction by Monte Carlo simulations. The energy- and distance-dependent collimator-detector response was modeled using precalculated convolution kernels. Phantom experiments were performed to quantitatively evaluate image contrast, image noise, count errors, and activity recovery coefficients (ARCs) of SPECT-fMC in comparison with those of an energy window-based method for correction of down-scattered high-energy photons (SPECT-DSW) and a previously presented hybrid method that combines MC simulation of photopeak scatter with energy window-based estimation of down-scattered high-energy contributions (SPECT-ppMC+DSW). Additionally, the impact of SPECT-fMC on whole-body recovered activities (A{sup est}) and estimated radiation absorbed doses was evaluated using clinical SPECT data of six {sup 166}Ho RE patients.Results: At the same noise level, SPECT-fMC images showed substantially higher contrast than SPECT-DSW and SPECT-ppMC+DSW in spheres ≥17 mm in diameter. The count error was reduced from 29% (SPECT-DSW) and 25% (SPECT-ppMC+DSW) to 12% (SPECT-fMC). ARCs in five spherical volumes of 1.96–106.21 ml were improved from 32%–63% (SPECT-DSW) and 50%–80

  9. Holmium-166-chico intracavitary radiation therapy for cystic brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmium-166-chitosan complex (Ho-166-chico) is injected into the unresectable seven cystic brain tumors (2 cases of metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer, 1 case of recurrent trigeminal neurinoma, 3 cases of recurrent low grade cystic astrocytomas, and 1 case of craniopharyngioma). The Ommaya reservoir was installed stereotactically. The cyst volume and wall thickness were measured by MRI before Ho-166-chico injection. The thickness of the cyst wall is up to 4 mm. Ho-166-chico (555-740 MBq) injected into the cyst to result in 25 Gy of dose to a cyst wall at a depth of 4 mm. Dose to the cyst wall was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation using the EGS4 code. All Ho-166-chico injected was assumed to be uniformly distributed in the spherical cyst. After Ho-166-chico injection, the distribution of isotopes was monitored by gamma camera. Two injections were administrated in two cases, and one injection in all the others. The response was evaluated with MRI. Four of 7 cases were shrunk in size with thinning of the cyst wall, 2 of 7 cases showed growth arrest, and one case showed progression. Estimated surface dose of cyst wall was between 78 and 2566 Gy. No one showed systemic absorption of Ho-166-chico, and specific complication associated with isotope injection. Ho-166-chico intracavitary radiation therapy for cystic brain tumor may be safe, and reliable method and deserves further evaluation

  10. Clinical effects of transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization with holmium-166 poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres in healthy pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, M.A.D.; Nijsen, J.F.W.; De Wit, T.C.; Seppenwoolde, J.H.; Krijger, G.C.; Seevinck, P.R.; Huisman, A.; Zonneneberg, B.A.; Van den Ingh, T.S.G.A.M.; Van het Schip, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of holmium-166 poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres administered into the hepatic artery in pigs. Methods Healthy pigs (20–30 kg) were injected into the hepatic artery with holmium-165-loaded microspheres (165HoMS; n = 5) or with holmium-166-l

  11. Preclinical studies on holmium-166 poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres for hepatic arterial radioembolization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, M.A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic arterial radioembolization with radioactive holmium-166 loaded poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres (166Ho-PLLA-MS) constitutes the subject of this thesis. This technique represents a potential treatment option for patients with unresectable liver malignancies. 166Ho-PLLA-MS are believed to be a

  12. Preclinical studies on holmium-166 poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres for hepatic arterial radioembolization

    OpenAIRE

    Vente, M.A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic arterial radioembolization with radioactive holmium-166 loaded poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres (166Ho-PLLA-MS) constitutes the subject of this thesis. This technique represents a potential treatment option for patients with unresectable liver malignancies. 166Ho-PLLA-MS are believed to be an improvement over the already clinically applied yttrium-90 microspheres (90Y-MS) due to the multimodality imaging properties of holmium, specifically its capability to be visualized by gamma scin...

  13. Therapeutic application of new holmium-166 chitosan complex in malignant and benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new holmium-166 chitosan complex (166Ho-CHICO, DW-166HC) was prepared by reacting the aqueous acidic solution of chitosan with 166Ho(NO3)3 at room temperature with quantitative labelling yield. The progress of the reaction and labelling yield were determined by instant this layer chromatography using silicic acid impregnated glass fiber (ITLC-SA) and developing solvent of MeOH:H2O:HAC (49:49:2). The high labelling yield of more than 99% was obtained by reacting chitosan solution (35 mg/4 ml) with 166Ho(NO3)3 in which 7 mg of 165Ho+166Ho were contained as a maximum content. The labelling yield was highly dependent on the pH of the chitosan solution. The optimal labelling could be obtained at pH 2.5∼3.5 The characteristics of 166Ho-CHICO were similar to those of chitosan, which is biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic, soluble and viscous in acidic condition but geltatinuous at pH 6.0 and precipitating in alkaline conditions. 166Ho-CHICO can be easily prepared by reconstituting freeze-dried chitosan (kit A) with 166Ho(NO3)3 solution (kit B) just prior to use. After intrahepatic administration of 166Ho-CHICO to male rats, the radioactivity concentrations in blood were low and the cumulative urinary and fecal excretion over a period of 0 to 72 hours were 0.53% and 0.54%, respectively. the radioactivity concentration in tissues and the whole-body autoradiography images showed that most of the administered radioactivity was localized at the administered site, and only slight radioactivity was detected from the liver, spleen, lungs, and bones. An autoradiograph after intratumoral administration of 166Ho-CHICO showed that radioactivity was localized at the administered site of the lesion without distribution to other organs and tissues. A biodistribution study in normal rabbits with 166Ho-CHICO showed that most of the radioactivities were retained in the knee joint with negligible extra leakage at 72 hours after intra-articular administration to male rabbits

  14. Evaluation of samarium-153 and holmium-166-EDTMP in the normal baboon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals such as ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonate (EDTMP) complexes of samarium-153 and holmium-166 are receiving considerable attention for therapeutic treatment of bone metastases. In this study, using the baboon experimental model, multicompartmental analysis revealed that with regard to pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and skeletal localisation, 166Ho-EDTMP was significantly inferior to 153Sm-EDTMP and 99mTc-MDP. A more suitable 166Ho-bone-seeking agent should thus be sought for closer similarity to 153Sm-EDTMP to exploit fully the therapeutic potential of its shorter half-life and more energetic beta radiation

  15. Histological changes in the normal tissues of rat after local application of the holmium-166 chitosan complex attached to biodegradable solide material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to find out a clinically appliable method to insert a biodegradable solid material containing holmium 166-chitosan complex into the surgical field, and to evaluate the histological changes in the normal tissues after irradiation from holmium 166 according to the dose, period and type of tissues

  16. Clinical effects of transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization with holmium-166 poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres in healthy pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Vente, M.A.D.; Nijsen, J. F. W.; De Wit, T.C.; Seppenwoolde, J.H.; Krijger, G. C.; Seevinck, P. R.; Huisman, Albert; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Ingh, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Schip, A.D. van het

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of holmium-166 poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres administered into the hepatic artery in pigs. Methods: Healthy pigs (20–30 kg) were injected into the hepatic artery with holmium-165-loaded microspheres (165HoMS; n=5) or with holmium-166-loaded microspheres (166HoMS; n=13). The microspheres’ biodistribution was assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography and/or MRI. The animals were monitored clinically, biochemically, and (...

  17. Clinical effects of transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization with holmium-166 poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres in healthy pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Vente, M.A.D.; Nijsen, J. F. W.; De Wit, T.C.; Seppenwoolde, J.H.; Krijger, G. C.; Seevinck, P. R.; Huisman, A.; Zonneneberg, B.A.; van den Ingh, T.S.G.A.M.; van het Schip, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of holmium-166 poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres administered into the hepatic artery in pigs. Methods Healthy pigs (20–30 kg) were injected into the hepatic artery with holmium-165-loaded microspheres (165HoMS; n = 5) or with holmium-166-loaded microspheres (166HoMS; n = 13). The microspheres’ biodistribution was assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography and/or MRI. The animals were monitored clinically, biochemically, and...

  18. MRI-based biodistribution assessment of holmium-166 poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres after radioembolisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the feasibility of MRI-based assessment of the intrahepatic Ho-PLLA-MS biodistribution after radioembolisation in order to estimate the absorbed radiation dose. Fifteen patients were treated with holmium-166 (166Ho) poly(L-lactic acid)-loaded microspheres (Ho-PLLA-MS, mean 484 mg; range 408-593 mg) in a phase I study. Multi-echo gradient-echo MR images were acquired from which R2* maps were constructed. The amount of Ho-PLLA-MS in the liver was determined by using the relaxivity r2* of the Ho-PLLA-MS and compared with the administered amount. Quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was used for comparison with MRI regarding the whole liver absorbed radiation dose. R2* maps visualised the deposition of Ho-PLLA-MS with great detail. The mean total amount of Ho-PLLA-MS detected in the liver based on MRI was 431 mg (range 236-666 mg) or 89 ± 19 % of the delivered amount (correlation coefficient r = 0.7; P < 0.01). A good correlation was found between the whole liver mean absorbed radiation dose as assessed by MRI and SPECT (correlation coefficient r = 0.927; P < 0.001). MRI-based dosimetry for holmium-166 radioembolisation is feasible. Biodistribution is visualised with great detail and quantitative measurements are possible. (orig.)

  19. Holmium-166 poly(L-lactic acid) microsphere radioembolisation of the liver : technical aspects studied in a large animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, M A D; de Wit, T C; van den Bosch, M A A J; Bult, W; Seevinck, P R; Zonnenberg, B A; de Jong, H W A M; Krijger, G C; Bakker, C J G; van het Schip, A D; Nijsen, J F W

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of a scout dose of holmium-166 poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres ((166)Ho-PLLA-MS) in predicting the distribution of a treatment dose of (166)Ho-PLLA-MS, using single photon emission tomography (SPECT). METHODS: A scout dose (60 mg) was injected into the hepatic arte

  20. Feasibility of Endovascular Radiation Therapy Using Holmium-166 Filled Balloon Catheter in a Swine Hemodialysis Fistula Model: Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Kwang Hun; Lee, Do Yun [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Internal Medicine, EwhaWoman' s University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Jung [Dept. of Internal Medicine, EwhaWoman' s University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    To describe how to make a swine hemodialysis fistula model and report our initial experience to test the feasibility of endovascular radiation therapy with Holmium-166 filled balloon catheters. The surgical formation of arterio-venous fistula (AVF) was performed by end-to-side anastomosis of the bilateral jugular vein and carotid artery of 6 pigs. After 4 weeks, angiograms were taken and endovascular radiation was delivered to the venous side of AVF with Holmium-166 filled balloon catheters. Pigs were sacrificed 4 weeks after the radiation and AVFs were harvested for histological examination. All animals survived without any morbidity during the experimental periods. The formation of fistula on the sides of necks was successful in 11 of the 12 pigs (92%). One AVF failed from the small jugular vein. On angiograms, 4 of the 11 AVFs showed total occlusion or significant stenosis and therefore, endovascular radiation could not be performed. Of 7 eligible AVFs, five underwent successful endovascular radiation and two AVFs did not undergo radiation for the control. Upon histologic analysis, one non-radiated AVF showed total occlusion and others showed intimal thickening from the neointimal hyperplasia. Formation of the swine carotid artery-jugular vein hemodialysis fistula model was successful. Endovascular radiation using a Holmium-166 filled balloon catheter was safe and feasible.

  1. Holmium-166 radioembolization for the treatment of patients with liver metastases: design of the phase I HEPAR trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Hugo WAM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-arterial radioembolization with yttrium-90 microspheres ( 90Y-RE is an increasingly used therapy for patients with unresectable liver malignancies. Over the last decade, radioactive holmium-166 poly(L-lactic acid microspheres ( 166Ho-PLLA-MS have been developed as a possible alternative to 90Y-RE. Next to high-energy beta-radiation, 166Ho also emits gamma-radiation, which allows for imaging by gamma scintigraphy. In addition, Ho is a highly paramagnetic element and can therefore be visualized by MRI. These imaging modalities are useful for assessment of the biodistribution, and allow dosimetry through quantitative analysis of the scintigraphic and MR images. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety of 166Ho-PLLA-MS radioembolization ( 166Ho-RE in animals. The aim of this phase I trial is to assess the safety and toxicity profile of 166Ho-RE in patients with liver metastases. Methods The HEPAR study (Holmium Embolization Particles for Arterial Radiotherapy is a non-randomized, open label, safety study. We aim to include 15 to 24 patients with liver metastases of any origin, who have chemotherapy-refractory disease and who are not amenable to surgical resection. Prior to treatment, in addition to the standard technetium-99m labelled macroaggregated albumin ( 99mTc-MAA dose, a low radioactive safety dose of 60-mg 166Ho-PLLA-MS will be administered. Patients are treated in 4 cohorts of 3-6 patients, according to a standard dose escalation protocol (20 Gy, 40 Gy, 60 Gy, and 80 Gy, respectively. The primary objective will be to establish the maximum tolerated radiation dose of 166Ho-PLLA-MS. Secondary objectives are to assess tumour response, biodistribution, performance status, quality of life, and to compare the 166Ho-PLLA-MS safety dose and the 99mTc-MAA dose distributions with respect to the ability to accurately predict microsphere distribution. Discussion This will be the first clinical study on 166Ho-RE. Based on

  2. Effects of Intraluminal Irradiation with Holmium-166 for TIPS Stenosis: Experimental Study in a Swine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Seon; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Kim, Deog Yoon; Park, Yong Koo; Kim, Soo Joong [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Joon [Kang Dong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    We wanted to evaluate the effectiveness of intraluminal irradiation with Holmium-166 ({sup 166}Ho) for reducing the pseudointimal hyperplasia (PIH) in the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) tract in a swine model. TIPS was performed in 12 domestic pigs, after the creation of portal hypertension by intraportal injection of a mixture of N-butyl-2- cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and lipiodol. Five pigs first underwent intraluminal irradiation (30 Gy) in the parenchymal tract with using a {sup 166}Ho solution-filled balloon catheter, and this was followed by the placement of a nitinol stent in the TIPS tract. For the seven control pigs, the balloon was filled with saline and contrast media mixture. Two weeks later, follow-up portography and histological analysis were performed. TIPS was successfully performed in all twelve pigs with achieving artificially induced portal hypertension. Portography performed two weeks after TIPS showed the patent tracts in the TIPS tracts that were irradiated with {sup 166}Ho (5/5, 100%), whereas either completely (5/6, 83.3%) or partially (1/6, 16.7%) occluded TIPS were seen in the seven pigs of the nonirradiated control group, except in one pig that experienced periprocedural death due to bleeding. Histological analysis showed a statistically significant difference for the maximal PIH (irradiated: 32.8%, nonirradiated: 76.0%, p < 0.001) between the two groups. Intraluminal irradiation with 30 Gy of {sup 166}Ho for TIPS significantly improved the TIPS patency in a swine model of portal hypertension during a 2- week period of follow-up.

  3. Prospective dosimetry of intra-hepatic arterial holmium-166 microsphere therapy of liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Preliminary results of yttrium 90 microsphere radiation therapy of liver cancer have been promising in patients refractory to all other treatment, but dosimetry of this pure beta emitter cannot be determined accurately. Holmium-166 has a beta emission of comparable energy and range to that of 90Y with the advantage of a gamma photon of 80 keV (6%) that can be imaged. We have calibrated our SPET system for quantitative imaging of a tracer dose of 500 MBq 166Ho-microspheres given via infusaport or directly into the hepatic artery, which lodge in the liver vasculature to preferentially irradiate the tumour. Using CT co-registration to define tumour margins, regions of interest of 5 pixels are positioned over normal liver parenchyma in each SPET slice and the radiation absorbed dose in Gray estimated to determine the additional administered therapy activity of 166Ho that would result in a dose to normal liver dose of 25 Gy. In an ongoing phase I clinical trial, 10 patients have received administered activities up to a maximum of 4.5 GBq.m-2, which gave a predicted radiation absorbed dose to normal liver of 29.3 ± 3.5 Gy using our method of SPET dosimetry. Follow-up SPET imaging at 6 days showed that the actual therapy radiation absorbed dose to normal liver parenchyma was 25.2 ± 4.4 Gy. Tumour radiation absorbed dose in these patients was estimated at 96.6 ± 42.0 Gy

  4. Clinical effects of transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization with holmium-166 poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres in healthy pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vente, M.A.D.; Nijsen, J.F.W.; Wit, T.C. de; Schip, A.D. van het [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Seppenwoolde, J.H.; Seevinck, P.R. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Krijger, G.C. [Delft University of Technology, Department of Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Huisman, A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zonnenberg, B.A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Internal Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ingh, T.S.G.A.M. van den [TCCI Consultancy B.V., P.O. Box 85032, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of holmium-166 poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres administered into the hepatic artery in pigs. Healthy pigs (20-30 kg) were injected into the hepatic artery with holmium-165-loaded microspheres ({sup 165}HoMS; n = 5) or with holmium-166-loaded microspheres ({sup 166}HoMS; n = 13). The microspheres' biodistribution was assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography and/or MRI. The animals were monitored clinically, biochemically, and ({sup 166}HoMS group only) hematologically over a period of 1 month ({sup 165}HoMS group) or over 1 or 2 months ({sup 166}HoMS group). Finally, a pathological examination was undertaken. After microsphere administration, some animals exhibited a slightly diminished level of consciousness and a dip in appetite, both of which were transient. Four lethal adverse events occurred in the {sup 166}HoMS group due either to incorrect administration or comorbidity: inadvertent delivery of microspheres into the gastric wall (n = 2), preexisting gastric ulceration (n = 1), and endocarditis (n = 1). AST levels were transitorily elevated post-{sup 166}HoMS administration. In the other blood parameters, no abnormalities were observed. Nuclear scans were acquired from all animals from the {sup 166}HoMS group, and MRI scans were performed if available. In pigs from the {sup 166}HoMS group, atrophy of one or more liver lobes was frequently observed. The actual radioactivity distribution was assessed through ex vivo {sup 166m}Ho measurements. It can be concluded that the toxicity profile of HoMS is low. In pigs, hepatic arterial embolization with {sup 166}HoMS in amounts corresponding with liver-absorbed doses of over 100 Gy, if correctly administered, is not associated with clinically relevant side effects. This result offers a good perspective for upcoming patient trials. (orig.)

  5. Clinical effects of transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization with holmium-166 poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres in healthy pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of holmium-166 poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres administered into the hepatic artery in pigs. Healthy pigs (20-30 kg) were injected into the hepatic artery with holmium-165-loaded microspheres (165HoMS; n = 5) or with holmium-166-loaded microspheres (166HoMS; n = 13). The microspheres' biodistribution was assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography and/or MRI. The animals were monitored clinically, biochemically, and (166HoMS group only) hematologically over a period of 1 month (165HoMS group) or over 1 or 2 months (166HoMS group). Finally, a pathological examination was undertaken. After microsphere administration, some animals exhibited a slightly diminished level of consciousness and a dip in appetite, both of which were transient. Four lethal adverse events occurred in the 166HoMS group due either to incorrect administration or comorbidity: inadvertent delivery of microspheres into the gastric wall (n = 2), preexisting gastric ulceration (n = 1), and endocarditis (n = 1). AST levels were transitorily elevated post-166HoMS administration. In the other blood parameters, no abnormalities were observed. Nuclear scans were acquired from all animals from the 166HoMS group, and MRI scans were performed if available. In pigs from the 166HoMS group, atrophy of one or more liver lobes was frequently observed. The actual radioactivity distribution was assessed through ex vivo 166mHo measurements. It can be concluded that the toxicity profile of HoMS is low. In pigs, hepatic arterial embolization with 166HoMS in amounts corresponding with liver-absorbed doses of over 100 Gy, if correctly administered, is not associated with clinically relevant side effects. This result offers a good perspective for upcoming patient trials. (orig.)

  6. Targeting of liver tumour in rats by selective delivery of holmium-166 loaded microspheres: a biodistribution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-arterial administration of beta-emitting particles that become trapped in the vascular bed of a tumour and remain there while delivering high doses, represents a unique approach in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumours. Studies on selective internal radiation therapy of colorectal liver metastases using yttrium-90 glass microspheres have shown encouraging results. This study describes the biodistribution of 40-μm poly lactic acid microspheres loaded with radioactive holmium-166, after intra-arterial administration into the hepatic artery of rats with implanted liver tumours. Radioactivity measurements showed >95% retention of injected activity in the liver and its resident tumour. The average activity detected in other tissues was ≤0.1%ID/g, with incidental exceptions in the lungs and stomach. Very little 166Ho activity was detected in kidneys (10) and medium-sized (4-9) clusters of microspheres were present within tumour and peritumoural tissue, compared with normal liver. Single microspheres were equally dispersed throughout the tumour, as well as normal liver parenchyma. (orig.)

  7. Brachytherapy using holmium-166 liquid balloon system for in-stent restenosis: 6 months clinical and angiographic follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In western country, 3 systems of brachytherapy using commercial radioactive source has been established. However, brachytherapy using holmium-166 liquid balloon system (HLBS) for the patient with stent restenosis has not been studied enough. 30 patients (male 23, mean age 58.9 7.7) were enrolled. Target dose was 15 Gy at 1 mm distance from the intimal surface. Clinical diagnoses of the study patients included stable angina 10 and unstable angina 20 patients. Target lesion included LAD 19, LCx 5 and RCA 6 arteries. Pre-brachytherapy treatment included cutting balloon angioplasty in 25, rotational atherectomy in 5 patients. Fractionation and stepping was done in 6 patients each. Follow-up angiography was done in 19 patients. Of them, 4 cases developed angiographic restenosis (21%) including 3 cases of total occlusion. 6 month MACE (major adverse cardiac event) occurred in 5 patients including one sudden cardiac death in a patient with 80 year-old, triple-vessel diseased patient. Vascular brachytherapy using HLBS is a safe and effective treatment modality for in-stent restenosis showing acceptable angiographic and clinical result

  8. Radiotherapeutic bandage based on electrospun polyacrylonitrile containing holmium-166 iron garnet nanoparticles for the treatment of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaweera, Imalka; Levesque-Bishop, Daniel; Shi, Yi; Di Pasqua, Anthony J; Balkus, Kenneth J

    2014-12-24

    Radiation therapy is used as a primary treatment for inoperable tumors and in patients that cannot or will not undergo surgery. Radioactive holmium-166 ((166)Ho) is a viable candidate for use against skin cancer. Nonradioactive holmium-165 ((165)Ho) iron garnet nanoparticles have been incorporated into a bandage, which, after neutron-activation to (166)Ho, can be applied to a tumor lesion. The (165)Ho iron garnet nanoparticles ((165)HoIG) were synthesized and introduced into polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer solutions. The polymer solutions were then electrospun to produce flexible nonwoven bandages, which are stable to neutron-activation. The fiber mats were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The bandages are stable after neutron-activation at a thermal neutron-flux of approximately 3.5 × 10(12) neutrons/cm(2)·s for at least 4 h and 100 °C. Different amounts of radioactivity can be produced by changing the amount of the (165)HoIG nanoparticles inside the bandage and the duration of neutron-activation, which is important for different stages of skin cancer. Furthermore, the radioactive bandage can be easily manipulated to irradiate only the tumor site by cutting the bandage into specific shapes and sizes that cover the tumor prior to neutron-activation. Thus, exposure of healthy cells to high energy β-particles can be avoided. Moreover, there is no leakage of radioactive material after neutron activation, which is critical for safe handling by healthcare professionals treating skin cancer patients. PMID:25396281

  9. Preparation and evaluation of holmium-166 ferric hydroxide macroaggregates for radiation synovectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using radiopharmaceuticals is an important therapeutic approach. It has been used for more than 40 years to alleviate the pain and swelling of rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides such as 153Sm, 90Y and 166Ho were the most interesting ones, because of their short half-lives, low energy beta particle emitters and little gamma ray emission. Ferric hydroxide macroaggregates (FHMA) labeled with 166Ho were studied as a radiation synovectomy agent. Materials and Methods: 166Ho was produced at RA3 reactor of Centro Atomico Ezeiza, by irradiation of natural holmium (100% of 165Ho; 'Spectrographically Standardized'), via the n,γ nuclear reaction. In order to produce labeled particles, a coprecipitation technique of holmium hydroxide Ho(OH)3 and ferric hydroxide Fe(OH)3 was used. The 166Ho-FHMA particles were resuspended in saline and the suspension was sterilized by autoclaving. Pyrogen and sterility tests were performed following known procedures of Pharmacopoeia. Radionuclidic purity control was performed with an high purity germanium high-resolution gamma spectrometry system. Particles in vivo behavior was investigated following intra-articular injection into knees of Wistar rats, normal rabbits and rabbits with antigen induced arthritis (AIA). Gamma camera images of the whole body were analyzed up to 4 and 24 h post injection period. Results: Irradiated samples were counted after 1, 2, 5 and 15 days of irradiation to determine whether other longer lived radionuclides were produced. The only expected isotopic impurity, 166mHo, was no detectable through the gamma spectrometry system. Obtainment efficiency of macroaggregates was greater than 90%. Particle size was determined by optical microscopy and selective filtration (1,2 - 100 μm). At least 90% of FHMA particles were in the range of 20-30 μm. In vitro studies showed minimal (166Ho-FHMA remained into the knee up to 72 h post-injection. A 25% of activity leakage from the knee

  10. Evaluation of hela cell lineage response to β radiation from Holmium-166 embedded in ceramic seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sarmento Valente

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of β radiation of Ho-166 embedded in ceramic seeds on HeLa cells. Methodology consisted in the production of ceramic seeds with holmium-165 by sol-gel route. Chemical and physical characterizations of the seeds were performed. Subsequently, nuclear characterization was performed by gamma spectrometry. Experimental and theoretical activities were defined and initial dose rate were evaluated by MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee methodology. The seeds were placed in confluent culture flasks and remained for six radionuclide half-lives. Biological results were represented by a clean 6 mm diameter area around the seed where the tumour cells were killed. The initial dose rate was 15.5 Gy. h-1. The maximum absorbed dose was 591.3 Gy. The features of the Ho-166 seeds suggested that such ceramic seeds were suitable for high dose rate brachytherapy.

  11. Gamma spectrometry and chemical characterization of bioactive glass seeds with Holmium-166 for oncological implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioactive glass seeds synthesized by the sol-gel technique with Si:Ho:Ca composition with natural holmium incorporated were irradiated in the TRIGA type nuclear reactor IPR-R1 at 100kW, in the central thimble where the thermal neutron flux is 2.8x1012 n/cm2.s and the epithermal neutron flux is 2.6 X 1011 n/cm2.s . After an 8 hour irradiation time, with an induced activity close to 110MBq/seed, a set of seeds was submitted to Gamma Spectrometry Analysis in a counting system with an HPGe detector, ORTEC electronic instrumentation and a Camberra Multichannel Analyser, to determine all radionuclides present on the sample as well as its individual activities. Special attention was paid on the discrimination of Si, 40Ca, 44Ca, C and Ho as the other expected elements like 48Ca, 2H and 18O were present in traces or have very short half-lives. The second sample was submitted to Plasma spectrometry to determine the 166Ho concentration in weight. The third sample was submitted to an X-ray spectrometry in a JEOL-JXA-8900RL equipment to determine its qualitative chemical composition, in order to evaluate impurities and nominal composition. It was determined that most of the activity, after decaying of short half-life elements, was due to 166Ho present on the sample, with a well characterized β and gamma spectra. The homogeneity of the seeds was tested on the X-ray spectrometry, and verified that there is no discrepancy in composition from distinct seeds or in a same seed. The results are relevant on the investigation of the viability of producing 166Ho radioactive seeds for oncological implants. (author)

  12. Cation exchange resins labeled with holmium-166 for treatment of liver malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing interest in new therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals is prompting investigators to utilize isotopes with more focused capabilities for treating various tumors, reducing the negative effects on neighboring healthy cells. Local radionuclide therapy using radioactive microspheres is a promising therapy for non-operable group of patients suffering from liver malignancies. Many publications have shown the success of this technique. The emphasis in the present work is the resin-based microspheres labeled with 166Ho. The production of 166Ho is feasible in the IEA-R1 Reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, because it does not need high power and high neutron fluxes. Samples of Ho2O3 were irradiated in selected positions of the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 at IPEN/CNEN-SP. The neutron flux was 1.0 x1013 n.s-1.cm-2 for 1 hour. The dissolution of Ho2O3 was studied with different volumes of 0.1M HCl and also varying the heating temperature. The AG50W-X8 200-400 mesh and CM Sephadex C-25 cation exchange resins were labeled with 166Ho. The retention of 166Ho in the resins was studied and also its stability. The results of the dissolution experiments of Ho2O3 showed that there is a direct relation between the increasing volumes needed to dissolve higher masses, and also the positive effect of raising the temperature. The results show very good retention of 166Ho in both columns, even when high volumes of 0.1M HCl are passed through the column containing the resins and its good stability towards saline solution, PBS solution and glucose.Although the resins employed in this work did not have the right particle size (20-50μm), the chemical behavior showed the very good labeling of the resins with 166Ho, and its stability. (author)

  13. MR evaluation of radiation synovectomy of the knee by means of intra-articular injection of holmium-166-chitosan complex in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results at 4-month follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether MRI is able to demonstrate the effect of radiation synovectomy after the intra-articular injection of holmium-166-chitosan complex for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis of the knee. Fourteen patients aged 36-59 years were treated with 10-20 mCi of holmium-166-chitosan complex. A criterion for inclusion in this study was the absence of observable improvement after 3- or more months of treatment of the knee with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. MR images were acquired both prior to and 4-months after treatment. Clinical evaluation included the use of visual analog scales to assess pain, and the circumference of the knee and its range of motion were also determined. MR evaluation included measurement of the volume of synovial enhancement and wall thickness, the amount of joint effusion, and quantifiable scoring of bone erosion, bone edema and lymph nodes. Visual analog scale readings decreased significantly after radiation synovectomy (p<0.05). MRI showed that joint effusion decreased significantly (p<0.05), and that the volume of synovial enhancement tended to decrease, but to an insignificant extent (p=0.107). The decreased joint effusion noted at 4-month follow-up resulted from radiation synovectomy of the rheumatoid knee by means of intra-articular injection of holmium-166-chitosan complex

  14. Production of microspheres labeled with holmium-166 for liver cancer therapy: the preliminary experience at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microspheres labeled with therapeutic radionuclides for malignancies of liver are widely used in many countries. The internal radionuclide therapy uses a permanently implanted device, such as TherasphereR or SIR-SpheresR, or a biodegradable device that provides structural support for the radionuclide of choice and causes the tumor reduction. Three different types of material supports have been investigated, i.e., biodegradable polymer-based, glass-based and resin-based microspheres. Nowadays there is a project concerning the labeling of these 3 materials with 166Ho being developed at IPEN-CNEN/SP and coordinated by the Radiopharmacy Directory. 166Ho(t1/2=26.8 h) is a beta minus emitter (Emax=1.84 MeV), with right properties for radiotherapy and can be produced with the low power Brazilian Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1m. The aim of this work is to describe the stage of development of this project. The initial experience used resin-based microspheres, a cation exchange resin labeled with 166Ho, it showed the essential characteristics for liver therapy. Preliminary results of the preparation of glass-based microspheres labeled with 165Ho showed that 5% of Ho2O3 was incorporated in an aluminosilicate glass, through the process of spheronization by flame, which produced spherical microspheres with 20-40μm particle size. The preparation of biodegradable material, polymer-based microspheres, is in its initial stage and the objective is to prepare and label with 165Ho different polymer-based microspheres. These combined efforts have been done to offer a national radiotherapeutic product for the the Brazilian nuclear medicine community at fair value and also to offer a viable possibility of treatment for patients affected by liver malignancies. (author)

  15. Production of microspheres labeled with holmium-166 for liver cancer therapy: the preliminary experience at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Renata F.; Azevedo, Mariangela B.M.; Nascimento, Nanci; Sene, Frank F.; Martinelli, Jose R.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: renatafcosta@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Microspheres labeled with therapeutic radionuclides for malignancies of liver are widely used in many countries. The internal radionuclide therapy uses a permanently implanted device, such as Therasphere{sup R} or SIR-Spheres{sup R}, or a biodegradable device that provides structural support for the radionuclide of choice and causes the tumor reduction. Three different types of material supports have been investigated, i.e., biodegradable polymer-based, glass-based and resin-based microspheres. Nowadays there is a project concerning the labeling of these 3 materials with {sup 166}Ho being developed at IPEN-CNEN/SP and coordinated by the Radiopharmacy Directory. {sup 166}Ho(t{sub 1/2}=26.8 h) is a beta minus emitter (E{sub max}=1.84 MeV), with right properties for radiotherapy and can be produced with the low power Brazilian Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1m. The aim of this work is to describe the stage of development of this project. The initial experience used resin-based microspheres, a cation exchange resin labeled with {sup 166}Ho, it showed the essential characteristics for liver therapy. Preliminary results of the preparation of glass-based microspheres labeled with {sup 165}Ho showed that 5% of Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} was incorporated in an aluminosilicate glass, through the process of spheronization by flame, which produced spherical microspheres with 20-40mum particle size. The preparation of biodegradable material, polymer-based microspheres, is in its initial stage and the objective is to prepare and label with {sup 165}Ho different polymer-based microspheres. These combined efforts have been done to offer a national radiotherapeutic product for the the Brazilian nuclear medicine community at fair value and also to offer a viable possibility of treatment for patients affected by liver malignancies. (author)

  16. A phase I/IIa study on intra-articular injection of holmium-166-chitosan complex for the treatment of knee synovitis of rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous animal studies have established that the intra-articular injection of holmium-166-chitosan complex (DW-166HC) causes effective necrosis of the inflamed synovium with little leakage of radioactivity from the injected joint. Based on these findings, we conducted a phase I/IIa study to examine the biodistribution of DW-166HC and to assess the safety of DW-166HC for the treatment of knee synovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 16 patients [1 man, 15 women; median age 49 (range 36-65) years] who had RA knee synovitis refractory to disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatments of >3 months' duration were randomly assigned to three treatment groups with different radiation doses of DW-166HC: 370 MBq (n=6), 555 MBq (n=5) and 740 MBq (n=5). In each treatment group, blood and urine radioactivity were analysed by beta counter and biodistribution of the injected DW-166HC was evaluated using a gamma scan camera. Clinical assessment was done according to three variables (evaluation method): knee joint pain (visual analogue scale), range of motion (goniometry) and joint swelling (circumference of knee joint). The duration of follow-up observation was 3 months. Following the intra-articular injection of DW-166HC, the blood radioactivity was little changed from the baseline measurement and the accumulated radioactivity excreted in urine was minimal. Gamma scan study indicated that most of the injected radiochemical was localized within the injected joint cavity, and the extra-articular leakage was negligible at 24 h after the injection: brain, 0.3%; lung, 0.6%; abdomen, 0.7%; and pelvis, 0.8%. Major adverse events were transient post-injection knee joint pain and swelling. These results suggest that DW-166HC might be a safe agent for radiation synovectomy, particularly for the treatment of knee synovitis of RA, and further trials in a larger patient population are warranted to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of DW-166HC. (orig.)

  17. Effects of β-radiation using a Holmium-166 coated balloon on neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine coronary stent restenosis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy is a promising method of preventing and treating coronary stent restenosis. The present study was designed to observe the therapeutic effects of a radioactive balloon loaded with Holmium-166 (166Ho) in a porcine coronary stent restenosis model. A radioisotope of 166Ho was coated onto the balloon surface using polyurethane (20 Gy at 0.5 mm depth). Stent overdilation injuries were induced in 2 coronary arteries in each pig (n=8). Four weeks after the injury, control balloon dilation was performed in one coronary artery (Group I) and radiation therapy using the 166Ho coated balloon in the other coronary artery (Group II) in each pig. Follow-up coronary angiography and histopathologic assessment were performed at 4 weeks after the radiation therapy or the control balloon dilations. With regard to complete blood cell counts, liver function tests, lipid profiles and coagulation tests, there were no differences between the baseline and after radiation. On quantitative coronary angiographic analysis, reference and target artery diameter showed no differences between the 2 groups before, or 4 and 8 weeks after stenting. On histopathologic analysis of groups I and II, the injury score was 1.34±0.09 and 1.32±0.10, the area of internal elastic lamina was 4.99±0.17 mm2 and 4.82±0.20 mm2, and the luminal area was 3.20±0.10 mm2 and 3.45±0.14 mm2, respectively (p=NS). The neointimal area was 1.78±0.11 mm2 in group I and 1.36±0.12 mm2 in group II (p=0.017), and the histopathologic area of stenosis was 35.1±1.6% in group I and 27.6±1.9% in group II (p=0.005). In conclusion, β-radiation of the stented porcine coronary artery using a radioactive 166Ho coated balloon inhibited stent restenosis without any side effects. (author)

  18. Intra-Arterial Radionuclide Therapies for Liver Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Murat Fani; Salanci, Bilge Volkan; Uğur, Ömer

    2016-07-01

    Intra-arterial radionuclide therapies serve essentially as internal radiation treatment options for both primary and metastatic liver tumors, which imply delivering implantable radioactive microspheres into branches of hepatic arteries that feed liver tumors to provide a high dose of targeted radiation to tumor tissue, while sparing the healthy liver tissue from hazardous effects of radiation. The principle of this therapeutic option depends on the unique preferential arterial supply of malignant liver tumors in contrast with mostly portal venous supply of normal hepatocytes as well as excess amount of arterial neovascularization in the tumor bed. Therefore, intra-arterial radionuclide therapy can provide very high radiation exposure to tumor tissue, which is impossible to reach with external radiation therapy due to serious side effects and moreover, radiation can be targeted to tumor tissue selectively with less side effects. Yttrium-90 (Y-90), a high-energetic beta emitter is the most preferred radionuclide, which is used to label microspheres. Two types of Y-90 microspheres are commercially available that are made of resin and glass. Many studies in the literature have demonstrated that Y-90 microsphere therapy is an efficient and safe locoregional therapeutic option for unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases from colorectal cancer and breast cancer as well as neuroendocrine tumors. Furthermore, limited number of studies has reported its use in some relatively uncommon metastatic liver tumors from melanoma, pancreatic, renal, and lung cancer. Besides Y-90 microspheres, Iodine-131 lipiodol, Rhenium-188 lipiodol, Rhenium-188 microspheres, Holmium-166 chitosan, and Holmium-166 microspheres have been introduced as alternative radiopharmaceuticals for intra-arterial therapy for liver tumors. PMID:27237442

  19. Holmium-166-DTPA as a liquid source for endovascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid radiation sources with β emitters have advantages of accurate positioning and uniform dose distribution to the vessel walls to prevent the restenosis of coronary artery. As a liquid radiation source, 166Ho-DTPA was prepared and evaluated its in-vivo pharmacokinetic behavior through animal studies. 166Ho-DTPA was prepared by simple mixing the Holmium with DTPA at room temperature. The radiolabelling yield was 100% when the DTPA/Holmium molar ratio was >2. Radiolabelling of 166Ho-DTPA was not dependent on the pH range of 1.7-7.5. High radiochemical stability (>98%) was maintained over a period of 6 hours even with a radioactivity (∼11.1 GBq/12 mg of DTPA) stored at room temperature. Biodistribution of 166Ho-DTPA in rats and gamma camera images in rabbits showed that 166Ho-DTPA was quickly excreted via the urinary system. The average of Tmax and T1/2 of 166Ho-DTPA in the kidneys of rabbits were 3.71 ± 1.18 min and 9.15 ± 3.15 min. 166Ho-DTPA is a potential liquid radiation source for radiation brachytherapy to prevent the restenosis of the coronary artery using a liquid-filled balloon

  20. Calcium phosphate holmium-166 ceramic to addition in bone cement: synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spine metastases are a common and painful complication of cancer. The treatment often consists of bone cement injection (vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty) within vertebral body for vertebrae stabilization, followed by external beam radiation therapy. Recently, researchers introduced the concept of radioactive bone cement for spine tumors therapy. Then, investigations about bioactive and radioactive materials became interesting. In this study, we present the synthesis of calcium phosphate incorporated holmium (CaP-Ho) via sol-gel technique, and its characterization by XRD, FT-IR, NA and SEM. Results showed a multiphasic bioceramic composed mainly of hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate, holmium phosphate and traces of calcium pyrophosphate. Furthermore, the nuclide Ho-166 was the major radioisotope produced. Despite that, the radioactive bioceramic CaP-166Ho must be investigated in clinical trials to assure its efficacy and safety on spine tumors treatment (author)

  1. Preparation of Holmium -166 Loaded Biodegradable Poly(L-Lactic Acid) Microspheres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melichar, František; Kropáček, Martin; Konopková, Marie

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 32, Supplement 1 (2005), S274-S274. ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of European Association of Nuclear Medicine. 16.10.2005-19.10.2005, Istambul] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS100480501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : holmium * raditherapy Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry

  2. Calcium phosphate holmium-166 ceramic to addition in bone cement: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donanzam, Blanda A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade do Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Dalmazio, Ilza; Valente, Eduardo S., E-mail: id@cdtn.b, E-mail: valente@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Spine metastases are a common and painful complication of cancer. The treatment often consists of bone cement injection (vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty) within vertebral body for vertebrae stabilization, followed by external beam radiation therapy. Recently, researchers introduced the concept of radioactive bone cement for spine tumors therapy. Then, investigations about bioactive and radioactive materials became interesting. In this study, we present the synthesis of calcium phosphate incorporated holmium (CaP-Ho) via sol-gel technique, and its characterization by XRD, FT-IR, NA and SEM. Results showed a multiphasic bioceramic composed mainly of hydroxyapatite, {beta}-tricalcium phosphate, holmium phosphate and traces of calcium pyrophosphate. Furthermore, the nuclide Ho-166 was the major radioisotope produced. Despite that, the radioactive bioceramic CaP-{sup 166}Ho must be investigated in clinical trials to assure its efficacy and safety on spine tumors treatment (author)

  3. Radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of radionuclides to biota is discussed especially with reference to specific elements in local soils. Two annual plant species have received concentrated study. These are cheatgrass and tumbleweed, both important inhabitants of waste burial sites. Little is known concerning the radionuclide dynamics of perennial grasses, forbs, or shrub species. The potential for radionuclide transport by jackrabbits, waterfowl, small mammals, and biota inhabiting pond systems is discussed. Concentration ratios are tabulated

  4. Cosmogenic radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Jürg; Von Steiger, R

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. This book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any f

  5. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  6. Radionuclide cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on radionuclide cystography in infants and children for the detection of vesicoureteral reflux. Vesicoureteral reflux represents a common and potentially serious form of urinary tract pathology. Reflux accompanied by asymptomatic or inadequately treated urinary tract infections has been associated with significant sequelae, including renal scarring, hypertension, and end- stage renal disease. Although there are several advantages and disadvantages to both radionuclide and radiographic techniques for detection of reflux, radionuclide cystography has been found to be at least as sensitive as the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for the detection of clinically significant reflux. The major advantage of radionuclide cystography is a significantly lower radiation dose as compared to VCUG. Both indirect and direct techniques for radionuclide cystography have been developed. In addition to detection of vesicoureteral reflux, indirect radionuclide cystography allows evaluation of differential renal function. Supplemental parameters that may be evaluated with direct radionuclide cystography include: quantitation of reflux, determination of bladder volume at which reflux occurs, evaluation of the dynamics of bladder emptying, and determination of residual bladder volume following voiding

  7. Deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results presented are from the nationwide programme to survey the fall-out levels of radionuclides in Finland. This programme includes results from the vicinities of the nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Analysis of deposition samples for their 3H, 89Sr and 90Sr, as well as 137Cs and other gamma radionuclide contents was continued. The results are given as a follow-up to the previous results. The cumulative deposition of long-lived radionuclides retained in soil was measured near the Finnish nuclear power stations. The 90Sr and 137Cs levels in deposition in 1979 were lower than in the previous two years, and no 89Sr was detected. The trend to slightly increasing 3H concentrations of previous years was reversed in 1979. The mean annual deposition of tritium at different sampling stations varied from 85 nCi/m2 (3.1 kBq/m2) to 180 nCi/m2 (6.7 kBq/m2). The total annual deposits of various fission product radionuclides have decreased continuously since the maximum in 1977. No short-lived radionuclides originating from either nuclear explosions or nuclear power plants were observed in 1979. (author)

  8. Deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements were carried out to determine the fall-out levels of radionuclides in Finland including those from the surroundings of the nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Deposition samples were analysed for their 3H, 89Sr and 90Sr as well as 137Cs and other gamma radionuclide contents. 90Sr, 239,240Pu, as well as 137Cs and other gamma radionuclides deposited in soil were also measured. The 90Sr and 137Cs levels in deposition in 1978 remained at almost the same level as in 1977. The slightly increasing trend in 3H concentrations continued in 1978. The mean annual deposition of tritium at different sampling stations varied from 120 nCi/m2 (4.4 kBq/m2) to 200 nCi/m2 (7.4 kBq/m2). The total annual deposits of various fission product radionuclides during 1978 were smaller than during 1977. No increase in radioactivity originating from nuclear power plants could be observed. (author)

  9. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new carrier for radionuclide technetium 99m has been prepared for scintiscanning purposes. The new preparate consists of physiologically acceptable water-insoluble Tcsup(99m)-carrier containing from 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent of stannic ion as reductor, bound to an anionic starch derivative with about 1-20% of phosphate substituents. (EG)

  10. Radionuclide cisternogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems with the flow of spinal fluid. ... a lumbar puncture include pain at the injection site, bleeding, and ... used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  11. Preparation and Quality Control of 166-Ho--Macroaggregates for Radiosynoviorthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kropáček, Martin; Melichar, František; Šrank, Jiří; Mirzajevová, Marcela; Klejzarová, Michaela; Kraft, O.; Kašpárek, R.; Záhlava, J.; Chodacki, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 22, Č. 3 (2007), s. 450-452. ISSN 1084-9785 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS100480501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiosynoviorthesis * Holmium-166 * radionuclide synovectomy Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2007

  12. Preparation of .sup.166./sup.Ho-Macroaggregates and .sup.166./sup.Ho-chitosan for the endoradiotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melichar, František; Kropáček, Martin; Eigner-Henke, Kateřina; Křížová, V.; Konopková, M.; Lang, O.; Mirzajevová, Marcela

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2002), s. 314. ISSN 1450-1147. [Abstracts of the Congress of the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology.. 29.09.2002-02.10.2002, Santiago] R&D Projects: GA MZd NM6828; GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : Holmium -166 * radionuclide synovectomy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  13. Quantitative nuclear imaging for dosimetry in radioembolization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elschot, M.

    2013-01-01

    Intra-arterial microsphere radioembolization is an increasingly applied technique for treatment of unresectable liver tumors. During radioembolization, microspheres (diameter 30 μm) loaded with a high-energy beta-emitting radionuclide, such as yttrium-90 (Y-90) and holmium-166 (Ho-166), are instille

  14. Effective local control of malignant melanoma by intratumoural injection of a beta-emitting radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, therapeutic effect, morphological alterations and biological responses to the high-dose continuous irradiation delivered using this new technique were evaluated in an animal model with B16 melanoma. For evaluation of the therapeutic effect, 92 C57BL/6 mice with B16 melanoma were divided into four groups. In each group, intratumoural injections were performed when the tumour measured approximately 1 cm along its long axis. Group 1 (n=25) received 0.3 ml of normal saline, group 2 (n=15) 37 MBq of carrier-free holmium-166 in 0.3 ml saline, group 3 (n=27) 185 MBq of 166Ho in 0.3 ml saline and group 4 (n=25) 185 MBq of 166Ho in 0.5 ml saline. In addition, another 30 mice were used for morphological and biological analysis of the radiation effect. These 30 mice were injected with 185 MBq of 166Ho in 0.3 ml saline, and five were sacrificed at each of the following six time points: before injection and 1, 2, 3, 6 and 14 days post injection. For visual side-by-side comparison, melanoma cells were inoculated bilaterally into the back of ten additional mice, and 185 MBq of 166Ho in 0.3 ml of saline or an equal volume of normal saline was injected separately into the bilateral tumours. Nine days after inoculation of melanoma cells, mean tumour volume reached 492.5-631.9 mm3. Tumours of the control group (group 1) showed rapid growth, and the mean tumour volume reached approximately 30 times the original volume. None of the control group lived for more than 16 days following the injection of normal saline. On the other hand, mean tumour volume of the treated groups showed a gradual decrease, and 67%-74% of the treated animals were alive when all the control animals had died. The median survival of the control group was 9 days following injection, whereas it was 29 days in group 2, 33 days in group 3 and 33 days in group 4. The survival rate of group 3 was higher than that of groups 2 and 4, but statistical significance was not observed. H and E stain of the

  15. Deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurements presented here were carried out for determination of the fallout levels of radionuclides throughout the country, including the areas surrounding the nuclear power plants at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. The 90Sr, 137Cs and 3H contents of deposition were determined and the results are given as a follow-up to the previous results. 89Sr and other gammaradionuclides in addition to 137Cs were measured from wet and dry deposition. Also 89-90Sr, 239-240Pu, 137Cs and other gammaradionuclides deposited in soil were measured. The radiochemical separation technique was used to determine 89Sr, 90Sr, 137Cs and 239-240Pu. Tritium contents were determined by liquid scintillation counting after electrolytic enrichment. Gammaradionuclides were measured by Ge(Li) spectrometry. In 1977 the contents of the long-lived radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in deposition increased to almost the same level as in the early '70s. This is due to the high-yield atmospheric nuclear weapon tests carried out by China. A slight increase in 3H deposition can also be noticed in 1977. The results of soil sample measurements indicate that practically all the activity is found in the top 20 cm layer. (author)

  16. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  17. Radionuclide Small Intestine Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Dolezal; Marcela Kopacova

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this overview article is to present the current possibilities of radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging. Nuclear medicine has a few methods—scintigraphy with red blood cells labelled by means of 99mTc for detection of the source of bleeding in the small intestine, Meckel's diverticulum scintigraphy for detection of the ectopic gastric mucosa, radionuclide somatostatin receptor imaging for carcinoid, and radionuclide inflammation imaging. Video capsule or deep enteroscop...

  18. Complexation behaviour of DADCA and DAPDA with dysprosium-166/holmium-166 parent daughter system and its potential for use in radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A novel approach for the delivery of therapeutic doses from 166Ho to cancerous tissue is via the decay of its parent, 166Dy. When designing radioimmunoconjugte, a crucial question is to determine whether the ligand used in the radiolabeling process is capable of holding the 166Ho on decay of the parent, 166Dy. In this study, two pendant arm macrocycles 1, 10-Diaza-4, 7, 13, 16-tetraoxacyclooctadecane-N, N'-diacetic acid, (DACDA) and 1, 10-Diaza-4, 7, 13-trioxacyclopentadecane-N, N'-diacetic acid, (DAPDA) that were reported to forms reasonably stable complexes with Dy and Ho, were synthesised. The synthesis of the two pendant arm macrocycles was first attempted using methods outlined by Chang and Rowland. The yields obtained through this method were low (10 % for both ligands) and it was considered important to investigate alternative approaches to the synthesis. The new method involved an alkylation reaction in the presence of acetonitrile and sodium bicarbonate. The method took considerably less time and the yields increased to 88 %. The ligands were characterised using 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectrometry. The chemical and radiolytic stabilities of 166Dy and 166Ho complexes of the two ligands were investigated at pH = 5 and the ligands potential for use in the in vivo generator system evaluated

  19. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  20. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism and effects of radionuclides may be influenced by a number of dietary, physiological, and environmental factors. Some factors are studied which have been identified as potentially important determinants of radionuclide behavior: the reproductive performance of female rats exposed to 239Pu during pregnancy or lactation, and the relative contribution of cross-placental and milk transfer to offspring

  1. Overview of radionuclides transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been recognition of radioactivity levels and the fate of radionuclides that could have modified the biogeochemical cycles in the ecological environment. These modifications can disturb a variety of the ecosystems on which human life depends. It is essential to understand the pathways of radionuclides that are transported and deposited in the atmosphere and in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems related to their impacts on human life. This paper is mainly focused on the transport in the atmospheric part. Various physical processes that control the transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere are reviewed. The transport processes used in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, as well as underground are briefly described. For the purpose of demonstration, dose calculations due to the exposures of radionuclides, and the numerical model simulations of transport of 210Pb particles and dust aerosols in the atmosphere are presented. Each transport process is complex. More sampling data are needed to refine the transport models for assessing and predicting the fate of radionuclides and their impacts on ecosystems. Long-lived radionuclides are remained in the atmosphere and can be transported in a long distance over wider areas. Although a numerical model can handle complex transport processes, a Gaussian model offers an attraction for ease and quickness of interpretation of exposures to radionuclides during emergency. Radionuclides entering the atmosphere go through the transfer process from air to soil, soil to plants, and plants to animals. The transfer is a long-term process. Therefore, a longer-term study of environmental sampling of radionuclides is required to accurately assess the transport processes and long-term impacts on health and ecosystems. Also, it should get involving in a study of modeling transport of radionuclides over urban area having various heights and sizes of buildings, i.e., skyscrapers with high population, in the case of an event occurring

  2. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 900C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 5000C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  3. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  4. Radionuclides in Bentic Algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentic micro-algae (mainly consisting of diatoms) were taken from 4 sites in the discharge area of the Forsmark Nuclear Power Station (Sweden) and from 1 site in the cooling water intake channel of the power station. Samples were taken every third week during 1984. The micro-algae were brushed of a 0.1-0.15 m2 area on stones collected from the hydrolittoral zone. Radionuclide concentration was measured as gamma radiation with a Ge-detector. Fission products from the power plant cooling water can easily be detected in the micro-algae. We show that benthic diatom assemblages are good indicators for radionuclides; good correlations were found between radionuclide concentration in the algae and the discharge from the power plant. The best correlations were obtained if the accumulated discharge for the 15 days before sampling was used in the calculations. Of the investigated radionuclides, Co-60 and Zn-65 show significant relationships between concentration in the algae and discharge for 2 site, Ag-110m for 3 sites and Mn-54 for 1 site. No correlations were found for the site in the intake channel. The results show differences which depend on whether calculations were done for total, particulate or dissolved fractions of the radionuclides. There are indications that there is considerable recirculation of the radionuclides within the algal assemblages, and the recirculation from the outlet of the Biotest basin to the intake channel is of about 10%. In this report we also present a budget for the total amount of radionuclides in the Biotest Basin for 1984. The highest amounts of radionuclides in diatoms were found during late winter and early spring, associated with the large diatom blooms at that time of the year in the basin. (authors)

  5. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  6. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  7. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  8. Orbital radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbital abnormalities can be evaluated by dynamic scintigraphy (radionuclide angiography) and static scintigraphy (radionuclide ''scanning''). The use of en face positioning improves the visualization of orbital details. Lesions can be detected and localized most accurately if multiple tracers are used for these studies. Abnormalities can be characterized by the recognition of various angiographic flow patterns, of distinct static distribution patterns, and of differences in the accumulation of multiple radiopharmaceuticals. The results of scintigraphic examination using technetium 99m sodium pertechnetate, mercury 197 chlormerodrin, and gallium 67 citrate in a series of 57 patients are reported. (U.S.)

  9. Radionuclide transfer in Alpine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although alpine ecosystems are only of limited extent in Europe and the world, they serve as an important socio-economic basis for food production and tourism for the local population. The specific climate conditions and agricultural practice do have influence on radionuclide transfer in Alpine regions. The paper describes basic processes governing radionuclide behaviour in Alpine ecosystems and gives parameters for vertical migration of radionuclide in soil, for soil-plant transfer as well as transfer of radionuclide to cow milk. (author)

  10. Radionuclides in house dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  11. Underground radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number 9 sub-report of the safety assesment studies of the disposal of radioactive waste in rock-salt formations concerns the calculation of radio-nuclide migration with groundwater. Calculations ar carried out in two phases. The first phase consists of calculation of the groundwater flow system under a great number of different hydrological boundary conditions, which possibly can be encountered in future. Variations in sea level and consequences of glaciations are included. Given a great number of possible groundwater flow systems, in the second phase radionuclide migration is calculated for a restricted number of representative situations. Transport of radionuclides with groundwater takes place, starting at a release point at the top (edge) of the rock salt formation until the landsurface, the bottom of a sea or an extraction-well for public water supply has been reached, at which places concentrations radionuclides have been computed as a function of time. Calculations continued till all concentrations had reached their maxima. Results form the input for biosphere dose-calculations, as reported in the number 10 sub-report. (author). 26 refs.; 43 figs.; 22 tabs

  12. Radionuclide liver cancer therapies: from concept to current clinical status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vente, Maarten A D; Hobbelink, Monique G G; van Het Schip, Alfred D; Zonnenberg, Bernard A; Nijsen, Johannes F W

    2007-07-01

    Primary and secondary liver cancer have longtime been characterized by an overall poor prognosis since the majority of patients are not candidates for surgical resection with curative intent, systemic chemotherapy alone has rarely resulted in long-term survival, and the role of conventional external beam radiation therapy has traditionally been limited due to the relative sensitivity of the liver parenchyma to radiation. Therefore, a host of new treatment options have been developed and clinically introduced, including radioembolization techniques, which are the main topic of this paper. In these locoregional treatments liver malignancies are passively targeted because, unlike the normal liver, the blood supply of intrahepatic tumors is almost uniquely derived from the hepatic artery. These internal radiation techniques consist of injecting either yttrium-90 ((90)Y) microspheres, or iodine-131 ((131)I) or rhenium-188 ((188)Re) labeled lipiodol into the hepatic artery. Radioactive lipiodol is used exclusively for treatment of primary liver cancer, whereas (90)Y microsphere therapy is applied for treatment of both primary and metastatic liver cancers. Favorable clinical results have been achieved, particularly when (90)Y microspheres were used in conjunction with systemic chemotherapy. The main advantages of radiolabeled lipiodol treatment are that it is relatively inexpensive (especially (188)Re-HDD-lipiodol) and that the administration procedure is somewhat less complex than that of the microspheres. Holmium-166 ((166)Ho) loaded poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres have also been developed and are about to be clinically introduced. Since (166)Ho is a combined beta-gamma emitter and highly paramagnetic as well, it allows for both (quantitative) scintigraphic and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:17630919

  13. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  14. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  15. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  16. Radionuclide diagnosis of nephrolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide investigations were conducted in 322 patients with nephrolithiasis. Unilateral calculosis was established in 46.3% of the patients, bilateral calculosis in 50.6%. The nature of changes on renograms, scintigrams and in clearance values shown to depend on the localization of concrements, their size and the presence of concomitant infection. A conclusion has been made as to the usefulness of the methods with relation to operative treatment, especially in a bilateral localization of a pathological renal process

  17. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  18. Soil contamination by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil is the first link in the food chain. Soil contamination by individual radionuclides significantly affects the level of terrestrial radiation in the locality. The authors mapped situation of post-Chernobyl 137Cs soil contamination in Slovakia and European countries. Samples were collected in three layers of agriculturally cultivated area. Even a few years after the Chernobyl accident authors can say that elevated 137Cs values were recorded in the samples from Austria and Germany, in all layers of collection. (authors)

  19. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO2(s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  20. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  1. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  2. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  3. Sherlock Holmes for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2001 ARC Seibersdorf research has taken the management of the first worldwide certified laboratory to control the realization of the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Altogether there will be 16 CTBT certified laboratories worldwide; therefore a global network of radionuclides measurements stations and test laboratories as well as seismic, radiation and hydroacustic measurements stations is necessary . In the future air samples will be taken from these stations and analyzed in one of these certified laboratories, when appears the suspicion that an atomic test was carried out. (nevyjel)

  4. Absorption of selected radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1978, the Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg e.V. published a contribution to part 26 of the model study of radio-ecology at Biblis under the title 'Estimation of the absorption of radionuclides from the gastrointestinal tract in the blood'. Using the example of this contribution, a critical analysis is made to show how a selection of the information contained in various scientific publications and other items of literature can give uncritical readers the impression that all statements made are scientifically well founded. (orig./HP)

  5. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  6. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial

  7. Radionuclide imaging in morbid obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRogatis, A.J.

    1987-06-01

    Radionuclide studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract have been useful in many gastrointestinal disorders. However, the literature relating to radionuclide techniques in morbid obesity is limited and, at times, controversial. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the use of tracer techniques in this complex disorder. 23 references.

  8. Radionuclide imaging in morbid obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract have been useful in many gastrointestinal disorders. However, the literature relating to radionuclide techniques in morbid obesity is limited and, at times, controversial. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the use of tracer techniques in this complex disorder. 23 references

  9. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  10. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Mausner, L. F.; Garland, M. A.

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology, and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by β- emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for the production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  11. Medical-radionuclide production methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable supply of radionuclides is critical for many areas of nuclear medicine. The recent shortages have highlighted the need for additional sources of medical radionuclides, especially molybdenum-99. The Workshop brought together specialists with knowledge in various methods of producing radionuclides for nuclear medicine to share their perspectives. Its outcome was the provision of sound technical information on the various alternatives. The Workshop comprised expert presentations on the different methods available for producing medical radionuclides, and featured speakers from ACSION Industries, AECL, McMaster University, MDS Nordion, TRIUMF, Canadian Society of Nuclear Medicine and others. There was extensive opportunities for discussions and exchange of ideas. This Workshop was of interest to persons with general knowledge of radioactivity, nuclear reactors, accelerators and related technologies who wish to become more knowledgeable about the available methods of producing medical radionuclides.

  12. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  13. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  14. Production of cyclotron radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki; Kim, Jang Hye; Kim, Gi Sup [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In the project, 12,077mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 5,717mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 2,096mCi of {sup 123}l, 482mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 2,738mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 387,253,000won. In the production of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F production. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  15. Production of cyclotron radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Yong Sup; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, Kwon Soo; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Lee, Jong Doo; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In the project, 11,492mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 4,384mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 1,245mCi of {sup 123}l, 523mCi of [{sup 123}I]mlBG and 1,283mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied, and the revenue were 304,723,000won. In the production of RI, 13 deg for {sup 201}Tl and {sup 67}Ga, 45 deg for {sup 123}l angle solid target have been used, and liquid target system has been used for {sup 18}F production. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  16. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of these studies is to develop a basic understanding of radionuclide chemical behavior in soil systems and determine biological availability and transport through ecological pathways defining basic mechanisms at the chemical, cellular, and organism level, enables the incorporation of information into predictive models, which are subsequently validated in the field at reactor and waste management sites. Through investigations of critical geochemical, microbial, and plant phenomena, the precision with which human dose assessments are made is improved. The biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways are studied rather than the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water. Results can also be used to predict the behavior of non-nuclear pollutants such as heavy metals, and to provide a basis for new designs and remedial measures (chemical treatments, biobarriers) that will minimize hazards associated with extended waste disposal and isolation

  17. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M and O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''

  18. Diagnostic applications of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides are now used routinely in two different types of medical diagnostic tests: in vivo measurements of the distribution of radioactivity in the body, and in vitro assays. Information gained from these procedures is expected to improve the physician's understanding of this patient's well-being by providing an objective evaluation of important physiologic functions. This information may be used to establish a correct diagnosis, determine the extent or severity of the patient's illness, or to evaluate a patient's response to therapy. Diagnostic tests thus increase the speed and accuracy of patient care decisions. As a result, treatment is more objective, recovery is more rapid, and the duration of patient suffering is reduced. These benefits may significantly reduce the overall costs of medical care. The numbers of test performed and the amount of radioactivity employed has increased dramatically. This growth has been facilitated by the development of new radiation detection instruments that are especially designed for clinical applications, and by the increased commercial availability of labeled materials that can be used for diagnostic tests. In addition, the use of isotopes in human subjects is limited by a variety of special problems. Some of these problems are rather technical, relating only to the development of method for storage and preparation of labeled materials in a form suitable for human use. Other more critical problems include the limited selection of radionuclides available for use in the investigation of human metabolism, the inefficiency of instruments used to detect radioactivity, and the growing concern for the potential hazards associated with the use of all forms of ionizing radiation

  19. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  20. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 (137Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 (210Pb) and beryllium-7(7Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  1. Radionuclide source term and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in two types of experiment is reported. In the first the equilibrium and concentration of radionuclides in groundwater in contact with real radioactive wastes are measured. Container material, backfill material and rock are added to groundwater to investigate their effects. In the second experiment the retardation of radionuclides leached from wastes as groundwater flows over samples of container, backfill and geological material is measured. Outflow is analysed for radionuclides and experimental results for cesium 134, cesium 137 and cobalt 60 are presented. (U.K.)

  2. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  3. 6. Radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural transformation series are described and the characteristics given of natural radionuclides which do not form series and of certain cosmogenic radionuclides. The hazard is evaluated of internal and external irradiation from various artificial radioactivity sources, namely those which are linked with the operation of nuclear power installations and waste processing. Data are given on the occurrence of natural radionuclides in the environment and in the human organism. A brief description is presented of environmental monitoring methods and methods of dosimetry at nuclear power installations. (M.D.)

  4. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author)

  5. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  6. Radionuclide diffusion in soils. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors are discussed affecting the rate of migration of radionuclides in the soil (properties of the radionuclide - the sign and magnitude of ion charge, soil properties - moisture, density, presence of salts and organic substances, composition of sorption complex and soil solution, climatic conditions -temperature). Fick's 2nd law cannot be used for the mathematical description of vertical migration of radionuclides in the soil and equations are therefore suggested for describing the movement of substances through an absorbing porous medium and for the calculation of the diffusion coefficient. In order to specify the mathematical description of migration it is necessary to obtain a great numbert of experimental data and to use multiparameter regression analysis for identifying the effect of the different properties of the soil on the diffusion of radionuclides. (J.C.)

  7. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water

  8. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  9. A Dosimetric Study of Radionuclide Therapy for Bone Marrow Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayouth, John Ellis

    In a phase I clinical trial, six multiple myeloma patients, who were non-responsive to conventional therapy and were scheduled for bone marrow transplantation, received Holmium-166 (166Ho) labeled to a bone seeking agent, DOTMP (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane -1,4,7,10-tetramethylene-phosphonic acid), for the purpose of bone marrow ablation. The specific aims of my research within this protocol were to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of 166Ho DOTMP by quantifying the in vivo pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry, and by correlating these results to the biologic response observed. The reproducibility of pharmacokinetics from multiple injections of 166 Ho DOTMP administered to these myeloma patients was demonstrated from both blood and whole body retention. The skeletal concentration of 166 Ho DOTMP was heterogenous in all six patients: high in the ribs, pelvis, and lumbar vertebrae regions, and relatively low in the femurs, arms, and head. A novel technique was developed to calculate the radiation dose to the bone marrow in each skeletal ROI, and was applied to all six 166 Ho DOTMP patients. Radiation dose estimates for the bone marrow calculated using the standard MIRD "S" factors were compared with the average values derived from the heterogenous distribution of activity in the skeleton (i.e., the regional technique). The results from the two techniques were significantly different; the average of the dose estimates from the regional technique were typically 30% greater. Furthermore, the regional technique provided a range of radiation doses for the entire marrow volume, while the MIRD "S" factors only provided a single value. Dose volume histogram analysis of data from the regional technique indicated a range of dose estimates that varied by a factor of 10 between the high dose and low dose regions. Finally, the observed clinical response of cells and abnormal proteins measured in bone marrow aspirates and peripheral blood samples were compared with

  10. Radionuclide generators for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the chemical literature of those radionuclide generators that have gained or appear to possess utility in medical imaging. The text represents a conscientious effort to peruse the scientific literature through 1980. The intent of this work is to provide a reference point for the investigator who is interested in the development of a particular generator system and the refinements which have been reported. Moreover, the incorporation of the particular daughter radionuclide into a suitable radiodiagnostic agent is presented

  11. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  12. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  13. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  14. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  15. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β-emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  16. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  17. Biological effects of inhaled radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on various types of radionuclides that may be inhaled and deposited in the respiratory tract. One of the primary goals of this ICRP Task Group is to assess specifically the biological implications of inhaled plutonium. Because other transuranics are becoming more abundant, information on americium, curium and einsteinium is included. Data are also included from studies of polonium and of several beta-gamma emitting isotopes. The Task Group evaluated most of the data on the biological effects of inhaled radionuclides in experimental animals to identify the tissues at risk and to assess possible dose-response relationships. Few data from human cases of inhaled radionuclides are available for this assessment. The biological effects of nonradioactive air pollutants were also considered to provide the perspective that all air pollutants can have a deleterious effect on human life and to emphasize the possibility for combined or synergistic effects of nonradioactive and radioactive substances on the respiratory tract. (orig./HP)

  18. A review of radionuclides determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radiochemical analysis have several steps such as sample pre-treatment, sample pre-concentration, separation and determination. Many separation methods, using solvent extraction and ion exchange chromatography are applied tote preconcentration and separation of radionuclides. These methods are time-consuming, use large amounts of strong acids and produce organic wastes. Recently, separation methods on the extraction chromatography have became increasingly popular in radiochemical analysis. In this presentation, we briefly summarize the published literature on principles and various applications of radioanalytical method that have been commonly used in radionuclide separations (authors)

  19. Magnetic resonance and nuclear imaging combined with therapy of tumours using 166Ho-loaded particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer treatment with holmium-166 (166Ho) has clear advantages over other radionuclides for therapeutic purposes, because holmium is the only element which can a) be neutron-activated to a beta- and gamma-emitter with a logistically favorable half-life and b) be visualized by MRI. Since the chemical properties of the other lanthanides and a few other elements are similar to those of holmium, the knowledge gained using holmium-loaded carrier particles can probably applied to specific treatment/diagnostic needs

  20. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  1. Radionuclide transfer in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of radionuclides in forest ecosystems differs substantially from the other ecosystems. The contamination of various forest products is commonly quantified using the Aggregated Transfer Factor (Tag in m2 kg-1) which integrates various environmental parameters including soil and plant type, root distribution as well as nature and vertical distribution of the deposits. This review aims at compiling the most relevant quantitative information on radionuclide transfers to forest biota including trees, understorey vegetation, mushrooms, berries and game animals. For both radiocaesium and radiostrontium in trees, the order of magnitude of mean Tag values is 10-3 m2.kg-1 (dry weight). The transfer of radionuclides to mushrooms and berries is high, in comparison with foodstuffs grown in agricultural systems. Concerning caesium uptake by mushrooms, the transfer is characterized by a very large variability of Tag, from 10-3 to 101 m2.kg-1 (dry weight). For berries, typical values are around 0.01 to 0.1 m2.kg-1 (dry weight). Transfer of radioactive caesium to game animals and reindeer and the rate of activity reduction, quantified as an ecological half-life, reflect the soil and pasture conditions at individual locations. Even if, the importance of radioactive contamination of forests as a significant source of the population exposure is recognized, most of the data refer to caesium and to a lesser extent, strontium. Data for other radionuclides are rather limited. (author)

  2. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  3. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality.

  4. Transfer of radionuclides to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampling of Water Horsetail and Bracken Fern including upper soil layer (0-10 cm) and water was carried out in Torahult, Sweden, in Almindingen on Bornholm, in Asserbo and Arresoe on Zealand and in Sdr. Hostrup and Nydam mose in Jutland. Furthermore, sampling was carried out in 2004 for seawater, seaweed and shrimps at locations in Danish waters at Bornholm (Svenskehavn), at Zealand (Klint), at Lolland/Falster (Guldborgsund) and on the west coast of Jutland (Hirtshals, Agger, Hvide Sande and Roemoe). Concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides and uranium were determined in Bracken Fern, Water Horsetail and soil samples. The concentration ratios (CR) are highest for 40K in both plant species and show the lowest variability across locations. The CR's for 40K range from 1 to 2, while the CR's for the other radionuclides range one to three orders of magnitude lower. The CR's for 137Cs show particularly high variability across locations. The CR's were analysed in a two-way ANOVA on the log-transformed values to test differences between plant species and radionuclides. The difference between radionuclides was highly significant, p137Cs and 99Tc in marine samples. Concentration ratios calculated from the analysed samples are presented. The concentration ratios for 99Tc agree with those reported elsewhere in the Indofern Project. The concentration ratios for 137Cs in Fucus show a correlation to salinity with higher values in low salinity water at Bornholm than in high salinity water on the west coast of Jutland. (LN)

  5. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Lehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

  6. Radionuclide investigation of nutritive absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the theoretical rationale, algorithm and results of verification of a new radionuclide method for the determination of nutritive absorption. The proposed method allows the determination of the amount of a labeled unabsorbed food ingredient without the collection and radiometry of feces, with a high degree of significance

  7. Radionuclide retention in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GEOTRAP is the OECD/NEA Project on Radionuclide Migration in Geologic, Heterogeneous Media carried out in the context of site evaluation and safety assessment of deep repository systems for long-lived radioactive waste. Retention of radionuclides within the geosphere for prolonged periods is an important safety function of deep geologic disposal concepts for radioactive waste. The extent to which retention processes can be relied upon in repository performance assessment depends upon the existence of well-established theoretical bases for the processes. It also depends on support for the operation of specific retention processes, and models for their quantitative evaluation, from a wide range of laboratory and field experiments and observations from nature. The fifth GEOTRAP workshop, 'Geological Evidence and Theoretical Bases for Radionuclide-retention Processes in Heterogeneous Media' held in May 2001, looked at radionuclide-retention processes and their consideration and representation in performance assessments. Current approaches to characterising and modelling retention processes, and suggestions for future improvements, were presented and discussed. In addition to the material presented during the workshop, this publication includes a technical synthesis reflecting the discussions that took place as well as the conclusions and recommendations made, notably during the working group sessions. (author)

  8. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the conference contain 22 texts of contributions presented, out of which 21 have been inputted in INIS. The topics treated include mainly contamination of surface waters by radionuclides, e.g from the operation of nuclear power plants, accumulation of radionuclides by the biosphere, and analytical problems of determination of radionuclides in the hydrosphere. (P.A.)

  9. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG)

  10. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 31 papers dealing with the impact of nuclear power plants on the hydrosphere (radionuclide composition of waste waters and their assessment, the effect of liquid radioactive wastes on surface water organisms, the occurrence of radionuclides in bottom sediments, the cost-effectiveness of risk reduction of liquid radioactive wastes, etc.); the methods of concentrating and separating radionuclides from high-volume liquid samples; the methods of radionuclide contamination measurement (semiconductor spectrometry, the use of silicon detectors, the measurement of gross alpha and beta activities, etc.); and radionuclide migration in ground waters. (E.S.). 25 figs., 30 tabs., 86 refs

  11. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestr, Christopher J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; E-mail: palestro@lij.edu; Love, Charito [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2007-09-15

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  12. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  13. Determination of radionuclides in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air in certain work areas at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant is monitored for selected radionuclides to assure safety FR-om toxic effects to personnel in the area. Some of the radionuclides that are determined are shown with their Radiation Protection Standard (RPS) values by means of a table. The RPS is the maximum average airborne contamination to which personnel may be exposed for one week without respiratory protection and is expressed as disintegrations per minute (dpm) per cubic meter (m/sup 3/) of air. It is desirable to make reliable measurements at a level which is 10% of the RPS to ensure that the detection limits are well below the RPS. Thorium, neptunium, plutonium, and uranium all have alpha emitting isotopes and it is their alpha activity which is measured. Results are tabulated

  14. Choice of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innumerable questions need to be answered and obstacles overcome before radioimmunotherapy can be generally successful in cancer patients. Major developments have greatly enhanced the likelihood of success. The important development of appropriate radionuclides and radiochemistry for this therapy must be intimately linked with the biological and biochemical realities. All aspects must be considered, such as the specific nature of the antigenic target, the pharmacokinetics of the antibody fragment carrier, the capability of in vivo quantitation of tumor uptake and turnover time, as well as total body kinetics. With this knowledge, then, practical radiochemistry methods can be integrated with the suitable radionuclide choices, and production methods can be developed which will deliver effective and dependable products for patient therapy

  15. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  16. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  17. Mineralisation and biomineralisation of radionuclides

    OpenAIRE

    Brookshaw, Diana Roumenova

    2013-01-01

    Management of contamination from industrial activities and wastes from nuclear power generation and weapons development are arguably amongst the greatest challenges facing humanity currently and into the future. Understanding the mobility of toxic radioactive elements is essential for successful remediation strategies and safe management of our nuclear waste legacy (DEFRA, 2008). Interactions between minerals and radionuclides, such as sorption and precipitation, govern the mobility of the co...

  18. Radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instantaneous liberation of radionuclides in the atmosphere is studied in three dimensions, according to the formalism of the diffusion theory. The analytical solution, expose to gravitational and an atmospherical effects, is combined with the discretization of space and time in the calculation of levels of exposure. A typical inventory (for a PWR) was considered in the calculation of immersion doses, and the results permitted a comparative analysis among the different existing models. (Author)

  19. Accelerator-derived radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the research, development and commercialization of accelerator produced generator systems intended for life science applications is reviewed. The generator technology reported since 1983 is stressed with emphasis on loading the generator, the selection, and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter and the breakthrough of the radionuclidic parent. Quality control considerations and the automated delivery of the eluent for human use are mentioned. 121 references are cited. (orig.)

  20. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252Cf base with the activity from 106 to 109 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  1. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  2. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  3. Fractionation of radionuclide species in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment may be present in different physico-chemical forms (i.e., radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, degree of complexation, etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time-dependent transformation processes such as mobilisation of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews available fractionation techniques which can be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes

  4. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  5. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudkov, Sergey V.; Shilyagina, Natalya Yu.; Vodeneev, Vladimir A.; Zvyagin, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed. PMID:26729091

  6. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Gudkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed.

  7. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  8. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  9. Production of radionuclides with generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The radionuclide generator provides a convenient means for researchers and clinicians to obtain a source of radionuclides without dependence on nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor or cyclotron). It should be noted that radionuclide generator technique yields products of very high purity and it offers moreover the only possible way of obtaining very short-lived radionuclides for practical applications. Therefore at present radionuclide generators have found important uses in nuclear medicine. This talk reviews the development of preparation methods for radionuclide generators of current interest: 99Mo-99mTc, 188W-188Re and 68Ge-68Ga. 99Mo-99mTc generator. 99mTc is presently the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The reason for such a preeminent position of 99mTc in clinical uses is its extremely favorable nuclear properties with γ-energy of 140 keV and short half-life of 6 hours. Chromatographic generator of 99Mo-99mTc based on aluminium oxide using as eluent of isotonic saline solution, containing nitrate-ions has been produced in INP AS RU. However, the main disadvantage of this generator is that the eluent-saline solution contains some amount of nitrate-ions. Nitrate-ions added to maximize and stabilize 99mTc yields would interfere with the chemical reactions which involve Sn(II) reduction of the pertechnetate ion and which are used subsequently in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. Therefore we proposed the new method for preliminary treatment of aluminium oxide by the external gamma (Co-60) irradiation. It is found that the aluminium oxide has got electron-acceptor properties after gamma-irradiation. Adsorption of 99Mo radionuclide as isopolymolybdate on gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide is very high and molybdenum is firmly retained. Adsorption capacity of gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide at pH 2-4 is 60-80 mg Mo per gram of Al2O3. The yields of 99mTc from experimental generators remained high (75-85%) independently

  10. MIRD radionuclide data and decay schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides. Includes CD Table of Contents Decay schemes listed by atomic number Radioactive decay processes Serial decay schemes Decay schemes and decay tables This essential reference for nuclear medicine physicians, scientists and physicists also includes a CD with tabulations of the radionuclide data necessary for dosimetry calculations.

  11. Preparation of porous materials for radionuclides capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous materials showing promise for radionuclide capture from water at contaminated sites were prepared. Nanoporous materials (size of pores 1-100 nm) and some polymers are well suited to this purpose owing their affinity for selected radionuclides. Nanoporous metal oxides and silica gel with styrene-divinylbenzene-TODGA-modified surface were prepared, characterized and tested for radionuclide (227Ac, 227Th, 223Ra) capture efficiency. (orig.)

  12. Production of radionuclides in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given is a short review on the production of radionuclides which was performed in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences by using the nuclear reactor RA. Regarding the considerations of the possible re-starting of this reactor its use for the production of medical radionuclides should be taken into account. Listed are some of the important medical radionuclides routinely produced in nuclear reactors in the world and discussed the conditions for their obtaining in the reactor RA. (author)

  13. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  14. Development of Cyclotron Radionuclides for Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Qaim, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of radioactivity it was shown that radionuclides can be used both for diagnostic and therapeutic studies, depending on the characteristic radiations emitted by them. By 1960’s the radionuclide production technology using nuclear reactors was well established. In early 1970’s a renaissance of the cyclotrons occurred because many of the neutron deficient radionuclides could only be produced using irradiations with charged particles, like protons, deuterons, α-particles,...

  15. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  16. Radionuclide and radiation protection data handbook 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook is a reference source of radionuclide and radiation protection information. Its purpose is to provide users of radionuclides in medicine, research and industry with consolidated and appropriate information and data to handle and transport radioactive substances safely. It is mainly intended for users in low and intermediate activity laboratories. Individual data sheets are provided for a wide range of commonly used radionuclides (144 in total). These radionuclides are classified into five different groups as a function of risk level, represented by colours red, orange, yellow, green and blue, in descending order of risk (author)

  17. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference proceedings contain 22 papers, all have been incorporated in INIS. They relate to the escape of radianuclides from nuclear power plant operation and nuclear power plant accidents into the hydrosphere, the measurement of radioactivity of and concentration of radionuclides in surface, ground and drinking waters, the study of the impact of radionuclides on aquatic organisms and the investigation of the deposition of radionuclides in these organisms and in water sediments, to modeling of the kinetics of radionuclide transport in the hydrosphere, and the problems of radon in the ambient air of water treatment plants and dwelling areas. (M.D.). 3 figs., 28 tabs., 124 refs

  18. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  19. Study on interactions of radionuclides with minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide migration through natural granite fractures under in situ geochemical conditions and diffusion of radionuclides into rock matrix were studied. Assumptions used in analysis of radionuclide migration through fractured rocks surrounding a geologic disposal of radioactive wastes were examined. Thermodynamic data of radionuclides were obtained and compiled in a database, which provide scientific basis for understanding interactions of radionuclides with minerals and rocks. (author)

  20. Natural radionuclides in volcanic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radionuclides of 222Ra, 210Pb and 212Pb present in the magma are emitted during the eruption of volcanoes. Depletion of 222Rn in pumices and in lava showed that significant amounts of 222Rn were released from erupting magmas. Atmospheric 210Pb originating from the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo was detected in Japan and in Korea as a temporal increase in the atmospheric concentration after the eruption. Atmospheric 212Pb originating from the 2000 eruption of Mt. Miyake-jima was also detected as an abrupt rise in atmospheric concentration after the event

  1. Dosimetry of incorporated transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern in vivo and in vitro techniques for detecting transuranic radionuclides within the human body are described with special emphasis on multiparameter measuring methods developed at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. Furthermore, problems related to calibration and interpretation of measuring data are discussed and new methods presented for the calculation of committed dose equivalents on the basis of data from ICRP Publication 30. Also included is an introductory chapter on radiobiological fundamentals of intake, translocation and metabolism of these nuclides. (author)

  2. Radionuclide diagnosis of erectile disfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-camera angio scintigraphy of the penis was performed in 17 patients, twelve of them with erectile disfunction. A new method of quantitative assessment of the blood flow and perfusion of the penis is described. New objective criteria have been established for differential diagnosis of psychogenic and vasculogenic impotence, as well as for severity of condition and for diagnosis of other causes of erectile disfunction. The method was developed using Tc99-HSA and a gamma-camera. The specific nature of radionuclide curves is a reliable diagnostic criterion for making differential diagnosis in assessment of the causes of erectile disfunction. 3 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  3. Therapeutic radionuclides: production and decay property considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, W A; Goeckeler, W F; Ehrhardt, G J; Ketring, A R

    1991-01-01

    The development of effective therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals requires careful consideration in the selection of the radionuclide. The in vivo targeting and clearance properties of the carrier molecule must be balanced with the decay properties of the attached radionuclide. Radionuclides for therapeutic applications fall into three general categories: beta-particle emitters, alpha-particle emitters, and Auger and Coster-Kronig-electron emitters following electron capture. Alpha particles and Auger electrons deposit their energy over short distances with a high LET that limits the ability of cells to repair damage to DNA. Despite their high levels of cytotoxicity, the relatively short range of alpha particles requires binding of the carrier molecule to most cancer cells within a tumor in order to be effective. Because of the extremely short range of Auger electrons, the radionuclide must be carried directly into the nucleus to elicit high radiotoxicity, making it necessary to deliver the radionuclide to every cell within a tumor cell population. These characteristics impose rigid restrictions on the nature of the carrier molecules for these types of particle emitters but successful targeting of these types of radionuclides could result in high therapeutic ratios. Most beta-emitting radionuclides are produced in nuclear rectors via neutron capture reactions; however, a few are produced in charged-particle accelerators. For radionuclides produced by direct neutron activation, the quantities and specific activities that can be produced are determined in large part by the cross-section of the target isotope and the flux of the reactor. Many applications (e.g., therapeutic bone agents, radiolabeled microspheres, radiocolloids) do not require high-specific activities and can therefore utilize the wide range of radionuclides that can be produced in sufficient quantity by direct neutron activation. Other applications (e.g., MAb labeling) require high-specific activity

  4. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish

  5. Miscellaneous applications of radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedures discussed in this chapter are either developmental, in limited clinical use, or frankly moribund. A number of radionuclide imaging techniques have proved disappointing when approached from a purely anatomic point of view. This is particularly evident to our colleagues with the explosive growth of the noninvasive imaging procedures, magnetic resonance imaging (NMR), CT, and ultrasound, and the introduction of the less invasive digital radiographic approach to vascular opacification, all of which are capable of providing exquisite anatomic or tissue detail beyond the reach of current or reasonably priced nuclear medicine imaging systems. Yet, most nuclear medicine procedures possess the unique advantage of portraying a physiologic function without interfering with that function. Moreover, the procedures can be employed under conditions of stress, which are likely to bring out pathophysiologic abnormalities that remain masked when unchallenged. Information concerning form without functional data has less meaning than both together. The physiologic information inherent in nuclear medicine imaging may often provide not only key diagnostic information but also illuminate a therapeutic trail. Yet, it is often slighted in favor of the anatomic quest. While mastery of the nuances of imaging details remains critical, radionuclide image interpretation must rest upon a firm physiologic foundation. For this reason, this chapter emphasizes the physiologic approach

  6. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  7. Computational modeling of radionuclide resuspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshly fallen radionuclide materials after an energetic release from a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or by a nuclear accident similar to Chernobyl can be re-suspended back into air by wind or human activities. Re-suspended microscopic radionuclides can be a threat to humans who are in the immediate vicinity of the fallout. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at the Wehrwissenschaftliches Institut fuer Schutztechnologien (WIS) facility in Germany and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis using FLUENT software was conducted at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) in Canada to determine the re-suspension factors of radioactive lanthanum oxide (140La2O3) powder which was used as a surrogate for RDD fallout. Both experimental and computational results show a linear increase in re-suspension factor from 0.25 μm to 1 μm particle sizes and exponentially decrease in re-suspension factor from 1 μm to 6 μm particle sizes. Results found using FLUENT software over-predicted the re-suspension factors for particle sizes between 1 μm and 3 μm. The over-prediction was attributed to surface roughness effects, and suggests the need to include natural surface profile with microscopic surface roughness elements into full CFD model to simulate physical behavior of the particles trapped in between roughness elements. (authors)

  8. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239Pu or 147Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  10. Radionuclide therapy in children: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide therapy in children has advanced significantly over the past few decades. Literature is replete with reports from investigators on the cytotoxic effects of tumor targeting radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. The collective experiences gained through numerous clinical trials has led to fairly well established treatment strategies in some tumours and paved the way for exploration of treatment alternatives in many others

  11. Geochemistry of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of radionuclides in environmental media has long been studies to construct a scientific foundation of environmental consequence assessment of a nuclear installation. In addition to the effort mentions above, the current interest in a nuclear environmental science focuses on geochemical behavior of long-lived radionuclides, reflecting from the current progress in the development of geologic disposal system for a high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The geologic disposal system has particular features compared with other nuclear installations such as a power plant and a reprocessing plant, i.e., HLW contains significant amounts of long-lived radionuclides, the geologic disposal system based on a multi-barrier concept holds a high containment capability of radionuclides, radionuclides released from a repository first enters into the geosphere, and radiological consequences are potentially expected to appear only after a long period of time and may be associated with time-dependent degradation of an engineered barrier and with the migration of radionuclides in a natural barrier to the human environment. These features inevitably require the information on long-term behavior of long-lived radionuclides in geologic media, environmental media concerned, and a terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem, as scientific basis of long-team safety assessment of the geologic disposal system. The geochemical study has therefore been extensively conducted, in particular since the past decade, on long-lived radionuclides and also on the geologic disposal system. This paper summarizes achievements of the current topics on; solubility and speciation, retention mechanism, and complexation. (author)

  12. Entrapment of Radionuclides in Nanoparticle Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    radionuclides,for example 61Cu and 64Cu copper isotopes. The invention further relates to a novel method for loading delivery systems, such as liposome compositions, with metal entities such as radionuclides, and the use of liposomes for targeted diagnosis and treatment of a target site, such as cancerous...

  13. Technological radionuclides as landscape contamination source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphology of radioactive spots on territory of the Valozhyn Region of Belarus has been considered. The reasons of tessellated distribution of such contamination were discussed. Tendencies and main mechanisms of secondary redistribution of radionuclides were shown. Features of radionuclides migration in various landscapes were described. Were proposed recommendations to reduce consequences of radioactive contamination for population and national economy. 9 refs

  14. Radionuclide angiocardiography in cogential heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In detecting, localizing and quantitating cardiac shunts, radionuclide angiocardiography has been known to be a simple and safe method compared with oxymetry method. To ascertain the availability of the results obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography for the evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt, author compared the Qp/Qs ratios(pulmonary to systemic flow ratios) obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography with the results of oximetry method in 40 patients with left to right shunt, and also compared the results of radionuclide angiocardiography examined before and after shunt operation in 8 patients. The results were as follows: 1) Of the 161 patients examined radionuclide angiocardiography, 98 were thought to have cardiac shunts: right to left shunt in 27, left to right shunt in 71. Of the 71 patients who had left to right shunt, 40 who were examined with both radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry has following congenital heart disease: VSD in 21, ASD in 9 and PDA in 10. 2) Comparison of Qp/Qs ratios obtained during radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry revealed good correlation(linear regression analysis yielded correlation coefficient of 0.80) in 32 patients whose Qp/Qs ratio obtained during oxymetry were below 3.0, but very poor correlation in 8 patients whose Qp/Qs ratios were above 3.0 3) Radionuclide angiocardiography is a relatively safe and simple method in postoperative evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt. (Author)

  15. Radionuclide Angiocardiography in Cogenital Heart Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In detecting, localizing and quantitating cardiac shunts, radionuclide angiocardiography has been known to be a simple and safe method compared with oxymetry method. To ascertain the availability of the results obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography for the evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt, author compared the Qp/Qs ratios (pulmonary to systemic flow ratios) obtained by radionuclide angiocardiography with the results of oxymetry method in 40 patients with left to right shunt, and also compared the results of radionuclide angiocardiography examined before and after shunt operation in 8 patients. The results were as follows: 1) Of the 161 patients examined radionuclide angiocardiography, 98 were thought to have cardiac shunts: right to left shunt in 27, left to right shunt in 71. Of the 71 patients who had left to right shunt, 40 who were examined with both radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry had following congenital heart disease: VSD in 21, ASD in 9 and PDA in 10. 2) Comparison of Qp/Qs ratios obtained during radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry revealed good correlation (linear regression analysis yielded correlation coefficient of 0.80) in 32 patients whose Qp/Qs ratio obtained during oxymetry were below 3.0, but very poor correlation in 8 patients whose Qp/Qs ratios were above 3.0. 3) Radionuclide angiocardiography is a relatively safe and simple method in postoperative evaluation of patients with cardiac shunt.

  16. Separation of radionuclides from electrochemical decontamination waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrated the efficiency and applicability of a combined process for the separation of radionuclides from organic complexonates containing waste. A combination of photo-catalytic degradation of organic complexonates followed by the sorption of the radionuclides onto a strongly acidic ion exchanger offers a promising route for the treatment of the spent electrochemical decontamination solution. (authors)

  17. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  18. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  19. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  20. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99mTc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [18F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  1. Food contamination with cesium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl accident, specific activities were monitored on Czechoslovak territory in the years 1986-1988 of 134Cs and 137Cs in canned meat products, in meat, milk, milk products and milk feed mixes. The radionuclides were determined radiochemically or gamma spectrometrically. The time dependence of the specific activities is tabulated. The values in canned meat were up to 70 Bq/kg in 1986, up to 150 Bq/kg at the beginning of 1987 and gradually decreased down to 40 Bq/kg by the end of 1988. The values in raw milk did not exceed 10 Bq/kg and in milk products 30 Bq/kg. Values of up to 200 Bq/kg were observed in feed mixes. (M.D.). 2 figs., 5 tabs., 12 refs

  2. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  3. Radionuclide evaluation of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The criteria employed for clinical determination of death have evolved in response to advances in life support and other medical technology. The technical feasibility of organ transplantation has amplified the need for a definition of brain death that can be applied in the shortest possible time in the presence of artificial maintenance of vegetative functions, including circulation. Radionuclide cerebral angiography is one of a group of diagnostic procedures that can be employed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death through demonstration of absence of cerebral blood flow. The focus of this work is to assess its use as a confirmatory test for determination of brain death in the context of currently available alternative technologies

  4. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  5. Radionuclides in diagnostic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine (NM) is an essential procedure in modern medical practice. Recent survey reported that more than 2 million NM examinations are conducted every year in Japan. Around 75% of diagnostic NM employs single photon emission tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc, 123I, 133Xe, or 201Tl-labeled compound, and 25% positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxy glucose, 15O-labeled H2O, CO, O2, or 11C-labeled compounds. Modern medicine is based on the intervention of molecular pathology of the diseases. Therefore, NM is expanding in number and in quality in daily medical practice including early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases, strategy decision of treatment, evaluation of regeneration medicine. Furthermore, the NM is being utilized to facilitate new drug development. Combining molecular diagnosis with radionuclide therapy (Theranostics) is another future direction of clinical NM. (author)

  6. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces

  7. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author)

  8. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  9. Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy in limb edemas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy is a safe, non-invasive and physiological method for the assessment of the limb lymphatic system. Colloids as antimony or rhenium sulphide labeled with 99m technetium have been widely used for morphological studies. Quantitative studies involving a continuous count rate monitoring of the injection sites followed by a computer analysis of dynamic image sequences have been a new promising step for an objective measurement of the peripheral lymphatic function. The injection site is always bilateral on the first web space of either the hand or the foot using a small volume (<0.2 mL) of the radiocolloid. This method has been validated on 30 young healthy volunteers and normal values established from a group of 125 upper and 141 lower limbs (normal subjects). The normal results showed a slight but continuous decrease in lymphatic function depending on the age of the subject. In pathological situations, we observed dysfunction of the lymphatic system in pure lymphoedemas or so-called lympho-venous edemas as demonstrated on the 1,182 upper and 2,463 lower limbs tested. The radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy may be helpful in cases of unilateral swollen limbs demonstrating a lymphatic dysfunction on a clinically normal contralateral limb at the first stage of a distal edema which appears within a few weeks or days, in a transient edema phase when normal status and oedema alternate. The lymphoscintigraphy gives objective and reproducible parameters necessary to assess the lymphatic variation under therapy (decongestive physiotherapy, surgery, drugs) and may be useful in the selection of new lympho-tonic treatments. This method is only reflecting the lymphatic function and is unable to appreciate the total lymphatic flow of the limb. Its results only reflect what happens at the injection site and it may be necessary to add a second test using a proximal injection in order to assess the occurrence of lymph nodes not visualized by the

  10. Radionuclides in the coastal environment of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present potential radiation risk in the coastal environment of Indonesia may result mainly from the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials released to the aquatic environment from land-based sources, as some of the process industry uses large amounts of raw materials like ore, marl or clay which contains natural radionuclides. Therefore, in recent years we have been conducting radionuclide monitoring in Jakarta Bay with the aim to establish present levels of natural radionuclides in the coastal environment. Further, we have also been developing methodologies for analysing fission products with the purpose of generating data on background levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the coastal environment, important for planned construction of nuclear facilities in the region, so adequate radioecological risk assessment studies could be carried out in the future. Therefore radionuclide monitoring has been carried out at Muria peninsula as well, where the first Indonesian nuclear facility is planned to be constructed. Radionuclide monitoring results, both for natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Muria Peninsula are presented. We have also been developing experimental radiotracer techniques to determine bioaccumulation of key contaminants and their retention parameters for bioindicator organisms used in site-specific coastal pollution monitoring programmes, designed to furnish information on water quality. Candidates of marine mollusks as bioindicators are listed

  11. Radionuclides in the coastal environment of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present potential radiation risk in the coastal environment of Indonesia may result mainly from the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials released to the aquatic environment from land-based sources, as some of the process industry uses large amounts of raw materials like ore, marl or clay which contains natural radionuclides. Therefore, in recent years we have been conducting radionuclide monitoring in Jakarta bay with the aim to establish present levels of natural radionuclides in the coastal environment. Further, we have also been developing methodologies for analysing fission products with the purpose of generating data on background levels of anthropogenic radionuclides in the coastal environment, important for planned construction of nuclear facilities in the region, so adequate radioecological risk assessment studies could be carried out in the future. Therefore radionuclide monitoring has been carried out at Muria peninsula as well, where the first Indonesian nuclear facility is planned to be constructed. Radionuclide monitoring results, both for natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Muria Peninsula are presented. We have also been developing experimental radiotracer techniques to determine bioaccumulation of key contaminants and their retention parameters for bioindicator organisms used in site-specific coastal pollution monitoring programmes, designed to furnish information on water quality. Candidates of marine mollusks as bioindicators are listed

  12. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  13. Radionuclides in coal and its radiological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the closure Ignalina NPP other sources of fuel will be needed for the generation of electricity. One of the possible sources is coal. Coal is a fuel which might cause the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries which process or produce materials containing enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. All types of coal contain small levels of natural radionuclides -potassium-40 and the radionuclides in the uranium-238, uranium-235 and thorium-232 decay chains. Combustion of coal in a coal-fired plant results in a release of gaseous radionuclides, and in the increased concentrations of non-gaseous radionuclides in the ash. The subject of this work is the radiological impact of the ash, which contains enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides, and the atmospheric release of gaseous radionuclides. A fraction of the ash that is formed is released to atmosphere. The remaining ash is disposed to landfill or may be used in the manufacture of construction industry. Ash may be accumulated prior to disposal or use. There are therefore a variety of potential exposure scenarios. In these work we take into account only the exposure of members of the public to atmospheric release from the stack due to inhalation, external exposure of deposited radionuclides and food chains. Collective doses to the population from stack releases of ash have been determined. Information on the quantities of ash which could be generated at coal-fired station, radionuclide content of coal and ash were obtained from number of sources. Individual doses from the release ash to atmosphere from the stack were determined using elements of the PC CREAM suite of models. Predicted individual doses for individuals living in the local area is 0,2 μSv year1. The collective dose is equal to 0,132 man Sv and is 11 times larger than that caused due to Ignalina NPP activity. (author)

  14. Experiments on radionuclide soil-plant transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some experimental studies were performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors.A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Therefore, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (author)

  15. Soil - plant experimental radionuclide transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some experimental research was performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors. A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Hence, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (authors)

  16. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumhagen, J.D. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle); Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-11-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux.

  17. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux

  18. Manual of bioassay procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring program is described by which atomic radiation workers ar monitored for internal contamination with radionuclides in the workplace. The program involves analytical procedures for measuring alpha, beta and gamma activity in biological specimens, usually urine. Radionuclides are identified by their characteristic radiation using liquid scintillation counting, and alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry. Examples of calculating the minimum detectable activity for specific radionuclides are given and used to derive call-in-criteria in accordance with which the different groups of workers are monitored each month

  19. Fundamental Concepts in Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short overview of the basic concepts and principles of radionuclide therapy is presented in this chapter. After introducing the most important radionuclides currently employed in therapeutic applications and new promising radioisotopes such as α emitters, this review covers the various types of vector molecules and biological approaches for targeting specific cancer cells. These applications include the use of receptor specific pharmacophores such as antibodies and peptides, and DNA targeting agents. The potential advantages of combining methods developed for radionuclide therapy with gene therapy and nanotechnology are also discussed. (author)

  20. DNA damage induced by radionuclide internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in rats exposed to radionuclide internal irradiation. Methods: The radionuclides were injected into the rats and single cell get electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to detect the length of DNA migration in the rat PBMC. Results: DNA migration in the rat PBMC increased with accumulative dose or dose-rate. It showed good relationship of dose vs. response and of dose-rate vs. response, both relationship could be described as linear models. Conclusion: Radionuclide internal irradiation could cause DNA damage in rat PBMC. (authors)

  1. Radionuclides accumulation in the lake Drukshiai hydrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations carried out in 1988-1993 in lake Drukshiai and by the model experiments allow to maintain that peculiarities of biological radionuclides migration in the lake ecosystem could be conditioned by following factors: the Ignalina NPP sewerage waste waters, containing chemical compounds increasing accumulation of radionuclides, of ionic form or inclined to hydrolysis (especially of corrosive origin), in the hydrophytes. Processes of eutrophication due to thermal and chemical contamination, because increasing volume of organic matter decrease the accumulation of inclined to hydrolysis radionuclides, especially of corrosive origin, in the hydrophytes. (author). 8 refs., 8 tabs

  2. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Palestro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of "complicating osteomyelitis" such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose.Estudos através de imagens com o uso de radionuclídeos são rotineiramente usadas para avaliar pacientes suspeitos de terem infecção músculo-esquelética. A imagem óssea em tridimensional é facilmente avaliável, relativamente de baixo custo, e muito precisa na localização de alterações ósseas. Imagem com leucócito marcado poderia ser usada nos casos de "osteomielite com complicações" tais como infecção prostética articular. Esse teste também é útil na não suspeita clinica de osteomielite associada ao pé diabético tanto quanto nas junções neuropáticas. É sempre necessário, por outro lado, realizar imagem complementar da medula óssea para aumentar a precisão da imagem com leucócito marcado. Em contraste com outras regiões no esqueleto, imagem com leucócito marcado não é útil para diagnosticar osteomielite da coluna vertebral. Até agora, o gálio é o radionuclídeo preferido para

  3. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindstroem, Fredrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10{sup -5} per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10{sup -5} per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10{sup -5} Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10{sup -7} Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable

  4. Isolation of Cu radionuclides with dithizone impregnated XAD-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolley, S.G. [Cape Peninsula Univ. of Technology, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry; Walt, T.N. van der [Cape Peninsula Univ. of Technology, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry; National Research Foundation, Somerset West (South Africa). iThemba LABS

    2014-04-01

    A novel separation method for Cu radionuclides from proton bombardment of {sup nat}Zn is presented. A solid phase extraction procedure using a modified dithizone (diphenylthiocarbazone) XAD-8 chelating resin was used for the purification of the Cu radionuclides from up to 5 g of {sup nat}Zn and other radionuclides. More than 95% of the Cu radionuclides was recovered. (orig.)

  5. Radionuclides: origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Origin, presence or emission in the environment of natural and artificial radionuclides and their contribution to human irradiation were reviewed. Data were given concerning dose commitments to individuals and populations from natural radioactivity (including non nuclear modifications introduced by man); from medical use of radionuclides; from radionuclides produced in nuclear tests; from radionuclides released into the environment from nuclear fuel cycle operations

  6. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given on the actual knowledge about occurence and environmental relevancy of the most important radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic origin. The contribution of AGF installation is emphasized. (orig.)

  7. Application of radionuclides in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four main applications of radionuclides in nuclear technology are presented which are level-, density- and thickness gauging and moisture determination. Each method is surveyed for its general principle, various designs, accuracy, errors and practical designs. (Author)

  8. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out

  9. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out.

  10. Transfer of radionuclides into human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up until now the potential radiation exposure to breast-fed babies due to contaminated human milk has not been taken into account, when deriving international limit values and reference levels for radionuclides in foodstuffs, in air at monitored work places or for exposures in the medical field. It was the aim of the research project 'Transfer of radionuclides into human milk' to quantify the transfer of incorporated radionuclides into mother's milk, and develop simple models to estimate the radiation exposure of babies through the ingestion of human milk. The study focused on considerations of the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs by the mother, the inhalation of radionuclides at monitored work places, and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals to breast-feeding mothers. The blocking of infant thyroid glands by stable iodine in the case of accidental releases of radioiodine was considered as well. (orig.)

  11. Natural radionuclides in mineral fertilizers and farmland

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava M.; Vitorović Gordana; Andrić Velibor; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško; Grdović Svetlana; Vićentijević Mihajlo

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary agriculture production is based on use of mineral fertilizers, which however can have high activity of natural radionuclides and so cause the appearance of technologically elevated radioactivity. In order to determine the influence of mineral fertilizers application in arable land, there was used gamma spectrometric method for defining the activity of natural radionuclides (40 K, 238U, 226Ra) in imported mineral fertilizers as well as in arable...

  12. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention

  13. Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bleuel, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, Micah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rusnak, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tonchev, Anton [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-05

    The Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS) will generate intense photon and neutron beams to address important gaps in the study of radionuclide science that directly impact Stockpile Stewardship, Nuclear Forensics, and Nuclear Material Detection. The co-location of MeV-scale neutral and photon sources with radiochemical analytics provides a unique facility to meet current and future challenges in nuclear security and nuclear science.

  14. The uptake of radionuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the literature, since 1970, on the research into the uptake of radionuclides by plants, with references to earlier soil and plant studies on the fate of nuclear weapons fallout. Experimental data on the uptake of plutonium isotopes, americium 241, cesium 137, radium 226, curium 244 and neptunium 237 and details of the chemical form of the radionuclide, soil type and plant growth period are tabulated. (U.K.)

  15. Valuation of radionuclides using radioecological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the radiation exposure of the public following an accidental release of radionuclides into the atmosphere by means of radioecological models is shown. The radiation exposure after the Chernobyl-accident is used as an example to demonstrate the identification of the relevant radionuclides and exposure pathways. The natural radiation exposure is given as a means for the valuation of the calculated radiation exposures. (orig.)

  16. Biogeochemistry of radionuclides in ecosystems (historical aspect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the most important results of the study on the radionuclides' behaviour in natural and model biogeocenoses(ecosystems) obtained by N.W.Timofeev-Ressovskij and co-workers during the period 1947-1968. As early as at that period, radionuclides were classified according to the types of distribution, accumulation and migration within the surface and freshwater ecosystems, and the methods of biological purification of radioactive sewage were proposed

  17. Software for forecasting radionuclides migration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Software for forecasting radionuclides' migration in soil has been proposed. Distinguishing feature of this software is its capability to use different approaches for prediction of radionuclides' migration. It shows that by means of physical-mathematical modeling it is possible to make prediction for wide-scale conditions. On the other side, neuronets' models where the prediction mechanism is based on experimental data and expert's knowledge makes prediction results more close to the real. (authors)

  18. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  19. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis

  20. The production of cyclotron radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lee, Jong Doo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Lee, Jong Doo [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1997-12-01

    In the project, 3,985mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 1,912mCi of {sup 201}Tl and 2,569mCi of {sup 123}I were supplied. Total amount of the supplied activities and the revenue were 8,466mCi and 103,191,950won, respectively. For the increase of the R.I. production yield, 13 deg angle solid target was developed and new {sup 201}TI chemical processing system was installed in the hot-cell. With this new solid target, R.I. production yield could be increased by more than 2 times per batch. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. The production of cyclotron radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwon Soo; Lee, Jong Doo; Lim, Sang Moo; Yang, Seung Dae; Suh, Yong Sup; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Yun, Yong Kee; Park, Hyun; Lee, Ji Sup; Chai, Jong Seo; Kim, Yoo Seok; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Beak, Seung Ki [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    In the project, 3,412mCi of {sup 67}Ga, 10,718mCi of {sup 201}Tl, 1,848mCi of {sup 123}I, 542mCi of [{sup 123}I]mIBG and 285mCi of {sup 18}FDG were supplied. Total amount of the supplied activities and the revenue were 16,805mCi and 257,777,660won, respectively. For the increase of the R.I. production yield, 13 deg angle solid target was used. Tl-201 has been produced two times per week for increasing demand. For the efficient use of the cyclotron, the MC-50 cyclotron was opened to outside user and basic research project was carried out. The technical supports and radionuclides analysis were done during the execution of the research. Then the facilities of safety supervision and handling techniques of radioisotope production were improved. 7 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  2. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, R J; Tatum, J L; Sugerman, H J; Hartshorne, M F; Boll, D A; Kaplan, K A

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs. PMID:6226097

  3. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

  4. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs

  5. Radionuclides sorption in clay soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption behaviour of clay soils is examined through a parametric study of the distribution coefficient (Kd) for the radionuclides of interest, Cs and Sr. This work is a preliminary stage of the migration studies of these nuclides in a porous medium (ground of Ezeiza, Argentina) and the evaluation of radiologic impact of the removal of low and intermediate activity wastes in shallow trenches. The determination of Kd is performed by a static technique or batch. The phases are separated by centrifugation at 20000 g during 1 hour. The activity of supernatant solution of Cs-137 and Sr-85 is measured in a detecting system of I Na(Tl) well-type. Two types of parameters were changed: a) those related to the determination method: phase separation (centrifugation vs. centrifugation plus filtration); equilibrium period, ratio solid/liquid; b) those related to the geochemical system: pH of contact solution, carrier concentration, competitive ions, ionic strength, desorption. It was observed that the modification of parameters in the Kd-measurement does not change the order of magnitude of results. (Author)

  6. Radionuclide transport in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, the classical advective-dispersive transport equation was considered to be an adequate model for describing the motion of a solute (e.g. radionuclides) in porous and fractured media. In this model, the dispersion coefficient is either obtained from a microscopic model of the porous medium or by carefully controlled experiments. As a result of such experiments, a large body of data has been accumulated on the dispersivity. Detailed examination of these data has resulted in a curious phenomenon being discovered; namely, that the longitudinal dispersion length is 'scale-dependent'. That is to say the value deduced depends on the 'size' of the experiment, i.e. on the distance over which measurements are made. Several interesting attempts have been made to develop theories which explain this phenomenon, all based on treating the velocity of the water in the porous medium as a spatially random variable, but retaining the advective-dispersive balance equation. In this work we present an entirely new approach to the problem of solute transport in fractured media based upon an analogy with neutron transport. The new method has several advantages over the previous theories and these will be explained below. Results from the new theory are in agreement with experimental trends and do not require any further adjustment to explain the scale-dependent effect

  7. Gut-related radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with the behavior of radioactive materials that may be ingested as a consequence of a reactor accident, unavoidable occupational exposure, or after release to the environment and incorporation into the food chain. Current emphasis is directed toward evaluating hazards from ingested actinides as a function of animal age, species, nutrition, and diet, or chemicophysical state of the actinide. Recent observations indicate that the influence of chemical form on plutonium absorption observed at high mass levels does not occur at low mass concentrations. For example, at doses of 0.6 μg/kg there was no difference between absorption of the carbonate, citrate or nitrate forms of plutonium. However, at 1.5 mg/kg, the citrate was absorbed in quantities 30 times higher than the nitrate. The opposite effect occurred for neptunium GI absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that materials such as citrus fruit juices and calcium, as well as drugs that affect GI function (such as aspirin and DTPA), markedly influence GI absorption of plutonium. Such studies provide evidence that diet and nutritional state should be considered in establishing safe limits for radionuclides that may be ingested

  8. Inventories of selected radionuclides in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1984 an ad hoc Review Committee composed of senior experts in the marine radioactivity field made recommendations that ''the Monaco Laboratory should be engaged in compiling and evaluating the input of radionuclides into the marine environment''. The Committee recommended that work should commence on selected radionuclides, viz., 14C, caesium isotopes, plutonium isotopes, 210Po and 210Pb followed by 226Ra. Depending on the radionuclides involved the assistance of competent experts from outside as well as inside the IAEA was sought. The present document is a product of the work carried out within the framework of the above-mentioned task and contains reports on 14C, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 210Pb, 210Po and 226Ra. Although the estimation of the inventory in the marine environment and related input and output fluxes, is the same for all radionuclides concerned, different approaches were followed to achieve this objective. These approaches depended on the geochemical characteristics of the radionuclides and the availability of data for different times and locations. For regions where data were lacking, extrapolation on the basis of specific assumptions has often been necessary. As the work was initiated during the pre-Chernobyl period, the radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl incident were not, in general, considered. Since the work for preparing the forthcoming report of the UNSCEAR is scheduled to be completed by 1991, it is hoped that the information contained in this volume will be beneficial. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Soil contamination with radionuclides and potential remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y G; Shaw, G

    2000-07-01

    Soils contaminated with radionuclides, particularly 137Cs and 90Sr, pose a long-term radiation hazard to human health through exposure via the foodchain and other pathways. Remediation of radionuclide-contaminated soils has become increasingly important. Removal of the contaminated surface soil (often up to 40 cm) or immobilization of radionuclides in soils by applying mineral and chemical amendments are physically difficult and not likely cost-effective in practicality. Reducing plant uptake of radionuclides, especially 137CS and 90Sr by competitive cations contained in chemical fertilizers has the general advantage in large scale, low-level contamination incidents on arable land, and has been widely practiced in central and Western Europe after the Chernobyl accident. Phytoextraction of radionuclides by specific plant species from contaminated sites has rapidly stimulated interest among industrialists as well as academics, and is considered to be a promising bio-remediation method. This paper examines the existing remediation approaches and discusses phytoextraction of radionuclides from contaminated soils in detail. PMID:10819188

  10. Reactor core heterogeneity effects on radionuclide inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Reactor core heterogeneity effects on radionuclide inventory are studied. ► A methodology for inventory estimation of individual fuel assembly is developed. ► Estimated inventory using presently developed and conventional method is compared. ► Radionuclide density peak and its location in equilibrium VVER core are investigated. - Abstract: Understanding fission product behavior is an important aspect of nuclear safety studies. A nuclear reactor core contains complex mixture of fuel elements with different levels of enrichment, power and burnup. Conventional method of core radionuclide inventory estimation is based on use of homogenized core parameters like burnup, enrichment, specific power etc. This approach does not reveal the variation in radionuclide density among different fuel elements within the core. The present work aims to bridge this knowledge gap by estimating the distribution of radionuclides in the nuclear reactor core taking into account the heterogeneity of the core explicitly. The analysis has brought out peak radionuclide density in the core which can be helpful in appropriate estimation of the radiological release in the accidental scenarios involving failures of few fuel assemblies. A quantitative comparison of total core inventory estimated based conventional core average parameters and detailed core inventory using individual fuel assembly inventory estimate has been made

  11. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  12. Role of labeled and free lanthides in the management of metastatic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Different radiopharmaceuticals are being used for the management of metastatic bone diseases. This article relates the comparison of therapeutic beta emitter radionuclides of Lutetium-177, Samarium-153 and Holmium-166 complexes to bone seeking phosphonate ligand of ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) with free chlorides of all these radionuclides. Objective: Objective of our study is to formulate and evaluate Lutetium-177, Holmium-166 and Samarium-153 labeled EDTMP and then compare the results of biodistribution free lanthides of these radionuclides. Materials and Methods: All the radionuclides were prepared by n, . reaction. Quality control was checked by paper chromatography and paper electrophoresis. Various parameters were optimized to formulate these radiopharmaceuticals with maximum labeling efficiency. Sprague-Dawley male rats were used for biodistribution and imaging study. Results: 177Lu-EDTMP showed that the complex can be prepared with radiochemical purity >96% at pH 7.5. The labeling efficiency of 153Sm-EDTMP was found to be > 98% at pH 7.5 incubated for 20 minutes at room temperature. 166Ho-EDTMP showed that the complex can be prepared with radiochemical purity >90% at pH 7.5. Among biodistribution study for all these radiopharmaceuticals, skeletal uptake was found to be maximum for 177Lu-EDTMP All the labelled radiopharmaceuticals showed good renal and rapid blood clearance. The biodistribution study of free radionuclides showed significant uptake of activity by soft tissues including lungs, liver and spleen, with minimal uptake in the skeletal system Conclusion: Therefore, it was concluded that labeled complexes of these lanthides can be used effectively in the therapy for bone pain palliation, due to the maximum affinity of skeletal system for the labeled complexes. However, chlorides of the lanthides cannot be used for bone pain palliation due to their poor skeletal localization and accumulation of radionuclides in the

  13. Fast analysis of radionuclide decay chain migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. S.; Liang, C. P.; Liu, C. W.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    A novel tool for rapidly predicting the long-term plume behavior of an arbitrary length radionuclide decay chain is presented in this study. This fast tool is achieved based on generalized analytical solutions in compact format derived for a set of two-dimensional advection-dispersion equations coupled with sequential first-order decay reactions in groundwater system. The performance of the developed tool is evaluated by a numerical model using a Laplace transform finite difference scheme. The results of performance evaluation indicate that the developed model is robust and accurate. The developed model is then used to fast understand the transport behavior of a four-member radionuclide decay chain. Results show that the plume extents and concentration levels of any target radionuclide are very sensitive to longitudinal, transverse dispersion, decay rate constant and retardation factor. The developed model are useful tools for rapidly assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  14. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily 210Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report

  15. Radionuclide angiography in unilateral nonfocal renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburano, Tamio; Takayama, Teruhiko; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tada, Akira; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi

    1984-12-01

    A total of 90 patients with unilateral nonfocal renal disease (58 patients with obstructive uropathy, 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, 13 patients with chronic pyelonephritis, 3 patients with renal tuberculosis and 3 patients with a- or hypogenesis) were examined with the method of serial dynamic imaging of Tc-99m DTPA including radionuclide angiography. And the diagnostic significance of renal perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was qualitatively evaluated compared to that of renoparenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. after intravenous administration of Tc-99m DTPA. In fifty-nine out of 90 patients (65%) with unilateral nonfocal renal disease, both perfusion and parenchymal uptake abnormalities were found at the involved side. In two of 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, however, the unilateral hypoperfusion was only found as the evidence of unilateral disease on radionuclide angiogram although these did not show any parenchymal uptake abnormality. Moreover, four out of 58 patients with obstructive uropathy, did show the slight difference of renal perfusion between the involved and the univolved sides. and did not show any difference of parenchymal uptake between both sides. In the present study, the incidence of perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was slightly higher than that of parenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. in unilateral renal disease. Therefore, it is suggested that the radionuclide angiography may be accepted as one of the routine nuclear medicine imagings for the evaluation of functional abnormalities in nonfocal renal disease. (author).

  16. Radionuclide angiography in unilateral nonfocal renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 90 patients with unilateral nonfocal renal disease (58 patients with obstructive uropathy, 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, 13 patients with chronic pyelonephritis, 3 patients with renal tuberculosis and 3 patients with a- or hypogenesis) were examined with the method of serial dynamic imaging of Tc-99m DTPA including radionuclide angiography. And the diagnostic significance of renal perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was qualitatively evaluated compared to that of renoparenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. after intravenous administration of Tc-99m DTPA. In fifty-nine out of 90 patients (65%) with unilateral nonfocal renal disease, both perfusion and parenchymal uptake abnormalities were found at the involved side. In two of 13 patients with renal artery stenosis, however, the unilateral hypoperfusion was only found as the evidence of unilateral disease on radionuclide angiogram although these did not show any parenchymal uptake abnormality. Moreover, four out of 58 patients with obstructive uropathy, did show the slight difference of renal perfusion between the involved and the univolved sides. and did not show any difference of parenchymal uptake between both sides. In the present study, the incidence of perfusion abnormality on radionuclide angiogram was slightly higher than that of parenchymal uptake abnormality on the image from one min. to four min. in unilateral renal disease. Therefore, it is suggested that the radionuclide angiography may be accepted as one of the routine nuclear medicine imagings for the evaluation of functional abnormalities in nonfocal renal disease. (author)

  17. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

  18. Radionuclide Mobility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Smith, D; Rose, T; Glascoe, L; Steefel, C; Zavarin, M

    2003-11-13

    Underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are characterized by abundant fission product and actinide source terms. Included are {sup 99}Tc and other soluble radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in groundwater and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors. NTS provides the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an analog of the release of these radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository in the absence of engineered barriers. The investigation described in this report synthesizes a substantial body of data collected on the identity and distribution of soluble radionuclides at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters, for durations up to 40 years, and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This body of data is complemented by laboratory transport studies and a synthesis of recent modeling investigations from the NTS, with an emphasis on the ongoing Yucca Mountain Program (YMP) efforts. Overall, understanding the controls of radionuclide mobility associated with these nuclear tests will provide insight into the repository's future performance as well as bounds and calibrations for the numerical predictions of long-term radionuclide releases and migration.

  19. Evaluation of radionuclides migration in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste management is one of the most pressing problems facing the world today because of its long half-life and the transport of radionuclides to the environment. The migration of radionuclides in environment is affected by its sorption in backfill materials, water pore velocity, water flowing direction, dispersion of radionuclides, components of backfill materials, species of radionuclides, microorganism effect and complexation ability of organic substances etc. In this study, the distribution coefficient of Eu(III) derived from batch experiments is used to evaluate the migration behavior of Eu(III) in compacted bentonite after long time. The effect of the dispersion coefficient and the pore water velocity on the migration of Eu(III)is also calculated. It is found that the variation of the distribution coefficient and water velocity has an obviously effect on the migration of Eu(III) in backfill materials and 30 m of the backfill materials is sufficient to prevent the migration of Eu(III) in environment. The dispersion coefficient has little effect on the migration of Eu(III). The evaluated results are applicable to estimate the escape of radionuclides from buried radioactive waste to the environment. (authors)

  20. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  1. PUREX low-level waste radionuclide characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PUREX low-level waste (LLW) radionuclide characterization document describes the methodology for the characterization of solid LLW and solid low-level mixed waste (MW) with the respect to radiological characteristics. This document only serves as an overview of the PUREX radionuclide characterization methodology and provides specific examples for how the radionuclide distribution is derived. It would be impractical to provide all background information in this document. If further clarification and background information is required, consult the PUREX Regulatory Compliance group files. This document applies to only that waste generated in or is the responsibility of the PUREX facilities. The US Department of Energy (DOE) establishes the requirements for radioactive solid waste in DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management. Chapters 2 and 3 from DOE Order 5820.2A requires that generators of solid wastes in the LLW categories and the radioactive mixed waste subcategories: (1) identify the major radionuclides in each solid waste matrix and (2) determine the radionuclide concentrations and waste classes of their solid wastes. In addition, the Order also requires each generator to carry out a compliance program that ensures the proper certification of the solid waste generated

  2. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  3. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended

  4. Radionuclide transfer from contaminated field to crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the policy for land disposal of radioactive wastes were proposed, the importance of terrestrial radioecology has been re-recognized in Japan. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) held a Two-Day Seminar concerning terrestrial transfer of radionuclides. This is a compilation of papers presented at the seminar. The purpose of the seminar is twofold: firstly, to raise basic problems concerning transfer of not only radionuclides but also elements into crops, as well as to present NIRS's studies on radionuclide transfer; and secondly, to discuss in depth the topics about possible transfer of I-129 into rice plant arising from the commercial fuel reprocessing plant, the construction of which is under planning. Finally, general discussion of further issues on radioecology is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. EPA perspective on radionuclide aerosol sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is concerned with radionuclide aerosol sampling primarily at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in order to insure compliance with national air emission standards, known as NESHAPs. Sampling procedures are specified in open-quotes National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Sitesclose quotes (Subpart H). Subpart H also allows alternate procedures to be used if they meet certain requirements. This paper discusses some of the mission differences between EPA and Doe and how these differences are reflected in decisions that are made. It then describes how the EPA develops standards, considers alternate sampling procedures, and lists suggestions to speed up the review and acceptance process for alternate procedures. The paper concludes with a discussion of the process for delegation of Radionuclide NESHAPs responsibilities to the States, and responsibilities that could be retained by EPA

  6. Transport of radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dispersion of radionuclides in the biosphere and their uptake by man via various nutritional pathways is studied using a compartment model. The sample environment is the area of the lower Limmat and Aare valleys. General considerations of the compartmental description of the biosphere are made. The problem of the description of surface features, in particular soil, sediment and water, is studied in detail using the code BIOPATH. This study is intended to be an example of how a model of the biosphere could be constructed. It is shown that this is a reasonable model to calculate the spreading of radionuclides in the biosphere and that it indicates the relative significance of individual compartments, pathways and radionuclides. Calculated values of dose committment, however, should not be used as reference data for safety analyses. (Auth.)

  7. Radionuclide sorption on well construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which trace concentrations of radioactive materials would sorb on well construction materials and to assess the rapidity with which sorption would occur. The radionuclides employed in these studies were tritium, Cs-137, and Co-57. Solutions with trace concentrations of these radionuclides were contacted with casings of PVC, fiber-glass-epoxy, stainless steel, carbon steel, and steel rods coated with epoxy. The PVC showed no interaction with the tritium or Cs-137 during contact times of two hours to three weeks; however, it did sorb Co-57. The fiber-glass-epoxy also interacted only with the cobalt. The stainless steel sorbed cesium and cobalt. The epoxy-coated steel rods did not interact measurably with any of the radionuclides so long as the coating was intact. The sorption reactions generally were apparent after a few days of contact; in the case of carbon steel, they were detectable in a few hours

  8. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  9. A biokinetics of radionuclides in juvenile animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation of dose coefficient in the general population, especially infants, poses a problem in that physical function and biokinetics in infants are different from those in adults. This paper gives an outline on characteristics of biokinetics of radionuclides in jevenile animals, focusing on the previous experimental data. The following radionuclides are discussed: cesium, strontium, cobalt, manganese, lead, ruthenium, cerium, silver and antimony. The retention rate of any kind of radionuclide in the body after the oral administration has been shown to be age-dependent in rats. Dose coefficient in adults has been shown to be unsuitable for that in infants, even if limited to the rate of digestive absorption. Although fetuses are also included in the general population, there is a paucity of such information. Actually, exposure assessment remains, as yet, an issue unsettled. (N.K.)

  10. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

  11. Radionuclide detection of lower gastrointestinal bleeding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective review of two years' experience with radionuclide screening to detect lower gastrointestinal bleeding sites was conducted at New York's Montefiore Medical Center. Of 82 studies performed in 63 patients, 13 identified active bleeding sites. Only three of eight angiograms obtained in these 13 patients were positive. Thirteen contrast angiograms were performed in the group of 50 patients with negative radionuclide studies of which ten were negative and one was equivocal. The results of this study suggest that the Tc-99m sulfur colloid study for active lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is an effective screening procedure. Positive studies help determine which vessel to catheterize selectively if an angiogram is to be performed. If vascular ectasis is still suspected following a negative radionuclide study, contrast angiography can be more efficaciously performed on a nonemergent basis

  12. Radionuclide penography in the erection dysfunctions diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work the radionuclide estimations role for corporal blood-flow at the erection dysfunctions (ED) was performed. The radionuclide dynamical penography was carried out for 70 patients. The mean age of the patients was 45±1.8 years old. The examination was conducted on the single photon emission computed tomograph 'ADAC Genesys Epic' (USA) with use of erythrocytes labelled by Tc-99m-pyrophosphate at dose 700-740 MBq. In the result of study it was established that 18 patients (25.7 %) had artery-gen ED, 27 (38.6 %) - vein-gen ED, 11 (15.7 %) - intermixed etiology, and 14 (20 %) patients had no observable structural changes. The received results were confirmed by complex ultrasonic examination of the penis. It is concluded that radionuclide dynamical penography and a complex ultrasonic examination allows to show up anatomical, structural, and functional changes at ED

  13. Metrology of Radionuclides. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Metrology of Radionuclides'' is the science of precise measurements of the absolute value of the activity of radioactive sources. A rapid expansion has taken place over the past few years in the applications of radionuclides in various fields of scientific research, particularly in the production of commodities which lead to improved living standards. This has occurred not only in the countries most advanced in nuclear science, but in many others. In order to allow those actively engaged in this field to exchange research results and discuss their problems, the International Atomic Energy Agency sponsored a symposium which was held in Vienna from 14-16 October, 1959. Thirty-seven papers were presented from 14 countries. These covered a general survey on the routine methods of standardization of radionuclides and new developments of absolute measuring methods for their standardization.

  14. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article

  15. Radionuclides for routine diagnostics in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given on the radiopharmaceutics which are now in common use in nuclear medical diagnostics in vivo and in vitro. The development of radiopharmacology in the last 20 years has been characterized by the production of new and better radionuclides. A great step forward in clinical nuclear medicine has been the introduction of radionuclide generators for the production of short-lived nuclides. The most important and most generally used radionuclide for in vivo examinations is sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate. Tumour specific substances are still unknown, while the radioactive in vitro tests are of great clinical importance. They have opened up new possibilities of clinical laboratory diagnostics which are still not fully exploited. Special mention is made of the thyroid-specific in vitro tests in radiological thyroid diagnostics. (orig./AK)

  16. Radionuclides in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the air surveillance programme the concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground to obtain the necessary basic data for estimating the exposure of the Finnish population to fall-out radionuclides and also to detect atmospheric traces of radioactive materials caused by their use or production. Airborne dust is collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and the concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the air are evaluated. In the first quarter of 1986 only long-lived cesium, caused by earlier atmospheric nuclear explosions was detected. The concentrations of cesium were very low. In January and March a small amount of short-lived, fresh fission and activation products were also observed

  17. Radionuclide imaging of perfusion and hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a review of radionuclide imaging of tumour vascular physiology as it relates to angiogenesis. We focus on clinical trials in human subjects using PET and SPECT to evaluate tumour physiology, in particular blood flow and hypoxia. A systematic review of literature based on MEDLINE searches updated in February 2010 was performed. Twenty-nine studies were identified for review: 14 dealt with 15O-water PET perfusion imaging, while 8 dealt with 18F-fluoromisonidazole PET hypoxia imaging. Five used SPECT methods. The studies varied widely in technical quality and reporting of methods. A subset of radionuclide methods offers accurate quantitative scientific observations on tumour vascular physiology of relevance to angiogenesis and its treatment. The relationship between cellular processes of angiogenesis and changing physiological function remains poorly defined. The promise of quantitative functional imaging at high specificity and low administered dose sustains interest in radionuclide methods. (orig.)

  18. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabander, Tessa; Teunissen, Jaap J M; Van Eijck, Casper H J; Franssen, Gaston J H; Feelders, Richard A; de Herder, Wouter W; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, the number of neuroendocrine tumours that are detected is increasing. A relative new and promising therapy for patients with metastasised or inoperable disease is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). This therapy involves an infusion of somatostatin analogues linked to radionuclides like Yttrium-90 or Lutetium-177. Objective response rates are reported in 15-35%. Response rates may vary between type of tumour and radionuclide. Besides the objective response rate, overall survival and progression free survival increase significantly. Also, the quality of life improves as well. Serious side-affects are rare. PRRT is usually well tolerated, also in patients with extensive metastasised disease. Recent studies combined PRRT with other types of therapies. Unfortunately no randomised trials comparing these strategies are available. In the future, more research is needed to evaluate the best therapy combinations or sequence of therapies. PMID:26971847

  19. TURVA-2012: Formulation of radionuclide release scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and application for a construction licence for a repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in south-western Finland. This paper gives a summary of the scenarios and the methodology followed in formulating them as described in TURVA-2012: Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios (Posiva, 2013). The scenarios are further analysed in TURVA-2012: Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment (Posiva, 2012a, 2012b). The formulation of scenarios takes into account the safety functions of the main barriers of the repository system and the uncertainties in the features, events, and processes (FEP) that may affect the entire disposal system (i.e. repository system plus the surface environment) from the emplacement of the first canister until the far future. In the report TURVA-2012: Performance Assessment (2012d), the performance of the engineered and natural barriers has been assessed against the loads expected during the evolution of the repository system and the site. Uncertainties have been identified and these are taken into account in the formulation of radionuclide release scenarios. The uncertainties in the FEP and evolution of the surface environment are taken into account in formulating the surface environment scenarios used ultimately in estimating radiation exposure. Formulating radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system links the reports Performance Assessment and Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System. The formulation of radionuclide release scenarios for the surface environment brings together biosphere description and the surface environment FEP and is the link to the assessment of the surface environment scenarios summarised in TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment. (authors)

  20. [Radionuclide therapy for cancer--what's new?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mäenpää; Mikko, Tenhunen

    2012-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is radiation therapy, the effect of which is based on radiation damage in cancer cells. The most common radionuclide therapy for cancer is radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. Two new forms of treatment have recently been initiated in Finland: 177lutetium octreotate therapy for neuroendocrine tumors, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma as well as radioembolization (selective internal radiation therapy, SIRT) with 90yttrium-coated resin beads against liver metastases. Still in experimental use, 223radium chloride is a drug prolonging survival in prostate cancer that has metastasized to bone. The treatments require special knowledge and collaboration between several units. PMID:23210283

  1. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 137Cs, 85Sr, 131I, 210Po, 210Pb and 238U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of 137Cs, 85Sr and 131I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10−4, (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10−2, (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10−4, (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10−4, (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10−4 and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10−3 d L−1 for 85Sr, 131I, 137Cs, 210Po, 210Pb and 238U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for 85Sr, 131I, 137Cs, and 238U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. - Highlights: • Estimated Fm values for Sr, Cs, Pb, Po tend to be lower compared to other milk producing domestic animals. • The Fm values would help to predict ingestion dose to the general public due to intake of radionuclides through camel. • Estimated half-lives for artificial radionuclides were shorter than those for natural radionuclides. • The data obtained in the study can be considered as the first published data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk

  2. Environmental impact of radionuclides from uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium tailings are the product of uranium milling process. Radionuclides from Uranium tailings can diffusion into the environment as radon and its progeny. Moreover, it can migrate of horizontal and vertical in the soil with the uranium tailings water. The soil, surface water and ground water are thus seriously polluted. The radionuclides specific activity (measured using HPGe r spectrometer) the soil such as 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K from tailings, downstream of tailings dam with different depth and different distances are studied. The impacts of Uranium tailings to environment are also analyzed. (authors)

  3. Radionuclide tracers of submarine groundwater discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide tracers have the ability to assess the flux of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) over a range of temporal and spatial scales. Short-lived isotopes such as 222Rn, 224Ra, and 223Ra can reveal sites where SGD impacts the coastal ocean and elucidate relationships between SGD and ocean forces such as tides and storms. Longer-lived isotopes such as 228Ra and 226Ra integrate the effects of SGD over longer scales. These isotopes can discriminate sources of SGD and evaluate total fluxes. This paper will investigate the application of radionuclide tracers to SGD in a variety of settings on different continents. (author)

  4. Assessment of waste management of volatile radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a review of the Technologies for Waste Management of the Volatile Radionuclides of iodine-129, krypton-85, tritium, and carbon-14. The report presents an estimate of the quantities of these volatile radionuclides as are produced in the nuclear power industry. The various technologies as may be used, or which are under investigation, to immobilize these nuclides and to contain them during storage and in disposal are discussed. Also, the alternative disposal options as may be applied to isolate these radioactive wastes from the human environment are presented. The report contains information which was available through approximately January 1978

  5. Radionuclide carrying-out by migratory birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the zoogenic transfer of radionuclides from the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP was necessary because of the enormous heavily polluted territory and mighty flow of migratory birds who tended to large rivers, the Dnieper and Pripyat. The integral estimate of the transferred amount was obtained as a product of three variables: the transfer factor (0.0077 m2/kg for 137Cs; 0.00107 m2/kg for 90Sr), the density of birds (0.002 kg/m2, at the mass of migrants about 5000 t per year), and the total fund of radionuclides throughout the territory

  6. RAPRAN, Radionuclide Migration from Waste Glass Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: The code treats one-dimensional advection-diffusion combined with linear sorption to calculate radionuclide migration behavior in multi-porous media with time-dependent diffusion/retardation parameters. It uses both leaching rate and solubility simultaneously to model nuclide release from a waste glass as the inner boundary condition. The program is applied to, for example, the analysis of radionuclide diffusion through the engineered barrier system or radioactive wastes disposal. 2 - Method of solution: Finite-difference method in porous media. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: None. Size-adjustable

  7. Migration of radionuclides in fissured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some computed results of radionuclide migration in fissured rock are presented. The computations are based on a model which describes flow as occurring in a multitude of independent fissures (stratified flow). This gives rise to strong dispersion of channeling. The radionuclide migration in the individual fissures is modelled by the advection equation on a parallel walled channel with porous walls. The nuclides may diffuse into the pores and sorb reversibly on the pore surfaces. The effluent rates of 23 important nuclides are presented as functions of distance and time for various of important parameters such as rock permeability, diffusion coefficients, release rates, time of first release, fissure spacing and fissure width distribution. (Author)

  8. Clay as a barrier to radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of their low permeability, high sorption capacity and plasticity clay bodies are potentially suitable repositories for radioactive waste. This paper discusses the factors that influence radionuclide mobility in natural clay materials. Methods for determining radionuclide migration rates are described and compared. Data requirements necessary to establish whether or not a particular site is suitable for waste disposal are discussed. Suggestions are made as to the most important generic research that needs to be carried out. In the appendix, some of the most relevant published sorption and diffusion data are summarized and compared. (author)

  9. Radionuclide generator systems for therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide generators which produce therapeutically useful isotopes are potentially significant for the clinic or central radiopharmacy because they obviate the need for long-distance transport of short-lived isotopes. Several therapeutic generator systems will be reviewed, with emphasis on the W-188/Re-188 gel generator system and its relevance to radioimmunotherapy in association with monoclonal antibodies targeted to cancer cells, bone cancer pain palliation, and radiation synovectomy treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This talk will also discuss physical and chemical characterization of the tungsten (W-188) generator system (radionuclidic and radiochemical purities, elution yields and profile, neutron diffraction analyses), and evaluate this type of generator from a clinical perspective

  10. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velchik, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

  11. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax

  12. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gaseous or volatile radionuclide or a radionuclide-labeled aerosol and permit it to be respired by the patient during nuclear medicine ventilatory tests (testing process of exchange between the lungs and...

  13. Long-range radionuclide transfer in air and water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-range radionuclide air transfer of radionuclide after the first nuclear explosions and after accidents at nuclear installations is observed. Data on transport of radionuclides by the Yenisej river, Pripyat' river, Sozh river, Iput' river, Besed' river are given. The time of radionuclide transfer from Irish sea to Baltic and Barents sea has been defined using change of a relationship of isotopes Cs 134/Cs 137. (authors)

  14. Radiopharmaceuticals and other compounds labelled with short-lived radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals and Other Compounds Labelled with Short-Lived Radionuclides covers through both review and contributed articles the potential applications and developments in labeling with short-lived radionuclides whose use is restricted to institutions with accelerators. The book discusses the current and potential use of generator-produced radionuclides as well as other short-lived radionuclides, and the problems of quality control of such labeled compounds. The book is useful to nuclear medicine physicians.

  15. Accumulation radionuclides bodes of living cover plants woods cenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features of accumulation radionuclides by bodies of living cover plants woods cenosis are investigated. Researches have shown, that in elevated bodies kinds now in the greater measure strontium 90, than caesium 137 is accumulated. In root systems accumulation radionuclides is lower, than in elevated bodies. There is a specific specificity of accumulation radionuclides various bodies of plants. Accumulation radionuclides depends on weather conditions of year of supervision

  16. Cross section data for production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of nuclear reaction cross section data for production of medically interesting radionuclides is discussed. The needs for short- and long-term investigations are considered. Whereas short-term investigations refer to improvements in the utilization of known radionuclides, long-term studies pertain to the development of new radionuclides. The major interest is directed to longer-lived β+ emitters and low-range radiation emitting therapeutic radionuclides. Some challenges involved in the relevant nuclear data work are outlined. (author)

  17. Radionuclide ageing in agricultural soils: A qualitative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide partitioning and downward migration in soils, as well as the nutrient status in the soil solution (mainly Ca, Mg, K and NH4) are the most significant factors to be used in predicting and explaining radionuclide soil to plant transfer factors. Radionuclide migration and ageing has been studied in two Mediterranean agricultural soils, in the frame of a collaborative project called 'Transfer of accidentally released radionuclides in agricultural systems - TARRAS'. 6 refs, 1 fig

  18. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wobber, F.J. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Bioaccumulation factors for radionuclides in freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyzes over 200 carefully selected papers to provide concise data sets and methodology for estimation of bioaccumulation factors for tritium and isotopes of strontium, cesium, iodine, manganese, and cobalt in major biotic components of freshwater environments. Bioaccumulation factors of different tissues are distinguished where significant differences occur. Since conditions in the laboratory are often unnatural in terms of chemical and ecological relationships, this review was restricted as far as possible to bioaccumulation factors determined for natural systems. Because bioaccumulation factors were not available for some shorter-lived radionuclides, a methodology for converting bioaccumulation factors of stable isotopes to those of shorter-lived radionuclides was derived and utilized. The bioaccumulation factor for a radionuclide in a given organism or tissue may exhibit wide variations among bodies of water that are related to differences in ambient concentrations of stable-element and carrier-element analogues. To account for these variations, simple models are presented that relate bioaccumulation factors to stable-element and carrier-element concentrations in water. The effects of physicochemical form and other factors in causing deviations from these models are discussed. Bioaccumulation factor data are examined in the context of these models, and bioaccumulation factor relations for the selected radionuclides are presented

  1. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of radionuclide migration through rock is currently of great interest due to its relevance to the possible escape paths into the biosphere of radionuclides released from high level radioactive wastes burried in deep geological repositories. While water will provide the vehicle for transportation, interaction with geological material may greatly influence the radionuclide movement relative that of water. A flow system for laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in natural fissures in granitic rock under reducing conditions is described. The system based on the use of synthetic ground water equilibrated with granitic rock in a well sealed system, allow experiments to be carried out at -240 mV reduction potential. In flow experiments with technetium the retardation was found to be dependent on the method used for reducing TcO4-. The preparation of the tracer solutions is crucial, as some of the redox-reactions may be very slow. The dynamics of the Tc(VII) reduction and also speciation need to be carried out in separate experiments. (4 illustrations, 5 tables)

  2. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by members of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter which has the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The annual limit of intake (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake figures in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experiment animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbation factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increases for plutonium and protactinium, and decreases for neptunium. (Author)

  3. Mechanisms controlling radionuclide mobility in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil processes strongly influence the radionuclide mobility in soils. The mobility of radionuclides in forest soils is governed by several processes involving both abiotic and biotic factors. The sorption-desorption process chiefly governs the activity of radionuclides in the soil solution, hence thereby their mobility and biological availability. Radiocaesium exhibits a very low mobility in mineral soils. Both mobility and bioavailability however increase as the thickness of organic layers and their content in organic matter increases. Clay minerals of micaceous origin strongly act as slinks for radiocaesium in forest soils. The magnitude of cesium mineral fixation in topsoils is expected to be the highest in mineral soils of Eutric cambisol type, and, to a lesser extent, of type of Distric cambisol and Podzoluvisol. A low mobility of radiocaesium in the surface horizons of forest soils may also be partially explained by a biological mobilization: fungi absorb radiocaesium and transport it to upper layers, thereby contributing to constantly recycle the radioelement in the organic horizons. This mechanism is probably important in soils with thick organic layers (Podsol, Histosol, and, to a lesser extent, Distric cambisol and Podzoluvisol). Radionuclides can be associated with soluble organic anions in the soil solution of forest acid soils. Such associations are highly mobile: they are stable in conditions of poor biological activity (low temperatures, acid soil infertility, water excess, etc.). Their magnitude is expected to be the highest in thick acid organic layers (soils of type Podzol and Histosol)

  4. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  5. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new DOE proposal appropriately builds on past developments. The development and application of radionuclides for diagnosis, treatment and research has been a continuing concern for more than the past three decades. A brief description of this development and previous achievements was considered important in order to provide a frame of reference for the evolving program here. Earlier, the use of certain radionuclides, radon progeny and I-131 in particular, and also x-rays, had been developed by the work of such pioneers as Failla, Quimby and Marinelli. In 1952, at the instigation of Dr. C.P. Rhoads, Director of both Memorial Hospital and Sloan-Kettering Institute, the restoration of the Department of Physics and Biophysics was undertaken in response to a perceived need to promote the utilization of radionuclides and of high energy radiations for therapeutic, diagnostic and research purposes. This resulted in several research and developmental projects with close clinical collaboration in areas of radiation treatment; medical studies with radionuclides and labeled compounds; the diagnostic uses of x-rays; and some projects in surgery and other clinical areas. Aspects of some of these projects that have had some relevance for the evolving AEC-DOE projects are outlined briefly. 34 refs

  6. A basic toxicity classification of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of its work in the field of health and safety the International Atomic Energy Agency has often met the practical requirement for grading radionuclides in order of their relative radiotoxicities. This need was particularly evident when the Agency's Basic Safety Standards for the protection of health against ionizing radiation were in preparation, when it was necessary to exempt quantities of radionuclides from inclusion in the norms. A basic toxicity grading might be of help to laboratories in meeting some of their requirements in problems related to waste management as well as for the design of experimental facilities. It should also serve as a basis for the development of safety criteria for laboratory equipment and procedures for handling and transporting various quantities and kinds of radionuclides. The purpose of the present Report is to make a toxicity grading of the radionuclides according to the risk of biological injury which they may cause when they have become incorporated in the human body. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  7. Removal of radionuclides at a waterworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäfvert, T.; Ellmark, C.; Holm, E.

    2002-01-01

    filtration and from the municipal distribution network. The samples were analysed with respect to their content of uranium, thorium, polonium, radium, plutonium and caesium. The results show a high removal capacity for uranium (about 85%), thorium (>90%), plutonium (>95%) and polonium (>90...... concentrations for the naturally occurring radionuclides and plutonium....

  8. Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Layered materials play an important role in nuclear waste management and environmental cleanup. Better understanding of radionuclide interactions with those materials is critical for engineering high-performance materials for various applications. This presentation will provide an overview on radionuclide interactions with two general categories of layered materials - cationic clays and anionic clays - from a perspective of nanopore confinement. Nanopores are widely present in layered materials, either as the interlayers or as inter-particle space. Nanopore confinement can significantly modify chemical reactions in those materials. This effect may cause the preferential enrichment of radionuclides in nanopores and therefore directly impact the mobility of the radionuclides. This effect also implies that conventional sorption measurements using disaggregated samples may not represent chemical conditions in actual systems. The control of material structures on ion exchange, surface complexation, and diffusion in layered materials will be systematically examined, and the related modeling approaches will be discussed. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories, which is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  9. Radionuclide methods for the determination of glycosyltransferases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data, confirming the fact, that radionuclide methods for determining glycosyltransferase activity, existing or being developed, open up quite new possibilities for searching the malignant neoplasm sensitive markers, are presented in the review. There is no doubt, that these methods allow one to enlarge a set of criteria for evaluating the pathologic process severity and treatment effectiveness in cases of other diseases

  10. RANCH, Radionuclide Migration in Geological Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: One-dimensional transport of radionuclide chains through layered geological media, taking into account longitudinal dispersion, convection and retention. 2 - Method of solution: Semi-analytical solution by Laplace transform. Convolution integrals. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum 4 nuclides and 10 layers. Peclet number large compared to 1

  11. Distribution of radionuclides in Dardanelle Reservoir sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgy, J R; Epperson, C E; Swindle, D L

    1984-02-01

    Natural and reactor-discharged gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Dardanelle Reservoir surface sediments taken near the Arkansas Nuclear One Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths and particle sizes, at 33 locations, in a field survey conducted in early September 1980. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: natural radioactivity (40K as well as uranium and thorium decay products) 661-1210 Bq/kg; and reactor discharged radioactivity (137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co,, 58Co, 54Mn), no detectable activity to 237 Bq/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with decreasing sediment particle size. The average external whole-body and skin doses from all measurable reactor-discharged radionuclides were calculated according to the mathematical formula for determining external dose from sediment given by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Inside the discharge embayment near the reactor discharge canal, the doses were 1.7 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and 2.0 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the skin. Outside this area, the doses were 0.15 X 10(-3) and 0.18 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and skin, respectively. PMID:6693264

  12. Transport and accumulation of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement of radioactive isotopes through the water phase of soils is by far the most important. Most of the water-transported radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) occur via their dissolved salts, while the rest is carried by small soil particles to which the radionuclides are adsorbed. In the case of many chemicals, it is possible to calculate the movement or migration through soil from adsorption measurements made in the laboratory and from knowledge of the flow pattern of soil water. With increasing complexity of the chemical-soil-water system predictions become more uncertain. In the case of radionuclides the amounts expressed in units of weight are extremely small. This renders terms such as 'soluble' or 'insoluble' inapplicable. In these cases transport of 'radiocolloids' and adsorbed particles as 'insoluble' compounds may be more significant. For fallout strontium and cesium reliable predictive models have been developed. For fallout plutonium such models are under development. For calculations or predictions of the migration of radioactive material from deep soil layers to the soil surface fewer mathematical models are available. Many laboratory studies cannot yet be made due to lack of suitable soil samples from the sites under study. Nevertheless safety studies already carried out in a preliminary way are reliable, since factos such as adsorption of radionuclides on soils are neglected; consequently most safety studies overestimate possible risks. Further studies are required to ascertain how 'pessimistic' are the present safety criteriy. (orig./MG)

  13. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

  14. RTP: Radionuclides inventories calculation using ORIGEN Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ORIGEN is a widely used computer code for calculating the buildup, decay, and processing of radioactive materials. The ORIGEN code was created by famous and reputable nuclear institution in United States, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). For a nuclear reactor, either it is a nuclear power reactor or nuclear research reactor, the radionuclide inventories data is important. This data is acquired by performing source term modelling. A fresh nuclear fuel could not cause any harm to human. However, used nuclear fuel could pose danger threat to human. The fission products particularly long-lived radionuclides for example H-3, Co-60, Cs-137 that are generated inside the fuel yield a significance amount of radioactivity. Therefore, there is no doubt that for a facility having a nuclear reactor, it is vital to anticipate the amount of fission products inside the fuel together with the radioactivity that it may emit. Sufficient information on the radionuclide inventories allows the facility to provide adequate shielding protection and ensure safe transportation of nuclear fuel, when it is needed. This paper briefly describes application of ORIGEN code to calculate the radionuclides inventories of TRIGA-PUSPATI REACTOR (RTP) fuel. (author)

  15. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by means of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter that have the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The 'annual limit of intake' (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experimental animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbtion factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increase for plutonium and protactinium, and decrease for neptunium. An attempt to predict possible future changes of the ALI for members of the general public is also made. (Author)

  16. Measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere with a radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A worldwide radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests has detected the anthropogenic radioactive materials released in the atmosphere due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant impacted by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. After four months have passed since the accident occurred, most overseas stations do not detect the radionuclides of Fukushima origin any more. The Takasaki station in Japan, however, is still detecting them every day. This paper describes radionuclide monitoring stations and the network of them as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), as well as the measurement results of radionuclide particulates and radioactive isotopes of xenon released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant with the monitoring network. (J.P.N.)

  17. Clinical evaluation of radionuclide dynamic renography in renal transplant rejections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide dynamic renography was performed in 125 cases of renal transplant. That was a correlation between radionuclide dynamic renography types and serum creatinine concentration. There are characteristic changes in phase imaging of radionuclide dynamic renography at acute, ultra-acute and chronic rejection. This dynamic imaging can show kidney function. The dynamic renography is more informative than renogram

  18. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  19. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (137Cs, 90Sr, 239240Pu, and 3H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay

  20. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  1. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  2. Subsurface radionuclide investigation of a nuclear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, M.; Hahn, K.; Thompson, J.; Gadeken, L.; Madigan, W.

    1994-08-01

    This paper reports on an environmental investigation into the vertical distribution of radionuclides from a nuclear test. Dalhart is the name of an underground nuclear test that was executed at the Nevada Test Site at a depth of 2100 ft on October 13, 1988. The test occurred below the static water level of 1667 ft and created multiple radioactive isotopes or fission products. These radioactive isotopes penetrated the surrounding formations and chimney region above the test and were retained there. A 19° 9- {7}/{8}-inch diameter slant hole was drilled to sample the geologic material in the chimney region above the Dalhart test for the purpose of assessing the distribution of radioactivity in and around the shot site. A 30-ft core recovered from a vertical depth of 1628 ft in the collapsed zone or chimney region and above the original static water level was found to be free of radionuclides. Drilling was completed to a vertical depth of 2156 ft with the present static water level at a vertical depth of 1644 ft. Gamma-ray spectroscopy log measurements, made within the drill pipe while drilling fluid was pumped through this pipe, indicate that radioactive material produced by the test was present from the vertical depth interval of 1746-2156 ft. Side-wall samples acquired from the vertical depth interval of 1721-2089 ft and analyzed in the field contained radionuclides such as 137Cs, 125Sb, 106Ru, plus the natural radioactive background of potassium, uranium, and thorium. These samples were sent to Los Alamos to determine the complete radionuclide content at each depth. These analyses were used with the gamma-ray spectroscopy logging data to determine the subsurface vertical radionuclide distribution at the Dalhart site.

  3. Subsurface radionuclide investigation of a nuclear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an environmental investigation into the vertical distribution of radionuclides from a nuclear test. Dalhart is the name of an underground nuclear test that was executed at the Nevada Test Site at a depth of 2100 ft on October 13, 1988. The test occurred below the static water level of 1667 ft and created multiple radioactive isotopes or fission products. These radioactive isotopes penetrated the surrounding formations and chimney region above the test and were retained there. A 19o 9-7/8-inch diameter slant hole was drilled to sample the geologic material in the chimney region above the Dalhart test for the purpose of assessing the distribution of radioactivity in and around the shot site. A 30-ft core recovered from a vertical depth of 1628 ft in the collapsed zone or chimney region and above the original static water level was found to be free of radionuclides. Drilling was completed to a vertical depth of 2156 ft with the present static water level at a vertical depth of 1644 ft. Gamma-ray spectroscopy log measurements, made within the drill pipe while drilling fluid was pumped through this pipe, indicate that radioactive material produced by the test was present from the vertical depth interval of 1746-2156 ft. Side-wall samples acquired from the vertical depth interval of 1721-2089 ft and analyzed in the field contained radionuclides such as 137Cs, 125Sb, 106Ru, plus the natural radioactive background of potassium, uranium, and thorium. These samples were sent to Los Alamos to determine the complete radionuclide content at each depth. These analyses were used with the gamma-ray spectroscopy logging data to determine the subsurface vertical radionuclide distribution at the Dalhart site

  4. Radionuclides concentration in foods in Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of natural radionuclides (U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40) and artificial radionuclides (Cs-137) in fresh, dried and cooked foodstuffs from 30 major towns in Peninsular Malaysia were determined by gamma spectrometry system and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) technique. A total of 232 samples representing a typical Malaysian community diet were analysed. The results showed that most of the samples contained only natural radionuclides. The percentage of radionuclides detected in the samples were found about 2% for U-238, 9% for Th-232, 49% for Ra-226, 77% for Ra-228, 99% for K-40 and 15% for Cs-137. The radionuclide concentrations were in the ranges of <6.1 - 29.3, <2.0 - 55.8, <0.1 - 34.4, <0.1 - 41, <0.1- 2552.3 and < 0.1 - 6.6 Bq/Kg dry weight for U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40 and Cs-137 respectively. The study revealed that most of the foodstuffs did not contain U-238. Lentils were found to contain significant concentration of Th-232 (4 - 49 Bq/kg) and can be considered as thorium accumulators. The concentrations of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in leafy vegetables were higher than the fruit and root vegetables. These data can be used as a reference for future food radioactivity monitoring. As edible mushroom and fern had high concentrations of Cs-137, indicating their high ability to accumulate Cs-137, they could be used as indicator plants in the event of radioactive fall outs

  5. Modeling study of effects of short-lived radionuclide fixation on decay chain radionuclides migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Watanabe, Shoji

    1993-08-01

    Effects of a short lived radionuclide fixation to minerals during alteration process from a primary mineral (M1) to tertiary mineral (M3) through secondary mineral (M2) on a decay chain radionuclides migration (DCRM) have been studied based on mathematical simulation studies. The mathematical migration model in which a daughter radionuclide, N[sub 2], corresponds to a short lived radionuclide and is fixed to M2 during alteration from M1 to M2, is proposed. Also, a fraction of the granddaughter radionuclide, N[sub 3], is assumed to be released from M2 into a solution during the alteration process from M2 to M3. The model studies lead the delay in the migration of N[sub 3], with the delay becoming remarkably enhanced if the fixation rate constant of N[sub 2] is greater than the decay constant of N[sub 2]. Whereas, the delay is reduced by the release of N[sub 3] with a faster rate than the decay constant of N[sub 3]. Therefore, it is important clarify decay chain radionuclides fixation and release mechanisms during an alteration process. (author).

  6. Transfer of radionuclides through the terrestrial environment to agricultural products and the behaviour of radionuclides in natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation carried out in the period 1986 - 1995 has shown that the radionuclides fallen out appear to be in active zone of the main mass of vertical migration and probability of their availability for plants in perspective. The level of contamination of crop products by radionuclides on the change of soil contamination by radionuclides within residential territories. (author)

  7. Geochemical ways of artificial radionuclide migration in biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collection presents abstracts of papers on the following subjects: organization and methodology of research and developments on creation of combined medium- and largescale landscape-geochemical and radioecological maps for territories contaminated by radionuclides; typological and space features of distribution of artificial radionuclides and regularities of their migration, the radionuclides being entered the biosphere during accidents at NPPs; forms of artificial radionuclides in biosphere after the NPP accidents; simulation of primary entering and secondary migration of radionuclides in biosphere; methodology of organization and conducting radiogeochemical monitoring of biosphere; new methods and means for radiation monitoring of the environment

  8. Sludge source term (PUREX process radionuclide dose impact)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyzes the radionuclide dose impact of the PUREX process waste stream. The radionuclide ingestion and inhalation pathways are analyzed. Two spent fuel assemblies processed in the Separation facilities are analyzed, the Mark 31A and Mark 31B. The individual radionuclide significance to dose is evaluated in terms of dose percentage. Comparing the radionuclide individual dose value allows the determination of those radionuclides whose dose impact is significant. The results of this analysis demonstrate that a limited number of radionuclides contribute 1% or more to the total dose and that the major contributor to the sludge source dose is strontium. The results obtained permit reducing the list of radionuclides to be considered in the development of source terms to support the High Level Waste Safety Analysis Report

  9. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  10. Methods for reduction of radionuclides incorporated into the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-scale (laboratories and hospitals) to global radioactive contamination may contribute to incorporation of radionuclides in the living body. In real accidents, many radionuclides are occasionally incorporated simultaneously into the body. Therefore, it is important to know the kinds of radionuclides, chemical form at the incorporation, and presence status and behavior of radionuclides in the body. Because there is interaction between agents for reducing radioactive contamination, the reduction mechanism of radionuclide in the body should be considered when such agents are used in the combination manner. The purpose of this report is to discuss chemical methods for reducing radionuclides that are orally incorporated into the body. These methods are described in terms of dilution, complex production, adsorption, metabolism derangement, and others. I-131, Cs-137, Sr-90, and Ru-106, which are influential radionuclides for the human body, are especially referred to. (N.K.) 58 refs

  11. Yield of wheat varieties and removal of radionuclide 137Cs on land contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on yielding capacity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) winter and spring varieties, specific activity of Cs137 radionuclide in grain and straw, total removal of Cs137radionuclide and potassium were presented analysed in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus. The tested wheat varieties were evaluated from point of view of individual and collective doses reduction in case of cultivation for food on land contaminated with radionuclide Cs137. Selection of varieties of agricultural crops with the minimum doses of radionuclide accumulation proved to an efficient and low-cost action which reduced the transit of radionuclides ino production. From the point of view of minimization of collective doses of internal irradiation of population in case of recommendation of a variety for cultivation in a zone with radioactive contamination along with the minimum doses of specific radionuclide activity it was necessary to consider its total removal from area unit. As a result of a complex evaluation of recognized and perspective varieties of cereals - winter and spring wheat – in the conditions of their cultivation on polluted with 137 radionuclide territories for minimization of individual and collective doses of an internal irradiation of population it was established, that the greatest decrease in an individual dose was provided with a variety of winter wheat Tsentos and a variety of spring wheat Kvattro, characterized by the least specific activity of Cs137 in grain and straw, which was on 1,8 and 1,3 times lower than the corresponding standards. There was weak relationship between carrying out Cs137 and potassium in winter and spring wheat varieties

  12. Decline of radionuclides in Columbia River biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1971, the last of nine plutonium production reactors using direct discharge of once-through cooling waters into the Columbia River was closed. Sampling was initiated at three stations on the Columbia River to document the decline of the radionuclide body burdens in the biota of the Columbia River ecosystem. The data show that in a river-reservoir complex, the measurable body burden of fission-produced radionuclides decreased to essentially undetectable levels within 18 to 24 mo after cessation of discharge of once-through cooling water into the river. On the basis of data from the free-flowing station, we believe that this decrease would be even more rapid in an unimpounded river

  13. Radionuclide transport in the Yenisei River

    CERN Document Server

    Vakulovsky, S M; Kabanov, A I

    2012-01-01

    Data characterizing the pollution of the Yenisei River (water and bottom sediment) by radionuclide resulting from the use of the river water for cooling industrial reactors in the Mining-Chemical Complex are presented. Studies have been made of the contamination of the river during the period when reactors with direct flow cooling were used and after these were shut down. Distinctive features of the migration of radionuclide in the Yenisei are noted, in particular, their distribution between the solid and liquid phases. The amounts of 137Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 152Eu in the channel are determined from the effluent discharge site to Dudinka port. The rate of continuous self removal of 137Cs is estimated to be 0.19 1/year, corresponding to a half purification time of 3.6 years for a 600 km long segment of the river bed.

  14. Radionuclide interception and loss processes in vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data available since the Chernobyl accident have strengthened the view that the transfer of radionuclides from air to vegetation is a primary area of uncertainty in the estimation of the contamination of food chains leading to human exposure. The processes affecting the overall transfer from air to vegetation involve wet and dry deposition, interception and initial retention, and post-deposition retention of radioactive substances by vegetation. During the growing season, the time-integrated concentrations of radionuclides on vegetation in the first few months after initial deposition are dominated by the direct foliar interception of deposited material. Chapter 2 contains a review of data for modelling the direct foliar interception and initial retention of radioactivity deposited by dry and wet processes, together with data on the factors affecting post-deposition retention of radioactivity on the vegetation. 82 refs, 9 figs, 11 tabs

  15. Behaviors of radionuclides in wet underground soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies were made of the variations of the distribution coefficient of 65Zn, 60Co, and /sup 110 m/Ag with Ca ion contents in sand--water and resin--water systems. It is concluded that: (1) The distribution coefficient of a radionuclide is not constant but varies greatly especially with calcium ion concentration in underground water. (2) The Saturation Index I=pH-pHs can be used as a parameter to indicate such variations. (3) Some radionuclides, existing as radiocolloids like (sup 110m/Ag and 59Fe, are inactive toward ion exchange reactions as with hydroxide. In such cases, the nuclides migrate underground as fast as underground water

  16. Sorption of radionuclides on a soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of radioactive wastes into the ground has been discussed, and this paper emphasized significance of the investigation for underground water flow and for the prediction of radionuclides through a stratified aquifer using column experiments to evaluate the internal radiation dose. Distributions and redistributions of radionuclides in a sandy layer were observed to identify the sorption model which predicts the behavior, and the underground water flow in the Plio-Pleistocene Osaka Group was investigated as an example, by mean of the measurement of 222Rn concentration, the pumping technique and the tracer technique using the activation analysis. Then, the estimation of radioactive concentration in the underground water was worked out for the boundary condition of steady state inflow of liquid wastes and of which the 90Sr are leached from the solidified body, moreover, the equation which easily evaluates the suitability of the disposal site was proposed. These approach may be useful for the actual site selection of radioactive wastes disposal. (author)

  17. Intakes of radionuclides by young people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general conclusion is drawn from this study is that if, for members of the public, both the dietary composition and the metabolic parameters of radionuclides are independent of age, the committed dose equivalents for young persons are broadly similar to those for adults and are never more than three times greater when all age groups are exposed to the same concentrations of radionuclides in air and foodstuffs. The differences in committed effective dose equivalents (which are weighted averages of committed dose equivalents) will be even smaller. It seems possible, therefore, that the critical groups' within the population will be principally determined by differences in dietary composition and in metabolic or retention parameters. (author)

  18. Radionuclide determination in sewage and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides of various origin: applied in medicine, formed in the course of nuclear arms testing, the Chernobyl accident and operation of the Finish NPPs, were identified at the purification facilities in Finland. Activity of 137Cs and 131I in the bottoms changed from 24 up to 47 and from 108 up to 250 Bg/kg of dry residue correspondingly. Greater pat of discharge water contamination was conditioned by 131I isotope, used in medicine. The maximum activity level of 131I in untreated water constituted 94000 Bg/m3. 51Cr, 54Mn, 57Co, 59Fe, 111In and 201,202Tl were identified in medicine. Radionuclides, formed in the course of the Finish NPPs operation were detected in the discharge water residues at water purification facilities near the nuclear power plants

  19. Radionuclide migration in sub-surface soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the investigations was to draw the most realistic conclusions about the migration rate of the radionuclides strontium, iodine, cesium and cerium in a model accident contaminating various subsurface soils in the environment of the Gorleben salt dome. The retardation factors of the radionuclides were determined in column tests in undisturbed soil samples. The distribution coefficients were determined in disturbed soil samples by shaking tests (batch method). The following mobility series can be given very approximately for the examined soil profiles where columnar results have been used: Ranker (Trebel) I > Sr > Ce > Cs; Podzol (Gorleben) I > Cs > Sr > Ce; Braunerde (Bruenkendorf) I ≥ Sr > Ce ≥ Cs; Arable Soils: Podzol (Gorleben) I > Sr ≥ Cs ≥ Ce; Para braunerde (Eschweiler) I > Sr ≥ Ce ≥ Cs

  20. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmuleva, N.I.; Barinov, E.Y.; Petukhov, V.L. [Novosibirsk State Agrarian University (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. {sup 137}Cs level was 3.7 to 9.2 times higher than {sup 90}Sr one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio-nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg). (authors)

  1. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - 137Cs and 90Sr in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. 137Cs level was 3.7 to 9.2 times higher than 90Sr one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio-nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg). (authors)

  2. Tracing Noble Gas Radionuclides in the Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Collon, P; Lu, Z T

    2004-01-01

    Trace analysis of radionuclides is an essential and versatile tool in modern science and technology. Due to their ideal geophysical and geochemical properties, long-lived noble gas radionuclides, in particular, 39Ar (t1/2 = 269 yr), 81Kr (t1/2 = 2.3x10^5 yr) and 85Kr (t1/2 = 10.8 yr), have long been recognized to have a wide range of important applications in Earth sciences. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the development of practical analytical methods, and has led to applications of these isotopes in the hydrosphere (tracing the flow of groundwater and ocean water). In this article, we introduce the applications of these isotopes and review three leading analytical methods: Low-Level Counting (LLC), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA).

  3. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  4. Geotrap: radionuclide migration in geologic, heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most countries producing nuclear energy are considering, or actively pursuing, a deep geologic repository for radioactive waste. As part of the assessment of the performance or safety of such a repository, radionuclide transport through the heterogeneous, geologic environment must be modelled. In most cases, an important migration mechanism is transport in groundwater and developing an understanding and modelling capability for how radionuclides might migrate away from the repository through the surrounding geosphere is an integral part of making the safety case for a repository. This understanding has been significantly improved through the NEA GEOTRAP Project, the results of which have been documented in a final synthesis report summarizing the outcomes of the five GEOTRAP workshops held between 1996 and 2001

  5. Radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of tests using radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological surveys was studied, with particular attention to the likely availability of facilities and personnel in the tropics and arctics, where measurements may be disturbed by climatic influences. The methodology required was to be simple, rapid and suitable for examining large numbers of sera, as for epidemological surveys. In the introduction, limitations of labelled antigen tests are discussed, the choice of radionuclide and measurement methods, test procedures and evaluation of results. Collection, preservation and shipment of speciments (serum, faeces, cerebrospinal fluid, sputum, etc.) are described. Experiments with bacteria and bacterial toxins (Enterobacteriaceae, vibrios, staphylococci, meningococci, etc.), with protozoa and metazoa (Entamoeba hystolytica, Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodia and other parasites), with viruses (vaccinia, adeno-, polio-, and influenza viruses, etc.), and with fungi are discussed

  6. Groundwater resources and regional environmental radionuclide contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drinking water of good quality is considered as an absolutely necessary component of sustainable development of territories and their inhabitants. The environmental radionuclide contamination problem after human activities is at the edge in modern world in accordance with the sustainable development task. The regional contamination is affected the local and regional surface water-catchment areas, as well as the recharge areas of shallow unconfined and some stratum aquifers used for centralized water supply of the population. The obtained new data (UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) Project RUS/95/004 of the Russian Federation) on the radioecological state and the preliminary predictions within contaminated territories do not enable to consider groundwater as throughout reliably protected against radionuclide contamination. During exploitation shallow water the location of water wells within divides essentially decreases the low-quality drinking water obtaining risk The strategy must be aimed at obligatory of reliably protected deep groundwater in water supply systems. (author)

  7. Radionuclide transfer from forage plants into milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a lot of information regarding the transfer of radionuclides (iodine, caesium, strontium) which allows the transfer factor being calculated with high certainty. The transfer coefficients (forage-)plant/milk laid down in Paragraph 45 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlenschutzverordnung) amount to 1.0x10-2 for iodine-131, 1.2x10-2 for caesium-137 and 2.0x10-3 for strontium-90. More recent calculated factors are markedly lower at the average. During milk processing, the greatest amount of radionuclides gets access to the whey or into the permeate after ultrafiltration of whey. In butter and cheese only minute amounts of caesium can be expected. (orig.)

  8. Analgesic therapy of skeletal metastases with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionculide therapy of bone metastases is an unspecific palliative treatment of metastatic skeletal pain especially useful in patients suffering in multiple sites. In these cases the long-term administration of increasing doses of analgesics such as opiate which have important side effects can be reduced. The aim of this therapy is pain relief and improvement of quality of life in patients with advanced cancer. This report is focusing on options, indications and contraindications of the radionuclide therapy of metastases and on used radionuclides such as Strontium-89, Yttrium-90, Rhenium-186 (188) and Samarium-153. In oncology, the analgesic therapy using boneseeking radiopharmaceuticals in combination to drug administration should gain more importance because this therapy can be administered on an outpatient basis. (orig.)

  9. Application of radionuclides in process research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides were used to study the transport, transformation and modification of materials in process systems. Their advantage lies in the contactless measurement of radioactively labeled flow of materials (gas, liquid or solid) by the radiation emitted even through thick walls of equipment, under production conditions. Even under rigorous process conditions (high pressure, high temperature, rapid velocity) the experiments can be carried out. The simultaneous determination of material flows can be obtained by manifold labeling with different radionuclides. A synopsis of results obtained in plants of the power industry, material industry and biological clarification plants is given. The special measuring technique is demonstrated by the example of the technical multistage process of caprolactam synthesis and gas concrete production by the Hebel and Calsilox processes and stressed concrete pipe production by the rotation technique. (author)

  10. Radionuclide release calculations for SAR-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Gavin; Miller, Alex; Smith, Graham; Jackson, Duncan (Enviros Consulting Ltd, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom))

    2008-04-15

    Following a review by the Swedish regulatory authorities of the post-closure safety assessment of the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate waste (L/ILW), SAFE, the SKB has prepared an updated assessment called SAR-08. This report describes the radionuclide release calculations that have been undertaken as part of SAR-08. The information, assumptions and data used in the calculations are reported and the results are presented. The calculations address issues raised in the regulatory review, but also take account of new information including revised inventory data. The scenarios considered include the main case of expected behaviour of the system, with variants; low probability releases, and so-called residual scenarios. Apart from these scenario uncertainties, data uncertainties have been examined using a probabilistic approach. Calculations have been made using the AMBER software. This allows all the component features of the assessment model to be included in one place. AMBER has been previously used to reproduce results the corresponding calculations in the SAFE assessment. It is also used in demonstration of the IAEA's near surface disposal assessment methodology ISAM and has been subject to very substantial verification tests and has been used in verifying other assessment codes. Results are presented as a function of time for the release of radionuclides from the near field, and then from the far field into the biosphere. Radiological impacts of the releases are reported elsewhere. Consideration is given to each radionuclide and to each component part of the repository. The releases from the entire repository are also presented. The peak releases rates are, for most scenarios, due to organic C-14. Other radionuclides which contribute to peak release rates include inorganic C-14, Ni-59 and Ni-63. (author)

  11. Radionuclides in peat bogs and energy peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was aimed at improving the general view on radionuclides contents in energy peat produced in Finland. The annual harvest of fuel peat in 1994 was studied extensively. Also thirteen peat bogs used for peat production and one bog in natural condition were analysed for vertical distributions of several radionuclides. These distributions demonstrate the future change in radioactivity of energy peat. Both natural nuclides emitting gamma radiation (238U, 235U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K) and radiocaesium (137Cs, 134Cs) origin in fallout from a nuclear power plant accident (1986) and in atmospheric nuclear weapon tests were analysed. The beta and alpha active natural nuclides of lead and polonium (210Pb, 210Po) were determined on a set of peat samples. These nuclides potentially contribute to radiation exposure through inhalation when partially released to atmosphere during combustion of peat. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides often increased towards the deepest peat bog layers whereas the radioactive caesium deposited from atmosphere was missing in the deep layers. In undisturbed surface layers of a natural bog and peat production bogs the contents of 210Pb and 210Po exceeded those of the deeper peat layers. The nuclides of the uranium series in the samples were generally not in radioactive equilibrium, as different environmental processes change their activity ratios in peat. Radiation exposure from handling and utilisation of peat ash was estimated with activity indices derived from the data for energy peat harvested in 1994. Intervention doses were exceeded in a minor selection of samples due to 137Cs, whereas natural radionuclides contributed very little to the doses. (orig.)

  12. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references

  13. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-12-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references.

  14. Naturally occurring radionuclides and Earth sciences

    OpenAIRE

    G. Ferrara

    1997-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are used in Earth sciences for two fundamental purposes: age determination of rocks and minerals and studies of variation of the isotopic composition of radiogenic nuclides. The methodologies that are in use today allow us to determine ages spanning from the Earth's age to the late Quaternary. The variations of isotopic composition of radiogenic nuclides can be applied to problems of mantle evolution, magma genesis and characterization with respect to differe...

  15. Radionuclide and Radiation Protection Data Handbook 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook provides the most up to date internal and external dosimetry information and control criteria in the form of data sheets in an easy to use format for 108 of the most commonly used radionuclides in medicine, research and industry. It is designed as a ready reference source of information, gathering together in one place, in the form of individual datasheets, the most up to date isotopic and radiation protection data. (author)

  16. Alpha Emitting Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals for Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, cancer treatments mainly rely on surgery or external beam radiation to remove or destroy bulky tumors. Chemotherapy is given when tumours cannot be removed or when dissemination is suspected. However, these approaches cannot permanently treat all cancers and relapse occurs in up to 50% of the patients’ population. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) are effective against some disseminated and metastatic diseases, although they are rarely curative. Most preclinical and clinical developments in this field have involved electron-emitting radionuclides, particularly iodine-131, yttrium-90 and lutetium-177. The large range of the electrons emitted by these radionuclides reduces their efficacy against very small tumour cell clusters or isolated tumour cells present in residual disease and in many haematological tumours (leukaemia, myeloma). The range of alpha particles in biological tissues is very short, less than 0.1 mm, which makes alpha emitters theoretically ideal for treatment of such isolated tumour cells or micro-clusters of malignant cells. Thus, over the last decade, a growing interest for the use of alpha-emitting radionuclides has emerged. Research on targeted alpha therapy (TAT) began years ago in Nantes through cooperation between Subatech, a nuclear physics laboratory, CRCNA, a cancer research centre with a nuclear oncology team and ITU (Karlsruhe, Germany). CD138 was demonstrated as a potential target antigen for Multiple Myeloma, which is a target of huge clinical interest particularly suited for TAT because of the disseminated nature of the disease consisting primarily of isolated cells and small clusters of tumour cells mainly localized in the bone marrow. Thus anti-CD138 antibodies were labelled with bismuth-213 from actinium-225/bismuth-213 generators provided by ITU and used to target multiple myeloma cells. In vitro studies showed cell cycle arrest, synergism with chemotherapy and very little induction

  17. Migration of radionuclides in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One- and three-dimensional solutions based on the classical advection-dispersion equation have been developed and classified for the analysis of radionuclide transport in unconsolidated porous materials. The one-dimensional solutions have been applied for interpretation of experimental data obtained from radio-tracer tests with laboratory and field columns whereas both types of solutions were employed for interpretation of the field tracer test data

  18. Loading technique for preparing radionuclide containing nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Source: US2012213698A The present invention relates to a novel composition and method for loading delivery systems such as liposome compositions with radionuclides useful in targeted diagnostic and/or therapy of target site, such as cancerous tissue and, in general, pathological conditions associ...... of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique. One specific aspect of the invention is directed to a method of producing nanoparticles with desired targeting properties for diagnostic and/or radio-therapeutic applications....

  19. Radionuclide trap studies using porous carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towards import substitute, an attempt has been made to synthesise porous carbon by acidic sucrose solution route for use as trap material for cesium isotopes. The radionuclide trap experiments have been carried out to study the uptake of fission product cesium (137Cs) using reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) and home made porous carbon (HMPC) in static sodium system. The trapping efficiency and distribution coefficient have been measured and compared. (author)

  20. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  1. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  2. Radionuclide release calculations for SAR-08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a review by the Swedish regulatory authorities of the post-closure safety assessment of the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate waste (L/ILW), SAFE, the SKB has prepared an updated assessment called SAR-08. This report describes the radionuclide release calculations that have been undertaken as part of SAR-08. The information, assumptions and data used in the calculations are reported and the results are presented. The calculations address issues raised in the regulatory review, but also take account of new information including revised inventory data. The scenarios considered include the main case of expected behaviour of the system, with variants; low probability releases, and so-called residual scenarios. Apart from these scenario uncertainties, data uncertainties have been examined using a probabilistic approach. Calculations have been made using the AMBER software. This allows all the component features of the assessment model to be included in one place. AMBER has been previously used to reproduce results the corresponding calculations in the SAFE assessment. It is also used in demonstration of the IAEA's near surface disposal assessment methodology ISAM and has been subject to very substantial verification tests and has been used in verifying other assessment codes. Results are presented as a function of time for the release of radionuclides from the near field, and then from the far field into the biosphere. Radiological impacts of the releases are reported elsewhere. Consideration is given to each radionuclide and to each component part of the repository. The releases from the entire repository are also presented. The peak releases rates are, for most scenarios, due to organic C-14. Other radionuclides which contribute to peak release rates include inorganic C-14, Ni-59 and Ni-63. (author)

  3. Radionuclides and ionizing radiation in water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 26 papers, all inputted in INIS. The papers deal with radiation monitoring of aquatic systems in the vicinity of NPPs in the Czech Republic and of uranium mines and uranium processing plants, and further with the determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in water. Discussed are also the determination of radon in residential buildings, and procedures for lowering the radon content. (Z.S.)

  4. The role of particulates in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The colloid program at AECL Research is focused on characterizing natural particles in groundwater to evaluate their potential role in radiocolloid formation and to form a database for particle migration studies. The main objective of this program has been the study of colloids (1 to 450 nm) and suspended particles (> 450 nm) in fractured granites and sandstone in various locations in Canada and Switzerland. Groundwater particles were found to consist of clay minerals, micas, quartz, feldspar, iron-silica oxides and organic material. In groundwaters from granite, sandstone and clay-rich rock colloid concentrations were less than 5 mg/L. Some of these groundwaters may contain up to 260 mg/L of suspended particles. However, these particles are not expected to be mobile under the natural flow regimes of deep groundwaters. Provided radiocolloid formation is reversible, it is shown that the colloid concentrations observed in groundwaters from granites will have a negligible effect on radionuclide transport even when making the conservative assumption that these particles travel with the velocity of groundwater. For the case of irreversible radiocolloid formation, an equation is presented to calculate the fraction of total radionuclides in the geosphere which will form radiocolloids. The significance of these radiocolloids will depend upon the total amount of radionuclides released to the geosphere and on particle migration properties. (author)

  5. UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-28

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  6. Radionuclides in the evaluation of urinary obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide renography and renal scanning techniques are ideally suited to the initial and follow-up evaluation of patients with obstructive uropathy. While other modalities are superior in their ability to provide anatomic information, the radionuclide study yields functional information for each kidney without the necessity to resort to invasive studies. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine study is well suited to the evaluation of obstruction where serial studies often are required because of a lower radiation burden compared to urography. This lower radiation dose is especially important in obstruction because of the recurrent nature of several kinds of obstructive uropathy and because of the high incidence in the pediatric age group. The ability to control urine flow rate during the procedure through dehydration or administration of diuretics is an additional benefit. Increasing availability of computerization of nuclear medicine procedures as well as interest in studies employing physiologic intervention (including the diuresis renogram) have assured an important place for radionuclide studies in the evaluation of patients with urinary obstruction

  7. Radionuclides in the evaluation of urinary obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, S.C.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1982-07-01

    Radionuclide renography and renal scanning techniques are ideally suited to the initial and follow-up evaluation of patients with obstructive uropathy. While other modalities are superior in their ability to provide anatomic information, the radionuclide study yields functional information for each kidney without the necessity to resort to invasive studies. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine study is well suited to the evaluation of obstruction where serial studies often are required because of a lower radiation burden compared to urography. This lower radiation dose is especially important in obstruction because of the recurrent nature of several kinds of obstructive uropathy and because of the high incidence in the pediatric age group. The ability to control urine flow rate during the procedure through dehydration or administration of diuretics is an additional benefit. Increasing availability of computerization of nuclear medicine procedures as well as interest in studies employing physiologic intervention (including the diuresis renogram) have assured an important place for radionuclide studies in the evaluation of patients with urinary obstruction.

  8. Separation of radionuclides by polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption of 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 103Pd, 110Ag and 203Hg radionuclides by polyurethane foam (PUF) was investigated and optimized with respect to the selection of appropriate sorptive medium, metal, thiocyanate ions (except for 110Ag) and PUF concentration and equilibration time. The influence of common anions and cations on the sorption of each metal was examined. The sorption data subjected to different sorption isotherms have shown that the sorption of all the radionuclides followed Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The sorption capacity intensity and energy were evaluated for each element studied. The variation of sorption with temperature was monitored for all radionuclides except zinc and selenium. The values of ΔH, ΔS and ΔG were estimated and found to be negative indicating exothermic and spontaneous nature of sorption. It was found that PUF is an effective and economical sorbent for traces of metal ions which can be used for the separation/preconcentration of these ions from their very dilute solutions and has useful applications in radioanalytical and environmental chemistry and in radioactive and industrial liquid waste management. (author)

  9. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two sites in Sweden are currently under investigation by SKB for their suitability as places for deep repository of radioactive waste, the Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar area. As a part of the safety assessment, SKB has formulated a biosphere model with different sub-models for different parts of the ecosystem in order to be able to predict the dose to humans following a possible radionuclide discharge from a future deep repository. In this report, a new model concept describing radionuclide transport in streams is presented. The main difference from the previous model for running water used by SKB, where only dilution of the inflow of radionuclides was considered, is that the new model includes parameterizations also of the exchange processes present along the stream. This is done in order to be able to investigate the effect of the retention on the transport and to be able to estimate the resulting concentrations in the different parts of the system. The concentrations determined with this new model could later be used for order of magnitude predictions of the dose to humans. The presented model concept is divided in two parts, one hydraulic and one radionuclide transport model. The hydraulic model is used to determine the flow conditions in the stream channel and is based on the assumption of uniform flow and quasi-stationary conditions. The results from the hydraulic model are used in the radionuclide transport model where the concentration is determined in the different parts of the stream ecosystem. The exchange processes considered are exchange with the sediments due to diffusion, advective transport and sedimentation/resuspension and uptake of radionuclides in biota. Transport of both dissolved radionuclides and sorbed onto particulates is considered. Sorption kinetics in the stream water phase is implemented as the time scale of the residence time in the stream water probably is short in comparison to the time scale of the kinetic sorption. In the sediment

  10. Radionuclide Penogram in Diagnosis of Vasculogenic Impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasculogenic impotence is produced by abnormalities of vascular blood supply or drainage, and is the most common cause of various organic impotences. An increasing awareness of vascular causes of impotence has resulted from development of various diagnostic tests, but precise measurement of penile blood flow is difficult. Radionuclide penogram has been introduced recently to diagnose vasculogenic impotence. Forty-one impotent patients and 12 normal men were studied with radionuclide erection penogram using 99mTc-pertechnetate and an intracavernous injection of papaverine. We defined arteriogenic impotence as arterial index less than 0.66, and venogram impotence as venous index greater than 0.09. By this criteria, the false positive ratio in normal men was 17% and the false negative ratio in radically cystectomized patients was 0%. Side effects were small purpura of the penile shaft and dull pain during injection of papaverine. The radionuclide erection penogram was noninvasive and gave a dynamic evaluation of the arterial supply, venous drainage, and blood flow in the corporeal bodies. This method should be considered as a valuable adjunct to evaluate patients with vasculogenic impotence.

  11. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-11-15

    Two sites in Sweden are currently under investigation by SKB for their suitability as places for deep repository of radioactive waste, the Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar area. As a part of the safety assessment, SKB has formulated a biosphere model with different sub-models for different parts of the ecosystem in order to be able to predict the dose to humans following a possible radionuclide discharge from a future deep repository. In this report, a new model concept describing radionuclide transport in streams is presented. The main difference from the previous model for running water used by SKB, where only dilution of the inflow of radionuclides was considered, is that the new model includes parameterizations also of the exchange processes present along the stream. This is done in order to be able to investigate the effect of the retention on the transport and to be able to estimate the resulting concentrations in the different parts of the system. The concentrations determined with this new model could later be used for order of magnitude predictions of the dose to humans. The presented model concept is divided in two parts, one hydraulic and one radionuclide transport model. The hydraulic model is used to determine the flow conditions in the stream channel and is based on the assumption of uniform flow and quasi-stationary conditions. The results from the hydraulic model are used in the radionuclide transport model where the concentration is determined in the different parts of the stream ecosystem. The exchange processes considered are exchange with the sediments due to diffusion, advective transport and sedimentation/resuspension and uptake of radionuclides in biota. Transport of both dissolved radionuclides and sorbed onto particulates is considered. Sorption kinetics in the stream water phase is implemented as the time scale of the residence time in the stream water probably is short in comparison to the time scale of the kinetic sorption. In the sediment

  12. Interaction between water, sediments and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model-based measurements program was carried out to evaluate the primary mechanisms controlling transport of uranium 238 and thorium 232 decay chain radionuclides in Quirke Lake, a water body draining much of the uranium mining and milling district near Elliot Lake, Ontario. This program included studies of radionuclide accumulation in sediments, particle settling and lake mass-balance studies. Also, sediment studies were undertaken to evaluate chemical fractionation, mineralogical associations, and sediment-water adsorption and release. A limnocorral experiment was conducted in an isolated portion of a lake to measure radium 226 removal from the water column and diffusion from the sediments back to the water. Modelling studies were made to assess the data. Substantial agreement was obtained using the model originally developed for the AECB between model predictions and observations for Quirke Lake and for the limnocorrals. Further work is required to complete the studies undertaken in this project to assess the significance of the efflux of radionuclides from the sediments. These studies include a laboratory program to measure kinetics of adsorption, sediment-water modelling studies of the results and a field measurement program to develop a mass-balance analysis for thorium. (numerous refs)

  13. Radionuclides in waters of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of radionuclides in drinking water became increasingly important within the European Union since the implementation of the European Drinking Water Directive in 1998. The limit for the uptake of radionuclides via drinking water has been established in the form of a 'total indicative dose' of 0.1 mSv per year. Unfortunately, the total indicative dose cannot be measured directly but has to be calculated from the summed up contribution of each natural or artificial radionuclide, which is present in water - excluding 3H, 40K, radon and radon decay products. The parameters of choice are the gross-alpha and gross-beta activity concentration. If the gross-alpha activity in a tap water sample is lower than 0.1 Bq/dm3 and the gross-beta activity does not exceed 1.0 Bq/dm3, it can be assumed that the annual total indicative dose of adults is less than 0.1 mSv per year (authors)

  14. Anthropogenic radionuclides in Ottawa River sediment near Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ottawa River has received nuclear reactor effluent from Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) for more than 60 years, including releases from a NRX accident in 1952. Recent interest in the potential impact of these historical releases and the possible need for remediation of a small region immediately downstream from the release point has led to comprehensive studies to assess risk to people and wildlife. In this paper, the results of an extensive survey of gamma-emitting anthropogenic radionuclides in Ottawa River sediment in the vicinity of CRL are presented. Anthropogenic radionuclides detected in Ottawa River sediment include 60Co, 94Nb, 137Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 155Eu and 241Am. Concentrations of all anthropogenic radionuclides decline rapidly with distance downstream of the process outfall, reaching stable concentrations about 2 km downstream. All of these radionuclides are found at some sites within 2 km upstream of the process outfall suggesting limited upstream transport and sedimentation. Comparison of anthropogenic radionuclides with several representative primordial radionuclides shows that with the exception of sites at the process outfall and within 2 km downstream of the process outfall, primordial radionuclide concentrations greatly exceed CRL derived anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations. Thus, over 60 years of radionuclide releases from operations at CRL have had little impact on radionuclide concentrations in Ottawa River sediment, except at a few sites immediately adjacent to the process outfall. (author)

  15. Natural and manmade radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human beings are constantly exposed to ionizing radiations in nature. These natural background radiations have both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. The extraterrestrial radiation is largely due to cosmic rays. Earth's atmosphere is continuously bombarded with high energy cosmic rays which originate from our own cosmos. The primary interaction of high energy cosmic rays with the atmosphere produces a number of secondary radiations in the form of neutrons and protons of various energies which in turn produce a variety of radionuclides through nuclear reactions with nitrogen, oxygen and other nuclei in atmosphere and through other processes. In addition, sub-atomic particles like mesons, muons and electrons are also produced. The radiation dose rate in India at sea level due to cosmic rays is 32 nGy h-1. The naturally occurring terrestrial radionuclides can be divided into those that occur singly and those that are components of the three chains of radioactive series namely, the Uranium series, the Thorium series and the Actinium series. Among the singly occurring radionuclides Potassium-40 with half life of 1.3x109 years is the most prominent and is widely distributed in rocks and soil. 40K is fairly abundant, forming about 0.012% of' total potassium, and is widely distributed in environmental matrix and it is an essential element for most life forms. Uranium-238 and Thorium 232 and their daughters generate the bulk of natural ionising radiation in our environment. Uranium-238 is the head of a series of 15 principal radionuclides, It is the most abundant (99.28%) isotope of natural uranium and is found in all rocks and soil in varied concentration. The radionuclide 238U decays through 234U and 230Th to 226Ra, which has a relatively long half life of 1628 years. 226Ra and its daughter products constitute an important part of natural radiation exposure. About 98% of the external dose from uranium series is delivered by 226Ra and its daughter products

  16. Transfer of radionuclides from sediments to organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following items were investigated: 1) the transfer of radionuclides (60Co, 95Zr-95Nb, 106Ru-106Rh, 37Cs, and sup(115m)Cd) from sea water to marine sediments, 2) the transfer of the radionuclides from polluted sediments to the organisms, and 3) the transfer of the radionuclides from polluted sea water to the organisms. Earth of the sea bottom, which has a diameter of 0.1 to 0.5 mm phi, was collected as sediment, and Nereis japonica and green alga were used as the organisms. 1) Activity ratio for sediment, which fits for concentration factor the organism, was at its maximum in 60Co, and it decreased in order of 95Zn-95Nb, 106Ru-106Rh, and 137Cs. The distribution of sup(115m)Cd in 500 ml of sea water, 30 g of marine sediment, and 3 g of green alga was 60, 32, and 8%, respectively. Activity ratio of sup(115m)Cd for marine sediment was 9, and concentration factor of sup(115m)Cd for green alga was 21. 2) With respect to radionuclides transfer from sediments to the organism, the level of radionuclides in Nereis japonica reached the equilibrium in about one week. Radioactivity concentration in polluted sediments at the beginning of this experiment and that in Nereis japonica 11 days later were expressed by Acpm/g and Bcpm/g, respectively, and B/A (transfer ratio) was calculated. Transfer ratio of 137Cs, 60Co, 95Zr-95Nb, and 106Ru-106Rh were 0.175, 0.050, 0.009, and 0.06, respectively. The transfer ratio of 137Cs was small when 137Cs transferred from sea water to marine sediments, but the ratio of 137Cs dissolved again into sea water in spite of being absorbed into sediments was larger than that of other nuclides. The transfer ratio of sup(115m)Cd was 0.12. 3) The transfer of nuclides to Nereis japonica was influenced strongly by sea water more than sediments. (Tsunoda, M.)

  17. Artificial radionuclides in the atmosphere over Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic observations of radionuclide composition and concentration in the atmosphere have been carried out at the Institute of Physics in Vilnius since 1963. An increase in activity concentration of radionuclides in the atmosphere was observed after nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl NPP accident. At present the radiation situation in Lithuania is determined by two main sources of radionuclides, forest fire and resuspension products transferred from highly polluted region of the Ukraine and Belarus. During forest fires the increase in activity concentration of 137Cs in the atmosphere was registered in many countries and in Lithuania as well. This work summarizes the experimental data on transport of cesium, plutonium, americium from the highly contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident. The activity concentrations of 137Cs were measured in two - three days samples while plutonium and americium in monthly samples. In addition, the analyses of the events of the increase activity concentration, meteorological situation, speciation of radionuclides and mechanisms of formation and transformation of aerosol carriers of radionuclides are presented. Aerosols were sampled on perchlorvinyl filters and the large volume air samplers with a flow rate from 2400 m3/h to about 6000 m3/h were used. The radiochemical analyses of monthly samples of aerosol ashes (about 30 g) were performed. For separation of Pu isotopes the TOPO/cyclohexane extraction and radiochemical purification using UTEVA resin were performed, Am was separated after TOPO/cyclohexane extraction using TRU and TEVA resins (100-150 μm). 242Pu and 243Am were used as tracers in the separation procedure. The alpha spectrometry measurements of Pu and Am isotopes deposited on a stainless steel disc were carried out with the Alphaquattro (Silena) spectrometer. 137Cs was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using the high purity HPGe detector (resolution - 1.9 keV/1.33 Mev, efficiency - 42%). Accuracy

  18. The vertical distribution of radionuclides in a Ribble Estuary saltmarsh: transport and deposition of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine discharges of low-level liquid radioactive waste by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Sellafield and Springfields have resulted in enhanced levels of radionuclides in sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England, UK. Variations in radionuclide concentrations (137Cs, 230Th, and 239240Pu) with depth in a mature saltmarsh core were analysed in order to investigate historical discharge trends and waste-dispersal mechanisms. Core samples from Longton/Hutton Marsh were analysed by gamma-spectrometry and α-spectrometry for radionuclides and by laser granulometry to establish grain-size variations with depth. Distinct subsurface maxima were present for 137Cs and 239240Pu with activities as high as 4500 Bq kg-1 for 137Cs and 600 Bq kg-1 for 239240Pu. Thorium-230 exhibited complex activity profiles with depth, specific activities ranging between 200 and 2400 Bq kg-1. The vertical distributions of Sellafield-derived radionuclides (137Cs and 239240Pu) in mature saltmarsh deposits reflect the time-integrated discharge pattern from Sellafield, implying a transport mechanism that has involved the mixing of sediment labelled with radioactivity from recent discharges and sediment labelled from historical discharge events before deposition. A mechanism involving the transport of contaminated silt therefore seems to dominate. The vertical distribution of Springfields-derived 230Th in the same areas reflects the annual gross-α discharge pattern from BNFL Springfields. In contrast to the Sellafield-derived radionuclides, a fairly rapid transport mechanism from source to sink is implied, with little or no time for mixing with radionuclides discharged years earlier. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Remediation of radionuclide pollutants through biosorption - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nilanjana [Environmental Biotechnology Division, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2012-01-15

    The development of nuclear science and technology has led to the increase of nuclear wastes containing radionuclides to be released and disposed in the environment. Pollution caused by radionuclides is a serious problem throughout the world. To solve the problem, substantial research efforts have been directed worldwide to adopt sustainable technologies for the treatment of radionuclide containing wastes. Biosorption represents a technological innovation as well as a cost effective excellent remediation technology for cleaning up radionuclides from aqueous environment. A variety of biomaterials viz. algae, fungi, bacteria, plant biomass, etc. have been reported for radionuclide remediation with encouraging results. This paper reviews the achievements and current status of radionuclide remediation through biosorption which will provide insights into this research frontier. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-156 radionuclides in clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of the intercomparison IAEA-156 on the determination of radionuclides in clover. Initially participants were requested to determine the levels of 134Cs, 137Cs, 40K, 90Sr and invited to provide data for other radionuclides. The participants included 46 laboratories located in 25 countries, and statistical evaluation of their data yield recommended values for these four radionuclides. Additional radionuclides reported were 210Pb, 239Pu and 125Sb; however, insufficient data exists to statistically determine recommended values for these radionuclides. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for the most frequently measured radionuclides (reference date: 1 August 1986): 134Cs 132.1 Bq/kg (126.4-137.7); 137Cs 264 Bq/kg (254-274); 40K 657 Bq/kg (637-676); 90Sr 14.8 Bq/kg (13.4-16.3). Figs and tabs

  1. Mobility factors for estimating the bioavailability of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most models designed to predict the transfer of radionuclides from soil to other components of an ecosystem use the total activity within the soil as the basic input data, without reference to the speciation of the radionuclides. Following the Chernobyl accident, radionuclides were deposited in a variety of physico-chemical forms, including particles, colloids and simple ionic species. Deposited radionuclides will be subject to time dependent transformation processes (e.g. weathering), which may affect the mobility of radionuclides in soil. The chemical speciation and association of radionuclides with soil components will influence their subsequent transfer to other compartments of the ecosystem, e.g. the availability for biological uptake by vegetation. (8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  2. Database for long lived radionuclides (LLRN). CEA working group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report constitutes a data base for long lived radionuclides (with half lives ranging from 30 to 1014 years) presenting informations on seven different topics: 'Radioactive data' gathers fundamental data characterising radioactive properties of considered radionuclides (half-life, disintegration mode, radiation energy,...); 'Formation and inventory' collects data on radionuclide formation ways as well as quantities formed during fuel irradiation; 'Biological effects' gives data characterising both radiotoxicity for each radionuclide and chemical toxicity for the considered element; 'Partitioning' specifies element repartition according to the different ways of Purex reprocessing and complementary partitioning processes possible for isolating chemical elements corresponding to the considered radionuclides; 'Transmutation' provides data allowing in part to evaluate the feasibility and destruction performances of radionuclides by transmutation with neutrons; 'Behaviour in waste packages' gathers some data relative to the properties of waste packages confinement. Only data on vitrified waste packages are given there; 'Behaviour in diluted solution' provides data used for element migration calculations. (author)

  3. Radionuclide determination of right and left ventricular stroke volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Feng Shen; Roubin, G.S.; Choong, C.Y.P.; Harris, P.J.; Flether, P.J.; Kelly, D.T.; Uren, R.F.; Hutton, B.F.

    1985-03-01

    The relationship between radionuclide and thermodilution measurement of stroke volumes (SV) was investigated in 30 patients without valvular regurgitation or intracardiac shunt (group A) at rest and during exercise. Both attenuated radionuclide right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) SV measurements correlated well with the SV determined by the thermodilution method (r = 0.87 and r = 0.93, all P < 0.001). The reliability of the radionuclide method to estimate SV was evaluated prospectively in two additional groups of patients. In 11 patients without valvular regurgitation or intracardiac shunt (group B) the radionuclide RVSV and LVSV closely approximated to thermodilution SV at rest and during exercise. In 15 patients with aortic regurgitation (group C) the radionuclide stroke volume ratio correlated well with the angiographic regurgitant fraction. Thus, both RVSV and LVSV and the severity of aortic regurgitation can be reliably measured with gated radionuclide ventriculography.

  4. Application of radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on production and use of radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy of diseases, development of nuclear medicine in Australia are reviewed. HIFAR operation for medicine purposes is noted; characteristics of the nuclear reactor HIFAR and new nuclear reactor under construction are performed. Australian market of radionuclides for medicine and prediction of their consumption are presented. Tendency for application of cyclotron radionuclides in medicine is demonstrated

  5. Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Program and related research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of technical studies conducted under the Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the period of October 1, 1985 through September 30, 1986. The HRMP was initiated in 1973 as the Radionuclide Migration Program to study and better understand the hydrologic systems of the NTS and potential movement and rates of movement of radionuclides and other contaminants injected into these systems by underground nuclear testing

  6. Forest Fires and Resuspension of Radionuclides into the Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando P. Carvalho; Joao M. Oliveira; Margarida Malta

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Forest fires are especially frequent around the Mediterranean Sea basin in the summer period and might be able to release naturally-occurring and man-made radionuclides from plant biomass and inject them into the atmosphere. The impact of this radioactivity on populations was not investigated before. Approach: Radionuclide analysis was performed in plants, in smoke from plant burning and in cigarette smoke to determine radionuclide concentrations by alpha spectrometry. Resu...

  7. The methods of study of the radionuclides horizontal migration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The questions of spatial redistribution of radionuclides in a landscape are considered. The dependence between lateral migration parameters on watersheds of the small and average rivers and landscape-geochemical features of a structure of the polluted territory is established. The role of radionuclide lateral transfer in change of gamma expose dose of transit zone and accumulation zone of watershed is appreciated. The forms of a relief of being geochemical barriers during radionuclide migration are revealed. (authors)

  8. Radionuclide kinetics in irrigated agrophytocenosis when using waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During experiments quantitative parameters of radionuclide kinetics as a result induced activity and radionuclide kinetics for natural heavy radionuclides from water used for irrigation into the vegetables crops for various kinds of irrigation depending on agrophytocenosis species have been investigated. Ways of reducing the radionuclide concentrations as far as economic and nutritive criteria are concerned using the simplest methods of treatment have been studied. It has been concluded that the highest radioactive contamination of vegetables crops takes place during sprinkling and the minimum one occurs during subsurface irrigation and gravity irrigation. 13 refs.; 3 tabs

  9. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237

  10. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  11. Release rates of radionuclides into dripping ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packages of high-level waste are to be emplaced in unsaturated tuff at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Each cylindrical waste package is separated from surrounding rock by a 2-cm air gap. A possible mechanism for release of radionuclides is the dripping of ground water onto waste packages. Drips are assumed to penetrate cracks in failed container and to dissolve radionuclides as the partly failed container fills and overflows. For this wet-drip scenario, with assumed constant drip rate, we have developed analytical solutions for the time-dependent release rates of radionuclides to the surrounding rock. Release rates have been calculated for key radionuclides. 7 refs., 3 figs

  12. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  13. Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

  14. Transfer of radionuclides in natural and semi-natural environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This post-Chernobyl international workshop was held in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, the area most affected of Italy. The main aims were( 1) Validation of previous theoretical models. ( 2) Study of mechanisms of ecological transfer of radionuclides and other contaminants (particularly Cs137). (3) The use of previous results to develop future strategies for decontamination. 4) To make results generally available. Topics are dealt with under the following headings:- (1) Radionuclide transfer in natural and semi-natural environments. (2) Radionuclide cycling in forest ecosystems. (3) Wildlife contamination Sweden, Austria, Finland. (4) Radionuclide cycling in upland pastures. (5) Fertilized and other chemical effects on contamination levels. (6) Agricultural ecosystems. (UK)

  15. Concentration of some radionuclides in some popular sudanese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study was measured concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in samples of sudanese medicinal plants. The radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed ranged from 4.09 to 41.07 Bq kg-1 for 238Th and from 353.14 to 2270.21 Bq kg-1 for 40k. No trace of artificial radionuclide was determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides was estimated and found to be 0.524 mSv/year which is well below the permissible levels. (Author)

  16. Assessment of internal dose from radionuclides - dosimetric and biokinetic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the assessment of annual limits on intakes of radionuclides by workers, and of dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by members of the public and patients, the ICRP has developed biokinetic models for the uptake of radionuclides by the gastrointestinal and the respiratory tract as well as for the systemic behaviour of radionuclides and their elimination from the body. The dosimetric and biokinetic models and data used for the assessments are described in detail. Present results and future activities of the ICRP on secondary limits for internal exposure are briefly mentioned. (orig./HP)

  17. The fate and importance of radionuclides produced in nuclear events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the major program at the Bio-Medical Division concerned with the fate and importance of the fission products, the radionuclides induced in the device materials, the radionuclides induced in the environment surrounding the device, and the tritium produced in Plowshare cratering events will be discussed. These programs include (1) critical unknowns in predicting organ and body burdens from radionuclides produced in cratering events; (2) the analysis with a high-resolution solid state gamma ray spectrometer of radionuclides in complex biological and environmental samples; (3) the characterization of radioactive particles from cratering detonation; (4) the biological availability to beagles, pigs and goats of radionuclides in Plowshare debris; (5) the biological availability to aquatic animals of radionuclides in Plowshare and other nuclear debris and the biological turnover of critical nuclides in specific aquatic animals; (6) the biological availability of Plowshare and other nuclear debris radionuclides to dairy cows and the transplacental transport of debris radionuclides in the dairy cow; (7) the persistence and behavior of radionuclides, particularly tritium, at sites of Plowshare and other nuclear detonations; and (8) somatic effects of Low Dose Radiation: Chromosome studies. (author)

  18. Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The finite element model LFESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment and Contaminant Transport Model) was synthesized under this study to simulate radionuclide transport in estuaries to obtain accurate radionuclide distributions which are affected by these factors: time variance, three-dimensional flow, temperature, salinity, and sediments. Because sediment transport and radionuclide adsorption/desorption depend strongly on sizes or types of sediments, FLESCOT simulates sediment and a sediment-sorbed radionuclide for the total of three sediment-size fractions (or sediment types) of both cohesive and noncohesive sediments. It also calculates changes of estuarine bed conditions, including bed elevation changes due to sediment erosion/deposition, and three-dimensional distributions of three bed sediment sizes and sediment-sorbed radionuclides within the bed. Although the model was synthesized for radionuclide transport, it is general enough to also handle other contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, or toxic chemicals. The model was checked for its capability for flow, water surface elevation change, salinity, sediment and radionuclide transport under various simple conditions first, confirming the general validity of the model's computational schemes. These tests also revealed that FLESCOT can use large aspect ratios of computational cells, which are necessary in handling long estuarine study areas. After these simple tests, FLESCOT was applied to the Hudson River estuary between Chelsea and the mouth of the river to examine how well the model can predict radionuclide transport through simulating tidally influenced three-dimensional flow, salinity, sediment and radionuclide movements with their interactions

  19. A meshless approach to radionuclide transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past thirty years numerical modelling has emerged as an interdisciplinary scientific discipline which has a significant impact in engineering and design. In the field of numerical modelling of transport phenomena in porous media, many commercial codes exist, based on different numerical methods. Some of them are widely used for performance assessment and safety analysis of radioactive waste repositories and groundwater modelling. Although they proved to be an accurate and reliable tool, they have certain limitations and drawbacks. Realistic problems often involve complex geometry which is difficult and time consuming to discretize. In recent years, meshless methods have attracted much attention due to their flexibility in solving engineering and scientific problems. In meshless methods the cumbersome polygonization of calculation domain is not necessary. By this the discretization time is reduced. In addition, the simulation is not as discretization density dependent as in traditional methods because of the lack of polygon interfaces. In this work fully meshless Diffuse Approximate Method (DAM) is used for calculation of radionuclide transport. Two cases are considered; First 1D comparison of 226Ra transport and decay solved by the commercial Finite Volume Method (FVM) and Finite Element Method (FEM) based packages and DAM. This case shows the level of discretization density dependence. And second realistic 2D case of near-field modelling of radionuclide transport from the radioactive waste repository. Comparison is made again between FVM based code and DAM simulation for two radionuclides: Long-lived 14C and short-lived 3H. Comparisons indicate great capability of meshless methods to simulate complex transport problems and show that they should be seriously considered in future commercial simulation tools. (author)

  20. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  1. Protection from radioaerosols and volatile radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the safety of nuclear power plants is a problem of the utmost importance in the nuclear energy industry. Particular attention is given to severe accidents at nuclear reactors. Although the probability of these accidents is low (-5), their consequences are the most disastrous. Severe accidents result in the release of tens of thousands of curies of radioactive products into the area under the containment. Modern protective systems for the localization of radioactive aerosols and volatile radionuclides are based mainly on the filtration of gas flow, using various solid and liquid sorbents. The main principle of these filters is based on the precipitation of suspended particles on any surface (grids, liquid drops, or film, fiber, and electrode surfaces). In these processes, physical phenomena such as gravitation, inertia, diffusion, electricity, magnetism, and supersonics are used. A disadvantage of the available systems is that they may not trap radioaerosols present in the vapor-gas mixture in the form of finely dispersed (much smaller than 0.1 microm) hydrophobic particles. A new concept of protection from radioaerosols and volatile radionuclides has been suggested. A basically new method of the localization of radioactive aerosols and volatile radionuclides is based on the physicochemical process occurring in the gas phase. The proposed concept of protection from radioaerosols and volatile fission products uses unconventional approaches based not on the filtration of vapor-gas flow but on the extraction of radioaerosols and radioiodine from them by the formation of mixed micelles with manufactured hydrophilic aerosols, such as MoO3 and NH4Cl-(NH4)2SO3, and the cocrystallization of ionic iodine with them. The new concept may be used for protection from radioaerosols at various types of nuclear reactors

  2. Natural radionuclides on natural gas pipeline scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not well known as the scales observed in the petroleum industry, scales are found on gas pipelines. Its formation process is different from that of scales from the petroleum industry; redox reaction between substances existing in the natural gas and the pipeline walls gives rise to scales, sometimes called as lack powder. The differences between the petroleum industry scales and this kind of scales go further than only the formation process and color. While in the traditional scale barium sulfate and calcium carbonate are the main chemical component, iron and iron sulfite are here the main constituents. Also, the associated natural radionuclides are different, instead radium isotopes 210Pb is the principal radionuclide observed. Since the use of natural gas is ecologically more favorable than diesel or gasoline, a large pipeline network (3,000 km) was built in order to increase the percentage of the natural gas in the Brazilian energetic matrix from the actual 2.5% to 10% during the next years. To reduce the pipeline internal corrosion and, therefore, the scale production, pigging operation are carried out on semester or yearly basis. During this operation, black powder residues are generated and collected. In order to verify the existence of 210Pb, and also of 226Ra and 228Ra, on such kind of deposits, 15 samples were obtained and analyzed for these radionuclides. 210Pb concentrations up to 5 kBq/kg were found, but, generally, 226Ra and 228Ra were much lower than the 210Pb concentration. As expected, iron and iron sulfite were the main chemical constituents observed. (author)

  3. Migration of radionuclides following shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The site of a former nuclear laboratory and shallow land burial facility 25 km southwest of Chicago (USA) has been examined for radionuclide migration and residual radioactive materials. The radioactivity was produced during operations with the first nuclear reactors and associated research from 1943 to 1955. The chronology of events and details of the decommissioning procedures, including reactor burial, are described. Surface soil, surface water, soil borings drilled through and around the facility, and water from the dolomite aquifer and glacial till overburden were analyzed for a variety of radionuclides. The only nuclide found to have migrated out of the burial site is hydrogen-3, as tritiated water. This nuclide was detected in surface water, soil water, and nearby picnic wells. The concentrations in the wells show a seasonal fluctuation, from 0.1 nCi/t in the summer to 14 nCi/l in the recharging of the groundwater winter, that is attributed to by spring rains. Water migration rates in the glacial till and dolomite were estimated by several methods. The time of travel of water to the nearest well, 400 m from the facility, is estimated to be 58 months. The vertical and horizontal distribution of tritium in the glacial till was measured. The origin of the tritium, neutron-irradiated lithium, was established from measurements of the hydrogen isotopic ratios. Concentrations of other radionuclides in soil and water were normal, except for plutonium (at about twice fallout concentrations) in the first 2 m below the buried material. The solid-element nuclides have migrated very little. Exposure pathways and their associated doses, and procedures for retarding further migration are discUssed. (author)

  4. Pyomyositis diagnosed by radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyomyositis is a primary bacterial infection of skeletal muscle which is usually associated with abscess formation. Although it is a common disease in tropical countries, it is rare in temperate zones, with only 15 cases reported in the United States. We recently evaluated a patient with primary muscle abscess, using technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) bone scanning, gallium-67 citrate (67Ga) scanning, and sonography. To our knowledge, the radionuclide and sonographic diagnosis of the disease has not been previously reported in this country

  5. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin resi...

  6. Radionuclide imaging in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight patients with herpes simplex encephalitis among the 10 cases diagnosed at the University of Kansas Medical Center from 1966 to 1976 were studied with /sup 99m/Tc early in their diagnostic work-up. The images were unilaterally positive in the temporal lobe area in all 8 patients. Radionuclide studies can suggest herpes simplex as the specific etiology in cases of encephalitis and can also indicate the best site for brain biopsy to confirm the diagnosis by fluorescent antibody techniques. Appropriate antiviral therapy should be instituted as soon as possible to alter the course of this destructive form of viral encephalitis

  7. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  8. Laboratory simulation of radionuclide geological migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative description of radionuclide migration in the geosphere demands that the physico-chemical characteristics of species released from the source term are considered. Laboratory experiments which allowed the identification of the migration mechanisms involved are described; the physical model adopted corresponds to porous media permeated with fresh and/or saline ground water. The waste form considered is the vitrified high level waste, and problems connected with the transport of colloidal as well as of soluble species are discussed following a theoretical and experimental approach. 4 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Radionuclides for process analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process analysis in industrial plants includes the overall determination of process and operating parameters, such as throughput, material composition, residence time, mixing behaviour, flow rates etc. in the individual steps of a process. General instructions for the performance of industrial tracer experiments are presented, and radionuclide investigations in briquetting and in the large-scale production of caprolactam are discussed. In both cases the results of the tracer experiments indicated the way towards greater operational efficiency and high economic benefits. They had a positive effect on both the output and the quality of the final products. (author)

  10. Migration of radionuclides in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains 13 papers presented at the plenary meeting on the coordinated project MIRAGE (Migration of Radionuclides in the Geosphere) which is in its third phase in the frame work of the 4th five year research program on management and disposal of radioactive waste (1990-1994). 12 papers in the INIS scope have been analyzed and describe the present status of various research activities, within the large integrated multinational subprojects such as: Colloids and organic materials in aquifer systems, processes of geochemical modelling (CHEMVAL project), migration experiments through different geological media, natural analogue studies

  11. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides

  12. Radionuclide methods of sorting materials on conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide methods suitable for sorting multi-component lump materials transported on conveyors are discussed. The methods considered use the different interaction of gamma- and X-radiations with materials of different atomic numbers. A comparison is made between a simple absorption method, a method using simultaneous absorption of photons of two different energies and a combination of the absorption and back-scattering methods. The fields of application of these methods serving to obtain output signals for the control of mechanical or pneumatic sorting devices are outlined. (author)

  13. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  14. Conference on radionuclide labelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South African Medical Research Council presented this conference on radionuclide labelled cellular blood elements with application in atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The conference was held in Bloemfontein from 3-6 February 1986. This work only consists of the abstracts of the seminars that were delivered on the conference. The radioisotopes that occur most of the time in the abstracts include Indium 111, Indium 114, Chromium 51, Iodine 125, Iodine 131 and Carbon 14. Especially Indium 111 seems to be the method of choice for all labelling

  15. Latest radionuclide-handbook for laboratory users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This radionuclide handbook is closing a gap between the metrology data banks and the daily work of laboratory users in the handling of radio isotopic data. Considering the actual ''Version 5.1.5 (July 2015) about 250 radio-isotopes are included and subdivided into separate chapters: natural, man-made, calibration and nuclear-medicine isotopes, actinides, low-background application, lists of isotope- and material properties as well as references and isotope index. Taking all the detailed information into consideration the handbook considerably facilitates the daily-life of laboratory users in the handling of radio isotopic data and therefore improves quality assurance.

  16. Possible applications of radionuclide techniques in criminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioindicator methods in dactyloscopy is described, in which is used the bond of suitable radioindicators to certain components of the sweat secretion with subsequent detection of the local distribution of these radionuclides using the autoradiographic method. The use of autoradiography and gamma spectrometry is given in ballistics, neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis in the investigation of motor car accidents and in the verification of historical objects, in forensic medicine, the use of autoradiography in the expertise of photographs, beta radiography in graphology and the use of radioactive labelling for trapping criminals. (J.P.)

  17. Radionuclide laboratories: guidelines for the arrangement of and working in radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety measures are presented in the field of radionuclide applications. Regulations are developed for the following subjects: 1. classification, construction and lay-out of laboratories; 2. working and safety regulations; 3. requirements with respect to the expertise of users. (G.J.P.)

  18. Application of radionuclides ratio method for identification of techno-genic soil contamination by natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmoshenko, I.; Ekidin, A. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation); Vasyanovich, M. [Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Approach to identification of environmental surface contamination by TENORM is suggested. The investigation consists of analysis of ratio between activities of radionuclides from different natural radioactive series (method of radionuclides ratio). Approach includes investigation of correlations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 40}K activity concentrations in the soil samples. Distortion of naturally formed radionuclide ratio is considered as an evidence of soil contamination and can be utilized for assessment of man-made contribution of radium, thorium and uranium. The soil contamination investigation using the approach based on radionuclide ratio analysis was performed at three sites: oil producing company, thorium storage facility and uranium processing facility. Activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K in soil samples were measured by gamma spectrometry in Marinelli geometry. The results of gamma-spectrometry analysis of these samples demonstrated: - excess of {sup 226}Ra in the soil samples taken at the oil-producing company site; - excess of {sup 232}Th in the soil samples taken near the monazite concentrate storage site; - excess of {sup 238}U in the soil samples taken around the uranium processing site. At oil-producing site technological processes of extraction and primary processing of oil lead to a shift of balance in the chains of natural radionuclides. Out of 49 samples gathered at oil producing company sites 8 were contaminated by {sup 226}Ra. Additional contamination doesn't exceed 92 Bq/kg. At monazite concentrate storage site {sup 232}Th soil contamination is associated with spillage of monazite with high content of the radionuclide. Contamination of soil by {sup 232}Th at the territory of monazite storage facility was determined for 6 samples out of 32 gathered. Uranium processing gives an additional contribution of {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U in natural soil samples. The data demonstrate

  19. Application of radionuclides ratio method for identification of techno-genic soil contamination by natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approach to identification of environmental surface contamination by TENORM is suggested. The investigation consists of analysis of ratio between activities of radionuclides from different natural radioactive series (method of radionuclides ratio). Approach includes investigation of correlations of 226Ra, 232Th, 238U and 40K activity concentrations in the soil samples. Distortion of naturally formed radionuclide ratio is considered as an evidence of soil contamination and can be utilized for assessment of man-made contribution of radium, thorium and uranium. The soil contamination investigation using the approach based on radionuclide ratio analysis was performed at three sites: oil producing company, thorium storage facility and uranium processing facility. Activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in soil samples were measured by gamma spectrometry in Marinelli geometry. The results of gamma-spectrometry analysis of these samples demonstrated: - excess of 226Ra in the soil samples taken at the oil-producing company site; - excess of 232Th in the soil samples taken near the monazite concentrate storage site; - excess of 238U in the soil samples taken around the uranium processing site. At oil-producing site technological processes of extraction and primary processing of oil lead to a shift of balance in the chains of natural radionuclides. Out of 49 samples gathered at oil producing company sites 8 were contaminated by 226Ra. Additional contamination doesn't exceed 92 Bq/kg. At monazite concentrate storage site 232Th soil contamination is associated with spillage of monazite with high content of the radionuclide. Contamination of soil by 232Th at the territory of monazite storage facility was determined for 6 samples out of 32 gathered. Uranium processing gives an additional contribution of 238U and 235U in natural soil samples. The data demonstrate excess of 238U and 235U concentrations in 6 samples. In found contaminated soil samples 238U additional

  20. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of [166Ho] holmium-dimethyl diethylenetriaminepentaaceticacid (DMDTPA) as potential radiopharmaceutical for endovascular radiation therapy (EVRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmium-166 with its favorable radiation characteristics could be used in endovascular radionuclide therapy (EVRT) technique in liquid filled low-pressure balloon angioplasty. 166Ho-dimethyl di ethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DMDTPA) was prepared and its biodistribution carried out to evaluate its suitability as an EVRT formulation. DMDTPA was synthesized, characterized and was complexed with 166Ho. The complex was stable at 37 deg. C in human serum environment and at room temperature for 48 h. Biodistribution studies in mice revealed rapid renal clearance (∼90% of the injected dose in 30 min p.i.) with insignificant retention in any of the major organs including bone. The studies show that 166Ho-DMDTPA is a good formulation which can be explored as an EVRT source

  2. Forest Fires and Resuspension of Radionuclides into the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P. Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Forest fires are especially frequent around the Mediterranean Sea basin in the summer period and might be able to release naturally-occurring and man-made radionuclides from plant biomass and inject them into the atmosphere. The impact of this radioactivity on populations was not investigated before. Approach: Radionuclide analysis was performed in plants, in smoke from plant burning and in cigarette smoke to determine radionuclide concentrations by alpha spectrometry. Results: Concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in trees such as olive trees, showed low concentrations in roots, trunk and leaves and minor translocation of radionuclides from the root to aerial parts. Soil to plant transfer ratios for 210Po and 210Pb in several plants were in the range from 10-4 to 10-2. Radionuclides from atmospheric depositions may be accumulated in plants by foliar uptake and for 210Pb this seems the main pathway, with plant aerial parts displaying 210Po/210Pb ratios around 0.1, which is similar to the radionuclide ratios determined in atmospheric depositions. Experimental burning of wood from several tree species showed enhanced radionuclide concentrations in smoke compared to plant materials. Investigation of 210Po release from tobacco leaves used in cigarettes, showed especially enhanced concentrations of this radionuclide in the cigarette smoke particles. Conclusion: Radionuclide concentrations in cigarette smoke expose the lung tissues of regular smokers to high concentrations of 210Po that were considered carcinogenic. Although radionuclide concentrations in other plants analyzed were generally lower than in tobacco, globally the radionuclide activity in the plant biomass is elevated. Inhaled smoke particles from forest fires are likely to contribute to enhanced radiation doses in the human lung.

  3. Practical dosimetry: Quantitative imaging in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General gamma camera-based methods for radionuclide quantitation in situ based on planar imaging and on SPECT imaging have been developed. Both methods have been validated and characterized by technetium-99m, indium-111, and iodine-131 imaging studies in a tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom. These quantitative imaging methods have now been incorporated into the standard formalism of Benua et al. for radioiodine treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer, enabling calculation of tumor as well as blood absorbed doses. Mean absorbed doses (in rad/mCi) to whole blood (a practical index of the absorbed dose to red marrow) and to tumor are equated with the sum of the self-irradiation absorbed dose from non-penetrating radiations (assuming complete local absorption) and the mean whole body absorbed dose from penetrating radiations. The therapeutic activity actually administered is the maximum administered activity which will not result in a projected blood dose greater than 200 rad. While the calculated absorbed dose to whole blood remains the decisive (ie dose-limiting) factor in planning radioiodine treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer, practical tumor radiation dosimetry will greatly enhance rational selection of patients and, with careful follow-up, advance our currently limited understanding of the radiobiology (eg dose-response relationships) of radionuclide therapy in general and radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer in particular

  4. Migration of radionuclides following shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of radionuclide migration was conducted at a facility used from 1944 to 1949 for the shallow land burial of radwaste produced during operations with two reactors and related nuclear research. It is situated in glacial drift 45 m thick. Underlying the drift is a generally level Silurian dolomite bedrock 60 m thick. The thickness of the drift decreases as the surface slopes downhill (north) until the dolomite reaches the surface and forms the bed of a river, 700 m to the north. This study was begun after tritiated water was detected in two picnic wells north of the facility, between the burial plot and the river. Surface and subsurface measurements indicate that tritium is migrating out of the burial site, but no other radionuclides have left the plot. The tritium concentrations decrease with distance from the plot. Tritium was found in the subsoil at all depths sampled, so the ground beneath and immediately around the plot contains tritium down to the dolomite aquifer. Time of travel of water from the burial plot to the nearest well is estimated to be 54 months. This would imply the peak concentration would reach the dolomite in about 35 years. By this time, 86% of the tritium would have disappeared by radioactive decay. The cyclical nature of the tritium content in the two wells implies that tritiated water is carried from the burial site by the spring rains when they recharge the groundwater supply

  5. FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Bruce; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    This special issue of Metrologia on radionuclide metrology is the first of a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurement, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The idea was first proposed at the 2003 series of CCRI Section meetings, with the general aim of showcasing the relevance and importance of metrology in ionizing radiation to a broader metrological audience. After the 2005 meeting of Section II (measurement of radionuclides), the radioactivity aspect of the project began to move forward in earnest. A working group was set up with the brief that the special issue should be of use by experienced metrologists as an overview of the 'state of the art' to compare progress and scientific content with those in other fields of metrology, as a resource for new metrologists joining the field and as a guide for users of radioactivity to explain how traceability to the international measurement system may be achieved. Since mankind first became aware of the existence of radioactivity just over a century ago (due to its discovery by Becquerel and further work by the Curies), much has been learnt and understood in the interim period. The field of radionuclide metrology that developed subsequently is broad-based and encompasses, amongst others, nuclear physics (experimental and theory), chemistry, mathematics, mathematical statistics, uncertainty analysis and advanced computing for data analysis, simulation and modelling. To determine the activity of radionuclides accurately requires elements of all of these subjects. In more recent decades the focus has been on the practical applications of radioactivity in industry and the health field in particular. In addition, low-level environmental radioactivity monitoring has taken on ever greater importance in the nuclear power era. These developments have required new detection instrumentation and techniques on an ongoing basis to ensure

  6. Radionuclide methods of diagnosing anthracycline - induced cardiotoxity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthracycline chemotherapeutic agents play an important role in tumor treatment owing to their high therapeutic efficiency but at the same time they cause lesions to healthy tissues and organs among which cardiotoxity is the most significant. Radionuclide diagnostic methods are widely used in diagnosing heart damage against the background of therapy with anthracyclines. Radionuclide ventriculography is implemented in practice as a routine procedure for serial evaluation of LVFI (left ventricular filling index) and regional myocardial kinetics monitoring. The obtained results are used for individual assessment of the cumulative dose of the anthracycline antineoplastic agent administered. However, the method has low prognostic value regarding the severity of myocardial impairment on account of its late positiveness. Researches along these lines are focused on radiopharmaceuticals accumulating in the myocardial cell and mirroring its perfusion, innervation and vitality, such as 111In-antimyosin, 123I-MIBG and 99mTc-MIBI. Investigations using the aforementioned radiopharmaceuticals disclose the mechanisms of myocardial cell damage under the effect of anthracyclines, becoming positive before clinical manifestation of cardiotoxicity. Their implementation in the routine practice lags behind because of insufficient studies on the issue

  7. Radionuclides and the normal bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Eisenhut and co-workers have described development of iodine-131 labeled diphosphonates for palliative treatment of bone metastases. The compound labeled was alpha-amino (4-hydroxybenzylidene) diphosphonate (BDP3). Other beta-emitting radionuclides have been used for treatment of intractable pain secondary to bone metastases. These include strontium-89, which has some difficulties, particularly in terms of disposal of the excretions due to the long physical half-life of the life of the radionuclide. Yttrium-90 has also been used but has a relatively high hepatic uptake. Phosphorus-32 labeled compounds have also been used. Although palliation has been described, bone marrow depression has also occurred. Rhenium-186 also has been suggested, however, high renal uptake is a problem. At present, the iodine-131 labeled BDP3 appears to be the best of the available therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. One of the major disadvantages in use of this compound is the production of gamma photons. While undesirable from a dosimetry viewpoint, gamma photons do, however, permit imaging if desired

  8. Estimation of Radionuclide Content in Contaminated Laundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrader, Bradley J

    2001-08-01

    Radioactively contaminated laundry is normally sent off site for processing. Laundry is defined as radiologically contaminated anti-cs and respirators. This laundry is shipped as "limited quantity," in accordance with 49CFR173.421. This requires that 95% of the radionuclides shipped are characterized and quantified. In addition, the total quantity must be 10(-3) below the A2 limits specified in 49CFR173. In any facility evaluated, the most conservative (highest activity) waste stream was used as the source term. If a new waste stream is established for a facility, its normalized activity should be compared to the evaluated waste stream to ensure the limits are not exceeded. This article documents a method used for estimating the radionuclide content in contaminated laundry. The maximum values were compared to 49CFR173. Itwas determined that if the contaminated laundry/respirators are shipped in an Interstate Nuclear Services (INS), L-59, limited quantity shipping container and the highest contact radiation level on any side, as measured with an ion chamber, does not exceed 0.5 mR h(-1), the container complies with the requirements of 49CFR173 and could be shipped "limited quantity" from any of the facilities evaluated.

  9. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, ii) modelling, iii) countermeasures, iv) runoff v) spatial variations, and vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr and 239-240Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  10. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A. [Centro Universitário da FEI, São Bernardo do Campo (Brazil); Medina, Nilberto H. [Instituto de Física da USP, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  11. Radionuclide studies in paediatric nephro-urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main tool of radionuclide techniques applied to paediatric uro-nephrology is the quantitation of function, which is an information not easily obtained by other diagnostic modalities. The radiation burden is low. Drug sedation is only rarely needed, whatever the age of the patient. Accurate determination of glomerular filtration rate can be obtained by means of an intravenous injection of Cr-51 EDTA and one or two blood samples. Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy is an accurate method for evaluation of regional cortical impairment during acute pyelonephritis and later on, for detection of permanent scarring. Tc-99m MAG3 renography is nowadays a well-standardized method for accurate estimation of the split renal function and of renal drainage with or without furosemide challenge. This technique is particularly indicated in uni- or bilateral uropathies with or without renal and/or ureteral dilatation. Direct and indirect radionuclide cystography are two alternative modalities for X-ray MCUG. Their relative place in the strategy of management of vesicoureteral reflux is discussed

  12. Radionuclide imaging of the lower genitourinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major use of radionuclide cystography is in the management of children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Reflux is common, occurring in one-third to one-half of children with urinary tract infection. The significance of VUR lies in its associated symptoms and consequences, which include impaired renal growth and function, vague ill health, renal pain, and more importantly the development of reflux nephropathy, a significant cause of end-stage renal disease and hypertension in children. Although reflux may resolve spontaneously, particularly milder degrees of reflux, the age at which this may occur is unpredictable and repeated follow-up cystography over a number of years may be necessary. Therefore, it is important to minimize radiation to the child while providing accurate diagnostic information. This paper discusses how the technique of radionuclide cystography compares favorably with routine contrast voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) in these respects, and in addition can provide quantitative information not obtained by radiographic techniques. Other indications may include screening siblings of patients known to have reflux, follow-up of antireflux surgery and occasionally screening for reflux in children who have had urinary tract infection

  13. Environmentally important radionuclides in nonproliferative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T may become increasingly important because recent data from fast reactors (of the nonproliferative type) have confirmed production rates up to 12 times greater than previous estimates. Present radwaste systems do not selectively remove T. Recent projections indicate that releases of 14C by the global nuclear industry could exceed the natural production rate of 2.7 x 104 Ci/year by the year 1998 and could eventually stabilize at two times that rate. Recent experiments on the uptake of 99Tc reveal that soil-to-plant concentration factors for Tc appear to be two to three orders of magnitude greater than the value of 0.25 which is currently used in radiological assessments. Research is needed to determine reliable 99Tc soil-plant concentration factors because this radionuclide is released to the environment from fuel reprocessing and enrichment facilities. New calculations for certain reactors indicate that 232U may be formed in concentrations up to 4000 ppm. If these estimates are accurate, careful analysis should be made of possible releases of 232U which could result in external dose and food chain exposures. The environmental health aspects of these four radionuclides are discussed, as well as the potential for their release to the environment from nonproliferative fuel cycles. (orig./HP)

  14. Dynamics of radionuclides in forest environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the CIS countries, during the Chernobyl accident, more than 30000 km2 of forested areas received a 137Cs deposition higher than 37 kBq m-2 and about 1000 km2 a deposition of radiocesium higher than 1.5 MBq m-2. Before the accident only few data were available on the behaviour of radionuclides in forests and during last eight years, the understanding of the fate of radionuclides in these ecosystems has been improved significantly. This paper reports the results achieved in the frame of 1991-1996 EU/CIS collaborative project on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ECP-5 project deals with the impact of radioactive contamination on natural and semi-natural environment. The investigations were carried out in different forest ecosystems, located in the near field (within the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant) as well as in the far field in the CIS and in the western Europe countries. The results achieved have been used to develop a simplified model representation of the behaviour of radiocesium within forest ecosystems

  15. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  16. Membrane technology for separation of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The membrane technology is a proven tool for desalination and water and effluent water treatment. It is now finding applications in separation and concentration of ionic/non-ionic constituents from various process streams in chemical industry. There are a number of membrane processes offering wide range of selectivity for different species ranging from trace to very high concentrations. The membrane processes are suggested to compliment and supplement the conventional separation processes such as sorption, ion exchange, solvent extraction and evaporation processes in treatment of radioactive liquids containing different radionuclides. The membrane processes are simple, consume low energy and are operable at ambient temperature. They involve a single step separation unlike the equilibrium based separation processes. The polymeric membranes used at present, however, do not possess sufficient resistance towards radiation and chemical effects encountered in processing of highly radioactive liquid streams. The ionic and inorganic membranes being developed can stand to extreme environments. This paper outlines an account of the possible use of various membrane processes in separation of radionuclides. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Transport of radionuclides in the groundwater environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various factors influencing the transport of radionuclides by groundwater were studied. Sorption of 137Cs, 60Co, 241Am and (152,154)Eu by soil samples of the Inshas area was carried out. Mineralogical analyses of the soil samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram soil, (X/m), increased as the carrier concentration (C) increased from 10-9 to 10-1 mol) following a Freundlich type isotherm. The distribution coefficient, Kd, of the radionuclides was found to be affected by pH. The presence of K+, Ca2+ and Fe3+ as competing ions decreases the sorption capacity of the radioisotopes studied. The presence of complexing agents has a significant effect on the mobility of these radioisotopes. On the basis of the results obtained an attempt is being made to calculate the different transport rates of the relevant isotopes in the investigated media. A mathematical model for the dispersion of the investigated radioisotopes in the groundwater environment was also elucidated. It is concluded that the choice of the Inshas area, as a repository site, for disposal of low level radioactive waste is to be recommended. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Radionuclide voiding cystography in intrarenal reflux detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the possibility of detecting intra-renal reflux (IRR) with a more sensitive procedure, 48 children with recurrent urinary tract infections underwent intravenous urography (IVU) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCU) using a solution containing contrast medium and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid particles which are known to persist in the renal parenchyma for a long time. Scintigraphic images were taken at 5 and 20 hours after VCU. 18 children had no vesico-ureteral reflux, 11 showed unilateral and 19 bilateral VUR, which was therefore present in 49 renal units. Among the 49 renal refluxing units (RRUs) IRR was detected radiologically in 8; of these isotopic activity in the renal area was present in all 6 RRUs who were examined at 20 hours. Of the remaining 41 RRUs with no radiologically detectable IRR 24 were evaluated at 20 hours and 5 (21%) showed renal radioactivity. Renal scars were significantly more frequent in kidneys with radioisotopic activity at 20 hours. The results of this study indicate that radionuclide cystography using sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid is a reliable procedure for demonstrating IRR, and to this end is more sensitive than X-ray VCU. Radionuclide cystography with sulfur colloid particles should therefore be considered a simple and useful complementary procedure, which is more sensitive than X-ray VCU in the diagnosis and follow-up of IRR

  19. Radionuclide studies in paediatric nephro-urology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy E-mail: amypiepsz@yahoo.com

    2002-08-01

    The main tool of radionuclide techniques applied to paediatric uro-nephrology is the quantitation of function, which is an information not easily obtained by other diagnostic modalities. The radiation burden is low. Drug sedation is only rarely needed, whatever the age of the patient. Accurate determination of glomerular filtration rate can be obtained by means of an intravenous injection of Cr-51 EDTA and one or two blood samples. Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy is an accurate method for evaluation of regional cortical impairment during acute pyelonephritis and later on, for detection of permanent scarring. Tc-99m MAG3 renography is nowadays a well-standardized method for accurate estimation of the split renal function and of renal drainage with or without furosemide challenge. This technique is particularly indicated in uni- or bilateral uropathies with or without renal and/or ureteral dilatation. Direct and indirect radionuclide cystography are two alternative modalities for X-ray MCUG. Their relative place in the strategy of management of vesicoureteral reflux is discussed.

  20. Radionuclide release from research reactor spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous investigations with respect to LWR fuel under non oxidizing repository relevant conditions were performed. The results obtained indicate slow corrosion rates for the UO2 fuel matrix. Special fuel-types (mostly dispersed fuels, high enriched in 235U, cladded with aluminium) are used in German research reactors, whereas in German nuclear power plants, UO2-fuel (LWR fuel, enrichment in 235U up to 5%, zircaloy as cladding) is used. Irradiated research reactor fuels contribute less than 1% to the total waste volume. In Germany, the state is responsible for fuel operation and for fuel back-end options. The institute for energy research (IEF-6) at the Research Center Juelich performs investigation with irradiated research reactor spent fuels under repository relevant conditions. In the study, the corrosion of research reactor spent fuel has been investigated in MgCl2-rich salt brine and the radionuclide release fractions have been determined. Leaching experiments in brine with two different research reactor fuel-types were performed in a hot cell facility in order to determine the corrosion behaviour and the radionuclide release fractions. The corrosion of two dispersed research reactor fuel-types (UAlx-Al and U3Si2-Al) was studied in 400 mL MgCl2-rich salt brine in the presence of Fe2+ under static and initially anoxic conditions. Within these experimental parameters, both fuel types corroded in the experimental time period of 3.5 years completely, and secondary alteration phases were formed. After complete corrosion of the used research reactor fuel samples, the inventories of Cs and Sr were quantitatively detected in solution. Solution concentrations of Am and Eu were lower than the solubility of Am(OH)3(s) and Eu(OH)3(s) solid phases respectively, and may be controlled by sorption processes. Pu concentrations may be controlled by Pu(IV) polymer species, but the presence of Pu(V) and Pu(IV) oxyhydroxides species due to radiolytic effects cannot completely be

  1. Quality assurance in the analysis of natural radionuclides - measures and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothe, M. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    In the Laboratory for Environmental and Radionuclide Analytics we analyze several natural and also some artificial radionuclides in different materials. For the determination of radionuclides we use various analytical methods. (orig./DG)

  2. Radionuclide power source for artificial heart autonomic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Works on creating autonomous artificial heart devices with radionuclide heat source are described. Calculated and experimental parameters of 238Pu base radionuclide thermoelectric RITEG generators designed for supplying perspective blood pump electric drives are presented. RITEG structure is described and the prospects of increasing its efficiency are shown

  3. Modelling of radionuclide transfer processes in soils and ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relations between convective and diffusion mechanisms of transfer are considered. The properties of soils and radionuclide adsorption isotherms are discussed. The problem of a vertical radionuclide migration in soils is solved as well as hydrodynamic problem. The problem of contamination transfer from storage facilities is formulated. Methods of its solution are discussed. 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tabs

  4. Removal of radionuclides by analcime-bearing rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the removal of radionuclides (uranium, radium and thorium) in static conditions from aqueous solutions by analcime-bearing rocks and pure analcime was carried out. The high removal efficiency of all studied radionuclides by analcime-bearing rocks was determined. Analcime was efficient in removing of thorium only

  5. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  6. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern...

  7. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  8. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  9. Four observations of surgical treatment of wounds contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four cases of surgical treatment of wounds contaminated by radionuclides are presented and discussed. Conclusions are drawn and organization of facilities where radionuclides are manipulated is proposed. Measurements of beta and especially alpha activities in a wound are not sufficient, but must be followed by gamma- or X-radiation measurements to detect deep contamination. (B.G.)

  10. Behaviour of radionuclides in meadows including countermeasures application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main regularities of the behaviour of ChNPP release radionuclides in components of meadow ecosystems are considered. Developed mathematical model of radionuclide migration in components of meadow ecosystems is discussed. Radioecological classification of meadow ecosystems is proposed. Effectiveness of countermeasures application in meadow ecosystems is estimated

  11. Nevada test site radionuclide inventory and distribution: project operations plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the operational plan for conducting the Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The basic objective of this program is to inventory the significant radionuclides of NTS origin in NTS surface soil. The expected duration of the program is five years. This plan includes the program objectives, methods, organization, and schedules

  12. Study of lateral Cs 137 radionuclide migration directivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific idea of investigation is determination of dependence between parameters of lateral radionuclide migration and landscape-geochemical features of territory and also the estimation of lateral radionuclide transfer influence on change of exposure dose of gamma rate on eluvial and accumulative zone of river catchment. (authors)

  13. Radionuclide migration in groundwater. Annual progress report for 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Research has continued at a low-level waste disposal facility to characterize the physicochemical species of radionuclides migrating in groundwater. This facility consists of an unlined basin and connecting trench which receives effluent water containing low levels of a wide variety of fission and activation products and trace amounts of transuranic radionuclides. The effluent water percolates through the soil and a small fraction of it emerges at seepage springs located some 260 meters from the trench. The disposal basin and trench are very efficient in retaining most of the radionuclides, but trace amounts of a number of radionuclides existing in mobile chemical forms migrate in the groundwater from the trench to the springs. This facility provides the opportunity for characterizing the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration in groundwaters, identifying retardation processes, and validating geochemical models. 13 references, 25 figures, 23 tables.

  14. Anthropogenic substances and products containing natural radionuclides. Radiation exposure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anthropogenic component of radiation exposure stems from man's activities. It can be induced both by artificial and natural radionuclides. Radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides can be attributed to anthropogenic materials and products: raw materials, wastes, consumer goods, aricles of daily use. The potential radiation exposure induced by artificial radionuclides is subject to monitoring and rigid regulatory provisions at international level. Recently, exposure from natural radionuclides has become an aspect attracting increasing attention, one major reason being the disturbance detected in the ''normal'' natural background radiation, which is a result of man's activities (modified natural radiation exposure). The lecture briefly reviews the existing laws and regulations and a list of the raw materials, wastes, consumer goods and articles of daily use which contain natural radionuclides. The concluding part discusses results of radiation exposure assessments for a variety of relevant situations and cases. (orig./DG)

  15. Measurement of 7Be in CTBT radionuclide stations verification samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System (IMS) radionuclide network, including 80 stations, was designed to monitor nuclear test all over the word. The stations should be certified by CTBT to comply with the technical requirements. Among the certification tests carried out at each station, parallel sampling with portable particle sampler is performed. The verification samples from the portable air sampler will be analyzed at radionuclide laboratories to calibrate the equipment of stations. According to technical requirement of radionuclide station certification, this article deduced the formula of 7Be radioactivity concentration. The preparation and analysis procedure of verification samples were established. As part of certification of radionuclide stations RN42 and RN56, the verification samples from these two stations were measured by HPGe γ spectrometer in Beijing Radionuclide Laboratory. (authors)

  16. Transfer parameters of radionuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the accuracy of estimation of exposure dose by radionuclides in the marine, the informations of environmental parameter data in the marine were collected, arranged and discussed. The informations were discussed by 'a sectional committee of marine suspended solids and sediment'. The following problems were investigated and the studies were recorded in this report, clear explanation about the distribution factor (kd), the estimation method of kd, the fluctuating factor of kd data (properties of suspension and sediment, differences among the experimental methods), the physical and chemical behavior of radionuclides, sediment of radionuclides by means of sorption to the suspended particles in the marine, sorption of radionuclides into the marine soil (sediment), re-eluent of radionuclides sorpted in the marine soil (sediment), and relation between marine organism and marine suspended materials and sediment. (S.Y.)

  17. Radionuclides and the birds at Ravenglass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, V P

    1991-01-01

    Since 1983, concern has been expressed about the apparent decline in numbers of birds in the Ravenglass estuary in west Cumbria, particularly of the black-headed gull colony on the Drigg dunes, and suggestions have been made that this decline might be due to excessive radiation in the birds' food and their general environment. Twelve species of marine invertebrates from Ravenglass, most of them known to be important foods for birds, were analysed, and further samples were taken from sites along the west Cumbrian coast. None of these samples showed excessive contamination with any of the radionuclides analysed. Analysis of a sample of bird carcasses from the areas showed oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) and shelduck (Tadorna tadorna) to have some of the highest concentrations of (137)Cs in their tissues; yet their breeding success and populations were not affected. Black-headed gulls, on the other hand, were found to be feeding mainly inland, and were the least contaminated with radionuclides of all the birds at Ravenglass, yet this species and its breeding success were in decline. Calculations of the total dose equivalent rate to the whole body of the most contaminated black-headed gull amounted to 9.8 x 10(-4) mSvh(-1) (approximately equal to 8.4 x 10(-4) mGy h(-1), whole body absorbed dose rate), and the background exposure dose was of the order of 8.3 x 10(-4) mGy h(-1). As a minimum chronic dose of 1000 mGy day(-1) has been found necessary to retard growth of nestling birds, and 9600 mGy over 20 days of incubation to cause the death of 50% of embryos in black-headed gulls' eggs, the concentrations of radionuclides in the foods, body tissues and general environment were at least three orders of magnitude too low to have had any effect. The more likely cause of the desertion of the gullery was the combination of an uncontrolled fox population, the severest outbreak of myxomatosis amongst the rabbits since 1954 and the driest May-July period on record, all

  18. Radionuclide Activity Concentrations in Spas of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters often have a very high mineral content because solubility increases with temperature. Ground waters are in close contact with soil and rocks containing radium. Once formed by decay from radium, radon gas (Rn-222) may diffuse through rocks pores and geological discontinuities and may dissolve in these waters. Radon and other natural radionuclides are transported to the surface where radon can easily diffuse into the atmosphere. Then it may be possible to find out significant radon levels at places like geothermal spas. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public. Three passive methods were used to measure radon in air. One of them is an screening method based on the radon adsorption on activated charcoal. The other two methods are time integrated ones, CR-39 or Makrofol tracks detectors, which can be exposed between two and three months. To characterize waters other natural radionuclides have been also measured. Uranium concentration was measured by fluorimetry. Ra-226 and Pb-210 measurements were performed by radiochemical methods and liquid scintillation. The results obtained were compared with the guidelines values recommended by WHO and EPA for drinking waters and, in the case of radon in air, the results were compared with values established by BSS-115. In order to assess worker doses, the higher value measured for radon in air and real scenario data were taken into account. Moreover, in situ dose rate measurements were also performed and then compared with natural background values. In relation with water characterization, almost all values obtained for the geothermal waters analyzed were below the corresponding guidance levels. Taking into account the highest value measured of radon

  19. The IMS radionuclide network of the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty calls for the establishment of a world-wide network of monitoring stations (IMS, International Monitoring System). In total 321 monitoring stations will be installed: 50 primary seismic, 120 auxiliary seismic, 11 hydroacoustic, 60 infrasound and 80 radionuclide. The 80 radionuclide stations collect particulate from the air and measure its radioactivity. Among these radionuclide stations, 40 of them will also have the capability of measuring the concentration in the air of the noble gas Xenon. The particulate stations will have a cycle of 1 day collection, 1 day decay time and 1 day acquisition time whereas the noble gas stations will have 1 day of collection and 1 day of acquisition time. Equipment for particulate station consists of a high volume air sampler (flow rate ≥ 500 m-3 h-1 at standard pressure and temperature) and a HPGe detector system with a relative efficiency of at least 40 %. Stations can be manually or automatically operated depending on the choice of the host country. The technical specification of the equipment to be used, the distribution and the number of stations around the world were chosen in such a way to be able to detect nuclear explosions according to the following criterion: 90 % detection probability within approximately 14 days for a 1 kt nuclear explosion in the atmosphere or from venting by an underground or underwater detonation. All data collected are converted in a standard format and sent directly to Vienna where they are analysed. Most of the stations will send data through a very reliable satellite link. In fact it is required that particulate stations will send spectral data within 72 hours of collection start, within 48 hours for noble gas stations. In addition every station should reach 95 % of data availability; in particular it is required that the maximum consecutive down time is 7 days and a maximum of 15 days annually. In case of suspicious events detected by the stations

  20. Radionuclide solubility control by solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The migration of radionuclides in the geosphere is to a large extend controlled by sorption processes onto minerals and colloids. On a molecular level, sorption phenomena involve surface complexation, ion exchange as well as solid solution formation. The formation of solid solutions leads to the structural incorporation of radionuclides in a host structure. Such solid solutions are ubiquitous in natural systems - most minerals in nature are atomistic mixtures of elements rather than pure compounds because their formation leads to a thermodynamically more stable situation compared to the formation of pure compounds. However, due to a lack of reliable data for the expected scenario at close-to equilibrium conditions, solid solution systems have so far not been considered in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories. In recent years, various solid-solution aqueous solution systems have been studied. Here we present state-of-the art results regarding the formation of (Ra,Ba)SO4 solid solutions. In some scenarios describing a waste repository system for spent nuclear fuel in crystalline rocks 226Ra dominates the radiological impact to the environment associated with the potential release of radionuclides from the repository in the future. The solubility of Ra in equilibrium with (Ra,Ba)SO4 is much lower than the one calculated with RaSO4 as solubility limiting phase. Especially, the available literature data for the interaction parameter WBaRa, which describes the non-ideality of the solid solution, vary by about one order of magnitude (Zhu, 2004; Curti et al., 2010). The final 226Ra concentration in this system is extremely sensitive to the amount of barite, the difference in the solubility products of the end-member phases, and the degree of non-ideality of the solid solution phase. Here, we have enhanced the fundamental understanding regarding (1) the thermodynamics of (Ra,Ba)SO4 solid solutions and (2) the kinetics of Ra uptake. A novel approach

  1. Radionuclide solubility control by solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, F.; Klinkenberg, M.; Rozov, K.; Bosbach, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6); Vinograd, V. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences

    2015-07-01

    The migration of radionuclides in the geosphere is to a large extend controlled by sorption processes onto minerals and colloids. On a molecular level, sorption phenomena involve surface complexation, ion exchange as well as solid solution formation. The formation of solid solutions leads to the structural incorporation of radionuclides in a host structure. Such solid solutions are ubiquitous in natural systems - most minerals in nature are atomistic mixtures of elements rather than pure compounds because their formation leads to a thermodynamically more stable situation compared to the formation of pure compounds. However, due to a lack of reliable data for the expected scenario at close-to equilibrium conditions, solid solution systems have so far not been considered in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories. In recent years, various solid-solution aqueous solution systems have been studied. Here we present state-of-the art results regarding the formation of (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} solid solutions. In some scenarios describing a waste repository system for spent nuclear fuel in crystalline rocks {sup 226}Ra dominates the radiological impact to the environment associated with the potential release of radionuclides from the repository in the future. The solubility of Ra in equilibrium with (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} is much lower than the one calculated with RaSO{sub 4} as solubility limiting phase. Especially, the available literature data for the interaction parameter W{sub BaRa}, which describes the non-ideality of the solid solution, vary by about one order of magnitude (Zhu, 2004; Curti et al., 2010). The final {sup 226}Ra concentration in this system is extremely sensitive to the amount of barite, the difference in the solubility products of the end-member phases, and the degree of non-ideality of the solid solution phase. Here, we have enhanced the fundamental understanding regarding (1) the thermodynamics of (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} solid solutions and (2) the

  2. The relevance of speciation to the environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radionuclides exist in different chemical forms in the environment ranging from low molecular mass species such as ions, molecules and complexes to high molecular mass species such as colloids, particles and fragments. Furthermore, the physical characteristics of released radionuclides can vary considerably in morphology and structure, size, shape, density, valence and charge. For instance, a proportion of the radionuclides released from a nuclear weapons tests, routine discharges and reactor accidents are present as radioactive particles of varying size. Initially, radionuclide speciation is dependent on the source and release conditions. Once deposited, they can be transformed with time through interaction with various ecosystem components. Many studies have shown that differences in chemical and physical form can lead to varying environmental mobility and hence affect radiation doses. Low molecular mass species are reported to be more bioavailable and environmentally mobile than colloids and particles. Thus, to reliably predict the environmental impact of radioactive contamination of different ecosystems, we need to link information on radionuclide composition and speciation to an understanding of the influence this might have on environmental mobility. To do this, various techniques have been developed to estimate bioavailability of radionuclides in soils and sediments, which often act as the major sink for radionuclides, and in plants. Here, I summarize current knowledge linking radionuclide speciation to bioavailability and then consider whether such information has been adequately integrated into currently available predictive models of radionuclide behaviour in the environment. The transfer of radioactivity to the milk and meat of farm animals is likely be a major exposure pathway of human populations, following an environmental release of radioactivity. As a more detailed example, the importance of source dependent bioavailability in determining

  3. Prospects for the methods of radionuclide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of radionuclide production for the nuclear-medicine purposes are described. In a budget approach, the application of low-energy accelerators is especially advantageous. Intense flux of bremsstrahlung at electron accelerators or high-current cyclotron beams of alpha particles must supply a great yield for many isotopes. The choice of a target material and of the projectile energy provides enough variation for concrete species formation. The innovating procedures are here proposed for optimizing of methods, for instance, application of the noble-gas target for production and transport of activities. The known and new variants of the 'generator' scheme are discussed. Many isotopes are listed as promising in the context of the therapeutic and theragnostic applications. Among them are isotopes/isomers emitting soft radiation for the selective and careful body treatment, also the positron emitters for PET, and the halogen and alkali-metal species convenient for chemical separation.

  4. Biosorption of radionuclides by fungal biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four kinds of bioreactor were evaluated for thorium removal by fungal biomass. An air-lift bioreactor removed approximately 90-95% of the thorium supplied over extended time periods and exhibited a well-defined breakthrough point after biosorbent saturation. The air-lift bioreactor promoted efficient circulation and effective contact between the thorium solution and the mycelial pellets. Of several fungal species tested, Rhizopus arrhizus and Aspergillus niger were the most effective biosorbents. The efficiency of thorium biosorption by A. niger was markedly reduced in the presence of other inorganic solutes while thorium biosorption by R. arrhizus was relatively unaffected. Air-lift bioreactors containing R. arrhizus biomass could effectively remove thorium from acidic solution over a wide range of initial thorium concentrations. The biotechnological application and significance of these results are discussed in the wider context of fungal biosorption of radionuclides. (author)

  5. Liquid scintillation counting of novel radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical background of counting radionuclides in liquid scintillators is presented. The effects of quenching and finite scintillator size are briefly described and the theory is justified by an experimental comparison between 55Fe and 3H in which all facets of the theory are important. Counting efficiencies for other nuclides decaying by 100% electron capture are calculated and compared with efficiencies for the β emitters 3H, 14C and 36Cl. Also included are comments on the special problems associated with counting plutonium in biological materials. The essential conclusion is that in order to improve the technique and avoid unnecessary pitfalls it is necessary to have a sound understanding of the underlying theory of liquid scintillation counting

  6. Radionuclide imaging and treatment of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu Juan; Li, XianFeng; Ren, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, the diagnostic methods and therapeutic tools for thyroid cancer (TC) have been greatly improved. In addition to the classical method of ingestion of radioactive iodine-131 (I131) and subsequent I123 and I124 positron emission tomography (PET) in therapy and examination, I124 PET-based 3-dimensional imaging, Ga68-labeled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI(3)-octreotide (DOTANOC) PET/computed tomography (CT), Tc99m tetrofosmin, pre-targeted radioimmunotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy have all been used clinically. These novel methods are useful in diagnosis and therapy of TC, but also have unavoidable adverse effects. In this review, we will discuss the development of nuclear medicine in TC examination and treatment. PMID:27100499

  7. Environmentally important radionuclides in nonproliferative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our analyses indicate that more in-depth research should be done on 3H, 14C, 99Tc, and 232U, especially because of their presence in nonproliferative fuel cycles. For increased 3H production by fast reactors, we can only speculate that such research could show that environmental releases might be significantly greater than for LWRs. Carbon-14 will likely not be a problem if a suitable decontamination factor can be agreed upon for reprocessing facilities and if a satisfactory regulatory limit can be established for global populations. Additional experimental research is urgently needed to determine the uptake of low levels of 99Tc by plants. These data are essential before an accurate assessment of 99Tc releases can be made. Finally, we recommend that investigators take a closer look at the potential problems associated with 232U and daughters. This radionuclide could contribute a significant portion of the dose in both environmental and occupational exposures from the nonproliferative fuels

  8. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated

  9. Radionuclide molecular target therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer harms people's health or even lives severely. Currently, the morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are ascending all over the world. Accounting for 38.08% of malignant tumor caused death in male and 16% in female in cities,ranking top in both sex. Especially, the therapy of non-small cell lung cancer has not been obviously improved for many years. Recently, sodium/iodide transporter gene transfection and the therapy of molecular target drugs mediated radionuclide are being taken into account and become the new research directions in treatment of advanced lung cancer patients with the development of technology and theory for medical molecular biology and the new knowledge of lung cancer's pathogenesis. (authors)

  10. Natural radionuclides in bottled water in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration levels of 226Ra, 222Rn and 210Pb were analyzed in domestic bottled waters commercially available in Austria. Concentrations up to 0.23 Bq/l, with a geometric mean of 0.041 Bq/l were found for 226Ra. Concentrations for 222Rn ranged from 226Ra range from 0.001 to 0.22 mSv/y and of 210Pb from 0.0003 to 0.05 mSv/y. Ingestion doses from 222Rn are low compared to those from 226Ra and 210Pb, ranging from 0.0001 to 0.011 mSv/y for adults and children, respectively. The doses are compared to the total ingestion dose from dietary intake of natural radionuclides on an annual basis

  11. Cadastral valuation of land contaminated with radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikov, A. N.; Sapozhnikov, P. M.; Sanzharova, N. I.; Sviridenko, D. G.; Zhigareva, T. L.; Popova, G. I.; Panov, A. V.; Kozlova, I. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The methodology and procedure for cadastral valuation of land in the areas contaminated with radionuclides are presented. The efficiency of rehabilitation measures applied to decrease crop contamination to the levels satisfying sanitary-hygienic norms is discussed. The differentiation of cadastral value of radioactively contaminated agricultural lands for the particular farms and land plots is suggested. An example of cadastral valuation of agricultural land contaminated during the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident is given. It is shown that the use of sandy and loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 37-185 and >185 kBq/m2 for crop growing is unfeasible. The growing of grain crops and potatoes on clay loamy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 555-740 kBq/m2 is unprofitable. The maximum cadastral value of radioactively contaminated lands is typical of leached chernozems.

  12. Radionuclide fractionation in a forest soil profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two alternative approaches, a sequential extraction scheme and the calculation of the variation of the distribution coefficient of radiocaesium in different K-CaNH4 scenarios, were used to study the behaviour and fractionation of this radionuclide in a forest soil profile. The first approach was applied to samples originating from an experiment in which the original L(litter) layer was replaced by an L layer contaminated with a radioactive aerosol, allowing a downward migration of radiocaesium. The samples belonged to different stages after the contamination. The second approach was applied to samples contaminated with soluble radiocaesium. The results indicate that the mineral matter seems to govern the behaviour of radiocaesium in case of direct condensed deposition or when radiocaesium is released from structural components of the organic matter phase. (author). 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Radionuclide dispersion and related radiological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1945 some 130 accidents with radioactive sources have been reported. In the early phase of such an accident it is important to detect, identify and locate the radionuclide dispersion and to assess the related radiological risk.Transport models and mobile systems for surveillance of the environment would be used for this purpose. Accidents with dangerous radioactive sources can lead to serious health effects for individuals of the population. In many cases of a widespread dispersion (with a length scale of a few kilometres around the point of release) of the activity of such sources, the risk to the population would be small. The release of radioactive material in an urban environment could cause great concern in the population. (author)

  14. SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide activities within the human body is affected by several physical and instrumental factors including attenuation of photons within the patient, Compton scattered events, the system's finite spatial resolution and object size, finite number of detected events, partial volume effects, the radiopharmaceutical biokinetics, and patient and/or organ motion. Furthermore, other instrumentation factors such as calibration of the center-of-rotation, sampling, and detector nonuniformities will affect the SPECT measurement process. These factors are described, together with examples of compensation methods that are currently available for improving SPECT quantification. SPECT offers the potential to improve in vivo estimates of absorbed dose, provided the acquisition, reconstruction, and compensation procedures are adequately implemented and utilized. 53 references, 2 figures

  15. Radionuclide technique in mechanical engineering in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A subject of increasing application of cyclotron machines is the 'Radionuclide Technique in Mechanical Engineering' (RTM), a measuring system that enables wear and corrosion diagnostics of components of operating machines, apparatus or processing plants. The three components of the RTM-system, the thin layer-activation at the cyclotron, the measuring methods and the measuring instruments for application in industry, have been developed systematically at KfK over more than 15 years and are being used increasigly by industry in Germany, Japan and the United States. The present development of RTM to modern problems in engineering and material research as well as the successful application in new industrial areas will be reported. (author) 9 refs.; 10 figs

  16. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  17. Numerical solution of the radionuclide transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical solution of the one-dimensional geospheric radionuclide chain transport equation based on the pseudospectral method is developed. The advantages of this approach are flexibility in incorporating space and time dependent migration parameters, arbitrary boundary conditions and solute rock interactions as well as efficiency and reliability. As an application the authors investigate the impact of non-linear sorption isotherms on migration in crystalline rock. It is shown that non-linear sorption, in the present case a Freundlich isotherm, may reduce concentration at the geosphere outlet by orders of magnitude provided the migration time is comparable or larger than the half-life of the nuclide in question. The importance of fixing dispersivity within the continuum approach is stressed. (Auth.)

  18. Database for radionuclide transport in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosphere model is the final link in the chain of radionuclide transport models, used for radiation dose calculations from high level waste repositories. This report presents the data needed for biosphere calculations and discusses them where necessary. The first part is dedicated to the nuclide specific parameters like distribution coefficients (water - soil), concentration ratios (soil - plant) and distribution factors (for milk, meat etc.) which are reported in the literature. The second part contains the choice of regions, their division into compartments and the discussion of nutritional habits for man and animals. At the end a theoretical population for each region is estimated based on the consumption rates and on the yield of agricultural products, assuming an autonomous nutrition. (Auth.)

  19. Natural radionuclides in ground water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nationwide survey of the natural radioactivity in drinking water was conducted in Finland throughout the 1970s and has continued in the 1980s with the emphasis on drinking water originating from drilled wells, which may be rich in natural radionuclides (mean 222Rn 1020 Bq.l-1, maximum 77,000 Bq.l-1). Between 1981 and 1987, 3000 ground water samples were analysed for 222Rn, some of them for gross alpha and beta, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po and U. In recent years the occurrence of 210Pb and 210Po in ground water has been studied. Preliminary results suggest that the contribution of 210Pb and 210Po to the total annual effective dose equivalent is higher than the contribution of 226Ra or U in that water. (author)

  20. Computer-based radionuclide analyzer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide analysis in nuclear power plants, practiced for the purpose of monitoring the quality of the primary loop water, the confirmation of the performance of reactor cleanup system and monitoring the radioactive waste effluent, is an important job. Important as it is, it requires considerable labor of experts, because the samples to be analyzed are multifarious and very large in number, and in addition, this job depends much on manual work. With a view of saving the labor, simplifying and standardizing the work, reducing radiation exposure, and automatizing the work of analysis, the computerized analyzer system has been worked out. The results of its performance test at the operating power plant have proved that the development has fairly accomplished the objects and that the system is well useful. The developmental work was carried out by the cooperation between The Tokyo Electric Power Co. and Toshiba in about 4 years from 1974 to this year. (auth.)

  1. Radionuclide localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors prospectively evaluated the usefulness of abdominal radionuclide scintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells as a means of monitoring for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding over a 24-hour period in both control and actively bleeding populations. Of 32 patients with documented hemorrhage, 29 had positive scintiscans (sensitivity, 91%; 9% false negatives). Of 18 nonbleeding patients, 17 had negative scintiscans (specificity, 95%; 5% false positives). 12 of 29 patients bled from 6 to 24 hours after the study was begun. Scintiscans were positive in patient with transfusion requirements of greater than or equal to 500 ml/24 hr. The authors conclude that abdominal scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells is an effective method of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding

  2. Radionuclide renal dynamic and function study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide dynamic and function study, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were reported in 14 cases of renal and ureteral calculi patients before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). In 12 cases with normal renal blood flow, within 3 months after ESWL, the GFR of shock and non-shock side decreased with different extent, while the individual ERPF had little change. In 5 cases followed up 1 year after ESWL, the individual GFR and ERPF were normal. In 2 cases of severe renal function insufficiency, there was no improvement in renal function in shock side, after 5 months and 1 year, the renal function was still at low level. Thereby it is considered that ESWL is not suitable for the renal calculi patients with severe renal function insufficiency

  3. In vitro radionuclide techniques in medical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radionuclide based microanalytical techniques for medical diagnosis has been increasing in recent years. Several such methods are in routine use in advanced laboratories in the industrialized world, but are often beyond the capability of developing countries. The IAEA has organized several training activities and seminars to bring the benefits of such advances to laboratories in developing Member States. The most recent was an interregional training course in Tokyo, March 1996, in collaboration with the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The course was conducted by international experts, local staff, and IAEA staff. With the intention of giving the main techniques used at the course to a wider distribution they have been compiled into the present technical document. It is hoped that laboratories in developing Member States that did not have participants at the training course will find the information provided useful and sufficiently detailed to enable their application in their home institutions

  4. Natural analogues and radionuclide transport model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, some possible roles for natural analogues are discussed from the point of view of those involved with the development of mathematical models for radionuclide transport and with the use of these models in repository safety assessments. The characteristic features of a safety assessment are outlined in order to address the questions of where natural analogues can be used to improve our understanding of the processes involved and where they can assist in validating the models that are used. Natural analogues have the potential to provide useful information about some critical processes, especially long-term chemical processes and migration rates. There is likely to be considerable uncertainty and ambiguity associated with the interpretation of natural analogues, and thus it is their general features which should be emphasized, and models with appropriate levels of sophistication should be used. Experience gained in modelling the Koongarra uranium deposit in northern Australia is drawn upon. (author)

  5. Grading of vesicoureteral reflux by radionuclide cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-six children with urinary tract infection aged 6 months to 14 years (mean age 4 1/2 years) were studied sequentially using direct radionuclide (RNC) and conventional voiding cystourethrography (VCU). Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was detected equally well by both methods. Twenty-seven refluxing ureters were found by RNC, 23 by VCU and 22 by both methods. Radiologic grade of reflux may be determined approximately with the isotope technique from the volume of regurgitating urine und duration of reflux, at a much decreased radiation exposure. Residual urine was also measured by RNC and found to be higher in children with VUR. RNC is a reliable method for detecting and grading VUR and should effectively replace VCU as the follow-up examination of choice. (orig.)

  6. Prospects for the methods of radionuclide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamian, S. A., E-mail: karamian@nrmail.jinr.ru; Dmitriev, S. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, FLNR, 141980, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-30

    In the present report, methods of radionuclide production for the nuclear-medicine purposes are described. In a budget approach, the application of low-energy accelerators is especially advantageous. Intense flux of bremsstrahlung at electron accelerators or high-current cyclotron beams of alpha particles must supply a great yield for many isotopes. The choice of a target material and of the projectile energy provides enough variation for concrete species formation. The innovating procedures are here proposed for optimizing of methods, for instance, application of the noble-gas target for production and transport of activities. The known and new variants of the “generator” scheme are discussed. Many isotopes are listed as promising in the context of the therapeutic and theragnostic applications. Among them are isotopes/isomers emitting soft radiation for the selective and careful body treatment, also the positron emitters for PET, and the halogen and alkali-metal species convenient for chemical separation.

  7. Natural radionuclides in industrial and rural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium-226, lead-210, uranium and thorium are dispersed in the environment by fly ash emitted by coal-fuelled power stations. Concentrations of these nuclides have been determined in fly ash from three power stations and in soils collected in six industrial and twenty rural regions. In industrial areas, the concentrations of natural radionuclides in a 5 cm thick surface soil layer were found to be higher than in lower layers. With the exception of lead-210, this effect was not observed in rural soils, which contained less of radium-226, uranium and thorium. It was found that the type of coal or combustion technology influences the amount of radium-226 dispersed in the environment which is accessible to plants

  8. Contamination of human skin by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insight into the mechanisms of contamination is a necessary prerequisite for efficient and meaningful decontamination. The incorporation of anorganic ions into human skin has been studied with aqueous solutions of radionuclides. Within 30 min of wetting about 1 μl fluid per cm2 skin area penetrates into the capillary spaces of the horny layer, promoted by surface-active properties of the sebaceous lipids. Adsorption onto horny layer constituents is especially important for polyvalent cations. In general it is dependent on pH and on the ionic charge. For all substances in aqueous solution the structure of the horny layer causes a nearly exponential decay of concentration with depth of penetration (about 100:1 across the horny layer at 1 mg keratin/cm2 skin area). This is the reason for the very low penetration rates. The results may be used to establish some rules for skin decontamiantion. (orig.)

  9. Compilation of data for radionuclide transport analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This report is one of the supporting documents to the updated safety assessment (project SAFE) of the Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste, SFR 1. A number of calculation cases for quantitative analysis of radionuclide release and dose to man are defined based on the expected evolution of the repository, geosphere and biosphere in the Base Scenario and other scenarios selected. The data required by the selected near field, geosphere and biosphere models are given and the values selected for the calculations are compiled in tables. The main sources for the selected values of the migration parameters in the repository and geosphere models are the safety assessment of a deep repository for spent fuel, SR 97, and the preliminary safety assessment of a repository for long-lived, low- and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5. For the biosphere models, both site-specific data and generic values of the parameters are selected. The applicability of the selected parameter values is discussed and the uncertainty is qualitatively addressed for data to the repository and geosphere migration models. Parameter values selected for these models are in general pessimistic in order not to underestimate the radionuclide release rates. It is judged that this approach combined with the selected calculation cases will illustrate the effects of uncertainties in processes and events that affects the evolution of the system as well as in quantitative data that describes this. The biosphere model allows for probabilistic calculations and the uncertainty in input data are quantified by giving minimum, maximum and mean values as well as the type of probability distribution function.

  10. The glass block site radionuclide migration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1960 25 nepheline syenite glass blocks containing 14 TBq of mixed fission products in 50 kg of glass were placed below the water table in a shallow sand aquifer at Chalk River Laboratories. Experimental studies undertaken at the site since 1960 have included detailed mapping of the plume of 90Sr in 1963, 1966 and 1971. Mathematical modeling studies have employed the radiostrontium plume data in determining the split between ion exchange and chemisorption of 90Sr, and in obtaining reaction rate data for chemisorption. The distribution of 137Cs on downgradient soils was mapped in 1963 and 1979. An extended plume of low-level 137Cs contamination observed in the 1979 study prompted an investigation of the role of particulate materials in radionuclide transport. IN 1983, large volume groundwater sampling and separation of cationic, anionic, and neutral dissolved species, as well as particulates, detected anionic and cationic dissolved europium isotopes (154 and 155), and again encountered particulate 137Cs. A variety of investigations of cesium and strontium sorption have provided a data base on sediment mineralogy, particle surface features, and information on sorption sites and processes. The year 1990 saw the inauguration of a three-year program to update investigations of radionuclide release, transport, and sorption at the glass block site. The first stage of the program has been a detailed definition and simulation of the hydrogeologic setting. Plume mapping and aqueous speciation studies are in progress. This paper summarizes past investigations, reviews the status of the current program, and discusses components of future studies, including investigations of sediment sorption mechanisms. (Author) (17 refs., 8 figs.)

  11. Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M and O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types

  12. Radionuclide imaging of non osseous infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J. (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, NY, (United States). Dept. Nuclear Medicine New York, Yeshiva Univ., NY (United States). Albert Einstein College of Medicine); Torres, M.A. (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, NY, (United States). Dept. Nuclear Medicine)

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear medicine is an important tool in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with a variety of non osseous infections. In the immunocompetent population labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide procedure of choice, with Gallium imaging reserved for those situations in which the leukocyte study is non diagnostic or cannot be performed. Fever of unknown origin is caused by infection in less than one-third of cases, and therefore the number of positive leukocyte studies will be relatively low. The negative leukocyte study is also useful as it has been demonstrated that a negative study excludes, with a high degree of certainty, focal infection as the cause of an FUO. In the cardiovascular system, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is very useful for diagnosing mycotic aneurysms and infected prosthetic vascular grafts. The specificity of the study is somewhat more variable. In the central nervous system, labeled leukocyte imaging can provide important information about the etiology of contrast enhancing brain lesions identified on computed tomography. In the immunocompromised population, typified by the AIDS patient, Gallium scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing opportunistic diseases. In the thorax, a normal Gallium scan, in the setting of a negative chest X-ray, virtually excludes pulmonary disease. In the abdomen, Gallium is also useful for detecting nodal disease, but is not reliable for detecting large bowel disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be performed when colitis is a concern. Both [sup 18]FDG PET and [sup 201]T1 SPECT imaging of the brain are useful for distinguishing between central nervous system lymphoma and toxoplasmosis in the HIV (+) patient. On both studies, lymphoma manifests as a focus of increased tracer uptake, whereas toxoplasmosis shows little or no uptake of either tracer.

  13. Compilation of data for radionuclide transport analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of the supporting documents to the updated safety assessment (project SAFE) of the Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste, SFR 1. A number of calculation cases for quantitative analysis of radionuclide release and dose to man are defined based on the expected evolution of the repository, geosphere and biosphere in the Base Scenario and other scenarios selected. The data required by the selected near field, geosphere and biosphere models are given and the values selected for the calculations are compiled in tables. The main sources for the selected values of the migration parameters in the repository and geosphere models are the safety assessment of a deep repository for spent fuel, SR 97, and the preliminary safety assessment of a repository for long-lived, low- and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5. For the biosphere models, both site-specific data and generic values of the parameters are selected. The applicability of the selected parameter values is discussed and the uncertainty is qualitatively addressed for data to the repository and geosphere migration models. Parameter values selected for these models are in general pessimistic in order not to underestimate the radionuclide release rates. It is judged that this approach combined with the selected calculation cases will illustrate the effects of uncertainties in processes and events that affects the evolution of the system as well as in quantitative data that describes this. The biosphere model allows for probabilistic calculations and the uncertainty in input data are quantified by giving minimum, maximum and mean values as well as the type of probability distribution function

  14. Transport of radionuclides in snowmelt runoff, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1983, snowmelt runoff was monitored at Los Alamos Canyon at State Road 4 (SR-4) and at Otowi near the Rio Grande. Los Alamos Canyon and tributary Pueblo Canyon have received low-level radioactive effluents from treatment plants, so the channel sediments contain radionuclides that are subject to transport surface runoff. Snowmelt runoff was also monitored in Pajarito Canyon at SR-4, which receives no industrial effluents. Runoff was also monitored because it drained several of the Laboratory's technical areas, one of which is used for the disposal and storage area for low-level solid radioactive wastes. The concentrations of 137Cs, 238Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu, 3H, total uranium, and gross-gamma activity in solution samples from Los Alamos Canyon at SR-4 and Otowi were indistinguishable from radioactivity concentrations in solution samples from Pajarito Canyon. There was no significant difference in concentrations of 238Pu in suspended sediment in Los Alamos Canyon at SR-4 and at Otowi when compared with those 238Pu concentrations in Pajarito Canyon. The average concentrations of /sup 239,240/Pu in suspended sediments in Los Alamos Canyon ranged from 4.7 pCi/g at SR-4 to 2.3 pCi/g at Otowi. These were about 26 and 13 times greater than the average background /sup 230,240/Pu concentrations in Pajarito Canyon. There was little, if any, transport of radionuclides in solution surface runoff in Los Alamos Canyon, which has received treated low-level radioactive effluents. There is little, if any, transport of 238Pu in suspended sediments. The major transport of radioactivity in the suspended sediments was of /sup 239,240/Pu. 1 figure, 1 table

  15. Radionuclide imaging of non osseous infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine is an important tool in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with a variety of non osseous infections. In the immunocompetent population labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide procedure of choice, with Gallium imaging reserved for those situations in which the leukocyte study is non diagnostic or cannot be performed. Fever of unknown origin is caused by infection in less than one-third of cases, and therefore the number of positive leukocyte studies will be relatively low. The negative leukocyte study is also useful as it has been demonstrated that a negative study excludes, with a high degree of certainty, focal infection as the cause of an FUO. In the cardiovascular system, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is very useful for diagnosing mycotic aneurysms and infected prosthetic vascular grafts. The specificity of the study is somewhat more variable. In the central nervous system, labeled leukocyte imaging can provide important information about the etiology of contrast enhancing brain lesions identified on computed tomography. In the immunocompromised population, typified by the AIDS patient, Gallium scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing opportunistic diseases. In the thorax, a normal Gallium scan, in the setting of a negative chest X-ray, virtually excludes pulmonary disease. In the abdomen, Gallium is also useful for detecting nodal disease, but is not reliable for detecting large bowel disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be performed when colitis is a concern. Both 18FDG PET and 201T1 SPECT imaging of the brain are useful for distinguishing between central nervous system lymphoma and toxoplasmosis in the HIV (+) patient. On both studies, lymphoma manifests as a focus of increased tracer uptake, whereas toxoplasmosis shows little or no uptake of either tracer

  16. Decontamination of radionuclides on construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of materials can become contaminated by radionuclides, either from a terrorist attack or an industrial or nuclear accident. The final disposition of these materials depends, in large part, on the effectiveness of decontamination measures. This study reports on investigations into the decontamination of a selection of building materials. The aim has been to find an effective, easy-to-use and inexpensive decontamination system for radionuclides of cesium and cobalt, considering both the chemical and physical nature of these potential contaminants. The basic method investigated was surface washing, due to its ease and simplicity. In the present study, a basic decontamination formulation was modified by adding isotope-specific sequestering agents, to enhance the removal of cesium(I) and cobalt(II) from such construction materials as concrete, marble, aluminum and painted steel. Spiking solutions contained 134Cs or 60Co, which were prepared by neutron activation in the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor facility at the Royal Military College of Canada. Gamma spectroscopy was used to determine the decontamination efficiency. The results showed that the addition of sequestering agents generally improved the radiological decontamination. Although the washing of both cesium and cobalt from non-porous materials, such as aluminum and painted steel, achieved a 90-95 % removal, the decontamination of concrete and marble was more challenging, due to the porous nature of the materials. Nevertheless, the removal efficiency from 6-year-old concrete increased from 10 % to approximately 50 % for cobalt(II), and from 18 to 55 % for cesium(I), with the use of isotope binding agents, as opposed to a simple water wash. (author)

  17. Building confidence in radionuclide transport models for fractured rock: the Nagra/JNC radionuclide retardation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The joint Nagra/JNC Radionuclide Retardation Programme has now been ongoing for 15 years with the main aim of direct testing of radionuclide transport models in as realistic a manner as possible. A large programme of field, laboratory and natural analogue studies has been carried out at the Grimsel Test Site in the central Swiss Alps and the Kamaishi In Situ Test Site in north-east Japan. The understanding and modelling of both the processes and the structures influencing radionuclide transport/retardation in fractured host rocks have matured as has the experimental technology, which has contributed to develop confidence in the applicability of the underlying research models in a repository performance assessment. In this paper, the successes and set-backs of this programme are discussed as is the general approach to the thorough testing of the process models and of model assumptions. In addition, a set of key findings is presented, involving discussions on the enhancement of confidence through the program. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  18. Anthropogenic radionuclides in sediment in the Japan Sea: distribution and transport processes of particulate radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otosaka, S. [Marine Research Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan)]. E-mail: otosaka.shigeyoshi@jaea.go.jp; Amano, H. [Marine Research Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan); Ito, T. [Marine Research Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan); Kawamura, H. [Research Group for Marine Environment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-Mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Marine Research Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan); Research Group for Marine Environment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-Mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Marine Research Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan); Togawa, O. [Marine Research Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan); Research Group for Marine Environment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-Mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Chaykovskaya, E.L. [Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, 24, Fontanaya St., Vladivostok, 690990 (Russian Federation); Lishavskaya, T.S. [Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, 24, Fontanaya St., Vladivostok, 690990 (Russian Federation); Novichkov, V.P. [Moscow State Engineering Physical Institute, 31, Kashirskiy Road, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Karasev, E.V. [Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, 24, Fontanaya St., Vladivostok, 690990 (Russian Federation); Tkalin, A.V.; Volkov, Y.N. [Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, 24, Fontanaya St., Vladivostok, 690990 (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Distributions of anthropogenic radionuclides ({sup 9}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+24}Pu) in seabed sediment in the Japan Sea were collected during the period 1998-2002. Concentration of {sup 9}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+24}Pu in seabed sediment was 0.07-1.6 Bq kg{sup -1}, 0.4-9.1 Bq kg{sup -1} and 0.002-1.9 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. In the northern basin of the sea (Japan Basin), {sup 239+24}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratios in seabed sediment were higher and their variation was smaller compared to that in the southeastern regions of the sea. The higher {sup 239+24}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratios throughout the Japan Basin were considered to reflect production of Pu-enriched particles in the surface layer and substantial sinking of particulate materials in this region. In the southern regions of the Japan Sea (<38{sup o}N), both inventories and {sup 239+24}Pu/{sup 137}Cs ratios in sediment were larger than those in the other regions. In the southern Japan Sea, observations suggested that supply of particulate radionuclides by the Tsushima Warm Current mainly enhanced accumulation of the radionuclides in this region.

  19. Biological accessibility of Chernobyl radionuclides and aspects of environmental rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redistribution of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 241Am within natural ecosystems and the determination of natural and artificial factors influencing on processes of radionuclide migration on biogeochemical chains were investigated. There are three main directions of investigation. The first of them is to estimate the intensity of self-purification of damaged region soil cover, taking into account landscape, soil, land-use differentiation and also peculiarities of physico-chemical occurrence forms of the radioactive fallout. In particular, the change dynamics of radionuclide physico-chemical state and vertical migration in soil of different genesis were estimated, the soil varieties with high and low rate of radionuclide migration were discovered, the peculiarities of 'hot' particles destruction, the change of their dispersity and structure composition under the influence of natural reagents were studied, the radionuclide bond strength with some components of different soil types was determined. The second problem is to estimate the biological accessibility of radionuclides. In particular, the radionuclide contamination of different components of forest and meadow phytocenoses was investigated, the change of radionuclide accumulation coefficients in system 'soil-plant' was estimated. The third problem is ecological and practice measures for environmental rehabilitation. In particular, the soil self-purification hypothesis in different natural conditions were created and the permissible criterion's of interference in natural processes were developed

  20. New radionuclide generator systems for use in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A current emphasis in nuclear medicine is to better match the physical lifetime of the radionuclides used in vivo for diagnosis and treatment to the biological lifetime of the diagnostic procedure or to minimize radiation dose to areas other than those to be treated. In many cases the biological lifetime is on the order of minutes. Since the direct production of radionuclides with half lives of minutes requires the user to be near a suitable reactor or accelerator, this study was undertaken to produce short-lived radionuclides indirectly. If a long-lived radionuclide decays into a short-lived radionuclide, quick separation of the daughter activity from the parent enables the user to have a short-lived daughter while freeing him from the constraint of proximity to a cyclotron. Systems where a short-lived daughter is separated from a long-lived parent are called radionuclide generators. Two generator systems were developed for use in nuclear medicine, one in diagnostic work and the other for therapeutic work. The yield and breakthrough characteristics were within the limits required to minimize unnecessary radiation exposure in patients. Two parent radionuclides were produced using 4He beams available from medium energy cyclotrons. The yield was high enough to produce generators that would be useful in clinical applications

  1. Identification of radionuclides of concern in Hanford Site environmental cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R.W.; Jenquin, U.P.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to consider which radionuclides should be included in conducting environmental surveys relative to site remediation at Hanford. During the operation of the Hanford site, the fission product radionuclides and a large number of activation products including the transuranic radionuclides were formed. The reactor operations and subsequent chemical processing and metallurgical operations resulted in the environmental release of gaseous and liquid effluents containing some radionuclides; however, the majority of the radionuclides were stored in waste tanks or disposed to trenches and cribs. Since some contamination of both soils and subsurface waters occurred, one must decide which radionuclides still remain in sufficient amounts to be of concern at the time when site remediation is to be complete. Many of the radionuclides which have constituted the principal hazard during site operation have half-lives on the order of a year or less; therefore, they will have decayed to insignificant amounts by the year 2030, a possible date for completion of the remediation process.

  2. The uses of radiations and radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery of X-ray and radium, radiations and radionuclides have widely been used in the field of medicine. It is therefore difficult to overview their use in every aspect of medicine. For this reason I will focus my review on cancer therapy. Radionuclide therapy is divided into brachy therapy using shield sources and systemic radionuclide therapy using unshield sources. The characteristic of brachytherapy is to irradiate locally the target with rapid fall-off in radiation dose to the surrounding tissues. Thereby radiation injury to normal structures can be minimized. The problem is that the indication is limited to tumors to which shield sources can adequately be approached. In systemic radionuclide therapy, the most important one is 131I therapy for metastatic tumors from thyroid cancer. Radionuclide therapy is also used for the treatment of other malignancies such as neuroblastoma or pheochromocytoma. Recent development of radiolabeled antibody therapy is expected to open a new horizon for radionuclide therapy. The 5-year survival rate for all cancer patients amounts now to about 50%. In this situation we must aim to improve not only the cure rate but also quality of life for cancer patients so that they can enjoy their lives worth living. We think that this aim will be accomplished in the not distant future by further development of radiation and radionuclide therapy, because radiotherapy's most prominent characteristic is its ability to cure cancer while minimally affecting the patients' normal tissues and functions. (J.P.N.)

  3. Underground radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews results from a number of studies concerning underground migration of radionuclides from nuclear test cavities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Discussed are all cases known to the Department of Energy's Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program where radionuclides have been detected outside of the immediate vicinity of nuclear test cavities that are identifiable as the-source of the nuclides, as well as cases where radionuclides might have been expected and were intentionally sought but not fixed. There are nine locations where source-identifiable radionuclide migration has been detected, one where migration was purposely induced by pumping, and three where migration might be expected but was not found. In five of the nine cases of non-induced migration, the inferred migration mechanism is prompt fracture injection during detonation. In the other four cases, the inferred migration mechanism is water movement. In only a few of the reviewed cases can the actual migration mechanism be stated with confidence, and the attempt has been made to indicate the level of confidence for each case. References are cited where more information may be obtained. As an aid to future study, this document concludes with a brief discussion of the aspects of radionuclide migration that, as the present review indicates, are not yet understood. A course of action is suggested that would produce a better understanding of the phenomenon of radionuclide migration

  4. Radionuclide fractionation in organic matter-enriched soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequential extraction scheme was proposed in order to obtain radionuclide distribution and predict its mobility in soil-plant system. This scheme is useful to be able to explain changes of the radionuclide behaviour over time, i.e., decrease in exchangeable-available fraction and increase in fixed-mineral-fraction. A sequential extraction scheme which considers the different interactions between organic matter in radionuclide may give information about the role of organic matter in radionuclide retention. Such scheme has been designed and it defines a series of fractions from the sequential use of different extractant reagents. The extraction scheme allows to estimate, in a operational way, the fraction of radionuclide associated with exchangeable sites (Fraction 1), with humic and fulvic acids (Fraction 2 and 3), the amount of radionuclide related to passive organic matter like humine, non-humic substances or mineral organic matter (Fraction 4) and the radionuclide highly fixed to soil mineral matter (residual fraction). The results allowing to ascertain which are sites responsible for radiocesium retention

  5. Fractionation, mobility and biological accessibility of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractionation of radionuclides is stipulated by varied distribution of certain isotopes on aerosol particles from nuclear explosions and accidents. The character of isotope distribution on the aerosol particles governs peculiarities of radionuclide distribution in the environments - the air, soil, surface and ground water and sea environment. Mobility of radionuclides after their fallout on the Earth's surface is determined by possibility of their contact with the aquatic environment and chemical properties of elements (or their compounds) in the form of which the radionuclides do exist. Biological accessibility is determined by mobility of radionuclides and their penetration into living organisms. The presentation discusses the degree of transition of radioactive isotopes of certain elements from the particles to the water and muriatic acid (and gastric juice); the dependence is highlighted between biological accessibility of radionuclides, the distance from an epicentre of an explosion or accident and characteristic features of particles - carriers of radioactivity. The processes of wash-off of radionuclides from soil to the water, vertical migration into the soil and their redistribution by surface and ground water are described. The use of wash-off coefficients, obtained by observation after nuclear explosions, provided a possibility to forecast already in May 1986 water contamination in rivers and storages in summer, 1986 and spring flood of 1987 in the zone of the Chernobyl accident. The paper demonstrates that the reliable data on fractionation and biological accessibility are needed to solve effectively the problems of rehabilitation of the zones contaminated after nuclear explosions and accidents. (author)

  6. Approaches to estimating the transfer of radionuclides to arctic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing concern over potential radioactive contamination of the Arctic due to the wide range of nuclear sources. Environmental characteristics of the Arctic also suggest that it may be comparatively vulnerable to contaminants. Here we review collated data and available models for estimating the transfer of radionuclides to terrestrial biota within the Arctic. The most abundant data are for radiocaesium and radiostrontium although many data for natural radionuclides were available from studies in the Arctic. For some radionuclides no data are available for describing transfer to Arctic biota. Allometric-kinetic models have been used to provide estimates of transfer for radionuclide biota combinations for which data were lacking. Predicted values were in good agreement with observed data for some radionuclides (e.g. Cs, U) although less so for others. However, for some radionuclides where comparison appeared poor there were relatively little observed data with which to compare and the models developed were simplistic excluding some potentially important transfer pathways (e.g. soil ingestion). There are no bespoke models to enable the dynamic prediction of radionuclide transfer to Arctic biota. A human food chain model is available which includes limited parameterization for Cs and Sr transfer in Arctic ecosystems. This has been relatively easily adapted to estimate 137Cs and 90Sr transfer to some Arctic biota and could be readily adapted to other radionuclide-biota combinations. There are many factors of Arctic ecosystems which may influence radionuclide behaviour including short growing seasons, prolonged freezing of soil, and effects of low temperatures on biological rates. However, these are not included within existing predictive models (for human or biota exposure). If exposure to ionising radiation within Arctic ecosystems is to be robustly predicted such factors must be fully understood and properly incorporated into models. (author)

  7. Exposure-dose research for radionuclides in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate determination of specific radionuclides in natural gas stimulated by underground engineering applications is being examined. An experimental program, now in its initial stages, is using gas artificially labeled with krypton-85 and tritium under simulated domestic situations. The following topics are being investigated in this study: 1. The concentration of the radionuclides in a gas-heated home. 2. The build-up of contamination on appliances in the kitchen environment. 3. The concentration in foods as a function of radionuclide, food type and preparation. 4. The maximum exposure plausible under specified conditions. (author)

  8. Atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides from uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the study of generation and dispersion of airborne radionuclide species from an hypothetical tailings disposal site. The radionuclides are followed along atmospheric dispersion pathways. Estimates of public radiation dose impact were made based on: 1) the behaviour of the hypothetical site and tailings; 2) atmospheric dispersion from such a site located in Northern Ontario. This, the 'Atmospheric Technical Appendix' describes important aspects of the atmospheric modelling process, and findings resulting from that process. It does not attempt to predict real radiation doses, or real atmospheric radionuclide dispersion patterns for any specific site whether existing or projected

  9. Study on the Decontamination of Radionuclides in Spent Phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Won, H. J.; Moon, J. K.

    2010-01-15

    The objective of the study is to confirm the possibility of further R and D thru pre-study on the decontamination technology for the safe, high decontamination factor, low waste arising and cost effective removal of radionuclide in spent phosphogypsum. The following contents were studied. 1) Decontamination of Radionuclide in Phosphogypsum - Effect of decontamination chemical formulation on Ra removal - Effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration on Ra removal - Effect of Sr concentration on Ra removal 2) Removal of Radionuclide in Liquid Waste from Decontamination of Phosphogypsum - Ra removal by chromate treatment - Ra removal by zeolite and ACF treatment

  10. Biokinetics of radionuclides and treatment of accidental intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the objectives and reviews the progress of EULEP Working Party 5, convened under the auspices of the European Union's Fifth Framework Programme, to 'cluster' two EU-supported contracts, Biokinetics and Dosimetry of Internal Contamination (BIODOS (EU Contract FIS5-1999-00214)) and Radionuclide Biokinetics Database (EULEP) ( RBDATA-EULEP (Concerted Action Contract FIS5-1999-00218), and two non-EU funded projects, Biokinetics of Radionuclides in Human Volunteers (RNHV (non-EU Funded Project) and Treatment of Accidental Intakes of Radionuclides (TAIR (part-funded by EULEP)). (author)

  11. Toxicity studies of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides - status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of total dose and dose rate pattern on the effects of inhaled β-emitting radionuclides is being studied in laboratory animals. The inhaled radionuclides were either in a relatively soluble form (90SrCl2, 144CeCl3, 91YCl3, or 137CsCl), or in a relatively insoluble form in fused aluminosilicate particles. The organs affected depend on the solubility and chemical characteristics of the radionuclides. Studies with young adult dogs are complemented by comparable studies in other species (mice, rats, and Syrian hamsters), with animals of different ages and animals repeatedly exposed to 144Ce. 12 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  12. Radionuclide volatilization during plasmachemical reprocessing of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatilization of 137Cs, 60Co, 90Sr, 144Ce and α-active radionuclides under high temperature utilization of solid and liquid low- and intermediate level radioactive wastes is studied. Low temperature plasma of arc plasmatroned was used as a heat carrier in the laboratory conditions and on experimental installation with shaft furnace and direct flow plasma-chemical reactor. The lowest radionuclides lost (1-2%) was observed from the shaft furnace due to the presence of radionuclides sorbiting layer of wastes

  13. Migration and diffusion of radionuclides in engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the present status of the multibarrier system performance tests to provide a preliminary assessment of nuclide migration in the engineered barriers for shallow land burial of the low-level radioactive waste. Migration of radionuclides with seeped water through backfill and in subsequent diffusion in concrete pit are considered in this study. The results of laboratory investigations of unsaturated flow in backfill and radionuclides migration / diffusion in engineered barrier system are described and the calculated distribution of the radionuclides in backfill is presented

  14. Nuclear data for the production of therapeutic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report summarizes and concludes an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) devoted to comprehensive measurements and evaluations of neutron and charged particle induced cross-sections for the production of therapeutic radionuclides for medical applications. Nuclear reactors, cyclotrons and accelerators are used for the production of radionuclides for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in nuclear medicine. The physical basis of their production routes is described through the interaction of neutrons and charged particles with matter. These processes have to be well understood in order to produce radionuclides of high purity in an efficient manner. The concerted and collaborative efforts described here deal specifically with the production and use of therapeutic radionuclides. An earlier IAEA CRP was devoted to diagnostic radionuclides and monitoring reactions (IAEA-TECDOC-1211). Although some of the production methods are well established, there are no evaluated and recommended nuclear data sets available. This situation has been emphasized at specific IAEA meetings. Over the previous 30 years, many laboratories have reported a significant body of experimental data relevant to medical radionuclide production, and charged particle data centres have compiled most of these data. However, no systematic effort had been devoted to their standardization and assembly. Under these circumstances, the IAEA decided to undertake and organize a CRP on nuclear data for the production of therapeutic radionuclides. The project was initiated in 2003, and focused on production data of radionuclides for therapeutic purposes, embracing current and possible future needs. The assembly of a credible database involved new measurements on the production of some specific radionuclides via charged particle induced reactions, and the evaluation of cross-section data to quantify both neutron and charged particle induced reactions. Adoption and development of calculational

  15. Recommendations concerning classification of and discharge standards for radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the report recommendations are made for the limitation of the radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents from radionuclide laboratories. The recommended values are based on a radiation exposure for members of a critical group in the population corresponding to 1% of the dose limit for individual members of the public as recommended by the ICRP. Based on these standards a classification of radionuclide laboratories is proposed. It is recommended to retain the present Dutch classification in A-, B-, C- and D-laboratories. The report contains appendices with detailed data about the transport routes of radionuclides in the environment and the subsequent irradiation of members of the public. (orig.)

  16. Transport of radionuclides along marine food-chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compartment model is employed to calculate the radionuclide concentrations in the ocean currents for a nuclear accident scenario where the long-lived 137Cs is totally discharged into the sea. The radionuclide concentrations in both the waters of Daya Bay and the adjacent South China Sea are considered. Using the concentration factors for the marine organisms: fish, crustacea and mollusca, their radionuclide concentrations are also estimated. In this way, the whole body radiation doses received by an individual due to ingestion of marine organisms from the Daya Bay and the South China Sea are calculated

  17. Informal workshop on radionuclide laboratories. Issue 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The network of radionuclide stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will be comprised of 80 monitoring stations and 16 laboratories acting in support of the monitoring stations. The 16 radionuclide laboratories have been designated but there are issues to resolve in several areas: - Fee structure and payments to the laboratories from the PTS; - Agreement on Detailed requirements for certification of the laboratories; - Duties of the laboratory To help provide technical information in these and other areas an Informal Workshop was held on January 29th - February 2nd 2001 at Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) United Kingdom. It was agreed that a common fee structure would make for a more efficient operation if one could be agreed. One possible fee structure for payment to the laboratories was considered to be an annual fixed fee for service (estimated at $38,000) plus a charge for each individual analysis (estimated at $1,200). These estimated values were based on the laboratory replies to a questionnaire organised by the PTS in December 2000. An average of 40 samples/year/ laboratory was considered to be the number required to maintain support to the monitoring station network and also maintain the laboratory capability. Based on this number the overall cost, payable to the laboratories, of running a network of 16 radionuclide laboratories was estimated at $1.38M per year, when all 80 radionuclide stations are operational. The first proficiency test exercise had been carried out in November 2000 and was discussed. Overall the results were highly encouraging and any minor problems found were being addressed. The technical areas requiring further consideration were uncertainty values and cascade summing corrections. The basis for an ongoing programme of such exercises was discussed and agreed by participants. One recommendation that came out of this meeting was the desirability of using a common nuclear data

  18. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and

  19. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive

  20. Filters for water purification from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At present purification of waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, and organic contaminants is one of the most important problems. One of widely used methods for solving this problem is the ion exchange method based on using of different types of resins and fibroid sorbents. This paper deals with new chemically modified polyester fibroid filters having satisfactory adsorption characteristics. The process of the filter production includes their treatment by acrylonitrilic emulsion for improving mechanical characteristics. An advantage of the fibroid ion-exchange sorbents over resin is in their high sorption rate, effective regeneration and small value of pressure drop of the sorbent layer for purified water. The specific surface of the fibroid sorbents is (2 - 3). 104 m2/ kg, i.e. about 102 times greater than that of the resin (102 m2/ kg). Owing to that fact the rate of the sorption process on the developed fibroid sorbents is much greater than that on the resin. The developed cation- and anion-exchange filters can be used for removing metal ions (Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Co, Cd, Cr, etc.) and organic compounds (M-32P, M-131I, M-99Mo+99mTc, etc.) from water. Capacity of the cation-exchange sorbents is 0.25 meq/g (Cu2+) and that of the anion - exchange is 0.45 meq/g (Cr6+). The cation- and anion-exchange filters are also selective for removing radionuclides 134, 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co and 129I in presence of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl- ions in water at concentrations up to 500 mg/L. New developed ion-exchange sorbents have been used in drinking water filters and mini-systems for removing organic and inorganic contaminants, in the equipment for waste water purification from oil products (at atomic power stations, car-washing stations, etc), from heavy metal ions (in electronic industry, match fabrics, leather processing plants etc). (author)