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Sample records for carcinoma hepg2 cells

  1. Establishment of hepatocellular carcinoma multidrug resistant monoclone cell line HepG2/mdr1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-bing; XIE Jian-guo; YANG Jia-yin; YAN Lü-nan; YAN Mao-lin; GONG Jian-ping; XIA Ren-pin; LIU Li-xin; LI Ning; LU Shi-chun; ZHANG Jing-guang; ZENG Dao-bing

    2007-01-01

    Background The multidrug resistance (MDR) associated with the expression of the mdr1 gene and its product P-glycoprotein is a major factor in the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HCC) patients treated with chemotherapy. Our study was to establish a stable HCC MDR cell line where a de novo acquisition of multidrug resistance specifically related to overexpression of a transgenic mdr1.Methods The 4.5-kb mdr1 cDNA obtained from the plasmid pHaMDR1-1 was cloned into the PCI-neo mammalian expression vector, later was transferred by liposome to human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. Then the transfected HepG2 cells resisting G418 were clustered and cultured and the specific fragment of mdr1 cDNA, mRNA and the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in these HepG2 cells were detected by PCR, RT-PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. The accumulation of the daunorubicin was determinated by flow cytometry simultaneously. The nude mice model of grafting tumour was established by injecting subcutaneously HepG2/mdr1 cells in the right axilla. When the tumour diameter reached 5 mm, adriamycin was injected into peritoneal cavity. The size and growth inhibition of tumour were evaluated.Results The mdr1 expression vector was constructed successfully and the MDR HCC line HepG2/mdr1 developed.The PCR analysis showed that the specific fragment of mdr1 cDNA in HepG2/mdr1 cells, but not in the control group HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the content of the specific fragment of mdr1 mRNA and Pgp expression in HepG2/mdr1 cells were (59.7±7.9)% and (12.28±2.09)%, respectively, compared with (16.9±3.2)% and (3.07±1.06)% in HepG2 cells.In the nude mice HCC model, the tumour genes of both groups were identified. After ADM therapy, the mean size of HepG2 cell tumours was significantly smaller than HepG2/mdr1 cell tumours.Conclusion The approach using the transfer of mdr1 cDNA may be applicable to the development of MDR hepatocarcinoma cell line, whose MDR mechanism is known. This would provide the

  2. Synthesis of apoptotic chalcone analogues in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

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    Park, Cheon-Soo; Ahn, Yongchel; Lee, Dahae; Moon, Sung Won; Kim, Ki Hyun; Yamabe, Noriko; Hwang, Gwi Seo; Jang, Hyuk Jai; Lee, Heesu; Kang, Ki Sung; Lee, Jae Wook

    2015-12-15

    Eight chalcone analogues were prepared and evaluated for their cytotoxic effects in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Compound 5 had a potent cytotoxic effect. The percentage of apoptotic cells was significantly higher in compound 5-treated cells than in control cells. Exposure to compound 5 for 24h induced cleavage of caspase-8 and -3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Our findings suggest that compound 5 is the active chalcone analogue that contributes to cell death in HepG2 cells via the extrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  3. Solanine-induced reactive oxygen species inhibit the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

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    Meng, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Feng; Yin, Sheng-Yong; Xie, Hai-Yang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of solanine on promoting human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the molecular mechanisms leading to tumor cell apoptosis. Solanine was administered to HepG2 cells in vitro. A selection of probes targeting various cellular localizations of ROS were used to detect ROS expression using flow cytometry. The expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins, including apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and thioredoxin binding protein 2 (TBP-2), and proliferation-associated proteins, including histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), were detected using western blotting. The percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis was measured using an Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay, and cell morphology was examined using Wright's stain followed by inverted microscopy analysis. ROS detection probes 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and dihydrorhodamine 123 identified that abundant ROS, including hydroxyl radical (OH(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), were produced in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of the solanine-treated HepG2 cells compared with the control cells (Psolanine treatment compared with the control cells (P>0.05). Western blotting results revealed that solanine upregulated the expression levels of ASK1 and TBP-2 and enhanced their kinase activities, whereas solanine decreased the expression level of the proliferation-associated protein, HDAC1. The cell apoptotic rate was significantly increased (Psolanine-treated HepG2 cells compared with the control cells. (Psolanine induces HepG2 cells to produce ROS, mainly OH(-) and H2O2, in a mitochondria-dependent and -independent manner. In addition, solanine stimulates the expression of ASK1 and TBP-2, and their kinase activities, but inhibits the expression of proliferation-associated proteins, such as HDAC1, thus contributing to HepG2 cell apoptosis.

  4. Induction of apoptosis in human liver carcinoma HepG2 cell line by 5-allyl-7-gen-difluoromethylenechrysin

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    Xiang-Wen Tan; Hong Xia; Jin-Hua Xu; Jian-Guo Cao

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of 5-allyl-7-gen-difluoromethylenechrysin (ADFMChR) on apoptosis of human liver carcinoma HepG2 cell line and the molecular mechanisms involved. METHODS: HepG2 cells and L-02 cells were cultured in vitro and the inhibitory effect of ADFMChR on their proliferation was measured by MTT assay. The apoptosis of HepG2 cells was determined by flow cytometry (FCM) using propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence staining.DNA ladder bands were observed by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. The influence of ADFMChR on the proxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), NF-κB, Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression of HepG2 cells were analyzed by Western blotting. RESULTS: MTT assay showed that ADFMChR significantly inhibited proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dosedependent manner, with little effect on growth of L-02 cells, and when IC50 was measured as 8.45 μmol/L and 191.55 μmol/L respectively, the potency of ADFMChR to HepG2 cells, was found to be similar to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, IC50 was 9.27 μmol/L). The selective index of ADFMChR cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells was 22.67 (191.55/8.45), higher than 5-FU (SI was 7.05 (65.37/9.27). FCM with PI staining demonstrated that the apoptosis rates of HepG2 cells treated with 3.0, 10.0 and 30.0 μmol/L ADFMChR for 48 h were 5.79%, 9.29% and 37.8%, respectively, and were significantly higher when treated with 30.0 μmol/L ADFMChR than when treated with 30.0 μmol/L ChR (16.0%) ( P < 0.05) and were similar to those obtained with 30.0 μmol/L 5-FU (41.0%). DNA agarose gel electrophoresis showed that treatment of HepG2 cells with 10.0 μmol/L ADFMChR for 48 h and 72 h resulted in typical DNA ladders which could be reversed by 10.00 μmol/L GW9662, a blocker of PPARγ. Western blotting analysis revealed that after 24 h of treatment with 3.0, 10.0, 30.0 μmol/L ADFMChR, PPARγ and Bax protein expression in HepG2 cells increased but Bcl-2 and NF-κB expression decreased; however, pre-incubation with 10.0 μmol/L GW

  5. Effect of TSLC1 Gene on Proliferation, Invasion and Apoptosis of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Li; ZHU Wentao; XU Tao; HAO Youhua; ZHANG Zhengmao; TIAN Yongjun; YANG Dongliang

    2007-01-01

    The recombinant plasmid pCI-TSLC1 carrying TSLC1 gene was stably transfected into human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay. The ability of migration was determined by transwell and FACSort flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. Western blotting revealed that H4 expressed higher amounts of TSLC1 protein than H15 and H0 did. The growth of TSLC1-transfected cells was significantly sup- pressed in vitro, and the ability of migration was reduced as well. The re-expression of TSLC1 could induce cell apoptosis. It was concluded that TSLC1 strongly inhibited the growth and ability of mi- gration of HepG2 cell line in vitro and also induced apoptosis, suggesting that TSLC1 could reduce the tumorigenicity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 in vitro, which provided a ba-sis for further exploring the roles of TSLC1 in hepatocellular cellular carcinoma.

  6. Hyperthermia inhibits hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Jin Yuan; Qian-wen Li; Shun-Lin Shan; Wu-Ming Wang; Sen Jiang; Xi-Ming Xu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO investigate the effect of hyperthermia on hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells,and its mechanism.METHODS:Cells were treated with hyperthermia at 43 ℃ for 0.5 h,followed by incubation under hypoxic or normoxic conditions for 72 h.Cell morphology was observed.Expressions of E-cadherin and vimentin were determined by immunofluorescence assay or Western blot.The protein and mRNA expressions of Snail were also determined by Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.Cell migratory capacity was evaluated.RESULTS:Hypoxia induced EMT in HepG2 cells,which was evidenced by morphological,molecular and functional changes,including the formation of a spindle shape and the loss of cell contact.The expression of E-cadherin was decreased but the expression of vimentin was increased; also,the migratory capability was increased by 2.2 ± 0.20-fold as compared with normoxia.However,those effects were inhibited by hyperthermia pretreatment.Furthermore,protein synthesis and mRNA expression of Snail in the cells were enhanced by hypoxia as compared with normoxia,and also significantly inhibited by hyperthermia pretreatment.CONCLUSION:Hyperthermia may inhibit hypoxiainduced EMT in HepG2 HCC cells,and the mechanism may involve inhibition of induced expression of Snail.

  7. Ethanol Extract of Dianthus chinensis L. Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells In Vitro

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    Kyoung Jin Nho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dianthus chinensis L. is used to treat various diseases including cancer; however, the molecular mechanism by which the ethanol extract of Dianthus chinensis L. (EDCL induces apoptosis is unknown. In this study, the apoptotic effects of EDCL were investigated in human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Treatment with EDCL significantly inhibited cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis. This induction was associated with chromatin condensation, activation of caspases, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase protein. However, apoptosis induced by EDCL was attenuated by caspase inhibitor, indicating an important role for caspases in EDCL responses. Furthermore, EDCL did not alter the expression of bax in HepG2 cells but did selectively downregulate the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xl, resulting in an increase in the ratio of bax:bcl-2 and bax:bcl-xl. These results support a mechanism whereby EDCL induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation in HepG2 cells.

  8. Ethanol Extract of Dianthus chinensis L. Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells In Vitro.

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    Nho, Kyoung Jin; Chun, Jin Mi; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Dianthus chinensis L. is used to treat various diseases including cancer; however, the molecular mechanism by which the ethanol extract of Dianthus chinensis L. (EDCL) induces apoptosis is unknown. In this study, the apoptotic effects of EDCL were investigated in human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Treatment with EDCL significantly inhibited cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis. This induction was associated with chromatin condensation, activation of caspases, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein. However, apoptosis induced by EDCL was attenuated by caspase inhibitor, indicating an important role for caspases in EDCL responses. Furthermore, EDCL did not alter the expression of bax in HepG2 cells but did selectively downregulate the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xl, resulting in an increase in the ratio of bax:bcl-2 and bax:bcl-xl. These results support a mechanism whereby EDCL induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation in HepG2 cells.

  9. Knockdown of Decoy Receptor 3 Impairs Growth and Invasiveness of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line of HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Na Zhou; Guang-Ming Li; Ying-Chen Xu; Tuan-Jie Zhao; Ji-Xiang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) binds to Fas ligand (FasL) and inhibits FasL-induced apoptosis.The receptor is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC),and it is associated with the growth and metastatic spread of tumors.DcR3 holds promises as a new target for the treatment of HCC,but little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the oncogenic properties of DcR3.The present work,therefore,examined the role of DcR3 in regulating the growth and invasive property of liver cancer cell HepG2.Methods:HepG2 cells were stably transfected with lentivirus-based short hairpin RNA vector targeting DcR3.After the knockdown of DcR3 was confirmed,cell proliferation,clone formation,ability of migrating across transwell membrane,and wound healing were assessed in vitro.Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP 9) and vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and D expressions of the DcR3 knockdown were also studied.Comparisons between multiple groups were done using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA),while pairwise comparisons were performed using Student's t test.P < 0.05 was regarded statistically significant.Results:DcR3 was overexpressed in HepG2 compared to other HCC cell lines and normal hepatocyte Lo-2.Stable knockdown of DcR3 slowed down the growth of HepG2 (P < 0.05) and reduced the number of clones formed by 50% compared to those without DcR3 knockdown (P < 0.05).The knockdown also reduced the migration of HepG2 across transwell matrix membrane by five folds compared to the control (P < 0.05) and suppressed the closure of scratch wound (P < 0.05).In addition,the messenger RNA levels of MMP 9,VEGF-C,and VEGF-D were significantly suppressed by DcR3 knockdown by 90% when compared with the mock control (P < 0.05).Conclusions:Loss of DcR3 impaired the growth and invasive property of HCC cell line of HepG2.Targeting DcR3 may be a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of HCC.

  10. Secretory Transactivating Transcription-apoptin fusion protein induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Xia Han; Jin-Lu Ma; Yi Lv; Chen Huang; Hai-Hua Liang; Kang-Min Duan

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether SP-TAT-apoptin induces apoptosis and also maintains its tumor cell specificity.METHODS: In this study, we designed a secretory protein by adding a secretory signal peptide (SP) to the N terminus of Transactivating Transcription (TAT)-apoptin (SP-TAT-apoptin), to test the hypothesis that it gains an additive bystander effect as an anti-cancer therapy. We used an artificial human secretory SP whose amino acid sequence and corresponding cDNA sequence were generated by the SP hidden Markov model.RESULTS: In human liver carcinoma HepG2 cells, SP-TAT-apoptin expression showed a diffuse pattern in the early phase after transfection. After 48h, however, it translocated into the nuclear compartment and caused massive apoptotic cell death, as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and annexin-V binding assay. SP-TAT-apoptin did not, however, cause any cell death in non-malignant human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Most importantly, the conditioned medium from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with SP-TAT-apoptin also induced significant cell death in HepG2 cells, but not in HUVECs.CONCLUSION: The data demonstrated that SP-TAT-apoptin induces apoptosis only in malignant cells, and its secretory property might greatly increase its potency once it is delivered in vivo for cancer therapy.

  11. Apoptotic and inhibitory effects on cell proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by methanol leaf extract of Costus speciosus.

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    Nair, Sandhya V G; Hettihewa, Menik; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Costus speciosus is a medicinal plant commonly known as wild ginger distributed in South and Southeast Asian countries. Leaves of this plant are used for ayurvedic treatment regimes in malignancies and mental illness. Rhizome extract from the plant is used to treat malignancies, pneumonia, urinary disorders, jaundice, rheumatism, and diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of methanol extract of leaves of C. speciosus on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and understand possible mechanisms of its action. Viability of HepG2 cells were measured by MTS assay after 24 h and 48 h treatment with extracts of 1, 10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL concentrations. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry and caspase-3 induction. HepG2 cells treated with 100 μg/mL methanol leaf extract for 24 h displayed a significant reduction in cell viability (P ≤ 0.05). The methanol extract perturbed cell cycle progression, modulated cell cycle and regulated, signal molecules were involved in induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals of leaves of C. speciosus shows potential for natural therapeutic product development for hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first report to demonstrate in vitro anticancer activity of leaf extract of C. speciosus in relation to liver cancer.

  12. Apoptotic and Inhibitory Effects on Cell Proliferation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells by Methanol Leaf Extract of Costus speciosus

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    Sandhya V. G. Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Costus speciosus is a medicinal plant commonly known as wild ginger distributed in South and Southeast Asian countries. Leaves of this plant are used for ayurvedic treatment regimes in malignancies and mental illness. Rhizome extract from the plant is used to treat malignancies, pneumonia, urinary disorders, jaundice, rheumatism, and diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of methanol extract of leaves of C. speciosus on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells and understand possible mechanisms of its action. Viability of HepG2 cells were measured by MTS assay after 24 h and 48 h treatment with extracts of 1, 10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL concentrations. Cell cycle analysis and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry and caspase-3 induction. HepG2 cells treated with 100 μg/mL methanol leaf extract for 24 h displayed a significant reduction in cell viability (P≤0.05. The methanol extract perturbed cell cycle progression, modulated cell cycle and regulated, signal molecules were involved in induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that phytochemicals of leaves of C. speciosus shows potential for natural therapeutic product development for hepatocellular carcinoma. This is the first report to demonstrate in vitro anticancer activity of leaf extract of C. speciosus in relation to liver cancer.

  13. Mercury-Induced Externalization of Phosphatidylserine and Caspase 3 Activation in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2 Cells

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    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis arises from the active initiation and propagation of a series of highly orchestrated specific biochemical events leading to the demise of the cell. It is a normal physiological process, which occurs during embryonic development as well as in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Diverse groups of molecules are involved in the apoptosis pathway and it functions as a mechanism to eliminate unwanted or irreparably damaged cells. However, inappropriate induction of apoptosis by environmental agents has broad ranging pathologic implications and has been associated with several diseases including cancer. The toxicity of several heavy metals such as mercury has been attributed to their high affinity to sulfhydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and their ability to disrupt cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis in various tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential for mercury to induce early and late-stage apoptosis in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells. The Annexin-V and Caspase 3 assays were performed by flow cytometric analysis to determine the extent of phosphatidylserine externalization and Caspase 3 activation in mercury-treated HepG2 cells. Cells were exposed to mercury for 10 and 48 hours respectively at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 μg/mL based on previous cytotoxicity results in our laboratory indicating an LD50 of 3.5 ± 0.6 μg/mL for mercury in HepG2 cells. The study data indicated a dose response relationship between mercury exposure and the degree of early and late-stage apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The percentages of cells undergoing early apoptosis were 0.03 ± 0.03%, 5.19 ± 0.04%, 6.36 ± 0.04%, and 8.84 ± 0.02% for 0, 1, 2, and 3 μg/mL of mercury respectively, indicating a gradual increase in apoptotic cells with increasing doses of mercury. The percentages of Caspase 3 positive cells undergoing late apoptosis were 3.58 ± 0.03%, 17.06 ± 0

  14. Simultaneous induction of apoptosis and necroptosis by Tanshinone IIA in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

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    Lin, C-Y; Chang, T-W; Hsieh, W-H; Hung, M-C; Lin, I-H; Lai, S-C; Tzeng, Y-J

    2016-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), a constituent of the traditional medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE, has been reported to possess anticancer activity through induction of apoptosis in many cancer cells. Surprisingly, the present study finds that Tan IIA simultaneously causes apoptosis and necroptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. We further find that apoptosis can be converted to necroptosis by pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk, and the two death modes can be blocked by necroptotic inhibitor necrostatin-1. The underlying mechanisms are revealed by analysis of the signaling molecules using western blotting. In control cells, FLICE inhibitory protein in short form (FLIPS) is expressed in relatively high levels and binds to caspase 8 in ripoptosome, which supposedly sustains cell survival. However, in Tan IIA-treated cells, FLIPS is down-regulated and may thus cause homodimer formation of cleaved caspase 8, cleavage of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinases 1, 3 (RIP1, RIP3), and mixed-lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), in turn leads to cell apoptosis. In parallel, Tan IIA causes necroptosis by forming a suggested necrosomal complex composed of RIP1/RIP3. Regarding the inhibitors, z-VAD-fmk diminishes the cleaved caspase 8, RIP1, RIP3, and MLKL induced by Tan IIA, and reconstructs the ripoptosome complex, which marks cells moving from apoptosis to necroptosis. Nec-1 recovers the Tan IIA down-regulated FLIPS, consequently causes FLIPS to form heterodimer with caspase 8 and thus block apoptosis. Meanwhile, cleaved forms of RIP1 and RIP3 were observed preventing necroptosis. Intriguingly, the cytotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to HepG2 cells is enhanced by Tan IIA in a pilot study, which may be attributed to low FLIPS levels induced by Tan IIA. In short, Tan IIA simultaneously induces both Nec-1 inhibition and FLIPS regulation-mediated apoptosis/necroptosis, which has not been previously documented

  15. Functional genomics analysis of low concentration of ethanol in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells. Role of genes involved in transcriptional and translational processes

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    Francisco Castaneda, Sigrid Rosin-Steiner, Klaus Jung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously found that ethanol at millimolar level (1 mM activates the expression of transcription factors with subsequent regulation of apoptotic genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC HepG2 cells. However, the role of ethanol on the expression of genes implicated in transcriptional and translational processes remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the effect of low concentration of ethanol on gene expression profiling in HepG2 cells using cDNA microarrays with especial interest in genes with transcriptional and translational function. The gene expression pattern observed in the ethanol-treated HepG2 cells revealed a relatively similar pattern to that found in the untreated control cells. The pairwise comparison analysis demonstrated four significantly up-regulated (COBRA1, ITGB4, STAU2, and HMGN3 genes and one down-regulated (ANK3 gene. All these genes exert their function on transcriptional and translational processes and until now none of these genes have been associated with ethanol. This functional genomic analysis demonstrates the reported interaction between ethanol and ethanol-regulated genes. Moreover, it confirms the relationship between ethanol-regulated genes and various signaling pathways associated with ethanol-induced apoptosis. The data presented in this study represents an important contribution toward the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ethanol at low concentration in HepG2 cells, a HCC-derived cell line.

  16. In vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of urolithin A, the colonic metabolite of ellagic acid, on hepatocellular carcinomas HepG2 cells.

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    Wang, Yun; Qiu, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Benhong; Liu, Cong; Ruan, Jinlan; Yan, Qiujin; Liao, Jianming; Zhu, Fan

    2015-08-01

    The intestinal metabolites of ellagic acid (EA), urolithins are known to effectively inhibit cancer cell proliferation. This study investigates antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of urolithin A (UA) on cell survival of the HepG2 hepatic carcinomas cell line. The antiproliferative effects of UA (0-500 μM) on HepG2 cells were determined using a CCK assay following 12-36 h exposure. Effects on β-catenin and other factors of expression were assessed by using real-time PCR and Western blot. We found that UA showed potent antiproliferative activity on HepG2 cells. When cell death was induced by UA, it was found that the expression of β-catenin, c-Myc and Cyclin D1 were decreased and TCF/LEF transcriptional activation was notably down-regulated. UA also increased protein expression of p53, p38-MAPK and caspase-3, but suppressed expression of NF-κB p65 and other inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, the antioxidant assay afforded by UA and EA treatments was associated with decreases in intracellular ROS levels, and increases in intracellular SOD and GSH-Px activity. These results suggested that UA could inhibit cell proliferation and reduce oxidative stress status in liver cancer, thus acting as a viably effective constituent for HCC prevention and treatment.

  17. Transfection of p27 kip1 enhances radiosensitivity induced by 60Coγ-irradiation in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xiang Guan; Long-Bang Chen; Gui-Xia Ding; Wei De; Ai-Hua Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the cell cycle alterations of human hepatoma cell line HepG2 in vitro after 60Co γ-irradiation and further to examine the mechanisms underlying the enhancement of radiosensitivity to γ-irradiation in HepG2 transiently transfected with wild type p27kip1.METHODS: The proliferation of HepG2 cells was evaluated with MTT assay, and the cell cycle profile and apoptosis were assessed by cell morphology, DNA fragmentation analysis and flow cytometry. HepG2 cells were transfected with p27kip1 wild type by using Lipofectamine (LF2000), and the expression and subcellular localization of p27kip1 in HepG2were detected by immunocytochemistry.RESULTS: 60Co γ-irradiation inhibited the growth of HepG2cells in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis of HepG2 cells was induced 48 h after γ ray exposure. Furthermore research was carried out to induce exogenous expression of p27kip1in HepG2. The expression of p27kip1 induced G0/G1 phase arrest in HepG2 cells. The overexpression of p27kip1 enhanced 60Co γ-irradiation-induced radiosensitivity in HepG2 cells.CONCLUSION: Overexpression of p27kip1 is a rational approach to improve conventional radiotherapy outcomes, which may be a possible strategy for human hepatoma therapy.

  18. The Nitric Oxide Prodrug JS-K Induces Ca(2+)-Mediated Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

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    Liu, Ling; Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Jiangang; Wang, Shuying

    2016-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common and deadly forms of human malignancies. JS-K, O(2)-(2, 4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl) piperazin-1-yl] diazen-1-ium-1, 2-diolate, has the ability to induce apoptosis of tumor cell lines. In the present study, JS-K inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and significantly induced apoptosis. JS-K enhanced the ratio of Bax-to-Bcl-2, released of cytochrome c (Cyt c) from mitochondria and the activated caspase-9/3. JS-K caused an increasing cytosolic Ca(2+) and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Carboxy-PTIO (a NO scavenger) and BAPTA-AM (an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator) significantly blocked an increasing cytosolic Ca(2+) in JS-K-induced HepG2 cells apoptosis, especially Carboxy-PTIO. Meanwhile, Carboxy-PTIO and BAPTA-AM treatment both attenuate JS-K-induced apoptosis through upregulation of Bcl-2, downregulation of Bax, reduction of Cyt c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm and inactivation of caspase-9/3. In summary, JS-K induced HepG2 cells apoptosis via Ca(2+)/caspase-3-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

  19. Potential role of novel hepatocellular carcinoma-associated gene IDD01 in promoting tumorigenesis of HepG2 cell line

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    CHEN Xiang-yu; LI Jian-sheng; MA Jun; DUAN Fang-ling; ZHONG Peng

    2006-01-01

    Background We have used suppression subtractive hybridization to construct a subtracted cDNA library of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and isolated a panel of differential expression sequence tag (ESTs). By using bioinformatics and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), we found a novel HCC-associated gene IDD01.To further investigate its function, a recombinant eukaryotic vector pEGFP/ORF was constructed and transfected into the HepG2 cell line.Methods The open reading frame (ORF) of IDD01 was amplified by RT-PCR, digested with Bamh I and Hind Ⅲ, and subcloned into the pEGFP-C 1 vector. The ligation reaction was conducted with T4 DNA ligase, and the recombinant vector was named pEGFP/ORF. Untransfer control (control group), pEGFP-C 1 (HepG2/C 1 group)and pEGFP/ORF (HepG2/ORF group) transfer groups were designed. Gene transfer was conducted with lipofectamine. To obtain stable transfection in HepG2 cells, selection was initiated with 500μg/ml G418. Cellular IDD01 mRNA levels were assayed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The MTT colorimetric method and flow cytometry were used to determine the cell proliferation. The tumorigenic potential of transformed cells was determined from their ability to grow as anchorage-independent colonies on soft agar. Transient transfections were performed to observe subcellular location of GFP-IDD01 fusion protein.Results A 778 bp specific band of ORF was obtained by RT-PCR, and the positive clone of recombinant plasmid pEGFP/ORF (5.5 Kb) was identified by restriction endonuclease cleavage and sequence. The brighmess ratio of IDD01 mRNA was not obvious between control and pEGFP/C1 groups, whereas the ratio of pEGFP/ORF was higher than that in the other two groups. After culture for 24-72 hours, the A490 values in pEGFP/ORF were higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.01). On histograms of flow cytometry, the S phase ratio of HepG2/ORF cells was significantly higher than that of the control and HepG2/C1 groups. The HepG2/ORF

  20. DNA-PKcs subunits in radiosensitization by hyperthermia on hepatocellular carcinoma hepG2 cell line

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    Zhao-Chong Zeng; Guo-Liang Jiang; Guo-Min Wang; Zhao-You Tang; Walter J. Curran; George Iliakis

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of DNA-PKcs subunits inradiosensitization by hyperthermia on hepatocellularcarcinoma HepG2 cell lines.METHODS: Hep G2 cells were exposed to hyperthermiaand irradiation. Hyperthermia was given at 45.5 ℃Cellsurvival was determined by an in vitro clonogenic assay forthe cells treated with or without hyperthermia at varioustime points. DNA DSB rejoining was measured usingasymmetric field inversion gel electrophoresis (AFIGE). TheDNA-PKcs activities were measured using DNA-PKcs enzymeassay system.RESULTS: Hyperthermia can significantly enhanceirradiation-killing cells. Thermal enhancement ratio ascalculated at 10 % survival was 2.02. The difference inradiosensitivity between two treatment modes manifestedas a difference in the α components and the almost sameβ components, which α value was considerably higher inthe cells of combined radiation and hyperthermia ascompared with irradiating cells (1.07 Gy-1 versus 0.44 Gy1). Survival fraction showed 1 logarithm increase after an8-hour interval between heat and irradiation, whereas DNA-PKcs activity did not show any recovery. The cells wereexposed to heat 5 minutes only, DNA-PKcs activity wasinhibited at the nadir, even though the exposure time waslengthened. Whereas the ability of DNA DSB rejoining wasinhibited with the increase of the length of hyperthermictime. The repair kinetics of DNA DSB rejoining aftertreatment with Wortmannin is different from thehyperthermic group due to the striking high slow rejoiningcomponent.CONCLUSION: Determination with the cell extracts andthe peptide phosphorylation assay, DNA-PKcs activity wasinactivated by heat treatment at 45.5 C, and could notrestore. Cell survival is not associated with the DNA-PKcsinactivity after heat. DNA-PKcs is not a unique factor affectingthe DNA DSB repair. This suggests that DNA-PKcs do notplay a crucial role in the enhancement of cellularradiosensitivity by hyperthermia.

  1. A Novel Polysaccharide Conjugate from Bullacta exarata Induces G1-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ningbo; Sun, Liang; Chen, Jiang; Zhong, Jianjun; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Ronghua

    2017-03-01

    Bullacta exarata has been consumed in Asia, not only as a part of the normal diet, but also as a traditional Chinese medicine with liver- and kidney-benefitting functions. Several scientific investigations involving extraction of biomolecules from this mollusk and pharmacological studies on their biological activities have been carried out. However, little is known regarding the antitumor properties of polysaccharides from B. exarata, hence the polysaccharides from B. exarata have been investigated here. One polysaccharide conjugate BEPS-IA was isolated and purified from B. exarata. It mainly consisted of mannose and glucose in a molar ratio of 1:2, with an average molecular weight of 127 kDa. Thirteen general amino acids were identified to be components of the protein-bound polysaccharide. Methylation and NMR studies revealed that BEPS-IA is a heteropolysaccharide consisting of 1,4-linked-α-d-Glc, 1,6-linked-α-d-Man, 1,3,6-linked-α-d-Man, and 1-linked-α-d-Man residue, in a molar ratio of 6:1:1:1. In order to test the antitumor activity of BEPS-IA, we investigated its effect against the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 in vitro. The result showed that BEPS-IA dose-dependently exhibited an effective HepG2 cells growth inhibition with an IC50 of 112.4 μg/mL. Flow cytometry analysis showed that BEPS-IA increased the populations of both apoptotic sub-G1 and G1 phase. The result obtained from TUNEL assay corroborated apoptosis which was shown in flow cytometry. Western blot analysis suggested that BEPS-IA induced apoptosis and growth inhibition were associated with up-regulation of p53, p21 and Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2. These findings suggest that BEPS-IA may serve as a potential novel dietary agent for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. TALENs-directed knockout of the full-length transcription factor Nrf1α that represses malignant behaviour of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonggang; Qiu, Lu; Lü, Fenglin; Ru, Xufang; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Yu, Siwang; Zhang, Yiguo

    2016-04-11

    The full-length Nrf1α is processed into distinct isoforms, which together regulate genes essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and organ integrity, and liver-specific loss of Nrf1 in mice results in spontaneous hepatoma. Herein, we report that the human constitutive Nrf1α, rather than smaller Nrf1β/γ, expression is attenuated or abolished in the case of low-differentiated high-metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas. Therefore, Nrf1α is of importance in the physio-pathological origin and development, but its specific pathobiological function(s) remains elusive. To address this, TALENs-directed knockout of Nrf1α, but not Nrf1β/γ, is created in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The resulting Nrf1α(-/-) cells are elongated, with slender spindle-shapes and enlarged gaps between cells observed under scanning electron microscope. When compared with wild-type controls, the invasive and migratory abilities of Nrf1α(-/-) cells are increased significantly, along with the cell-cycle G2-M arrest and S-phase reduction, as accompanied by suppressed apoptosis. Despite a modest increase in the soft-agar colony formation of Nrf1α(-/-) cells, its loss-of-function markedly promotes malgrowth of the subcutaneous carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with hepatic metastasis. Together with molecular expression results, we thus suppose requirement of Nrf1α (and major derivates) for gene regulatory mechanisms repressing cancer cell process (e.g. EMT) and malignant behaviour (e.g. migration).

  3. Sesamin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signalling in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Pengyi; Wang, Chen; Chen, Liulin; Wang, Cheng; Du, Yuhan; Yan, Xu; Chen, Mingjie; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    Sesamin, one of the most abundant lignans in sesame seeds, has been shown to exhibit various pharmacological effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether sesamin promotes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells and further to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we found that sesamin inhibited HepG2 cell growth by inducing G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, sesamin suppressed the constitutive and interleukin (IL)-6-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling pathway in HepG2 cells, leading to regulate the downstream genes, including p53, p21, cyclin proteins and the Bcl-2 protein family. Our studies showed that STAT3 signalling played a key role in sesamin-induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. These findings provided a molecular basis for understanding of the effects of sesamin in hepatocellular carcinoma tumour cell proliferation. Therefore, sesamin may thus be a potential chemotherapy drug for liver cancer.

  4. Hesperidin from Citrus seed induces human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Wudtiwai, Benjawan; Khaw-On, Patompong; Rachakhom, Wasitta; Duangnil, Natthachai; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    Citrus seeds are full of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids. The aims of this study were to identify the types of flavonoids in Citrus seed extracts, the cytotoxic effect, mode of cell death, and signaling pathway in human hepatic cancer HepG2 cells. The flavonoids contain anticancer, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. Neohesperidin, hesperidin, and naringin, active flavanone glycosides, were identified in Citrus seed extract. The cytotoxic effect of three compounds was in a dose-dependent manner, and IC50 levels were determined. The sensitivity of human HepG2 cells was as follows: hesperidin > naringin > neohesperidin > naringenin. Hesperidin induced HepG2 cells to undergo apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as evidenced by the externalization of phosphatidylserine and determined by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining using flow cytometry. Hesperidin did not induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, which was determined by using 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry method. The number of hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells with the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential increased concentration dependently, using 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide employing flow cytometry. Caspase-9, -8, and -3 activities were activated and increased in hesperidin-treated HepG2 cells. Bcl-xL protein was downregulated whereas Bax, Bak, and tBid protein levels were upregulated after treatment with hesperidin in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the bioflavanone from Citrus seeds, hesperidin, induced human HepG2 cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway and death receptor pathway. Citrus seed flavonoids are beneficial and can be developed as anticancer drug or food supplement, which still needs further in vivo investigation in animals and human beings.

  5. A Novel Polysaccharide Conjugate from Bullacta exarata Induces G1-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningbo Liao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bullacta exarata has been consumed in Asia, not only as a part of the normal diet, but also as a traditional Chinese medicine with liver- and kidney-benefitting functions. Several scientific investigations involving extraction of biomolecules from this mollusk and pharmacological studies on their biological activities have been carried out. However, little is known regarding the antitumor properties of polysaccharides from B. exarata, hence the polysaccharides from B. exarata have been investigated here. One polysaccharide conjugate BEPS-IA was isolated and purified from B. exarata. It mainly consisted of mannose and glucose in a molar ratio of 1:2, with an average molecular weight of 127 kDa. Thirteen general amino acids were identified to be components of the protein-bound polysaccharide. Methylation and NMR studies revealed that BEPS-IA is a heteropolysaccharide consisting of 1,4-linked-α-d-Glc, 1,6-linked-α-d-Man, 1,3,6-linked-α-d-Man, and 1-linked-α-d-Man residue, in a molar ratio of 6:1:1:1. In order to test the antitumor activity of BEPS-IA, we investigated its effect against the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 in vitro. The result showed that BEPS-IA dose-dependently exhibited an effective HepG2 cells growth inhibition with an IC50 of 112.4 μg/mL. Flow cytometry analysis showed that BEPS-IA increased the populations of both apoptotic sub-G1 and G1 phase. The result obtained from TUNEL assay corroborated apoptosis which was shown in flow cytometry. Western blot analysis suggested that BEPS-IA induced apoptosis and growth inhibition were associated with up-regulation of p53, p21 and Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2. These findings suggest that BEPS-IA may serve as a potential novel dietary agent for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. PEG-nanolized ultrasmall selenium nanoparticles overcome drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells through induction of mitochondria dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Shanyuan Zheng,1,2 Xiaoling Li,1 Yibo Zhang,1 Qiang Xie,3 Yum-Shing Wong,2 Wenjie Zheng,1 Tianfeng Chen,1,3,41Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China; 2School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; 3Wu Jing Zong Dui Hospital of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, China; 4State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, ChinaAbstract: Gray selenium (Se is one of the most widely used Se sources with very limited biocompatibility and bioactivity. In the present study, a simple method for the preparation of ultrasmall selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs through direct nanolization of gray selenium by polyethylene glycol (PEG was demonstrated. Monodisperse and homogeneous PEG-SeNPs with ultrasmall diameters were successfully prepared under optimized conditions. The products were characterized using various microscopic and spectroscopic methods, and the results suggest that the amphoteric properties of PEG and the coordination between oxygen and selenium atoms contributed to the formation of ultrasmall nanoparticles. PEG-SeNPs exhibited stronger growth inhibition on drug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma (R-HepG2 cells than on normal HepG2 cells. Dose-dependent apoptosis was induced by PEG-SeNPs in R-HepG2 cells, as evidenced by an increase in the sub-G1 cell population. Further investigation on the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of superoxide anions contributed to PEG-SeNPs-induced apoptotic cell death in R-HepG2 cells. Our results suggest that PEG-SeNPs may be a candidate for further evaluation as a chemotherapeutic agent for drug-resistant liver cancer, and the strategy to use PEG200 as a surface decorator could be a highly efficient way to enhance the anticancer efficacy of nanomaterials.Keywords: selenium, PEG, nanolization, drug resistance, apoptosis

  7. Hesperidin from Citrus seed induces human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Citrus seeds are full of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids. The aims of this study were to identify the types of flavonoids in Citrus seed extracts, the cytotoxic effect, mode of cell death, and signaling pathway in human hepatic cancer HepG2 cells. The flavonoids contain anticancer, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. Neohesperidin, hesperidin, and naringin, active flavanone glycosides, were identified in Citrus seed extract. The cytotoxic effect of three compounds was ...

  8. Antioxidant and Proapoptotic Activities of Sclerocarya birrea [(A. Rich. Hochst.] Methanolic Root Extract on the Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line HepG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francesca Armentano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to characterize the in vitro antioxidant activity and the apoptotic potential of S. birrea methanolic root extract (MRE. Among four tested extracts, obtained with different solvents, MRE showed the highest content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins together with antioxidant activities tested with superoxide, nitric oxide, ABTS, and beta-carotene bleaching assays. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect of MRE was evaluated on the hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. In these cells, MRE treatment induced apoptosis and generated reactive oxygen species (ROS in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect promoted by MRE was prevented by pretreatment of HepG2 cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, suggesting that oxidative stress was pivotal in MRE-mediated cell death. Moreover, we showed that the MRE treatment induced the mitochondrial membrane depolarization and the cytochrome c release from mitochondria into the cytosol. It suggests that the apoptosis occurred in a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Interestingly, MRE showed a sensibly lower cytotoxicity, associated with a low increase of ROS, in normal human dermal fibroblasts compared to HepG2 cells. It is suggested that the methanolic root extract of S. Birrea is able to selectively increase intracellular ROS levels in cancer cells, promoting cell death.

  9. Effect of Mst1 overexpression on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and the sensitivity to cisplatin in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanming Xu; Chunju Liu; Wei Huang; Shuo Tu; Fusheng Wan

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian STE20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) is the mammalian homologue of Drosophila Hippo,a major inhibitor of cell proliferation in Drosophila.It ubiquitously encodes serine threonine kinase that belongs to the family of protein kinases related to yeast STE20,and is involved in cell proliferation,apoptosis,oncogenesis,and organ growth.Recent studies have shown that Mst1 has tumor-suppressor function,and the deletion or mutation of Mst1 is reported to be associated with tumorigenesis.To investigate the effect of overexpression of Mst1 on the growth of human liver cancer cell line HepG2 cells and the sensitivity to cisplatin in vitro,here we constructed recombinant eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N1-Mst1 containing Mst1 gene,and transiently transfected into HepG2 cells.The effects of Mst1 overexpression on the cell proliferation and apoptosis,the phosphorylation status of Yes-associated protein,and the mRNA transcript levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF),amphiregulin (AREG),and birc5 (Survivin) were determined.Results showed that overexpression of Mst1 inhibited cell proliferation,induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells,promoted YAP (Ser127) phosphorylation,and downregulated the mRNA expression of CTGF,AREG,and Survivin.We also investigated the relationship between the expression and cleavage of Mst1 and cisplatin-induced cell death.We found that Mst1 overexpression could induce cisplatin chemosensitivity,and cisplatin could promote the cleavage of Mst1 without affecting the expression of Mst1.Overall,our results indicated that Mst1 might be a promising anticancer target.

  10. Anticancer Effects of 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-Methylanthraquinone and the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd against HepG2 Carcinoma Cells Mediated via Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Lan Li

    Full Text Available Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a treatment for various diseases including cancer, owing to its mild effectiveness and low toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the main anticancer components in Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, and explore mechanisms underlying their activity. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd was extracted and fractionated using ethyl acetate to obtain the H-Ethyl acetate fraction, which showed higher anticancer activity than the other fractions obtained against HepG2 cells with sulforhodamine B assays. The active component of the H-Ethyl acetate fraction was identified to be 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (DMQ with much high inhibitory rate up to 48.9 ± 3.3% and selectivity rate up to 9.4 ± 4.5 folds (p<0.01 at 125 μmol/L. HepG2 cells treated with the fraction and DMQ visualized morphologically using light and fluorescence microscopy. Annexin V--fluorescein isothiocyanate / propidium iodide staining flow cytometry, DNA ladder and cell cycle distribution assays. Mechanistic studies showed up-regulation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 proteases activities (p<0.001, indicating involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor pathways. Further studies revealed that reactive oxygen species in DMQ and the fraction treated HepG2 cells increased (p<0.01 while mitochondrial membrane potential reduced significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control by flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis showed that Bax, p53, Fas, FasL, p21 and cytoplasmic cytochrome C were up-regulated (p<0.01, while Bcl-2, mitochondrial cytochrome C, cyclin E and CDK 2 were down-regulated dose-dependently (p<0.01. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that mRNA expressions of p53 and Bax increased (p<0.001 while that of Bcl-2 decreased (p<0.001. Pre-treatment with caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK, or caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, attenuated the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of DMQ and the

  11. Cytotoxicity and Expression of c-fos, HSP70, and GADD45/153 Proteins in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2 Cells Exposed to Dinitrotoluenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Dinitrotoluenes (DNTs are byproducts of the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT, and exist as a mixture of 2 to 6 isomers, with 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT being the most significant. The main route of human exposure at ammunition facilities is inhalation. The primary targets of DNTs toxicity are the hematopoietic system, cardiovascular system, nervous system and reproductive system. In factory workers, exposure to DNTs has been linked to many adverse health effects, including: cyanosis, vertigo, headache, metallic taste, dyspnea, weakness and lassitude, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. Other symptoms including pain or parasthesia in extremities, abdominal discomfort, tremors, paralysis, chest pain, and unconsciousness have been documented. An association between DNTs exposure and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinomas and subcutaneous tumors in rats, as well as renal tumors in mice, has been established. This research was therefore designed targeting the liver to assess the cellular and molecular responses of human liver carcinoma cells following exposure to 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay. Upon 48 hrs of exposure, LC50 values of 245 + 14.72μg/mL, and 300 + 5.92μg/mL were recorded for 2,6-DNT and 2,4-DNT respectively, indicating that both DNTs are moderately toxic, and 2,6-DNT is slightly more toxic to HepG2 cells than 2,4-DNT. A dose response relationship was recorded with respect to the cytotoxicity of both DNTs. Western blot analysis resulted in a significant expression (p<0.05 of the 70-kDa heat shock protein in 2,6-DNT-treated cells compared to the control cells and at the 200 μg/mL dose for 2,4-DNT. A statistically significant expression in c-fos was also observed at the 200 and 250 μg/mL treatment level for 2,4- and 2,6-DNT, respectively. However, no statistically significant expression of this protooncogene-related protein was observed at the doses of 0, 100, or 300

  12. Monoterpene indole alkaloid hydrazone derivatives with apoptosis inducing activity in human HCT116 colon and HepG2 liver carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, Angela; Borralho, Pedro M; Gomes, Sofia E; Mulhovo, Silva; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Ferreira, Maria-José U

    2015-09-01

    The derivatization of dregamine (1) and tabernaemontanine (2), two epimeric monoterpene indole alkaloids isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of Tabernaemontana elegans, with several hydrazines and hydroxylamine gave rise to ten new derivatives (3-12). Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR experiments. The compounds were tested for their ability to induce apoptosis in HCT116 colon and HepG2 liver cancer cells. Firstly, the cytotoxicity of all compounds (1-12) was evaluated in both cell lines by the MTS assay. The most active compounds (6, 9, 10) along with 1 and 2 were further investigated for their apoptosis induction capability by Guava ViaCount flow cytometry assays, nuclear morphology evaluation by Hoechst staining, and caspase-3/7 activity assays. Compounds 9 and 10 showed promising apoptosis induction profile, displaying higher activities than 5-fluorouracil, the mainstay in colon cancer treatment.

  13. Induction of Apoptosis by Ethanolic Extract of Corchorus olitorius Leaf in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2 Cells via a Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Fang Tsang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Corchorus olitorius L., is a culinary and medicinal herb, widely used as a vegetable in several countries in Asia. Many studies have shown that C. olitorius contains several antioxidants and exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities in various in vitro and in vivo settings. Recently, C. olitorius has been approved for its antitumor activity; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of C. olitorius (ECO on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells and gain some insights into the underlying mechanisms of its action. We found that HepG2 cells, treated with ECO for 24 h at a concentration higher than 12.5 μg/mL, displayed a strong reduction in cell viability, whereas normal FL83B hepatocytes were not affected. DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation were evidenced by the increased subG1 population of ECO-treated HepG2 cells. ECO triggered the activation of procaspases-3 and -9 and caused the cleavage of downstream substrate, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, followed by down-regulation of the inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD signaling. Moreover, the increased release of cytochrome c from mitochondria with decreased membrane potential demonstrated the apoptosis induced through the caspases cascade. Our findings indicated that ECO might be effective against hepatocellular carcinoma through induction of apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway.

  14. Midkine accumulated in nucleolus of HepG2 cells involved in rRNA transcription

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Cheng Dai; Jian-Zhong Shao; Li-Shan Min; Yong-Tao Xiao; Li-Xin Xiang; Zhi-Hong Ma

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To invesgate the ultrastructural location of midkine (MK) in nucleolus and function corresponding to its location. METHODS: To investigate the ultrastructural location of MK in nucleolus with immunoelectronic microscopy. To study the role that MK plays in ribosomal biogenesis by real-time PCR. The effect of MK on anti-apoptotic activity of HepG2 cells was studied with FITC-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide PI double staining through FACS assay. RESULTS: MK mainly localized in the granular component (GC), dense fibrillar component (DFC) and the border between the DF-C and fibrillar center (FC). The production of 45S precursor rRNA level was decreased significantly in the presence of IK antisense oligonucleotide in the HepG2 cells. Furthermore, it was found that exogenous MK could protect HepG2 from apoptosis significantly. CONCLUSION: NK was constitutively translocated to the nucleolus of HepG2 cells, where it accumulated and mostly distributed at DFC, GC components and at the region between FC and DFC, MK played an important role in rRNA transcription, ribosome biogenesis, and cell proliferation in HepG2 cells. MK might serve as a molecular target for therapeutic intervention of human carcinomas.

  15. Human Sulfatase-1 Improves the Effectiveness of Cytosine Deaminase Suicide Gene Therapy with 5-Fluorocytosine Treatment on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line HepG2 In Vitro and In Vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Yang; Ling Liu; Ping Wang; Sheng-Lin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Background:Human sulfatase-1 (Hsulf-l) is an endosulfatase that selectively removes sulfate groups from heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs),altering the binding of several growth factors and cytokines to HSPG to regulate cell proliferation,cell motility,and apoptosis.We investigated the role of combined cancer gene therapy with Hsulf-l and cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (CD/5-FC) suicide gene on a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line,HepG2,in vitro and in vivo.Methods:Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the expression of Hsulf-1 in HCC.Cell apoptosis was observed through flow cytometry instrument and mechanism of Hsulf-1 to enhance the cytotoxicity of 5-FC against HCC was analyzed in HCC by confocal microscopy.We also establish a nude mice model of HCC to address the effect of Hsulf-1 expression on the CD/5-FC suicide gene therapy in vivo.Results:A significant decrease in HepG2 cell proliferation and an increase in HepG2 cell apoptosis were observed when Hsulf-1 expression was combined with the CD/5-FC gene suicide system.A noticeable bystander effect was observed when the Hsulf-1 and CD genes were co-expressed.Intracellular calcium was also increased after HepG2 cells were infected with the Hsulf-1 gene.In vivo studies showed that the suppression of tumor growth was more pronounced in animals treated with the Hsulf-1 plus CD than those treated with either gene therapy alone,and the combined treatment resulted in a significant increase in survival.Conclusions:Hsulf-1 expression combined with the CD/5-FC gene suicide system could be an effective treatment approach for HCC.

  16. Inhibition of energy-producing pathways of HepG2 cells by 3-bromopyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira da Silva, Ana Paula; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Kyaw, Nattascha; dos Santos, Reinaldo Sousa; da-Silva, Wagner Seixas; Almeida, Fabio C L; Da Poian, Andrea T; Galina, Antonio

    2009-02-01

    3-BrPA (3-bromopyruvate) is an alkylating agent with anti-tumoral activity on hepatocellular carcinoma. This compound inhibits cellular ATP production owing to its action on glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation; however, the specific metabolic steps and mechanisms of 3-BrPA action in human hepatocellular carcinomas, particularly its effects on mitochondrial energetics, are poorly understood. In the present study it was found that incubation of HepG2 cells with a low concentration of 3-BrPA for a short period (150 microM for 30 min) significantly affected both glycolysis and mitochondrial respiratory functions. The activity of mitochondrial hexokinase was not inhibited by 150 microM 3-BrPA, but this concentration caused more than 70% inhibition of GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase activities. Additionally, 3-BrPA treatment significantly impaired lactate production by HepG2 cells, even when glucose was withdrawn from the incubation medium. Oxygen consumption of HepG2 cells supported by either pyruvate/malate or succinate was inhibited when cells were pre-incubated with 3-BrPA in glucose-free medium. On the other hand, when cells were pre-incubated in glucose-supplemented medium, oxygen consumption was affected only when succinate was used as the oxidizable substrate. An increase in oligomycin-independent respiration was observed in HepG2 cells treated with 3-BrPA only when incubated in glucose-supplemented medium, indicating that 3-BrPA induces mitochondrial proton leakage as well as blocking the electron transport system. The activity of succinate dehydrogenase was inhibited by 70% by 3-BrPA treatment. These results suggest that the combined action of 3-BrPA on succinate dehydrogenase and on glycolysis, inhibiting steps downstream of the phosphorylation of glucose, play an important role in HepG2 cell death.

  17. Curcumin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuate acrylamide-induced proliferation in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiaoyun; Li, Yuan; Meng, Xulian; Wang, Pengqi; Jiang, Pan; Feng, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Acrylamide, a proven rodent carcinogen, is present in carbohydrate-rich food heated at high temperatures. It can be metabolized into glycidamide mainly by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). The fact that acrylamide is a potential carcinogen to human-beings draws public attention recently. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of acrylamide at low doses on proliferation of HepG2 cells, and to test whether the two well-studied chemopreventive agents, curcumin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), would have antagonistic effects against acrylamide. The results showed that lower concentration of acrylamide (⩽100μM) significantly increased the proliferation of HepG2 cells, but not of the other cancer cells (MDA-231, HeLa, A549, and PC-3). Only in HepG2 cells, low concentration of acrylamide was able to induce CYP2E1 expression significantly. Knockdown of CYP2E1 restrained acrylamide to increase viability of HepG2 cells. In addition, acrylamide raised expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin D1 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which contributed to cell proliferation. Both curcumin and EGCG effectively reduced acrylamide-induced proliferation, as well as protein expression of CYP2E1, EGFR, cyclin D1 and NF-κB. All these results suggest that low concentration of acrylamide may contribute to progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Curcumin or EGCG could prevent acrylamide triggering this effect.

  18. Silver Nanoparticles Induce HePG-2 Cells Apoptosis Through ROS-Mediated Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bing; Li, Yinghua; Lin, Zhengfang; Zhao, Mingqi; Xu, Tiantian; Wang, Changbing; Deng, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been shown to provide a novel approach to overcome tumors, especially those of hepatocarcinoma. However, the anticancer mechanism of silver nanoparticles is unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of AgNPs on proliferation and activation of ROS-mediated signaling pathway on human hepatocellular carcinoma HePG-2 cells. A simple chemical method for preparing AgNPs with superior anticancer activity has been showed in this study. AgNPs were detected by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The size distribution and zeta potential of silver nanoparticles were detected by Zetasizer Nano. The average size of AgNPs (2 nm) observably increased the cellular uptake by endocytosis. AgNPs markedly inhibited the proliferation of HePG-2 cells through induction of apoptosis with caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. AgNPs with dose-dependent manner significantly increased the apoptotic cell population (sub-G1). Furthermore, AgNP-induced apoptosis was found dependent on the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and affecting of MAPKs and AKT signaling and DNA damage-mediated p53 phosphorylation to advance HePG-2 cells apoptosis. Therefore, our results show that the mechanism of ROS-mediated signaling pathways may provide useful information in AgNP-induced HePG-2 cell apoptosis.

  19. Hepatoma cell line HepG2.2.15 demonstrates distinct biological features compared with parental HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Zhao; Tian-Zhen Wang; Dan Kong; Lei Zhang; Hong-Xue Meng; Yang Jiang; Yi-Qi Wu; Zu-Xi Yu; Xiao-Ming Jin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the biological features of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-transfected HepG2.2.15 cells. METHODS: The cell ultrastructure, cell cycle and apop-tosis, and the abilities of proliferation and invasion of HBV-transfected HepG2.2.15 and the parent HepG2 cells were examined by electron microscopy, flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and trans-well assay. Oncogenicity of the two cell lines was compared via subcutaneous injection and orthotopic injection or implantation in nude mice, and the pathological analysis of tumor formation was performed. Two cytoskeletal proteins were detected by Western blotting.RESULTS: Compared with HepG2 cells, HepG2.2.15 cells showed organelle degeneration and filopodia disappear-ance under electron microscope. HepG2.2.15 cells pro-liferated and migrated slowly in vitro, and hardly formed tumor and lung metastasis in nude mice. Flow cytom-etry showed that the majority of HepG2.2.15 cells were arrested in G1 phase, and apoptosis was minor in both cell lines. Furthermore, the levels of cytoskeletal pro-teins F-actin and Ezrin were decreased in HepG2.2.15 cells.CONCLUSION: HepG2.2.15 cells demonstrated a low-er proliferation and invasion ability than the HepG2 cells due to HBV transfection.

  20. A novel all-trans retinoic acid derivative 4-amino‑2‑trifluoromethyl-phenyl retinate inhibits the proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via upregulation of p53 and ASPP1 and downregulation of iASPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Feihu; Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Qing; Gui, Shuyu; Wang, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    4-Amino-2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl retinate (ATPR), a novel all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) derivative, was reported to function as a tumor inhibitor in various types of cancer cells in vitro. However, little is known concerning its antitumor effect on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of ATPR on the proliferation of HepG2 cells and to explore the probable mechanisms. A series of experiments were performed following the treatment of HepG2 cells with ATRA and ATPR. MTT and plate colony formation assays were used to measure the cell viability. To confirm the influence on proliferation, flow cytometry was used to detect the distribution of the cell cycle. Apoptosis was observed by Hoechst staining and flow cytometry. In addition, to characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms, immunofluorescence was applied to observe the distribution of p53. The transcription and translation levels of p53 were analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. The expression levels of murine double minute 2 (MDM2), apoptosis stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP), cell cycle- and apoptosis-associated proteins were detected by western blotting. After HepG2 cells were incubated with ATRA and ATPR, the viability of the HepG2 cells was inhibited in a dose- and time-dependent manner. As well, ATPR significantly suppressed HepG2 cell colony formation and arrested cells at the G0/G1 phase, while ATRA had no obvious effects. Both Hoechst staining and flow cytometry unveiled the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Moreover, the fluorescent density of p53 was higher in the nuclei after exposure to ATPR than that in the ATRA group. HepG2 cells treated with ATPR showed elevated mRNA and protein levels of p53 when compared with these levels in the ATRA-treated cells. Western blotting showed that ATPR increased ASPP1, p21 and Bax expression and decreased MDM2, iASPP, cyclin D and E, cyclin

  1. Investigation of quercetin-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis-associated cellular biophysical alterations by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Jiang; Li, Baole; Tu, Lvying; Zhu, Haiyan; Jin, Hua; Yang, Fen; Bai, Haihua; Cai, Huaihong; Cai, Jiye

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a wildly distributed bioflavonoid, has been proved to possess excellent antitumor activity on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, the biophysical properties of HepG2 cells were qualitatively and quantitatively determined using high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to understand the anticancer effects of quercetin on HCC cells at nanoscale. The results showed that quercetin could induce severe apoptosis in HepG2 cells through arrest of cell cycle and disruption of mitochondria membrane potential. Additionally, the nuclei and F-actin structures of HepG2 cells were destroyed by quercetin treatment as well. AFM morphological data showed some typical apoptotic characterization of HepG2 cells with increased particle size and roughness in the ultrastructure of cell surface upon quercetin treatment. As an important biophysical property of cells, the membrane stiffness of HepG2 cells was further quantified by AFM force measurements, which indicated that HepG2 cells became much stiffer after quercetin treatment. These results collectively suggest that quercetin can be served as a potential therapeutic agent for HCC, which not only extends our understanding of the anticancer effects of quercetin against HCC cells into nanoscale, but also highlights the applications of AFM for the investigation of anticancer drugs.

  2. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of aromatic turmerone from Curcuma longa Linn. induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-triggered intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shao-Bin; Wu, Li-Chen; Hsieh, Yun-Chih; Wu, Chi-Hao; Chan, Yu-Ju; Chang, Li-Hsun; Chang, Chieh-Ming J; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Teng, Chieh-Lin; Wu, Chun-Chi

    2012-09-26

    The mechanisms underlying the antiproliferative and antitumor activities of aromatic turmerone (ar-turmerone), a volatile turmeric oil isolated from Curcuma longa Linn., have been largely unknown. In this study, 86% pure ar-turmerone was extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and liquid-solid chromatography and its potential effects and molecular mechanisms on cell proliferation studied in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Ar-turmerone exhibited significant antiproliferative activity, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 64.8 ± 7.1, 102.5 ± 11.5, and 122.2 ± 7.6 μg/mL against HepG2, Huh-7, and Hep3B cells, respectively. Ar-turmerone-induced apoptosis, confirmed by increased annexin V binding and DNA fragmentation, was accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, increased Bax and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) levels, Bax mitochondrial translocation, cytochrome c release, Fas and death receptor 4 (DR4) augmentation, and caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation. Exposure to caspase inhibitors, Fas-antagonistic antibody, DR4 antagonist, and furosemide (a blocker of Bax translocation) effectively abolished ar-turmerone-triggered apoptosis. Moreover, ar-turmerone stimulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and activation; treatment with JNK and ERK inhibitors markedly reduced PUMA, Bax, Fas, and DR4 levels and reduced apoptosis but not ROS generation. Furthermore, antioxidants attenuated ar-turmerone-mediated ROS production; mitochondrial dysfunction; JNK and ERK activation; PUMA, Bax, Fas, and DR4 expression; and apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that ar-turmerone-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells is through ROS-mediated activation of ERK and JNK kinases and triggers both intrinsic and extrinsic caspase activation, leading to apoptosis. On the basis of these observations, ar-turmerone deserves further investigation

  3. Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Agonists Oppose Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in HepG2 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minqian Shen

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant risk factor for certain cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Leptin, a hormone secreted by white adipose tissue, precipitates HCC development. Epidemiology data show that men have a much higher incidence of HCC than women, suggesting that estrogens and its receptors may inhibit HCC development and progression. Whether estrogens antagonize oncogenic action of leptin is uncertain. To investigate potential inhibitory effects of estrogens on leptin-induced HCC development, HCC cell line HepG2 cells were treated with leptin in combination with 17 β-estradiol (E2, estrogen receptor-α (ER-α selective agonist PPT, ER-β selective agonist DPN, or G protein-coupled ER (GPER selective agonist G-1. Cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined, and leptin- and estrogen-related intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed. HepG2 cells expressed a low level of ER-β mRNA, and leptin treatment increased ER-β expression. E2 suppressed leptin-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally E2 reversed leptin-induced STAT3 and leptin-suppressed SOCS3, which was mainly achieved by activation of ER-β. E2 also enhanced ERK via activating ER-α and GPER and activated p38/MAPK via activating ER-β. To conclude, E2 and its receptors antagonize the oncogenic actions of leptin in HepG2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating cell apoptosis, which was associated with reversing leptin-induced changes in SOCS3/STAT3 and increasing p38/MAPK by activating ER-β, and increasing ERK by activating ER-α and GPER. Identifying roles of different estrogen receptors would provide comprehensive understanding of estrogenic mechanisms in HCC development and shed light on potential treatment for HCC patients.

  4. 二甲双胍对人肝癌细胞 HepG2增殖及脂肪酸合酶的影响%Effects of metformin on cell proliferation and fatty acid synthase in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晓韧; 刘燕; 邹大进; 李娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective The cancer risk of patients with diabetes mellitus who are treated by metformin declines remarkably in comparison to patients receiving other drug therapies.The article was to investigate the relationship between antineopastic activity and fatty acid synthase (FASN) of metformin in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell(HCC) line HepG2. Methods HepG2 cells were treated with various concentrations of metformin( 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 mmol/L) for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively and cell growth was assessed by CCK-8 assay.Positive control(paclitaxel 10μg/mL) and negative control(metformin 0mmol/L) were set up simultaneously.After being treated with doses of metformin(0, 5, 10,15mmol/L) for 72h, protein expression levels of AMPKα、P-AMPKα、FASN、P-mTOR and P-Akt were measured by western blotting analysis and FASN mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-PCR. Results Being treated with vari-ous doses of metformin(1, 5, 10, 15 mmol/L) for 24, 48 and 72 h, the growth of HepG2 cells were inhibited by metformin in dose-dependent and time-dependent manner( P0.05) .FASN mRNA expression levels decreased significantly in all metformin-treated groups( P<0.05) . Conclusion Met-formin actitiviates AMPK, inhibits mTOR and downregulates FASN, which are implicated in its antineopastic activity on HCC.Although metformin inhibits mTOR activation, it is not involved in Akt upregulation through a negative loop.%目的:二甲双胍治疗的糖尿病患者癌症发生风险较其他药物治疗者显著降低。探讨二甲双胍在人肝癌细胞HepG2中的抗肿瘤活性与脂肪酸合酶的关系。方法选取不同浓度(1、5、10、15 mmol/L)二甲双胍处理HepG2细胞24、48、72 h,用CCK-8法检测其对细胞增殖的影响。同时设阳性对照(紫杉醇10μg/mL),阴性对照(二甲双胍0 mmol/L)。设0、5、10、15 mmol/L二甲双胍处理72 h,用Western blot检测腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶( adenosine monophosphate activated protein

  5. Differential genomic effects on signaling pathways by two different CeO2 nanoparticles in HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate genomic effects, human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were exposed for three days to two different forms of nanoparticles both composed of Ce02 (0.3, 3 and 30 µg/mL). The two Ce02 nanopartices had dry primary particle sizes of 8 nanometers {(M) ...

  6. Effect of Salvianolic acid A on mitochondrial transmembrane potential of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2%丹酚酸A对肝癌HepG2细胞线粒体跨膜电位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕蕾; 陈卫平; 姜泽群; 冯全服

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Study the effect of Salvianolic acid A(SalA) on mitochondrial transmembrane potential of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2, to explore the mechanism of SalA in vitro inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma cell. Methods: Hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 were used as target cells, and MTT method was used to observe the effects of different concentrations of SalA on HepG2 cells. Thermo Cellomics ArrayScan Vti was used for detecting the effect of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and cytotoxicity of Salvianolic acid A(SalA) on HepG2 cells by Hoechst and Mito-tracke double staining. Results: The growth of HepG-2 cells was inhibited by SalA, and show a certain degree of dose dependent. Through the Thermo Cellomics ArrayScan Vti testing found that SalA can reduce the mitochondrial transmembrane potential , levels of HepG-2 cells, and decreased more obviously with the increasing concentration. Conclusion: SalA can inhibit HepG2 cells. Its mechanism may be decreasing mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and triggering the cells apoptosis.%目的:通过研究丹酚酸A(SalA)对肝癌HepG2细胞株线粒体跨膜电位的影响,来探讨SalA抑制肝癌细胞增殖的作用机制.方法:以肝癌HepG2细胞为靶细胞,采用MTT法观察不同浓度的SalA对HepG2细胞增殖的影响;通过Hoechst和Mito-tracke双染,经Thermo Cellomics ArrayScan VTi检测SalA对HepG2细胞的线粒体跨膜电位和细胞毒性的影响.结果:SalA对HepG-2细胞增殖有抑制作用,并呈现剂量依赖性;SalA能降低HepG2细胞内线粒体跨膜电位水平,且随浓度增加降低越明显.结论:SalA具有抑制肝癌HepG2细胞增殖的作用,其作用机制可能与降低线粒体跨膜电位,通过线粒体途径触发细胞凋亡有关.

  7. Comparative Cytotoxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Roots from Different Geographical Origins Against Immortal Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT), Lung Adenocarcinoma (A549) and Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Norazah; Oridupa, Olayinka Ayotunde; Ritchie, Kenneth J; Nahar, Lutfun; Osman, Nashwa Mostafa M; Stafford, Angela; Kushiev, Habibjon; Kan, Asuman; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2015-06-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra.

  8. Ursolic acid inhibited growth of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells through AMPKα-mediated reduction of DNA methyltransferase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yie, Yinyi; Zhao, Shunyu; Tang, Qin; Zheng, Fang; Wu, Jingjing; Yang, LiJuan; Deng, ShiGuan; Hann, Swei Sunny

    2015-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the major histological subtype of primary liver cancer, remains one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Due to the complicated pathogenesis of this malignancy, the outcome for comprehensive treatment is limited. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is emerging as a promising choice for its multi-targets and coordinated intervention effects against HCC. Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid found in CHM, exerts anti-tumor effects and is emerging as an effective compound for cancer prevention and therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of UA remain largely unknown. In this study, we showed that UA inhibited the growth of HCC cells and induced apoptosis in the dose- and time-dependent fashion. Furthermore, we found that UA induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and suppressed the protein expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the dose-dependent manner. The inhibitor of AMPK, compound C blocked, while an activator of AMPK, metformin augmented the effect of UA on DNMT1 expression. In addition, UA suppressed the expression of transcription factor Sp1. Conversely, overexpression of Sp1 reversed the effect of UA on DNMT1 expression and cell growth. Collectively, our results show for the first time that UA inhibits growth of HCC through AMPKα-mediated inhibition of Sp1; this in turn results in inhibition of DNMT1. This study reveals a potential novel mechanism by which UA controls growth of HCC cells and suggests that DNMT1 could be novel target for HCC chemoprevention and treatment.

  9. Apoptosis and its pathway in X gene-transfected HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Lin; Hong-Ying Chen; Dan Li; Sheng-Jun Zhang; Zhi-Xin Cheng; Xiao-Zhong Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) X gene on apoptosis and expressions of apoptosis factors in X gene-transfected HepG2 cells.METHODS: The HBV X gene eukaryon expression vector pcDNVA3-Xwas transiently transfected into HepG2 cells by lipid-media transfection. Untransfected HepG2 and HepG2 transfected with pcDNA3 were used as controls. Expression of HBx in HepG2 was identified by PT-PCR. MTT and TUNEL were employed to measure proliferation and apoptosis of cells in.three groups. Semi-quantified RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression levels of Fas/FasL, Bax/Bcl-xL,and c-myc in each group.RESULTS: HBV X gene was transfected into HepG2 cells successfully. RT-PCR showed that HBx was only expressed in HepG2/pcDNA3-X cells, but not expressed in HepG2 and HepG2/pcDNA3 cells. Analyzed by MTT, cell proliferation capacity was obviously lower in HepG2/pcDNA3-X cells (0.08910±0.003164) than in HepG2 (0.14410±0.004927)and HepG2/pcDNA3 cells (0.12150±0.007159) (P<0.05and P<0.01). Analyzed by TUNEL, cell apoptosis was much more in HepG2/pcDNA3-X cells (980/2 000) than HepG2 (420/2 000), HepG2/pcDNA3 cells (520/2 000) (P<0.05 and P<0.01). Evaluated by semi-quantified RT-PCR, the expression level of Fas/FasL was significantly higher in HepG2 cells transfected with HBx than in HepG2 and HepG2/pcDNA3 cells (P<0.05 and P<0.01). Bax/Bcl-xL expression level was also elevated in HepG2/pcDNA3-X cells (P<0.05and P<0.01). Expression of c-myc was markedly higher in HepG2/pcDNA3-X cells than in HepG2 and HepG2/pcDNA3 cells (P<0.05 and P<0.01).CONCLUSION: HBV X gene can impair cell proliferation capacity, improve cell apoptosis, and upregulate expression of apoptosis factors. The intervention of HBV X gene on the expression of apoptosis factors may be a possible mechanism responsible for the change in cell apoptosis and proliferation.

  10. Microarray Analysis of Mercury-Induced Changes in Gene Expression in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2 Cells: Importance in Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is widely distributed in the biosphere, and its toxic effects have been associated with human death and several ailments that include cardiovascular diseases, anemia, kidney and liver damage, developmental abnormalities, neurobehavioral disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancers in experimental animals. At the cellular level, mercury has been shown to interact with sulphydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, to damage DNA, and to modulate cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of mercury toxicity remain to be elucidated. Our laboratory has demonstrated that mercury exposure induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis, modulates cell cycle, and transcriptionally activates specific stress genes in human liver carcinoma cells. The liver is one of the few organs capable of regeneration from injury. Dormant genes in the liver are therefore capable of reactivation. In this research, we hypothesize that mercury-induced hepatotoxicity is associated with the modulation of specific gene expressions in liver cells that can lead to several disease states involving immune system dysfunctions. In testing this hypothesis, we used an Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray with probe sets complementary to more than 20,000 genes to determine whether patterns of gene expressions differ between controls and mercury (1-3μg/mL treated cells. There was a clear separation in gene expression profiles between controls and mercury-treated cells. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified 2,211 target genes that were affected. One hundred and thirty-eight of these genes were up-regulated, among which forty three were significantly over-expressed (p = 0.001 with greater than a two-fold change, and ninety five genes were moderately over-expressed with an increase of more than one fold (p = 0.004. Two thousand and twentythree genes were down-regulated with only forty five of them reaching a statistically significant decline at

  11. Effect of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine on the P16 tumor suppressor gene in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hua Liu; Wen Hua Xiao; Wei Wen Liu

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTIONHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the mostcommon human malignancies worldwide[1,2], and isclosely associated with infection of HBV and HCVand contamination of aflatoxin B1[3-6]. Althoughthe molecular mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesisremain poorly understood, an increasing number ofgenetic abnormalities have been recognized[7-10],for example, the p16 gene[11,12] the p53gene[13-18], the E-cadherin gene[19], and the c-mycgene[20].

  12. Dual-color fluorescence imaging to monitor CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 expression in human hepatic carcinoma HepG2 and HepaRG cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Tsuji

    Full Text Available Human adult hepatocytes expressing CYP3A4, a major cytochrome P450 enzyme, are required for cell-based assays to evaluate the potential risk of drug-drug interactions caused by transcriptional induction of P450 enzymes in early-phase drug discovery and development. However, CYP3A7 is preferentially expressed in premature hepatoblasts and major hepatic carcinoma cell lines. The human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepaRG possesses a high self-renewal capacity and can differentiate into hepatic cells similar to human adult hepatocytes in vitro. Transgenic HepaRG cells, in which the expression of fluorescent reporters is regulated by 35 kb regulatory elements of CYP3A4, have a distinct advantage over human hepatocytes isolated by collagenase perfusion, which are unstable in culture. Thus, we created transgenic HepaRG and HepG2 cells by replacing the protein-coding regions of human CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP and DsRed reporters, respectively, in a bacterial artificial chromosome vector that included whole regulatory elements. The intensity of DsRed fluorescence was initially high during the proliferation of transgenic HepaRG cells. However, most EGFP-positive cells were derived from those in which DsRed fluorescence was extinguished. Comparative analyses in these transgenic clones showed that changes in the total fluorescence intensity of EGFP reflected fold changes in the mRNA level of endogenous CYP3A4. Moreover, CYP3A4 induction was monitored by the increase in EGFP fluorescence. Thus, this assay provides a real-time evaluation system for quality assurance of hepatic differentiation into CYP3A4-expressing cells, unfavourable CYP3A4 induction, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting-mediated enrichment of CYP3A4-expressing hepatocytes based on the total fluorescence intensities of fluorescent reporters, without the need for many time-consuming steps.

  13. Effects of AFP gene silencing on Survivin mRNA expression inhibition in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z L; Fang, N; Han, X N; Huang, G; Fu, X J; Xie, G S; Wang, N R; Xiong, J P

    2015-04-10

    We investigated the effects of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene silencing on Survivin expression in HepG2 cells. Small interfering RNA technology was used to downregulate AFP expression in HepG2 cells. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure AFP concentration in the supernatant before and after transfection. An MTT assay was used to detect cell proliferation activity before and after transfection. We performed flow cytometric analysis to detect the cell apoptosis rate, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to detect Survivin mRNA levels before and after transfection. Forty-eight hours after transfection, AFP concentration in the supernatant of the experimental group significantly decreased, hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth was inhibited by 43.1%, and the apoptosis rate increased by 24.3%. Survivin mRNA expression was reduced by 78.0% in HepG2 cells. These indicators in the control group and in the blank group did not change significantly. Silencing of AFP expression in HepG2 cells can effectively inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells and promote apoptosis, which may be useful for reducing intracellular Survivin mRNA levels.

  14. A proteomic analysis of mushroom polysaccharide-treated HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yangyang; Wang, Guibin; Fan, Lili; Zhao, Min

    2016-01-01

    The anti-tumor properties of fungal polysaccharides have gained significant recognition in Asia and tropical America. In this study, the differential expression of proteins in normal HepG2 cells and those treated with polysaccharides that had been isolated from Phellinus linteus (PL), Ganoderma lucidum (GL) and Auricularia auricula (AA) was investigated. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE), a total of 104 protein spots were determined to be overexpressed in these cells compared with noncancerous regions. A total of 59 differentially expressed proteins were identified through MALDI-TOF-MS. In addition, 400 biological processes (BP), 133 cell components (CC) and 146 molecular functions (MF) were enriched by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, and 78 KEGG pathways were enriched by pathway enrichment. Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) analysis demonstrated the interaction networks affected by polysaccharides in HepG2 cells. Then, DJ-1 and 14-3-3 were identified as the key proteins in the networks, and the expression of the mRNA and proteins were evaluated using Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting (WB), respectively. The results were in agreement with the 2DE. These results provided information on significant proteins of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and form an important basis for the future development of valuable medicinal mushroom resources. PMID:27020667

  15. Kaempferol induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells via activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiqing; Ren, Feng; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xiangying; Yang, Rongrong; Xie, Bangxiang; Li, Zhuo; Hu, Zhongjie; Duan, Zhongping; Zhang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Kaempferol is a flavonoid compound that has gained importance due to its antitumor properties; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully understood. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the antitumor function of kaempferol in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Kaempferol was determined to reduce cell viability, increase lactate dehydrogenase activity and induce apoptosis in a concentration‑ and time‑dependent manner in HepG2 cells. Additionally, kaempferol‑induced apoptosis possibly acts via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, due to the significant increase in the protein expression levels of glucose‑regulated protein 78, glucose‑regulated protein 94, protein kinase R‑like ER kinase, inositol‑requiring enzyme 1α, partial activating transcription factor 6 cleavage, caspase‑4, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and cleaved caspase‑3. The pro‑apoptotic activity of kaempferol was determined to be due to induction of the ER stress‑CHOP pathway, as: i) ER stress was blocked by 4‑phenyl butyric acid (4‑PBA) pretreatment and knockdown of CHOP with small interfering RNA, which resulted in alleviation of kaempferol‑induced HepG2 cell apoptosis; and ii) transfection with plasmid overexpressing CHOP reversed the protective effect of 4‑PBA in kaempferol‑induced HepG2 cells and increased the apoptotic rate. Thus, kaempferol promoted HepG2 cell apoptosis via induction of the ER stress‑CHOP signaling pathway. These observations indicate that kaempferol may be used as a potential chemopreventive treatment strategy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

  16. Selection of scFvs specific for the HepG2 cell line using ribosome display

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lei Zhou; Wei-Ping Mao; Juan Fen; Hong-Yun Liu; Chuan-Jing Wei; Wen-Xiu Li; Feng-Yun Zhou

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a ribosome display library of single chain variable fragments (scFvs) associated with hepatocarcinoma and screen such a library for hepatocarcinoma-binding scFvs. mRNA was isolated from the spleens of mice immunized with hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Heavy and k chain genes (VH and k) were amplified separately by RT-PCR, and an anti-HepG2 VH/k chain ribosome display library was constructed by assembling VH and k into the VH/k chain with a specially constructed linker by SOE-PCR. The VH/k chain library was transcribed and translated in vitro using a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. In order to isolate specific scFvs, recognizing HepG2 negative selection on a normal hepatocyte line WRL-68 was carried out before three rounds of positive selection on HepG2. After three rounds of panning, cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that one of the scFvs had high affinity for the HepG2 cell and lower affinity for the WRL-68 cell. In this study, we successfully constructed a native ribosome display library. Such a library would prove useful for direct intact cell panning using ribosome display technology. The selected scFv had a potential value for hepatocarcinoma treatment.

  17. Curcumin induced nanoscale CD44 molecular redistribution and antigen-antibody interaction on HepG2 cell surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Mu [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Road West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ruan Yuxia [Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Road West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Xing Xiaobo; Chen Qian; Peng, Yuan [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Road West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Cai Jiye, E-mail: tjycai@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Road West, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2011-07-04

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > In this study, we investigate the changes of CD44 expression and distribution on HepG2 cells after curcumin treatment. > We find curcumin is able to change the morphology and ultrastructure of HepG2 cells. > Curcumin can reduce the expression of CD44 molecules and induce the nanoscale molecular redistribution on cell surface. > The binding force between CD44-modified AFM tip and the HepG2 cell surface decreases after curcumin-treatment. - Abstract: The cell surface glycoprotein CD44 was implicated in the progression, metastasis and apoptosis of certain human tumors. In this study, we used atomic force microscope (AFM) to monitor the effect of curcumin on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell surface nanoscale structure. High-resolution imaging revealed that cell morphology and ultrastructure changed a lot after being treated with curcumin. The membrane average roughness increased (10.88 {+-} 4.62 nm to 129.70 {+-} 43.72 nm) and the expression of CD44 decreased (99.79 {+-} 0.16% to 75.14 {+-} 8.37%). Laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) imaging showed that CD44 molecules were located on the cell membrane. The florescence intensity in control group was weaker than that in curcumin treated cells. Most of the binding forces between CD44 antibodies and untreated HepG2 cell membrane were around 120-220 pN. After being incubated with curcumin, the major forces focused on 70-150 pN (10 {mu}M curcumin-treated) and 50-120 pN (20 {mu}M curcumin-treated). These results suggested that, as result of nanoscale molecular redistribution, changes of the cell surface were in response to external treatment of curcumin. The combination of AFM and LSCM could be a powerful method to detect the distribution of cell surface molecules and interactions between molecules and their ligands.

  18. GRK2 negatively regulates IGF-1R signaling pathway and cyclins' expression in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhengyu; Hurtt, Reginald; Gu, Tina; Bodzin, Adam S; Koch, Walter J; Doria, Cataldo

    2013-09-01

    G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) plays a central role in the regulation of a variety of important signaling pathways. Alternation of GRK2 protein level and activity casts profound effects on cell physiological functions and causes diseases such as heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, and obesity. We have previously reported that overexpression of GRK2 has an inhibitory role in cancer cell growth. To further examine the role of GRK2 in cancer, in this study, we investigated the effects of reduced protein level of GRK2 on insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. We created a GRK2 knockdown cell line using a lentiviral vector mediated expression of GRK2 specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Under IGF-1 stimulation, HepG2 cells with reduced level of GRK2 showed elevated total IGF-1R protein expression as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of receptor. In addition, HepG2 cells with reduced level of GRK2 also demonstrated increased tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1 at the residue 612 and increased phosphorylation of Akt, indicating a stronger activation of IGF-1R signaling pathway. However, HepG2 cells with reduced level of GRK2 did not display any growth advantage in culture as compared with the scramble control cells. We further detected that reduced level of GRK2 induced a small cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase by enhancing the expression of cyclin A, B1, and E. Our results indicate that GRK2 has contrasting roles on HepG2 cell growth by negatively regulating the IGF-1R signaling pathway and cyclins' expression.

  19. Cytotoxic effect of Agaricus bisporus and Lactarius rufus β-D-glucans on HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Amanda do Rocio Andrade; Ruthes, Andrea Caroline; Cadena, Silvia Maria Suter Correia; Acco, Alexandra; Gorin, Philip Albert James; Iacomini, Marcello

    2013-07-01

    The cytotoxic activity of β-D-glucans isolated from Agaricus bisporus and Lactarius rufus fruiting bodies was evaluated on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). NMR and methylation analysis suggest that these β-d-glucans were composed of a linear (1→6)-linked and a branched (1→3), (1→6)-linked backbone, respectively. They both decreased cell viability at concentrations of up to 100 μg mL(-1), as shown by MTT assay. The amount of LDH released and the analysis of cell morphology corroborated these values and also showed that the β-D-glucan of L. rufus was more cytotoxic to HepG2 cells than that of A. bisporus. The treatment of HepG2 cells with L. rufus and A. bisporus β-D-glucans at a dose of 200 μg mL(-1) for 24h promoted an increase of cytochrome c release and a decrease of ATP content, suggesting that these polysaccharides could promote cell death by apoptosis. Both β-D-glucans were tested against murine primary hepatocytes at a dose of 200 μg mL(-1). The results suggest that the L. rufus β-d-glucan was as cytotoxic for hepatocytes as for HepG2 cells, whereas the A. bisporus β-D-glucan, under the same conditions, was cytotoxic only for HepG2 cells, suggesting cell selectivity. These results open new possibilities for use of mushroom β-D-glucans in cancer therapy.

  20. Cytostatic and genotoxic effect of temephos in human lymphocytes and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Trinidad, A B; Herrera-Moreno, J F; Vázquez-Estrada, G; Verdín-Betancourt, F A; Sordo, M; Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Bernal-Hernández, Y Y; Medina-Díaz, I M; Barrón-Vivanco, B S; Robledo-Marenco, M L; Salazar, A M; Rojas-García, A E

    2015-06-01

    Temephos is an organophosphorus pesticide that is used in control campaigns against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which transmit dengue. In spite of the widespread use of temephos, few studies have examined its genotoxic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects of temephos in human lymphocytes and hepatoma cells (HepG2). The cytotoxicity was evaluated with simultaneous staining (FDA/EtBr). The cytostatic and genotoxic effects were evaluated using comet assays and the micronucleus technique. We found that temephos was not cytotoxic in either lymphocytes or HepG2 cells. Regarding the cytostatic effect in human lymphocytes, temephos (10 μM) caused a significant decrease in the percentage of binucleated cells and in the nuclear division index as well as an increase in the apoptotic cell frequency, which was not the case for HepG2 cells. The comet assay showed that temephos increased the DNA damage levels in human lymphocytes, but it did not increase the MN frequency. In contrast, in HepG2 cells, temephos increased the tail length, tail moment and MN frequency in HepG2 cells compared to control cells. In conclusion, temephos causes stable DNA damage in HepG2 cells but not in human lymphocytes. These findings suggest the importance of temephos biotransformation in its genotoxic effect.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Ο-glycans from Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 and Normal Liver Cells L02†%人肝癌细胞HepG2与正常肝细胞L02的Ο-糖链的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丽英; 顾笑; 王承健; 强珊; 黄琳娟; 张英; 王仲孚

    2015-01-01

    HepG2 ( a primary hepatocellular carcinoma cell line ) and L02 ( ones derived from normal liver tissue) cells were chosen as model cell lines for research. The O-glycans of the total proteins extracted from HepG2 and L02 cells were released by Carlson reductive β-elimination. The released O-glycans previously purified by Dowex 50 WX8-400 cation exchange resin and C18 cartridges were identified by electrospray ioniza-tion mass spectrometry( ESI-MS) and MS/MS. For comparision studies, β-cyclodextrin was used as the inter-nal standard for relative quantitative analysis of the O-glycans derived from HepG2 and L02 cells by MS. As results, 10 O-glycans were observed in HepG2 cell line and 9 O-glycans were detected in L02 cell line. More-over, 9 O-glycans were observed in both HepG2 and L02 cells, wherears 1 truncated O-glycan assigned as H1A1(NeuAc-GalNAc, sialyl Tn antigen, ubiquitous in cancer cells), was only found in HepG2 cells. t-Test results show that 5 and 2 O-glycans in HepG2 cells have significant differences ( P<0. 01 and P<0. 05 , recpectively) , when compared to those of L02 cells. Our studies show methodological significance in structural investigation of O-glycans expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and early biomarker discovery in clinical diag-nose.%以培养的原发性肝细胞癌HepG2细胞和正常肝细胞L02为研究对象,用细胞裂解液提取总蛋白,然后采用Carlson还原性β-消除法释放O-糖链,以阳离子交换柱结合C18柱纯化分离O-糖链,用电喷雾电离质谱( ESI-MS)和串联质谱( MS/MS)对O-糖链进行序列鉴定,以β-环糊精为内标对2种细胞系的O-糖链进行定量比较分析.结果表明,在肝癌细胞系HepG2中检测到10种O-糖链,正常细胞系L02中检测到9种O-糖链,其中9种O-糖链是2种细胞系中共有的,但HepG2中存在癌细胞中特有的缩短的O-糖链N1A1( NeuAc-GalNAc, sialyl Tn 抗原). t检验结果表明, HepG2与L02相比,在检测到的10种O-糖链中有5种的

  2. High Permissivity of Human HepG2 Hepatoma Cells for Influenza Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ollier, Laurence; Caramella, Anne; Giordanengo, Valérie; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    Human HepG2 hepatoma cells are highly permissive for influenza virus type A and type B, even without the addition of trypsin, and they exhibit a marked cytopathic effect. This property greatly facilitates the primary isolation of influenza viruses. Virus replication was significantly reduced by the plasmin(ogen)-specific inhibitor tranexamic acid, and this suggests a potential role played by the plasminogen/tissue plasminogen activator complex at the surface of HepG2 cells. This might represe...

  3. Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tee, Thiam-Tsui, E-mail: thiamtsu@yahoo.com [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Cheah, Yew-Hoong [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Center, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Meenakshii, Nallappan [Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Sharom, Mohd Yusof; Azimahtol Hawariah, Lope Pihie [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xanthorrhizol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells as observed using SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells involved Bcl-2 family proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation was observed in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation maybe due to cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins. -- Abstract: Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X{sub L} expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.

  4. Physical supports from liver cancer cells are essential for differentiation and remodeling of endothelial cells in a HepG2-HUVEC co-culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Geraldine Giap Ying; Fu, Afu; Low, Kar Perng; Luo, Kathy Qian

    2015-06-08

    Blood vessel remodeling is crucial in tumor growth. Growth factors released by tumor cells and endothelium-extracellular matrix interactions are highlighted in tumor angiogenesis, however the physical tumor-endothelium interactions are highly neglected. Here, we report that the physical supports from hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2 cells, are essential for the differentiation and remodeling of endothelial cells. In a HepG2-HUVEC co-culture model, endothelial cells in direct contact with HepG2 cells could differentiate and form tubular structures similar to those plated on matrigel. By employing HepG2 cell sheet as a supportive layer, endothelial cells formed protrusions and sprouts above it. In separate experiments, fixed HepG2 cells could stimulate endothelial cells differentiation while the conditioned media could not, indicating that physical interactions between tumor and endothelial cells were indispensable. To further investigate the endothelium-remodeling mechanisms, the co-culture model was treated with inhibitors targeting different angiogenic signaling pathways. Inhibitors targeting focal adhesions effectively inhibited the differentiation of endothelial cells, while the growth factor receptor inhibitor displayed little effect. In conclusion, the co-culture model has provided evidences of the essential role of cancer cells in the differentiation and remodeling of endothelial cells, and is a potential platform for the discovery of new anti-angiogenic agents for liver cancer therapy.

  5. Initial study on apoptosis in HepG-2 Human heptocarcinoma cell line by CSS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lei; CUI Rong-tian; MO Ke; WANG Wei; JI Yu-bin; ZOU Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To discuss on mechanism of the killing and apoptosis inducing effect induced by total alkaloid in the CSS(Capparis spinosa L. saponin, CSS)on human hepatocarcinoma cell Line HepG-2. Methods The killing effect of the CSS on human hepatocarcinoma cell Line HepG-2 was observed by MTT method. Morphological observation of the HepG-2 cells was completed by fluorescence microscope. This test was signed to observe the changes of the cell cycle of HepG-2 cells affected by the CSS by PI single-staining, and to observe if there were typical apoptosis peaks. The apoptosis inducing effect and changing of mitochondria membrane potential of the CSS on the HepG-2 cells were studied by flow cytometry. The effect of intraceUular Ca2+ level of CSS on the HepG-2 cells was measured by laser confocal microscope. Results CSS has growth inhibiting on the HepG-2 and seems to be enhanced with the increasing concentration of CSS, and its IC50 value was 46.16 μg·mL-1. The HepG-2 cells are characteristic apoptosis morphologic changed, and the apoptosis percentage is increased to 66.652 % in the 50 μg·mL-1 dosage group. The cells cycle has been changed obviously that the progresses of cells cycle of G1 period and G2 period in high dosage group have been blocked, and the cellular proportion in G2 period is decreased by the function of CSS for 24 h. The mitochondria membrane potential of HepG-2 cells induced by CSS is decreased in various degrees. In addition, the intracellular Ca2+ level is increased by the function of CSS in the middle and high dose groups. Conclusions The CSS has obviously killing and apoptosis inducing effect on human hepatoearcinoma cell Line HepG-2 by the mechanism of decreasing the mitochondria membrane potential and increasing the intracellular Ca2+ level.

  6. Ammonia metabolism capacity of HepG2 cells with high expression of human glutamine synthetase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan-Hong Tang; Xiao-Qian Wang; Xiu-Jin Li; Yan-Ling Chen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Currently, one of the tough problems for the application of bioartiifcial liver (BAL) is the shortage of suitable hepatocytes. There are reports on different types of BAL assistance developed with porcine hepatocytes and HepG2 C3A cells, but their defects are obvious. In recent years, some studies focus more on liver cells with features of human origin and improved detoxiifcation. In this study, a hepatocyte line with high expression of human glutamine synthetase (hGS) was raised and its capacity for ammonia metabolism was investigated. METHODS:hGS cDNA and alpha-fetoprotein transcription regulatory element (AFP-TRE) were cloned with the designed primers. The eukaryotic expression vectors, pLNChGS and pLNAFhGS, were constructed and transfected into PA317 cells. Recombinant retroviruses (Retro-hGS and Retro-AFhGS) were produced and then infected into HepG2 cells. G418-resistant cell clones, HepG2/pLNChGS and HepG2/pLNAFhGS, were selected and ampliifed. Then hGS mRNA was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR;hGS enzymatic activity and ammonia metabolism analysis in different concentration of NH4+were detected with a quantitative biochemistry kit. The cell proliferation was also detected by MTT chromatometry. RESULTS:The expression of hGS mRNA in HepG2/pLNChGS cells (8.306±0.336) and HepG2/pLNAFhGS cells (21.358±1.716) was much stronger than in control cells (P CONCLUSION:The constructed hepatocytes (HepG2 cells) with speciifc high-expression of hGS have a powerful ability to degrade ammonia in vitro, and provide necessary experimental data for the selection of biomaterials in BAL.

  7. Effects of sargentgloryvine stem extracts on HepG-2 cells in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Hua Wang; Min Long; Bao-Yi Zhu; Shu-Hui Yang; Ji-Hong Ren; Hui-Zhong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effects of sargentgloryvine stem extracts (SSE) on the hepatoma cell line HepG-2 in vitro and in vivo and determine its mechanisms of action.METHODS: Cultured HepG-2 cells treated with SSE were analysed by 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium bromide and clone formation assay.The cell cycle and apoptosis analysis were conducted by flow cytometric, TdT-Mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining methods,and protein expression was examined by both reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.The pathological changes of the tumor cells were observed by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Tumor growth inhibition and side effects were determined in a xenograft mouse model.RESULTS: SSE treatment could not only inhibit HepG-2 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner but also induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. The number of colonies formed by SSEtreated tumor cells was fewer than that of the controls (P 0.05). Systemic administration of SSE could inhibit the HepG-2 xenograft tumor growth with no obvious toxic side effects on normal tissues.CONCLUSION: SSE can induce apoptosis of HepG-2 cells in vitro and in vivo through decreasing expression of Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 and increasing expression of Bax.

  8. Targeting and molecular imaging of HepG2 cells using surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathinaraj, Pierson [Auckland University of Technology, Institute of Biomedical Technologies (New Zealand); Lee, Kyubae; Choi, Yuri; Park, Soo-Young [Kyungpook National University, School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Graduate School (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Hyeong [Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Inn-Kyu, E-mail: ikkang@knu.ac.kr [Kyungpook National University, School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Graduate School (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Mercaptosuccinic acid (M)-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GM) were prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering. M was used to improve the monodispersity and non-specific intracellular uptake of nanoparticles. Lactobionic acid (L) was subsequently conjugated to the GM to target preferentially HepG2 cells (liver cancer cells) that express asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) on their membrane surfaces and facilitate the transit of nanoparticles across the cell membrane. The mean size of lactobionic acid-conjugated gold nanoparticle (GL) was approximately 10 ± 0.2 nm. Finally, the Atto 680 dye (A6) was coupled to the nanoparticles to visualize their internalization into HepG2 cells. The interaction of surface-modified gold nanoparticles with HepG2 cells was studied after culturing cells in media containing the GM or L-conjugated GM (GL)

  9. Surface Grafted Glycopolymer Brushes to Enhance Selective Adhesion of HepG2 Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Jensen, Bettina Elisabeth Brøgger; Shimizu, Kyoko;

    2013-01-01

    of the cell periphery. On the other hand the cells on bare glass substrate display spheroid morphology. Further analysis using ToF-SIMS imaging shows that the HepG2 cells on glycopolymer surfaces is enriched with protein fragment along the cell periphery which is absent in the case of cells on bare glass...

  10. Effects of Nano-CeO₂ with Different Nanocrystal Morphologies on Cytotoxicity in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Ai, Wenchao; Zhai, Yanwu; Li, Haishan; Zhou, Kebin; Chen, Huiming

    2015-09-02

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO₂) have been reported to cause damage and apoptosis in human primary hepatocytes. Here, we compared the toxicity of three types of nano-CeO₂ with different nanocrystal morphologies (cube-, octahedron-, and rod-like crystals) in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The cells were treated with the nano-CeO₂ at various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μg/mL). The crystal structure, size and morphology of nano-CeO₂ were investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The specific surface area was detected using the Brunauer, Emmet and Teller method. The cellular morphological and internal structure were observed by microscopy; apoptotic alterations were measured using flow cytometry; nuclear DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in HepG2 cells were measured using high content screening technology. The scavenging ability of hydroxyl free radicals and the redox properties of the nano-CeO₂ were measured by square-wave voltammetry and temperature-programmed-reduction methods. All three types of nano-CeO₂ entered the HepG2 cells, localized in the lysosome and cytoplasm, altered cellular shape, and caused cytotoxicity. The nano-CeO₂ with smaller specific surface areas induced more apoptosis, caused an increase in MMP, ROS and GSH, and lowered the cell's ability to scavenge hydroxyl free radicals and antioxidants. In this work, our data demonstrated that compared with cube-like and octahedron-like nano-CeO₂, the rod-like nano-CeO₂ has lowest toxicity to HepG2 cells owing to its larger specific surface areas.

  11. Effects of Nano-CeO2 with Different Nanocrystal Morphologies on Cytotoxicity in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2 have been reported to cause damage and apoptosis in human primary hepatocytes. Here, we compared the toxicity of three types of nano-CeO2 with different nanocrystal morphologies (cube-, octahedron-, and rod-like crystals in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2. The cells were treated with the nano-CeO2 at various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μg/mL. The crystal structure, size and morphology of nano-CeO2 were investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The specific surface area was detected using the Brunauer, Emmet and Teller method. The cellular morphological and internal structure were observed by microscopy; apoptotic alterations were measured using flow cytometry; nuclear DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, reactive oxygen species (ROS and glutathione (GSH in HepG2 cells were measured using high content screening technology. The scavenging ability of hydroxyl free radicals and the redox properties of the nano-CeO2 were measured by square-wave voltammetry and temperature-programmed-reduction methods. All three types of nano-CeO2 entered the HepG2 cells, localized in the lysosome and cytoplasm, altered cellular shape, and caused cytotoxicity. The nano-CeO2 with smaller specific surface areas induced more apoptosis, caused an increase in MMP, ROS and GSH, and lowered the cell’s ability to scavenge hydroxyl free radicals and antioxidants. In this work, our data demonstrated that compared with cube-like and octahedron-like nano-CeO2, the rod-like nano-CeO2 has lowest toxicity to HepG2 cells owing to its larger specific surface areas.

  12. Amitriptyline induces mitophagy that precedes apoptosis in human HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Paz, Marina; Cordero, Mario D.; Pavón, Ana Delgado; Vega, Beatriz Castejón; Cotán, David; De la Mata, Mario; Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; Alcocer-Gomez, Elizabet; de Lavera, Isabel; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Carrascosa, José; Zaderenko, Ana Paula; Muntané, Jordi; de Miguel, Manuel; Sánchez-Alcázar, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Systemic treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been largely unsuccessful. This study investigated the antitumoral activity of Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, in hepatoma cells. Amitriptyline-induced toxicity involved early mitophagy activation that subsequently switched to apoptosis. Amitriptyline induced mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Amitriptyline specifically inhibited mitochondrial complex III activity that is associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed structurally abnormal mitochondria that were engulfed by double-membrane structures resembling autophagosomes. Consistent with mitophagy activation, fluorescence microscopy analysis showed mitochondrial Parkin recruitment and colocalization of mitochondria with autophagosome protein markers. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy exacerbated the deleterious effects of Amitriptyline on hepatoma cells and led to increased apoptosis. These results suggest that mitophagy acts as an initial adaptive mechanism of cell survival. However persistent mitochondrial damage induced extensive and lethal mitophagy, autophagy stress and autophagolysome permeabilization leading eventually to cell death by apoptosis. Amitriptyline also induced cell death in hepatoma cells lines with mutated p53 and non-sense p53 mutation. Our results support the hypothesis that Amitriptyline-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be a useful therapeutic strategy for HCC treatment, especially in tumors showing p53 mutations and/or resistant to genotoxic treatments. PMID:27738496

  13. Anticancer and apoptosis-inducing effects of Moringa concanensis using hepG2 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balamurugan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation is focused on the anticancer activity of the ethanolic crude extract of Moringa concanensis leaf and bark against HepG2 cell line. The study was facilitated by collecting the plant sample and subjected to ethanol crude extraction. The anticancer activity of the crude extracted sample against HepG2 cell line was examined by MTT assay. The study confirms that the leaf crude extract of M. concanensis has pronounced anticancer potential against HepG2 cell lines while compared to that of the bark extract. The plant investigated possesses remarkable anticancer activity and hence isolation of the compound contributing to the activity may lead to develop at a novel and natural phytomedicine for the disease.

  14. Ovothiol Isolated from Sea Urchin Oocytes Induces Autophagy in the Hep-G2 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Russo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovothiols are histidine-derived thiols isolated from sea urchin eggs, where they play a key role in the protection of cells toward the oxidative burst associated with fertilization by controlling the cellular redox balance and recycling oxidized glutathione. In this study, we show that treatment of a human liver carcinoma cell line, Hep-G2, with ovothiol A, isolated from Paracentrotus lividus oocytes, results in a decrease of cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of an autophagic process is revealed by phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, together with the expression of the specific autophagic molecular markers, LC3 II and Beclin-1. The effect of ovothiol is not due to its antioxidant capacity or to hydrogen peroxide generation. The concentration of ovothiol A in the culture media, as monitored by HPLC analysis, decreased by about 24% within 30 min from treatment. The proliferation of normal human embryonic lung cells is not affected by ovothiol A. These results hint at ovothiol as a promising bioactive molecule from marine organisms able to inhibit cell proliferation in cancer cells.

  15. Galangin Induces Autophagy via Deacetylation of LC3 by SIRT1 in HepG2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xv; Wang, Yajun; Xiong, Yuzhen; Wu, Jun; Ding, Hang; Chen, Xiaoyi; Lan, Liubo; Zhang, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Galangin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis and autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, but the precise mechanism is not clear. In this study, we demonstrated that galangin induced autophagy, enhanced the binding of SIRT1-LC3 and reduced the acetylation of endogenous LC3 in HepG2 cells. But this autophagy was inhibited by inactivation of SIRT1 meanwhile, galangin failed to reduce the acetylation of endogenous LC3 after SIRT1 was knocked-down. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a new mechanism by which galangin induces autophagy via the deacetylation of endogenous LC3 by SIRT1. PMID:27460655

  16. Pfaffosidic Fraction from Hebanthe paniculata Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Caspase-3-Induced Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hebanthe paniculata roots (formerly Pfaffia paniculata and popularly known as Brazilian ginseng show antineoplastic, chemopreventive, and antiproliferative properties. Functional properties of these roots and their extracts are usually attributed to the pfaffosidic fraction, which is composed mainly by pfaffosides A–F. However, the therapeutic potential of this fraction in cancer cells is not yet entirely understood. This study aimed to analyze the antitumoral effects of the purified pfaffosidic fraction or saponinic fraction on the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Cellular viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were evaluated, respectively, by MTT assay, BrdU incorporation, activated caspase-3 immunocytochemistry, and DNA fragmentation assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry and the cell cycle-related proteins were analyzed by quantitative PCR and Western blot. The cells exposed to pfaffosidic fraction had reduced viability and cellular growth, induced G2/M at 48 h or S at 72 h arrest, and increased sub-G1 cell population via cyclin E downregulation, p27KIP1 overexpression, and caspase-3-induced apoptosis, without affecting the DNA integrity. Antitumoral effects of pfaffosidic fraction from H. paniculata in HepG2 cells originated by multimechanisms of action might be associated with cell cycle arrest in the S phase, by CDK2 and cyclin E downregulation and p27KIP1 overexpression, besides induction of apoptosis through caspase-3 activation.

  17. High permissivity of human HepG2 hepatoma cells for influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, Laurence; Caramella, Anne; Giordanengo, Valérie; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2004-12-01

    Human HepG2 hepatoma cells are highly permissive for influenza virus type A and type B, even without the addition of trypsin, and they exhibit a marked cytopathic effect. This property greatly facilitates the primary isolation of influenza viruses. Virus replication was significantly reduced by the plasmin(ogen)-specific inhibitor tranexamic acid, and this suggests a potential role played by the plasminogen/tissue plasminogen activator complex at the surface of HepG2 cells. This might represent a new approach for study of the interrelations of this complex with influenza viruses.

  18. Tea pigments induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Dong Jia; Chi Han; Jun-Shi Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the molecular mechanisms by which tea pigments exert preventive effects on liver carcinogenesis.METHODS: HepG2 cells were seeded at a density of 5×105/well in six-well culture dishes and incubated overnight. The cells then were treated with various concentrations of tea pigments over 3 d, harvested by trypsinization, and counted using a hemocytometer. Flow cytometric analysis was performed by a flow cytometer after propidium iodide labeling. Bcl-2 and p21WAF1 proteins were determined by Western blotting. In addition, DNA laddering assay was performed on treated and untreated cultured HepG2 cells.RESULTS: Tea pigments inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow-cytometric analysis showed that tea pigments arrested cell cycle progression at G1 phase. DNA laddering was used to investigate apoptotic cell death, and the result showed that 100 mg/L of tea pigments caused typical DNA laddering. Our study also showed that tea pigments induced upregulation of p21WAF1 protein and downregulation of Bcl-2 protein.CONCLUSION: Tea pigments induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Tea pigments may be used as an ideal chemopreventive agent.

  19. PPARγ pathway activation results in apoptosis and COX-2 inhibition in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Yi Li; Hua Deng; Jia-Ming Zhao; Dong Dai; Xiao-Yu Tan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether troglitazone (TGZ), theperoxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gammaligand, can induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation inhuman liver cancer cell line HepG2 and to explore themolecular mechanisms. METHODS: [3-(4,5)-dimethyithiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (NTT), [3H] Thymidine incorporation,Hochest33258 staining, DNA ladder, enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent assay (ELISA), RT-PCR, Northern and Western blotting analyses were employed to investigate the effect of TGZ on HepG2 cells and related molecular mechanisms.RESULTS: TGZ was found to inhibit the growth of HepG2cells and to induce apoptosis. During the process, the expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein and Bcl-2 protein was down-regulated, while that of Bax and Bak proteins was up-regulated, and the activity of caspase-3 was elevated.Furthermore, the level of PGE2 was decreased transiently after 12 h of treatment with 30 gM troglitazone. CONCLUSION: TGZ inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells, which may be associated with the activation of caspase-3-like proteases, down-regulation of the expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein, Bcl-2 protein,the elevation of PGE2 levels, and up-regulation of the expressions of Bax and Bak proteins.

  20. Effects of p53 on fisetin-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2%p53在漆树黄酮诱导人肝癌细胞系HepG2细胞凋亡的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 黎小兵; 蔡康荣; 陈锦; 黄培春

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察漆树黄酮诱导人肝癌细胞系HepG2细胞凋亡的现象,研究p53在漆树黄酮诱导人肝癌细胞系HepG2细胞凋亡的作用.方法 用不同浓度的漆树黄酮(50、100、200 μmol/L)处理HepG2细胞24 h和100 μmol/L漆树黄酮处理HepG2细胞不同时间(12、24、48 h),流式细胞技术和Hoechst/PI免疫荧光法观察漆树黄酮作用HepG2细胞的凋亡情况; Westem Blot法检测漆树黄酮对HepG2细胞P53、Caspase-3 和Caspase-8蛋白的表达情况.结果 漆树黄酮能诱导HepG2细胞凋亡,呈剂量-时间依赖性; 漆树黄酮可增加P53蛋白的表达,降解Caspase-3、Caspase-8酶原,提高Caspase-3、Caspase-8活性.P53蛋白的上调与凋亡的发生呈正相关(r=0.586,r=0.592,均P<0.01),Caspase-3、Caspase-8酶原的降解与与凋亡的发生呈负相关(r=-0.585~-0.583,均P<0.01).结论 漆树黄酮可诱导HepG2细胞凋亡,其机制可能与上调p53表达,活化Caspase-3、 Caspase-8有关.%Objective To study the effects of p53 on fisetin - induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 cells. Methods HepG2 cells were treated with fisetin at different concentrations (50. 100, 200 μmol/L)for 24h and with fisetin of 100 μmol/L with different duration ( 12 , 24 , 48 h) . Cell apoptosis was assessed with Hoechst/PI double staining assay and flow cytometry ( FCM) . The expression levels of P53 , Caspase - 3 and Caspase - 8 proteins in HepG2 cells were measured by Western Blot. Results Fisetin - induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells followed dose - and time - dependent manners. Chromatin condensation was observed with Hoechst/PI staining in fisetin - treated cells. The level of P53 was significantly elevated in HepG2 cells after fisetin treatment, while the levels of Caspase - 3 and Caspase - 8 were significantly reduced. Significant positive correlation was observed between up - regulation of P53 and cellular apoptosis , while negative correlation was observed between down - regulation of

  1. Hyperglycemia and anthocyanin inhibit quercetin metabolism in HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high glucose (Glu) milieu promotes generation of reactive oxygen species, which may not only cause cellular damage, but also modulate phase II enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of flavonoids. Thus, we examined the effect of a high Glu milieu on quercetin (Q) metabolism in HepG2 cells...

  2. Low concentration of ethanol induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells: role of various signal transduction pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Castaneda, Sigrid Rosin-Steiner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As we previously demonstrated in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells, ethanol at low concentration triggers the Fas apoptotic pathway. However, its role in other intracellular signaling pathways remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of low concentration of ethanol on different intracellular signaling pathways. For this purpose, HepG2 cells were treated with 1 mM ethanol for 10 min and the phosphorylation state of protein kinases was determined. In addition, the mRNA levels of transcription factors and genes associated with the Fas apoptotic pathway were determined. Our data demonstrated that ethanol-induced phosphorylation of protein kinases modulates both anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic mechanisms in HepG2 cells. Pro-apoptosis resulted mainly from the strong inhibition of the G-protein couple receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, the signal transduction initiated by ethanol-induced protein kinases phosphorylation lead to increased expression of the transcription factors with subsequent expression of genes associated with the Fas apoptotic pathway (Fas receptor, Fas ligand, FADD and caspase 8. These results indicate that low concentration of ethanol exert their effect by predominant activation of pro-apoptotic events that can be divided in two phases. An early phase characterized by a rapid transient effect on protein kinases phosphorylation, after 10 min exposure, with subsequent increased expression of transcription factors for up to 6 hr. This early phase is followed by a second phase associated with increased gene expression that began after 6 hr and persisted for more than 24 hr. This information provided a novel insight into the mechanisms of action of ethanol (1mM in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  3. Octreotide induces caspase activation and apoptosis inhuman hepatoma HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikos J Tsagarakis; Ioannis Drygiannakis; Antonis G Batistakis; George Kolios; Elias A Kouroumalis

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of octreotide on cellular proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.METHODS: We studied cellular proliferation, apoptosis and the possible internal caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway involved, after treatment of HepG2 carcinomacells with octreotide in comparison with the apoptosis caused by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Activities of caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-2 were studied, while apoptosis was investigated through detection of DNA fragmentation and through identification of apoptotic cells with the annexin-V/propidium iodide flow cytometric method.RESULTS: After an initial increase in HepG2 cellular proliferation, a significant inhibition was observed with 10-8 mol/L octreotide, while TNF-α dose-dependentlydecreased proliferation. Early and late apoptosis was significantly increased with both substances. Octreotide significantly increased caspase-3, caspase-8 andcaspase-2 activity. TNF-α significantly increased only caspase-2. Cellular proliferation was decreased after treatment with octreotide or TNF-α alone but, in contrast to TNF-α, octreotide decreased proliferation onlyat concentrations of 10-8 mol/L, while lower concentrations increased proliferation.CONCLUSION: Our findings are suggestive of caspasemediated signaling pathways of octreotide antitumor activity in HepG2 cells, and indicate that measurementsof serum octreotide levels may be important, at least in clinical trials, to verify optimal therapeutic drug concentrations.

  4. Sensitizing hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 and SMMC-7721 to ionizing radiation by peroxiredoxin 1 silencing%Peroxiredoxin1基因沉默对肝癌细胞HepG2和SMMC-7721放射增敏的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高麦仓; 张龙; 张殿增; 张军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of small interference RNA (siRNA) of peroxiredoxin (Prx) 1 in the radiosensitizing human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Methods Prx mRNA expression profiles in human HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Prx1 was silenced by small interference RNA (siRNA) in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. The two cell lines were divided into three groups (blank control group, negative control group and Prxl siRNA transfected group). The effects of Prxl siRNA on proliferation of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 in the three groups were determined by colony-forming assay; the cell cycle, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. Results Prxl, Prx3 and Prx5 were highly expressed in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. Prxl siRNA transfected group exhibited a decreased proliferation following ionizing radiation (IR), arrested G2-M checkpoint (12 hours after IR), more cells blocked in G2 phase, a higher apoptosis rate (24 hours after IR) and increased intracellular ROS levels (1 hour after IR) compared to those in the control groups (P<0.05). The sensitization enhancement ratio of Prxl siRNA transfected groups was between 1.38 and 1. 45. Conclusion Silencing Prxl sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to ionizing radiation in part through accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest.%目的 探讨Peroxiredoxin (Prx)1基因的小分子干扰RNA(siRNA)对人肝癌细胞系HepG2和SMMC-7721的放射增敏作用及机制.方法 通过逆转录PCR方法研究Prx家族(Prx1~6)在人肝癌细胞HepG2和SMMC-7721中的mRNA表达谱;使用siRNA敲低HepG2和SMMC-7721细胞高表达的Prxl亚型为Prxl siRNA转染组,另设空白对照组、阴性对照组(Prxl siNeg),分别经不同剂量X射线照射后,克隆形成法检测各组细胞的增殖情况,流式细胞仪测定细胞内活性氧水平、细胞周期及凋亡情况.结果 HepG2

  5. Synergistic cytotoxic effects and mechanism of oncolytic adenovirus SG611 combined with cisplatin on hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells%溶瘤腺病毒SG611联合顺铂对肝癌细胞HepG2的协同杀伤作用及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡朝霞; 台艳; 刘炜; 邱东波; 张琪

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the synergistic cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of oncolytic adenovirus SG611 combined with cisplatin (DDP) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. MethodsHuman HCC HepG2 cells were infected by adenovirus vector SG611 carried with green fluorescent protein (GFP). The infection efficiency of SG611 on HepG2 cells were examined by flow cytometry. The synergistic cytotoxic effects of SG611 combined with DDP on HepG2 cells were evaluated by cell counting rit(cck)-8 assay and the cytotoxicity was assessed by crystal violet staining. The 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining was used to detect the apoptosis. The expression of protein E1A was examined by Western blot. The comparison of experimental data was conducted using one-way analysis of variance and LSD-t test.Results HCC HepG2 cells infected by SG611-EGFP were observed under lfuorescence microscope. The GFP positive cells increased apparently with the increasing multiplicity of infection (MOI). The infection efficiency of SG611 detected by flow cytometry was 0.18%, 6.36%, 50.60%, 73.20%, 86.80% and 90.50%, which was with dose dependent. With the combined use of SG611 (MOI =10) and 1.5 μg/ml DDP, the cell viability was (33.2±1.2)%, which was significantly lower than (88.8±8.9)% of single use of SG611 (LSD-t=-7.83,P<0.05). The cytotoxic effects on HCC HepG2 cells of combined use was signiifcantly higher than that of single use of SG611. The apoptosis rate of HCC HepG2 cells was (23.9±1.5)% for combined use, which was signiifcantly higher than (15.3±1.0), (12.4±1.1)% for single use of SG611 or DDP (LSD-t=10.56, 21.34;P<0.05). In addition, E1A expression in HCC HepG2 cells significantly increased when combined use.Conclusions Oncolytic adenovirus SG611 combined with DDP has synergistic cytotoxic effects on HCC HepG2 cells. The action mechanism of the synergistic cytotoxic effects may be that the chemosensitivity of DDP is enhanced by SG611 and the proliferation of SG611

  6. Ursolic acid sensitizes cisplatin-resistant HepG2/DDP cells to cisplatin via inhibiting Nrf2/ARE pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Shouhai Wu,1,2 Tianpeng Zhang,1 Jingsheng Du3 1School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Center for Regenerative and Translational Medicine, 3Department of Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China Background: Combinations of adjuvant sensitizers with anticancer drugs is a promising new strategy to reverse chemoresistance. Ursolic acid (UA is one of the natural pentacyclic triterpene compounds known to have many pharmacological characteristics such as anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. This study investigates whether UA can sensitize hepatocellular carcinoma cells to cisplatin.Materials and methods: Cells were transfected with nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 small interfering RNA and Nrf2 complementary DNA by using Lipofectin 2000. The cytotoxicity of cells was investigated by Cell Counting Kit 8 assay. Cell apoptosis, cell cycle, reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by flow cytometry fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The protein level of Nrf2, NAD(PH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, glutathione S-transferase (GST, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 was detected by Western blot analysis.Results: The results showed that the reverse index was 2.9- and 9.69-fold by UA of 1.125 µg/mL and 2.25 µg/mL, respectively, for cisplatin to HepG2/DDP cells. UA–cisplatin combination induced cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species, blocked the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase, and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistically, UA–cisplatin dramatically decreased the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream genes. The sensibilization of UA–cisplatin combination was diminished in Nrf2 small interfering RNA-transfected HepG2/DDP cells, as well as in Nrf2 complementary DNA-transfected HepG2/DDP cells.Conclusion: The results confirmed the sensibilization of UA on HepG2/DDP cells to

  7. 阿霉素加热化疗对人肝癌细胞HHCC及HepG2的抑制作用研究%Inhibiting effect of doxorubicin heating chemotherapy in proliferation and apoptosis of hepatic carcinoma HHCC and HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯敬申; 侯敬侠; 王伟雄; 赵莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibiting effect of doxorubicin heating chemotherapy in proliferation of hepatic carcinoma HHCC and HepG2 cells. Methods Invitro culture HHCC and HepG2 cells in logarithmic growth phase were selected for the study,10%fetal bovine serum medium was used to formulated single cell suspension with cell density of 5×104/mL,and then inoculated in the 50mL cultivation bottle. The cells were divided into 3 groups,and given simple heating, simple chemotherapy,heating chemotherapy treatment respectively,cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay,and was apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometer. Results Proliferation inhibition rate of HHCC and HepG2 cell among the three groups compared,the difference was statistically significant(P < 0.05), inhibition rate of heating chemotherapy group was significantly higher than simple heating group and simple chemotherapy group (P < 0.05);apoptosis rate of HHCC and HepG2 cells of three groups compared,differences was statistically significant (P < 0.05).apoptosis rate of heating chemotherapy group was significantly higher than simple heating group and simple chemotherapy group (P<0.05). Conclusion Doxorubicin heating chemotherapy can significantly enhance inhibiting effect of doxorubicin on HHCC and HepG2 hepatoma cell, it has reference significance for clinical treatment .%目的:探讨阿霉素加热化疗对人肝癌细胞HHCC及HepG2的抑制作用。方法选择体外培养对数生长期HHCC及HepG2细胞为研究对象,采用10%胎牛血清培养液配制成细胞密度5×104/mL的单细胞悬液,接种于50mL的培养瓶中,细胞分为3组,分别进行单纯加热、单纯化疗、加热化疗处理;采用MTT法检测细胞增殖抑制率,采用流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡率。结果HHCC及HepG2细胞增殖抑制率3组间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);加热化疗组细胞增殖抑制率明显高于单纯加热组及单纯化疗组(P<0.05

  8. Knockdown of nucleophosmin induces S-phase arrest in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Qing Wang; Zhi-Yi Zhang; Jian-Yong Xiao; Chun Yi; Lin-Zi Li; Yan Huang; Jing-Ping Yun

    2011-01-01

    Nucleophosmin/B23 (NPM) is a universally expressed nucleolar phosphoprotein that participates in proliferation,apoptosis,ribosome assembly,and centrosome duplication; however,the role of NPM in cell cycle regulation is not well characterized.We investigated the mechanism by which NPM is involved in cell cycle regulation.NPM was knocked down using siRNA in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells.NPM translocation following actinomycin D (ActD) treatment was investigated using immunofluorescent staining.Expression of NPM and other factors involved in cell cycle regulation was examined by Westem blotting.Cell cycle distribution was measured using flow cytometry to detect 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuddine (EdU) incorporation.Cell proliferation was quantified by the MTT assay.Knockdown of NPM increased the percentage of HepG2 calls in S phase and led to decreased expression of P53 and P21Cp1/WAF1.S-phase arrest in HepG2 cells was significantly enhanced by ActD treatment.Furthermore,knockdown of NPM abrogated ActD-induced G2/M phase call cycle arrest.Taken together,these data demonstrate that inhibition of NPM has a significant effect on the cell cycle.

  9. SUMO-1 Enhancing the p53-induced HepG2 Cell Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xingrong; YI Jilin

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In order to investigate the effect of small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO-1) on the p53-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis, HepG2 cells were transfected by recombinant plasmids as pwtp53, pMDM2 and pSUMO-1 respectively. Western blot was employed to detect the protein expression of the transfected recombinant plasmids and the rate of apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. The results showed that in cells transfected with pwtp53 and pwtp53+pSUMO-1, the apoptosis rate was (16.79±1.62) % and (18.15±1.36) % respectively, while transfected with pwtp53+pMDM2, the rate was decreased to (5.17±1.23) %. The apoptosis rate was (14.06±1.84) % in the cells transfected with pwtp53+pMDM2+pSUMO-1, significantly higher than that in the cells Transfected with pwtp53+pMDM2 (P<0.01). The apoptosis rates in the cells were all less than 2 % and had no significant difference among the groups. It was suggested that in the HepG2 cells, SUMO-1 can increase the apoptosis induced by wild-type p53 through binding to p53 protein, post-translational modification and inhibiting the p53 degradation by MDM2.

  10. Protection of human HepG2 cells against oxidative stress by cocoa phenolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Granado Serrano, Ana Belén; Izquierdo-Pulido, María; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2008-09-10

    Cocoa is a rich source of flavanols and procyanidin oligomers with antioxidative properties, providing protection against oxidation and nitration. The present study investigated the potential protective effect of a polyphenolic extract from cocoa on cell viability and antioxidant defenses of cultured human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH). Pretreatment of cells with 0.05-50 microg/mL of cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) for 2 or 20 h completely prevented cell damage and enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes induced by a treatment with t-BOOH. Moreover, lower levels of GSH caused by t-BOOH in HepG2 cells were partly recovered by a pretreatment with CPE. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by t-BOOH was dose-dependently prevented when cells were pretreated for 2 or 20 h with CPE. These results show that treatment of HepG2 in culture with CPE (within the physiological range of concentrations) confers a significant protection against oxidation to the cells.

  11. Time-course regulation of survival pathways by epicatechin on HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Angeles Martín, María; Goya, Luis; Bravo, Laura; Ramos, Sonia

    2009-02-01

    Polyphenols, such as epicatechin, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the time-dependent regulation by epicatechin of survival/proliferation pathways in HepG2 cells. Treatment of HepG2 cells with 10 micromol/L epicatechin did not result in any cell damage up to 18 h, as evaluated by the lactate dehydrogenase assay. Moreover, the enhanced cell death evoked by an oxidative stress induced with tert-butyl hydroperoxide was prevented in the cells pretreated 4 or 18 h with epicatechin. Epicatechin-induced survival was a rapid event that was accompanied by early and sustained activation of major survival signaling proteins, such as AKT/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular-regulated kinase (activated from 5 min to 18 h), as well as protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha (30 min to 18 h), in concert with unaltered c-jun N-amino terminal kinase levels and early inactivation of key death-related signals like PKC-delta (5 min to 18 h). Additionally, reactive oxygen species generation was transiently reduced when cells were treated with 10 micromol/L epicatechin (15-240 min). These data suggest that epicatechin induces cellular survival through a tight regulation of survival/proliferation pathways that requires the integration of different signals and persists over time, the ultimate effect on HepG2 cells being regulated by the balance among these signals.

  12. [Study on transient absorption spectrum of tungsten nanoparticle with HepG2 tumor cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lin; Shu, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Dong; Wang, Cong

    2014-07-01

    Significance of this study lies in tungsten nano materials can be used as a preliminary innovative medicines applied basic research. This paper investigated the inhibition of tungsten nanoparticles which effected on human hepatoma HepG2 cells by MTT. The authors use transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) technology absorption and emission spectra characterization of charge transfer between nanoparticles and tumor cell. The authors discussed the role of the tungsten nanoparticles in the tumor early detection of the disease and its anti-tumor properties. In the HepG2 experiments system, 100-150 microg x mL(-1) is the best drug concentration of anti-tumor activity which recact violently within 6 hours and basically completed in 24 hours. The results showed that transient absorption spectroscopy can be used as tumor detection methods and characterization of charge transfer between nano-biosensors and tumor cells. Tungsten nanoparticles have potential applications as anticancer drugs.

  13. Cacao polyphenols influence the regulation of apolipoprotein in HepG2 and Caco2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Akiko; Natsume, Midori; Osakabe, Naomi; Kawahata, Keiko; Koga, Jinichiro

    2011-02-23

    Cocoa powder is rich in polyphenols, such as catechins and procyanidins, and has been shown to inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and atherogenesis in a variety of models. Human studies have also shown daily intake of cocoa increases plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and decreases LDL levels. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects of cocoa on cholesterol metabolism have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of cacao polyphenols on the production of apolipoproteins A1 and B in human hepatoma HepG2 and intestinal Caco2 cell lines. The cultured HepG2 cells or Caco2 cells were incubated for 24 h in the presence of cacao polyphenols such as (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin C1, and cinnamtannin A2. The concentration of apolipoproteins in the cell culture media was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunoassay, and the mRNA expression was quantified by RT-PCR. Cacao polyphenols increased apolipoprotein A1 protein levels and mRNA expression, even though apolipoprotein B protein and the mRNA expression were slightly decreased in both HepG2 cells and Caco2 cells. In addition, cacao polyphenols increased sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and activated LDL receptors in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that cacao polyphenols may increase the production of mature form SREBPs and LDL receptor activity, thereby increasing ApoA1 and decreasing ApoB levels. These results elucidate a novel mechanism by which HDL cholesterol levels become elevated with daily cocoa intake.

  14. Gene Transfection Mediated by Ultrasound and Pluronic P85 in HepG2 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fen; LI Kaiyan; CHEN Yunchao; DENG Yuan; HONG Kai

    2007-01-01

    In order to assess whether gene transfection could be mediated by ultrasound in associa- tion with P85 and find the appropriate parameters of ultrasound irradiation, the effects of ultrasound with or without P85 on gene transfection of HepG2 cells were examined. The HepG2 cells were irra- diated by ultrasound at 1 MHz, 0.4-2.0 W/cm2 and 50% duty cycle with plasmid encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as a report gene. Forty-eight h later, the expression of EGFP was detected under the fluorescence microscopy. Transfection efficacy was quantitatively assessed by flow cytometry, and cell viability was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion. The results showed that the transfection efficacy was increased with the increases in ultrasound output power and the ideal trans- fection efficacy was achieved in HepG2 cells irradiated by ultrasound at 0.8 W/cm2 for 30 s. The transfection efficacy in ulstrasound+P85 group was three times higher than in single ultrasound group [(17.63±1.07)% vs (5.57±0.56)%, P<0.051. The cell viability was about 81% and 62% in ultrasound group and ultrasound+P85 group respectively. It was concluded that ultrasound in combination with P85 could mediate the gene transfection of HepG2 cells, ideal transfection efficacy was achieved by ultrasound irradiation at 0.8 W/cm2 for 30 s, and P85 could somewhat increase the damage to cells caused by ultrasound.

  15. Apoptosis-inducing effects of extracts from desert plants in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak; Bhatia; Animesh; Mandal; Eviatar; Nevo; Anupam; Bishayee

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigat the mechanism of antitumor efficacy of Origanum clayi(O.clayi) and Ochradenus baccatus(O.baccatus) extracts by exploring apoptosis-inducing potential.Methods:The aqueous extracts of aerial parts of aforementioned plants were prepared and used for this study.HepG2 cells were treated with varying concentrations(0,2 and 5 mg/mL)of each plant extract for 24 or 48 h.Cell apoptosis was measured by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate binding assay and flow cytometry.The expression levels of various apoptosisrelated genes were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.Results:O.clayi and O.baccatus extracts exerted apoptotic effects on HepG2 cells for 48 h following treatment.O.clayi extract was found to be a better apoptosis-inducing agent than O.baccatus extract as the former delivered greater efficacy at a lower concentration.Both extracts manifested upregulation of Bax,Bad.cytochrome c.caspase-3,caspase-7.caspase-9 and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase.Conclusions:The aqueous extracts of O.clayi and O.baccatus are capable of inducing apoptosis in HepG2 cells through modulation of mitochondrial pathway which explains their antitumor activities.These desert plants may serve as useful resources to develop effective remedies for hepatocellular carcinoma and other human malignancies.

  16. Potentiation of resveratrol-induced apoptosis by matrine in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Xiuyuan; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Xinxin; Zhang, Xumeng; He, Qiyang

    2014-12-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic phytochemical, has received considerable attention due to its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties. In the present study, we first evaluated the growth-inhibitory effect of resveratrol on HepG2 cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Resveratrol inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, upregulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and induction of p53 expression. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that resveratrol arrested cell cycle progression in the G1 and S phase. We further focused on the combination of matrine, a natural component extracted from the traditional Chinese medical herb Sophora flavescens Ait., as a mechanism to potentiate the growth-inhibitory effect of resveratrol on HepG2 cells. Both MTT and colony formation assay results indicated that the combined treatment of resveratrol and matrine exhibited a synergistic antiproliferative effect. In addition, resveratrol-induced apoptosis was significantly enhanced by matrine, which could be attributed to activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, downregulation of survivin, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and disruption of mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm). Our findings suggest that the combination treatment of resveratrol and matrine is a promising novel anticancer strategy for liver cancer; it also provides new insights into the mechanisms of combined therapy.

  17. 骨髓间充质干细胞对HepG2肝癌细胞增殖的影响%The effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐甜; 李红; 薛冰; 唐小军; 陈汐敏; 仇镇宁; 朱进; Tom C Tsang; 冯振卿

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the effects of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the proliferation and cell cycle distribution of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 in vitro. Methods: Rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were isolated and identified by FACS and were expanded ex vino and the supernatant wag collected. Cell growth was measured by MTT assay,colony formation and soft agar colony formation assay. Cell cycle progression was analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blot assays were used to detect the expression of Cyclin Dl. Results: Mesenchymal stem cells promoted the proliferation and clonogenicity of cell line HepG2 indirectly by MSC-CM(P < 0.05). Cell number in G0/G1 phase was decreased and that in S and G2/M phase was increased (P < 0.05). MSCs promote the expression of protein Cyclin Dl in HepG2 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Mesenchymal stem cells can promote the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by upregulating Cyclin Dl.%目的:观察大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞对HepG2肝癌细胞增殖的影响,并初步探讨其机制.方法:全骨髓贴壁法分离培养大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞,流式细胞术鉴定其分子表面标志,体外扩增培养并收集培养上清.MTT法、平板克隆实验及软琼脂克隆实验检测大鼠间充质干细胞对人肝癌细胞株HepG2增殖的影响,流式细胞术检测肝癌细胞周期的改变,Western blot法检测细胞周期相关蛋白Cyclin D1表达情况.结果:骨髓间充质干细胞CD105和CD90表达阳性,CD34和CD45表达阴性.在骨髓间充质干细胞培养上清作用下,MTT法显示实验组肝癌细胞光密度值增加(P<0.05),平板克隆法显示实验组肝癌细胞克隆形成率比对照组明显升高(P<0.05),软琼脂克隆法显示实验组肝癌细胞空间克隆形成率比对照组明显升高(P<0.05),流式细胞术显示实验组细胞周期G1期比例降低,S期、G2期比例增加.Western blot

  18. Molecular mechanisms of methylmercury-induced cell death in human HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello, Susana; Goya, Luis; Madrid, Yolanda; Campuzano, Susana; Pedrero, Maria; Bravo, Laura; Cámara, Carmen; Ramos, Sonia

    2010-05-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been suggested to exert cytotoxicity through multiple mechanisms, but the precise biochemical machinery has not been fully defined. This study was aimed at investigating the time-course (0-24h) effect of 2mg/L MeHg on cell death in human HepG2 cells. MeHg decreased cell viability in a time-dependent manner, which was concomitant with increased LDH leakage, reduced GSH levels, CAT activity and altered activity of the antioxidant enzymes GPx and GR at the longest times of incubation (16 and 24h). Activity of the detoxifying enzyme GST was also early enhanced (2h). Caspase-3 activity reached a maximum value at 8h and continued increased up to 24h. This feature was preceded by an enhancement in the caspase-9 activity (2h), whereas caspase-8 activity remained unchanged. MeHg early diminished Bcl-x(L)/Bcl-x(S) ratio and increased levels of the pro-apoptotic Bax and Bad. Moreover, MeHg-induced cytotoxicity was completely inhibited by the antioxidants (GSH and NAC) and notably by the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone, but not by the NADH oxidase inhibitor DPI. In summary, MeHg induced an oxidative stress responsible for apoptosis in HepG2 cells through direct activation of the caspase cascade and altered the cellular antioxidant and detoxificant enzymatic system to later provoke necrosis at later stages.

  19. The impact of beta-elemene on beta-tubulin of human hepatoma hepg2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiu Mao; Liying Ban; Jielin Zhang; Li Hou; Xiaonan Cui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of beta-elemene injection on the growth and beta-tubulin of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Methods:cellproliferation was assessed by MTT assay. cellcycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The mRNA expression of beta-tubulin was measured by RT-PCR. West-ern blot analysis was used to determine protein expression of beta-tubulin and the polymerization of beta-tubulin. Results:Beta-elemene injection inhibited HepG2 cells proliferation in a dose-and time-dependent manner;FCM analysis indicated beta-elemene injection induced cellcycle arrested at S phase. RT-PCR and western-blot analysis showed that beta-elemene injection down-regulated beta-tubulin expression at both mRNA and protein levels, presenting a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, beta-elemene injection reduced the polymerization of microtubules in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion:Beta-elemene injection can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells, the mechanism might be partly related to the down-regulation of beta-tubulin and inhibition of microtubular polymerization.

  20. HBsAg inhibits the translocation of JTB into mitochondria in HepG2 cells and potentially plays a role in HCC progression.

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    Yun-Peng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The expression of the jumping translocation breakpoint (JTB gene is upregulated in malignant liver tissues; however, JTB is associated with unbalanced translocations in many other types of cancer that suppress JTB expression. No comprehensive analysis on its function in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has been performed to date. We aimed to define the biological consequences for interaction between JTB and HBsAg in HCC cell lines. METHODS: We employed the stable transfection to establish small HBsAg expressing HepG2 cell line, and stably silenced the JTB expression using short hairpin RNA in HepG2 cell line. The effects of JTB and small HBsAg in vitro were determined by assessing cell apoptosis and motility. RESULTS: Silencing of JTB expression promoted cancer cell motility and reduced cell apoptosis, which was significantly enhanced by HBs expression. Expression of HBsAg inhibited the translocation of JTB to the mitochondria. Furthermore, silencing of the JTB resulted in an increase in the phosphorylation of p65 in HepG2 cells and HepG2-HBs cells, whereas HBsAg expression decreased the phosphorylation of p65. The silencing of JTB in HepG2-HBs cells conferred increased advantages in cell motility and anti-apoptosis. CONCLUSION: HBsAg inhibited the translocation of JTB to the mitochondria and decreased the phosphorylation of p65 through the interaction with JTB, After JTB knockdown, HBsAg exhibited a stronger potential to promote tumor progression. Our data suggested that JTB act as a tumor suppressor gene in regards to HBV infection and its activation might be applied as a therapeutic strategy for in control of HBV related HCC development.

  1. Effect of human mesenchymal stem cells on the growth of HepG2 and Hela cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiaohui; Matsumoto, Rena; Yang, Pengyuan; Uemura, Toshimasa

    2013-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) accumulate at carcinomas and have a great impact on cancer cell's behavior. Here we demonstrated that hMSCs could display both the promotional and inhibitive effects on growth of HepG2 and Hela cells by using the conditioned media, indirect co-culture, and cell-to-cell co-culture. Cell growth was increased following the addition of lower proportion of hMSCs while decreased by treatment of higher proportion of hMSCs. We also established a novel noninvasive label way by using internalizing quantum dots (i-QDs) for study of cell-cell contact in the co-culture, which was effective and sensitive for both tracking and distinguishing different cells population without the disturbance of cells. Furthermore, we investigated the role of hMSCs in regulation of cell growth and showed that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways were involved in hMSC-mediated cell inhibition and proliferation. Our findings suggested that hMSCs regulated cancer cell function by providing a suitable environment, and the discovery from the study would provide some clues for development of effective strategy for hMSC-based cancer therapies.

  2. Effects of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells on cell growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell%人脐带源间充质干细胞条件培养液对人肝癌HepG2细胞生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素萍; 王震; 王超; 王永珍; 邢昕; 李敏; 吴学忠; 吕蓉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUC-MSC) condition medium (CM) on cell growth of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell.Methods From February 2011 to January 2014,a total of 35 cases of full-term pregnancy healthy fetuses' umbilical cords were chose into this study.All the fetuses were delivered through uterine-incision in the 105th Hospital of People's Liberation Army.Mesenchymal stem cells were derived from human umbilical cord and expanded in vitro.When the confluence of the third generation reached 80%,the medium was changed to fresh medium.After 24-hour incubation,the supernatant HUC-MSC-CM was collected.Then the HepG2 cells in logarithmic growth phase were divided into 3 equal groups randomly by random number table method.They were cultured with 5 % fetal calf serum high glucose (HG)-DMEM fresh medium alone as the control group,and the experimental group were cultured with 25% HUC-MSC-CM together with 5% fetal calf serum HG-DMEM (low concentration group) and 50% MSC-CM together with 5% fetal calf serum HG-DMEM (high concentration group),respectively.HepG2 morphology was observed by inverted microscope.The abilities of proliferation were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method,and the migration of HepG2 cells in each group were detected by wound healing assay.The cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM).The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Reviews Board of Investigation in Human Being of the 105th Hospital of People's Liberation Army.Informed consent was obtained from all participants.Results ① The morphology of isolated primary HUC-MSC was uniform when cultured into the third generation.②MTT assay showed that when the HepG2 cells were cultured 24,48 and 72 h,the differences of relative absorbance (A) values in the three groups were statistically significant (F=21.330,6.223,9.345;P=0.004,0.032,0.027).And the

  3. Cordyceps militaris induces tumor cell death via the caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    SONG, JINGJING; WANG, YINGWU; TENG, MEIYU; ZHANG, SHIQIANG; YIN, MENGYA; LU, JIAHUI; LIU, YAN; LEE, ROBERT J; WANG, DI; TENG, LESHENG

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris (CM), an entomopathogenic fungus belonging to the class ascomycetes, possesses various pharmacological activities, including cytotoxic effects, on various types of human tumor cells. The present study investigated the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and anti-breast cancer effects of CM in in vitro and in vivo models. CM aqueous extract reduced cell viability, suppressed cell proliferation, inhibited cell migration ability, caused the over-release of lactate dehydrogenase, induced mitochondrial dysfunction and enhanced apoptotic rates in MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. The expression levels of cleaved poly (ADP ribose) polymerase and caspase-3, biomarkers of apoptosis, were increased following treatment with CM aqueous extract for 24 h. Furthermore, in the MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, enhanced levels of B cell-associated X protein and cleaved caspase-8 were observed in the CM-treated cells. Finally, the antitumor activities of CM in HCC and breast cancer were also confirmed in MCF-7- and HepG2-xengraft nude mice models. Collectively, the data obtained in the present study suggested that the cytotoxic effects of CM aqueous extract on HCC and breast cancer are associated with the caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway. PMID:27109250

  4. Nuclear matrix associated protein PML: an arsenic trioxide apoptosis therapeutic target protein in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于鼎; 王子慧; 朱立元; 邱殷庆

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-induced apoptosis and the effects on cell nuclear matrix related protein promyelocytic leukaemia (PML). Methods HepG2 cells were cultured in MEM medium and treated with 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 μmol/L As2O3 for either 24 h or 96 h at each concentration. In situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) labeling (TUNEL) and DNA ladders were used to detect apoptosis. Confocal microscopy and Western blotting were used to observe the expression of PML. Results The growth rates of HepG2 cells were slower in the As2O3 treated than the untreated control group. DNA ladder and TUNEL positive apoptotic cells could be detected in As2O3 treated groups. The expression of PML decreased in HepG2 cells with 2 μmol/L As2O3 treatment. Confocal images demonstrated that the expression of PML protein in HepG2 cell nuclei decreased after treatment with 2 μmol/L As2O3, and micropunctates characteristic of PML protein in HepG2 cell nuclei disappeared after treatment with 5 μmol/L As2O3.Conclusions Our results show that arsenic trioxide can significantly inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells in vitro. As2O3 induces apoptosis in HepG2 tumor cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. As2O3 may degrade the PML protein in HepG2 cell nuclei. The decreased expression of PML in As2O3 treated tumor cells is most likely to be caused by apoptosis. Nuclear matrix associated protein PML could be the target of As2O3 therapy.

  5. Cordyceps militaris induces tumor cell death via the caspase‑dependent mitochondrial pathway in HepG2 and MCF‑7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Wang, Yingwu; Teng, Meiyu; Zhang, Shiqiang; Yin, Mengya; Lu, Jiahui; Liu, Yan; Lee, Robert J; Wang, Di; Teng, Lesheng

    2016-06-01

    Cordyceps militaris (CM), an entomopathogenic fungus belonging to the class ascomycetes, possesses various pharmacological activities, including cytotoxic effects, on various types of human tumor cells. The present study investigated the anti‑hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and anti‑breast cancer effects of CM in in vitro and in vivo models. CM aqueous extract reduced cell viability, suppressed cell proliferation, inhibited cell migration ability, caused the over-release of lactate dehydrogenase, induced mitochondrial dysfunction and enhanced apoptotic rates in MCF‑7 and HepG2 cells. The expression levels of cleaved poly (ADP ribose) polymerase and caspase‑3, biomarkers of apoptosis, were increased following treatment with CM aqueous extract for 24 h. Furthermore, in the MCF‑7 and HepG2 cells, enhanced levels of B cell‑associated X protein and cleaved caspase‑8 were observed in the CM‑treated cells. Finally, the antitumor activities of CM in HCC and breast cancer were also confirmed in MCF‑7‑ and HepG2‑xengraft nude mice models. Collectively, the data obtained in the present study suggested that the cytotoxic effects of CM aqueous extract on HCC and breast cancer are associated with the caspase‑dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  6. Protective effects of an ethanol extract of Angelica keiskei against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 and HepaRG cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hee; Lee, Hyun Sook; Chung, Cha-Kwon

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Although Angelica keiskei (AK) has widely been utilized for the purpose of general health improvement among Asian, its functionality and mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of ethanol extract of AK (AK-Ex) on acute hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen (AAP) in HepG2 human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells and HepaRG human hepatic progenitor cells. MATERIALS/METHODS AK-Ex was prepared HepG2 and HepaRG cells were cultured with various concentrations and 30 mM AAP. The protective effects of AK-Ex against AAP-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 and HepaRG cells were evaluated using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. RESULTS AK-Ex, when administered prior to AAP, increased cell growth and decreased leakage of LDH in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 and HepaRG cells against AAP-induced hepatotoxicity. AK-Ex increased the level of Bcl-2 and decreased the levels of Bax, Bok and Bik decreased the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane in HepG2 cells intoxicated with AAP. AK-Ex decreased the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and the activation of caspase-9, -7, and -3. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate that AK-Ex downregulates apoptosis via intrinsic and extrinsic pathways against AAP-induced hepatotoxicity. We suggest that AK could be a useful preventive agent against AAP-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes.

  7. Ethyl acetate extract of Squilla oratoria suppresses growth of HepG2 cells by inducing S phase arrest

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    Xiangwei Qi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The oceans and seas are a rich source of organisms from which anti-cancer drugs can be isolated and developed. Marine organisms have been screened in our laboratory, and organic solvent extracts of Squilla oratoria (ESO have been shown to possess cytostatic effects on cancer cell lines of diverse origins. To explore the underlying mechanisms, the growth inhibition by ESO was investigated in the present study. Methods: Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC derived cells (HepG2 were used. The cells were challenged with ESO, cell cycle profile was assayed, and level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA expression and that of cyclin D1 and cyclin A were evaluated with flow cytomtery. The in vivo antitumor effect of ESO was tested in nude mouse xenografts. PCNA expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in nude mouse xenograft tissues. Results: With the increase in dose of injected ESO, expression of PCNA by human HCC xenografts increased. ESO inhibited the growth of human HCC HepG2 cells both in vitro and in vivo. The effect was correlated with arrest of the cell cycle in S phase. Expression of PCNA, which is a cell-cycle regulator that promotes S phase entry, was elevated in both cell lines and xenografts whereas that of cyclins that promote M phase entry was down-regulated by exposure to ESO. Conclusion: Growth inhibition was explained by arrest of the cell cycle in S phase and down-regulation of molecules that promote cells to enter S phase. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(4.000: 313-322

  8. Early Transcriptional Responses of HepG2-A 16 Liver Cells to Infection by Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    286, ’JC 30, pp Early Transcriptional Responses of HepG2-A 16 Liver Cells to Infection by Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites*[i] Received for...7500 and󈧏Sun BioMedical Technologies Inc., Ridgecrest, California 93555 Invasion of hepatocytes by Plasmodium sporozoites depos- ited by Anopheles...expression profiling of human HepG2-A16liver cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites to understand the host early cellular events and

  9. Induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells by solanine and Bcl-2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y B; Gao, S Y; Ji, C F; Zou, X

    2008-01-17

    The nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.) has been widely used in Chinese traditional medicine as a remedy for the treatment of digestive system cancer. The anti-tumor activity of solanine, a steroid alkaloid isolated from the nightshade has been demonstrated. To observe the effect of anti-tumor and mechanism of solanine. The MTT assay was used to evaluate the IC(50) on the three digestive system tumor cell lines. The effect on the morphology was observed with a laser confocal microscopy; the rate of apoptosis and the cell cycle were measured using flow cytometry (FCM); the expression of Bcl-2 protein was measured by Western blot. The results show that the IC(50) for HepG(2), SGC-7901, and LS-174 were 14.47, >50, and >50 microg/ml, respectively; the morphology of cells in the negative control was normal; for the treated groups, typical signs for apoptosis were found. The rate of apoptosis in HepG(2) cells induced by solanine was found to be 6.0, 14.4, 17.3, 18.9, and 32.2%, respectively. Observation of the cell cycle showed that cells in the G(2)/M phases disappeared while the number of cells in the S phase increased significantly for treated groups. Western blot showed that solanine decreased the expression of Bcl-2 protein. Therefore, the target of solanine in inducing apoptosis in HepG(2) cells seems to be mediated by the inhibition in the expression of Bcl-2 protein.

  10. Cellular Trafficking of Thymosin Beta-4 in HEPG2 Cells Following Serum Starvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiri, Giuseppina; Coni, Pierpaolo; Nemolato, Sonia; Cabras, Tiziana; Fanari, Mattia Umberto; Sanna, Alice; Di Felice, Eliana; Messana, Irene; Castagnola, Massimo; Faa, Gavino

    2013-01-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is an ubiquitous multi-functional regenerative peptide, related to many critical biological processes, with a dynamic and flexible conformation which may influence its functions and its subcellular distribution. For these reasons, the intracellular localization and trafficking of Tβ4 is still not completely defined and is still under investigation in in vivo as well as in vitro studies. In the current study we used HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line; cells growing in normal conditions with fetal bovine serum expressed high levels of Tβ4, restricted to the cytoplasm until 72 h. At 84 h, a diffuse Tβ4 cytoplasmic immunostaining shifted to a focal perinuclear and nuclear reactivity. In the absence of serum, nuclear reactivity was localized in small granules, evenly dispersed throughout the entire nuclear envelop, and was observed as earlier as at 48 h. Cytoplasmic immunostaining for Tβ4 in HepG2 cells under starvation appeared significantly lower at 48 h and decreased progressively at 72 and at 84 h. At these time points, the decrease in cytoplasmic staining was associated with a progressive increase in nuclear reactivity, suggesting a possible translocation of the peptide from the cytoplasm to the nuclear membrane. The normal immunocytochemical pattern was restored when culture cells submitted to starvation for 84 h received a new complete medium for 48 h. Mass spectrometry analysis, performed on the nuclear and cytosolic fractions of HepG2 growing with and without serum, showed that Tβ4 was detectable only in the cytosolic and not in the intranuclear fraction. These data suggest that Tβ4 is able to translocate from different cytoplasmic domains to the nuclear membrane and back, based on different stress conditions within the cell. The punctuate pattern of nuclear Tβ4 immunostaining associated with Tβ4 absence in the nucleoplasm suggest that this peptide might be localized in the nuclear pores, where it could regulate the pore

  11. Cellular trafficking of thymosin beta-4 in HEPG2 cells following serum starvation.

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    Giuseppina Pichiri

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is an ubiquitous multi-functional regenerative peptide, related to many critical biological processes, with a dynamic and flexible conformation which may influence its functions and its subcellular distribution. For these reasons, the intracellular localization and trafficking of Tβ4 is still not completely defined and is still under investigation in in vivo as well as in vitro studies. In the current study we used HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line; cells growing in normal conditions with fetal bovine serum expressed high levels of Tβ4, restricted to the cytoplasm until 72 h. At 84 h, a diffuse Tβ4 cytoplasmic immunostaining shifted to a focal perinuclear and nuclear reactivity. In the absence of serum, nuclear reactivity was localized in small granules, evenly dispersed throughout the entire nuclear envelop, and was observed as earlier as at 48 h. Cytoplasmic immunostaining for Tβ4 in HepG2 cells under starvation appeared significantly lower at 48 h and decreased progressively at 72 and at 84 h. At these time points, the decrease in cytoplasmic staining was associated with a progressive increase in nuclear reactivity, suggesting a possible translocation of the peptide from the cytoplasm to the nuclear membrane. The normal immunocytochemical pattern was restored when culture cells submitted to starvation for 84 h received a new complete medium for 48 h. Mass spectrometry analysis, performed on the nuclear and cytosolic fractions of HepG2 growing with and without serum, showed that Tβ4 was detectable only in the cytosolic and not in the intranuclear fraction. These data suggest that Tβ4 is able to translocate from different cytoplasmic domains to the nuclear membrane and back, based on different stress conditions within the cell. The punctuate pattern of nuclear Tβ4 immunostaining associated with Tβ4 absence in the nucleoplasm suggest that this peptide might be localized in the nuclear pores, where it could

  12. Selective Cytotoxicity of 1,3,4-Thiadiazolium Mesoionic Derivatives on Hepatocarcinoma Cells (HepG2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdameri, Glaucio; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Acco, Alexandra; Alves de Souza, Carlos Eduardo; Echevarria, Aurea; Moretto dos Reis, Camilla; Di Pietro, Attilio; Suter Correia Cadena, Sílvia Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of mesoionic 4-phenyl-5-(2-Y, 4-X or 4-X-cinnamoyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazolium-2-phenylamine chloride derivatives (MI-J: X=OH, Y=H; MI-D: X=NO2, Y=H; MI-4F: X=F, Y=H; MI-2,4diF: X=Y=F) on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), and non-tumor cells (rat hepatocytes) for comparison. MI-J, M-4F and MI-2,4diF reduced HepG2 viability by ~ 50% at 25 μM after 24-h treatment, whereas MI-D required a 50 μM concentration, as shown by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. The cytotoxicity was confirmed with lactate dehydrogenase assay, of which activity was increased by 55, 24 and 16% for MI-J, MI-4F and MI-2,4diF respectively (at 25 μM after 24 h). To identify the death pathway related to cytotoxicity, the HepG2 cells treated by mesoionic compounds were labeled with both annexin V and PI, and analyzed by flow cytometry. All compounds increased the number of doubly-stained cells at 25 μM after 24 h: by 76% for MI-J, 25% for MI-4F and MI-2,4diF, and 11% for MI-D. It was also verified that increased DNA fragmentation occurred upon MI-J, MI-4F and MI-2,4diF treatments (by 12%, 9% and 8%, respectively, at 25 μM after 24 h). These compounds were only weakly, or not at all, transported by the main multidrug transporters, P-glycoprotein, ABCG2 and MRP1, and were able to slightly inhibit their drug-transport activity. It may be concluded that 1,3,4-thiadiazolium compounds, especially the hydroxy derivative MI-J, constitute promising candidates for future investigations on in-vivo treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26083249

  13. Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae fruits protect HEPG2 cells against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity

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    Thaís de Oliveira Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae is an antioxidant compounds-rich Brazilian fruit popularly known as gabiroba. In view of this, it was evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of pulp (GPE or peel/seed (GPSE hydroalcoholic extracts of gabiroba on injured liver-derived HepG2 cells by CCl4 (4 mM. The results showed the presence of total phenolic in GPSE was (60% higher when compared to GPE, associated with interesting antioxidant activity using DPPH·− assay. Additionally, HPLC chromatograms and thin layer chromatography of GPE and GPSE showed the presence of flavonoids. Pretreatment of HepG2 cells with GPE or GPSE (both at 800–1000 μg/mL significantly (p < 0.0001 protected against cytotoxicity induced by CCl4. Additionally, the cells treated with both extracts (both at 1000 μg/mL showed normal morphology (general and nuclear contrasting with apoptotic characteristics in the cells only exposed to CCl4. In these experiments, GPSE also was more effective than GPE. In addition, CCl4 induced a marked increase in AST (p < 0.05 and ALT (p < 0.0001 levels, while GPE or GPSE significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced these levels, reaching values found in the control group. In conclusion, the results suggest that gabiroba fruits exert hepatoprotective effects on HepG2 cells against the CCl4-induced toxicity, probably, at least in part, associated with the presence of antioxidant compounds, especially flavonoids.

  14. Metallomics Study of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lu; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Qiao, Yu; Hu, Bin

    2015-10-27

    Toxicity of quantum dots (QDs) has been a hot research concern in the past decade, and there is a lot of challenge in this field. The physicochemical characteristics of QDs can affect their toxicity, while little is known about the specific chemical form of QDs in living cells after incubation so far. In this work, speciation of four CdSe/ZnS QDs in HepG2 cells was carried out from the metallomics' point of view for the first time by using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). On the basis of the signal of Cd, two kinds of chemical forms, named as QD-1 and QD-2, were observed in HepG2 cells incubated with CdSe/ZnS QDs. QD-1 was demonstrated to be a kind of QD-like nanoparticles, confirmed by chromatographic retention time, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization, and fluorescence detection. QD-2 was demonstrated to be cadmium-metallothioneins complex (Cd-MTs) by reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) synchronously coupled with ICP-MS and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS) analysis. Meanwhile, speciation of QDs in HepG2 cells incubated with different conditions was analyzed. With the variation of QDs incubation concentration/time, and elimination time, the species of QD-1 and QD-2 were also observed without other obvious species, and both the amount of QD-1 and QD-2 increased with incubation concentration and time. The obtained results provide valuable information and a strategy for the study of existing chemical form of QDs, greatly benefiting the understanding of QDs toxicity in living cells.

  15. Lipid synthesis and secretion in HepG2 cells is not affected by ACTH

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    Nilsson-Ehle Peter

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apolipoprotein B (apoB containing lipoproteins, i.e. VLDL, LDL and Lp(a, are consequently lowered by ACTH treatment in humans. This is also seen as reduced plasma apoB by 20-30% and total cholesterol by 30-40%, mostly accounted for by a decrease in LDL-cholesterol. Studies in hepatic cell line (HepG2 cells showed that apoB mRNA expression is reduced in response to ACTH incubation and is followed by a reduced apoB secretion, which may hypothesize that ACTH lowering apoB containing lipoproteins in humans may be mediated by the inhibition of hepatic apoB synthesis. This was recently confirmed in vivo in a human postprandial study, where ACTH reduced transient apoB48 elevation from the small intestine, however, the exogenic lipid turnover seemed unimpaired. In the present study we investigated if lipid synthesis and/or secretion in HepG2 cells were also affected by pharmacological levels of ACTH to accompany the reduced apoB output. HepG2 cells were incubated with radiolabelled precursors ([14C]acetate and [3H]glycerol either before or during ACTH stimuli. Cellular and secreted lipids were extracted with chloroform:methanol and separated by the thin layer chromatography (TLC, and [14C]labelled cholesterol and cholesteryl ester and [3H]labelled triglycerides and phospholipids were quantitated by the liquid scintillation counting. It demonstrated that ACTH administration did not result in any significant change in neither synthesis nor secretion of the studied lipids, this regardless of presence or absence of oleic acid, which is known to stabilize apoB and enhance apoB production. The present study suggests that ACTH lowers plasma lipids in humans mainly mediated by the inhibition of apoB synthesis and did not via the reduced lipid synthesis.

  16. Protection of human HepG2 cells against oxidative stress by the flavonoid epicatechin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Izquierdo-Pulido, María; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2010-04-01

    Flavanols, such as epicatechin (EC), constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in green tea, grapes and cocoa and possess different biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic. This study investigated the potential chemo-protective effect of EC against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on human HepG2 cells. Cell viability by lactate dehydrogenase assay and markers of oxidative status: reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were evaluated. Pretreatment of cells with EC for 20 h prevented the enhanced cell damage and GPx and GR activities as well as the decrease in GSH induced by t-BOOH. The increased ROS generation induced by t-BOOH was also partly prevented by a pretreatment for 20 h with EC. In addition, pretreatment of cells with EC for 20 h recovered the t-BOOH-induced MDA concentration to control values. A pretreatment for 2 h with EC did not reduce cell damage but partly recovered GSH, reduced ROS levels and muffled the increase of GPx and GR after exposure to t-BOOH. Treatment of HepG2 cells with concentrations of EC in the micromolar range confers a significant protection against oxidative stress.

  17. Pinolenic Acid Downregulates Lipid Anabolic Pathway in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah Ron; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-07-01

    Pine nut oil (PNO) was reported to reduce lipid accumulation in the liver. However, the specific effect of pinolenic acid (18:3, all-cis-Δ5,9,12), a unique component of PNO, on lipid metabolism has not been studied. We hypothesized that pinolenic acid downregulates the lipid anabolic pathway in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were incubated in serum-free medium supplemented with 50 μM bovine serum albumin (BSA), palmitic acid, oleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, pinolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or α-linolenic acid for 24 h. Lipid accumulation was determined by Oil Red O (ORO) staining. The mRNA levels of genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis (SREBP1c, FAS, SCD1, and ACC1), fatty acid oxidation (ACC2, PPARα, CPT1A, and ACADL), cholesterol synthesis (SREBP2 and HMGCR), and lipoprotein uptake (LDLr) and of genes that may be involved in the downregulation of the lipogenic pathway (ACSL3, ACSL4, and ACSL5) were determined by qPCR. LDLR protein levels were measured by Western blot analysis. The mRNA levels of SREBP1c, FAS, and SCD1 were significantly downregulated by pinolenic acid treatment compared to BSA control (53, 54, and 38 % lower, respectively). In addition, the mRNA levels of HMGCR, ACSL3, and LDLr were significantly lower (30, 30, and 43 % lower, respectively), and ACSL4 tended to be lower in the pinolenic acid group (20 % lower, P = 0.082) relative to the control group. In conclusion, pinolenic acid downregulated the lipid anabolic pathway in HepG2 cells by reducing expression of genes related to lipid synthesis, lipoprotein uptake, and the regulation of the lipogenic pathway.

  18. Increase of Intracellular Cyclic AMP by PDE4 Inhibitors Affects HepG2 Cell Cycle Progression and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, Mara; Cardarelli, Silvia; Galli, Francesca; Giardi, Maria Federica; Ragusa, Federica; Panera, Nadia; Cinque, Benedetta; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Biagioni, Stefano; Giorgi, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    Type 4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE4) are major members of a superfamily of enzymes (PDE) involved in modulation of intracellular signaling mediated by cAMP. Broadly expressed in most human tissues and present in large amounts in the liver, PDEs have in the last decade been key therapeutic targets for several inflammatory diseases. Recently, a significant body of work has underscored their involvement in different kinds of cancer, but with no attention paid to liver cancer. The present study investigated the effects of two PDE4 inhibitors, rolipram and DC-TA-46, on the growth of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Treatment with these inhibitors caused a marked increase of intracellular cAMP level and a dose- and time-dependent effect on cell growth. The concentrations of inhibitors that halved cell proliferation to about 50% were used for cell cycle experiments. Rolipram (10 μM) and DC-TA-46 (0.5 μM) produced a decrease of cyclin expression, in particular of cyclin A, as well as an increase in p21, p27 and p53, as evaluated by Western blot analysis. Changes in the intracellular localization of cyclin D1 were also observed after treatments. In addition, both inhibitors caused apoptosis, as demonstrated by an Annexin-V cytofluorimetric assay and analysis of caspase-3/7 activity. Results demonstrated that treatment with PDE4 inhibitors affected HepG2 cell cycle and survival, suggesting that they might be useful as potential adjuvant, chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents in hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1401-1411, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Streptozotocin-Induced Cytotoxicity, Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells

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    Haider Raza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptozotocin (STZ is an antibiotic often used in the treatment of different types of cancers. It is also highly cytotoxic to the pancreatic beta-cells and therefore is commonly used to induce experimental type 1 diabetes in rodents. Resistance towards STZ-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells has also been reported. Our previous studies have reported organ-specific toxicity and metabolic alterations in STZ-induced diabetic rats. STZ induces oxidative stress and metabolic complications. The precise molecular mechanism of STZ-induced toxicity in different tissues and carcinomas is, however, unclear. We have, therefore, investigated the mechanism of cytotoxicity of STZ in HepG2 hepatoma cells in culture. Cells were treated with different doses of STZ for various time intervals and the cytotoxicity was studied by observing the alterations in oxidative stress, mitochondrial redox and metabolic functions. STZ induced ROS and RNS formation and oxidative stress as measured by an increase in the lipid peroxidation as well as alterations in the GSH-dependent antioxidant metabolism. The mitochondria appear to be a highly sensitive target for STZ toxicity. The mitochondrial membrane potential and enzyme activities were altered in STZ treated cells resulting in the inhibition of ATP synthesis. ROS-sensitive mitochondrial aconitase activity was markedly inhibited suggesting increased oxidative stress in STZ-induced mitochondrial toxicity. These results suggest that STZ-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells is mediated, at least in part, by the increase in ROS/RNS production, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our study may be significant for better understanding the mechanisms of STZ action in chemotherapy and drug induced toxicity.

  20. [Experimental study on the immune response of fusion tumor vaccine of HepG2 and dendritic cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Y B; Cui, B Y; He, J; Huang, X P; Liang, W; Li, L Q; Luo, X L

    2017-02-21

    Objective: To estimate the immune response of HepG2/dendritic cell (DC) fusion cells vaccines against HepG2 cells in vitro. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from healthy donors by Ficoll-Hypaque density-gradient centrifugation.Then DC were obtain from PBMCs by culturing in medium containing granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) for 5 days.DC and HepG2 fusion cells were induced by polythyleneglycol (PEG). The fusion cells were examined under fluorescence microscope by labeling DCs and HepG2 with green and red fluorescein, respectively, and then the fusion rates were analyzed by flow cytometry.The capacity of fusion cells to secrete interleukin (IL)-12 and stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocyte was assessed by ELISA and Flow cytometry, respectively.ELISPOT was used to assess the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) produced by cytotoxicity T lymphocyte (CTL), and the specific killing ability of fusion cells induce-CTL targeting HepG2 was estimated. Results: The fusion rate of HepG2/DC was 54.5%, and the fusion cells expressed a higher levels of DC mature marker CD80 and costimulatory molecules CD83, CD86 and MHC-Ⅰ, MHC-Ⅱ molecules HLA-ABC and HLA-DR than those in immature DCs (Pfusion cells could efficiently stimulate T lymphocytes to generate specific CTL targeting HepG2 cells.It might be a promising strategy of immunotherapy for HCC.

  1. Biscuit melanoidins of different molecular masses protect human HepG2 cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Rufián-Henares, José Angel; Morales, Francisco José; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2009-08-26

    Soluble melanoidins from biscuits were enzymatically solubilized and isolated by sequential ultrafiltration and separated by molecular mass in three different fractions, below 3 kDa, between 3 and 10 kDa, and over 10 kDa; the latter was subsequently digested by simulating gastric plus pancreatic digestive conditions. The four fractions were investigated for their protective effect against an oxidative challenge in HepG2 cells. Pretreatment of cells for 20 h with 0.5-10 microg/mL of any of the four fractions prevented the increased cell damage evoked by the challenge but, except for the intermediate size fraction, did not suppress the increased reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant defenses were rapidly restored after the challenge, and the increase of the oxidative stress biomarker malondialdehyde was prevented by the pretreatment with all but the undigested high molecular mass fraction. The results show that treatment of HepG2 cells with concentrations of biscuit melanoidins within the expected physiological range confers on the cells a significant protection against an oxidative challenge.

  2. Crambescin C1 Exerts a Cytoprotective Effect on HepG2 Cells through Metallothionein Induction

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    María Roel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean marine sponge Crambe crambe is the source of two families of guanidine alkaloids known as crambescins and crambescidins. Some of the biological effects of crambescidins have been previously reported while crambescins have undergone little study. Taking this into account, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis to examine the effect of crambescin-C1 (CC1 on human tumor hepatocarcinoma cells HepG2 followed by validation experiments to confirm its predicted biological activities. We report herein that, while crambescin-A1 has a minor effect on these cells, CC1 protects them against oxidative injury by means of metallothionein induction even at low concentrations. Additionally, at high doses, CC1 arrests the HepG2 cell cycle in G0/G1 and thus inhibits tumor cell proliferation. The findings presented here provide the first detailed approach regarding the different effects of crambescins on tumor cells and provide a basis for future studies on other possible cellular mechanisms related to these bioactivities.

  3. Chromate Reductase YieF from Escherichia coli Enhances Hexavalent Chromium Resistance of Human HepG2 Cells

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    Xuan Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI is a serious environmental pollutant and human toxicant. Mammalian cells are very sensitive to chromate as they lack efficient chromate detoxifying strategy, e.g., chromate-reducing genes that are widely present in prokaryotes. To test whether introduction of prokaryotic chromate-reducing gene into mammalian cells could render higher chromate resistance, an Escherichia coli chromate-reducing gene yieF was transfected into human HepG2 cells. The expression of yieF was measured in stably transfected cells HepG2-YieF by quantitative RT-PCR and found up-regulated by 3.89-fold upon Cr(VI induction. In chromate-reducing ability test, HepG2-YieF cells that harbored the reductase showed significantly higher reducing ability of Cr(VI than HepG2 control cells. This result was further supported by the evidence of increased Cr(VI-removing ability of crude cell extract of HepG2-YieF. Moreover, HepG2-YieF demonstrated 10% higher viability and decreased expression of GSH synthesizing enzymes under Cr(VI stress. Subcellular localization of YieF was determined by tracing GFP-YieF fusion protein that was detected in both nucleus and cytoplasm by laser confocal microscopy. Altogether, this study successfully demonstrated that the expression of a prokaryotic Cr(VI-reducing gene yieF endowed mammalian cell HepG2 with enhanced chromate resistance, which brought new insight of Cr(VI detoxification in mammalian cells.

  4. Evaluating the extent of LINE-1 mobility following exposure to heavy metals in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Abbas; Madjd, Zahra; Habibi, Laleh; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    The long interspersed elements-1 (LINE1 or L1 retrotransposon) constitute 17% of the human genome and retain mobility properties within the genome. At present, 80-100 human L1 elements are thought to be active in the genome. The mobilization of these active elements may be influenced upon exposure to the heavy metals. In the present study, we evaluated the association of aluminum, lead, and copper exposure with L1 retrotransposition in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line. An in vitro retrotransposition assay using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged L1RP cassette was established to track EGFP shining as the mark of retrotransposition. Following determination of noncytotoxic concentrations of these metals, pL1RP-EGFP-transfected HepG2 cells were subjected to long-term treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of cells treated with various concentrations of these metals along with quantitative real-time PCR was used to quantify L1 retrotransposition frequencies. Aluminum significantly increased L1 retrotransposition frequency, while no significant association was found concerning lead exposure and L1 retrotransposition. Copper treatment downregulated L1 retrotransposition as a result of EGFP-tagged L1RP expression. Our findings suggest that aluminum might have the potential to cause genomic instability by the enhancement of L1 mobilization. Thus, the risk of induced L1 retrotransposition should be considered during drug safety evaluation and risk assessments of exposure to toxic environmental agents. Further studies are needed for a more robust assay to evaluate any associations between long-term lead exposure and L1 mobility in cell culture assay.

  5. Taurine reduces the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 and lipids in HepG2 cells

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    Nagao Koji

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher concentrations of serum lipids and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB are major individual risk factors of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Therefore ameliorative effects of food components against the diseases are being paid attention in the affluent countries. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of taurine on apoB secretion and lipid metabolism in human liver model HepG2 cells. Results The results demonstrated that an addition of taurine to the culture media reduces triacylglycerol (TG-mass in the cells and the medium. Similarly, cellular cholesterol-mass was decreased. Taurine inhibited the incorporation of [14C] oleate into cellular and medium TG, suggesting the inhibition of TG synthesis. In addition, taurine reduced the synthesis of cellular cholesterol ester and its secretion, suggesting the inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity. Furthermore, taurine reduced the secretion of apoB, which is a major protein component of very low-density lipoprotein. Conclusion This is a first report to demonstrate that taurine inhibits the secretion of apoB from HepG2 cells.

  6. Exogenous phosphatidylethanolamine induces apoptosis of human hepatoma HepG2 cells via the bcl-2/bax pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yao; Chen Huang; Zong-Fang Li; Ai-Ying Wang; Li-Ying Liu; Xiao-Ge Zhao; Yu Luo; Lei Ni; Wang-Gang Zhang; Tu-Sheng Song

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the signaling pathways implicated in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)-induced apoptosis of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. METHODS: Inhibitory effects of PE on human hepatoma HepG2 cells were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycle, apoptosis and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Immunocytochemical assay and Western blotting were used to examine Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 protein levels in HepG2 cells treated with PE. RESULTS: PE inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose- and time- dependent manner. It did not affect the cell cycle, but induced apoptosis. PE significantly decreased ΔΨm at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mmol/L, respectively, suggesting that PE induces cell apoptosis by decreasing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. The Bcl-2 expression level induced by different concentrations of PE was lower than that in control groups. However, the Bax expression level induced by PE was higher than that in the control group. Meanwhile, PE increased the caspase-3 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Exogenous PE induces apoptosis of human hepatoma HepG2 cells via the bcl-2/bax pathway.

  7. Proanthocyanidins modulate microRNA expression in human HepG2 cells.

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    Anna Arola-Arnal

    Full Text Available Mi(croRNAs are small non-coding RNAs of 18-25 nucleotides in length that modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. These RNAs have been shown to be involved in a several biological processes, human diseases and metabolic disorders. Proanthocyanidins, which are the most abundant polyphenol class in the human diet, have positive health effects on a variety of metabolic disorders such as inflammation, obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance. The present study aimed to evaluate whether proanthocyanidin-rich natural extracts modulate miRNA expression. Using microarray analysis and Q-PCR, we investigated miRNA expression in HepG2 cells treated with proanthocyanidins. Our results showed that when HepG2 cells were treated with grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE, cocoa proanthocyanidin extract (CPE or pure epigallocatechin gallate isolated from green tea (EGCG, fifteen, six and five differentially expressed miRNAs, respectively, were identified out of 904 mRNAs. Specifically, miR-30b* was downregulated by the three treatments, and treatment with GSPE or CPE upregulated miR-1224-3p, miR-197 and miR-532-3p. Therefore, these results provide evidence of the capacity of dietary proanthocyanidins to influence microRNA expression, suggesting a new mechanism of action of proanthocyanidins.

  8. Metabolic Flux Distribution during Defatting of Steatotic Human Hepatoma (HepG2 Cells

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    Gabriel Yarmush

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods that rapidly decrease fat in steatotic hepatocytes may be helpful to recover severely fatty livers for transplantation. Defatting kinetics are highly dependent upon the extracellular medium composition; however, the pathways involved are poorly understood. Steatosis was induced in human hepatoma cells (HepG2 by exposure to high levels of free fatty acids, followed by defatting using plain medium containing no fatty acids, or medium supplemented with a cocktail of defatting agents previously described before. We measured the levels of 28 extracellular metabolites and intracellular triglyceride, and fed the data into a steady-state mass balance model to estimate strictly intracellular fluxes. We found that during defatting, triglyceride content decreased, while beta-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the urea cycle increased. These fluxes were augmented by defatting agents, and even more so by hyperoxic conditions. In all defatting conditions, the rate of extracellular glucose uptake/release was very small compared to the internal supply from glycogenolysis, and glycolysis remained highly active. Thus, in steatotic HepG2 cells, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation may co-exist. Together, these pathways generate reducing equivalents that are supplied to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

  9. Metabolic Flux Distribution during Defatting of Steatotic Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmush, Gabriel; Santos, Lucas; Yarmush, Joshua; Koundinyan, Srivathsan; Saleem, Mubasher; Nativ, Nir I; Schloss, Rene S; Yarmush, Martin L; Maguire, Timothy J; Berthiaume, Francois

    2016-01-04

    Methods that rapidly decrease fat in steatotic hepatocytes may be helpful to recover severely fatty livers for transplantation. Defatting kinetics are highly dependent upon the extracellular medium composition; however, the pathways involved are poorly understood. Steatosis was induced in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) by exposure to high levels of free fatty acids, followed by defatting using plain medium containing no fatty acids, or medium supplemented with a cocktail of defatting agents previously described before. We measured the levels of 28 extracellular metabolites and intracellular triglyceride, and fed the data into a steady-state mass balance model to estimate strictly intracellular fluxes. We found that during defatting, triglyceride content decreased, while beta-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the urea cycle increased. These fluxes were augmented by defatting agents, and even more so by hyperoxic conditions. In all defatting conditions, the rate of extracellular glucose uptake/release was very small compared to the internal supply from glycogenolysis, and glycolysis remained highly active. Thus, in steatotic HepG2 cells, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation may co-exist. Together, these pathways generate reducing equivalents that are supplied to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

  10. 抑癌基因kruppel样因子6及其剪接体蛋白对HepG2细胞增殖和分化的影响%Effect of KLF6 and its splice variant KLF6V on proliferation and differentiation of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘修成; 陈智; 季芳; 郭忠胜; 陈明; 傅涓涓

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究抑癌基因Kruppel样因子(KLF)6及其剪接体蛋白对肝癌细胞株HepG2细胞增殖和分化的影响. 方法 RT-PCR扩增肝细胞癌组织中KLF6剪接体cDNA并测定其序列;构建KLF6剪接体真核表达质粒pcDNA3.1A(-)/KLF6V.转染HepG2细胞后,经G418筛选获得稳定表达KLF6全长和其剪接体蛋白的HepG2细胞,分别命名为HepG2/KLF6和HepG2/KLF6V.四甲基偶氮唑盐法测定该两种HepG2细胞的增殖活性;同时分别以放射免疫法或Western blot技术测定白蛋白、甲胎蛋白或P21WAF1,细胞周期素D1蛋白在HepG2/KLF6或HepG2/KLF6V细胞中的表达情况.结果从肝细胞癌组织中扩增出一种KLF6剪接体,序列分析提示该剪接体缺失127 nt,引起KLF6蛋白近羧基端缺失42个氨基酸;KLF6V mRNA在肝癌及癌旁组织均有表达,但癌组织表达水平明显增高.HepG2/KLF6细胞生长速度较慢而HepG2/KLF6V细胞增殖较快,同时HepG2/KLF6细胞P21WAF1蛋白表达及白蛋白分泌水平明显高于HepG2/KLF6V细胞,而细胞周期素D1表达及甲胎蛋白分泌水平在HepG2/KLF6V细胞高于HepG2/KLF6细胞.结论 肝细胞癌组织中存在KLF6剪接体,该剪接体能对抗全长KLF6基因抑制细胞生长、促进细胞分化等的功能.%Objective To investigate the roles of Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) and its splice variant KLF6V on suppressing growth and inducing differentiation of human hepatocellular carcinoma hepG2 cells.Method KLF6V eDNA was amplificated by RT-PCR from human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue and then sequenced. The recombinant vectors expressing KLF6 variant (KLF6V) were constructed using molecular clone technology based on established plasmid pcDNA3. 1A(-)/wtKLF6. KLF6V or KLF6-transfected HepG2 cells were established after being screened with (3418. Growth activity of HepG2/KLF6 or HepG2/KLF6V cells was detected by in vitro MTT assay. Expression of p21 WAF1 or cyclin D1 protein was detected by Western blot, and expressions of AFP or ALB

  11. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jin [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry and Biotechnology of Ministry of Education and Ministry of Agriculture, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li, Feng [College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Fang, Yong; Yang, Wenjian [College of Food Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210023 (China); An, Xinxin; Zhao, Liyan; Xin, Zhihong; Cao, Lin [College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu, Qiuhui, E-mail: qiuhuihu@njau.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); College of Food Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Tea polyphenols have strong antioxidant and antitumor activities. However, these health benefits are limited due to their poor in vivo stability and low bioavailability. Chitosan nanoparticles as delivery systems may provide an alternative approach for enhancing bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs. In this study, tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles have been prepared using two different chitosan biomaterials, and their antitumor effects were evaluated in HepG2 cells, including cell cytotoxicity comparison, cell morphology analysis, cell apoptosis and cell cycle detection. The results indicated that the tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed a branch shape and heterogeneous distribution in prepared suspension. MTT assay suggested that tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells, and the cytotoxicity rates were increased gradually and appeared an obvious dose-dependent relationship. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the HepG2 cells treated with tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited some typical apoptotic features, such as microvilli disappearance, margination of nuclear chromatin, intracytoplasmic vacuoles and the mitochondrial swelling. In addition, the tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles had relatively weak inhibitory effects on HepG2 cancer cells compared with tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenols not only induced cancer cell apoptosis, but also promoted their necrosis. However, tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited their antitumor effects mainly through inducing cell apoptosis. Our results revealed that the inhibition effects of tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on tumor cells probably depended on their controlled drug release and effective cell delivery. The chitosan nanoparticles themselves as the delivery carrier showed limited antitumor effects compared with their encapsulated drugs. - Highlights: • Tea polyphenol

  12. Juglanthraquinone C, a novel natural compound derived from Juglans mandshurica Maxim, induces S phase arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Sun, Lu-Guo; Liu, Biao; Bao, Yong-Li; Lin, Hua; Zhang, Yu; Zheng, Li-Hua; Sun, Ying; Yu, Chun-Lei; Wu, Yin; Wang, Guan-Nan; Li, Yu-Xin

    2012-08-01

    Juglanthraquinone C (1,5-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-3-carboxylic acid, JC), a naturally occurring anthraquinone isolated from the stem bark of Juglans mandshurica, shows strong cytotoxicity in various human cancer cells in vitro. Here, we first performed a structure-activity relationship study of six anthraquinone compounds (JC, rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin, physcion and chrysophanol) to exploit the relationship between their structural features and activity. The results showed that JC exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity of all compounds evaluated. Next, we used JC to treat several human cancer cell lines and found that JC showed an inhibitory effect on cell viability in dose-dependent (2.5-10 μg/ml JC) and time-dependent (24-48 h) manners. Importantly, the inhibitory effect of JC on HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cells was more significant as shown by an IC(50) value of 9 ± 1.4 μg/ml, and 36 ± 1.2 μg/ml in L02 (human normal liver) cells. Further study suggested that JC-induced inhibition HepG2 cell proliferation was associated with S phase arrest, decreased protein expression of proliferation marker Ki67, cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, and increased expression of cyclin E and CDK inhibitory protein Cip1/p21. In addition, JC significantly triggered apoptosis in HepG2 cells, which was characterized by increased chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and induction of a higher Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Collectively, our study demonstrated that JC can efficiently inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

  13. α-Tocopherol modulates the low density lipoprotein receptor of human HepG2 cells

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    Bottema Cynthia DK

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin E (α-tocopherol on the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor, a cell surface protein which plays an important role in controlling blood cholesterol. Human HepG2 hepatoma cells were incubated for 24 hours with increasing amounts of α, δ, or γ-tocopherol. The LDL receptor binding activity, protein and mRNA, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase mRNA, cell cholesterol and cell lathosterol were measured. The effect of α-tocopherol was biphasic. Up to a concentration of 50 μM, α-tocopherol progressively increased LDL receptor binding activity, protein and mRNA to maximum levels 2, 4 and 6-fold higher than control, respectively. The HMG-CoA reductase mRNA and the cell lathosterol concentration, indices of cholesterol synthesis, were also increased by 40% over control by treatment with 50 μM α-tocopherol. The cell cholesterol concentration was decreased by 20% compared to control at 50 μM α-tocopherol. However, at α-tocopherol concentrations higher than 50 μM, the LDL receptor binding activity, protein and mRNA, the HMG-CoA reductase mRNA and the cell lathosterol and cholesterol concentrations all returned to control levels. The biphasic effect on the LDL receptor was specific for α-tocopherol in that δ and γ-tocopherol suppressed LDL receptor binding activity, protein and mRNA at all concentrations tested despite the cells incorporating similar amounts of the three homologues. In conclusion, α-tocopherol, exhibits a specific, concentration-dependent and biphasic "up then down" effect on the LDL receptor of HepG2 cells which appears to be at the level of gene transcription. Cholesterol synthesis appears to be similarly affected and the cell cholesterol concentration may mediate these effects.

  14. 冬凌草甲素通过激活ATR通路诱导HEPG2细胞凋亡实验研究%Oridonin Induced the HEPG2 Cells Apoptosis by the Activation of the ATR Pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周泽雄; 曲珍仪; 刘颖

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To research oridonin induce the HEPG2 cells apoptosis and its the related mechanism.Methods:Using MTT and crystal violet staining to study oridonin inhibited HEPG2 cells proliferative,Western Blotting to detect the change of ATR,H2AX,γ-H2AX,P53 and so on protein after oridonin treated HEPG2 cells.Results:MTT method and crystal violet staining show that oridonin can significantly inhibited HEPG2 cells,and the inhibition effect in certain concentrations with a dosedependent manner.Western blotting showed that the ATR,P-P53,γ-H2AX protein activity and express has significant enhanced during oridonin induced the HEPG2 cells apoptosis.Conclusion:Oridonin induced the HEPG2 cells apoptosis may be cause by the phosphorylation of H2AX protein further activate the ATR signaling pathways lead to cell death.%目的:探讨冬凌草甲素抑制HEGP2肝癌细胞增殖及其机制研究方法:MTT法检测抑制率、结晶紫检测冬凌草甲素诱导HEPG2肝癌细胞抑制增殖作用、Western blotting检测不同浓度冬凌草甲素作用HEPG2肝癌细胞后ATR、H2AX、γ-H2AX、P53等蛋白的变化.结果:MTT法、结晶紫法显示冬凌草甲素对HEPG2肝癌细胞能够明显抑制,且抑制作用在一定浓度范围内呈计量依赖性;Western blotting结果显示冬凌草甲素在诱导细胞凋亡过程中ATR、P-P53、γ-H2AX表达水平及活性显著增强.结论:冬凌草甲素诱导HEPG2肝癌细胞发生凋亡可能是通过引起H2AX蛋白磷酸化进一步激活ATR信号通路引起细胞凋亡.

  15. Retroendocytosis of high density lipoproteins by the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambouris, A.M.; Roach, P.D.; Calvert, G.D.; Nestel, P.J. (CSIRO, Division of Human Nutrition, Adelaide (Australia))

    1990-07-01

    When human HepG2 hepatoma cells were pulsed with 125I-labeled high density lipoproteins (HDL) and chased in fresh medium, up to 65% of the radioactivity released was precipitable with trichloroacetic acid. Cell-internalized 125I-HDL contributed to the release of acid-precipitable material; when cells were treated with trypsin before the chase to remove 125I-HDL bound to the outer cell membrane, 50% of the released material was still acid-precipitable. Characterization of the radioactive material resecreted by trypsinized cells revealed the presence of particles that were similar in size and density to mature HDL and contained intact apolipoproteins (apo) A-I and A-II. The release of internalized label occurred at 37 degrees C but not at 4 degrees C. Monensin, which inhibits endosomal recycling of receptors, decreased the binding of 125I-HDL to cells by 75%, inhibited the release of internalized radioactivity as acid-precipitable material by 80%, and increased the release of acid-soluble material by 90%. In contrast, the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine increased the association of 125I-HDL to cells by 25%, inhibited the release of precipitable material by 10%, and inhibited the release of acid-soluble radioactivity by 80%. Pre-incubation with cholesterol caused a 50% increase in the specific binding, internalization, and resecretion of HDL label. Cholesterol affected the release of acid-precipitable label much more (+90%) than that of acid-soluble material (+20%). Taken together, these findings suggest that HepG2 cells can bind, internalize, and resecrete HDL by a retroendocytotic process. Furthermore, the results with cholesterol and monensin indicate that a regulated, recycling, receptor-like molecule is involved in the binding and intracellular routing of HDL.

  16. Time- and concentration-dependent effects of resveratrol in HL-60 and HepG2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stervbo, Ulrik; Vang, Ole; Bonnesen, Christine

    2006-01-01

    , an increase in nuclear size and granularity was observed in the G1 and S phases of HL-60 treated and HepG2-treated cells. Apoptosis was also stimulated by resveratrol in a concentration-dependent manner in HL-60 and HepG2 cells. In conclusion, resveratrol inhibits cell proliferation in a concentration......- and time-dependent manner by interfering with different stages of the cell cycle. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment causes stimulation of apoptosis as well as an increase in nuclear size and granularity....

  17. Inhibition on IFN-βExpression by hCV ns3 and ns5A in HepG2 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of HCV protein, NS3 and NS5A on IFN-βin HepG2 cells and its regulation mechanism. Methods Human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 were transfected with recombinant eukaryotic plasmid pcDNA3.1/myc-His-core, NS3 or NS5A to overexpress these proteins, and the expression of IFN-βwere detected by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and ELISA. Luc2P reporter plasmids pGL4.10-IFNβ-P were constructed and transfected into HepG2 cells, and the activity of IFN-βpromoter were determined through luciferase assay for regulation mechanism study. Results Both mRNA level and protein expression of IFN-β were significantly decreased (P Conclusions HCV protein NS3 and NS5A could inhibit innate IFN-β expression and thus escape immune selection and hinder the host immune responses.

  18. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF HDACS INHIBITOR——TRICHOSTATIN A ON HUMAN HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA HEPG2 CELL LINE%HDACS抑制剂对人肝癌细胞株HepG2作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段承刚; 代永红; 王丽; 刘晓燕; 梅志强; 何涛

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过组蛋白去乙酰化酶(histone deacetylase,HDACS)抑制剂古抑菌素A(Trichostatin A,TSA)对人肝癌细胞株HepG2(以下简称HepG2)和正常肝细胞株LO2(以下简称LO2)增殖与凋亡作用的比较,探讨TSA对肝癌的作用机制.方法:应用光学显微镜、透射电镜、四氮唑蓝(MTT)法、脱氧核苷酸末端转移酶介导的dTP缺口末端标记技术(TUNEL法)、免疫细胞化学法观察经不同浓度TSA处理后的HepG2和LO2的增殖、凋亡与凋亡相关蛋白的改变.结果:(1)HepG2细胞经TSA处理后,电镜下超微结构发生了凋亡早期改变.(2)小剂量TSA(250nmol/L)对HepG2细胞具有较强的生长抑制作用,对LO2细胞影响不明显,当TSA浓度达到1000nmol/L以上时,对LO2表现出明显的细胞毒性作用.(3)TSA可诱导HepG2细胞凋亡,并增加凋亡相关蛋白Bax的表达.结论:TSA可明显抑制肝癌细胞HepG2的增殖,其机制可能与上调Bax的表达,诱导细胞凋亡有关.

  19. Relationship of HepG2 cell sensitivity to continuous low dose-rate irradiation with ATM phosphorylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quelin Mei; Jianyong Yang; Duanming Du; Zaizhong Cheng; Pengcheng liu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of ATM phosphorylation in HepG2 cells and its effect on HepG2 cell survival under a continuous low dose-rate irradiation.Methods: HepG2 cells were exposed to equivalent doses of irradiation delivered at either a continuous low dose-rate (7.76 cGy/h) or a high dose-rate (4500 cGy/h).The ATM phosphorylated proteins and surviving fraction of HepG2 cell after low dose-rate irradiation were compared with that after equivalent doses of high dose-rate irradiation.Results: The phosphorylation of ATM protein was maximal at 0.5 Gy irradiation delivered at either a high dose-rate or a continuous low dose-rate.As the radiation dose increased, the phosphorylation of ATM protein decreased under continuous low dose-rate irradiation.However, the phosphorylation of ATM protein was remained stable under high dose-rate irradiation.When the phosphorylation of ATM protein under continuous low dose-rate irradiation was equal to that under high dose-rate irradiation, there was no significant difference in the surviving fraction of HepG2 cells between two ir-radiation methods (P>0.05).When the phosphorylation of ATM protein significantly decreased after continuous low dose-rate irradiation compared with that after high dose-rate irradiation, increased amounts of cell killing was found in low dose-rate irradiation (P<0.01).Conclusion: Continuous low dose-rate irradiation increases HepG2 cells radiosensitivity compared with high dose-rate irradiation.The increased amounts of cell killing following continuous low dose-rate exposures are associated with reduced ATM phosphorylated protein.

  20. Pregnane X receptor protects HepG2 cells from BaP-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naspinski, Christine; Gu, Xinsheng; Zhou, Guo-Dong; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Donnelly, Kirby C; Tian, Yanan

    2008-07-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor that coordinately regulates transcriptional expression of both phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. PXR plays an important role in the pharmacokinetics of a broad spectrum of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds and appears to have evolved in part to protect organisms from toxic xenobiotics. Metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a well-established carcinogen and ubiquitous environmental contaminant, can result in either detoxification or bioactivation to its genotoxic forms. Therefore, PXR could modulate the genotoxicity of BaP by changing the balance of the metabolic pathways in favor of BaP detoxification. To examine the role of PXR in BaP genotoxicity, BaP-DNA adduct formation was measured by 32P-postlabeling in BaP-treated parental HepG2 cells and human PXR-transfected HepG2 cells. The presence of transfected PXR significantly reduced the level of adducts relative to parental cells by 50-65% (p BaP. To analyze potential PXR-regulated detoxification pathways in liver cells, a panel of genes involved in phase I and phase II metabolism and excretion was surveyed with real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The messenger RNA levels of CYP1A2, GSTA1, GSTA2, GSTM1, UGT1A6, and BCRP (ABCG2) were significantly higher in cells overexpressing PXR, independent of exposure to BaP. In addition, the total GST enzymatic activity, which favors the metabolic detoxification of BaP, was significantly increased by the presence of PXR (p BaP exposure. Taken together, these results suggest that PXR plays an important role in protection against DNA damage by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as BaP, and that these protective effects may be through a coordinated regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism.

  1. Inflammation response at the transcriptional level of HepG2 cells induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piret, Jean-Pascal; Vankoningsloo, Sebastien; Noel, Florence; Saout, Christelle; Toussaint, Olivier [Research Unit in Cellular Biology (URBC), Narilis, University of Namur, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Mendoza, Jorge Mejia; Lucas, Stephane, E-mail: olivier.toussaint@fundp.ac.be [Research Center for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Narilis, University of Namur, 5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2011-07-06

    Poor information are currently available about the biological effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the liver. In this study, we evaluated the effects of MWCNT at the transcriptional level on the classical in vitro model of HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. The expression levels of 96 transcript species implicated in the inflammatory and immune responses was studied after a 24h incubation of HepG2 cells in presence of raw MWCNT dispersed in water by stirring. Among the 46 transcript species detected, only a few transcripts including mRNA coding for interleukine-7, chemokines receptor of the C-C families CCR7, as well as Endothelin-1, were statistically more abundant after treatment with MWCNT. Altogether, these data indicate that MWCNT can only induce a weak inflammatory response in HepG2 cells.

  2. Inflammation response at the transcriptional level of HepG2 cells induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, Jean-Pascal; Vankoningsloo, Sébastien; Noël, Florence; Mejia Mendoza, Jorge; Lucas, Stéphane; Saout, Christelle; Toussaint, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    Poor information are currently available about the biological effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the liver. In this study, we evaluated the effects of MWCNT at the transcriptional level on the classical in vitro model of HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. The expression levels of 96 transcript species implicated in the inflammatory and immune responses was studied after a 24h incubation of HepG2 cells in presence of raw MWCNT dispersed in water by stirring. Among the 46 transcript species detected, only a few transcripts including mRNA coding for interleukine-7, chemokines receptor of the C-C families CCR7, as well as Endothelin-1, were statistically more abundant after treatment with MWCNT. Altogether, these data indicate that MWCNT can only induce a weak inflammatory response in HepG2 cells.

  3. Heterologous expression of human cytochrome P450 2E1 in HepG2 cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhuge; Ye Luo; Ying-Nian Yu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Human cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) takes part in the biotransformation of ethanol, acetone, many smallmolecule substrates and volatile anesthetics. CYP2E1 is involved in chemical activation of many carcinogens,procarcinogens, and toxicants. To assess the metabolic and toxicological characteristics of CYP2E1, we cloned CYP2E1 cDNA and established a HepG2 cell line stably expressing recombinant CYP 2E1.METHODS: Human CYP2E1 cDNA was amplified with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)from total RNAs extracted from human liver and cloned into pGEM-T vector. The cDNA segment was identified by DNA sequencing and subcloned into a mammalian expression vector pREP9. A transgenic cell line was established by transfecting the recombinant plasmid of pREP9-CYP2E1 to HepG2 cells. The expression of CYP2E1 mRNA was validated by RT-PCR. The enzyme activity of CYP2E1 catalyzing oxidation of 4-nitrophenol in postmitochondrial supernate (S9) fraction of the cells was determined by spectrophotometry. The metabolic activation of HepG2-CYP2E1 cells was assayed by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)cytotoxicity and micronucleus test.RESULTS: The cloned CYP2E1 cDNA segment was identical to that reported by Umeno et al(GenBank access No.J02843). HepG2-CYP2E1 cells expressed CYP2E1 mRNA and had 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity (0.162±0.025nmol.min-1.mg-1 S9 protein), which were undetectable in parent HepG2 cells. HepG2-CYP2E1 cells increased the cytotoxicity and micronucleus rate of NDEA in comparison with those of HepG2 cells.CONCLUSION: The cDNA of human CYP2E1 can be successfully cloned, and a cell line, HepG2-CYP2E1, which can efficiently express mRNA and has CYP2E1 activity, is established. The cell line is useful for testing the cytotoxicity,mutagenicity and metabolism of xenobiotics, which may possibly be activated or metabolized by CYP2E1.

  4. Dietary catechins and procyanidins modulate zinc homeostasis in human HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Isabel M; Bustos, Mario; Blay, Mayte; Pujadas, Gerard; Ardèvol, Anna; Salvadó, M Josepa; Bladé, Cinta; Arola, Lluís; Fernández-Larrea, Juan

    2011-02-01

    Catechins and their polymers procyanidins are health-promoting flavonoids found in edible vegetables and fruits. They act as antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species and by chelating the redox-active metals iron and copper. They also behave as signaling molecules, modulating multiple cell signalling pathways and gene expression, including that of antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed at determining whether catechins and procyanidins interact with the redox-inactive metal zinc and at assessing their effect on cellular zinc homeostasis. We found that a grape-seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) and the green tea flavonoid (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) bind zinc cations in solution with higher affinity than the zinc-specific chelator Zinquin, and dose-dependently prevent zinc-induced toxicity in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2, evaluated by the lactate dehydrogenase test. GSPE and EGCG hinder intracellular accumulation of total zinc, measured by atomic flame absorption spectrometry, concomitantly increasing the level of cytoplasmic labile zinc detectable by Zinquin fluorescence. Concurrently, GSPE and EGCG inhibit the expression, evaluated at the mRNA level by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, of zinc-binding metallothioneins and of plasma membrane zinc exporter ZnT1 (SLC30A1), while enhancing the expression of cellular zinc importers ZIP1 (SLC39A1) and ZIP4 (SLC39A4). GSPE and EGCG also produce all these effects when HepG2 cells are stimulated to import zinc by treatment with supplemental zinc or the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. We suggest that extracellular complexation of zinc cations and the elevation of cytoplasmic labile zinc may be relevant mechanisms underlying the modulation of diverse cell signaling and metabolic pathways by catechins and procyanidins.

  5. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients.

  6. SiC nanoparticles cyto- and genotoxicity to Hep-G2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillet, Sabrina; Jugan, Mary-Line; Simon-Deckers, Angelique; Carriere, Marie [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR9956, IRAMIS, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)], E-mail: marie.carriere@cea.fr; Leconte, Yann; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Mayne-l' Hermite, Martine; Reynaud, Cecile [Laboratoire Francis Perrin, CEA-CNRS URA2453, IRAMIS, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2009-05-01

    While emerging nanotechnologies have seen significant development in recent years, knowledge on exposure levels as well as data on toxicity of nanoparticles are still quite limited. Indeed, there is a general agreement that development of nanotechnologies may lead to considerable dissemination of nanoparticles in the environment. Nevertheless, questions relative to toxicity versus innocuousness of such materials still remain. Our present study has thus been carried out with the purpose of assessing some aspects of toxicological capacities of three kinds of nano-sized particles: TiO{sub 2} and SiC nanoparticles, as well as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT). In order to address the question of their potential toxicity toward living cells, we chose several cellular models. Assuming inhalation as the most probable exposure scenario, we used A549 alveolar epithelial cells as a model for mammalian primary target organ (lung). Furthermore, we considered that nanoparticles that would deposit into the pulmonary system may be translocated to the circulatory system. Thus, we decided to study the effect of nanoparticles on potentially secondary target organs: liver (WIF-B9, Can-10, HepG2) and kidneys (NRK-52E, LLC-PK1). Herein, we will focus our attention on results obtained on the HepG2 cell line exposed to SiC nanoparticles. Scarce literature exists on SiC nanotoxicology. According to the authors that have already carried out studies on this particular nanoparticle, it would seem that SiC nanoparticles do not induce cytotoxicity. That is one of the reasons of the potential use of these nanoparticles as biological labels [1]. We thus were interested in acquiring more data on biological effects induced by SiC nanoparticles. Furthermore, one of the particular aspects of the present study lies in the fact that we tried to specify the influence of physico-chemical characteristics of nanoparticles on toxicological endpoints (cytotoxicity and genotoxicity)

  7. Impairment of oxidative phosphorylation increases the toxicity of SYD-1 on hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Anna Paula; Gozzi, Gustavo Jabor; Pires, Amanda do Rocio Andrade; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Dos Santos Canuto, André Vinícius; Echevarria, Aurea; Di Pietro, Attilio; Cadena, Sílvia Maria Suter Correia

    2016-08-25

    Toxicity of the SYD-1 mesoionic compound (3-[4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl]-1,2,3-oxadiazolium-5-olate) was evaluated on human liver cancer cells (HepG2) grown in either high glucose (HG) or galactose (GAL) medium, and also on suspended cells kept in HG medium. SYD-1 was able to decrease the viability of cultured HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as assessed by MTT, LDH release and dye with crystal violet assays, but no effect was observed on suspended cells after 1-40 min of treatment. Respiration analysis was performed after 2 min (suspended cells) or 24 h (cultured cells) of treatment: no change was observed in suspended cells, whereas SYD-1 inhibited as well basal, leak and uncoupled states of the respiration in cultured cells with HG medium. These inhibitions were consistent with the decrease in pyruvate level and increase in lactate level. Even more extended results were obtained with HepG2 cells grown in GAL medium where, additionally, the ATP amount was reduced. Furthermore, SYD-1 appears not to be transported by the main ABC multidrug transporters. These results show that SYD-1 is able to change the metabolism of HepG2 cells, and suggest that its cytotoxicity is related to impairment of mitochondrial metabolism. Therefore, we may propose that SYD-1 is a potential candidate for hepatocarcinoma treatment.

  8. Multitargeting and antimetastatic potentials of silibinin in human HepG-2 and PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Reza; Ghaffari, Seyed H; Momeny, Majid; Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Yousefi, Mehdi; Malehmir, Mohsen; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common sort of primary liver malignancy with poor prognosis. This study aimed at examining the effects of silibinin (a putative antimetastatic agent) on some transcriptional markers mechanistically related to HCC recurrence and metastasis in HepG-2 [hepatitis B virus (HBV)-negative and P53 intact) and PLC/PRF/5 (HBV-positive and P53 mutated) cells. The expression of 27 genes in response to silibinin was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. The MMP gelatinolytic assay and microculture tetrazolium test (MTT) were tested. Silibinin was capable of suppressing the transcriptional levels of ANGPT2, ATP6L, CAP2, CCR6, CCR7, CLDN-10, cortactin, CXCR4, GLI2, HK2, ID1, KIAA0101, mortalin, PAK1, RHOA, SPINK1, and STMN1 as well as the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 but promoted the transcripts of CREB3L3, DDX3X, and PROX1 in both cells. Some significant differences between the cells in response to silibinin were detected that might be related to the differences of the cells in terms of HBV infection and/or P53 mutation, suggesting the possible influence of silibinin on HCC through biological functions of these 2 prognostic factors. In conclusion, our findings suggest that silibinin could potentially function as a multitargeting antimetastatic agent and might provide new insights for HCC therapy particularly for HBV-related and/or P53-mutated HCCs.

  9. Synergy analysis reveals association between insulin signaling and desmoplakin expression in palmitate treated HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Wang

    Full Text Available The regulation of complex cellular activities in palmitate treated HepG2 cells, and the ensuing cytotoxic phenotype, involves cooperative interactions between genes. While previous approaches have largely focused on identifying individual target genes, elucidating interacting genes has thus far remained elusive. We applied the concept of information synergy to reconstruct a "gene-cooperativity" network for palmititate-induced cytotoxicity in liver cells. Our approach integrated gene expression data with metabolic profiles to select a subset of genes for network reconstruction. Subsequent analysis of the network revealed insulin signaling as the most significantly enriched pathway, and desmoplakin (DSP as its top neighbor. We determined that palmitate significantly reduces DSP expression, and treatment with insulin restores the lost expression of DSP. Insulin resistance is a common pathological feature of fatty liver and related ailments, whereas loss of DSP has been noted in liver carcinoma. Reduced DSP expression can lead to loss of cell-cell adhesion via desmosomes, and disrupt the keratin intermediate filament network. Our findings suggest that DSP expression may be perturbed by palmitate and, along with insulin resistance, may play a role in palmitate induced cytotoxicity, and serve as potential targets for further studies on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD.

  10. Estrogen receptor alpha augments changes in hemostatic gene expression in HepG2 cells treated with estradiol and phytoestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lynne A; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Wuttke, Wolfgang; O'Leary, John J; Norris, Lucy A

    2014-01-15

    Phytoestrogens are popular alternatives to estrogen therapy however their effects on hemostasis in post-menopausal women are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the phytoestrogens, genistein, daidzein and equol on the expression of key genes from the hemostatic system in human hepatocyte cell models and to determine the role of estrogen receptors in mediating any response seen. HepG2 cells and Hep89 cells (expressing estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)) were incubated for 24 h with 50 nM 17β-estradiol, genistein, daidzein or equol. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), Factor VII, fibrinogen γ, protein C and protein S mRNA expression were determined using TaqMan PCR. Genistein and equol increased tPA and PAI-1 expression in Hep89 cells with fold changes greater than those observed for estradiol. In HepG2 cells (which do not express ERα), PAI-1 and tPA expression were unchanged. Increased expression of Factor VII was observed in phytoestrogen treated Hep89 cells but not in similarly treated HepG2s. Prothrombin gene expression was increased in equol and daidzein treated HepG2 cells in the absence of the classical estrogen receptors. These data suggest that phytoestrogens can regulate the expression of coagulation and fibrinolytic genes in a human hepatocyte cell line; an effect which is augmented by ERα.

  11. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as "mundu" belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell.

  12. Effect of baicalin-copper on the induction of apoptosis in human hepatoblastoma cancer HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Zou, Kaili; Gou, Jing; Du, Qin; Li, Dejuan; He, Xiaoyan; Li, Zhubo

    2015-03-01

    The medical properties of baicalin have been well known for many years. However, the discovery that baicalin in the presence of metal ions is more effective than baicalin alone changed the course of drug research. The present study was designed to investigate the effect and possible mechanism of apoptosis induced by baicalin-copper in a human hepatoblastoma cancer cell line (HepG2) and in vivo. This study demonstrated that baicalin-copper suppresses the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Intraperitoneal injection of baicalin-copper resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth in xenografts in nude mice. Acridine orange staining and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that baicalin-copper induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells and caused cells to arrest in G2-M phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, baicalin-copper treatment significantly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and p38 levels, as well as decreased the expression of caspase-3, p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR (P copper induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells by down-regulating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

  13. Using the stable HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter HepG2 cells to assess the overall toxicity of coke oven emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    信丽丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective Using the stable HSPA1A(HSP70-1) promoter-driven luciferase reporter HepG2 cells(HepG2/HSPA1A cells) to assess the overall toxicity of coke oven emissions. Methods The stable HepG2/HSPA1A cells were treated with different concentrations of coke oven

  14. Development and validation of a high-content screening in vitro micronucleus assay in CHO-k1 and HepG2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, W.M.; Schirris, T.J.J.; Horbach, G.J.; Schoonen, W.G.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study an automated image analysis assisted in vitro micronucleus assay was developed with the rodent cell line CHO-k1 and the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which are both commonly used in regulatory genotoxicity assays. The HepG2 cell line was chosen because of the presence in these

  15. Citreoviridin Induces Autophagy-Dependent Apoptosis through Lysosomal-Mitochondrial Axis in Human Liver HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuexia; Liu, Yanan; Liu, Xiaofang; Jiang, Liping; Yang, Guang; Sun, Xiance; Geng, Chengyan; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Min

    2015-08-06

    Citreoviridin (CIT) is a mycotoxin derived from fungal species in moldy cereals. In our previous study, we reported that CIT stimulated autophagosome formation in human liver HepG2 cells. Here, we aimed to explore the relationship of autophagy with lysosomal membrane permeabilization and apoptosis in CIT-treated cells. Our data showed that CIT increased the expression of LC3-II, an autophagosome biomarker, from the early stage of treatment (6 h). After treatment with CIT for 12 h, lysosomal membrane permeabilization occurred, followed by the release of cathepsin D in HepG2 cells. Inhibition of autophagosome formation with siRNA against Atg5 attenuated CIT-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization. In addition, CIT induced collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential as assessed by JC-1 staining. Furthermore, caspase-3 activity assay showed that CIT induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Inhibition of autophagosome formation attenuated CIT-induced apoptosis, indicating that CIT-induced apoptosis was autophagy-dependent. Cathepsin D inhibitor, pepstatin A, relieved CIT-induced apoptosis as well, suggesting the involvement of the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis in CIT-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrated that CIT induced autophagy-dependent apoptosis through the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis in HepG2 cells. The study thus provides essential mechanistic insight, and suggests clues for the effective management and treatment of CIT-related diseases.

  16. Galactosylated poly(ε-caprolactone) membrane promoted liver-specific functions of HepG2 cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan, E-mail: zhang_yan@ecust.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang, Yi [The Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chen, Min; Zhou, Yan [The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Bioengineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237 (China); Lang, Meidong, E-mail: mdlang@ecust.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2014-08-01

    The lack of pendant functional groups on the PCL backbone has been a great challenge for surface bioactivation of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). In the present study, covalently galactosylated PCL (GPCL) was developed through coupling between the amino-functionalized PCL (NPCL) and the lactobionic acid (LA) and its potential application in maintenance of physiological functions of HepG2 cells was further evaluated. The structure and properties of GPCL were explored by {sup 1}H NMR, FT-IR, GPC and DSC. Moreover, the incorporation of galactose ligands onto GPCL membranes not only promoted higher wettability, but also radically changed surface morphology in comparison with PCL and NPCL according to the contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy. When HepG2 cells were seeded onto these membranes, the cells on GPCL membranes showed more pronounced cell adhesion and tended to form aggregates during the initial adhesion stage and then progressively grew into multi-layer structures compared to those without galactose ligands by the observation with fluorescence microscope and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, live–dead assay and functional tests demonstrated that HepG2 cells on GPCL membranes had superior viability and maintained better liver-specific functions. Collectively, GPCL has great potential for hepatic tissue engineering scaffolds. - Graphical abstract: The specific recognition between the galactose ligands on the galactosylated poly(ε-caprolactone) membrane and the ASGPR on the HepG2 cell surface. The galactosylated poly(ε-caprolactone) membranes improved the cell-matrix interaction. The galactosylated functionalized PCL scaffold is a potential candidate for liver tissue engineering. - Highlights: • The specific recognition between the galactose ligands on the galactosylated poly(ε-caprolactone) membrane and the ASGPR on the HepG2 cell surface. • The galactosylated poly(ε-caprolactone) membranes improved the cell-matrix interaction.

  17. Glycoalkaloids and metabolites inhibit the growth of human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kap-Rang; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Han, Jae-Sook; Park, Joon-Hong; Chang, Eun-Young; Baek, Eun-Jung; Chang, Jong-Sun; Friedman, Mendel

    2004-05-19

    As part of an effort to improve plant-derived foods such as potatoes, eggplants, and tomatoes, the antiproliferative activities against human colon (HT29) and liver (HepG2) cancer cells of a series of structurally related individual compounds were examined using a microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The objective was to assess the roles of the carbohydrate side chain and aglycon part of Solanum glycosides in influencing inhibitory activities of these compounds. Evaluations were carried out with four concentrations each (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 microg/mL) of the the potato trisaccharide glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine; the disaccharides beta(1)-chaconine, beta(2)-chaconine, and beta(2)-solanine; the monosaccharide gamma-chaconine and their common aglycon solanidine; the tetrasaccharide potato glycoalkaloid dehydrocommersonine; the potato aglycon demissidine; the tetrasaccharide tomato glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine, the trisaccharide beta(1)-tomatine, the disaccharide gamma-tomatine, the monosaccharide delta-tomatine, and their common aglycon tomatidine; the eggplant glycoalkaloids solamargine and solasonine and their common aglycon solasodine; and the nonsteroidal alkaloid jervine. All compounds were active in the assay, with the glycoalkaloids being the most active and the hydrolysis products less so. The effectiveness against the liver cells was greater than against the colon cells. Potencies of alpha-tomatine and alpha-chaconine at a concentration of 1 microg/mL against the liver carcinoma cells were higher than those observed with the anticancer drugs doxorubicin and camptothecin. Because alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, and alpha-tomatine also inhibited normal human liver HeLa (Chang) cells, safety considerations should guide the use of these compounds as preventative or therapeutic treatments against carcinomas.

  18. The protective effects of hydroxytyrosol against ortho-phenylphenol-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqing; Yang, Guang; Wang, Shaopeng; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Xiaofang; Geng, Chengyan; Zhong, Laifu; Chen, Min

    2012-07-01

    Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) has been found to cause carcinomas in the urinary tract of rats. Since OPP is a potent genotoxic compound, and used as fungicides and antibacterial agents in fruits and fruit products, search for newer, better agents for protection against toxicity of OPP is required. In this study, the chemoprotective effect of hydroxytyrosol (HT) against OPP-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells was investigated. Comet assay was used to detect the DNA damage induced by OPP. To elucidate the possible mechanisms, we tested lysosomal membrane stability, mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reduced glutathione (GSH). Results showed that HT significantly reduced the DNA strand breaks caused by OPP. Moreover, HT effectively suppressed OPP-induced ROS formation, and increased the GSH level. Lysosomal membrane and mitochondrial membrane were also protected when cells were pretreated with HT. These results suggested that the disruption of lysosomal membrane integrity and the oxidative stress, leading to DNA fragmentation, may be the mechanism of DNA damage induced by OPP. The antioxidant activity of HT may play an important part in attenuating the DNA damage of OPP.

  19. Biochemical Effects of six Ti02 and four Ce02 Nanomaterials in HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The potential mammalian hepatotoxicity of nanomaterials were explored in dose-response and structure-activity studies with human hepatic HepG2 cells exposed to between 10 and 1000 ug/ml of six different TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials for 3 days. Var...

  20. Dihydrotestosterone regulating apolipoprotein M expression mediates via protein kinase C in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-zhou Ye

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Administration of androgens decreases plasma concentrations of high-density lipid cholesterol (HDL-C. However, the mechanisms by which androgens mediate lipid metabolism remain unknown. This present study used HepG2 cell cultures and ovariectomized C57BL/6 J mice to determine whether apolipoprotein M (ApoM, a constituent of HDL, was affected by dihydrotestosterone (DHT. Methods HepG2 cells were cultured in the presence of either DHT, agonist of protein kinase C (PKC, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA, blocker of androgen receptor flutamide together with different concentrations of DHT, or DHT together with staurosporine at different concentrations for 24 hrs. Ovariectomized C57BL/6 J mice were treated with DHT or vehicle for 7d or 14d and the levels of plasma ApoM and livers ApoM mRNA were measured. The mRNA levels of ApoM, ApoAI were determined by real-time RT-PCR. ApoM and ApoAI were determined by western blotting analysis. Results Addition of DHT to cell culture medium selectively down-regulated ApoM mRNA expression and ApoM secretion in a dose-dependent manner. At 10 nM DHT, the ApoM mRNA levels were about 20% lower than in untreated cells and about 40% lower at 1000 nM DHT than in the control cells. The secretion of ApoM into the medium was reduced to a similar extent. The inhibitory effect of DHT on ApoM secretion was not blocked by the classical androgen receptor blocker flutamide but by an antagonist of PKC, Staurosporine. Agonist of PKC, PMA, also reduced ApoM. At 0.5 μM PMA, the ApoM mRNA levels and the secretion of ApoM into the medium were about 30% lower than in the control cells. The mRNA expression levels and secretion of another HDL-associated apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI were not affected by DHT. The levels of plasma ApoM and liver ApoM mRNA of DHT-treated C57BL/6 J mice were lower than those of vehicle-treated mice. Conclusions DHT directly and selectively down-regulated the level of ApoM mRNA and the

  1. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root Extract Combinations Increase Hepatocarcinoma Cell (Hep-G2 Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Popovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined cytoactive effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts were investigated in a hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2. An isobolographic analysis was utilized to express the possibility of synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction between the two extracts. Both ginseng and licorice roots are widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine preparations to treat a variety of ailments. However, the effect of the herbs in combination is currently unknown in cultured Hep-G2 cells. Ginseng (GE and licorice (LE extracts were both able to reduce cell viability. The LC50 values, after 72 h, were found to be 0.64 ± 0.02 mg/mL (GE and 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL (LE. An isobologram was plotted, which included five theoretical LC50s calculated, based on the fixed fraction method of combination ginseng to licorice extracts to establish a line of additivity. All combinations of GE to LE (1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 produced an effect on Hep-G2 cell viability but they were all found to be antagonistic. The LC50 of fractions 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 were 23%, 21% and 18% above the theoretical LC50. Lactate dehydrogenase release indicated that as the proportion of GE to LE increased beyond 50%, the influence on membrane permeability increased. Cell-cycle analysis showed a slight but significant arrest at the G1 phase of cell cycle for LE. Both GE and LE reduced Hep-G2 viability independently; however, the combinations of both extracts were found to have an antagonistic effect on cell viability and increased cultured Hep-G2 survival.

  2. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other.

  3. Antioxidant potential of herbs extracts and impact on HepG2 cells viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury poisoning is responsible for inducing serious adverse effects in living organisms. One of protection factors could be substances proven to possess high antioxidant and metal chelating activity – plant polyphenols. There are many sources of polyphenols in plant kingdom but the most interesting for food industry could be widely consumed herbs. Aim of the research was to evaluate antioxidative potential of selected plant extracts and its influence on HepG2 cells in different conditions. Ethanolic herbs extracts were characterised by total polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity was estimated with use of DPPH• and ABTS+• radicals scavenging methods and FRAP. Research included cells viability estimation by the MTT assay and cells exposition to HgCl2, chemical agent inducing cell death. Analysis of herbs extracts antioxidative activity showed best potential represented thyme and marjoram, highest FRAP was evaluated in samples with mint and marjoram extracts. On the basis of received results it was found that examined plant extracts showed weak protection against Hg presence in examined cells environment.

  4. The color and size of chili peppers (Capsicum annuum) influence Hep-G2 cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, David G; Sia, Sharon Y; Zhang, Wei; Lim, Mon L

    2014-11-01

    Four types of chili (Capsicum annuum) extracts, categorized according to color; green and red, and size; small and large were studied in Hep-G2 cells. Red small (RS) chili had an LC50 value of 0.378 ± 0.029 compared to green big (GB) 1.034 ± 0.061 and green small (GS) 1.070 ± 0.21 mg/mL. Red big (RB) was not cytotoxic. Capsaicin content was highest in RS and produced a greater percentage sub-G1 cells (6.47 ± 1.8%) after 24 h compared to GS (2.96 ± 1.3%) and control (1.29 ± 0.8%) cells. G2/M phase was reduced by GS compared to RS and control cells. RS at the LC50 concentration contained 1.6 times the amount of pure capsaicin LC50 to achieve the same effect of capsaicin alone. GS and GB capsaicin content at the LC50 value was lower (0.2 and 0.66, respectively) compared to the amount of capsaicin to achieve a similar reduction in cell growth.

  5. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yi, E-mail: yi.luo@pfizer.com; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  6. Exosomes derived from SW480 colorectal cancer cells promote cell migration in HepG2 hepatocellular cancer cells via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Mitsuru; Watanabe, Narumi; Watanabe, Miki; Sakamoto, Maki; Sato, Akika; Fujisaki, Mizuki; Kubota, Shiori; Monzen, Satoru; Maruyama, Atsushi; Nanashima, Naoki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Nakamura, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are membrane-derived extracellular vesicles that have recently been recognized as important mediators of intercellular communication. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exosomes derived from SW480 colorectal cancer cells in recipient HepG2 hepatocellular cancer cells. We demonstrated that SW480-derived exosomes were taken up by the recipient HepG2 cells via dynamin-dependent endocytosis and were localized to the HepG2 lysosomes. In addition, SW480-derived exosomes induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 following their uptake into HepG2 cells. Of note, these changes occurred during the early phase after exosome treatment. Furthermore, SW480-derived exosomes promoted the migration of recipient HepG2 cells in a wound-healing assay, which was suppressed by pretreatment with U0126, an upstream inhibitor of ERK1/2. These results indicated that SW480-derived exosomes activated a classical mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in recipient HepG2 cells via dynamin-dependent endocytosis and subsequently enhanced cell migration by ERK1/2 activation. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of cellular functions by exosomes.

  7. The toxicity of extracts of plant parts of Moringa stenopetala in HEPG2 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Negussu; Houghton, Peter; Timbrell, John

    2005-10-01

    The cytotoxicity of extracts from a widely used species of plant, Moringa stenopetala, was assessed in HEPG2 cells, by measuring the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell viability. The functional integrity of extract-exposed cells was determined by measuring intracellular levels of ATP and glutathione (GSH). The ethanol extracts of leaves and seeds increased significantly (p leaf and seed extracts. At a concentration of 500 microg/mL, the water extract of leaves increased (p leaf extract decreased GSH levels at a concentration of 500 microg/mL (p Moringa stenopetala show that they contain toxic substances that are extractable with organic solvents or are formed during the process of extraction with these solvents. The significant depletion of ATP and GSH only occurred at concentrations of extract that caused leakage of LDH. Further investigation with this plant in order to identify the constituents extracted and their individual toxic effects both in vivo and in vitro is warranted. This study also illustrates the utility of cell culture for screening plant extracts for potential toxicity.

  8. Investigation of the anti-cancer effect of quercetin on HepG2 cells in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Yao, Wenxiu; Xiong, Zhujuan; Zhou, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Quercetin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid compound, can inhibit the growth of several malignant cancers. However, the mechanism still remains unclear. Our previous findings have suggested that quercetin can significantly inhibit HepG2 cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis in vitro. It can also affect cell cycle distribution and significantly decrease cyclin D1 expression. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of quercetin on HepG2 tumor-bearing nude mice and its effect on cyclin D1 expression in the tumor tissue. First, the nude murine tumor model was established by subcutaneous inoculation of HepG2 cells, then quercetin was administered intraperitoneally, and the mice injected with saline solution were used as controls. The daily behavior of the tumor-bearing mice was observed and differences in tumor growth and survival rate were monitored. The expression of cyclin D1 in isolated tumor sections was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We found that HepG2 tumor became palpable in the mice one-week post-inoculation. Tumors in the control group grew rapidly and the daily behavior of the mice changed significantly, including listlessness, poor feeding and ataxia. The mice in quercetin-treated group showed delayed tumor growth, no significant changes in daily behavior, and the survival rate was significantly improved. Finally, we observed increased tumor necrosis and a lighter cyclin D1 staining with reduced staining areas. Our findings thus suggest that quercetin can significantly inhibit HepG2 cell proliferation, and this effect may be achieved through the regulation of cyclin D1 expression. PMID:28264020

  9. Signaling dynamics of palmitate-induced ER stress responses mediated by ATF4 in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Hyunju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palmitic acid, the most common saturated free fatty acid, has been implicated in ER (endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis. This lipoapotosis is dependent, in part, on the upregulation of the activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4. To better understand the mechanisms by which palmitate upregulates the expression level of ATF4, we integrated literature information on palmitate-induced ER stress signaling into a discrete dynamic model. The model provides an in silico framework that enables simulations and predictions. The model predictions were confirmed through further experiments in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells and the results were used to update the model and our current understanding of the signaling induced by palmitate. Results The three key things from the in silico simulation and experimental results are: 1 palmitate induces different signaling pathways (PKR (double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, PERK (PKR-like ER kinase, PKA (cyclic AMP (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A in a time dependent-manner, 2 both ATF4 and CREB1 (cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 interact with the Atf4 promoter to contribute to a prolonged accumulation of ATF4, and 3 CREB1 is involved in ER-stress induced apoptosis upon palmitate treatment, by regulating ATF4 expression and possibly Ca2+ dependent-CaM (calmodulin signaling pathway. Conclusion The in silico model helped to delineate the essential signaling pathways in palmitate-mediated apoptosis.

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce Fatty Acid Synthase and Hydroxy-Methyl-Glutaryl CoA-Reductase gene expression and promote apoptosis in HepG2 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miccolis Angelica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are the two major classes of PUFAs encountered in the diet, and both classes of fatty acids are required for normal human health. Moreover, PUFAs have effects on diverse pathological processes impacting chronic disease, such as cardiovascular and immune disease, neurological disease, and cancer. Aim To investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and arachidonic acid (ARA on the proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma cell line HepG2 after exposure to increasing concentrations of EPA or ARA for 48 h. Moreover, in the same cells the gene expression of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS and 3-Hydroxy-3-Methyl-Glutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (HMG-CoAR was also investigated. Method Cell growth and apoptosis were assayed by MTT and ELISA test, respectively after cell exposure to increasing concentrations of EPA and ARA. Reverse-transcription and real-time PCR was used to detect FAS and HMG-CoAR mRNA levels in treated cells. Results Our findings show that EPA inhibits HepG2 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, starting from 25 μM (P Conclusion Our results demonstrate that EPA and ARA inhibit HepG2 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. The down-regulation of FAS and HMG-CoAR gene expression by EPA and ARA might be one of the mechanisms for the anti-proliferative properties of PUFAs in an in vitro model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. HepG2 cells support viral replication and gene expression of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Mostafa K; Tabll, Ashraf A; El-Abd, Yasmine S; Bahgat, Mahmoud M; Shoeb, Hussein A; Youssef, Samar S; Din, Noha G Bader El; Redwan, El-Rashdy M; El-Demellawy, Maha; Omran, Moataza H; El-Garf, Wael T; Goueli, Said A

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To establish a cell culture system with long-term replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome and expression of viral antigens in vitro. METHODS: HepG2 cell line was tested for its susceptibility to HCV by incubation with a serum from a patient with chronic hepatitis C. Cells and supernatant were harvested at various time points during the culture. Culture supernatant was tested for its ability to infect naïve cells. The presence of minus (antisense) RNA strand, and the detection of core and E1 antigens in cells were examined by RT-PCR and immunological techniques (flow cytometry and Western blot) respectively. RESULTS: The intracellular HCV RNA was first detected on d 3 after infection and then could be consistently detected in both cells and supernatant over a period of at least three months. The fresh cells could be infected with supernatant from cultured infected cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed surface and intracellular HCV antigen expression using in house made polyclonal antibodies (anti-core, and anti-E1). Western blot analysis showed the expression of a cluster of immunogenic peptides at molecular weights extended between 31 and 45 kDa in an one month old culture of infected cells whereas this cluster was undetectable in uninfected HepG2 cells. CONCLUSION: HepG2 cell line is not only susceptible to HCV infection but also supports its replication in vitro. Expression of HCV structural proteins can be detected in infected HepG2 cells. These cells are also capable of shedding viral particles into culture media which in turn become infectious to uninfected cells. PMID:16937465

  12. HepG2 cells support viral replication and gene expression of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mostafa K El-Awady; Moataza H Omran; Wael T El-Garf; Said A Goueli; Ashraf A Tabll; Yasmine S El-Abd; Mahmoud M Bahgat; Hussein A Shoeb; Samar S Youssef; Noha G Bader El Din; El-Rashdy M Redwan; Maha El-Demellawy

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To establish a cell culture system with longterm replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome and expression of viral antigens in vitro. METHODS: HepG2 cell line was tested for its susceptibility to HCV by incubation with a serum from a patient with chronic hepatitis C. Cells and supernatant were harvested at various time points during the culture. Culture supernatant was tested for its ability to infect naive cells. The presence of minus (antisense) RNA strand, and the detection of core and E1 antigens in cells were examined by RT-PCR and immunological techniques (flow cytometry and Western blot) respectively. RESULTS: The intracellular HCV RNA was first detected on d 3 after infection and then could be consistently detected in both cells and supernatant over a period of at least three months. The fresh cells could be infected with supernatant from cultured infected cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed surface and intracellular HCV antigen expression using in house made polyclonal antibodies (anti-core, and anti-E1). Western blot analysis showed the expression of a cluster of immunogenic peptides at molecular weights extended between 31 and 45 kDa in an one month old culture of infected cells whereas this cluster was undetectable in uninfected HepG2 cells. CONCLUSION: HepG2 cell line is not only susceptible to HCV infection but also supports its replication in vitro. Expression of HCV structural proteins can be detected in infected HepG2 cells. These cells are also capable of shedding viral particles into culture media which in turn become infectious to uninfected cells.

  13. The influence of ciprofloxacin on viability of A549, HepG2, A375.S2, B16 and C6 cell lines in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloskowski, Tomasz; Gurtowska, Natalia; Nowak, Monika; Joachimiak, Romana; Bajek, Anna; Olkowska, Joanna; Drewa, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a chemotherapeutic agent mainly used in the treatment of the pulmonary and urinary tract infections but is also known for its anticancer properties. The aim of these study was to check the anticancer effect of ciprofloxacin on selected five cell lines. Human non-small cell lung cancer line A549, human hepatocellular carcinoma line HepG2, human and mouse melanoma lines (A375.S2 and B16) and rat glioblastoma line C6 were used for evaluation of cytotoxic properties of ciprofloxacin (in concentration range: 10-1000 microg/mL). Viability was established using trypan blue assay and MTT. Ciprofloxacin induced morphological changes and decreased viability of A549 cells in a concentration and time dependent manner. In case of A375.S2 and B16 cell lines, cytotoxicyty of ciprofloxacin was observed but we were not able to eradicate all cells from A375.S2 and B16 cultures. HepG2 line was sensitive to ciprofloxacin, but this effect was independent from concentration and incubation time. The C6 cells were insensitive to ciprofloxacin. Our results showed that ciprofloxacin can be potentially used for the experimental adjunctive therapy of lung cancer.

  14. Activation of apoptosis by ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Dianthus superbus in HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Qing; Yin, Yan; Lei, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Xiu-Qiao; Chen, Wei; Ding, Cheng-Li; Wu, Shan; He, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Yan-Wen; Zou, Guo-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Dianthus superbus L. is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine. We recently showed that ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from ethanol extract of D. superbus exhibited the strongest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. In this study, we examined apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS, and the mechanism underlying apoptosis was also investigated. Treatment of HepG2 cells with EE-DS (20-80 μg/ml) for 48 h led to a significant dose-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in sub-G1 phase by analysis of the content of DNA in cells, and a large number of apoptotic bodies containing nuclear fragments were observed in cells treated with 80 μg/ml of EE-DS for 24 h by using Hoechst 33258 staining. These data show that EE-DS can induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that EE-DS significantly suppressed the expressions of Bcl-2 and NF-κB. Treatment of cells with EE-DS (80 μg/ml) for 48 h resulted in significant increase of cytochrome c in the cytosol, which indicated cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Activation of caspase-9 and -3 were also determined when the cells treated with EE-DS. The results suggest that apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS could be through the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data showed that the composition of EE-DS is complicated. Further studies are needed to find the effective constituents of EE-DS.

  15. Implications of altered glutathione metabolism in aspirin-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA induces cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells. In the present study, we have further elucidated that altered glutathione (GSH-redox metabolism in HepG2 cells play a critical role in ASA-induced cytotoxicity. Using selected doses and time point for ASA toxicity, we have demonstrated that when GSH synthesis is inhibited in HepG2 cells by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, prior to ASA treatment, cytotoxicity of the drug is augmented. On the other hand, when GSH-depleted cells were treated with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, cytotoxicity/apoptosis caused by ASA was attenuated with a significant recovery in oxidative stress, GSH homeostasis, DNA fragmentation and some of the mitochondrial functions. NAC treatment, however, had no significant effects on the drug-induced inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity and ATP synthesis in GSH-depleted cells. Our results have confirmed that aspirin increases apoptosis by increased reactive oxygen species production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory functions. These effects were further amplified when GSH-depleted cells were treated with ASA. We have also shown that some of the effects of aspirin might be associated with reduced GSH homeostasis, as treatment of cells with NAC attenuated the effects of BSO and aspirin. Our results strongly suggest that GSH dependent redox homeostasis in HepG2 cells is critical in preserving mitochondrial functions and preventing oxidative stress associated complications caused by aspirin treatment.

  16. Comparative cytotoxicity of dolomite nanoparticles in human larynx HEp2 and liver HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Ahmad, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Khan, Shams T; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2015-06-01

    Dolomite is a natural mineral of great industrial and commercial importance. With the advent of nanotechnology, natural minerals including dolomite in the form of nanoparticles (NPs) are being utilized in various applications to improve the quality of products. However, safety or toxicity information of dolomite NPs is largely lacking. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of dolomite NPs in two widely used in vitro cell culture models: human airway epithelial (HEp2) and human liver (HepG2) cells. Concentration-dependent decreased cell viability and damaged cell membrane integrity revealed the cytotoxicity of dolomite NPs. We further observed that dolomite NPs induce oxidative stress in a concentration-dependent manner, as indicated by depletion of glutathione and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. Quantitative real-time PCR data demonstrated that the mRNA level of tumor suppressor gene p53 and apoptotic genes (bax, CASP3 and CASP9) were up-regulated whereas the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated in HEp2 and HepG2 cells exposed to dolomite NPs. Moreover, the activity of apoptotic enzymes (caspase-3 and caspase-9) was also higher in both kinds of cells treated with dolomite NPs. It is also worth mentioning that HEp2 cells seem to be marginally more susceptible to dolomite NPs exposure than HepG2 cells. Cytotoxicity induced by dolomite NPs was efficiently prevented by N-acetyl cysteine treatment, which suggests that oxidative stress is primarily responsible for the cytotoxicity of dolomite NPs in both HEp2 and HepG2 cells. Toxicity mechanisms of dolomite NPs warrant further investigations at the in vivo level.

  17. Pro-oxidant effect of ALA is implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction of HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laafi, Jihane; Homedan, Chadi; Jacques, Caroline; Gueguen, Naig; Schmitt, Caroline; Puy, Hervé; Reynier, Pascal; Carmen Martinez, Maria; Malthièry, Yves

    2014-11-01

    Heme biosynthesis begins in the mitochondrion with the formation of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). In acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary tyrosinemia type I and lead poisoning patients, ALA is accumulated in plasma and in organs, especially the liver. These diseases are also associated with neuromuscular dysfunction and increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Many studies suggest that this damage may originate from ALA-induced oxidative stress following its accumulation. Using the MnSOD as an oxidative stress marker, we showed here that ALA treatment of cultured cells induced ROS production, increasing with ALA concentration. The mitochondrial energetic function of ALA-treated HepG2 cells was further explored. Mitochondrial respiration and ATP content were reduced compared to control cells. For the 300 μM treatment, ALA induced a mitochondrial mass decrease and a mitochondrial network imbalance although neither necrosis nor apoptosis were observed. The up regulation of PGC-1, Tfam and ND5 genes was also found; these genes encode mitochondrial proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis activation and OXPHOS function. We propose that ALA may constitute an internal bioenergetic signal, which initiates a coordinated upregulation of respiratory genes, which ultimately drives mitochondrial metabolic adaptation within cells. The addition of an antioxidant, Manganese(III) tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (MnTMPyP), resulted in improvement of maximal respiratory chain capacity with 300 μM ALA. Our results suggest that mitochondria, an ALA-production site, are more sensitive to pro-oxidant effect of ALA, and may be directly involved in pathophysiology of patients with inherited or acquired porphyria.

  18. In vitro investigations of Cynara scolymus L. extract on cell physiology of HepG2 liver cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Löhr

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the investigation of a potential influence of artichoke leaf extract (ALE on the cell physiology and gene expression of phase I/II enzymes of human liver cells HepG2 and investigation on potential cell protective effects against ethanol-induced cell toxicity against HepG2 cells. Cell biological assays under in vitro conditions using HepG2 liver cells and investigation of mitochondrial activity (MTT test, proliferation assay (BrdU incorporation ELISA, LDH as toxicity marker, gene expression analysis by RT-PCR and enzyme activity of glutationtransferase. Artichocke extract, containing 27% caffeoylquinic acids and 7% flavonoids induced mitochondrial activity, proliferation and total protein content under in vitro conditions in human liver cells HepG2. These effects could not be correlated to the well-known artichoke secondary compounds cynarin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. The flavones luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside had inhibitory effects at 100 µg/mL level on HepG2 cells, with luteolin being a significant stronger inhibitor compared to the respective glucoside. Artichoke leaf extract had minor stimulating effect on gene expression of CYP1A2, while CYP3A4, GGT, GPX2, GSR and GST were slightly inhibited. GST inhibition under in vitro conditions was also shown by quantification of GST enzyme activity. Induction of gene expression of CYP1A2 was shown to be supraadditive after simultaneous application of ethanol plus artichoke extract. Artichoke leaf extract exhibited cell protective effects against ethanol-induced toxicity within cotreatment under in vitro conditions. Also H2O2 damage was significantly inhibited by simultaneous artichoke incubation. Pre- and posttreatments did not exert protective effects. DMSO-induced toxicity was significantly reduced by pre-, post- and cotreatment with artichoke extract and especially with luteolin-7-O-glucoside, indicating a direct

  19. Preliminary Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in HepG2 Cell Line Induced by Different Genotype Core Proteins of HCV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Dou; Pengbo Liu; Jing Wang; Xinjian Zhang

    2006-01-01

    In present investigation, we constructed recombinants expressing the HCV genotypes 1b, 2a, and 4d core proteins,and established human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line that expressed various genotype core proteins.The gene expression profiles in the cells expressing different HCV genotype core proteins were compared with those in the control by microarray analysis. In data analysis, a threshold was set to eliminate all genes that were not increased or decreased by 2.5-fold change in a comparison between the transfected cells and control cells. The preliminary microarray analysis suggests that the gene expression profiles regulated by three kinds of genotype core proteins are mainly involved in transport, signal transduction, regulation of transcription, protease activity, etc.,and that some pathogenesis/oncogenesis gene expressions are up/down- regulated simultaneously in the HepG2 cell line. The data suggest that each core protein has its gene expressions profile and that the profiles are implicated in HCV replication and pathogenesis, which may open up a novel way to understand the function of the HCV variant core proteins biological and their pathogenic mechanism.

  20. Heat Killed Attenuated Leishmania Induces Apoptosis of HepG2 Cells Through ROS Mediated p53 Dependent Mitochondrial Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipayan Bose

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cytotoxic effect of attenuated Leishmania on liver cancer cells by inducing ROS generation. Methods: Spectrophotometric study to analyze cell death and levels of different active caspases. Flow cytometric study was done to analyze apoptosis induction and ROS generation and levels of different protein. Western blot analysis was performed to study the levels of protein. Confocal microscopy was done to ascertain the expression of different apoptotic markers. Results: We have now observed that attenuated Leishmania donovani UR6 also has potentiality towards growth inhibition of HepG2 cells and investigated the mechanism of action. The effect is associated with increased DNA fragmentation, rise in number of annexinV positive cells, and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. The detection of unregulated levels of active PARP, cleaved caspases 3 and 9, cytosolic cytochrome C, Bax, and Bad, along with the observed downregulation of Bcl-2 and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested the involvement of mitochondrial pathway. Enhanced ROS and p53 levels regulate the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. NAC was found to inhibit p53 production but PFT-α has no effect on ROS generation. In conclusion, Leishmania donovani UR6 efficiently induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells through ROS mediated p53 dependent mitochondrial pathway. Conclusion: It has been reported earlier that some parasites show prominent cytotoxic effect and prevent tumor growth. From our study we found that Leishmania donovani UR6 efficiently induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through ROS mediated p53 dependent mitochondrial pathway. This study has rejuvenated the age old idea of bio-therapy.

  1. Apoptosis induction by silica nanoparticles mediated through reactive oxygen species in human liver cell line HepG2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Javed [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ahamed, Maqusood, E-mail: maqusood@gmail.com [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Akhtar, Mohd Javed [Fibre Toxicology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow-226001 (India); Alrokayan, Salman A. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A. [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-03-01

    Silica nanoparticles are increasingly utilized in various applications including agriculture and medicine. In vivo studies have shown that liver is one of the primary target organ of silica nanoparticles. However, possible mechanisms of hepatotoxicity caused by silica nanoparticles still remain unclear. In this study, we explored the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated apoptosis induced by well-characterized 14 nm silica nanoparticles in human liver cell line HepG2. Silica nanoparticles (25–200 μg/ml) induced a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Silica nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner indicated by induction of ROS and lipid peroxidation and depletion of glutathione (GSH). Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting results showed that both the mRNA and protein expressions of cell cycle checkpoint gene p53 and apoptotic genes (bax and caspase-3) were up-regulated while the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated in silica nanoparticles treated cells. Moreover, co-treatment of ROS scavenger vitamin C significantly attenuated the modulation of apoptotic markers along with the preservation of cell viability caused by silica nanoparticles. Our data demonstrated that silica nanoparticles induced apoptosis in human liver cells, which is ROS mediated and regulated through p53, bax/bcl-2 and caspase pathways. This study suggests that toxicity mechanisms of silica nanoparticles should be further investigated at in vivo level. -- Highlights: ► We explored the mechanisms of toxicity caused by silica NPs in human liver HepG2 cells. ► Silica NPs induced a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ► Silica NPs induced ROS generation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. ► Silica NPs were also modulated apoptosis markers both at mRNA and protein levels. ► ROS mediated apoptosis induced by silica NPs was preserved by vitamin C.

  2. Chemical characterization of Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharide and its tumor-inhibitory effects against human hepatoblastoma HepG-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Daoyuan; Wang, Ning; Guo, Jianjun; Yuan, Li; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-03-15

    This study was designed to investigate the chemical characterization and antitumor effects of Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides (PEP). The crude PEP was fractionated into two fractions, namely PEP-1 and PEP-2. HPLC analysis showed that PEP-1 and PEP-2 were heteropolysaccharides mainly composed of glucose with the average molecular weights of 2.54×10(4)Da (PEP-1) and 4.63×10(5)Da (PEP-2), respectively. High molecular mass PEP-2 was shown to exhibit stronger growth inhibition against human hepatoblastoma HepG-2 cells in comparison with PEP-1. Flow cytometric analysis showed that PEP-2 exerted a stimulatory effect on apoptosis of HepG-2 cells, and induced the cell-cycle arrest at the S-phase, with the observation of intracellular ROS production. These findings suggest that the polysaccharides, especially PEP-2, are very important nutritional ingredients responsible for the anticancer health benefits of P. eryngii.

  3. Mangiferin, a Dietary Xanthone Protects Against Mercury-Induced Toxicity in HepG2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Sobhika; Rao, B. Nageshwar; Mudholkar, Kaivalya; Bhuwania, Ridhirama; Rao, B. S. Satish

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is one of the noxious heavy metal environmental toxicants and is a cause of concern for human exposure. Mangiferin (MGN), a glucosylxanthone found in Mangifera indica, reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytoprotective potential of MGN, against mercury chloride (HgCl2) induced toxicity in HepG2 cell line. The cytoprotective effect of MGN on HgCl2 induced toxicity was assessed by colony formation assay, while antiapoptotic effect by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometric DNA analysis, and DNA fragmentation pattern assays. Further, the cytoprotective effect of MGN against HgCl2 toxicity was assessed by using biochemical parameters like reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) by spectrophotometrically, mitochondrial membrane potential by flowcytometry and the changes in reactive oxygen species levels by DCFH-DA spectrofluoremetric analysis. A significant increase in the surviving fraction was observed with 50 µM of MGN administered two hours prior to various concentrations of HgCl2. Further, pretreatment of MGN significantly decreased the percentage of HgCl2 induced apoptotic cells. Similarly, the levels of ROS generated by the HgCl2 treatment were inhibited significantly (P < 0.01) by MGN. MGN also significantly (P < 0.01) inhibited the HgCl2 induced decrease in GSH, GST, SOD, and CAT levels at all the post incubation intervals. Our study demonstrated the cytoprotective potential of MGN, which may be attributed to quenching of the ROS generated in the cells due to oxidative stress induced by HgCl2, restoration of mitochondrial membrane potential and normalization of cellular antioxidant levels. PMID:20629087

  4. Antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 replication in HepG2 cells

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    Omran Moataza H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C (HCV viral infection is a serious medical problem in Egypt and it has a devastating impact on the Egyptian economy. It is estimated that over 15% of Egyptians are infected by the virus and thus finding a cure for this disease is of utmost importance. Current therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype 4 with interferon/ribavirin have not been successful and thus the development of alternative therapy for this genotype is disparately needed. Results Although previous studies utilizing viral subgenomic or full cDNA fragments linked to reporter genes transfected into adhered cells or in a cell free system showed promise, demonstration of efficient viral replication was lacking. Thus, we utilized HepG2 cells infected with native HCV RNA genomes in a replication competent system and used antisense phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides (S-ODN against stem loop IIId and the AUG translation start site of the viral polyprotein precursor to monitor viral replication. We were able to show complete arrest of intracellular replication of HCV-4 at 1 uM S-ODN, thus providing a proof of concept for the potential antiviral activity of S-ODN on native genomic replication of HCV genotype 4. Conclusion We have successfully demonstrated that by using two S-ODNs [(S-ODN1 (nt 326–348 and S-ODN-2 (nt 264–282], we were able to completely inhibit viral replication in culture, thus confirming earlier reports on subgenomic constructs and suggesting a potential therapeutic value in HCV type 4.

  5. 微小RNA-221对HepG2细胞增殖及其凋亡的影响%Effect of miR-221 on the viability and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈罡; 党裔武; 罗殿中

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨微小RNA-221(miR-221)对肝癌细胞株HepG2细胞增殖与凋亡的影响.方法 将miR-221阻遏物及模拟物转染至HepG2后,用实时荧光定量RT-PCR检测miR-221的表达水平;用细胞增殖试剂盒、Hoechst 33342及碘化丙啶(PI)双重染色、流式细胞仪及caspase3/7活性试剂盒检测HepG2细胞增殖与凋亡情况.对数据进行多样本的单因素方差分析,两两比较采用LSD法;相关性比较用Pearson检验.结果 RT-PCR结果显示,转染miR-221阻遏物后其表达受到抑制,而转染miR-221模拟物可促进其表达.细胞增殖试剂盒及Hoechst 33342/PI染色结果显示,48 h后miR-221阻遏物明显抑制HepG2细胞增殖(P<0.05),而miR-221模拟物促进HepG2细胞增殖(P<0.05),两种方法结果呈正相关(r=0.993,P<0.01).流式细胞仪检测细胞周期显示,miR-221模拟物组G1期细胞比例(47.6%±1.53%)明显低于空白对照组(59.00%±1.00%)及阴性对照组(58.00%±1.00%,F=81.77,P<0.01); S期细胞比例(20.33%±1.15%)明显高于空白对照组(11.00%±1.00%)及阴性对照组(12.00%±1.00%,F=70.90,P<0.01).Hoechst 33342/PI染色、流式细胞仪膜联蛋白V凋亡试剂盒检测均显示,转染miR-221阻遏物48 h后,细胞凋亡和坏死增加(P<0.05),差异有统计学意义.Caspase-3/7试剂盒检测caspase-3/7活性变化结果显示,转染miR-221阻遏物24 h后,细胞caspase3/7活性明显增高(P<0.05),差异有统计学意义.结论 miR-221可促进肝癌细胞生长增殖,抑制miR-221表达可诱导细胞凋亡.miR-221有望成为治疗肝癌新的分子靶点之一.%Objective To investigate the effect of microRNA-221 (miR-221) on cell viability and apoptosis ofhepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Methods MiR-221 inhibitors and mimics were transfected into HepG2 cells. The expression of miR-221 was detected by real time quantitative RT-PCR. CellTiter-blue cell viability kit, Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (PI) double staining assay, flow cytometry and Apo

  6. Transcriptional down regulation of hTERT and senescence induction in HepG2 cells by chelidonine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sakineh Kazemi Noureini; Michael Wink

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential effects of chelidonine, the main alkaloid of Chelidonium majus, on telomerase activity and its regulation in HepG2 cells. METHODS: Cytotoxicity of chelidonine for HepG2 cells was determined by neutral red assay. A modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based telomerase repeat amplification protocol was used to estimate relative telomerase activity in chelidonine-treated cells in comparison with the untreated control cells. Relative expression level of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) gene and P-glycoprotein (pgp) were estimated using semi-quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Cell senescence in treated cells was demonstrated using a β-galactosidase test. RESULTS: Cytotoxicity of chelidonine in HepG2 cells was not dose-dependent and tended to reach plateau immediately after the living cells were reduced in number to slightly higher than 50%. However, 12 μmol/L concentration of chelidonine was considered as LD50, where the maximal attainable effects were realized. Real-time RT-PCR data showed that the expression of pgp increased three-fold in chelidonine treated HepG2cells in comparison with the untreated controls. Morphologically, treated HepG2 cells showed apoptotic features after 24 h and a small fraction of cells appeared with single blister cell death. The relative expression level of Bcl-2 dropped to less than 50% of control cells at a sub-apoptotic concentration of chelidonine and subsequently increased to higher than 120% at LD50. Telomerase activity was reduced considerably after administration of very low doses of chelidonine, whereas higher concentrations of chelidonine did not remarkably enhance the effect. Real-time RT-PCR experiments indicated a drastic decrease in expression level of hTERT subunit of telomerase under treatment with chelidonine. Repeated treatment of cells with very low doses of chelidonine caused a decline in growth rate by 4 wk and many of the cells appeared to be

  7. 漆树黄酮逆转人肝癌细胞HepG2上皮间质转化的实验研究%Effect of fisetin on epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 黎小兵; 敬敏; 陈锦; 黄培春

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究漆树黄酮对人肝癌细胞HepG2上皮间质转化的影响及其可能机制.方法 用不同浓度的漆树黄酮(50、100、200 μmol·L-1)处理HepG2细胞;MTT法检测漆树黄酮对HepG2细胞的细胞毒作用;用Transwell小室法检测漆树黄酮对HepG2细胞侵袭能力和趋化运动能力的影响,RT-PCR法检测p38MAPK、E-cadherin和vimentin mRNA表达,Western blot检测p38MAPK、E-cadherin和vimentin蛋白表达.结果 漆树黄酮作用细胞24 h后能抑制HepG2细胞体外趋化运动和侵袭能力.漆树黄酮能引起HepG2细胞形态学的变化,能降低p38MAPK和vimentin mRNA和蛋白表达,但不能改变E-Cadherin的表达.结论 漆树黄酮能逆转人肝癌细胞HepG2的上皮间质转化,其抗肿瘤侵袭运动的机制可能与抑制p38MAPK的表达有关.%Aim To investigate the effect of fisetin on epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatoma cell line HepG2 and its possible mechanism.Methods HepG2cell were treated with fisetin( 50.100, 200 μmol·L-1 );MTT assay was used to examine the cytotoxicity of fisetin in HepG2 cells ; Transwell Chamber assay was performed to determine the effect on invasion and migratory capacity of the cells by fisetin; The mRNA expression of p3 8 MAPK , E-cadherin , vimentin was determined by RT-PCR, and the protein expression of p38MAPK , E-cadherin , vimentin was detected by Western blotting.Results Fisetin inhibited migration and invasion capacity of HepG2 cells in vitro.The morphologic changes had been observed by the treatment of fisetin.The mRNA expression and the protein expres sion of p38MAPK and vimentin in HepG2 cells were also decreased by the treatment of fisetin, but those of E-cadherin manifest no change.Conclusion The characteristic morphology and molecular changes of EMT was reversed by fisetin and its possible anti-invasion and anti-migration mechanism was associated with downregulation of p38MAPK in HepG2.

  8. Quercetin modulates Nrf2 and glutathione-related defenses in HepG2 cells: Involvement of p38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2012-01-25

    Dietary flavonoid quercetin has been suggested as a cancer chemopreventive agent, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear. This study investigated the influence of quercetin on p38-MAPK and the potential regulation of the nuclear transcription factor erythroid-2p45-related factor (Nrf2) and the cellular antioxidant/detoxifying defense system related to glutathione (GSH) by p38 in HepG2 cells. Incubation of HepG2 cells with quercetin at a range of concentrations (5-50μM) for 4 or 18h induced a differential effect on the modulation of p38 and Nrf2 in HepG2 cells, 50μM quercetin showed the highest activation of p38 at 4h of treatment and values of p38 similar to those of control cells after 18 h of incubation, together with the inhibition of Nrf2 at both incubation times. Quercetin (50μM) induced a time-dependent activation of p38, which was in concert with a transient stimulation of Nrf2 to provoke its inhibition afterward. Quercetin also increased GSH content, mRNA levels of glutamylcysteine-synthetase (GCS) and expression and/or activity of glutathione-peroxidase, glutathione-reductase and GCS after 4h of incubation, and glutathione-S-transferase after 18h of exposure. Further studies with the p38 specific inhibitor SB203580 showed that the p38 blockage restored the inhibited Nrf2 transcription factor and the enzymatic expression and activity of antioxidant/detoxificant enzymes after 4h exposure. In conclusion, p38-MAPK is involved in the mechanisms of the cell response to quercetin through the modulation of Nrf2 and glutathione-related enzymes in HepG2 cells.

  9. Protective effects of the extracts of Barringtonia racemosa shoots against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Weng Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barringtonia racemosa is a tropical plant with medicinal values. In this study, the ability of the water extracts of the leaf (BLE and stem (BSE from the shoots to protect HepG2 cells against oxidative damage was studied. Five major polyphenolic compounds consisting of gallic acid, ellagic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were identified using HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS. Cell viability assay revealed that BLE and BSE were non-cytotoxic (cell viabilities >80% at concentration less than 250 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml, respectively. BLE and BSE improved cellular antioxidant status measured by FRAP assay and protected HepG2 cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. The extracts also inhibited lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells as well as the production of reactive oxygen species. BLE and BSE could also suppress the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase during oxidative stress. The shoots of B. racemosa can be an alternative bioactive ingredient in the prevention of oxidative damage.

  10. Anticancer effect of the extracts from Polyalthia evecta against human hepatoma cell line (HepG2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasipawan Machana; Natthida Weerapreeyakul; Sahapat Barusrux

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anticancer activity of Polyalthia evecta (P. evecta) (Pierre) Finet& Gagnep against human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Methods: The anticancer activity was based on (a) the cytotoxicity against human hepatoma cells (HepG2) assessed using a neutral red assay and (b) apoptosis induction determined by evaluation of nuclei morphological changes after DAPI staining. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the crude extract was assessed by HPLC analysis. Results: The 50% ethanol-water crude leaf extract of P. evecta (EW-L) showed greater potential anticancer activity with high cytotoxicity [IC50 = (62.8 ± 7.3)μg/mL] and higher selectivity in HepG2 cells than normal Vero cells [selective index (SI) = 7.9]. The SI of EW-L was higher than the positive control, melphalan (SI = 1.6) and the apoptotic cells (46.4 ± 2.6) % induced by EW-L was higher than the melphalan (41.6 ± 2.1)% (P<0.05). The HPLC chromatogram of the EW-L revealed the presence of various kinds of polyphenolics and flavonoids in it. Conclusions:P. evecta is a potential plant with anticancer activity. The isolation of pure compounds and determination of the bioactivity of individual compounds will be further performed.

  11. Fucoidan induces apoptosis of HepG2 cells by down-regulating p-Stat3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Sadia; Liu, Yun-yi; Banafa, Amal; Chen, Hui-jie; Li, Ke-xiu; Yang, Guang-xiao; He, Guang-yuan; Chen, Ming-jie

    2014-06-01

    Fucoidan is one of the main bioactive components of polysaccharides. The current study was focused on the anti-tumor effects of fucoidan on human heptoma cell line HepG2 and the possible mechanisms. Fucoidan treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner detected by MTT assay, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. The results of flow cytometric analysis revealed that fucoidan induced G2/M arrest in the cell cycle progression. Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V/PI staining results showed that the apoptotic cell number was increased, which was associated with a dose-dependent up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and p-Stat3. In parallel, the up-regulation of p53 and the increase in reactive oxygen species were also observed, which may play important roles in the inhibition of HepG2 growth by fucoidan. In the meantime, Cyclin B1 and CDK1 were down-regulated by fucoidan treatment. Down-regulation of p-Stat3 by fucoidan resulted in apoptosis and an increase in ROS in response to fucoidan exposure. We therefore concluded that fucoidan induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of p-Stat3. These results suggest that fucoidan may be used as a novel anti-cancer agent for hepatocarcinoma.

  12. Solid lipid nanoparticles for hydrophilic biotech drugs: optimization and cell viability studies (Caco-2 & HEPG-2 cell lines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Patrícia; Andreani, Tatiana; Jäger, Alessandro; Chaud, Marco V; Santana, Maria Helena A; Silva, Amélia M; Souto, Eliana B

    2014-06-23

    Insulin was used as model protein to developed innovative Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) for the delivery of hydrophilic biotech drugs, with potential use in medicinal chemistry. SLNs were prepared by double emulsion with the purpose of promoting stability and enhancing the protein bioavailability. Softisan(®)100 was selected as solid lipid matrix. The surfactants (Tween(®)80, Span(®)80 and Lipoid(®)S75) and insulin were chosen applying a 2(2) factorial design with triplicate of central point, evaluating the influence of dependents variables as polydispersity index (PI), mean particle size (z-AVE), zeta potential (ZP) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) by factorial design using the ANOVA test. Therefore, thermodynamic stability, polymorphism and matrix crystallinity were checked by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD), whereas the effect of toxicity of SLNs was check in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. Results showed a mean particle size (z-AVE) width between 294.6 nm and 627.0 nm, a PI in the range of 0.425-0.750, ZP about -3 mV, and the EE between 38.39% and 81.20%. After tempering the bulk lipid (mimicking the end process of production), the lipid showed amorphous characteristics, with a melting point of ca. 30 °C. The toxicity of SLNs was evaluated in two distinct cell lines (HEPG-2 and Caco-2), showing to be dependent on the concentration of particles in HEPG-2 cells, while no toxicity in was reported in Caco-2 cells. SLNs were stable for 24 h in in vitro human serum albumin (HSA) solution. The resulting SLNs fabricated by double emulsion may provide a promising approach for administration of protein therapeutics and antigens.

  13. Effects of elaidic acid in a HepG2-SF liver cell model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Toke Peter Krogager

    lipidmetabolismen når HepG2-SF celler blev inkuberet med elaidinsyre sammenlignet med oleinsyre eller stearinsyre. Den mest fremtrædende ændring var en opregulering af enzymer som syntetiserer kolesterol og fedtsyrer, hvilken indikerede aktivering af sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). Dog blev...

  14. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induced by Scorpio water extract in human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-Beom Kwon; Eun-Kyung Kim; Jung-Gook Lim; Eun-Sil Jeong; Byung-Cheul Shin; Young-Se Jeon; Kang-San Kim; Eun-A Seo; Do-Gon Ryu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the mechanism underlying the anti-mutagenic and anti-cancer activities of Scorpio water extract (SWE).METHODS: Human hepatoma HepG2 cells were incubated with various concentrations of SWE. After 24-h incubation,cytotoxicity and apoptosis evaluations were determined by MTT and DNA fragmentation assay, respectively. After treatment with SWE, mitochondrial membrane potential(MMP) was determined by measuring the retention of the dye 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine (DiOC6(3)) and the protein expression including cytochrome C and poly-(ADPribose) polymerase (PARP)were measured by Western blotting. Caspase-3 and -9 enzyme activities were measured using specific fluorescence dyes such as Ac-DEVD-AFC and Ac-LEHD-AFC.RESULTS: We found that treatment with SWE induced apoptosis as confirmed by discontinuous DNA fragmentation in cultured human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Our investigation also showed that SWE-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells were associated with intracellular events including disruption of MMP, increased translocation of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytosol, activation of caspase-3,and PARP. Pre-treatment of N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO(Ac-DEVD-CHO), a caspase-3 specific inhibitor, or cydosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of MMP disruption, completely abolished SWE-induced DNA fragmentation.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SWE possibly causes mitochondrial damage, leading to cytochrome C release into cytosol and activation of caspases resulting in PARP cleavage and execution of apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells. These results further suggest that Scorpio may be a valuable agent of therapeutic intervention of human hepatomas.

  15. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of six herbal plants against the human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonpunya Apiyada

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Six plants from Thailand were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2 as compared to normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines. Methods Ethanol-water crude extracts of the six plants were tested with neutral red assay for their cytotoxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the cells. Apoptotic induction was tested in the HepG2 cells with diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis, was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis. Alkylation, indicative of DNA damage, was also evaluated in vitro by 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl pyridine assay. Results The extract of Pinus kesiya showed the highest selectivity (selectivity index = 9.6 and potent cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cell line, with an IC50 value of 52.0 ± 5.8 μg/ml (mean ± standard deviation. Extract of Catimbium speciosum exerted cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 55.7 ± 8.1 μg/ml. Crude extracts from Glochidion daltonii, Cladogynos orientalis, Acorus tatarinowii and Amomum villosum exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging 100-500 μg/ml. All crude extracts showed different alkylating abilities in vitro. Extracts of P. kesiya, C. speciosum and C. orientalis caused nuclei morphological changes and DNA laddering. Conclusion The extracts of C. speciosum, C. orientalis and P. kesiya induced apoptosis. Among the three plants, P. kesiya possessed the most robust anticancer activity, with specific selectivity against HepG2 cells.

  16. Synthesis of Functionalized Fluorescent Silver Nanoparticles and their toxicological effect in aquatic environments (Goldfish) and HEPG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hugo; Oliveira, Elisabete; Garcia-Pardo, Javier; Diniz, Mário; Lorenzo, Julia; Rodriguez-González, Benito; Capelo, José Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles, AgNPs, are widely used in our daily life, mostly due to their antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties. However, their potential toxicity remains unclear. In order to unravel this issue, emissive AgNPs were first synthetized using an inexpensive photochemical method, and then their permeation was assessed in vivo in goldfish and in vitro in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). In addition, the oxidative stress caused by AgNPs was assessed in enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and in lipid peroxidation (LPO). This study demonstrates that the smallest sized AgNPs@3 promote the largest changes in gold fish livers, whereas AgNPs@1 were found to be toxic in HEPG2 cells depending on both the size and functionalized/stabilizer ligand.

  17. Enhancement of amygdalin activated with β-D-glucosidase on HepG2 cells proliferation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cunshan; Qian, Lichun; Ma, Haile; Yu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Youzuo; Qu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xia, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis brought by amygdalin and activated with β-D-glucosidase were tested for cytoactivity in HepG2 cells. The MTT viability assay showed that all samples had effects on HepG2 proliferation in dose and time response manners. IC50 of stand-alone amygdalin and activation with β-D-glucosidase on the proliferation of HepG2 cells for 48 h were 458.10 mg/mL and 3.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, apoptotic cells were determined by AO/EB (acridine orange/ethidium bromide) fluorescent staining method and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining flow cytometry cell cycle analysis. With increasing of amygdalin concentration and the incubation time, the apoptotic rate was heightened. Compared with the control, there was significant difference (pamygdalin had no strong anti-HepG2 activity; however the ingredients of amygdalin activated with β-D-glucosidase had a higher and efficient anti-HepG2 activity. It was therefore suggested that this combination strategy may be applicable for treating tumors with a higher activity.

  18. Protective role of metabolism by intestinal microflora in butyl paraben-induced toxicity in HepG2 cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Tilak; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Jin, Sun Woo; Shim, Eol; Han, Hwa Jeong; Noh, Keumhan; Park, Sunkyoung; Lee, Dae Hun; Kang, Wonku; Yeo, Hee Kyung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2012-09-03

    Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (BA), including methyl paraben (MP), ethyl paraben, propyl paraben (PP), and butyl paraben (BP). In the present study, possible role of metabolism by fecalase in BP-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in HepG2 cell cultures. As an intestinal bacterial metabolic system, a human fecalase prepared from human fecal specimen was employed. Among the parabens tested, cytotoxicity of BP was most severe. BA, the de-esterified metabolite, did not induce cytotoxicity when compared to other parabens. When BP was incubated with fecalase, it rapidly disappeared, in association with reduced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. In addition, BP incubated with fecalase significantly caused an increase in Bcl-2 expression together with a decrease in Bax expression and cleaved caspase-3. Moreover, anti-apoptotic effect by the incubation of BP with fecalase was also confirmed by the TUNEL assay. Furthermore, BP induced a sustained activation of the phosphorylation of JNK only when it was treated alone. Meanwhile, BP-induced cell death was reversed by the pre-incubation of BP with either fecalase or SP600125. Taken together, the findings suggested that metabolism of BP by human fecalase might have protective effects against BP-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells.

  19. Caffeine dose-dependently induces thermogenesis but restores ATP in HepG2 cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Annett; Pignitter, Marc; Hochkogler, Christina M; Rohm, Barbara; Walker, Jessica; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Somoza, Veronika

    2012-09-01

    Caffeine has been hypothesised as a thermogenic agent that might help to maintain a healthy body weight. Since very little is known about its actions on cellular energy metabolism, we investigated the effect of caffeine on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, cellular energy supply and thermogenesis in HepG2 cells, and studied its action on fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes at concentrations ranging from 30-1500 μM. In HepG2 cells, caffeine induced a depolarisation of the inner mitochondrial membrane, a feature of mitochondrial thermogenesis, both directly and after 24 h incubation. Increased concentrations of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) also indicated a thermogenic activity of caffeine. Energy generating pathways, such as mitochondrial respiration, fatty acid oxidation and anaerobic lactate production, were attenuated by caffeine treatment. Nevertheless, HepG2 cells demonstrated a higher energy charge potential after exposure to caffeine that might result from energy restoration through attenuation of energy consuming pathways, as typically found in hibernating animals. In 3T3-L1 cells, in contrast, caffeine increased fatty acid uptake, but did not affect lipid accumulation. We provide evidence that caffeine stimulates thermogenesis but concomitantly causes energy restoration that may compensate enhanced energy expenditure.

  20. HNF-4alpha Negatively Regulates Hepcidin Expression Through BMPR1A in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wencai; Wang, Heyang; Zheng, Xuan; Jiang, Xin; Xu, Zheng; Shen, Hui; Li, Min

    2016-09-23

    Hepcidin synthesis is reported to be inadequate according to the body iron store in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) undergoing hepatic iron overload (HIO). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α) may negatively regulate hepcidin expression and contribute to hepcidin deficiency in NAFLD patients. The effect of HNF-4α on hepcidin expression was observed by transfecting specific HNF-4α small interfering RNA (siRNA) or plasmids into HepG2 cells. Both direct and indirect mechanisms involved in the regulation of HNF-4α on hepcidin were detected by real-time PCR, Western blotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation (chIP), and reporter genes. It was found that HNF-4α suppressed hepcidin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions in HepG2 cells, and this suppressive effect was independent of the potential HNF-4α response elements. Phosphorylation of SMAD1 but not STAT3 was inactivated by HNF-4α, and the SMAD4 response element was found essential to HNF-4α-induced hepcidin reduction. Neither inhibitory SMADs, SMAD6, and SMAD7 nor BMPR ligands, BMP2, BMP4, BMP6, and BMP7 were regulated by HNF-4α in HepG2 cells. BMPR1A, but not BMPR1B, BMPR2, ActR2A, ActR2B, or HJV, was decreased by HNF-4α, and HNF4α-knockdown-induced stimulation of hepcidin could be entirely blocked when BMPR1A was interfered with at the same time. In conclusion, the present study suggests that HNF-4α has a suppressive effect on hepcidin expression by inactivating the BMP pathway, specifically via BMPR1A, in HepG2 cells.

  1. Prediction of Drug-Induced Liver Injury in HepG2 Cells Cultured with Human Liver Microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Min; Oh, Soo Jin; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Jeon, Jang Su; Ryu, Chang Seon; Kim, Young-Mi; Lee, Kiho; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2015-05-18

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) via metabolic activation by drug-metabolizing enzymes, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP), is a major cause of drug failure and drug withdrawal. In this study, an in vitro model using HepG2 cells in combination with human liver microsomes was developed for the prediction of DILI. The cytotoxicity of cyclophosphamide, a model drug for bioactivation, was augmented in HepG2 cells cultured with microsomes in a manner dependent on exposure time, microsomal protein concentration, and NADPH. Experiments using pan- or isoform-selective CYP inhibitors showed that CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 are responsible for the bioactivation of cyclophosphamide. In a metabolite identification study employing LC-ESI-QTrap and LC-ESI-QTOF, cyclophosphamide metabolites including phosphoramide mustard, a toxic metabolite, were detected in HepG2 cells cultured with microsomes, but not without microsomes. The cytotoxic effects of acetaminophen and diclofenac were also potentiated by microsomes. The potentiation of acetaminophen cytotoxicity was dependent on CYP-dependent metabolism, and the augmentation of diclofenac cytotoxicity was not mediated by either CYP- or UDP-glucuronosyltransferase-dependent metabolism. The cytotoxic effects of leflunomide, nefazodone, and bakuchiol were attenuated by microsomes. The detoxication of leflunomide by microsomes was attributed to mainly CYP3A4-dependent metabolism. The protective effect of microsomes against nefazodone cytotoxicity was dependent on both CYP-mediated metabolism and nonspecific protein binding. Nonspecific protein binding but not CYP-dependent metabolism played a critical role in the attenuation of bakuchiol cytotoxicity. The present study suggests that HepG2 cells cultured with human liver microsomes can be a reliable model in which to predict DILI via bioactivation by drug metabolizing enzymes.

  2. A novel AMPK activator, WS070117, improves lipid metabolism discords in hamsters and HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Linghua

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WS070117 is a novel small molecule compound that significantly improves lipid metabolism disorders in high-fat-diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in hamsters. Methods and Results We evaluated liver/body weight ratio, liver histology, serum and hepatic lipid content in HFD-fed hamsters treated with WS070117 for 8 weeks. Comparing with HFD fed hamsters, WS070117 (2 mg/kg per day and above reduced serum triglyceride (TAG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride contents. Oil Red O staining of liver tissue also showed that WS070117 improved lipid accumulation. We then carried out an experiment in the oleic acid (OLA-induced steatosis model in HepG2 cell to investigate the lipid-lowering effect of WS070117. Oleic acid (0.25 mM markedly induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells, but WS070117 (10 μM inhibited cellular lipid accumulation. In OLA-treated HepG2 cells, WS070117 (above 1 μM treatment reduced lipid contents which synthesized from [1-14C] labeled acetic acid. Because WS070117 is an analog of adenosine, we evaluated the effect of WS070117 on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling. The results showed that the activation of AMPK in OLA-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells was up-regulated by treatment with 0.1, 1 and 10 μM WS070117. The hepatic cellular AMPK phosphorylation is also up regulated by WS070117 (6 and 18 mg/kg treatment in HFD fed hamsters. Conclusion These new findings identify WS070117 as a novel molecule that regulates lipid metabolism in the hyperlipidemia hamster model. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that WS070117 may regulate lipid metabolism through stimulating the activation of AMPK and its downstream pathways.

  3. Salmonella typhimurium strain SL7207 induces apoptosis and inhibits the growth of HepG2 hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baowei Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhimurium is probably most extensively studied tumor-targeting bacteria and SL7207 is one of its attenuated strains. SL7207 was first made for bacterial vaccine development and its therapeutic efficacy and safety for hepatocellular carcinoma has not been characterized. In this study, the inhibitory ability of SL7207-lux on human hepatoma HepG2 cells was tested in vitro and in vivo. A bacterial luminescent gene cluster (lux CDABE was transfected into SL7207 to better monitor the invasion of the bacteria. The results show that SL7207-lux can rapidly enter HepG2 cells and localize in the cytoplasm. This invasion represses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. In vivo real-time invasion studies showed that the bacteria gradually accumulate in the tumor. This enrichment was confirmed by anatomic observation at 5 days after inoculation. About 40% of tumor growth was inhibited by SL7207-lux at 34 days post-treatment without significant loss of body weight. The area of necrosis of tumor tissue was clearly increased in the treated group. Bacterial quantification showed that the number of colony-forming units per gram of bacteria within tumor tissue was approximately 1000-fold higher than that of liver and spleen. These data suggest that attenuated S. typhimurium strain SL7207 has potential for the treatment of cancers.

  4. Curcumin up-regulates LDL receptor expression via the sterol regulatory element pathway in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaobing; Fan, Chunlei; Wo, Like; Yan, Jin; Qian, Ying; Wo, Xingde

    2008-09-01

    Plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is mainly taken up and cleared by the hepatocellular LDL receptor (LDL-R). LDL-R gene expression is regulated by the sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs). Previous studies have shown that curcumin reduces plasma LDL-C and has hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Herein, we investigated the effect of curcumin on LDL-R expression and its molecular mechanism in HepG2 cells. Curcumin increased LDL-R expression (mRNA and protein) and the resultant uptake of DiI-LDL in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Using a GFP reporter system in a transfected HepG2/SRE-GFP cell line, we found that curcumin activated the sterol regulatory element of the LDL-R promoter. In HepG2/Insig2 cells, curcumin reversed the inhibition of LDL-R expression induced by Insig2 overexpression. These data demonstrate that curcumin increases LDL-R protein expression and uptake activity via the SREBPs pathway. These findings contribute to our further understanding of the cholesterol-lowering and anti-atherosclerotic effects of curcumin.

  5. Phellinus linteus mushroom protects against tacrine-induced mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunpeng; Zhong, Laifu; Jiang, Liping; Geng, Chengyan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Cao, Jun

    2013-06-15

    Tacrine (THA) was the first drug licensed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Unfortunately, reversible hepatotoxicity is evident in about 30% of patients and limits its clinical use. The intracellular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Phellinus linteus (PL) is a mushroom that has long been used as a folk medicine. In our previous study, we found that PL could decrease the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in HepG2 cells. Presently, protective effects of PL on tacrine-induced ROS formation and mitochondria dysfunction were evaluated. The results showed that PL significantly reduced tacrine-induced ROS production, disruption of ΔΨm, 8-OHdG formation in mitochondrial DNA, and cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. These data suggest that PL could attenuate the cytotoxicity and mitochondria dysfunction induced by tacrine in HepG2 cells. The protection is probably mediated by an antioxidant protective mechanism. Consumption of PL may be a plausible way to prevent tacrine-induced hepatotoxicity.

  6. Rosemary Extracts Upregulate Nrf2, Sestrin2, and MRP2 Protein Level in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-pei Tong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, the incidence of liver cancer has been rapidly rising across the world. Rosemary is known to possess antioxidant activity and is used as natural antioxidant food preservative. It is proposed to have anticancer activity in treating different tumor models. In this study, we try to explore the impact of rosemary extracts on upregulating the level of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulatory proteins, Sestrin2 and MRP2 in HepG2 cells, and to speculate its potential mechanism. The anticancer activity of rosemary extract, including its polyphenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, was evaluated to understand the potential effect on HepG2 cells. Rosemary extract, carnosic acid, and carnosol induced the expression of Sestrin2 and MRP2 associate with enhancement of Nrf2 protein level in HepG2 cells, in which carnosic acid showed most obvious effect. Although the activation pathway of Nrf2/ARE was not exactly assessed, it can be assumed that the enhancement of expression of Sestrin2 and MRP2 may result from upregulation of Nrf2.

  7. The expression of efflux and uptake transporters are regulated by statins in Caco-2 and hepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice Cristina RODRIGUES; Rui CURI; Fabiana Dalla Vecchia GENVIGIR; Mario Hiroyuki HIRATA; Rosario Dominguez Crespo HIRATA

    2009-01-01

    Aim:Statin disposition and response are greatly determined by the activities of drug metabolizing enzymes and effiux/uptake transporters.There is little information on the regulation of these proteins in human ceils after statin therapy.In this study,the effects of atorvastatin and simvastatin on mRNA expression of efflux (ABCB1,ABCG2 and ABCC2) and uptake (SLCO1B1,SLCO2B1 and SLC22A1) drug transporters in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were investigated.Methods:Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA levels after exposure of HepG2 and Caco-2 cells to statins Results:Differences in mRNA basal levels of the transporters were as follows:ABCC2>ABCG2>ABCB1>SLCOIB1>>>SLC22A1>SLC 02B1 for HepG2 cells,and SLCO2B1>>ABCC2>ABCB1>ABCG2>>>SLC22A1 for Caco-2 cells.While for HepG2 cells,ABCC2,ABCG2 and SLCO2B1 mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated at 1,10 and 20 μmol/L after 12 or 24 h treatment,in Caco-2 cells,only the efflux transporter ABCB1 was significantly down-regulated by two-fold following a 12 h treatment with atorvastatin.Interestingly,whereas treatment with simvastatin had no effect on mRNA levels of the transporters in HepG2 cells,in Caco-2 cells the statin signifi cantly down-regulated ABCB1,ABCC2,SLC22A1,and SLCO2B1 mRNA levels after 12 or 24 h treatment.Conclusion:These findings reveal that statins exhibits differential effects on mRNA expression of drug transporters,and this effect depends on the cell type.Furthermore,alterations in the expression levels of drug transporters in the liver and/or intestine may contribute to the variability in oral disposition of statins.

  8. Influence of laminin in cell growth inhibition of curcumin on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells%外源性层黏连蛋白在姜黄素对人肝癌HepG2细胞生长抑制作用中的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霰海萍; 孟书聪; 董晓敏; 张莎; 尚应辉; 肖军军

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨在外源性层黏连蛋白(LN)与其受体结合下,姜黄素对人肝癌HepG2细胞生长、凋亡的影响.方法 实验分为对照组、LN组(20μg/L LN)、姜黄素组(40μmol/L姜黄素)、联合组(20μg/L LN+40μmol/L姜黄素).采用酸性磷酸酶法(APA)、流式细胞术(FCM)和Western blotting 法等探讨在外源性LN与其受体结合下,姜黄素对人肝癌HepG2细胞生长、细胞凋亡率、线粒体膜电位、细胞增殖相关蛋白α-蛋白激酶(α-PKC)及细胞凋亡相关蛋白人多聚ADP核糖聚合酶(PARP)、Caspase-3、Bcl-2和p53表达的影响.结果 LN组与对照组相比,细胞存活率增加.姜黄素组与联合组能显著抑制人肝癌HepG2细胞的增殖,并呈时间依赖性.姜黄素组与联合组作用48h时,倒置显微镜下,细胞数量明显减少,皱缩变圆,大部分细胞悬浮;中晚期凋亡和坏死细胞比率(%)分别为97.04±1.50,98.02±1.35;细胞内钙离子浓度升高;线粒体膜电位下降;增殖相关蛋白α-PKC含量减少;凋亡相关蛋白PARP出现剪切带,Caspase-3表达下调,p53表达上调,Bcl-2表达无明显变化.结论 在外源性层黏连蛋白与其受体结合下,姜黄素与人肝癌HepG2细胞作用后抑制生长并诱导细胞发生凋亡;显示出姜黄素抗肿瘤作用稳定,其机制可能与上调p53,下调α-PKC有关.%Objective To study the influence of curcumin on cell growth and apoptosis in HepG2 cell, in the presence of exogenous laminin( LN ) to its receptor. Methods HepG2 cells were cultured in DMEM containing 10% fetal bovine serum at 37℃ in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2. The experiment was performed in four groups:the control group, LN group( 20μ g/L LN), curcumin group(4Oμmol/L curcumin) ,and combination group ( 20μg/L LN + 40μ mol/L curcumin ). Acid phosphatase assay (APA), flow cytometry (FCM) and Western blotting were used to detect the cell viability, apoptosis ratio, intracellular calcium concentration , mitochondrial

  9. Momordin Ic induces HepG2 cell apoptosis through MAPK and PI3K/Akt-mediated mitochondrial pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yuan, Li; Xiao, Haifang; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

    2013-06-01

    Momordin Ic is a natural triterpenoid saponin enriched in various Chinese and Japanese natural medicines such as the fruit of Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. So far, there is little scientific evidence for momordin Ic with regard to the anti-tumor activities. The aim of this work was to elucidate the anti-tumor effect of momordin Ic and the signal transduction pathways involved. We found that momordin Ic induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, which were supported by DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Meanwhile, momordin Ic triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production together with collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax expression. The activation of p38 and JNK, inactivation of Erk1/2 and Akt were also demonstrated. Although ROS production rather than NO was stimulated, the expression of iNOS and HO-1 were altered after momordin Ic treatment for 4 h. Furthermore, the cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, Bax/Bcl-2 expression and PARP cleavage were promoted with LY294002 and U0126 intervention but were blocked by SB203580, SP600125, PI3K activator, NAC and 1,400 W pretreatment, demonstrating the mitochondrial disruption. Furthermore, momordin Ic combination with NAC influenced MAPK, PI3K/Akt and HO-1, iNOS pathways, MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways also regulated the expression of HO-1 and iNOS. These results indicated that momordin Ic induced apoptosis through oxidative stress-regulated mitochondrial dysfunction involving the MAPK and PI3K-mediated iNOS and HO-1 pathways. Thus, momordin Ic might represent a potential source of anticancer candidate.

  10. Stable expression of human cytochrome P450 2D6*10 in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhuge; Ying-Nian Yu; Xiao-Dan Wu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Over 90% of drugs are metabolized by the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) family of liver isoenzymes. The most important enzymes are CYP1A2, 3A4, 2C9/19, 2D6 and 2E1. Although CYP2D6 accounts for <2% of the total CYP liver enzyme content, it mediates metabolism in almost 25% of drugs. In order to study its enzymatic activity for drug metabolism, its cDNA was cloned and a HepG2 cell line stably expressing CYP2D6 was established.METHODS: Human CYP2D6 cDNA was amplified with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)from total RNA extracted from human liver tissue and cloned into pGEM-T vector, cDNA segment was identified by DNA sequencing and subcloned into a mammalian expression vector pREP9. A cell line was established by transfecting the recombinant plasmid of pREP9-CYP2D6 to hepatoma HepG2 cells. Expression of mRNA was validated by RT-PCR.Enzyme activity of catalyzing dextromethorphan O-demethylation in postmitochondrial supernant (S9) fraction of the cells was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).RESULTS: The cloned cDNA had 4 base differences, e.g.100 C→T, 336 T→C, 408 C→G and 1 457 G→C, which resulted in P34S, and S486T amino acid substitutions, and two samesense mutations were 112 F and 136 V compared with that reported by Kimura et al(GenBank accession number: M33388). P34S and S486T amino acid substitutions were the characteristics of CYP2D6*10 allele. The relative activity of S9 fraction of HepG2-CYP2D6*10 metabolized detromethorphan O-demethylation was found to be 2.31±0.19 nmol.min-1.mg-1 S9 protein (n=3), but was undetectable in parental HepG2 cells.CONCLUSION: cDNA of human CYP2D6*10can be successfully doned. A cell line, HepG2-CYP2D6*10, expressing CYP2D6*10 mRNA and having metabolic activity, has been established.

  11. Alisol A 24-Acetate Prevents Hepatic Steatosis and Metabolic Disorders in HepG2 Cells

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    Lu Zeng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is closely associated with metabolic disorders including hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation. Alisol A 24-acetate, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizome, has multiple biologic activities such as hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic. Thus we hypothesized that Alisol A 24 -acetate would have effect on NAFLD. The present study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of Alisol A 24-acetate against hepatic steatosis in a free fatty acids (FFAs induced NAFLD cell model. Methods: This study was divided into four groups including Control group, Model group (FFA group, Alisol A 24-acetate (FFA+A group, Fenofibrate (FFA+F group. Preventive role of Alisol A 24-acetate was evaluated using 10µM Alisol A 24-acetate plus 1 mM FFA (oleate:palmitate=2:1 incubated with HepG2 cells for 24 h, which was determined by Oil Red O Staining, Oil Red O based colorimetric assay and intracellular triglyceride (TG content. Besides, the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α, interleukin (IL-6 levels as well as the protein and mRNA expressions that were involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation including Adiponectin, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, fatty acid synthase (FAS, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1 and acyl coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1 were detected. Results: Alisol A 24-acetate significantly decreased the numbers of lipid droplets, Oil Red O lipid content, and intracellular TG content. Besides, inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 levels were markedly inhibited by Alisol A 24-acetate. Furthermore, Alisol A 24-acetate effectively increased the protein and mRNA expressions of Adiponectin, the phosphorylation of AMPKα, CPT1 and ACOX1, whereas decreased SREBP-1c, the phosphorylation of ACC and

  12. Synthesis, characterization of α-amino acid Schiff base derived Ru/Pt complexes: Induces cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell via protein binding and ROS generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalme, Ali; Laeeq, Sameen; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Khan, Mohd. Shahnawaz; Al Farhan, Khalid; Musarrat, Javed; Khan, Rais Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    We have synthesized two new complexes of platinum (1) and ruthenium (2) with α-amino acid, L-alanine, and 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde derived Schiff base (L). The ligand and both complexes were characterized by using elemental analysis and several other spectroscopic techniques viz; IR, 1H, 13C NMR, EPR, and ESI-MS. Furthermore, the protein-binding ability of synthesized complexes was monitored by UV-visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism techniques with a model protein, human serum albumin (HSA). Both the PtL2 and RuL2 complexes displayed significant binding towards HSA. Also, in vitro cytotoxicity assay for both complexes was carried out on human hepatocellular carcinoma cancer (HepG2) cell line. The results showed concentration-dependent inhibition of cell viability. Moreover, the generation of reactive oxygen species was also evaluated, and results exhibited substantial role in cytotoxicity.

  13. Expression of albumin and cytochrome P450 enzymes in HepG2 cells cultured with a nanotechnology-based culture plate with microfabricated scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuaki; Kato, Natsuko; Aizawa, Kazuko; Mizutani, Reiko; Yamauchi, Junji; Tanoue, Akito

    2011-10-01

    The Nanoculture plate (NCP) is a recently developed plate which essentially consists of a textured surface with specific characteristics that induce spheroid formation: microfabrications with a micro-square pattern on the culture surface. The NCP can be used to generate uniform adhesive spheroids of cancer cell lines using conventional techniques without the need of any animal compounds. In this study, we assessed the performance of human hepatoma cell line HepG2 cells cultured with an NCP to evaluate the effects of the NCP on their hepatocyte-specific functions. The NCP facilitated the formation of three-dimensional (3D) HepG2 cell architecture. HepG2 cells cultured with an NCP exhibited enhanced mRNA expression levels of albumin and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes compared to those cultured with a two-dimensional (2D) conventional plate. The expression levels of two specific liver-enriched transcription factors, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), were higher in HepG2 cells grown with the NCP than those in HepG2 cells grown with conventional plates before albumin and CYP enzymes expression levels were increased. The inducibility of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA following exposure to inducers in HepG2 cells cultured with an NCP was comparable to that in HepG2 cells cultured with conventional plates, while the expression levels of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA following exposure to inducers were higher when using an NCP than when using conventional plates. These results suggest that the use of an NCP enhances the hepatocyte-specific functions of HepG2 cells, such as drug-metabolizing enzyme expression, making the NCP/HepG2 system a useful tool for evaluating drug metabolism in vitro.

  14. Synergetic effect of functional cadmium–tellurium quantum dots conjugated with gambogic acid for HepG2 cell-labeling and proliferation inhibition

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    Xu P

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Peipei Xu,1 Jingyuan Li,2 Lixin Shi,3 Matthias Selke,3 Baoan Chen,4 Xuemei Wang5 1Department of Hematology, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Laboratory Animal Center, Institute of Comparative Medicine, Nantong University, Nantong, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University – Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4Department of Hematology, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 5State Key Lab of Bioelectronics (Chien-Shiung Wu Laboratory, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: We prepared and studied novel fluorescent nanocomposites based on gambogic acid (GA and cadmium–tellurium (CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs modified with cysteamine for purpose of cancer cell labeling and combined treatment. The nanocomposites were denoted as GA-CdTe. Characterization results indicated that the CdTe QDs can readily bind onto cell plasma membranes and then be internalized into cancer cells for real-time labeling and tracing of human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2 cells. GA-CdTe significantly enhanced drug accumulation in HepG2 cells and inhibited cancer cell proliferation. GA-CdTe nanocomposites also improved the drug action of GA molecules in HepG2 cells and induced the G2/M phase arrest of the cancer cell cycle, promoting cell apoptosis. Given the sensitive, pH-triggered release of GA-CdTe, the side effects of GA anticancer agents on normal cells/tissues in the blood circulation markedly decreased. Efficient drug release and accumulation in target tumor cells were also facilitated. Thus, the fluorescent GA-CdTe offered a new strategy for potential multimode cancer therapy and provided new channels for research into naturally-active compounds extracted from traditional Chinese medicinal plants.Keywords: cadmium-tellurium quantum dots

  15. HepG2 cells biospecific extraction and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis for screening potential antiatherosclerotic active components in Bupeuri radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuqiang; Tan, Zhibin; Li, Pingting; Gao, Xiaoling; Zeng, Yuaner; Wang, Shuling

    2016-03-20

    HepG2 cells biospecific extraction method and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analysis was proposed for screening of potential antiatherosclerotic active components in Bupeuri radix, a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The hypothesis suggested that when cells are incubated together with the extracts of TCM, the potential bioactive components in the TCM should selectively combine with the receptor or channel of HepG2 cells, then the eluate which contained biospecific component binding to HepG2 cells was identified using HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. The potential bioactive components of Bupeuri radix were investigated using the proposed approach. Five compounds in the saikosaponins of Bupeuri radix were detected as these components selectively combined with HepG2 cells, among these compounds, two potentially bioactive compounds namely saikosaponin b1 and saikosaponin b2 (SSb2) were identified by comparing with the chromatography of the standard sample and analysis of the structural clearance characterization of MS. Then SSb2 was used to assess the uptake of DiI-high density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells for antiatherosclerotic activity. The results have showed that SSb2, with indicated concentrations (5, 15, 25, and 40 μM) could remarkably uptake dioctadecylindocarbocyanine labeled- (DiI) -HDL in HepG2 cells (Vs control group, *Pcomponents in TCM and SSb2 may be a valuable novel drug agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  16. The role of the vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptors axis mediated angiogenesis in curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers induced human HepG2 cells apoptosis

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    Fengling Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Curcumin (diferuloylmethane, the active constituent of turmeric extract has potent anti-cancer properties have been demonstrated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, its underlying molecular mechanism of therapeutic effects remains unclear. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its receptors (VEGFRs have crucial roles in tumor angiogenesis. Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the role of the VEGF/VEGFRs mediated angiogenesis during the proliferation and apoptosis of human HepG2 hepatoma cell line and the effect of curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Cur-NLC. Materials and Methods: The proliferation of HepG2 cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium after exposure to Cur-NLC and native curcumin. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining. Cellular internalization of Cur-NLC was observed by fluorescent microscope. The level of VEGF was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The expression of VEGFRs was quantified by Western blotting. Results: Cur-NLC was more effective in inhibiting the proliferation and enhancing the apoptosis of HepG2 cells than native curcumin. Fluorescent microscope analysis showed that HepG2 cells internalized Cur-NLC more effectively than native curcumin. Furthermore, Cur-NLC down-regulated the level of VEGF and the expression of VEGFR-2, but had a slight effect on VEGFR-1. Conclusion: These results clearly demonstrated that Cur-NLC was more effective in anti-cancer activity than the free form of curcumin. These studies demonstrate for the 1 st time that Cur-NLC exerts an antitumor effect on HepG2 cells by modulating VEGF/VEGFRs signaling pathway.

  17. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of berberine-nanostructured lipid carriers against human HepG2, Huh7, and EC9706 cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Fan, Hua; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2016-10-01

    Hepatocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma and esophageal carcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Ber-NLC) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects of Ber-NLC relative to efficacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-NLC were 189.3 +/- 3.7 nm and -19.3 +/- 1.4 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Ber-NLC effectively inhibited the proliferation of human HepG2 and Huh7 and EC9706 cells, and the corresponding IC50 value was 9.1 μg/ml, 4.4 μg/ml, and 6.3 μg/ml (18.3μg/ml, 6.5μg/ml, and 12.4μg/ml μg/ml of bulk Ber solution), respectively. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber-NLC is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  18. In vitro antitumor efficacy of berberine: solid lipid nanoparticles against human HepG2, Huh7 and EC9706 cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Huai-ling; Chen, Tong-sheng; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma and esophageal carcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Ber-SLN) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects of Ber-SLN relative to efficacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-SLN were 154.3 ± 4.1 nm and -11.7 ± 1.8 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Ber-SLN effectively inhibited the proliferation of human HepG2 and Huh7 and EC9706 cells, and the corresponding IC50 value was 10.6 μg/ml, 5.1 μg/ml, and 7.3 μg/ml (18.3μg/ml, 6.5μg/ml, and 12.4μg/ml μg/ml of bulk Ber solution), respectively. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber-SLN is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  19. Black Soybean Seed Coat Extract Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated Cell Death via Extracellular Signal-Related Kinase Signalling in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Naoto; Oki, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Kazunori; Suda, Ikuo; Okuno, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress reduces cell viability and contributes to disease processes. Flavonoids including anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins reportedly induce intracellular antioxidant defence systems. Thus, in this study, we examined the antioxidant effects of a commercial extract from black soybean seed coats (BE), which are rich in anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin, and investigated the associated intracellular mechanisms in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide (HPO) showed 60% viability, whereas pretreatment with BE-containing media for 2 h ameliorated HPO-mediated cell death by up to 90%. Pretreatment with BE for 2 h partially blocked HPO-mediated activation of ERK in HepG2 cells, and that for 1 h led to a 20% increase in intracellular total protein phosphatase (PP) activity, which is known to deactivate protein kinases. These results indicate that BE prevents HPO-mediated cell damage by inhibiting ERK signalling, potentially via PPs.

  20. A Homogeneous Polysaccharide from Fructus Schisandra chinensis (Turz. Baill Induces Mitochondrial Apoptosis through the Hsp90/AKT Signalling Pathway in HepG2 Cells

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    Yonglin Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the potential anti-hepatoma therapeutic effect of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharides presented in previous studies, a bioactive constituent, homogeneous Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide-0-1 (SCP-0-1, molecular weight (MW circa 69.980 kDa, was isolated and purified. We assessed the efficacy of SCP-0-1 against human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells to investigate the effects of its antitumour activity and molecular mechanisms. Anticancer activity was evaluated using microscopy, 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, Hoechst 33258 staining, acridine orange (AO staining, flow cytometry (FCM, and cell-cycle analysis. SCP-0-1 inhibited the HepG2 cells’ growth via inducing apoptosis and second gap/mitosis (G2/M arrest dose-dependently, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value of 479.63 µg/mL. Western blotting of key proteins revealed the apoptotic and autophagic potential of SCP-0-1. Besides, SCP-0-1 upregulated Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax and downregulated B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 in the HepG2 cells. The expression of caspase-3, -8, and -9; poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP; cytochrome c (Cyt C; tumor protein 53 (p53; survivin; sequestosome 1 (p62; microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3B (LC3B; mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38; extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK; c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK; protein kinase B (AKT; and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 were evaluated using Western blotting. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism through which SCP-0-1 exerts its antiproliferative activity and induces mitochondrial apoptosis rather than autophagy. The induction of mitochondrial apoptosis was attributed to the inhibition of the Hsp90/AKT signalling pathway in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-independent manner. The results also provide initial evidence on a molecular basis that SCP-0-1 can be used as an anti

  1. A Homogeneous Polysaccharide from Fructus Schisandra chinensis (Turz.) Baill Induces Mitochondrial Apoptosis through the Hsp90/AKT Signalling Pathway in HepG2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonglin; Shi, Songshan; Wang, Huijun; Li, Ning; Su, Juan; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Shunchun

    2016-01-01

    According to the potential anti-hepatoma therapeutic effect of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharides presented in previous studies, a bioactive constituent, homogeneous Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide-0-1 (SCP-0-1), molecular weight (MW) circa 69.980 kDa, was isolated and purified. We assessed the efficacy of SCP-0-1 against human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to investigate the effects of its antitumour activity and molecular mechanisms. Anticancer activity was evaluated using microscopy, 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Hoechst 33258 staining, acridine orange (AO) staining, flow cytometry (FCM), and cell-cycle analysis. SCP-0-1 inhibited the HepG2 cells’ growth via inducing apoptosis and second gap/mitosis (G2/M) arrest dose-dependently, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 479.63 µg/mL. Western blotting of key proteins revealed the apoptotic and autophagic potential of SCP-0-1. Besides, SCP-0-1 upregulated Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax) and downregulated B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in the HepG2 cells. The expression of caspase-3, -8, and -9; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP); cytochrome c (Cyt C); tumor protein 53 (p53); survivin; sequestosome 1 (p62); microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3B (LC3B); mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38); extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK); c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); protein kinase B (AKT); and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) were evaluated using Western blotting. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism through which SCP-0-1 exerts its antiproliferative activity and induces mitochondrial apoptosis rather than autophagy. The induction of mitochondrial apoptosis was attributed to the inhibition of the Hsp90/AKT signalling pathway in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-independent manner. The results also provide initial evidence on a molecular basis that SCP-0-1 can be used as an anti

  2. Safrole-2',3'-oxide induces cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells and in mice.

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    Chiang, Su-yin; Lee, Pei-yi; Lai, Ming-tsung; Shen, Li-ching; Chung, Wen-sheng; Huang, Hui-fen; Wu, Kuen-yuh; Wu, Hsiu-ching

    2011-12-24

    Safrole-2',3'-oxide (SAFO) is a reactive electrophilic metabolite of the hepatocarcinogen safrole, the main component of sassafras oil. Safrole occurs naturally in a variety of spices and herbs, including the commonly used Chinese medicine Xi xin (Asari Radix et Rhizoma) and Dong quai (Angelica sinensis). SAFO is the most mutagenic metabolite of safrole tested in the Ames test. However, little or no data are available on the genotoxicity of SAFO in mammalian systems. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of SAFO in human HepG2 cells and male FVB mice. Using MTT assay, SAFO exhibited a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect in HepG2 cells with TC(50) values of 361.9μM and 193.2μM after 24 and 48h exposure, respectively. In addition, treatment with SAFO at doses of 125μM and higher for 24h in HepG2 cells resulted in a 5.1-79.6-fold increase in mean Comet tail moment by the alkaline Comet assay and a 2.6-7.8-fold increase in the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Furthermore, repeated intraperitoneal administration of SAFO (15, 30, 45, and 60mg/kg) to mice every other day for a total of twelve doses caused a significant dose-dependent increase in mean Comet tail moment in peripheral blood leukocytes (13.3-43.4-fold) and in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (1.5-5.8-fold). Repeated administration of SAFO (60mg/kg) to mice caused liver lesions manifested as a rim of ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes immediately surrounding the central vein. Our data clearly demonstrate that SAFO significantly induced cytotoxicity, DNA strand breaks, micronuclei formation both in human cells in vitro and in mice. More studies are needed to explore the role SAFO plays in safrole-induced genotoxicity.

  3. 鼠双微粒体-2基因沉默对人肝癌HepG2细胞移植瘤生长的抑制作用%shRNA-mediated silencing of MDM2 inhibits growth of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells xenografted in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕颖; 李亚刚; 孙远杰; 刘海鹏; 杨泽成; 张舵舵; 赵春燕

    2013-01-01

    目的 构建鼠双微粒体-2基因(MDM2)靶向小分子干扰RNA (siRNA)质粒,研究其对人肝癌HepG2细胞裸鼠皮下移植瘤生长的抑制作用,探讨其在肝癌基因治疗中的可行性.方法 构建MDM2的siRNA真核表达载体pSilencer-siRNA-MDM2 (siMDM2),建立裸鼠荷瘤模型,分别给予阴性对照质粒和siMDM2质粒处理.监测肿瘤生长变化,RT-PCR、Western blot方法检测MDM2及p53 mRNA和蛋白的表达变化.正态分布数据的组间比较用单因素方差分析及LSD检验.结果 裸鼠体内实验结果显示,转染siMDM2-1和siMDM2-2组与对照组相比,肿瘤增长受到明显抑制,抑瘤率分别为60.6%和54.6%.RT-PCR和Westem blot结果示MDM2的mRNA和蛋白质表达下调,而p53的mRNA和蛋白质表达上调.与空白组比较,转染siMDM2-1和siMDM2-2组的MDM2mRNA表达分别下调62.8%和61.5%,MDM2蛋白表达分别下调60.7%和59.5%;p53 mRNA表达分别上调47.1%和45.6%,p53蛋白表达分别上调45.9%和44.3%,差异均具有统计学意义(F值分别为75.099、47.860、17.676和235.770,P值均<0.01).结论 siRNA沉默MDM2基因能抑制人肝癌HepG2细胞裸鼠皮下移植瘤的形成,可能与其在体内有效下调MDM2和上调p53的mRNA及蛋白质表达有关.%Objecive To construct a short hairpin (sh)RNA targeting the gene encoding the MDM2 oncoprotein in order to investigate its role in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its potential for use as a gene therapy strategy to inhibit HCC growth in vivo.Methods Small interfering (si)RNAs were designed targeting the MDM2 gene (siMDM2-1 and siMDM2-2) and unrelated sequences (negative control) and cloned into the expression plasmid pGCSilencer-U6-neo-GFP.A HCC mouse model was established by subcutaneous inoculation of HepG2 cells (2 x 106 in 0.2 ml) into 20 nude mice.The inoculated mice were divided into four equal groups for tumor-localized injections of saline,negative control siRNA plasmid,siMDM2-1 plasmid,and siMDM2

  4. Polyethyleneimine-coated quantum dots for miRNA delivery and its enhanced suppression in HepG2 cells

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    Liang G

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaofeng Liang,1 Yang Li,1 Wenpo Feng,1 Xinshuai Wang,2 Aihua Jing,1 Jinghua Li,1 Kaiwang Ma1 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medical Technology & Engineering, 2Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Henan University of Science & Technology, Luoyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Quantum dots (QDs have been intensively investigated for bioimaging, drug delivery, and labeling probes because of their unique optical properties. In this study, CdSe/ZnS QDs-based nonviral vectors with the dual functions of delivering miR-26a plasmid and bioimaging were formulated by capping the surface of CdSe/ZnS QDs with polyethyleneimine (PEI. The PEI-coated QDs were capable of condensing miR-26a expression vector into nanocomplexes that can emit strong red luminescence when loaded with CdSe/ZnS QDs. Further results showed that PEI-modified nanoparticles (NPs could transfect miR-26a plasmid into HepG2 cells in vitro. Meanwhile, imaging of living cells could be achieved based on the CdSe/ZnS QDs. Further study suggested that miR-26a transfection up-regulated miR-26a expression, induced cycle arrest, and triggered proliferation inhibition in HepG2 cells. The results indicated that PEI-coated QD NPs possess the capability of bioimaging and gene delivery and could be a promising vehicle with the engineering of QD NPs for gene therapy in the future. Keywords: miR-26a, PEI/QDs, HepG2, gene delivery, bioimaging

  5. Selenium methylselenocysteine protects human hepatoma HepG2 cells against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello, Susana; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Martín, M Angeles; Madrid, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2007-12-01

    Selenium methylselenocysteine (Se-MeSeCys) is a common selenocompound in the diet with a tested chemopreventive effect. This study investigated the potential protective effect of Se-MeSeCys against a chemical oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Speciation of selenium derivatives by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry depicts Se-MeSeCys as the only selenocompound in the cell culture. Cell viability (lactate dehydrogenase) and markers of oxidative status--concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)--were evaluated. Pretreatment of cells with Se-MeSeCys for 20 h completely prevented the enhanced cell damage, MDA concentration and GR and GPx activity and the decreased GSH induced by t-BOOH but did not prevent increased ROS generation. The results show that treatment of HepG2 cells with concentrations of Se-MeSeCys in the nanomolar to micromolar range confers a significant protection against an oxidative insult.

  6. Hypocholesterolemic mechanism of phenolics-enriched extract from Moringa oleifera leaves in HepG2 cell lines

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    Peera Tabboon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera (MO leaves via lowering serum levels of cholesterol, but the mechanism of action is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of a phenolics-enriched extract of Moringa oleifera leaf (PMO in HepG2 cells. When compared to the control treatment, PMO significantly decreased total intracellular cholesterol, inhibited the activity of HMG CoA reductase in a dosedependent manner and enhanced LDL receptor binding activity. Moreover, PMO also significantly increased the genetic expressions of HMG CoA reductase and LDL receptor.

  7. Synthesis and anticancer activity of novel benzimidazole and benzothiazole derivatives against HepG2 liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Amal M; Malki, Ahmed; Badr, Mona H; Elbayaa, Rasha Y; Sultan, Ahmed S

    2012-03-01

    Most of cancer chemotherapeutics and chemopreventives exert their effects by triggering apoptotic cell death. In this study, novel benzimidazole and benzothiazole derivatives have been synthesized to investigate their effects on HepG2 liver cancer cell lines after initial screening study. A dose response curve was constructed and the most active derivatives were further studied for apoptotic analysis. Six active benzimidazole derivatives (8, 9, 10, 12, 13 and 14) significantly induced apoptosis compared to control group. Two compounds 10 and 12 induced apoptosis by arresting cells in G1 phase of cell cycle which is confirmed by increased expression level of p21. The activity of caspase-3 which is well known as one of the key executioners of apoptosis was determined in the presence and absence of the tested derivatives. Our results indicated that compounds 10 and 12 significantly increased caspase-3 activity compared to control group. Moreover, a docked pose of compounds 10 and 12 was obtained bound to caspase-3 active site using Molecular Operating Environment module. This study demonstrated that benzimidazole derivatives 10 and 12 provoke cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in liver cancer cells HepG2.

  8. Effervescent Granules Prepared Using Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. and Moso Bamboo Leaves: Hypoglycemic Activity in HepG2 Cells

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    Xiang-Zhou Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (E. ulmoides Oliv. and moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens leaves are used as folk medicines in central-western China to treat diabetes. To investigate the hypoglycemic activity of the effervescent granules prepared using E. ulmoides Oliv. and moso bamboo leaves (EBEG in HepG2 cells, EBEG were prepared with 5% of each of polysaccharides and chlorogenic acids from moso bamboo and E. ulmoides Oliv. leaves, respectively. HepG2 cells cultured in a high-glucose medium were classified into different groups. The results displayed EBEG-treated cells showed better glucose utilization than the negative controls; thus, the hypoglycemic effect of EBEG was much greater than that of granules prepared using either component alone, thereby indicating that this effect was due to a synergistic action of the components. Further, glucose consumption levels in the cells treated with EBEG (156.35% at 200 μg/mL and the positive controls (metformin, 162.29%; insulin, 161.52% were similar. Thus, EBEG exhibited good potential for use as a natural antidiabetic agent. The hypoglycemic effect of EBEG could be due to the synergistic action of polysaccharides from the moso bamboo leaves and chlorogenic acids from E. ulmoides Oliv. leaves via the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and glucose-6-phosphate displacement enzyme.

  9. Interaction between caspase-8 activation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in glycochenodeoxycholic acid-induced apoptotic HepG2 cells.

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    Iizaka, Toru; Tsuji, Mayumi; Oyamada, Hideto; Morio, Yuri; Oguchi, Katsuji

    2007-11-30

    The accumulation of hydrophobic bile acid, such as glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), in the liver has been thought to induce hepatocellular damage in human chronic cholestatic liver diseases. We previously reported that GCDCA-induced apoptosis was promoted by both mitochondria-mediated and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated pathways in rat hepatocytes. In this study, we elucidated the relationship between these pathways in GCDCA-induced apoptotic HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were treated with GCDCA (100-500microM) with or without a caspase-8 inhibitor, Z-IETD-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-IETD-FMK) (30microM) for 3-24h. We demonstrated the presence of both apoptotic pathways in these cells; that is, we showed increases in cleaved caspase-3 proteins, the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and the expression of ER resident molecular chaperone Bip mRNA and ER stress response-associated transcription factor Chop mRNA. On the other hand, pretreatment with Z-IETD-FMK significantly reduced the increases, compared with treatment with GCDCA alone. Immunofluorescence microscopic analysis showed that treatment with GCDCA increased the cleavage of BAP31, an integral membrane protein of ER, and pretreatment with Z-IETD-FMK suppressed the increase of caspase-8 and BAP31 cleavage. In conclusion, these results suggest that intact activated caspase-8 may promote and amplify the ER stress response by cleaving BAP31 in GCDCA-induced apoptotic cells.

  10. Emodin inhibits the growth of hepatoma cells: finding the common anti-cancer pathway using Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells.

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    Hsu, Chin-Mu; Hsu, Yu-An; Tsai, Yuhsin; Shieh, Fa-Kuen; Huang, Su-Hua; Wan, Lei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2010-02-19

    Emodin--a major component of Rheum palmatum L.-exerts antiproliferative effects in cancer cells that are regulated by different signaling pathways. Hepatocellular carcinoma has high-incidence rates and is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality rates. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of emodin on human hepatocarcinoma cell viability and investigate its mechanisms of action in Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells. To define the molecular changes associated with this process, expression profiles were compared in emodin-treated hepatoma cells by cDNA microarray hybridization, quantitative RT-PCRs, and Western blot analysis. G2/M phase arrest was observed in all 3 cell lines. Cell cycle regulatory gene analysis showed increased protein levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, Chk2, Cdk2, and P27 in hepatoma cells after time courses of emodin treatment, and Western blot analysis showed decreased protein levels of Cdc25c and P21. Microarray expression profile data and quantitative PCR revealed that 15 representative genes were associated with emodin treatment response in hepatoma cell lines. The RNA expression levels of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GDF15, SERPINE1, SOS1, RASD1, and MRAS were upregulated and those of NR1H4, PALMD, and TXNIP were downregulated in all three hepatoma cells. Moreover, at 6h after emodin treatment, the levels of GDF15, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYR61 were upregulated. Here, we show that emodin treatment caused G2/M arrest in liver cancer cells and increased the expression levels of various genes both in mRNA and protein level. It is likely that these genes act as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

  11. Alkaloids from beach spider lily (Hymenocallis littoralis) induce apoptosis of HepG-2 cells by the fas-signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yu-Bin; Chen, Ning; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Ling, Na; Li, Wen-Lan; Song, Dong-Xue; Gao, Shi-Yong; Zhang, Wang-Cheng; Ma, Nan-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Alkaloids are the most extensively featured compounds of natural anti-tumor herbs, which have attracted much attention in pharmaceutical research. In our previous studies, a mixture of major three alkaloid components (5, 6-dihydrobicolorine, 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine, littoraline) from Hymenocallis littoralis were extracted, analyzed and designated as AHL. In this paper, AHL extracts were added to human liver hepatocellular cells HepG-2, human gastric cancer cell SGC-7901, human breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7 and human umbilical vein endothelial cell EVC-304, to screen one or more AHL-sensitive tumor cell. Among these cells, HepG-2 was the most sensitive to AHL treatment, a very low dose (0.8μg/ml) significantly inhibiting proliferation . The non- tumor cell EVC-304, however, was not apparently affected. Effect of AHL on HepG-2 cells was then explored. We found that the AHL could cause HepG-2 cycle arrest at G2/M checkpoint, induce apoptosis, and interrupt polymerization of microtubules. In addition, expression of two cell cycle-regulated proteins, CyclinB1 and CDK1, was up-regulated upon AHL treatment. Up-regulation of the Fas, Fas ligand, Caspase-8 and Caspase-3 was observed as well, which might imply roles for the Fas/FsaL signaling pathway in the AHL-induced apoptosis of HepG-2 cells.

  12. Effect of solanine on the membrane potential of mitochondria in HepG2 cells and [Ca2+]i in the cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Yong Gao; Qiu-Juan Wang; Yu-Bin Ji

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of solanine on the membrane potential of mitochondria in HepG2 cells and [Ca2+]i in the cells, and to uncover the mechanism by which solanine induces apoptosis.METHODS: HepG2 cells were double stained with AO/EB, and morphological changes of the cells were observed using laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM). HepG2 cells were stained with TMRE, and change in the membrane potential of mitochondria in the cells were observed using LCSM. HepG2 cells were double stained with Fluo-3/AM, and change of [Ca2+]i in the cells were observed using LCSM. HepG2 cells were double stained with TMRE and Fluo-3/AM, and both the change in membrane potential of mitochondria and that of [Ca2+]i in the cells were observed using LCSM.RESULTS: Cells in treated groups showed typical signs of apoptosis. Staining with TMRE showed that solanine could lower membrane potential; staining with Fluo-3/AM showed that solanine could increase the concentration of Ca2+ in tumor cells; and those of double staining with TMRE and Fluo-3/AM showed that solanine could increase the concentration of Ca2+ in the cells at the same time as it lowered the membrane potential of mitochondria.CONCLUSION: Solanine opens up the PT channels in the membrane by lowering the membrane potential, leading to Ca2+ being transported down its concentration gradient, which in turn leads to the rise of the concentration of Ca2+ in the cell, turning on the mechanism for apoptosis.

  13. Antimutagenic activity and in vitro anticancer effects of bamboo salt on HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Hyung-Min; Park, Kun-Young

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo salt is a traditional Korean baked solar salt processed by packing the solar salt in bamboo joint cases and heating it several times to high temperatures. The antimutagenic activity and in vitro anticancer effects of bamboo salt on HepG2 human hepatoma cells were investigated and compared to those of other salt samples. Although solar salt and purified salt exhibited comutagenicity with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain, bamboo salt was associated with a lower degree of comutagenicity or antimutagenic activity. Bamboo salt baked nine times (9×) showed a greater increase in antimutagenic activity than salts baked once (1×) or three times (3×). At a concentration of 1%, the growth rate of HepG2 cells treated with 9× bamboo salt determined by a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MIT) assay was reduced by 65%; this rate of inhibition was higher than that achieved with 1× baked bamboo salt (40%). Purified and solar salts had relatively lower inhibitory effects on growth rate (25% and 29%, respectively). Compared to the other salt samples, 9× bamboo salt significantly (pbamboo salts, especially 9× bamboo salt, also significantly (p<0.05) downregulated the expression of inflammation-related NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2, and upregulated the gene expression of IκB-α compared to the other salt sample.

  14. Cichoric Acid Reverses Insulin Resistance and Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in the Glucosamine-Induced HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Di; Wang, Yutang; Du, Qingwei; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Xuebo

    2015-12-30

    Cichoric acid, a caffeic acid derivative found in Echinacea purpurea, basil, and chicory, has been reported to have bioactive effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and preventing insulin resistance. In this study, to explore the effects of CA on regulating insulin resistance and chronic inflammatory responses, the insulin resistance model was constructed by glucosamine in HepG2 cells. CA stimulated glucosamine-mediated glucose uptake by stimulating translocation of the glucose transporter 2. Moreover, the production of reactive oxygen, the expression of COX-2 and iNOS, and the mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were attenuated. Furthermore, CA was verified to promote glucosamine-mediated glucose uptake and inhibited inflammation through PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, and MAPK signaling pathways in HepG2 cells. These results implied that CA could increase glucose uptake, improve insulin resistance, and attenuate glucosamine-induced inflammation, suggesting that CA is a potential natural nutraceutical with antidiabetic properties and anti-inflammatory effects.

  15. Walnut-enriched diet increases the association of LDL from hypercholesterolemic men with human HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, S; Merlos, M; Zambón, D; Rodríguez, C; Sabaté, J; Ros, E; Laguna, J C

    2001-12-01

    In a randomized, cross-over feeding trial involving 10 men with polygenic hypercholesterolemia, a control, Mediterranean-type cholesterol-lowering diet, and a diet of similar composition in which walnuts replaced approximately 35% of energy from unsaturated fat, were given for 6 weeks each. Compared with the control diet, the walnut diet reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol by 4.2% (P = 0.176), and 6.0% (P = 0.087), respectively. No changes were observed in HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein A-I levels or in the relative proportion of protein, triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters in LDL particles. The apolipoprotein B level declined in parallel with LDL cholesterol (6.0% reduction). Whole LDL, particularly the triglyceride fraction, was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids from walnuts (linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids). In comparison with LDL obtained during the control diet, LDL obtained during the walnut diet showed a 50% increase in association rates to the LDL receptor in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. LDL uptake by HepG2 cells was correlated with alpha-linolenic acid content of the triglyceride plus cholesteryl ester fractions of LDL particles (r(2) = 0.42, P < 0.05). Changes in the quantity and quality of LDL lipid fatty acids after a walnut-enriched diet facilitate receptor-mediated LDL clearance and may contribute to the cholesterol-lowering effect of walnut consumption.

  16. Sagunja-Tang Improves Lipid Related Disease in a Postmenopausal Rat Model and HepG2 Cells

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    Hiroe Go

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Sagunja-tang on the lipid related disease in a rat model of menopausal hyperlipidemia and lipid accumulation in methyl-β-cyclodextrin-induced HepG2 cells. In in vivo study using menopausal hyperlipidemia rats, Sagunja-tang reduced retroperitoneal and perirenal fat, serum lipids, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor, media thickness, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis score, when compared to menopausal hyperlipidemia control rats. In HepG2 cells, Sagunja-tang significantly decreased the lipid accumulation, total cholesterol levels, and low-density/very-low-density lipoprotein levels. Moreover, Sagunja-tang reversed the methyl-β-cyclodextrin-induced decrease in the protein levels of critical molecule involved in cholesterol synthesis, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2, and low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibited protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase as well as activity. Phosphorylation level of AMP-activated protein kinase was stimulated by Sagunja-tang. These results suggest that Sagunja-tang has effect on inhibiting hepatic lipid accumulation through regulation of cholesterol synthesis and AMPK activity in vitro. These observations support the idea that Sagunja-tang is bioavailable both in vivo and in vitro and could be developed as a preventive and therapeutic agent of hyperlipidemia in postmenopausal females.

  17. Cellular interactions and biological responses to titanium dioxide nanoparticles in HepG2 and BEAS-2B cells: role of cell culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raju Y; Simmons, Steven O; Killius, Micaela G; Zucker, Robert M; Kligerman, Andrew D; Blackman, Carl F; Fry, Rebecca C; Demarini, David M

    2014-05-01

    We showed previously that exposure of human lung cells (BEAS-2B) to TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2 ) produced micronuclei (MN) only when the final concentration of protein in the cell-culture medium was at least 1%. Nanoparticles localize in the liver; thus, we exposed human liver cells (HepG2) to nano-TiO2 and found the same requirement for MN induction. Nano-TiO2 also formed small agglomerates in medium containing as little as 1% protein and caused cellular interaction as measured by side scatter by flow cytometry and DNA damage (comet assay) in HepG2 cells. Nano-TiO2 also increased the activity of the inflammatory factor NFkB but not of AP1 in a reporter-gene HepG2 cell line. Suspension of nano-TiO2 in medium containing 0.1% protein was sufficient for induction of MN by the nanoparticles in either BEAS-2B or HepG2 cells as long the final concentration of protein in the cell-culture medium was at least 1%.

  18. Simultaneous detection of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells in blood by ICP-MS with gold nanoparticles and quantum dots as elemental tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoting; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Wang, Han; Xiao, Guangyang; Yang, Bin; Hu, Bin

    2017-04-15

    In this work, we demonstrate a novel method based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and quantum dots (QDs) labeling for the simultaneous counting of two circulating tumor cell lines (MCF-7 and HepG2 cells) in human blood. MCF-7 and HepG2 cells were captured by magnetic beads coupled with anti-EpCAM and then specifically labeled by CdSe QDs-anti-ASGPR and Au NPs-anti-MUC1, respectively, which were used as signal probes for ICP-MS measurement. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection of 50 MCF-7, 89 HepG2 cells and the linear ranges of 200-40000 MCF-7, 300-30000 HepG2 cells were obtained, and the relative standard deviations for seven replicate detections of 800 MCF-7 and HepG2 cells were 4.6% and 5.7%, respectively. This method has the advantages of high sensitivity, low sample consumption, wide linear range and can be extended to the simultaneous detection of multiple CTC lines in human peripheral blood.

  19. Double Strand Breaks and Cell-Cycle Arrest Induced by the Cyanobacterial Toxin Cylindrospermopsin in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Žegura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The newly emerging cyanobacterial cytotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN is increasingly found in surface freshwaters, worldwide. It poses a potential threat to humans after chronic exposure as it was shown to be genotoxic in a range of test systems and is potentially carcinogenic. However, the mechanisms of CYN toxicity and genotoxicity are not well understood. In the present study CYN induced formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs, after prolonged exposure (72 h, in human hepatoma cells, HepG2. CYN (0.1–0.5 µg/mL, 24–96 h induced morphological changes and reduced cell viability in a dose and time dependent manner. No significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage could be observed after CYN exposure, indicating that the reduction in cell number was due to decreased cell proliferation and not due to cytotoxicity. This was confirmed by imunocytochemical analysis of the cell-proliferation marker Ki67. Analysis of the cell-cycle using flow-cytometry showed that CYN has an impact on the cell cycle, indicating G0/G1 arrest after 24 h and S-phase arrest after longer exposure (72 and 96 h. Our results provide new evidence that CYN is a direct acting genotoxin, causing DSBs, and these facts need to be considered in the human health risk assessment.

  20. Electrokinetic gated injection-based microfluidic system for quantitative analysis of hydrogen peroxide in individual HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Li, Qingling; Chen, Zhenzhen; Li, Hongmin; Xu, Kehua; Zhang, Lisheng; Tang, Bo

    2011-03-21

    A microfluidic system to determine hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in individual HepG2 cells based on the electrokinetic gated injection was developed for the first time. A home-synthesized fluorescent probe, bis(p-methylbenzenesulfonate)dichlorofluorescein (FS), was employed to label intracellular H(2)O(2) in the intact cells. On a simple cross microchip, multiple single-cell operations, including single cell injection, cytolysis, electrophoresis separation and detection of H(2)O(2), were automatically carried out within 60 s using the electrokinetic gated injection and laser-induced fluorescence detection (LIFD). The performance of the method was evaluated under the optimal conditions. The linear calibration curve was over a range of 4.39-610 amol (R(2)=0.9994). The detection limit was 0.55 amol or 9.0×10(-10) M (S/N=3). The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=6) of migration time and peak area were 1.4% and 4.8%, respectively. With the use of this method, the average content of H(2)O(2) in single HepG2 cells was found to be 16.09±9.84 amol (n=15). Separation efficiencies in excess of 17,000 theoretical plates for the cells were achieved. These results demonstrated that the efficient integration and automation of these single-cell operations enabled the sensitive, reproducible, and quantitative examination of intracellular H(2)O(2) at single-cell level. Owing to the advantages of simple microchip structure, controllable single-cell manipulation and ease in building, this platform provides a universal way to automatically determine other intracellular constituents within single cells.

  1. CdTe quantum dots with daunorubicin induce apoptosis of multidrug-resistant human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

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    Shi Lixin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cadmium telluride quantum dots (Cdte QDs have received significant attention in biomedical research because of their potential in disease diagnosis and drug delivery. In this study, we have investigated the interaction mechanism and synergistic effect of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped Cdte QDs with the anti-cancer drug daunorubicin (DNR on the induction of apoptosis using drug-resistant human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells. Electrochemical assay revealed that Cdte QDs readily facilitated the uptake of the DNR into HepG2/ADM cells. Apoptotic staining, DNA fragmentation, and flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated that compared with Cdte QDs or DNR treatment alone, the apoptosis rate increased after the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR in HepG2/ADM cells. We observed that Cdte QDs treatment could reduce the effect of P-glycoprotein while the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR can clearly activate apoptosis-related caspases protein expression in HepG2/ADM cells. Moreover, our in vivo study indicated that the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR effectively inhibited the human hepatoma HepG2/ADM nude mice tumor growth. The increased cell apoptosis rate was closely correlated with the enhanced inhibition of tumor growth in the studied animals. Thus, Cdte QDs combined with DNR may serve as a possible alternative for targeted therapeutic approaches for some cancer treatments.

  2. LRD-22, a novel dual dithiocarbamatic acid ester, inhibits Aurora-A kinase and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huiling; Li, Ridong [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Li, Li [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Ge, Zemei [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Zhou, Rouli, E-mail: rlzhou@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Li, Runtao, E-mail: lirt@bjmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2015-02-27

    In this study we investigated the antitumor activity of the novel dual dithiocarbamatic acid ester LRD-22 in vitro and in vivo. Several cancer cell lines were employed to determine the effect of LRD-22 on cell growth, and the MTT assay showed there was a significant decrease in viable tumor cell numbers in the presence of LRD-22, especially in the HepG2 cell line. Colony formation assay also showed LRD-22 strongly inhibits HepG2 cell growth. Evaluation of the mechanism involved showed that inhibitory effects of LRD-22 on cell growth are due to induction of apoptosis and G2/M arrest. LRD-22 inhibited Aurora-A phosphorylation at Thr{sub 288} and subsequently impaired p53 phosphorylation at Ser{sub 315} which was associated with the proteasome degradation pathway. Tumor suppressor protein p53 is stabilized by this mechanism and accumulates through inhibition of Aurora-A kinase activity via treatment with LRD-22. In vivo study of HepG2 xenograft in nude mice also shows LRD-22 suppresses tumor growth at a concentration of 5 mg/kg without animals suffering loss of body weight. In conclusion, our results demonstrate LRD-22 acts as an Aurora-A kinase inhibitor to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in HepG2 cells, and should be considered as a promising targeting agent for HCC therapy. - Highlights: • LRD-22 significantly inhibits cancer cell growth, especially in the HepG2 cell line. • The inhibitory effect of LRD-22 is due to induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. • LRD-22 inhibits Aurora-A phosphorylation which results in subsequent impairment of the p53 pathway. • LRD-22 suppresses tumor growth in xenograft mice without body weight loss.

  3. STARD4 knockdown in HepG2 cells disrupts cholesterol trafficking associated with the plasma membrane, ER, and ERC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbarino, J.; Pan, M. H.; Chin, H. F.

    2012-01-01

    STARD4, a member of the evolutionarily conserved START gene family, has been implicated in the non-vesicular intracellular transport of cholesterol. However, the direction of transport and the membranes with which this protein interacts are not clear. We present studies of STARD4 function using...... small hairpin RNA knockdown technology to reduce STARD4 expression in HepG2 cells. In a cholesterol-poor environment, we found that a reduction in STARD4 expression leads to retention of cholesterol at the plasma membrane, reduction of endoplasmic reticulum-associated cholesterol, and decreased ACAT...... synthesized cholesteryl esters. Furthermore, D4 KD cells exhibited a reduced rate of sterol transport to the endocytic recycling compartment after cholesterol repletion. Although these cells displayed normal endocytic trafficking in cholesterol-poor and replete conditions, cell surface low density lipoprotein...

  4. Mechanisms of dysregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor expression in HepG2 cells induced by inflammatory cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ya-xi; RUAN Xiong-zhong; HUANG Ai-long; LI Qiu; John F. Moorhead; Zac Varghese

    2007-01-01

    Background Low-density lipoprotein(LDL)receptor is normally regulated via a feedback system that is dependent on intracellular cholesterol levels.We have demonstrated that cytokines disrupt cholesterol-mediated LDL receptor feedback regulation causing intracellular accumulation of unmodified LDL in peripheral cells.Liver is the centraI organ for lipid homeostasis.The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of cholesterol exogenous uptake via LDL receptor and its underlying mechanisms in human hepatic cell line(HepG2)cells under physiological and inflammatory conditions.Methods Intracellular total cholesterol(TC),free cholesterol(FC)and cholesterol ester(CE)were measured by an enzymic assay.Oil Red O staining was used to visualize lipid droplet accumulation in cells.Total cellular RNA was isolated from cells for detecting LDL receptor,sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-2 and SREBP cleavage-activating protein(SCAP)mRNA levels using real-time quantitative PCR.LDL receptor and SREBP-2 protein expression were examined by Western blotting.Confocal microscopy was used to investigate the translocation of SCAP-SREBP complex from the endoplasmic reticulum(ER)to the Golgi by dual staining with anti-human SCAP and anti-Golgin antibodies.Results LDL loading increased intracellular cholesterol level,thereby reduced LDL receptor mRNA and protein expression in HepG2 cells under physiological conditions.However,interleukin 1β(IL-1β)further increased intracellular cholesterol level in the presence of LDL by increasing both LDL receptor mRNA and protein expression in HepG2.LDL also reduced the SREBP and SCAP mRNA level under physiological conditions.Exposure to IL-1β caused Over-expression of SREBP-2 and also disrupted normal distribution of SCAP-SREBP complex in HepG2 by enhancing translocation of SCAP-SREBP from the ER to the Golgi despite a high concentration of LDL in the culture medium.Conclusions IL-1β disrupts cholesterol-mediated LDL receptor

  5. OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) interacts with Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5) and mediates oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wenbin [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhou, You [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki (Finland); Li, Jiwei [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Mysore, Raghavendra [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki (Finland); Luo, Wei; Li, Shiqian [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chang, Mau-Sun [Institute of Biochemical Sciences, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Olkkonen, Vesa M. [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki (Finland); Yan, Daoguang, E-mail: tydg@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-04-01

    We earlier identified OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) as an endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope oxysterol-binding protein implicated in cellular lipid homeostasis, migration, and organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, a yeast two-hybrid screen identified Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5)/Astrin as interaction partner of ORP8. The putative interaction was further confirmed by pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. ORP8 did not colocalize with kinetochore-associated SPAG5 in mitotic HepG2 or HuH7 cells, but overexpressed ORP8 was capable of recruiting SPAG5 onto endoplasmic reticulum membranes in interphase cells. In our experiments, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OHC) retarded the HepG2 cell cycle, causing accumulation in G2/M phase; ORP8 overexpression resulted in the same phenotype. Importantly, ORP8 knock-down dramatically inhibited the oxysterol effect on HepG2 cell cycle, suggesting a mediating role of ORP8. Furthermore, knock-down of SPAG5 significantly reduced the effects of both ORP8 overexpression and 25OHC on the cell cycle, placing SPAG5 downstream of the two cell-cycle interfering factors. Taken together, the present results suggest that ORP8 may via SPAG5 mediate oxysterol interference of the HepG2 cell cycle. - Highlights: • The oxysterol-binding protein ORP8 was found to interact with the mitotic regulator SPAG5/Astrin. • Treatment of HepG2 cells with 25-hydroxycholesterol caused cell cycle retardation in G2/M. • ORP8 overexpression caused a similar G2/M accumulation, and ORP8 knock-down reversed the 25-hydroxycholesterol effect. • Reduction of cellular of SPAG5/Astrin reversed the cell cycle effects of both 25-hydroxycholesterol and ORP8 overexpression. • Our results suggest that ORP8 mediates via SPAG5/Astrin the oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle.

  6. Comprehensive Expression Profiling and Functional Network Analysis of p53-Regulated MicroRNAs in HepG2 Cells Treated with Doxorubicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalan Yang

    Full Text Available Acting as a sequence-specific transcription factor, p53 tumor suppressor involves in a variety of biological processes after being activated by cellular stresses such as DNA damage. In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs have been confirmed to be regulated by p53 in several cancer types. However, it is still unclear how miRNAs orchestrate their regulation and function in p53 network after p53 activation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. In this study, we used small RNA sequencing and systematic bioinformatic analysis to characterize the regulatory networks of differentially expressed miRNAs after the p53 activation in HepG2. Here, 33 miRNAs significantly regulated by p53 (12 up-regulated and 21 down-regulated were detected between the doxorubicin-treated and untreated HepG2 cells in two biological replicates for small RNA sequencing and 8 miRNAs have been reported previously to be associated with HCC. Gene ontology (GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that 87.9% (29 out of 33 and 90.9% (30 out of 33 p53-regulated miRNAs were involved in p53-related biological processes and pathways with significantly low p-value, respectively. Remarkably, 18 out of 33 p53-regulated miRNAs were identified to contain p53 binding sites around their transcription start sites (TSSs. Finally, comprehensive p53-miRNA regulatory networks were constructed and analyzed. These observations provide a new insight into p53-miRNA co-regulatory network in the context of HCC.

  7. Specific COX-2 inhibitor NS398 induces apoptosis in human liver cancer cell line HepG2 through BCL-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Sheng Huang; Ke-Zhen Shen; Jian-Feng Wei; Ting-Bo Liang; Shu-Sen Zheng; Hai-Yang Xie

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of NS-398, a cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) inhibitor, on the proliferation and apoptosis of HepG2 cells.METHODS: The effects of NS-398 on the proliferation of HepG2 cells were evaluated by MTT. DNA fragmentation gel analysis was used to analyze the apoptotic cells. DNA ploidy and apoptotic cell percentage were calculated by flow cytometry.The expression of COX-2 and Bcl-2 mRNA was identified by competitive RT-PCR. Furthermore, expression level of Bcl-2 was detected using Western blot in HepG2 after treated with NS-398.RESULTS: NS-398 inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. DNA ploidy analysis showed that S phase cells were significantly decreased with increase of NS-398 concentration.The quiescent G0/G1 phase was accumulated with decrease of Bcl-2 mRNA. Whereas NS-398 had no effect on the expression of COX-2 mRNA, and no correlations were found between COX-2 mRNA and HepG2 cell proliferation and apoptosis induced by NS-398 (r = 0.056 and r= 0.119,respectively). Bcl-2 protein level was inhibited after treated with NS-398.CONCLUSION: NS-398 significantly inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Mechanisms involved may be accumulation of quiescent G0/G1 phase and decrease of Bcl-2 expression.

  8. Comparative cytotoxic response of nickel ferrite nanoparticles in human liver HepG2 and breast MFC-7 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Khan, M A Majeed; Alrokayan, Salman A

    2015-09-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) have received much attention for their potential applications in biomedical fields such as magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and cancer hyperthermia. However, little is known about the toxicity of nickel ferrite NPs at the cellular and molecular levels. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in two different types of human cells (i.e., liver HepG2 and breast MCF-7). Nickel ferrite NPs induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in both types of cells, which was demonstrated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Nickel ferrite NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress, which was evident by the depletion of glutathione and the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. The mitochondrial membrane potential due to nickel ferrite NP exposure was also observed. The mRNA levels for the tumor suppressor gene p53 and the apoptotic genes bax, CASP3 and CASP9 were up-regulated, while the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated following nickel ferrite NP exposure. Furthermore, the activities of apoptotic enzymes (caspase-3 and caspase-9) were also higher in both types of cells treated with nickel ferrite NPs. Cytotoxicity induced by nickel ferrite was efficiently prevented by N-acetyl cysteine (ROS scavenger) treatment, which suggested that oxidative stress might be one of the possible mechanisms of nickel ferrite NP toxicity. We also observed that MCF-7 cells were slightly more susceptible to nickel ferrite NP exposure than HepG2 cells. This study warrants further investigation to explore the potential mechanisms of different cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in different cell lines.

  9. Comparative effects of fructose and glucose on lipogenic gene expression and intermediary metabolism in HepG2 liver cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M Hirahatake

    Full Text Available Consumption of large amounts of fructose or sucrose increases lipogenesis and circulating triglycerides in humans. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not completely understood, it is possible that as reported for rodents, high fructose exposure increases expression of the lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC-1 in human liver. Since activation of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP is associated with increases in the expression of FAS and ACC-1, it raises the possibility that HBP-related metabolites would contribute to any increase in hepatic expression of these enzymes following fructose exposure. Thus, we compared lipogenic gene expression in human-derived HepG2 cells after incubation in culture medium containing glucose alone or glucose plus 5 mM fructose, using the HBP precursor 10 mM glucosamine (GlcN as a positive control. Cellular metabolite profiling was conducted to analyze differences between glucose and fructose metabolism. Despite evidence for the active uptake and metabolism of fructose by HepG2 cells, expression of FAS or ACC-1 did not increase in these cells compared with those incubated with glucose alone. Levels of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc, the end-product of the HBP, did not differ significantly between the glucose and fructose conditions. Exposure to 10 mM GlcN for 10 minutes to 24 hours resulted in 8-fold elevated levels of intracellular UDP-GlcNAc (P<0.001, as well as a 74-126% increase in FAS (P<0.05 and 49-95% increase in ACC-1 (P<0.01 expression above controls. It is concluded that in HepG2 liver cells cultured under standard conditions, sustained exposure to fructose does not result in an activation of the HBP or increased lipogenic gene expression. Should this scenario manifest in human liver in vivo, it would suggest that high fructose consumption promotes triglyceride synthesis primarily through its action to provide lipid

  10. ERK1/2 contributes negative regulation to STAT3 activity in HSS-transfected HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a recently characterized transcription factor which is essential to liver regeneration. We have previously reported that hepatic stimulator substance (HSS), a novel growthpromoting substance, phosphorylated the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors and activated downstream RasMAP kinase (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, ERK1/2) cascade. However, whether HSS signal is related to STAT3pathway remains unclear. The present study is aiming to explore the regulatory effect of activation of ERK1/2 evoked by HSS on STAT3 phosphorylation and STAT3 signaling. Human hepatoma cell line HepG2 was stably transfected with HSS cDNA and HSS expression was measured by Northern blot. The results showed that the transfection of HSS into HepG2 resulted in remarkable increase in cellular proliferation as compared with the non-transfected cells, and it was further proved that the cellular proliferation in the HSS-transfected cells was related to ERK1/2 activation. Treatment of the cells with 50 μM of PD98059, an ERK1/2 specific upstream inhibitor, resulted in ERK1/2 inactivation completely.Inhibition of ERK1/2 allowed the tyrosine of STAT3 to be phosphorylated in a dose-dependent manner to PD98059.Furthermore, transient transfection of STAT3 mutant (STAT3S727A) into HSS-bearing cells could remarkably reverse the inhibitory effect of ERK1/2 on STAT3 phosphorylation. Based upon these results, it is concluded that ERK1/2negatively modulates STAT3 phosphorylation and this function is dependent on residual serine-727 (S727) of STAT3.

  11. Unsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols regulate cholesterol transporter genes in Caco-2 and HepG2 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngki; Carr, Timothy P

    2013-02-01

    Dietary consumption of phytosterols and certain fatty acids has been shown to reduce cholesterol absorption and plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether phytosterols or fatty acids can alter the expression of cholesterol transporters by functioning as signaling molecules. This study tested the hypothesis that various fatty acids and phytosterols commonly found in the food supply can modulate the expression of transporters including Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and scavenger receptor class B type I and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in the intestine and liver. Caco-2 cells were used as models of enterocytes, and HepG2 cells were used as a model of hepatocytes. The cells were treated for 18 hours with 100 μmol/L of a fatty acid, or for 24 hours with 10 μmol/L of 25α-hydroxycholesterol, or 100 μmol/L of cholesterol, sitosterol, and stigmasterol to measure expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caco-2 cells and sterols in HepG2 cells significantly reduced the messenger RNA expression levels of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, scavenger receptor class B type I, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Importantly, sitosterol and stigmasterol reduced the messenger RNA levels of genes to a similar extent as cholesterol. The data support the hypothesis that unsaturated fatty acid and phytosterols can act as signaling molecules and alter the expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport and metabolism.

  12. Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang induces autophagy in HepG2 cells via regulation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Wan-Ling; Su, Chin-Cheng; Lin, Ping-Yi; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chen, Yao-Li

    2015-08-01

    Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicine, was previously reported to induce autophagy and inhibit the proliferation of the human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line via an extrinsic pathway. In the present study, the effects of SJKJT-induced autophagy and the cytotoxic mechanisms mediating these effects were investigated in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of SJKJT in the HepG2 cells was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of SJKJT was 2.91 mg/ml at 24 h, 1.64 mg/ml at 48 h and 1.26 mg/ml at 72 h. The results of confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that SJKJT resulted in the accumulation of green fluorescent protein-LC3 and vacuolation of the cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles. Furthermore, western blot analysis, used to determine the expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins, demonstrated that the HepG2 cells treated with SJKJT exhibited LC3B-I/LC3B-II conversion, increased expression levels of Beclin, Atg-3 and Atg-5 and reduced expression levels of p62 and decreased signaling of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Taken together, these findings may assist in the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant types of liver cancer.

  13. In vitro treatment of HepG2 cells with saturated fatty acids reproduces mitochondrial dysfunction found in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Inmaculada; Solís-Muñoz, Pablo; Fernández-Moreira, Daniel; Muñoz-Yagüe, Teresa; Solís-Herruzo, José A

    2015-02-01

    Activity of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) is decreased in humans and mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Nitro-oxidative stress seems to be involved in its pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether fatty acids are implicated in the pathogenesis of this mitochondrial defect. In HepG2 cells, we analyzed the effect of saturated (palmitic and stearic acids) and monounsaturated (oleic acid) fatty acids on: OXPHOS activity; levels of protein expression of OXPHOS complexes and their subunits; gene expression and half-life of OXPHOS complexes; nitro-oxidative stress; and NADPH oxidase gene expression and activity. We also studied the effects of inhibiting or silencing NADPH oxidase on the palmitic-acid-induced nitro-oxidative stress and subsequent OXPHOS inhibition. Exposure of cultured HepG2 cells to saturated fatty acids resulted in a significant decrease in the OXPHOS activity. This effect was prevented in the presence of a mimic of manganese superoxide dismutase. Palmitic acid reduced the amount of both fully-assembled OXPHOS complexes and of complex subunits. This reduction was due mainly to an accelerated degradation of these subunits, which was associated with a 3-tyrosine nitration of mitochondrial proteins. Pretreatment of cells with uric acid, an antiperoxynitrite agent, prevented protein degradation induced by palmitic acid. A reduced gene expression also contributed to decrease mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded subunits. Saturated fatty acids induced oxidative stress and caused mtDNA oxidative damage. This effect was prevented by inhibiting NADPH oxidase. These acids activated NADPH oxidase gene expression and increased NADPH oxidase activity. Silencing this oxidase abrogated totally the inhibitory effect of palmitic acid on OXPHOS complex activity. We conclude that saturated fatty acids caused nitro-oxidative stress, reduced OXPHOS complex half-life and activity, and decreased gene expression of mtDNA-encoded subunits

  14. HepG2 cells recovered from apoptosis show altered drug responses and invasiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Shan Wang; Xin Xie; Chung Sing Timothy Wong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer  relapse,  associated  with  increased drug resistance and rate of metastasis, often follows completion of chemotherapy but the cancer escape mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) has been used for treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for decades, while the recurrence after PEI treatment remains a major limitation. Recent evidence mounted that cancer cells could survive from chemical induced apoptosis, suggesting a potential route through which cancer relapse may occur. This study focuses on the consequence of HepG2 recovery from ethanol-induced apoptotic event. METHODS: The  model  of  HepG2  recovery  from  ethanol-induced apoptotic event was established by live cell imaging, BrdU assay and Western blotting. MTT assay, wound healing assay and invasion assay were used to investigate the behavior of HepG2 after recovery. RESULTS: HepG2 cells could recover from ethanol-induced apoptosis. These cells changed their behaviors such as drug resistance, mobility and invasiveness. On average, the recovered HepG2 cell clones were found to be 46% more resistant to ethanol and 84% higher in mobility. The recovered clones became 58.2% more sensitive to 5-lfuorouracil. CONCLUSIONS: HepG2  cells  can  recover  from  ethanol-induced apoptotic event. These cells became more resistant to ethanol and more invasive. Although the recovered cell clones were more resistant to ethanol, they became more sensitive to 5-lfuorouracil treatment.

  15. Spectroscopic characterization and antiproliferative activity on HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells of flavonoid C-glycosides from Petrorhagia velutina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Severina; Scognamiglio, Monica; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Piccolella, Simona; Tsafantakis, Nikolaos; Gallicchio, Marialuisa; Ricci, Andreina; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2010-12-27

    Eight flavonoid C-glycosides, including three new analogues, have been isolated from leaf and root methanolic extracts of Petrorhagia velutina, a Mediterranean herbaceous plant. The antiproliferative activity against human hepatoblastoma cancer cell line HepG2 has been analyzed by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) test. Isoorientin (4) significantly reduces the proliferation of HepG2 cells as determined by the complete conversion of the tetrazolium probe into formazan after 48 h of exposure.

  16. Studies on Cytotoxic Activity against HepG-2 Cells of Naphthoquinones from Green Walnut Husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven naphthoquinones and their derivatives, including four new naphthalenyl glucosides and twenty-three known compounds, were isolated from green walnut husks, which came from Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The structures of four new naphthalenyl glucosides were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. All of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the growth of human cancer cells lines HepG-2 by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazo l-2-yl-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. The results were shown that most naphthoquinones in an aglycone form exhibited better cytotoxicity in vitro than naphthalenyl glucosides with IC50 values in the range of 7.33–88.23 μM. Meanwhile, preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds were discussed.

  17. Studies on Cytotoxic Activity against HepG-2 Cells of Naphthoquinones from Green Walnut Husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Bingyou; Jiang, Yanqiu; Liu, Zhaoxi; Liu, Yuxin; Wang, Xiaoli; Kuang, Haixue

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-seven naphthoquinones and their derivatives, including four new naphthalenyl glucosides and twenty-three known compounds, were isolated from green walnut husks, which came from Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The structures of four new naphthalenyl glucosides were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. All of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the growth of human cancer cells lines HepG-2 by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazo l-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. The results were shown that most naphthoquinones in an aglycone form exhibited better cytotoxicity in vitro than naphthalenyl glucosides with IC50 values in the range of 7.33-88.23 μM. Meanwhile, preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds were discussed.

  18. Metabolites profiling of 10 bufadienolides in human liver microsomes and their cytotoxicity variation in HepG2 cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lingyu; Wang, Hongjie; Si, Nan; Ren, Wei; Gao, Bo; Li, Yan; Yang, Jian; Xu, Miao; Zhao, Haiyu; Bian, Baolin

    2016-04-01

    Bufadienolides, a class of polyhydroxy steroids, exhibit significant antitumor activity. In this study, a total of 39 metabolites from 10 bufadienolides were detected and identified by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with an LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The results showed that hydroxylation and dehydrogenation were the major metabolic pathways of bufadienolides in human liver microsomes (HLMs). CYP3A4 was found to be the major metabolic enzyme and CYP2D6 only mediated the dehydrogenation reaction. A systematic validated cytotoxicity evaluation method for bufadienolide metabolites at equal equivalents was established. Hellebrigenin (1), hellebrigenol (2), arenobufagin (3), bufotalin (5), and bufalin (6) were selected to determine their cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells before and after incubation in HLMs. All the test samples were enriched by a validated solid-phase extraction (SPE) method. Although the cytotoxicities of metabolites were weaker than those of the parent compounds to different degrees, their effects were still strong.

  19. De novo LINE-1 retrotransposition in HepG2 cells preferentially targets gene poor regions of chromosome 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojang, Pasano; Anderton, Mark J; Roberts, Ruth A; Ramos, Kenneth S

    2014-08-01

    Long interspersed nuclear elements (Line-1 or L1s) account for ~17% of the human genome. While the majority of human L1s are inactive, ~80-100 elements remain retrotransposition competent and mobilize through RNA intermediates to different locations within the genome. De novo insertions of L1s account for polymorphic variation of the human genome and disruption of target loci at their new location. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization and DNA sequencing were used to characterize retrotransposition profiles of L1(RP) in cultured human HepG2 cells. While expression of synthetic L1(RP) was associated with full-length and truncated insertions throughout the entire genome, a strong preference for gene-poor regions, such as those found in chromosome 13 was observed for full-length insertions. These findings shed light into L1 targeting mechanisms within the human genome and question the putative randomness of L1 retrotransposition.

  20. Downregulation of hepcidin and haemojuvelin expression in the hepatocyte cell-line HepG2 induced by thalassaemic sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizer-Stern, Orly; Adamsky, Konstantin; Amariglio, Ninette; Levin, Carina; Koren, Ariel; Breuer, William; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Breda, Laura; Rivella, Stefano; Cabantchik, Z Ioav; Rechavi, Gideon

    2006-10-01

    Beta-thalassaemia represents a group of diseases, in which ineffective erythropoiesis is accompanied by iron overload. In a mouse model of beta-thalassaemia, we observed that the liver expressed relatively low levels of hepcidin, which is a key factor in the regulation of iron absorption by the gut and of iron recycling by the reticuloendothelial system. It was hypothesised that, despite the overt iron overload, a putative plasma factor found in beta-thalassaemia might suppress liver hepcidin expression. Sera from beta-thalassaemia and haemochromatosis (C282Y mutation) patients were compared with those of healthy individuals regarding their capacity to induce changes the expression of key genes of iron metabolism in human HepG2 hepatoma cells. Sera from beta-thalassaemia major patients induced a major decrease in hepcidin (HAMP) and lipocalin2 (oncogene 24p3) (LCN2) expression, as well as a moderate decrease in haemojuvelin (HFE2) expression, compared with sera from healthy individuals. A significant correlation was found between the degree of downregulation of HAMP and HFE2 induced by beta-thalassaemia major sera (r = 0.852, P < 0.0009). Decreased HAMP expression was also found in HepG2 cells treated with sera from beta-thalassaemia intermedia patients. In contrast, the majority of sera from hereditary haemochromatosis patients induced an increase in HAMP expression, which correlated with transferrin (Tf) saturation (r = 0.765, P < 0.0099). Our results suggest that, in beta-thalassaemia, serum factors might override the potential effect of iron overload on HAMP expression, thereby providing an explanation for the failure to arrest excessive intestinal iron absorption in these patients.

  1. The effect of solanine on the membrane potential of mitochondria in HepG2 cells and [Ca2+]i in the cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, YuBin; Gao, ShiYong; Ji, ChenFeng; Zou, Xiang

    2008-12-01

    To observe the effect of solanine on the membrane potential of mitochondria in HepG2 cells and [Ca2+]i in the cells, and to uncover the mechanism by which solanine induces apoptosis. HepG2 cells are double stained with and Fluo-3/AM, and both the change in membrane potential of mitochondria and that of [Ca2+]i in the cells are observed using LCSM. The results of double staining with TMRE and Fluo-3/AM show that solanine can lower membrane potential and increase the concentration of Ca2+ in the cells Solanine opens up the PT channels in the membrane by lowering the membrane potential, leading to Ca2+ being transported down its concentration gradient, which in turn leads to the rise of the concentration of Ca2+ in the cell, turning on the mechanism for apoptosis.

  2. A Novel Exploration of a Combination of Gambogic Acid with TiO2 Nanofibers: The Photodynamic Effect for HepG2 Cell Proliferation

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    Jingyuan Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As a good photosensitizer, TiO2 nanomaterials show potential biomedical applications, such as drug carriers or enhancers in photodynamic therapy. In this contribution, novel nanocomposites through the blending of TiO2 nanofibers with the active compound, gambogic acid (GA, were explored, and the results showed that GA could inhibit cancer cell proliferation in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner, inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in HepG2 cells. It is evident that after the GA-TiO2 nanocomposites were cultured with the cancer cells, the cooperation effect could effectively enhance the cytotoxicity of GA for HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, if activated by UV irradiation, under the presence of GA-TiO2 nanocomposites, this would lead to significant apoptosis and necrosis for HepG2 cells with a photodynamic therapy (PDT effect. Associated with the controlled drug-release from these nanocomposites, TiO2 nanofibers could readily cut down the drug consumption in HepG2 cells and reduce the side-effect for the normal cells and tissue, which may be further utilized in the therapeutic alliance for cancer therapy.

  3. Differential effect of manool--a diterpene from Salvia officinalis, on genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate in V79 and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolella, Heloiza Diniz; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Munari, Carla Carolina; Costa, Gizela Faleiros Dias; Moreira, Monique Rodrigues; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2014-10-01

    Salvia officinalis (sage) is a perennial woody subshrub native to the Mediterranean region that is commonly used as a condiment and as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial agent due to its biological activities. Manool is the most abundant micro-metabolite found in Salvia officinalis essential oils and extracts. We therefore decided to evaluate the cytotoxic, genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of manool in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) and human hepatoma cells (HepG2). Cytotoxicity was assessed by the colony-forming assay in V79 cells and toxic effects were observed at concentrations of up to 8.0 μg/mL. The micronucleus test was used to evaluate the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of manool in V79 and HepG2 cells at concentrations of 0.5-6.0 μg/mL and 0.5-8.0 μg/mL, respectively. For evaluation of antigenotoxicity, the concentrations of manool were combined with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, 44 μg/mL). The results showed a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in cultures of both cell lines treated with the highest concentration tested, demonstrating a genotoxic effect. On the other hand, manool exhibited a protective effect against chromosome damage induced by MMS in HepG2 cells, but not in V79 cells. These data suggest that some manool metabolite may be responsible for the antigenotoxic effect observed in HepG2 cells.

  4. Screening and identification of a novel target specific for hepatoma cell line HepG2 from the FliTrx bacterial peptide library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhan Li; Ping Lei; Bing Yu; Sha Wu; Jilin Peng; Xiaoping Zhao; Huffen Zhu; Michael Kirschfink; Guanxin Shen

    2008-01-01

    To explore new targets for hepatoma research, we used a surface display library to screen novel tumor cell-specific peptides. The bacterial FliTrx system was screened with living normal liver cell line L02 and hepatoma cell line HepG2 successively to search for hepatoma-specific peptides. Three clones (Hep1, Hep2, and Hep3) were identified to be specific to HepG2 compared with L02 and other cancer cell lines.Three-dimensional structural prediction proved that peptides inserted into the active site of Escherichia coli thioredoxin (TrxA) formed certain loop structures protruding out of the surface. Western blot analysis showed that FliC/TrxA-pepfide fusion proteins could be directly used to detect HepG2 cells.Three different FliC/TrxA-peptide fusion proteins targeted the same molecule, at approximately 140 kDa, on HepG2 cells.This work presented for the first time the application of the FliTrx library in screening living cells. Three peptides were obtained that could be potential candidates for targeted liver cancer therapy.

  5. OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) interacts with Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5) and mediates oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenbin; Zhou, You; Li, Jiwei; Mysore, Raghavendra; Luo, Wei; Li, Shiqian; Chang, Mau-Sun; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Yan, Daoguang

    2014-04-01

    We earlier identified OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) as an endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope oxysterol-binding protein implicated in cellular lipid homeostasis, migration, and organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, a yeast two-hybrid screen identified Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5)/Astrin as interaction partner of ORP8. The putative interaction was further confirmed by pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. ORP8 did not colocalize with kinetochore-associated SPAG5 in mitotic HepG2 or HuH7 cells, but overexpressed ORP8 was capable of recruiting SPAG5 onto endoplasmic reticulum membranes in interphase cells. In our experiments, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OHC) retarded the HepG2 cell cycle, causing accumulation in G2/M phase; ORP8 overexpression resulted in the same phenotype. Importantly, ORP8 knock-down dramatically inhibited the oxysterol effect on HepG2 cell cycle, suggesting a mediating role of ORP8. Furthermore, knock-down of SPAG5 significantly reduced the effects of both ORP8 overexpression and 25OHC on the cell cycle, placing SPAG5 downstream of the two cell-cycle interfering factors. Taken together, the present results suggest that ORP8 may via SPAG5 mediate oxysterol interference of the HepG2 cell cycle.

  6. Multifunctional selenium nanoparticles as carriers of HSP70 siRNA to induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yinghua Li,1 Zhengfang Lin,1 Mingqi Zhao,1 Tiantian Xu,1 Changbing Wang,1 Huimin Xia,1,* Hanzhong Wang,2,* Bing Zhu1,* 1Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 2State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Small interfering RNA (siRNA as a new therapeutic modality holds promise for cancer treatment, but it is unable to cross cell membrane. To overcome this limitation, nanotechnology has been proposed for mediation of siRNA transfection. Selenium (Se is a vital dietary trace element for mammalian life and plays an essential role in the growth and functioning of humans. As a novel Se species, Se nanoparticles have attracted more and more attention for their higher anticancer efficacy. In the present study, siRNAs with polyethylenimine (PEI-modified Se nanoparticles (Se@PEI@siRNA have been demonstrated to enhance the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Heat shock protein (HSP-70 is overexpressed in many types of human cancer and plays a significant role in several biological processes including the regulation of apoptosis. The objective of this study was to silence inducible HSP70 and promote the apoptosis of Se-induced HepG2 cells. Se@PEI@siRNA were successfully prepared and characterized by various microscopic methods. Se@PEI@siRNA showed satisfactory size distribution, high stability, and selectivity between cancer and normal cells. The cytotoxicity of Se@PEI@siRNA was lower for normal cells than tumor cells, indicating that these compounds may have fewer side effects. The gene-silencing efficiency of Se@PEI@siRNA was significantly much higher than Lipofectamine 2000@siRNA and resulted in a significantly reduced HSP70 mRNA and protein expression in cancer cells. When the expression of HSP70 was diminished, the function of cell protection was also removed and cancer cells became more

  7. Differential Cytotoxicity of Acetaminophen in Mouse Macrophage J774.2 and Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells: Protection by Diallyl Sulfide.

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    Haider Raza

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, including acetaminophen (APAP, have been reported to induce cytotoxicity in cancer and non-cancerous cells. Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP causes liver injury in humans and animals. Hepatic glutathione (GSH depletion followed by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are believed to be the main causes of APAP toxicity. The precise molecular mechanism of APAP toxicity in different cellular systems is, however, not clearly understood. Our previous studies on mouse macrophage J774.2 cells treated with APAP strongly suggest induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In the present study, using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, we have further demonstrated that macrophages are a more sensitive target for APAP-induced toxicity than HepG2 cells. Using similar dose- and time-point studies, a marked increase in apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were seen in macrophages compared to HepG2 cells. Differential effects of APAP on mitochondrial respiratory functions and oxidative stress were observed in the two cell lines which are presumably dependent on the varying degree of drug metabolism by the different cytochrome P450s and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase enzyme systems. Our results demonstrate a marked increase in the activity and expression of glutathione transferase (GST and multidrug resistance (MDR1 proteins in APAP-treated HepG2 cells compared to macrophages. This may explain the apparent resistance of HepG2 cells to APAP toxicity. However, treatment of these cells with diallyl sulfide (DAS, 200 μM, a known chemopreventive agent from garlic extract, 24 h prior to APAP (10 μmol/ml for 18h exhibited comparable cytoprotective effects in the two cell lines. These results may help in better understanding the mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by APAP and cytoprotection by chemopreventive agents in cancer and non-cancerous cellular systems.

  8. Differential Cytotoxicity of Acetaminophen in Mouse Macrophage J774.2 and Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells: Protection by Diallyl Sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including acetaminophen (APAP), have been reported to induce cytotoxicity in cancer and non-cancerous cells. Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) causes liver injury in humans and animals. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion followed by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are believed to be the main causes of APAP toxicity. The precise molecular mechanism of APAP toxicity in different cellular systems is, however, not clearly understood. Our previous studies on mouse macrophage J774.2 cells treated with APAP strongly suggest induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In the present study, using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, we have further demonstrated that macrophages are a more sensitive target for APAP-induced toxicity than HepG2 cells. Using similar dose- and time-point studies, a marked increase in apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were seen in macrophages compared to HepG2 cells. Differential effects of APAP on mitochondrial respiratory functions and oxidative stress were observed in the two cell lines which are presumably dependent on the varying degree of drug metabolism by the different cytochrome P450s and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase enzyme systems. Our results demonstrate a marked increase in the activity and expression of glutathione transferase (GST) and multidrug resistance (MDR1) proteins in APAP-treated HepG2 cells compared to macrophages. This may explain the apparent resistance of HepG2 cells to APAP toxicity. However, treatment of these cells with diallyl sulfide (DAS, 200 μM), a known chemopreventive agent from garlic extract, 24 h prior to APAP (10 μmol/ml for 18h) exhibited comparable cytoprotective effects in the two cell lines. These results may help in better understanding the mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by APAP and cytoprotection by chemopreventive agents in cancer and non-cancerous cellular systems.

  9. Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. Alleviates Lipogenesis and Oxidative Stress during Oleic Acid-Induced Steatosis in HepG2 Cells

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    Yu-Jin Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Excess accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We hypothesized that Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PSZ can protect against NAFLD by regulating lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver. To investigate the effect of PSZ upon NAFLD, we used an established cellular model: HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid. Then, the extent of hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress was assessed and levels of inflammatory markers measured. Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells, compared with controls, had greater lipid accumulation. PSZ decreased lipid accumulation by 63% in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, PSZ decreased the target gene expression of lipogenesis such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 by 1.75, 6.0, 2.32, 1.93 and 1.81 fold, respectively. In addition, Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells elicited extensive accumulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα by 4.53 fold, whereas PSZ-treated cells decreased the expression of TNFα mRNA by 1.76 fold. PSZ significantly inhibited oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that PSZ has effects on steatosis in vitro and further studies are needed in vivo to verify the current observations.

  10. Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. alleviates lipogenesis and oxidative stress during oleic acid-induced steatosis in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Wi, Hae-Ri; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Park, Kye Won; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2014-07-23

    Excess accumulation of lipids and oxidative stress in the liver contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (PSZ) can protect against NAFLD by regulating lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver. To investigate the effect of PSZ upon NAFLD, we used an established cellular model: HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid. Then, the extent of hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress was assessed and levels of inflammatory markers measured. Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells, compared with controls, had greater lipid accumulation. PSZ decreased lipid accumulation by 63% in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Additionally, PSZ decreased the target gene expression of lipogenesis such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 by 1.75, 6.0, 2.32, 1.93 and 1.81 fold, respectively. In addition, Oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells elicited extensive accumulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) by 4.53 fold, whereas PSZ-treated cells decreased the expression of TNFα mRNA by 1.76 fold. PSZ significantly inhibited oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that PSZ has effects on steatosis in vitro and further studies are needed in vivo to verify the current observations.

  11. Oleanolic Acid Attenuates Insulin Resistance via NF-κB to Regulate the IRS1-GLUT4 Pathway in HepG2 Cells

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    Ming Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to elucidate the mechanisms of oleanolic acid (OA on insulin resistance (IR in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were induced with FFA as the insulin resistance model and were treated with OA. Then the glucose content and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were analyzed. Moreover, protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS1, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 in cells treated with OA were measured by Western blot analysis. Additionally, IRS1 protein expression exposed to OA was detected after using pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC.Our results revealed that OA decreased the glucose content in HepG2 cells in vitro. Moreover, OA reduced the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and upregulated IRS1 and GLUT4 protein expression. Furthermore, OA also reduced NF-κB protein expression in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. After blocking NF-κB, the expression of IRS1 protein had no obvious changes when treated with OA. OA attenuated insulin resistance and decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6. Meanwhile, OA decreased NF-κB protein expression and upregulated IRS1 and GLUT4 protein expression. Therefore, regulating the IRS1-GLUT4 pathway via NF-κB was the underlying mechanism of OA on insulin resistance.

  12. XRCC1 deficiency increased the DNA damage induced by γ-ray in HepG2 cell: Involvement of DSB repair and cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yujie; Zhang, Xing; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhang, Rong

    2013-09-01

    γ-ray irradiation can induce DNA damages which include base damages, single-strand breaks and double-strand breaks in various type cells. The DNA repair protein XRCC1, as a part of the BER pathway, forms complexes with DNA polymerase beta, DNA ligase III and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) in the repair of DNA single strand breaks and also affects the repair of double strand breaks. However, it is still not known well whether XRCC1 contributes to affect the irradiation sensitivity and DNA damage in HepG2 cell and the potential mechanism. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore whether abrogation of XRCC1 gene expression by shRNA could reduce DNA repair and thus sensitize HepG2 cells to γ-ray. Cell viability was measured by Trypan blue staining and cloning efficiency assay. The DNA damage was detected by Comet assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. The DNA-PKcs and gadd153 mRNA expression were determined by Real-time PCR. Our results showed that abrogation of XRCC 1 could sensitize HepG2 cells to γ-ray. This enhanced sensitivity could be attributed to the increased DNA damage and increased cell cycle arrest, which might be related with the increasing of DNA-PKcs and gadd153 mRNA expression. Therefore, our results suggested that the γ-ray irradiation sensitivity could be increased by targeting inhibition of XRCC1 in HepG2 cell.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of HepG2 Cells Expressing ORF3 from Swine Hepatitis E Virus to Determine the Effects of ORF3 on Host Cells

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    Kailian Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus- (HEV- mediated hepatitis has become a global public health problem. An important regulatory protein of HEV, ORF3, influences multiple signal pathways in host cells. In this study, to investigate the function of ORF3 from the swine form of HEV (SHEV, high-throughput RNA-Seq-based screening was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes in ORF3-expressing HepG2 cells. The results were validated with quantitative real-time PCR and gene ontology was employed to assign differentially expressed genes to functional categories. The results indicated that, in the established ORF3-expressing HepG2 cells, the mRNA levels of CLDN6, YLPM1, APOC3, NLRP1, SCARA3, FGA, FGG, FGB, and FREM1 were upregulated, whereas the mRNA levels of SLC2A3, DKK1, BPIFB2, and PTGR1 were downregulated. The deregulated expression of CLDN6 and FREM1 might contribute to changes in integral membrane protein and basement membrane protein expression, expression changes for NLRP1 might affect the apoptosis of HepG2 cells, and the altered expression of APOC3, SCARA3, and DKK1 may affect lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, ORF3 plays a functional role in virus-cell interactions by affecting the expression of integral membrane protein and basement membrane proteins and by altering the process of apoptosis and lipid metabolism in host cells. These findings provide important insight into the pathogenic mechanism of HEV.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of HepG2 Cells Expressing ORF3 from Swine Hepatitis E Virus to Determine the Effects of ORF3 on Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shiyu; Zhao, Tianjing; Zhu, Huapei; Jiao, Hanwei; Shi, Qiaoyun; Pang, Feng; Li, Yaying; Li, Guohua; Peng, Dongmei; Nie, Xin; Wu, Kebang; Du, Li; Cui, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus- (HEV-) mediated hepatitis has become a global public health problem. An important regulatory protein of HEV, ORF3, influences multiple signal pathways in host cells. In this study, to investigate the function of ORF3 from the swine form of HEV (SHEV), high-throughput RNA-Seq-based screening was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes in ORF3-expressing HepG2 cells. The results were validated with quantitative real-time PCR and gene ontology was employed to assign differentially expressed genes to functional categories. The results indicated that, in the established ORF3-expressing HepG2 cells, the mRNA levels of CLDN6, YLPM1, APOC3, NLRP1, SCARA3, FGA, FGG, FGB, and FREM1 were upregulated, whereas the mRNA levels of SLC2A3, DKK1, BPIFB2, and PTGR1 were downregulated. The deregulated expression of CLDN6 and FREM1 might contribute to changes in integral membrane protein and basement membrane protein expression, expression changes for NLRP1 might affect the apoptosis of HepG2 cells, and the altered expression of APOC3, SCARA3, and DKK1 may affect lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, ORF3 plays a functional role in virus-cell interactions by affecting the expression of integral membrane protein and basement membrane proteins and by altering the process of apoptosis and lipid metabolism in host cells. These findings provide important insight into the pathogenic mechanism of HEV. PMID:27648443

  15. Differential genomic effects on canonical signaling pathways by two different CeO2 nanoparticles in HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differential genomic effects on signaling pathways by two different CeO2 nanoparticles in HepG2 cells. Sheau-Fung Thai1, Kathleen A. Wallace1, Carlton P. Jones1, Hongzu Ren2, Benjamin T. Castellon1, James Crooks2, Kirk T. Kitchin1. 1Integrated Systems Toxicology Divison, 2Resea...

  16. Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cellsBecause of their growing number of uses, nanoparticles composed of CeO2 (cosmetics, polishing materials and automotive fuel additives) and TiO2 (pigments, sunscreens and photocatalysts) are of particular to...

  17. Metabolomic effects in HepG2 cells exposed to four TiO2 amd two CeO2 naomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract It is difficult to evaluate nanomaterials potential toxicity and to make science-based societal choices. To better assess potential hepatotoxicity issues, human liver HepG2 cells were exposed to four Ti02 and two Ce02 nanomaterials at 30 ug m1-1 for t...

  18. Salvianolic acid B modulates the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-LanWang; QuocWu; Yan-Yan Tao; Cheng-Hai Liu; Hani El-Nezami

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzymes involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism have been considered to exist in two groups: phase I and phase II enzymes. Cytochrome P450 isoenzymes (CYPs) are the most important phase I enzymes in the metabolism of xenobiotics. The products of phase I metabolism are then acted upon by phase II enzymes, including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Herbs that inhibit CYPs such as CYP3A4 or that induce GSTs may have the potential to protect against chemical carcinogenesis since the mutagenic effects of carcinogens are often mediated through an excess of CYP-generated reactive intermediates. This study was designed to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid B (Sal B), a pure compound extracted from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, a Chinese herb, on cell proliferation and CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expression in the presence or absence of rifampicin, a potent inducer of CYPs and GST protein expression in HepG2 cells. METHODS: HepG2 cells were incubated with different concentrations of Sal B. Cell proliferation was determined by SYTOX-Green nucleic acid staining. CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 mRNA expression was assayed by real-time PCR. GST protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting. RESULTS: Low concentrations of Sal B (0-20 μmol/L) had no significant effects on cell proliferation, while higher concentrations (100-250 μmol/L) significantly inhibited proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Tenμmol/L Sal B, but not 1 μmol/L, down-regulated CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 mRNA expression after 24 hours of incubation, whereas both 1 and 10 μmol/L Sal B down-regulated CYP3A4 mRNA expression after 96 hours of incubation; moreover, 1 and 10 μmol/L Sal B inhibited CYP3A4 mRNA expression induced by rifampicin. Both 1 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L Sal B increased GST expression. CONCLUSION: Sal B inhibits CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 mRNA expression and induces GST expression in HepG2 cells.

  19. Effects of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract on abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins and their possible consequential impact on metabolism and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ursula R W; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri S; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina; Hashim, Onn H; Mat-Junit, Sarni

    2013-01-01

    The fruit pulp extract of Tamarindus indica has been reported for its antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp was investigated for its effects on the abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins. Cell lysate was extracted from HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp. Approximately 2500 spots were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the abundance of 20 cellular proteins was found to be significantly reduced. Among the proteins of reduced abundance, fourteen, including six proteins involved in metabolism (including ethanolamine phosphate cytidylyltransferase), four mitochondrial proteins (including prohibitin and respiratory chain proteins), and four proteins involved in translation and splicing, were positively identified by mass spectrometry and database search. The identified HepG2 altered abundance proteins, when taken together and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software, are suggestive of the effects of T. indica fruit pulp extract on metabolism and inflammation, which are modulated by LXR/RXR. In conclusion, the methanol fruit pulp extract of T. indica was shown to cause reduced abundance of HepG2 mitochondrial, metabolic, and regulatory proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, and cellular metabolism.

  20. Effects of Tamarindus indica Fruit Pulp Extract on Abundance of HepG2 Cell Lysate Proteins and Their Possible Consequential Impact on Metabolism and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula R. W. Chong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit pulp extract of Tamarindus indica has been reported for its antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp was investigated for its effects on the abundance of HepG2 cell lysate proteins. Cell lysate was extracted from HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp. Approximately 2500 spots were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the abundance of 20 cellular proteins was found to be significantly reduced. Among the proteins of reduced abundance, fourteen, including six proteins involved in metabolism (including ethanolamine phosphate cytidylyltransferase, four mitochondrial proteins (including prohibitin and respiratory chain proteins, and four proteins involved in translation and splicing, were positively identified by mass spectrometry and database search. The identified HepG2 altered abundance proteins, when taken together and analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA software, are suggestive of the effects of T. indica fruit pulp extract on metabolism and inflammation, which are modulated by LXR/RXR. In conclusion, the methanol fruit pulp extract of T. indica was shown to cause reduced abundance of HepG2 mitochondrial, metabolic, and regulatory proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, protein synthesis, and cellular metabolism.

  1. Combination of small interfering RNA and lamivudine on inhibition of human B virus replication in HepG2.2.15 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Qiu Li; Wei-Zhen Xu; Jing-Xia Wang; Wen-Wei Deng; Di Li; Hong-Xi Gu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To observe the inhibition of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and expression by combination of siRNA and lamivudine in HepG2.2.15 cells.METHODS: Recombinant plasmid psil-HBV was constructed and transfected into HepG2.2.15 cells. The transfected cells were cultured in lamivudine-containing medium (0.05 μmol/L) and harvested at 48, 72 and 96 h. The concentration of HBeAg and HBsAg was determined using ELISA. HBV DMA replication was examined by realtime PCR and the level of HBV mRNA was measured by RT-PCR.RESULTS: In HepG2.2.15 cells treated with combination of siRNA and lamivudine, the secretion of HBeAg and HBsAg into the supernatant was found to be inhibited by 91.80% and 82.40% (2.89 ± 0.48 vs 11.73±0.38,P<0.05;4.59±0.57 vs 16.25±O.48,P<0.05) at 96 h,respectively;the number of HBV DNA copies within culture medium was also significantly decreased at 96 h (1.04±0.26 vs 8.35±0.33,P<0.05).Moreover,mRNA concentration in HepG2.2.15 cells treated with combination of siRNA and lamivudine was obviously lower compared to those treated either with siRNA or lamivudine (19.44±0.17 vs 33.27±0.21 or 79.9±0.13,P<O.05).CONCLUSION:Combination of siRNA and lamivudine is more effective in inhibiting HBV replication as compared to the single use of siRNA or lamivudine in HepG2.2.15 cells.

  2. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced oxidative stress, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie; Benedict, Sheela

    2011-10-01

    It is widely accepted that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, reduce the risk of cancer. The anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs are associated with the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. Several other mechanisms which contribute to the anti-cancer effect of these drugs in different cancer models both in vivo and in vitro are also presumed to be involved. The precise molecular mechanism, however, is still not clear. We investigated, therefore, the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) on multiple cellular and functional targets, including mitochondrial bioenergetics, using human hepatoma HepG2 cancer cells in culture. Our results demonstrate that ASA induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. ASA increased the production of reactive oxygen species, reduced the cellular glutathione (GSH) pool and inhibited the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory enzyme complexes, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) and the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, aconitase. Apoptosis was triggered by alteration in mitochondrial permeability transition, inhibition of ATP synthesis, decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c and activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and the DNA repairing enzyme, poly (-ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These findings strongly suggest that ASA-induced toxicity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells is mediated by increased metabolic and oxidative stress, accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction which result in apoptosis.

  3. Determination of glutathione in single HepG2 cells by capillary electrophoresis with reduced graphene oxide modified microelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Jun; Fu, Hongyan; Liu, Dongju; Chen, Zhenzhen

    2014-12-01

    Determination of intracellular bioactive species will afford beneficial information related to cell metabolism, signal transduction, cell function, and disease treatment. In this study, the electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified carbon fiber microdisk electrode (ER-GOME) was used as a detector of CZE-electrochemical detection and developed to detect glutathione (GSH). The electrocatalytic activity of the modified microelectrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. Under optimized experimental conditions, the concentration linear range of GSH was from 1 to 60 μM. When the S/N ratio was 3, the concentration detection limit was 1 μM. Compared with the unmodified carbon fiber microdisk electrode, the sensitivity was enhanced more than five times. With the use of this method, the average contents of GSH in single HepG2 cells were found to be 7.13 ± 1.11 fmol (n = 10). Compared with gold/mercury amalgam microelectrode, which was usually used in determining GSH, the electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified carbon fiber microdisk electrode was friendly to environment for free mercury. Furthermore, there were several merits of the novel electrochemical detector coupled with CE, such as comparative repeatability, easy fabrication, and high sensitivity, hold great potential for the single-cell assay.

  4. Identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 as a new target of perfluoroalkyl acids in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Lv, Qi-Yan; Guo, Liang-Hong; Wan, Bin; Ren, Xiao-Min; Shi, Ya-Li; Cai, Ya-Qi

    2016-08-29

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widespread environmental contaminants which have been detected in humans and linked to adverse health effects. Previous toxicological studies mostly focused on nuclear receptor-mediated pathways and did not support the observed toxic effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of PFAA toxicities by identifying their biological targets in cells. Using a novel electrochemical biosensor, 16 PFAAs were evaluated for inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 activity. Their potency increased with PFAA chain length, with perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFODA) showing the strongest inhibition. Three selected PFAAs, 25 μM perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, and PFODA, also inhibited SHP-2 activity in HepG2 cells and increased paxillin phosphorylation level. PFOA was detected in the immunoprecipitated SHP-2 from the cells exposed to 250 μM PFOA, providing unequivocal evidence for the direct binding of PFOA with SHP-2 in the cell. Molecular docking rationalized the formation of PFAA/SHP-2 complex and chain length-dependent inhibition potency. Our results have established SHP-2 as a new cellular target of PFAAs.

  5. Cholesterol lowering effects of mono-lactose-appended β-cyclodextrin in Niemann–Pick type C disease-like HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Motoyama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Niemann–Pick type C disease (NPC is one of inherited lysosomal storage disorders, emerges the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in endolysosomes. Currently, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD has been applied for the treatment of NPC. HP-β-CyD improved hepatosplenomegaly in NPC patients, however, a high dose of HP-β-CyD was necessary. Therefore, the decrease in dose by actively targeted-β-CyD to hepatocytes is expected. In the present study, to deliver β-CyD selectively to hepatocytes, we newly fabricated mono-lactose-appended β-CyD (Lac-β-CyD and evaluated its cholesterol lowering effects in NPC-like HepG2 cells, cholesterol accumulated HepG2 cells induced by treatment with U18666A. Lac-β-CyD (degree of substitution of lactose (DSL 1 significantly decreased the intracellular cholesterol content in a concentration-dependent manner. TRITC-Lac-β-CyD was associated with NPC-like HepG2 cells higher than TRITC-β-CyD. In addition, TRITC-Lac-β-CyD was partially localized with endolysosomes after endocytosis. Thus, Lac-β-CyD entered NPC-like HepG2 cells via asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR-mediated endocytosis and decreased the accumulation of intracellular cholesterol in NPC-like HepG2 cells. These results suggest that Lac-β-CyD may have the potential as a drug for the treatment of hepatosplenomegaly in NPC disease.

  6. Cholesterol lowering effects of mono-lactose-appended β-cyclodextrin in Niemann–Pick type C disease-like HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Keiichi; Hirai, Yumi; Nishiyama, Rena; Maeda, Yuki; Higashi, Taishi; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Kondo, Yuki; Irie, Tetsumi; Era, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Niemann–Pick type C disease (NPC) is one of inherited lysosomal storage disorders, emerges the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in endolysosomes. Currently, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD) has been applied for the treatment of NPC. HP-β-CyD improved hepatosplenomegaly in NPC patients, however, a high dose of HP-β-CyD was necessary. Therefore, the decrease in dose by actively targeted-β-CyD to hepatocytes is expected. In the present study, to deliver β-CyD selectively to hepatocytes, we newly fabricated mono-lactose-appended β-CyD (Lac-β-CyD) and evaluated its cholesterol lowering effects in NPC-like HepG2 cells, cholesterol accumulated HepG2 cells induced by treatment with U18666A. Lac-β-CyD (degree of substitution of lactose (DSL) 1) significantly decreased the intracellular cholesterol content in a concentration-dependent manner. TRITC-Lac-β-CyD was associated with NPC-like HepG2 cells higher than TRITC-β-CyD. In addition, TRITC-Lac-β-CyD was partially localized with endolysosomes after endocytosis. Thus, Lac-β-CyD entered NPC-like HepG2 cells via asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-mediated endocytosis and decreased the accumulation of intracellular cholesterol in NPC-like HepG2 cells. These results suggest that Lac-β-CyD may have the potential as a drug for the treatment of hepatosplenomegaly in NPC disease. PMID:26664628

  7. Saponins, especially platycodin D, from Platycodon grandiflorum modulate hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed rats and high glucose-exposed HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Pil [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Song, Gye Young [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Myoung Soo [College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Sun [Molecular Cancer Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun [Division of Food Science, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) pathway. Saponins, particularly platycodin D, from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CKS on hepatic lipogenesis and on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and the mechanisms involved. CKS attenuated fat accumulation and the induction of the lipogenic genes encoding SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase in the livers of HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. Blood biochemical analyses and histopathological examinations showed that CKS prevented liver injury. CKS and platycodin D each increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HFD-fed rats and HepG2 cells. The use of specific inhibitors showed that platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells. This study demonstrates that CKS or platycodin D alone can regulate hepatic lipogenesis via an AMPK-dependent signalling pathway. - Highlights: ► CKS attenuated fat accumulation in HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. ► CKS and its major component, platycodin D, inhibited the levels of SREBP-1 and FAS. ► CKS and platycodin D increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. ► Platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells.

  8. A conveniently prepared and hypersensitized small molecular fluorescent probe: Rapidly detecting free zinc ion in HepG2 cells and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiaoping; Sun, Ping; Li, Hong; Tian, Xiaohe; Zhang, Baowei; Wu, Jieying; Tian, Yupeng; Zhou, Hongping

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we reported a conveniently prepared fluorescent probe for zinc ions detection, which constructed by the condensation reaction between p-(benzothiazolyl)aniline with 4, 4- diethylaminesalicylaldehyde. The sensing ability of the probe toward zinc ions in vitro was tested by a series of UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy studies, which showed that the probe possessed high sensitivity with a detection limit of 5.8nM and a rapid response time of 10s. We also carried out fluorescent bio-imaging of the probe for zinc ions in human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2), which showed that the probe could be utilized to detect the intracellular endogenous zinc ions visually without introducing external zinc sources. Meanwhile, co-staining experiment with organelle selective trackers was performed to illustrate that the probe could locate at endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, we successfully used it as a zinc ion developer in plant tissue, which clearly demonstrated the distribution of zinc ions in the growth stage of plant tissue.

  9. Generation of Multilayered 3D Structures of HepG2 Cells Using a Bio-printing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeryeon; Kang, Kyojin; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Paik, Seung Sam; Lee, Sang-Hun; Jeong, Jaemin; Choi, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Chronic liver disease is a major widespread cause of death, and whole liver transplantation is the only definitive treatment for patients with end-stage liver diseases. However, many problems, including donor shortage, surgical complications and cost, hinder their usage. Recently, tissue-engineering technology provided a potential breakthrough for solving these problems. Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been used to mimic tissues and organs suitable for transplantation, but applications for the liver have been rare. Methods A 3D bioprinting system was used to construct 3D printed hepatic structures using alginate. HepG2 cells were cultured on these 3D structures for 3 weeks and examined by fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry. The expression of liver-specific markers was quantified on days 1, 7, 14, and 21. Results The cells grew well on the alginate scaffold, and liver-specific gene expression increased. The cells grew more extensively in 3D culture than two-dimensional culture and exhibited better structural aspects of the liver, indicating that the 3D bioprinting method recapitulates the liver architecture. Conclusions The 3D bioprinting of hepatic structures appears feasible. This technology may become a major tool and provide a bridge between basic science and the clinical challenges for regenerative medicine of the liver. PMID:27559001

  10. Zinc protects HepG2 cells against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by ochratoxin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Juanjuan; Zhang, Yu [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Wentao, E-mail: xuwentaoboy@sina.com [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Luo, YunBo [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Hao, Junran [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Xiao Li [The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Xuan [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Xiaohong [The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang, Kunlun, E-mail: hkl009@163.com [Laboratory of Food Safety and Molecular Biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage are the most studied mechanisms by which ochratoxin A (OTA) induces its toxic effects, which include nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. Zinc, which is an essential trace element, is considered a potential antioxidant. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether zinc supplement could inhibit OTA-induced oxidative damage and DNA damage in HepG2 cells and the mechanism of inhibition. The results indicated that that exposure of OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration; zinc supplement significantly reduced the OTA-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity but did not affect the OTA-induced decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}). Meanwhile, the addition of the zinc chelator N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) strongly aggravated the OTA-induced oxidative damage. This study also demonstrated that zinc helped to maintain the integrity of DNA through the reduction of OTA-induced DNA strand breaks, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation and DNA hypomethylation. OTA increased the mRNA expression of metallothionein1-A (MT1A), metallothionein2-A (MT2A) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Zinc supplement further enhanced the mRNA expression of MT1A and MT2A, but it had no effect on the mRNA expression of SOD1 and catalase (CAT). Zinc was for the first time proven to reduce the cytotoxicity of OTA through inhibiting the oxidative damage and DNA damage, and regulating the expression of zinc-associated genes. Thus, the addition of zinc can potentially be used to reduce the OTA toxicity of contaminated feeds. - Highlights: ► OTA decreased the intracellular zinc concentration. ► OTA induced the formation of 8-OHdG in HepG2 cells. ► It was testified for the first time that OTA induced DNA hypomethylation. ► Zinc protects against the oxidative damage and DNA damage induced by

  11. Simultaneous recovery of dual pathways for ammonia metabolism do not improve further detoxification of ammonia in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-Yuan Zhang; Nan-Hong Tang; Xiao-Qian Wang; Xiu-Jin Li and Yan-Ling Chen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Key  enzyme  deficiency  in  the  dual-pathway of  ammonia  metabolism  leads  to  low  detoxification  capacity of  HepG2  cells.  Previously,  we  established  a  HepG2/AFhGS cell  line  with  overexpression  of  human  glutamine  synthetase (hGS)  in  pathway    1  and  a  HepG2/(hArgI+hOTC)4  cell  line with overexpression of human arginase I (hArgI) and human ornithine transcarbamylase (hOTC) in pathway 2. The present study  aimed  to  investigate  whether  simultaneous  recovery  of the  two  pathways  contributes  to  the  further  improvement  of ammonia detoxification in HepG2 cells. METHODS: We  adopted  a  recombinant  retrovirus  carrying the  hGS  gene  to  infect  HepG2/(hArgI+hOTC)4  cells  and selected a new recombinant HepG2 cell line. The capacities of ammonia tolerance and detoxification in cells were detected by biochemical methods. Cell cycle PCR chip was used to assess the changes of gene expression. RESULTS: Introducing  hGS  into  HepG2/(hArgI+hOTC)4 cells did not lead to hGS overexpression, but inhibited hArgI expression.  The  levels  of  synthetic  glutamine  and  urea  in HepG2/(hArgI+hOTC+AFhGS)1 cells were significantly lower than  those  in  HepG2/(hArgI+hOTC)4  cells  when  cultured in  the  medium  with  10  and  15  mmol/L  glutamate  (Glu)  and with 60 and 180 mmol/L NH4Cl, respectively. In addition, the comparison of different cell growth showed that HepG2/AFhGS cells significantly lagged behind the other cells by the 5th and 7th  day,  indicating  that  introduction  of  hGS  impedes  HepG2 cell

  12. Protective Effect of Curcumin against Ionizing Radiation (IR)-induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in HepG2 Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Dong Min; Nasir Uddin, S. M.; Ryu, Tae Ho; Kang, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Ionizing radiation (IR) has many practical applications such as medicine, foods, agricultures, industries, and research laboratories. However, the increasing use of radiation is associated with radiation accidents threatening human health. It is well known that exposure to IR gives rise to genomic alterations, mutagenesis, and cell death. IR is absorbed directly by DNA, leading to various DNA damages (single or double-strand breaks, base damage, and DNA-DNA or DNA-protein cross-linkages) in many living organisms. Therefore, the development of effective and nontoxic radioprotective agents is of considerable interest. Curcumin (C{sub 12}H{sub 20}O{sub 6}, structure is the major yellow component of Curcuma longa with biological activities (antioxidant, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties). It has been widely used as food and medicine for a long time. The aim of our present study is to investigate the protective effects of curcumin against IR-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in cultured HepG2 cells.

  13. Flow cytometric evaluation of the contribution of ionic silver to genotoxic potential of nanosilver in human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Saura C; Njoroge, Joyce; Bryce, Steven M; Zheng, Jiwen; Ihrie, John

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to nanosilver found in food- and cosmetics-related consumer products is of public concern because of the lack of information about its safety. In this study, two widely used in vitro cell culture models, human liver HepG2 and colon Caco2 cells, and the flow cytometric micronucleus (FCMN) assay were evaluated as tools for rapid predictive screening of the potential genotoxicity of nanosilver. Recently, we reported the genotoxicity of 20 nm nanosilver using these systems. In the current study presented here, we tested the hypothesis that the nanoparticle size and cell types were critical determinants of its genotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, we used the FCMN assay to evaluate the genotoxic potential of 50 nm nanosilver of the same shape, composition, surface charge and obtained from the same commercial source using the same experimental conditions and in vitro models (HepG2 and Caco2) as previously tested for the 20 nm silver. Results of our study show that up to the concentrations tested in these cultured cell test systems, the smaller (20 nm) nanoparticle is genotoxic to both the cell types by inducing micronucleus (MN). However, the larger (50 nm) nanosilver induces MN only in HepG2 cells, but not in Caco2 cells. Also in this study, we evaluated the contribution of ionic silver to the genotoxic potential of nanosilver using silver acetate as the representative ionic silver. The MN frequencies in HepG2 and Caco2 cells exposed to the ionic silver in the concentration range tested are not statistically significant from the control values except at the top concentrations for both the cell types. Therefore, our results indicate that the ionic silver may not contribute to the MN-forming ability of nanosilver in HepG2 and Caco2 cells. Also our results suggest that the HepG2 and Caco2 cell cultures and the FCMN assay are useful tools for rapid predictive screening of a genotoxic potential of food- and cosmetics-related chemicals including nanosilver.

  14. Increased oxidative stress and cytotoxicity by hydrogen sulfide in HepG2 cells overexpressing cytochrome P450 2E1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Andres A; Thompson, Sarah; Tackett, Jonathan

    2011-12-01

    The main objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of hydrogen sulfide on oxidative stress and cytotoxicity parameters in HepG2 cells and to assess the extent to which cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity modulates the effects of hydrogen sulfide on oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) caused time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in both non-P450-expressing HepG2 cells (C34 cells) and CYP2E1-overexpressing HepG2 cells (E47 cells); however, NaHS-dependent cytotoxicity was higher in E47 than C34 cells. Cytotoxicity by NaHS in C34 and E47 cells was mainly necrotic in nature and associated with an early decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. NaHS caused increased oxidation of lipophilic (C11-BODIPY(581/591)) and hydrophilic (DCFH-DA) probes only in E47 cells, at a time point prior to overt cytotoxicity. Trolox, an amphipathic antioxidant, partially inhibited both the cytotoxicity and the increased oxidative stress detected in E47 cells exposed to NaHS. Cell-permeable iron chelators and CYP2E1 inhibitors significantly inhibited the oxidation of C11-BODIPY(581/591) in E47 cells in the presence of NaHS. NaHS produced lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity in E47 cells supplemented with a representative polyunsaturated fatty acid (docosahexaenoic acid) but not in C34 cells; these effects were inhibited by α-tocopherol, a lipophilic antioxidant. These data suggest that CYP2E1 enhances H(2)S-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells through the generation of iron-dependent oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.

  15. A New HPLC-MS Method for Measuring Maslinic Acid and Oleanolic Acid in HT29 and HepG2 Human Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peragón, Juan; Rufino-Palomares, Eva E.; Muñoz-Espada, Irene; Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J.; Lupiáñez, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Maslinic acid (MA) and oleanolic acid (OA), the main triterpenic acids present in olive, have important properties for health and disease prevention. MA selectively inhibits cell proliferation of the HT29 human colon-cancer cell line by inducing selective apoptosis. For measuring the MA and OA concentration inside the cell and in the culture medium, a new HPLC-MS procedure has been developed. With this method, a determination of the amount of MA and OA incorporated into HT29 and HepG2 human cancer-cell lines incubated with different concentrations of MA corresponding to 50% growth inhibitory concentration (IC50), IC50/2, IC50/4, and IC50/8 has been made. The results demonstrate that this method is appropriate for determining the MA and OA concentration in different types of cultured cells and reveals the specific dynamics of entry of MA into HT29 and HepG2 cells. PMID:26370984

  16. Inhibition of protein kinase B by Palmitate in the insulin signaling of HepG2 cells and the preventive effect of Arachidonic acid on insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yanzhi; WAN Xuedong; DUAN Qiuhong; HE Shansu; WANG Ximing

    2007-01-01

    Elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids(FFAs)may contribute to insulin resistance (IR)that is characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus.In this study,we investigated the effects of two fatty acids,palmitate(PA)and arachidonic acid (AA)on glycogenesis under insulin signaling in HepG2cells,a transformed hepatic carcinoma cell line.In the presence of 200 μmol of palmitate,insulin(10-7 mol/L)stimulation of glycogenesis was inhibited,as evidenced by increased glucose in the medium and decreased intracellular glycogen.Wortmannin(WM),a specific inhibitor of PI3K,dramatically decreased the amount of intracellular glycogen in cells without PA incubation.However,glycogen in PA treated cells was not significantly changed by WM,indicating that PA may also act on PI3K.Interestingly,AA restored the effects of WM inhibition on glycogenesis in PA cells.Western blot analysis demonstrated that PA in the absence of WM increased phosphorylated glycogen synthase(inactive form of GS)and decreased phosphorylated protein kinase B(active form of PKB),causing a reduction of intracellular glycogen.AA,however,reversed the effects of PA on GS and PKB.Furthermore,inhibition of protein kinase C(PKC)by a specific inhibitor chelerythrine chloride (CC)abolished the inhibitory efrect of PA on glycogen synthesis by decreasing phosphorylated GS and increasing phosphorylated PKB.However,the effect of CC in the presence of PA disappeared when AA was also present.Our results suggest that there is a disruption of the insulin signaling pathway between PKB and GS when the cells were exposed to PA,contributing to IR.PA may also interrupt the PKC signaling pathway.In contrast,AA could rescue glycogenesis impaired by PA.

  17. Cytotoxicity of Triterpenes from Green Walnut Husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim in HepG-2 Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Bingyou; Liu, Zhaoxi; Jiang, Yanqiu; Liu, Yuxin; Fu, Lei; Wang, Xiaoli; Kuang, Haixue

    2015-01-01

    Among the classes of identified natural products, triterpenoids, one of the largest families, have been studied extensively for their diverse structures and variety of biological activities, including antitumor effects. In the present study, a phytochemical study of the green walnut husks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim led to the isolation of a new dammarane triterpene, 12β, 20(R), 24(R)-trihydroxydammar-25-en-3-one (6), together with sixteen known compounds, chiefly from chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts. According to their structural characteristics, these compounds were divided into dammarane-type, oleanane- and ursane-type. Dammarane-type triterpenoids were isolated for the first time from the Juglans genus. As part of our continuing search for biologically active compounds from this plant, all of these compounds were also evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the growth of human cancer cells lines HepG-2 by the MTT assay. The results were shown that 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid and 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid exhibited better cytotoxicity in vitro with IC50 values of 10.32±1.13, 16.13±3.83, 15.97±2.47 μM, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds were discussed.

  18. Anti-hepatocarcinoma Effects of a Food Additive Resveratrol Nanosuspension Against Human HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Qiong Luo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Resveratrol (Res, a major symbol ingredient in red grapes and peanuts, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Res-nanosuspension (Res-NS composed of Res and poloxamer 188 was prepared by high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of Res-NS relative to efficacy of bulk Res were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Res-NS were 159.4 nm and -2.1 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Res-NS effectively inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells and the corresponding IC50 values of Res-NS and bulk Res were 2.91 and 7.13 &mug/mL. These results suggest that the delivery of Res-NS is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  19. Anti-Hepatocarcinoma Effects of a Food Additive Resveratrol Nanosuspension against Human HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Qiong Luo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Resveratrol (Res, a major symbol ingredient in red grapes and peanuts, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Res-nanosuspension (Res-NS composed of Res and poloxamer 188 was prepared by high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of Res-NS relative to efficacy of bulk Res were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Res-NS were 159.4 nm and -22.1 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Res-NS effectively inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells and the corresponding IC50 values of Res-NS and bulk Res were 2.91 and 7.13 &mug/mL. These results suggest that the delivery of Res-NS is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  20. Anti-hepatocarcinoma Effects of a Food Additive Chrysin Nanosuspension against Human HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-ping Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Chrysin (Chr, a major symbol ingredient in Chinese Propolis, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Chr-Nanosuspension (Chr-NS composed of Chr and poloxamer 188 was prepared by high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of Chr-NS relative to efficacy of bulk Chr were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Chr-NS were 291.1 nm and -28.7 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Chr-NS effectively inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells and the corresponding IC50 values of Chr-NS and bulk Chr were 1.55 and 3.76 &mug/mL. These results suggest that the delivery of Chr-NS is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  1. Gene expression profiles in human HepG2 cells treated with extracts of the Tamarindus indica fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nurhanani; Aziz, Azlina A; Junit, Sarni M

    2010-12-01

    Tamarindus indicaL. (T. indica) or locally known as asam jawa belongs to the family of Leguminosae. The fruit pulp had been reported to have antioxidant activities and possess hypolipidaemic effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the gene expression patterns in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line in response to treatment with low concentration of the fruit pulp extracts. Microarray analysis using Affymetrix Human Genome 1.0 S.T arrays was used in the study. Microarray data were validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Amongst the significantly up-regulated genes were those that code for the metallothioneins (MT1M, MT1F, MT1X) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTA1, GSTA2, GST02) that are involved in stress response. APOA4, APOA5, ABCG5 and MTTP genes were also significantly regulated that could be linked to hypolipidaemic activities of the T. indica fruit pulp.

  2. Palmitic acid suppresses apolipoprotein M gene expression via the pathway of PPARβ/δ in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guanghua; Shi, Yuanping; Zhang, Jun; Mu, Qinfeng; Qin, Li; Zheng, Lu; Feng, Yuehua; Berggren-Söderlund, Maria; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter; Zhang, Xiaoying; Xu, Ning

    2014-02-28

    It has been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (APOM) is a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which could be related to the anti-atherosclerotic property of HDL. Investigation of regulation of APOM expression is of important for further exploring its pathophysiological function in vivo. Our previous studies indicated that expression of APOM could be regulated by platelet activating factor (PAF), transforming growth factors (TGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), leptin, hyperglycemia and etc., in vivo and/or in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid could significantly inhibit APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. Further study indicated neither PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 nor protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GFX could abolish palmitic acid induced down-regulation of APOM expression. In contrast, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ) antagonist GSK3787 could totally reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression, which clearly demonstrates that down-regulation of APOM expression induced by palmitic acid is mediated via the PPARβ/δ pathway.

  3. Pyrroloquinoline quinone increases the expression and activity of Sirt1 and -3 genes in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Meruvu, Sunitha; Bedi, Yudhishtar Singh; Chau, Jason; Arguelles, Andrix; Rucker, Robert; Choudhury, Mahua

    2015-09-01

    Sirtuin (Sirt) 1 and Sirt 3 are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ((+))-dependent protein deacetylases that are important to a number of mitochondrial-related functions; thus, identification of sirtuin activators is important. Herein, we hypothesize that pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) can act as a Sirt1/Sirt3 activator. In HepG2 cell cultures, PQQ increased the expression of Sirt1 and Sirt3 gene, protein, and activity levels (P < .05). We also observed a significant increase in nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase gene expression (as early as 18 hours) and increased NAD(+) activity at 24 hours. In addition, targets of Sirt1 and Sirt3 (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and 2, and mitochondrial transcription factor A) were increased at 48 hours. This is the first report that demonstrates PQQ as an activator of Sirt1 and Sirt3 expression and activity, making it an attractive therapeutic agent for the treatment of metabolic diseases and for healthy aging. Based on our study and the available data in vivo, PQQ has the potential to serve as a therapeutic nutraceutical, when enhancing mitochondrial function.

  4. Gomisin A alters substrate interaction and reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in HepG2-DR cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chi-Keung; Zhu, Guo-Yuan; Shen, Xiao-Ling; Chattopadhyay, Apurba; Dey, Saibal; Fong, Wang-Fun

    2006-09-28

    Through an extensive herbal drug screening program, we found that gomisin A, a dibenzocyclooctadiene compound isolated from Schisandra chinensis, reversed multidrug resistance (MDR) in Pgp-overexpressing HepG2-DR cells. Gomisin A was relatively non-toxic but without altering Pgp expression, it restored the cytotoxic actions of anticancer drugs such as vinblastine and doxorubicin that are Pgp substrates but may act by different mechanisms. Several lines of evidence suggest that gomisin A alters Pgp-substrate interaction but itself is neither a Pgp substrate nor competitive inhibitor. (1) First unlike Pgp substrates gomisin A inhibited the basal Pgp-associated ATPase (Pgp-ATPase) activity. (2) The cytotoxicity of gomisin A was not affected by Pgp competitive inhibitors such as verapamil. (3) Gomisin A acted as an uncompetitive inhibitor for Pgp-ATPase activity stimulated by the transport substrates verapamil and progesterone. (4) On the inhibition of rhodamine-123 efflux the effects of gomisin A and the competitive inhibitor verapamil were additive, so were the effects of gomisin A and the ATPase inhibitor vanadate. (5) Binding of transport substrates with Pgp would result in a Pgp conformational change favoring UIC-2 antibody reactivity but gomisin A impeded UIC-2 binding. (6) Photocrosslinking of Pgp with its transport substrate [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin was inhibited by gomisin A in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together our results suggest that gomisin A may bind to Pgp simultaneously with substrates and alters Pgp-substrate interaction.

  5. Inhibitory effects of Citrus flavonoids on starch digestion and antihyperglycemic effects in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Xu, Ying; Lu, Yan-Hua

    2012-09-26

    Flavonoids are a class of important bioactive natural products and are being extensively used in functional foods. In the present study, the effects of four Citrus flavonoids (i.e., hesperidin, naringin, neohesperidin, and nobiletin) on amylase-catalyzed starch digestion, major digestive enzyme activities (e.g., pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase), and glucose use in HepG2 cells were investigated. The results showed that all of the tested Citrus flavonoids significantly inhibited amylase-catalyzed starch digestion. Moreover, naringin and neohesperidin mainly inhibited amylose digestion, whereas hesperidin and nobiletin inhibited both amylose and amylopectin digestion. However, these flavonoids showed weak inhibitory activities against digestive enzymes. Furthermore, glucose consumption, glycogen concentration, and glucokinase activity were significantly elevated, and glucose-6-phosphatase activity was markedly decreased by Citrus flavonoids. These results demonstrate that Citrus flavonoids play important roles in preventing the progression of hyperglycemia, partly by binding to starch, increasing hepatic glycolysis and the glycogen concentration, and lowering hepatic gluconeogenesis. This work suggests that Citrus flavonoids might be potentially used for the prevention of postprandial hyperglycemia.

  6. A novel anti-alpha-fetoprotein single-chain variable fragment displays anti-tumor effects in HepG2 cells as a single agent or in combination with paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaonan; Shen, Yanli; Sun, Hao; Gao, Xiangdong

    2016-08-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high rate of tumor recurrence and metastasis, resulting in shortened survival time. The function of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as a regulatory factor in the growth of HCC cells has been well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a novel AFP-specific single-chain variable fragment that blocked AFP and inhibited HCC cell growth. The results indicated that the anti-AFP single-chain variable fragment (scFv) induced growth inhibition of AFP-expressing HCC cell lines in vitro through induction of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The mechanism of apoptosis probably involved with blocking AFP internalization and regulation of the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling network. Moreover, the anti-AFP-scFv also effectively sensitized the HepG2 cells to paclitaxel (PTX) at a lower concentration. The combination effect of PTX and anti-AFP-scFv displayed a synergistic effect on HepG2 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that targeting AFP by specific antibodies has potential immunotherapeutic efficacy in human HCC.

  7. Comparative effects of food-derived polyphenols on the viability and apoptosis of a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sonia; Alía, Mario; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2005-02-23

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables, which are rich in polyphenols, has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer. Dietary polyphenols have antioxidant and antiproliferative properties that might explain their beneficial effect on cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different pure polyphenols [quercetin, chlorogenic acid, and (-)-epicatechin] and natural fruit extracts (strawberry and plum) on viability or apoptosis of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The treatment of cells for 18 h with quercetin and fruit extracts reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner; however, chlorogenic acid and (-)-epicatechin had no prominent effects on the cell death rate. Similarly, quercetin and strawberry and plum extracts, rather than chlorogenic acid and (-)-epicatechin, induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Moreover, quercetin and fruit extracts arrested the G1 phase in the cell cycle progression prior to apoptosis. Quercetin and strawberry and plum extracts may induce apoptosis and contribute to a reduced cell viability in HepG2 cells.

  8. Cytotoxic effects of the synthetic oestrogens and androgens on Balb/c 3T3 and HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minta Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test and compare the cytotoxic potential of two synthetic oestrogens: diethylstilboestrol (DES and ethinyloestradiol (EE2 and two androgens: testosterone propionate (TP and trenbolone (TREN on two cell lines. The fibroblast cell line Balb/c 3T3 and the hepatoma cell line HepG2 were selected. To get more insight into the mode of toxic action, four methods were used, which evaluated different biochemical endpoints: mitochondrial activity (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay, lysosomal activity (neutral red uptake assay, total protein content, and lactate dehydrogenase release. Cytotoxicity was assessed after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure to eight concentrations ranging from 0.78 to 100 μg/mL. Concentration- and time- dependent effects were observed. Depending on the line and assay used, half maximal effective concentration after 72 h (EC50-72h values ranged as follows: DES 1-13.7 μg/mL (Balb/c 3T3 and 3.7-5.2 μg/mL (HepG2; EE2 2.1-14.3 μg/mL (Balb/c 3T3 and 1.8-7.8 μg/mL (HepG2; TP-14.9-17.5 μg/mL (Balb/c 3T3, and 63.9- 100 μg/mL (HepG2; and TREN 11.3-31.4 μg/mL (Balb/c 3T3 and 12.5-59.4 μg/mL (HepG2. The results revealed that oestrogens were more toxic than androgens and the most affected endpoint was mitochondrial activity. In contrast to oestrogens, for which EC50-72h values were similar in both lines and by all assays used, Balb/c 3T3 cells were more sensitive than HepG2 cells to TP.

  9. Identification of Target Genes Involved in the Antiproliferative Effect of Enzyme-Modified Ginseng Extract in HepG2 Hepatocarcinoma Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Il Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenosides are ginseng saponins, which are the major biologically active components of Panax ginseng, often metabolized by intestinal bacteria into more effective forms. In this study, we found that the antiproliferative activity of ginseng increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], >30 μg/mL, which may be the result of the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh1, Rg3, compound K, and PPT constituents in ginseng saponin. Using the Agilent PrimeView Human Gene Expression Array, we found that the expression of several genes involved in apoptosis (caspase-4, Annexin A2, HSPA9, AIFM1, UQCRC2, and caspase-7 were increased in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells after their treatment with enzyme-modified ginseng extract (EMGE. Furthermore, several genes implicated in cell cycle progression (CDCA3, CDCA8, CABLES2, CDC25B, CNNM3, and CCNK showed decreased expression in HepG2 cells treated with EMGE. Finally, from flow cytometric analysis, we found that EMGE-treated HepG2 cells showed increased apoptotic sub-G1 population (24%, compared with that observed in DMSO-treated control cells (1.6%. Taken together, our results suggest that EMGE induces anticancer activity through the induction of apoptosis-related genes and cell cycle arrest via decreased expression of cell cycle regulatory genes.

  10. Phytoestrogens Activate the Estrogen Receptor in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lynne A

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are popular alternatives to estrogen therapy however their effects on hemostasis in postmenopausal women are unknown. This chapter describes a protocol to determine the effect of the phytoestrogens genistein, daidzein and equol, on the expression of key genes from the hemostatic system in human hepatocyte cell models and to determine the role of estrogen receptors in mediating any response seen using in vitro culture systems and Taqman(®) gene expression analysis.

  11. Curdlan sulphate modulates protein synthesis and enhances NF-κB and C/EBP binding activity in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guzdek

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In human hepatoma HepG2 cell line curdlan sulphate enhances basal and interleukin-6-stimulated fibrinogen and antichymotrypsin (ACT synthesis, slightly increases basal ceruloplasmin production and exerts only minor effects on alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor and transferrin. Curdlan sulphate may, at least in part, affect protein synthesis at a pretranslational level, as the expression of ACT mRNA was found to be increased, whereas intracellular enzyme, manganese superoxide dismutase mRNA level was decreased in the cell culture treated with curdlan sulphate. Gel mobility shift analysis revealed that curdlan sulphate increases the DNA binding activity of NF-κB and C/EBP, suggesting that these transcription factors may participate in the regulatory effects of curdlan sulphate in HepG2 cells.

  12. Camel milk triggers apoptotic signaling pathways in human hepatoma HepG2 and breast cancer MCF7 cell lines through transcriptional mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korashy, Hesham M; Maayah, Zaid H; Abd-Allah, Adel R; El-Kadi, Ayman O S; Alhaider, Abdulqader A

    2012-01-01

    Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2) and human breast (MCF7) cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  13. Camel Milk Triggers Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Human Hepatoma HepG2 and Breast Cancer MCF7 Cell Lines through Transcriptional Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Korashy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2 and human breast (MCF7 cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  14. Heat-modified citrus pectin induces apoptosis-like cell death and autophagy in HepG2 and A549 cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Leclere

    Full Text Available Cancer is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and finding new treatments remains a major challenge. Previous studies showed that modified forms of pectin, a complex polysaccharide present in the primary plant cell wall, possess anticancer properties. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of modified pectin and the pathways involved are unclear. Here, we show that citrus pectin modified by heat treatment induced cell death in HepG2 and A549 cells. The induced cell death differs from classical apoptosis because no DNA cleavage was observed. In addition, Z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, did not influence the observed cell death in HepG2 cells but appeared to be partly protective in A549 cells, indicating that heat-modified citrus pectin might induce caspase-independent cell death. An increase in the abundance of the phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated Light Chain 3 (LC3 protein and a decrease in p62 protein abundance were observed in both cell types when incubated in the presence of heat-modified citrus pectin. These results indicate the activation of autophagy. To our knowledge, this is the first time that autophagy has been revealed in cells incubated in the presence of a modified form of pectin. This autophagy activation appears to be protective, at least for A549 cells, because its inhibition with 3-methyladenine increased the observed modified pectin-induced cytotoxicity. This study confirms the potential of modified pectin to improve chemotherapeutic cancer treatments.

  15. Nanosilica induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity and cell type-dependent multinucleation in HepG2 and L-02 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongbo; Duan, Junchao; Li, Yang; Yu, Yang; Hu, Hejing; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Yannan; Li, Yanbo; CaixiaGuo; Zhou, Xianqing; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-11-01

    The prevalent exposure to nanosilica gained concerns about health effects of these particles on human beings. Although nanosilica-induced multinucleation has been confirmed previously, the underlying mechanism was still not clear; this study was to investigate the origination of multinucleated cells caused by nanosilica (62 nm) in both HepG2 and L-02 cells. Cell viability and cellular uptake was determined by MTT assay and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. Giemsa staining was applied to detect multinucleation. To clarify the origination of multinucleated cells, fluorescent probes, PKH26 and PKH67, time-lapse observation were further conducted by confocal microscopy. Results indicated that nanosilica particles were internalized into cells and induced cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Quantification analysis showed that nanosilica significantly increased the rates of binucleated and multinucleated cells, which suggested mitotic catastrophe induction. Moreover, dynamic visualization verified that multinucleation resulted from cell fusion in HepG2 cells not in L-02 cells after nanosilica exposure, suggesting cell type-dependent multinucleation formation. Both multinucleation and cell fusion were involved in genetic instability, which emphasized the significance to explore the multinucleation induced by nanosilica via environmental, occupational and consumer product exposure.

  16. Differential action of 13-HPODE on PPARalpha downstream genes in rat Fao and human HepG2 hepatoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Bettina; Eder, Klaus

    2006-06-01

    In rats, oxidized fats activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), leading to reduced triglyceride concentrations in liver, plasma and very low density lipoproteins. Oxidation products of linoleic acid constitute an important portion of oxidized dietary fats. This study was conducted to check whether the primary lipid peroxidation product of linoleic acid, 13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), might be involved in the PPARalpha-activating effect of oxidized fats. Therefore, we examined the effect of 13-HPODE on the expression of PPARalpha target genes in the rat Fao and the human HepG2 hepatoma cell lines. In Fao cells, 13-HPODE increased the mRNA concentration of the PPARalpha target genes acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), cytochrome P450 4A1 and carnitine-palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A). Furthermore, the concentration of cellular and secreted triglycerides was reduced in Fao cells treated with 13-HPODE. Because PPARalpha mRNA was not influenced, we conclude that these effects are due to an activation of PPARalpha by 13-HPODE. In contrast, HepG2 cells seemed to be resistant to PPARalpha activation by 13-HPODE because no remarkable induction of the PPARalpha target genes ACO, CPT1A, mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase and delta9-desaturase was observed. Consequently, cellular and secreted triglyceride levels were not changed after incubation of HepG2 cells with 13-HPODE. In conclusion, this study shows that 13-HPODE activates PPARalpha in rat Fao but not in human HepG2 hepatoma cells.

  17. Protection of HepG2 cells against acrolein toxicity by 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide via glutathione-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Halley; Speen, Adam M; Saunders, Christina; Brooke, Elizabeth A S; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Zhu, Hong; Li, Y Robert; Jia, Zhenquan

    2015-10-01

    Acrolein is an environmental toxicant, mainly found in smoke released from incomplete combustion of organic matter. Several studies showed that exposure to acrolein can lead to liver damage. The mechanisms involved in acrolein-induced hepatocellular toxicity, however, are not completely understood. This study examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of acrolein on HepG2 cells. Acrolein at pathophysiological concentrations was shown to cause apoptotic cell death and an increase in levels of protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive acid substances. Acrolein also rapidly depleted intracellular glutathione (GSH), GSH-linked glutathione-S-transferases, and aldose reductase, three critical cellular defenses that detoxify reactive aldehydes. Results further showed that depletion of cellular GSH by acrolein preceded the loss of cell viability. To further determine the role of cellular GSH in acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was used to inhibit cellular GSH biosynthesis. It was observed that depletion of cellular GSH by BSO led to a marked potentiation of acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. To further assess the contribution of these events to acrolein-induced cytotoxicity, triterpenoid compound 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) was used for induction of GSH. Induction of GSH by CDDO-Im afforded cytoprotection against acrolein toxicity in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, BSO significantly inhibited CDDO-Im-mediated induction in cellular GSH levels and also reversed cytoprotective effects of CDDO-Im in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that GSH is a predominant mechanism underlying acrolein-induced cytotoxicity as well as CDDO-Im-mediated cytoprotection. This study may provide understanding on the molecular action of acrolein which may be important to develop novel strategies for the prevention of acrolein-mediated toxicity.

  18. Synthetic peptides from two Pf sporozoite invasion-associated proteins specifically interact with HeLa and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Pinzón, Gabriela; Curtidor, Hernando; Muñoz, Marina; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2011-09-01

    Two recently described molecules have been associated with sporozoite traversal ability and hepatocyte entry: sporozoite invasion-associated proteins (SIAP)-1 and -2. The HeLa and HepG2 cell binding ability of synthetic peptides spanning the whole SIAP-1 and -2 sequences has been studied in the search for identifying these proteins' functionally active specific regions. Twelve HepG-2 and seventeen HeLa cell high-activity binding peptides (HABPs) have been identified in SIAP-1, 8 of them having high specific binding affinity for both cell lines. Four HepG2 HABPs and two HeLa HABPs have been identified in SIAP-2, one of them interacting with both HeLa and HepG2 cells. SIAP-1 and SIAP-2 HABPs bound specifically and saturably to heparin sulfate and chondroitin sulfate-type membrane receptors on host cells. Circular dichroism assays have shown high α-helix content in SIAP-1 and SIAP-2 HABP secondary structure. Immunofluorescence analysis has revealed that specific peptides against SIAP proteins are highly immunogenic in mice and that anti-SIAP-1 and -2 antibodies recognize the native protein in Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Polymorphism studies have shown that a most SIAP-1 and -2 HABPs are conserved among P. falciparum strains. Our results have suggested that SIAP-1 and -2 participate in host-pathogen interactions during cell-traversal and hepatocyte invasion and highlighted the relevance of the ongoing identification and study of potentially new molecules when designing a fully protective antimalarial vaccine.

  19. Nrf2 is crucial for the down-regulation of Cyp7a1 induced by arachidonic acid in Hepg2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wang, Xing-He; Hao, Li-Hong; Wang, He; Zhang, Xiu-Ying; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Qi, Yue; Li, Guang-Liang; Sun, Xiao-Qi

    2017-03-07

    In former research, cyp7a1 expression was decreased but Nrf2 transcription and hepatic arachidonic acid (AA) concentration were increased in high-fat diet fed mice. This study aims to investigate the influence of AA in CYP7A1 expression and the role of Nrf2 in regulating CYP7A1 in the process. HepG2 cells were administered with different concentrations of AA. Nrf2 and CYP7A1 expressions were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. Nrf2 silenced and over-expressed cell models were constructed by Nrf2 siRNA and eukaryotic expression vector transient transfections and were used to investigate the role of Nrf2 in regulating CYP7A1 following AA administration. The results showed that Nrf2 was increased dose-dependently but CYP7A1 was decreased dose-dependently in cells treated with increasing concentrations of AA. The expression of CYP7A1 was increased by Nrf2 silence and was decreased by Nrf2 over-expression in HepG2 cells treated with different concentrations of AA. In conclusion, Nrf2 plays a significant role in the down-regulation of CYP7A1 induced by AA in HepG2 cells.

  20. Response of the antioxidant defense system to tert-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alía, Mario; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the response of the antioxidant defense system to two oxidative stressors, hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, in HepG2 cells in culture. The parameters evaluated included enzyme activity and gene expression of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and activity of glutathione reductase. Besides, markers of the cell damage and oxidative stress evoked by the stressors such as cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, malondialdehyde levels, and reduced glutathione concentration were evaluated. Both stressors, hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, enhanced cell damage and reactive oxygen species generation at doses above 50 microM. The concentration of reduced glutathione decreased, and levels of malondialdehyde and activity of the antioxidant enzymes consistently increased only when HepG2 cells were treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide but not when hydrogen peroxide was used. A slight increase in the gene expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase with 500 microM tert-butyl hydroperoxide and of catalase with 200 microM hydrogen peroxide was observed. The response of the components of the antioxidant defense system evaluated in this study indicates that tert-butyl hydroperoxide evokes a consistent cellular stress in HepG2.

  1. Induction of apoptosis by pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hull extract and its molecular mechanisms of action in human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalizadeh, J; Bagheri, V; Khorramdelazad, H; Kazemi Arababadi, M; Jafarzadeh, A; Mirzaei, M R; Shamsizadeh, A; Hajizadeh, M R

    2015-11-30

    Several important Pistacia species such as P. vera have been traditionally used for treating a wide range of diseases (for instance, liver-related disorders). There is a relative lack of research into pharmacological aspects of pistachio hull. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating whether pistachio rosy hull (PRH) extract exerts apoptotic impacts on HepG2 liver cancer cell line. In order to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis in response to treatment with the extract, MTT assay and Annexin-V-fluorescein/propidium iodide (PI) double staining were performed, respectively. Moreover, molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by the extract was determined using human apoptosis PCR array. Our findings showed that PRH extract treatment reduced cell viability (IC50 ~ 0.3 mg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract significantly induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. In addition, quantitative PCR array results demonstrated the regulation of a considerable number of apoptosis-related genes belonging to the TNF, BCL2, IAP, TRAF, and caspase families. We observed altered expression of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes associated with the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of PRH possesses apoptotic activity through cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects on HepG2 cells.

  2. Combination of small interfering RNAs mediates greater suppression on hepatitis B virus cccDNA in HepG2.2.15 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Min Xin; Gui-Qiu U; Ying-Yu Jin; Min Zhuang; Di Li

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To observe the inhibition of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and expression in HepG2.2.15 cells by combination of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs).METHODS: Recombinant plasmid psil-HBV was constructed and transfected into HepG2.2.15 cells.At 48 h,72 h and 96 h after transfection,culture media were collected and cells were harvested for HBV replication assay.HBsAg and HBeAg in the cell culture medium were detected by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA).Intracellular viral DNA and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA)were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).HBV viral mRNA was reverse transcribed and quantified by reverse-transcript PCR (RT-PCR).RESULTS: siRNAs showed marked anti-HBV effects.siRNAs could specifically inhibit the expression of HBsAg and the replication of HBV DNA in a dosedependent manner.Furthermore,combination of siRNAs,compared with individual use of each siRNA,exerted a stronger inhibition on antigen expression and viral replication.More importantly,combination of siRNAs significantly suppressed HBV cccDNA amplification.CONCLUSION: Combination of siRNAs mediates a stronger inhibition on viral replication and antigen expression in HepG2.2.15 cells,especially on cccDNA amplification.

  3. Distribution of mitochondrial nucleoids upon mitochondrial network fragmentation and network reintegration in HEPG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Jan; Dlasková, Andrea; Šantorová, Jitka; Smolková, Katarína; Alán, Lukáš; Špaček, Tomáš; Plecitá-Hlavatá, Lydie; Jabůrek, Martin; Ježek, Petr

    2013-03-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is organized in nucleoids in complex with accessory proteins, proteins of mtDNA replication and gene expression machinery. A robust mtDNA genome is represented by hundreds to thousands of nucleoids in cell mitochondrion. Detailed information is lacking about the dynamics of nucleoid distribution within the mitochondrial network upon physiological and pathological events. Therefore, we used confocal microscopy to study mitochondrial nucleoid redistribution upon mitochondrial fission and following reintegration of the mitochondrial network. Fission was induced by oxidative stress at respiration inhibition by rotenone or upon elimination of the protonmotive force by uncoupling or upon canceling its electrical component, ΔΨ(m), by valinomycin; and by silencing of mitofusin MFN2. Agent withdrawal resulted in concomitant mitochondrial network reintegration. We found two major principal morphological states: (i) a tubular state of the mitochondrial network with equidistant nucleoid spacing, 1.10±0.2 nucleoids per μm, and (ii) a fragmented state of solitary spheroid objects in which several nucleoids were clustered. We rarely observed singular mitochondrial fragments with a single nucleoid inside and very seldom we observed empty fragments. Reintegration of fragments into the mitochondrial network re-established the tubular state with equidistant nucleoid spacing. The two major morphological states coexisted at intermediate stages. These observations suggest that both mitochondrial network fission and reconnection of the disintegrated network are nucleoid-centric, i.e., fission and new mitochondrial tubule formation are initiated around nucleoids. Analyses of combinations of these morphological icons thus provide a basis for a future mitochondrial morphology diagnostics.

  4. Oroxylin A reverses CAM-DR of HepG2 cells by suppressing Integrinβ1 and its related pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Binbin; Zhao, Li; Zhu, Litao; Wang, Hu; Sha, Yunying; Yao, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Intervention, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Zhiyu [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); You, Qidong, E-mail: youqidong@gmail.com [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Guo, Qinglong, E-mail: anticancer_drug@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Intervention, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Oroxylin A, a naturally occurring monoflavonoid extracted from Scutellariae radix, shows effective anticancer activities and low toxicities both in vivo and in vitro in previous studies. In this study, we investigated whether the CAM-DR model of HepG2 cells showed resistance to cytotoxic agents compared with normally cultured HepG2 cells. Furthermore, after the treatment of Paclitaxel, less inhibitory effects and decreased apoptosis rate were detected in the model. Data also revealed increased expression of Integrinβ1 might be responsible for the resistance ability. Moreover, Integrinβ1-siRNA-transfected CAM-DR HepG2 cells exhibited more inhibitory effects and higher levels of apoptosis than the non-transfected CAM-DR cells. The data corroborated that Integrinβ1 played a significant role in CAM-DR. After the treatment of weakly-toxic concentrations of Oroxylin A, the apoptosis induced by Paclitaxel in the CAM-DR model increased dramatically. Western blot assay revealed Oroxylin A markedly down-regulated the expression of Integrinβ1 and the activity of related pathway. As a conclusion, Oroxylin A can reverse the resistance of CAM-DR via inhibition of Integrinβ1 and its related pathway. Oroxylin A may be a potential candidate of a CAM-DR reversal agent. Highlights: ► Adhesion of HepG2 cells to fibronectin exhibited resistance to Paclitaxel. ► The resistance was associated with the increased expression of Integrinβ1. ► Knocking down Integrinβ1 can increase the toxicity of Paclitaxel on CAM-DR model. ► Oroxylin A reversed the resistance by suppressing Integrinβ1 and related pathway.

  5. Betalain and betaine composition of greenhouse- or field-produced beetroot ( Beta vulgaris L.) and inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; An, Dami; Nguyen, Chau T T; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Kim, Jeongyun; Yoo, Kil Sun

    2014-02-12

    The composition of betalain, red or yellow pigments, and betaine (trimethylglycine or glycinebetaine) of nine beetroot ( Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars produced in the greenhouse or field was studied. Inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation by betanin and betaine was also tested. Four predominant betalains, two betacyanins (betanin and isobetanin) and two betaxanthins (vulgaxanthin I and miraxanthin V), were isolated and quantified. Betanin and vulgaxanthin I were the major compounds in red and yellow beetroot extracts, respectively, and they comprised >90% of the betalain content in the tested cultivars. The total betalain content of beetroots produced from the field was between 650 and 800 μg/g fresh weight, approximately 25% higher than those from the greenhouse. The betaine content of the beetroot grown in the field was between 3.0 and 4.8 mg/g fresh weight, approximately 20% higher than in plants from the greenhouse. There was great variation among the cultivars with respect to their contents of betalains and betaine. In vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay on HepG2 cells after exposure to betanin and betaine at concentrations ranging from 0 to 400 μg/mL and from 0 to 800 μg/mL for 48 h, respectively. Betanin resulted in a 49% inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation at 200 μg/mL, and betaine yielded a 25% inhibition at 800 μg/mL, implying a higher cytotoxicity of betanin compared with betaine. The results indicated that the contents of health-beneficial compounds in beetroots, betalains and betaine, could be increased by modifying the growing conditions and that betanin and betaine extracted from beetroots had some anticancer effects against HepG2 cells.

  6. A study of Nigella sativa induced growth inhibition of MCF and HepG2 cell lines: An anti-neoplastic study along with its mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Padmanabha Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anticancer potential of seeds of Nigella sativa using MCF and HepG2 cell lines along with its mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide nuclear staining technique were selected to evaluate anticancer potential and mechanism of action of test extract. Results: Aqueous extract of N.sativa at a test dose of 180 mg and 300 mg was identified to be the best as anticancer agent against MCF and HepG2 cell lines among different solvent test extract where doxorubicin and cisplatin were employed as standard references. Discussion: Further study including separation and characterization of active principles in the aqueous extract shall prove beneficial.

  7. Inhibition of NF-κB transcriptional activation in HepG2 cells by diterpenoids from the soft coral Sinularia maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Tai, Bui Huu; Kim, Ji Eun; Song, Seok Bean; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-06-01

    Anti-inflammatory transcriptional effects of nineteen compounds (1-19) from the soft coral Sinularia maxima were evaluated using NF-κB luciferase and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, 17, and 18 significantly inhibited TNFα-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values ranging from 15.81 ± 2.29 to 29.10 ± 1.54 μM. Furthermore, the transcriptional inhibitory function of these compounds was confirmed by a decrease in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression levels in HepG2 cells. These results provide a scientific rationale for the use of the soft coral S. maxima warrant further studies to develop new agents for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory.

  8. Saikosaponin A, an active glycoside from Radix bupleuri, reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells and HepG2/ADM cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rui-Ping; Chen, Zhen-Dong

    2017-02-01

    1. The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR). Saikosaponin A (SSA) is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Radix Bupleuri. This study was mainly designed to understand effects of SSA on MDR in MCF-7/ADR and HepG2/ADM cells. 2. MDR reversal was examined as the alteration of cytotoxic drugs IC50 in resistant cells in the presence of SSA by MTT assay, and was compared with the non-resistant cells. Apoptosis and uptake of P-gp substrates in the tumor cells were detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was performed to assay the expression of P-gp. 3. Our results demonstrate SSA could increase the chemosensitivity of P-gp overexpressing HepG2/ADM and MCF-7/ADR cells to doxorubicin (DOX), vincristine (VCR) and paclitaxel. SSA promoted apoptosis of MCF-7/ADR cells in the presence of DOX. Moreover, it could also increase the retention of P-gp substrates DOX and rhodamine 123 in MCF-7/ADR cells, and decrease digoxin efflux ratio in Caco-2 cell monolayer. Finally, a mechanistic study showed that SSA reduced P-gp expression without affecting hydrolytic activity of P-gp. 4. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SSA could be further developed for sensitizing resistant cancer cells and used as an adjuvant therapy together with anticancer drugs to improve their therapeutic efficacies.

  9. 分泌型PTD4-Apoptin融合蛋白诱导HepG2细胞凋亡%Effect of Secretive PTD4-Apoptin Fusion Protein on Apoptosis of HepG2 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆; 杨辰苏; 陈虎; 陈道达; 龙跃平; 郑海

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of PTD4-Apoptin secreted by human umbilical venous endothelial cellsCHU-VECs)on apoptosis of HepG2 cells and the possible application for hepatocellular carcinoma gene therapy. Methods Recombi-nant plasmid of pSecTag2-PTD4-Apoptin was constructed and identified by restriction enzyme digestion analysis and DNA sequencing. HUVKCs were transiently transfected with pSecTag2-PTD4-Apoptin by lipofectamine and the culture supernatant was collected at 48 h after transfection. The expression and secretion of the PTD4-Apoptin fusion protein were detected by Western blot. HepG2 and L02 cells were co-cultured with the supernatant respectively. At 24 h after culture, the distribution of PTD4-Apoptin fusion protein in cells was detected by Western blot and apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry. Results The PTD4-Apoptin fusion protein secreted by pSecTag2-PTD4-Apoptin-transfected HUVECs could reenter adjacent untrans-fected HepG2 and L02 cells. The PTD4-Apoptin fusion protein could assemble in HepG2 nucleus and induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells(47. 4% ,P<0. 001). This effect was not detected in L02 cells. Conclusion The PTD4-Apoptin fusion protein secreted by pSecTag2-PTD4-Apoptin-transfected HUVECs can induce the apoptosis of adjacent untransfected HepG2 cells but not in L02 cells.%目的 研究分泌型的含蛋白质转导结构域的凋亡素(PTD4-Apoptin)融合基因经人脐静脉血管内皮细胞(HUVEC)表达和分泌后,对人肝癌HepG2细胞凋亡的影响,探讨其用于肝癌治疗的可能性.方法 构建PTD4-Apoptin融合基因的pSecTag2分泌型真核表达载体,并采用脂质体介导将其转染入HUVEC细胞,Western blot检测PTD4-Apoptin融合蛋白的表达及分泌,转染48 h后收集培养上清作为条件培养液,用于HepG2、L02细胞培养,共培养24 h后,采用Western blot检测细胞内和核内Apoptin的含量,流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡.结果 瞬时转染pSecTag2-PTD4-Apoptin

  10. Tamarindus indica extract alters release of alpha enolase, apolipoprotein A-I, transthyretin and Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta from HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Rho Wan Chong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol lowering effects of Tamarindus indica extract have been previously described. We have also shown that the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp altered the expression of lipid-associated genes including ABCG5 and APOAI in HepG2 cells. In the present study, effects of the same extract on the release of proteins from the cells were investigated using the proteomics approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When culture media of HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp were subjected to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the expression of seven proteins was found to be significantly different (p<0.03125. Five of the spots were subsequently identified as alpha enolase (ENO1, transthyretin (TTR, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I; two isoforms, and rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta (GDI-2. A functional network of lipid metabolism, molecular transport and small molecule biochemistry that interconnects the three latter proteins with the interactomes was identified using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp altered the release of ENO1, ApoA-I, TTR and GDI-2 from HepG2 cells. Our results provide support on the effect of T. indica extract on cellular lipid metabolism, particularly that of cholesterol.

  11. Identification of Cellular Targets of MicroRNA-181a in HepG2 Cells: A New Approach for Functional Analysis of MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jane Yi Lin; Habib, Nagy A; Chuah, York Wieo; Yau, Yin Hoe; Geifman-Shochat, Susana; Chen, Wei Ning

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play a part in regulating important cellular processes. They generally perform their regulatory function through their binding with mRNAs, ultimately leading to a repression of target protein expression levels. However, their roles in cellular processes are poorly understood due to the limited understanding of their specific cellular targets. Aberrant levels of miRNAs have been found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) including miR-181a. Using bioinformatics analysis, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1β) and transcriptional factor E2F7 were identified as potential targets of miR-181a. Validation analysis using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed a positive binding between miR-181a and the 3'UTRs of these two potential mRNA targets. In vivo luciferase assay further confirmed the positive miR-181a:mRNA bindings, where a significant decrease in luciferase activity was detected when HepG2 cells were co-transfected with the 3'UTR-containing reporter plasmids and miR-181a. The potential impact of miR-181a binding to its specific targets on the general cellular behavior was further investigated. Results showed that miR-181a significantly activated the MAPK/JNK pathway which regulates cell proliferation, supporting our recently reported findings. Inhibition of miR-181a, on the other hand, abolished the observed activation. Our findings open up a new approach in designing targeted functional analysis of miRNAs in cellular processes, through the identification of their cellular targets.

  12. Metabolomic effects in HepG2 cells exposed to CeO2, SiO2 and CuO nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better assess potential hepatotoxicity of nanomaterials, human liver HepG2 cells were exposed for three days to 5 different CeO2 (either 30 or 100 ug/ml), 3 SiO2 based (30 ug/ml) or 1 CuO (3 ug/ml) nanomaterials with dry primary particle sizes ranging from 15 to 213 nm. Metab...

  13. Lignans from Opuntia ficus-indica seeds protect rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided isolation of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) seeds against ethanol-treated primary rat hepatocytes yielded six lignan compounds. Among the isolates, furofuran lignans 4-6, significantly protected rat hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, preserving antioxidative defense enzyme activities, and maintaining the glutathione content. Moreover, 4 dose-dependently induced the heme oxygenase-1 expression in HepG2 cells.

  14. Isoorientin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Li; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Haifang; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo, E-mail: xueboliu@yahoo.com.cn

    2012-11-15

    Isoorientin (ISO) is a flavonoid compound that can be extracted from several plant species, such as Phyllostachys pubescens, Patrinia, and Drosophyllum lusitanicum; however, its biological activity remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the effects and putative mechanism of apoptosis induced by ISO in human hepatoblastoma cancer (HepG2) cells. The results showed that ISO induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells, but no toxicity in human liver cells (HL-7702) and buffalo rat liver cells (BRL-3A) treated with ISO at the indicated concentrations. ISO-induced cell death included apoptosis which characterized by the appearance of nuclear shrinkage, the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DNA fragmentation. ISO significantly (p < 0.01) increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased the release of cytochrome c, activated caspase-3, and enhanced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In addition, ISO effectively inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and increased FoxO4 expression. The PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 enhanced the apoptosis-inducing effect of ISO. However, LY294002 markedly quenched ROS and NO generation and diminished the protein expression of heme peroxidase enzyme (HO-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Furthermore, the addition of a ROS inhibitor (N-acetyl cysteine, NAC) or iNOS inhibitor (N-[3-(aminomethyl) benzyl] acetamidine, dihydrochloride, 1400W) significantly diminished the apoptosis induced by ISO and also blocked the phosphorylation of Akt. These results demonstrated for the first time that ISO induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells and indicate that this apoptosis might be mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and has no toxicity in normal liver cells, suggesting that ISO may have good potential as a therapeutic and chemopreventive agent for liver cancer. Highlights:

  15. In Vitro Screening for Antihepatic Steatosis Active Components within Coptidis Rhizoma Alkaloids Extract Using Liver Cell Extraction with HPLC Analysis and a Free Fatty Acid-Induced Hepatic Steatosis HepG2 Cell Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hui; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Bei, Wei-Jian; Wang, Lai-You; Chen, Bao-Tian; Guo, Jiao

    2013-01-01

    A high-throughput method was developed and applied to screen for the active antihepatic steatosis components within Coptidis Rhizoma Alkaloids Extract (CAE). This method was a combination of two previously described assays: HepG2 cell extraction with HPLC analysis and a free fatty acid-induced (FFA) hepatic steatosis HepG2 cell assay. Two alkaloids within CAE, berberine and coptisine, were identified by HepG2 cell extraction with HPLC analysis as high affinity components for HepG2. These alkaloids were also determined to be active and potent compounds capable of lowering triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the FFA-induced hepatic steatosis HepG2 cell assay. This remarkable inhibition of TG accumulation (P components from HepG2 cells and a lower inhibition of TG accumulation. The finding of two potent and active compounds within CAE indicates that the screening method we developed is a feasible, rapid, and useful tool for studying traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) in treating hepatic steatosis.

  16. Molecular mechanisms involved in the protective effect of selenocystine against methylmercury-induced cell death in human HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Cuello, Susana; Goya, Luis; Madrid, Yolanda; Bravo, Laura; Cámara, Carmen; Ramos, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been recognized as a very toxic contaminant present in certain foodstuffs that adversely affects health and impairs the normal function of different organs. Experimental studies have shown that selenocompounds play an important role as cellular detoxificant and protective agents against the harmful effects of mercury. The present study examined the potential preventive activities of organic selenocompounds, focused on selenocystine (SeCys), against MeHg-induced toxicity in human HepG2 cells. Combined treatment of SeCys and MeHg protected HepG2 cells against MeHg-induced cell damage, showing this selenocompound a more relevant effect than those of selenium methylselenocysteine and selenium methionine. Co-treatment with SeCys exerted a protective effect against MeHg by restraining ROS generation and glutathione decrease, and through the modulation of antioxidant enzymes activities. In addition, SeCys delayed MeHg-induced apoptosis and prevented extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) deactivation, as well as p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) stimulations in comparison to MeHg-treated cells. ERK, JNK and p38 involvement on the protective effect of SeCys against MeHg-induced cell damage was confirmed by using selective inhibitors. All these results indicate that SeCys protects against MeHg-induced cell damage by modulating the redox status and key proteins related to cell stress and survival/proliferation pathways.

  17. Structure related effects of flavonoid aglycones on cell cycle progression of HepG2 cells: Metabolic activation of fisetin and quercetin by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poór, Miklós; Zrínyi, Zita; Kőszegi, Tamás

    2016-10-01

    Dietary flavonoids are abundant in the Plant Kingdom and they are extensively studied because of their manifold pharmacological activities. Recent studies highlighted that cell cycle arrest plays a key role in their antiproliferative effect in different tumor cells. However, structure-activity relationship of flavonoids is poorly characterized. In our study the influence of 18 flavonoid aglycones (as well as two metabolites) on cell cycle distribution was investigated. Since flavonoids are extensively metabolized by liver cells, HepG2 tumor cell line was applied, considering the potential metabolic activation/inactivation of flavonoids. Our major observations are the followings: (1) Among the tested compounds diosmetin, fisetin, apigenin, lutelin, and quercetin provoked spectacular extent of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. (2) Inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase enzyme by entacapone decreased the antiproliferative effects of fisetin and quercetin. (3) Geraldol and isorhamnetin (3'-O-methylated metabolites of fisetin and quercetin, respectively) demonstrated significantly higher antiproliferative effect on HepG2 cells compared to the parent compounds. Based on these results, O-methylated flavonoid metabolites or their chemically modified derivatives may be suitable candidates of tumor therapy in the future.

  18. Vitamin C down-regulate apo(a) expression via Tet2-dependent DNA demethylation in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Kai; Ma, Xiao-Feng; Li, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Hai; Liu, Ya-Mi; Zhang, Kai; Zeng, Jun-Fa; Lei, Jian-Jun; Wei, Dang-Heng; Wang, Zuo

    2017-05-01

    Lipoprotein(a)[Lp(a)] is a risk factor for coronary heart diseases. However, the metabolism of this protein remains poorly understood. Efficient and specific drugs that can decrease high plasma levels of Lp(a) have not been developed yet. Vitamin C is responsible for maintaining the catalytic activity of a group of iron and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases and induces the generation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) via Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) dioxygenases. In addition, It has been reported vitamin C deficiency induces atherosclerosis and increases Lp(a) and apo(a) plasma levels in Lp(a)+ mice. However, the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin C on apo(a) expression and the possible molecular mechanism of vitamin C that influences apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] biosynthesis in HepG2 cells. Results showed that vitamin C significantly inhibited the expression and secretion levels of apo(a). Vitamin C can also increase ELK1 expression and hydroxymethylation of ELK1 promoter and the globle DNA in HepG2 cells. In addition, the effects of vitamin C inhibiting the apo(a) expression were attenuated by ELK1siRNA and Tet2siRNA. These results suggested vitamin C down-regulate apo(a) expression via Tet2-dependent DNA demethylation in HepG2 cells.

  19. SIRT1 attenuates palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in HepG2 cells via induction of oxygen-regulated protein 150

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, T.W.; Lee, K.T.; Lee, M.W.; Ka, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although SIRT1 has a therapeutic effect on T2DM, the mechanisms by which SIRT1 ameliorates insulin resistance (IR) remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of SIRT1 on palmitate-induced ER stress in HepG2 cells and its underlying signal pathway. Treatment with resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator significantly inhibited palmitate-induced ER stress, leading to the protection against palmitate-induced ER stress and insulin resistance. Resveratrol and SIRT1 overexpression induced the expression of oxygen-regulated protein (ORP) 150 in HepG2 cells. Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) was involved in the regulation of ORP150 expression because suppression of FOXO1 inhibited the induction of ORP150 by SIRT1. Our results indicate a novel mechanism by which SIRT1 regulates ER stress by overexpression of ORP150, and suggest that SIRT1 ameliorates palmitate-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells via regulation of ER stress.

  20. The Antioxidant Properties and Inhibitory Effects on HepG2 Cells of Chicory Cultivated Using Three Different Kinds of Fertilizers in the Absence and Presence of Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Jin-Seon; Kim, Mina; Pichiah, Pichiah BalasubramanianTirupathi; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the antioxidant levels and anticancer properties of chicory cultivated using three different kinds of fertilizers (i.e., developed, organic, and chemical) in the presence and absence of pesticides. Phenolic phytochemicals, including total polyphenols and flavonoids, and antioxidant activities, including reducing power, ABTS+ and DPPH radical scavenging activity, were analyzed using several antioxidant assays. HepG2 cell viability was analyzed using the MTT assay. The antioxidant properties of chicory were found to increase when cultivated with chemical fertilizer in the absence of pesticides. On the other hand, antioxidant capacity was higher in chicory cultivated with eco-developed fertilizer even in the presence of pesticides. Chicory grown using eco-developed or organic fertilizer was more effective in suppressing the proliferation of HepG2 cells when compared to chicory grown with chemical fertilizer. This effect was time dependent, regardless of treatment with or without pesticides. In conclusion, the antioxidant activity of chicory were affected by the presence or absence of pesticides. However, developed and organic fertilizers showed a strong anti-proliferative effect against HepG2 cells, regardless of the presence or absence of pesticides.

  1. Thymosin beta 4 may translocate from the cytoplasm in to the nucleus in HepG2 cells following serum starvation. An ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piludu, Marco; Piras, Monica; Pichiri, Giuseppina; Coni, Pierpaolo; Orrù, Germano; Cabras, Tiziana; Messana, Irene; Faa, Gavino; Castagnola, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Due to its actin-sequestering properties, thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is considered to play a significant role in the cellular metabolism. Several physiological properties of Tβ4 have been reported;, however, many questions concerning its cellular function remain to be ascertained. To better understand the role of this small peptide we have analyzed by means of transmission immunoelectron microscopy techniques the ultrastructural localization of Tβ4 in HepG2 cells. Samples of HepG2 cells were fixed in a mixture of 3% formaldehyde and 0.1% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer and processed for standard electron microscopic techniques. The samples were dehydrated in a cold graded methanol series and embedded in LR gold resin. Ultrathin sections were labeled with rabbit antibodies to Tβ4, followed by gold-labeled goat anti-rabbit, stained with uranyl acetate and bismuth subnitrate, observed and photographed in a JEOL 100S transmission electron microscope. High-resolution electron microscopy showed that Tβ4 was mainly restricted to the cytoplasm of HepG2 growing in complete medium. A strong Tβ4 reactivity was detected in the perinuclear region of the cytoplasmic compartment where gold particles appeared strictly associated to the nuclear membrane. In the nucleus specific Tβ4 labeling was observed in the nucleolus. The above electron microscopic results confirm and extend previous observations at light microscopic level, highlighting the subcellular distribution of Tβ4 in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of HepG2 cells. The meaning of Tβ4 presence in the nucleolus is not on the best of our knowledge clarified yet. It could account for the interaction of Tβ4 with nucleolar actin and according with this hypothesis, Tβ4 could contribute together with the other nucleolar acting binding proteins to modulate the transcription activity of the RNA polymerases.

  2. Thymosin Beta 4 May Translocate from the Cytoplasm in to the Nucleus in HepG2 Cells following Serum Starvation. An Ultrastructural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piludu, Marco; Piras, Monica; Pichiri, Giuseppina; Coni, Pierpaolo; Orrù, Germano; Cabras, Tiziana; Messana, Irene; Faa, Gavino; Castagnola, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Due to its actin-sequestering properties, thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is considered to play a significant role in the cellular metabolism. Several physiological properties of Tβ4 have been reported;, however, many questions concerning its cellular function remain to be ascertained. To better understand the role of this small peptide we have analyzed by means of transmission immunoelectron microscopy techniques the ultrastructural localization of Tβ4 in HepG2 cells. Samples of HepG2 cells were fixed in a mixture of 3% formaldehyde and 0.1% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer and processed for standard electron microscopic techniques. The samples were dehydrated in a cold graded methanol series and embedded in LR gold resin. Ultrathin sections were labeled with rabbit antibodies to Tβ4, followed by gold-labeled goat anti-rabbit, stained with uranyl acetate and bismuth subnitrate, observed and photographed in a JEOL 100S transmission electron microscope. High-resolution electron microscopy showed that Tβ4 was mainly restricted to the cytoplasm of HepG2 growing in complete medium. A strong Tβ4 reactivity was detected in the perinuclear region of the cytoplasmic compartment where gold particles appeared strictly associated to the nuclear membrane. In the nucleus specific Tβ4 labeling was observed in the nucleolus. The above electron microscopic results confirm and extend previous observations at light microscopic level, highlighting the subcellular distribution of Tβ4 in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of HepG2 cells. The meaning of Tβ4 presence in the nucleolus is not on the best of our knowledge clarified yet. It could account for the interaction of Tβ4 with nucleolar actin and according with this hypothesis, Tβ4 could contribute together with the other nucleolar acting binding proteins to modulate the transcription activity of the RNA polymerases. PMID:25835495

  3. 顺铂作用于人肝癌细胞系HepG2后肿瘤干细胞标志物增加%The increase of tumor stem cells in the presence of cisplatin on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小鸽; 田美丽; 杨阳; 童冬冬; 陈伟

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨顺铂(cisplatin)作用于人肝癌细胞系HepG2后细胞增殖能力和周期的变化,及残余细胞中CD133、ABCG2及ICAM-1表达量的变化.方法 以人肝癌细胞系HepG2为研究对象,分别采用MTT比色法和PI染色法检测不同浓度cisplatin作用后细胞增殖能力及细胞周期分布的变化;免疫荧光法检测cisplatin对肿瘤干细胞标志物表达量的影响.结果 不同浓度cisplatin作用后均可明显抑制HepG2细胞的增殖.进一步研究发现,分别使用4 mg/L和2mg/L的cisplatin作用48 h后对HepG2细胞周期Go/G1期及S期有显著影响,cisplatin处理使残留HepG2细胞中CD133、ABCG2及ICAM-I的表达量明显升高.结论 HepG2细胞中存在的小部分肝癌干细胞能够逃脱cisplatin的杀伤作用,此种逃避过程的发生可能是临床上肝癌经治疗后复发的重要原因.

  4. Effects of HBV X gene and arsenic trioxide on the expression of p53 in cultured HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Jian-hua; HE Xing-e; YANG Xu; ZHANG Min; LIAN Jun; LUO Hong-yu; WANG Wen-long

    2007-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus(HBV)X protein(HBx)and p53 could mutually down-regulate at transcriptional level and HBx could bind with p53 protein within its transactivation domain and inhibit the function of p53 protein.In recent years,effects of arsenic trioxide(As2O3)on the expression of p53 protein have been widely studied,while little is known about the activity of p53 protein.This study was undertaken to delineate the effect of HBV X gene and As2O3 on p53 protein expression(level and activity)in HepG2 cells by small hairpin RNA(shRNA)-mediated RNA interference(RNAi)technique.Methods Cell line HepG2 and cells with stable expression of HBV X gene(HepG2-X)were treated with 2 μmol/L As2O3,with corresponding untreated cells serving as controls.Cell lysates and nuclear extracts were extracted.Total level and the relative activity of p53 protein were detected by modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).HBV X gene sequence-specific shRNA expression vector(pXi-1 and pXi-2)and sequence-unrelated control(pXi-3)were transfected into HepG2-X.Single cell clone with stable expression of shRNA was selected and exposed to propagating culture.The effect of As2O3 on p53 protein expression and activity was re-observed.Results Total p53 protein level was up-regulated and its relative activity ratio was enhanced by As2O3 in HepG2 and HepG2-X cells.The total p53 protein level induced by As2O3 was up-regulated by HBV X gene expression,while its relative activity was significantly suppressed.The suppression was removed after HBV X gene expression was repressed by shRNA.Conclusions As2O3 up-regulates p53 protein expression and enhance its activity.HBV X up-regulates As2O3 induced-p53 protein expression while suppresses its activity.

  5. The azo dyes Disperse Red 1 and Disperse Orange 1 increase the micronuclei frequencies in human lymphocytes and in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chequer, Farah Maria Drumond; Angeli, José Pedro Friedmann; Ferraz, Elisa Raquel Anastácio; Tsuboy, Marcela Stefanini; Marcarini, Juliana Cristina; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2009-05-31

    The use of azo dyes by different industries can cause direct and/or indirect effects on human and environmental health due to the discharge of industrial effluents that contain these toxic compounds. Several studies have demonstrated the genotoxic effects of various azo dyes, but information on the DNA damage caused by Disperse Red 1 and Disperse Orange 1 is unavailable, although these dyes are used in dyeing processes in many countries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mutagenic activity of Disperse Red 1 and Disperse Orange 1 using the micronucleus (MN) assay in human lymphocytes and in HepG2 cells. In the lymphocyte assay, it was found that the number of MN induced by the lowest concentration of each dye (0.2 microg/mL) was similar to that of the negative control. At the other concentrations, a dose response MN formation was observed up to 1.0 microg/mL. At higher dose levels, the number of MN decreased. For the HepG2 cells the results were similar. With both dyes a dose dependent increase in the frequency of MN was detected. However for the HepG2, the threshold for this increase was 2.0 microg/mL, while at higher doses a reduction in the MN number was observed. The proliferation index was also calculated in order to evaluate acute toxicity during the test. No differences were detected between the different concentrations tested and the negative control.

  6. PPAR{gamma} activates ABCA1 gene transcription but reduces the level of ABCA1 protein in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogilenko, Denis A., E-mail: denis@iem.sp.ru [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shavva, Vladimir S. [Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Dizhe, Ella B. [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Orlov, Sergey V., E-mail: serge@iem.sp.ru [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Perevozchikov, Andrej P., E-mail: app@iem.sp.ru [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{gamma} activates ABCA1 gene expression but decreases ABCA1 protein content in human hepatoma cell line HepG2. {yields} Treatment of HepG2 cells with PPAR{gamma} agonist GW1929 leads to dissociation of LXR{beta} from ABCA1-LXR{beta} complex. {yields} Inhibition of protein kinases MEK1/2 abolishes PPAR{gamma}-mediated dissociation of LXR{beta} from ABCA1/LXR{beta} complex. {yields} Activation of PPAR{gamma} leads to increasing of the level of LXR{beta} associated with LXRE within ABCA1 gene promoter. -- Abstract: Synthesis of ABCA1 protein in liver is necessary for high-density lipoproteins (HDL) formation in mammals. Nuclear receptor PPAR{gamma} is known as activator of ABCA1 expression, but details of PPAR{gamma}-mediated regulation of ABCA1 at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in hepatocytes have not still been well elucidated. In this study we have shown, that PPAR{gamma} activates ABCA1 gene transcription in human hepatoma cells HepG2 through increasing of LXR{beta} binding with promoter region of ABCA1 gene. Treatment of HepG2 cells with PPAR{gamma} agonist GW1929 leads to dissociation of LXR{beta} from ABCA1/LXR{beta} complex and to nuclear translocation of this nuclear receptor resulting in reduction of ABCA1 protein level 24 h after treatment. Inhibition of protein kinases MEK1/2 abolishes PPAR{gamma}-mediated dissociation of LXR{beta} from ABCA1/LXR{beta} complex, but does not block PPAR{gamma}-dependent down-regulation of ABCA1 protein in HepG2 cells. These data suggest that PPAR{gamma} may be important for regulation of the level of hepatic ABCA1 protein and indicate the new interplays between PPAR{gamma}, LXR{beta} and MEK1/2 in regulation of ABCA1 mRNA and protein expression.

  7. HCV core protein-induced down-regulation of microRNA-152 promoted aberrant proliferation by regulating Wnt1 in HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV has been reported to regulate cellular microRNAs (miRNAs. The HCV core protein is considered to be a potential oncoprotein in HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCV-HCC, but HCV core-regulated miRNAs are largely unknown. Our preliminary experiments revealed significant down-regulation of microRNA-152 (miR-152 by HCV core protein in HepG2 cells. Through target gene prediction softwares, Wnt1 was predicted to be a potential target of miR-152. The present study was initiated to investigate whether miR-152 is aberrantly regulated by the HCV core protein, and involved in the regulation of the aberrant proliferation of HCV-HCC cells. METHODS: MiR-152 levels were examined by stem-loop real-time RT-PCR (SLqRT-PCR. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT and colony formation assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. Luciferase reporter assay was conducted to confirm miRNA-target association. Wnt1 expression was determined by real-time qPCR and Western blotting. RESULTS: HCV core protein significantly suppressed miR-152 expression, and led to significant Wnt1 up-regulation with a concomitant aberrantly promoted proliferation. Moreover, we validated that miR-152 inhibition promoted, while miR-152 mimics inhibited cell proliferation. Using, qRT-PCR and western blot, Wnt1 was demonstrated to be regulated by miR-152. Luciferase activity assay showed that while miR-152 mimics significantly reduced the luciferase activity by 83.76% (P<0.0001, miR-152 inhibitor showed no effect on luciferase reporter. Most notably, salvage expression of miR-152 after Ad-HCV core infection for 24 h almost totally reversed the proliferation-promoting effect of the HCV core protein, and meanwhile, reduced the expression of both Wnt1 mRNA and protein to basal levels. CONCLUSION: These findings provide important evidence that the reduced miR-152 expression by HCV core protein can indirectly lose an inhibitory effect on Wnt1

  8. Effects of matrine on the growth and expression of DLK1 in HepG2 cells%苦参碱对HepG2细胞DLK1基因表达及细胞生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗耀玲; 黄铀新; 刘瑶

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investingate the effects of matrine on the growth and expression of DLK1 in human hepato cellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Methods HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of matrine, RT-PCR was used for the detection of DLK1 gene expression level; MTT, transwell and flow cytometry were used for the detections of HepG2 cell growth, invasiveness and apoptosis. Results After treated with matrine, HepG2 cells DLK1 gene mRNA expression, cell growth rate and invasive ability decreased. Conclusion Matrine can effectively inhibit DLK1 gene expression, cell growth, proliferation and invasion of HepG2.%目的:探讨苦参碱能否重新诱导HepG2细胞DLK1基因被印记及对细胞生长的影响.方法:RT-PCR检测不同浓度苦参碱处理HepG2细胞后DLK1基因表达水平变化;MTT、transwell和流式细胞术检测苦参碱作用后HepG2细胞的增殖、凋亡及侵袭力的变化.结果:HepG2细胞经苦参碱处理后,DLK1基因的Mrna 表达量降低,细胞的增殖能力、侵袭能力均降低,细胞抑制在G1期.结论:苦参碱能有效地抑制DLK1基因的表达,且能抑制肿瘤细胞HepG2生长、增殖和侵袭能力.

  9. PCBP-1 regulates alternative splicing of the CD44 gene and inhibits invasion in human hepatoma cell line HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Changhui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCBP1 (or alpha CP1 or hnRNP E1, a member of the PCBP family, is widely expressed in many human tissues and involved in regulation of transcription, transportation process, and function of RNA molecules. However, the role of PCBP1 in CD44 variants splicing still remains elusive. Results We found that enforced PCBP1 expression inhibited CD44 variants expression including v3, v5, v6, v8, and v10 in HepG2 cells, and knockdown of endogenous PCBP1 induced these variants splicing. Invasion assay suggested that PCBP1 played a negative role in tumor invasion and re-expression of v6 partly reversed the inhibition effect by PCBP1. A correlation of PCBP1 down-regulation and v6 up-regulation was detected in primary HCC tissues. Conclusions We first characterized PCBP1 as a negative regulator of CD44 variants splicing in HepG2 cells, and loss of PCBP1 in human hepatic tumor contributes to the formation of a metastatic phenotype.

  10. Isoorientin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Haifang; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

    2012-11-15

    Isoorientin (ISO) is a flavonoid compound that can be extracted from several plant species, such as Phyllostachys pubescens, Patrinia, and Drosophyllum lusitanicum; however, its biological activity remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the effects and putative mechanism of apoptosis induced by ISO in human hepatoblastoma cancer (HepG2) cells. The results showed that ISO induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells, but no toxicity in human liver cells (HL-7702) and buffalo rat liver cells (BRL-3A) treated with ISO at the indicated concentrations. ISO-induced cell death included apoptosis which characterized by the appearance of nuclear shrinkage, the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DNA fragmentation. ISO significantly (p<0.01) increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased the release of cytochrome c, activated caspase-3, and enhanced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In addition, ISO effectively inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and increased FoxO4 expression. The PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 enhanced the apoptosis-inducing effect of ISO. However, LY294002 markedly quenched ROS and NO generation and diminished the protein expression of heme peroxidase enzyme (HO-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Furthermore, the addition of a ROS inhibitor (N-acetyl cysteine, NAC) or iNOS inhibitor (N-[3-(aminomethyl) benzyl] acetamidine, dihydrochloride, 1400W) significantly diminished the apoptosis induced by ISO and also blocked the phosphorylation of Akt. These results demonstrated for the first time that ISO induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells and indicate that this apoptosis might be mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and has no toxicity in normal liver cells, suggesting that ISO may have good potential as a therapeutic and chemopreventive agent for liver cancer.

  11. A novel electrochemiluminescent immunosensor based on CdS-coated ZnO nanorod arrays for HepG2 cell detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danqing; Wang, Lei; Ma, Shenghua; Jiang, Zhaohua; Yang, Bin; Han, Xiaojun; Liu, Shaoqin

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the highly oriented CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays have been fabricated. The CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays show high electrochemiluminescence intensity, fast response and good stability. All of the desirable properties spur the development of an ECL immunosensor for the detection of the liver cancer cell line (HepG2 cells). Two successive modification steps of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and gold nanoparticles onto the CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays not only offer the substrates for conjugation of antibody, but also effectively enhance the ECL signal, resulting in production of the high performance ECL immunosensor. The ECL immunosensor exhibits a sensitive response to HepG2 cells in a linear range of 300-10 000 cells mL-1 with a detection limit of 256 cells mL-1. The proposed sensor characteristics of high specificity, good reproducibility and remarkable stability will provide a sensitive, selective, and convenient approach for the clinical detection of cancer cells.In this work, the highly oriented CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays have been fabricated. The CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays show high electrochemiluminescence intensity, fast response and good stability. All of the desirable properties spur the development of an ECL immunosensor for the detection of the liver cancer cell line (HepG2 cells). Two successive modification steps of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and gold nanoparticles onto the CdS-coated-ZnO nanorod arrays not only offer the substrates for conjugation of antibody, but also effectively enhance the ECL signal, resulting in production of the high performance ECL immunosensor. The ECL immunosensor exhibits a sensitive response to HepG2 cells in a linear range of 300-10 000 cells mL-1 with a detection limit of 256 cells mL-1. The proposed sensor characteristics of high specificity, good reproducibility and remarkable stability will provide a sensitive, selective, and convenient approach for the clinical detection of cancer cells

  12. Mitochondrial aquaporin-8 knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization and loss of viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchissio, Maria Julia; Francés, Daniel Eleazar Antonio; Carnovale, Cristina Ester; Marinelli, Raúl Alberto, E-mail: rmarinel@unr.edu.ar

    2012-10-15

    Human aquaporin-8 (AQP8) channels facilitate the diffusional transport of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} across membranes. Since AQP8 is expressed in hepatic inner mitochondrial membranes, we studied whether mitochondrial AQP8 (mtAQP8) knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, which may lead to organelle dysfunction and cell death. We confirmed AQP8 expression in HepG2 inner mitochondrial membranes and found that 72 h after cell transfection with siRNAs targeting two different regions of the human AQP8 molecule, mtAQP8 protein specifically decreased by around 60% (p < 0.05). Studies in isolated mtAQP8-knockdown mitochondria showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, assessed by Amplex Red, was reduced by about 45% (p < 0.05), an effect not observed in digitonin-permeabilized mitochondria. mtAQP8-knockdown cells showed an increase in mitochondrial ROS, assessed by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (+ 120%, p < 0.05) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (− 80%, p < 0.05), assessed by tetramethylrhodamine-coupled quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTempol prevented ROS accumulation and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Cyclosporin A, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker, also abolished the mtAQP8 knockdown-induced mitochondrial depolarization. Besides, the loss of viability in mtAQP8 knockdown cells verified by MTT assay, LDH leakage, and trypan blue exclusion test could be prevented by cyclosporin A. Our data on human hepatoma HepG2 cells suggest that mtAQP8 facilitates mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and that its defective expression causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization via the mitochondrial permeability transition mechanism, and cell death. -- Highlights: ► Aquaporin-8 is expressed in mitochondria of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. ► Aquaporin-8 knockdown impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and increases ROS. ► Aquaporin

  13. Hydrophobicity of Antifungal β-Peptides Is Associated with Their Cytotoxic Effect on In Vitro Human Colon Caco-2 and Liver HepG2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Navarro, Camilo; Méndez-Vega, Janet; Caraballo-León, Jean; Lee, Myung-ryul; Palecek, Sean; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; Ortiz-Bermúdez, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The widespread distribution of fungal infections, with their high morbidity and mortality rate, is a global public health problem. The increase in the population of immunocompromised patients combined with the selectivity of currents treatments and the emergence of drug-resistant fungal strains are among the most imperative reasons to develop novel antifungal formulations. Antimicrobial β-peptides are peptidomimetics of natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have been proposed as developmental platforms to enhance the AMPs selectivity and biostability. Their tunability allows the design of sequences with remarkable activity against a wide spectrum of microorganisms such as the human pathogenic Candida spp., both in planktonic and biofilm morphology. However, the β-peptide’s effect on surrounding host cells remains greatly understudied. Assessments have mainly relied on the extent of hemolysis that a candidate peptide is able to cause. This work investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of various β-peptides in the Caco-2 and HepG2 mammalian cell lines. Results indicated that the cytotoxic effect of the β-peptides was influenced by cell type and was also correlated to structural features of the peptide such as hydrophobicity. We found that the selectivity of the most hydrophobic β-peptide was 2–3 times higher than that of the least hydrophobic one, for both cell types according to the selectivity index parameter (IC50/MIC). The IC50 of Caco-2 and HepG2 increased with hydrophobicity, which indicates the importance of testing putative therapeutics on different cell types. We report evidence of peptide-cell membrane interactions in Caco-2 and HepG2 using a widely studied β-peptide against C. albicans. PMID:26992117

  14. Hydrophobicity of Antifungal β-Peptides Is Associated with Their Cytotoxic Effect on In Vitro Human Colon Caco-2 and Liver HepG2 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Mora-Navarro

    Full Text Available The widespread distribution of fungal infections, with their high morbidity and mortality rate, is a global public health problem. The increase in the population of immunocompromised patients combined with the selectivity of currents treatments and the emergence of drug-resistant fungal strains are among the most imperative reasons to develop novel antifungal formulations. Antimicrobial β-peptides are peptidomimetics of natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, which have been proposed as developmental platforms to enhance the AMPs selectivity and biostability. Their tunability allows the design of sequences with remarkable activity against a wide spectrum of microorganisms such as the human pathogenic Candida spp., both in planktonic and biofilm morphology. However, the β-peptide's effect on surrounding host cells remains greatly understudied. Assessments have mainly relied on the extent of hemolysis that a candidate peptide is able to cause. This work investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of various β-peptides in the Caco-2 and HepG2 mammalian cell lines. Results indicated that the cytotoxic effect of the β-peptides was influenced by cell type and was also correlated to structural features of the peptide such as hydrophobicity. We found that the selectivity of the most hydrophobic β-peptide was 2-3 times higher than that of the least hydrophobic one, for both cell types according to the selectivity index parameter (IC50/MIC. The IC50 of Caco-2 and HepG2 increased with hydrophobicity, which indicates the importance of testing putative therapeutics on different cell types. We report evidence of peptide-cell membrane interactions in Caco-2 and HepG2 using a widely studied β-peptide against C. albicans.

  15. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through ROS–Ca{sup 2+}–JNK mitochondrial pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Han, Lirong [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, Tianjin Economy Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457 (China); Qi, Wentao [Academy of State Administration of Grain, No.11 Baiwanzhuang Avenue, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100037 (China); Cheng, Dai; Ma, Xiaolei; Hou, Lihua [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, Tianjin Economy Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457 (China); Cao, Xiaohong, E-mail: caoxh@tust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, Tianjin Economy Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457 (China); Wang, Chunling, E-mail: wangchunling@tust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29, 13th Avenue, Tianjin Economy Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • EPA evoked ROS formation, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} accumulation, the opening of MPTP and the phosphorylation of JNK. • EPA-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} elevation was depended on production of ROS. • EPA-induced ROS generation, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} increase, and JNK activated caused MPTP opening. • The apoptosis induced by EPA was related to release of cytochrome C through the MPTP. • EPA induced HepG2 cells apoptosis through ROS–Ca{sup 2+}–JNK mitochondrial pathways. - Abstract: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a well-known dietary n−3 PUFAS, has been considered to inhibit proliferation of tumor cells. However, the molecular mechanism related to EPA-induced liver cancer cells apoptosis has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA on HepG2 cells proliferation and apoptosis mechanism through mitochondrial pathways. EPA inhibited proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and had no significant effect on the cell viability of humor normal liver L-02 cells. It was found that EPA initially evoked ROS formation, leading to [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} accumulation and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening; EPA-induced HepG2 cells apoptosis was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an inhibitor of ROS), 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM, a chelator of calcium) and CsA (inhibitor of MPTP). The relationship between ROS production, the increase of cytoplasmic Ca and MPTP opening was detected. It seems that ROS may act as an upstream regulator of EPA-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} generation, moreover, generation of ROS, overload of mitochondrial [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c}, and JNK activated cause the opening of MPTP. Western blotting results showed that EPA elevated the phosphorylation status of JNK, processes associated with the ROS generation. Simultaneously, the apoptosis induced by EPA was related to release of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytoplasm through the MPTP

  16. Propylparaben-induced disruption of energy metabolism in human HepG2 cell line leads to increased synthesis of superoxide anions and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeląg, S; Zabłocka, A; Trzeciak, K; Drozd, A; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I; Kolasa, A; Goschorska, M; Chlubek, D; Gutowska, I

    2016-03-01

    The effect of propylparaben (in final concentrations 0.4 ng/ml, 2.3 ng/ml and 4.6 ng/ml) on the energy metabolism of HepG2 hepatocytes, superoxide anion synthesis, apoptosis and necrosis is described. Propylparaben can be toxic to liver cells due to the increased production of superoxide anions, which can contribute to a reduced concentration of superoxide dismutase in vivo and impairment of the body's antioxidant mechanisms. Finally, a further reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential and uncoupling of the respiratory chain resulting in a reduction in ATP concentration as a result of mitochondrial damage may lead to cell death by apoptosis.

  17. Differential expression of five protein kinase C isoenzymes in FAO and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines compared with normal rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, L; Croquet, F; Gil, S; Davy, J; Féger, J; Bréhier, A

    1995-12-14

    We analyzed the expression of five protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in cytosolic and membrane fractions from normal rat hepatocytes compared with those of two tumorigenic cell lines FAO and HepG2. Western blots with PKC-specific isoenzymes polyclonal antibodies provide evidences for the presence of the five isoforms alpha, beta II, delta, epsilon and zeta in normal rat hepatocytes. In hepatoma cells, we show differences in the level of expression, the molecular sizes and the responses to Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA).

  18. The Hereditary Hemochromatosis Protein, HFE, Inhibits Iron Uptake via Down-regulation of Zip14 in HepG2 Cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Junwei; Zhao, Ningning; Knutson, Mitchell D.; Enns, Caroline A

    2008-01-01

    Lack of functional hereditary hemochromatosis protein, HFE, causes iron overload predominantly in hepatocytes, the major site of HFE expression in the liver. In this study, we investigated the role of HFE in the regulation of both transferrin-bound iron (TBI) and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) uptake in HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line. Expression of HFE decreased both TBI and NTBI uptake. It also resulted in a decrease in the protein levels of Zip14 with no ...

  19. Metabonomic study on the antitumor effect of flavonoid derivative 3d in HepG2 cells and its action mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dan; Jin, Feng; Liu, Hongxia; Wang, Yini; Jiang, Yuyang

    2014-01-01

    A novel flavonid derivate, 1-(3-chloro-4-(6-ethyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)phenyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)urea (3d) synthesized in our lab possesses potent antitumor activity against HepG2 cells. Our previous studies on pharmacological mechanism of 3d mostly focused on cell and gene levels, little is about its metabolomics study. Herein, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) based metabolomics approach was established to investigate the antitumor effect of 3d on HepG2 cells and its action mechanism. Q-TOF MS was used to identify metabolites, and tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm their identity. Comparing 3d-treated HepG2 cells with vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide), 32 distinct metabolites involved in glutathione metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and phenylalanine metabolism. The reduced level of glutathione (GSH) and decreased ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in 3d-treated cells indicated the increased oxidative stress after 3d treatment. The significant decrease of phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels and increase of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) levels suggested alterations in lipid composition which were causally related to decline in mitochondrial function. Depletion of carnitine and increase of long chain carnitines and fatty acids reflected decline in fatty acid metabolism. The further biological experiments including ROS and MMP measurements confirmed the above probabilities presumed from metabolomic results. Our findings suggested that 3d caused the perturbation of multiple cellular pathways. The increased oxidative stress and the resulting mitochondrial dysfunction resulted in the antiproliferative effect of 3d. The UPLC/Q-TOF MS based metabolomics approach provides new insights into the mechanistic studies of new compounds that distinct from traditional biological studies.

  20. The supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor blocks hepatitis B virus antigen secretion in HepG2.2.15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Wang, Dongliang; Gao, Jianjun; Qi, Fanghua; Gao, Bo; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fang, Dingzhi; Tang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor has long been used for the treatment of hepatitis B in China and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO₂) is widely used in extracting active ingredients from natural products. The aim of present study was to assess the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of the supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (SCE-BC). Cytotoxicity of SCE-BC was analyzed using an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay in HepG2.2.15 cells. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. HBV mRNA in cells was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. SCE-BC concentrations below 10(-2) μg/mL had no significant toxicity to HepG2.2.15 cells. SCE-BC at 10(-4) μg/mL effectively inhibited the secretion of HBeAg by 23.36% on day 6. It was more potent than the positive control lamivudine (100 μg/mL) in terms of the inhibition of HBeAg and HBcrAg secretion on day 6. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, HBV mRNA expression was markedly inhibited in comparison to the control when HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with SCE-BC. Moreover, SCE-BC had greater inhibitory activity with respect to HBeAg than to HBsAg. Since HBeAg promotes immune tolerance and persistent infection during HBV infection, the present results suggest that immune tolerance induced by HBeAg might be overcome by SCE-BC. Therefore, SCE-BC warrants further investigation.

  1. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of cinobufacini and its active components bufalin and cinobufagin in HepG2.2.15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Xu, Huanli; Wang, Dongliang; Qi, Fanghua; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fang, Dingzhi; Tang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Cinobufacini (Huachansu) is a Chinese medicine prepared from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (Bufonidae), which has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of present study was to examine the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities of cinobufacini and its active components bufalin and cinobufagin in the human HBV-transfected cell line HepG2.2.15. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay after HepG2.2.15 cells were respectively treated with different concentrations of cinobufacini, bufalin, and cinobufagin for 3 or 6 d. HBV DNA and mRNA were determined using transcription-mediated amplification and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. On d 3, cinobufacini at a concentration of 1 µg/ml had no activity against HBV virological markers. However, on d 6, cinobufacini at 1 µg/ml effectively inhibited the secretion of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBcrAg by 29.58, 32.87, and 42.52%. It was more potent than the positive control lamivudine (100 µg/ml). Bufalin and cinobufagin slightly inhibited HBV antigen secretion. Treatment with cinobufacini, bufalin, or cinobufagin had no anti-HBV effect on DNA in cell culture medium. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, HBV mRNA expression was markedly inhibited in comparison to the control when HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with cinobufacini, bufalin, or cinobufagin. Results suggested that cinobufacini had more potent activity against HBV antigen secretion than its components bufalin and cinobufagin and this inhibitory role was attributed to the specific inhibition of HBV mRNA expression.

  2. Rational design, fabrication, characterization and in vitro testing of biodegradable microparticles that generate targeted and sustained transgene expression in HepG2 liver cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, Janjira; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2017-01-01

    Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles have significant potential for sustained delivery of plasmid DNA. However, unmodified PLGA microparticles have poor transfection efficiencies. In this study, we use several approaches to enhance the transfection efficiencies of PLGA microparticles in a HepG2 liver cell line. Polyethylenimine is used to condense the plasmid DNA prior to loading into the PLGA microparticles. This provides enhanced loading efficiencies and greater protection to the plasmid DNA (pDNA) during the entrapment process. In addition, the pDNA used (ApoE) incorporates a hybrid liver-specific Murine Albumin enhancer/α-1 antitrypsin promoter (AlbE/hAAT) to enhance transgene expression in human liver (HepG2) cells. The percentage of surfactant used in the preparation of the microparticles, the polymer composition of the PLGA, the ratio of the (polyethylenimine) PEI to pDNA (N/P), the structure of the PEI and the potential utility of a galactose targeting ligand were then investigated to further optimize the efficacy of the cationic microparticle non-viral delivery system in transfecting HepG2 cells. For each PLGA PEI pDNA microparticle formulation prepared, we evaluated particle size, zeta-potential, loading of pDNA, cytotoxicity and transgene expression in HepG2 cells and control human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and Monkey African green kidney fibroblast-like (COS7) cells. Loading PLGA particles with PEI-ApoE pDNA complexes resulted in a significant reduction in particle size when compared to PLGA microparticles loaded with ApoE pDNA alone. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that all the particle formulations were smooth and spherical in appearance. Incorporation of the cationic PEI in the PLGA particles changed the zeta potential from negative to positive. Complexing PEI with ApoE pDNA increased the loading efficiency of the ApoE pDNA into the PLGA microparticles. The cytotoxicity of PLGA particles loaded with PEI-ApoE pDNA complexes

  3. The selective target of capsaicin on FASN expression and de novo fatty acid synthesis mediated through ROS generation triggers apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathaichanok Impheng

    Full Text Available The inhibition of the mammalian de novo synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFAs by blocking the fatty acid synthase (FASN enzyme activity in tumor cells that overexpress FASN can promote apoptosis, without apparent cytotoxic to non-tumor cells. The present study aimed to focus on the potent inhibitory effect of capsaicin on the fatty acid synthesis pathway inducing apoptosis of capsaicin in HepG2 cells. The use of capsaicin as a source for a new FASN inhibitor will provide new insight into its possible application as a selective anti-cancer therapy. The present findings showed that capsaicin promoted apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The onset of apoptosis was correlated with a dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm. Apoptotic induction by capsaicin was mediated by inhibition of FASN protein expression which was accompanied by decreasing its activity on the de novo fatty acid synthesis. The expression of FASN was higher in HepG2 cells than in normal hepatocytes that were resistant to undergoing apoptosis following capsaicin administration. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of capsaicin on FASN expression and activity was found to be mediated by an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with capsaicin failed to alter ACC and ACLY protein expression, suggesting ACC and ACLY might not be the specific targets of capsaicin to induce apoptosis. An accumulation of malonyl-CoA level following FASN inhibition represented a major cause of mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic induction instead of deprivation of fatty acid per se. Here, we also obtained similar results with C75 that exhibited apoptosis induction by reducing the levels of fatty acid without any change in the abundance of FASN expression along with increasing ROS production. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence that capsaicin exhibits a potent anti-cancer property by targeting

  4. Chalcones suppress fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation through a LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianshun; Yamamoto, Norio; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2014-06-01

    Excessive lipid accumulation in the liver has been proposed to cause hyperlipidemia, diabetes and fatty liver disease. 4-Hydroxyderricin (4HD), xanthoangelol (XAG), cardamonin (CAR) and flavokawain B (FKB) are chalcones that have exhibited various biological effects against obesity, inflammation, and diabetes; however, little is known about the inhibitory effects of these chalcones on fatty liver disease. In the present study, we investigated the ability of 4HD, XAG, CAR, and FKB to reduce lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. When HepG2 cells were treated with a mixture of fatty acids (FAs; palmitic acid : oleic acid = 1 : 2 ratio), significant lipid accumulation was observed. Under the same experimental conditions, addition of chalcones at 5 μM significantly suppressed the FA-induced lipid accumulation. We found that the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), a key molecule involved in lipogenesis, was decreased in these chalcone-treated cells. We also found that these chalcones increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), which is involved in FA oxidation. Moreover, these chalcones increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and liver kinase B1 (LKB1), upstream regulators of SREBP-1 and PPARα. We confirmed that an AMPK inhibitor, compound C, reversed chalcone-induced changes in SREBP-1 and PPARα expression in the HepG2 cells. Collectively, we found that 4HD, XAG, CAR, and XAG attenuated lipid accumulation through activation of the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway in HepG2 cells.

  5. Ethanol and supercritical fluid extracts of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) increase gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunghyun Hong; Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan; Taewoo Joo; Chanmook Lim; Haeme Cho; Songmun Kim; Gur-Yoo Kim; Jin-Woo Jhoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes by hemp seed extracts in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Methods: Ethanol and supercritical fluid (SF) extracts obtained from de-hulled hemp seed were used for the evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. In vitro antioxidant activities of the samples evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in HepG2cells was evaluated by real-time PCR. Results:In the antioxidant assay, SF extract of hemp seed exhibited higher ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities (IC50 of 66.6 µg/mL and 9.2 mg/mL, respectively) than ethanol extract. The results of antioxidant enzyme expression in real-time PCR study revealed the H2O2 (200 µM) challenged HepG2 cells reduced the expression of enzymes such as SOD, GPx and CAT. However, the cells treated with ethanol and SF extracts were up-regulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes in concentration dependent manner. When compared to ethanol extract, the SF extract exhibited higher activity in the expression of all the antioxidant enzymes at the concentration of 500 µg/mL. Conclusion: In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrated that the hemp seed effectively inhibited H2O2 mediated oxidative stress and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in preventing oxidative stress mediated diseases.

  6. Photodynamic therapy mediated antiproliferative activity of some metal-doped ZnO nanoparticles in human liver adenocarcinoma HepG2 cells under UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amel F M; Ali, Mamdouh M; Ismail, Laila F M

    2014-09-05

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising new modality for the treatment of cancer through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this work, human liver adenocarcinoma cells HepG2 were treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), metal-doped-ZnO-NPs: Fe-ZnO-NPs Ag-ZnO-NPs, Pb-ZnO-NPs, and Co-ZnO-NPs, Silica-coated ZnO-NPs, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs), titanium dioxide nano-tubes (TiO2-NTs) and ZnO-NPs/TiO2-NTs nanocomposite under UV irradiation. Doxorubicin was used as a standard drug. The results demonstrated that the ZnO-NPs, Fe-ZnO-NPs, Ag-ZnO-NPs, Pb-ZnO-NPs, and Co-ZnO-NPs showed cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, with the median growth inhibitory concentrations (IC50) 42.60, 37.20, 45.10, 77.20 and 56.50 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to doxorubicin (IC50: 20.10 μg/ml). Treatment of the cancer cells with ZnO-NPs, Fe-ZnO-NPs, Ag-ZnO-NPs, Pb-ZnO-NPs, and Co-ZnO-NPs resulted in a significant increase in the activity of SOD and the levels of H2O2 and NO than those of control, accompanied with a significant decrease in the activity of CAT and GSH-Px. Also, depletion of reduced GSH, total protein and nucleic acids levels was observed. In conclusion, metal-doped ZnO-NPs may induce antiproliferative effect on HepG2 cells under UV-irradiation due to generation of ROS. Therefore, they could be included in modern clinical trials after in vivo more investigations, using photodynamic therapy technique.

  7. Palmitic acid suppresses apolipoprotein M gene expression via the pathway of PPAR{sub β/δ} in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Guanghua; Shi, Yuanping; Zhang, Jun; Mu, Qinfeng; Qin, Li; Zheng, Lu; Feng, Yuehua [Comprehensive Laboratory, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Berggren-Söderlund, Maria; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter [Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Zhang, Xiaoying, E-mail: zhangxy6689996@163.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Xu, Ning, E-mail: ning.xu@med.lu.se [Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Palmitic acid significantly inhibited APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. • Palmitic acid could obviously increase PPARB/D mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. • PPAR{sub β/δ} antagonist, GSK3787, had no effect on APOM expression. • GSK3787 could reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression. • Palmitic acid induced suppression of APOM expression is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway. - Abstract: It has been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (APOM) is a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which could be related to the anti-atherosclerotic property of HDL. Investigation of regulation of APOM expression is of important for further exploring its pathophysiological function in vivo. Our previous studies indicated that expression of APOM could be regulated by platelet activating factor (PAF), transforming growth factors (TGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), leptin, hyperglycemia and etc., in vivo and/or in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid could significantly inhibit APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. Further study indicated neither PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 nor protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GFX could abolish palmitic acid induced down-regulation of APOM expression. In contrast, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPAR{sub β/δ}) antagonist GSK3787 could totally reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression, which clearly demonstrates that down-regulation of APOM expression induced by palmitic acid is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway.

  8. Cyclopentenone prostaglandin, 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-PGJ2, is metabolized by HepG2 cells via conjugation with glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoldi, Enrico M; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Vidari, Giovanni; Sasi, Soumya; Freeman, Michael L; Milne, Ginger L; Morrow, Jason D

    2007-10-01

    15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15-d-PGJ2) is a dehydration product of PGD2. This compound possesses a highly reactive polyunsaturated carbonyl moiety that is a substrate for Michael addition with thiol-containing biomolecules such as glutathione and cysteine residues on proteins. By reacting with glutathione and proteins, 15-d-PGJ2 is believed to exert potent biological activity. Despite the large number of publications that have ascribed bioactivity to this molecule, it is not known to what extent 15-d-PGJ2 is formed in vivo. Levels of free 15-d-PGJ2 measured in human biological fluids such as urine are low, and the biological importance of this compound has thus been questioned. Because of its reactivity, we hypothesized that 15-d-PGJ2 is present in vivo primarily as a Michael conjugate. Therefore, we undertook a detailed study of the metabolism of this compound in HepG2 cells that are known to metabolize other cyclopentenone eicosanoids. We report that HepG2 cells primarily convert 15-d-PGJ2 to a glutathione conjugate in which the carbonyl at C-11 is reduced to a hydroxyl. Subsequently, the glutathione portion of the molecule is hydrolyzed with loss of glutamic acid and glycine resulting in a cysteine conjugate. These findings confirm a general route for the metabolism of cyclopentenone eicosanoids in HepG2 cells and may pave the way for new insights regarding the formation of 15-d-PGJ2 in vivo.

  9. Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Activity of Chickweed [Stellaria media (L. Vill.] Extracts in HepG2.2.15 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghao Xie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Stellaria media (Linn. Villars is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for over 200 years, mainly for the treatment of dermatitis and other skin diseases. It has also been used as an anti-viral agent. All the fresh chickweed juice samples used in this study were prepared using macroporous resin and ultrafiltration technology. The anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV activity of S. media was evaluated in vitro using the human HBV-transfected liver cell line HepG2.2.15. The concentrations of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg in HepG2.2.15 cell culture medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA after S. media-n (SM-n treatment for 6 or 9 days. HBV DNA was quantified using transcription-mediated amplification and real-time polymerase chain reaction. In HepG2.2.15 cells, 30 μg/mL SM-3 effectively suppressed the secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg with inhibition rates of 27.92% and 25.35% after 6 days of treatment, respectively. Consistent with the reduction in HBV antigens, SM-3 also reduced the level of HBV DNA in a dose-dependent manner. The characterization and quantitation of the chemical composition of SM-3 showed the presence of flavonoid C-glycosides, polysaccharides, and protein, which exhibited diverse antiviral activities. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that SM-3 possesses potential anti-HBV activity in vitro. This is the first report demonstrating the anti-HBV effects of S. media, which is currently under early development as a potential anti-HBV drug candidate.

  10. Potency of turmeric (Curcuma longa L. extract and curcumin as anti-obesity by inhibiting the cholesterol and triglycerides synthesis in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Budiman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipocytes accumulate triacylglycerol when excessive food consumption. Adipocyte dysfunction plays an important role in the obesity development. People with a body weight 40 % heavier than the average body weight population at risk of death two times greater than the average body weight. The use of anti-obesity drugs have many side effects, so it is necessary to find the anti-obesity drug with low toxicity. This ex vivo study was conducted to determine the activity of C. longa L. extract in inhibiting triglycerides and cholesterol synthesis and lipid droplet formation on HepG2 cells compared to curcumin. Methods: Anti-obesity activity includes reduced formation of lipid droplet in HepG2 cells can be observed using oil red O staining method. The measurement of triglyceride level was performed according to Randox protocol using Randox TR 210 assay kit. Lipolytic activity by measuring cholesterol levels was performed based on Randox CH 200 kits. Results: This study suggested that the extract of C. longa L. and curcumin have potential anti-obesity compounds. C. longa L. extract have higher activity in inhibiting triglycerides and cholesterol synthesis compared to curcumin with inhibition activities 70.43% and 66.38% respectively in the highest concentration. Conclusion: The C. longa extract posses the anti-adipogenesis potential on inhibiting the synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol and lipid droplet formation in HepG2 cell as anti-obesity parameters better than curcumin. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(5.000: 1165-1171

  11. USF-1 inhibition protects against oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-induced apoptosis via the downregulation of miR-132 in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renjie; Liang, Haiqian; Li, Hui; Dou, Herong; Zhang, Minghua; Baobuhe; Du, Zhenhua; Gao, Mojie; Wang, Ruimin

    2014-04-18

    Upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF-1) is an important transcription factor that participates in glucose metabolism and tumorigenesis. The aim of the current study was to explore the regulatory mechanism of USF-1 in HepG2 cells exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). After the establishment of the OGD model in HepG2 cells, we determined that the cells treated with OGD exhibited a high apoptotic rate and that the introduction of siRNA against USF-1 protected the cells from OGD-induced apoptosis. The miRNA microarray results demonstrated that a set of miRNAs were deregulated in the cells transfected with USF-1 siRNA, and the set of downregulated miRNAs included a novel miRNA, miR-132. Further analyses indicated that miR-132 overexpression inhibits the protective roles of USF-1 siRNA in OGD-induced apoptosis. We also identified several binding sites for USF-1 in the miR-132 promoter. The silencing of USF-1 resulted in a reduction in miR-132 expression, and USF-1 overexpression increased the expression of this miRNA. Our study indicated that the silencing of USF-1 plays protective roles in OGD-induced apoptosis through the downregulation of miR-132, which indicates that the silencing of USF-1 may be a therapeutic strategy for the promotion of cancer cell survival under OGD conditions.

  12. lmmunofiuorescent Labeling of Human HepG2 Cells with CdTe Quantum Dot Probe Conjugated with Anti-pan CK MAb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Yu-jie; ZHANG Gui-zhen; WANG Qian; WANG Ya-li; WU Mei; DU Zhen-wu; ZHANG Jie; JIANG Ri-hua

    2011-01-01

    A relatively sensitive, specific, and photostable method for the detection of cytokeratin of cancer cells via conjugation with cadmium telluride quantum dots(CdTe QDs) was described. Water soluble CdTe QDs were conjugated to anti-pan-cytokeratin(CK) monoclonal antibody(MAb) through coupling reagent [1-ethyi-3-(3-dimethylamino propyl)carbodiimide, EDC] and the conjugates were purified by dialysis. The expression of pan CK protein in HepG2 cells was observed by immunocytochemistry and direct immunofluorescence via QDs-Ab conjugates respectively. Fluorescence intensity and photostability of QDs were compared with those of FITC(fiuorescein isothiocyanate). The results show that the QDs-Ab conjugates recognized specifically pan CK protein in HepG2 cells. Compared with FITC, CdTe QDs had higher brightness and photostability without obvious photobleaching under continuous exciting light illumination for 30 min and after the placement at room temperature for 3 d. The results indicate that conjugates of CdTe quantum dot with anti-pan CK MAb can be used for labeling cancer cells derived from epithelial tissues, which provides the basis for the detection of circulating tumor cells(CTCs).

  13. Inhibiting autophagy promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress and the ROS‑induced nod‑like receptor 3‑dependent proinflammatory response in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jia-Jing; Xie, Guangying; Zhang, Ning; Li, Yanbo

    2016-10-01

    Inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are key contributors to insulin resistance and metabolic disease, and interleukin (IL)‑1β is involved in insulin resistance. The present study aimed to investigated the role of autophagy in LPS‑induced ER stress and inflammation, which may provide evidence for controlling metabolic disease associated with inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced the activation of ER stress and the nod‑like receptor 3‑dependent expression of IL‑1β and caspase‑1, as shown by western blotting, which contributed to HepG2 cell death. This also involved the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and the autophagy signaling response, which are derived from the ER stress pathway. The percentage of apoptotic cells was measured by flow cytometry with fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. Reactive oxygen species formation was detected by flow cytometry using the peroxide sensitive fluorescent probe 2',7'‑dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Autophagy activation was measured by western blotting and confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, inhibiting autophagy promoted ER stress and the proinflammatory response in addition to cell death. These findings provide insights into the protective role of autophagy in LPS‑induced cell death and ER stress, and further identified the association of autophagy, ER stress and inflammation in HepG2 cells.

  14. Predictivity of dog co-culture model, primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells for the detection of hepatotoxic drugs in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atienzar, Franck A., E-mail: franck.atienzar@ucb.com [UCB Pharma SA, Non-Clinical Development, Chemin du Foriest, 1420 Braine-l' Alleud (Belgium); Novik, Eric I. [H mu rel Corporation, 675 U.S. Highway 1, North Brunswick, NJ 08902 (United States); Gerets, Helga H. [UCB Pharma SA, Non-Clinical Development, Chemin du Foriest, 1420 Braine-l' Alleud (Belgium); Parekh, Amit [H mu rel Corporation, 675 U.S. Highway 1, North Brunswick, NJ 08902 (United States); Delatour, Claude; Cardenas, Alvaro [UCB Pharma SA, Non-Clinical Development, Chemin du Foriest, 1420 Braine-l' Alleud (Belgium); MacDonald, James [Chrysalis Pharma Consulting, LLC, 385 Route 24, Suite 1G, Chester, NJ 07930 (United States); Yarmush, Martin L. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Dhalluin, Stéphane [UCB Pharma SA, Non-Clinical Development, Chemin du Foriest, 1420 Braine-l' Alleud (Belgium)

    2014-02-15

    Drug Induced Liver Injury (DILI) is a major cause of attrition during early and late stage drug development. Consequently, there is a need to develop better in vitro primary hepatocyte models from different species for predicting hepatotoxicity in both animals and humans early in drug development. Dog is often chosen as the non-rodent species for toxicology studies. Unfortunately, dog in vitro models allowing long term cultures are not available. The objective of the present manuscript is to describe the development of a co-culture dog model for predicting hepatotoxic drugs in humans and to compare the predictivity of the canine model along with primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. After rigorous optimization, the dog co-culture model displayed metabolic capacities that were maintained up to 2 weeks which indicates that such model could be also used for long term metabolism studies. Most of the human hepatotoxic drugs were detected with a sensitivity of approximately 80% (n = 40) for the three cellular models. Nevertheless, the specificity was low approximately 40% for the HepG2 cells and hepatocytes compared to 72.7% for the canine model (n = 11). Furthermore, the dog co-culture model showed a higher superiority for the classification of 5 pairs of close structural analogs with different DILI concerns in comparison to both human cellular models. Finally, the reproducibility of the canine system was also satisfactory with a coefficient of correlation of 75.2% (n = 14). Overall, the present manuscript indicates that the dog co-culture model may represent a relevant tool to perform chronic hepatotoxicity and metabolism studies. - Highlights: • Importance of species differences in drug development. • Relevance of dog co-culture model for metabolism and toxicology studies. • Hepatotoxicity: higher predictivity of dog co-culture vs HepG2 and human hepatocytes.

  15. MPEP阻断mGlu5抑制肝癌细胞HepG2增殖%Blockade of mGlu5 with MPEP could Inhibit HepG2 Cell Proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁记方; 张晨光; 王舒婷; 赵树东; 张红

    2013-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 ( mGlu5 ) is known to be involved in multiple pathophysiologic processes of the nervous system. mGlu5 was also closely related to the initiation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma ( HCC ). 2-Methyl-6-( phenylethyl) - pyridine (MPEP), as the specific antagonist of mGlu5 , could promote the apoptosis and inhibit the migration of hepatocellular carcinoma ( HCC) cells. The effect of MPEP on HCC cell proliferation was further explored. The results showed that treatment of HepG2 cells with MPEP dramatically down-regulated the viability of the cells in both presence and absence of fetal bovine serum. Moreover, it was found that MPEP treatment significantly attenuated colony formation of HepG2 cells, decreased the DNA synthesis as evidenced with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine ( EdU) incorporation assays. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis with flow cytometry indicated that MPEP treatment induced Gl arrest in HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, the activity of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) was down- regulated by MPEP. We also found that MPEP increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level of HepG2 cells; however, inhibition of ROS did not affect the inhibitory effect of MPEP. These results will provide new evidence for understanding the inhibitory effect of MPEP on HCC.%代谢型谷氨酸受体5 (metabotropic glutamate receptors 5,mGlu 5)在神经系统的多种病理生理过程中发挥重要作用.mGlu5与肝细胞癌的发生发展关系密切,其抑制剂2-甲基-6-(苯乙基)-吡啶(2-methyl-6-(phenylethyl)-pyridine,MPEP)能够促进肝癌细胞凋亡,抑制肝癌细胞的迁移.在此基础上,进一步探讨了MPEP与肝癌细胞增殖之间的关系.结果显示:在无血清和有血清的条件下,MPEP均能显著降低肝癌细胞HepG2的细胞活力.同时发现,有血清条件下MPEP能使HepG2细胞周期停滞在G1期,显著降低HepG2细胞的DNA合成能力和克隆形成能力,并能下调细胞增殖信号ERK通

  16. Protective Effects of Sweet Orange, Unshiu Mikan, and Mini Tomato Juice Powders on t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannat, Susoma; Ali, Md Yousof; Kim, Hyeung-Rak; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of juice powders from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck], unshiu mikan (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and mini tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and their major flavonoids, hesperidin, narirutin, and rutin in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. The increased reactive oxygen species and decreased glutathione levels observed in t-BHP-treated HepG2 cells were ameliorated by pretreatment with juice powders, indicating that the hepatoprotective effects of juice powders and their major flavonoids are mediated by induction of cellular defense against oxidative stress. Moreover, pretreatment with juice powders up-regulated phase-II genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), thereby preventing cellular damage and the resultant increase in HO-1 expression. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the juice powders confirmed that hesperidin, narirutin, and rutin were the key flavonoids present. Our results suggest that these fruit juice powders and their major flavonoids provide a significant cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, which is most likely due to the flavonoid-related bioactive compounds present, leading to the normal redox status of cells. Therefore, these fruit juice powders could be advantageous as bioactive sources for the prevention of oxidative injury in hepatoma cells. PMID:27752497

  17. The apoptotic effect of sunitinib on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and its mechanism%舒尼替尼促进人肝癌细胞HepG2的凋亡及其分子机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宇贤; 陈心彤; 蔡宋浩; 李玉华; 吴秉毅; 宋朝阳; 贺艳杰; 郭坤元

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨苹果酸舒尼替尼对人肝癌HepG2细胞凋亡的作用及其机制.方法:常规体外培养HepG2细胞,利用MTT法检测舒尼替尼杀伤HepG2细胞的IC50,Western blotting检测药物处理前后HepG2细胞分子靶点蛋白表达,膜联蛋白(Annexin-Ⅴ)/碘化丙啶(PI)双标法和TUNEL染色法检测舒尼替尼处理前后HepG2细胞凋亡情况,实时荧光定量PCR检测药物处理前后HepG2细胞凋亡基因mRNA的表达情况.结果:舒尼替尼杀伤HepG2细胞的IC50值为(3.22±0.50) μmol/L.以对HepG2细胞无明显抑制作用的剂量1μmol/L舒尼替尼处理HepG2细胞后,细胞内VEGFR1、VEGFR2、PDGFRα、Kit、FLT3蛋白表达均有不同水平下降(均P<0.05),HepG2细胞的凋亡率[(15.18±1.28)%vs(5.90±0.45)%,P<0.05]、凋亡指数(AI)[(23.54±4.73) vs (4.17±0.64),P<0.05]均显著升高.舒尼替尼处理HepG2细胞后,上调促凋亡基因Bax、NOXA、PUMA、P53 mRNA表达水平(均P<0.05),降低抑凋亡基因Bcl-2、X-IAP mRNA表达水平(均P<0.05).结论:舒尼替尼能够诱导肝癌HepG2细胞凋亡,其机制可能是通过上调促凋亡基因的表达及降低抑凋亡基因表达水平来实现的.

  18. TRAIL及其受体在咖啡因抑制肝癌细胞系HepG2增殖中的作用%The role of TRAIL and its receptors in the inhibitory effect of caffeine on the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕雄文; 李俊; 靳弟; 代雪飞; 吴宝明; 张磊

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨TRAIL及其受体在咖啡因(caffeine)抑制肝癌细胞系HepG2增殖中的作用.方法 HepG2细胞分别经caffeine、TRAIL及caffeine+TRAIL作用24 h,采用MTT法检测HepG2细胞增殖抑制情况,根据中效原理进行联合用药效应评价;流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡和细胞周期分布;Western blot法检测caffeine作用不同时间HepG2细胞中TRAIL受体相关蛋白的表达.结果 在1.25~20 mmol·L-1浓度范围内,caffeine明显抑制HepG2细胞增殖;在0.01275~0.2040 μmol·L-1浓度范围内,TRAIL可明显抑制HepG2细胞增殖. Caffeine联合TRAIL在多数效应范围内的合用指数小于1,具有协同作用.Caffeine 5 mmol·L-1和TRAIL 0.0510 μmol·L-1联合用药组HepG2细胞凋亡率明显高于各单独用药组,且两者联合用药对HepG2细胞周期具有明显的影响,使G0/G1期细胞比例明显增加,S期及G2/M期细胞比例明显减少;caffeine 5 mmol·L-1作用HepG2细胞24 h时,其DR4及DR5的表达量明显增加,而DcR1和DcR2的表达无改变.结论 TRAIL在caffeine抑制HepG2细胞增殖过程中具有一定的协同作用,其机制可能与caffeine上调HepG2细胞表面DR4、DR5的表达,联合TRAIL后能够进一步诱导凋亡及调节细胞周期有关.

  19. Effects of exogenous zinc on cell cycle, apoptosis and viability of MDAMB231, HepG2 and 293 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-hong; Li, Ke-jin; Mao, Li; Hu, Xin; Zhao, Wen-jie; Hu, An; Lian, Hong-zhen; Zheng, Wei-juan

    2013-09-01

    As a non-toxic metal to humans, zinc is essential for cell proliferation, differentiation, regulation of DNA synthesis, genomic stability and mitosis. Zinc homeostasis in cells, which is crucial for normal cellular functioning, is maintained by various protein families including ZnT (zinc transporter/SLC30A) and ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-like proteins/SLC39A) that decrease and increase cytosolic zinc availability, respectively. In this study, we investigated the influences of a specific concentration range of ZnSO4 on cell cycle and apoptosis by flow cytometry, and cell viability by MTT method in MDAMB231, HepG2 and 293 T cell lines. Fluorescent sensors NBD-TPEA and the counterstain for nuclei Hoechst 33342 were used to stain the treated cells for observing the localisation and amount of Zn(2+) via laser scanning confocal microscope. It was found that the influence manners of ZnSO4 on cell cycle, apoptosis and cell viability in various cell lines were different and corresponding to the changes of Zn(2+) content of the three cell lines, respectively. The significant increase on intracelluar zinc content of MDAMB231 cells resulted in cell death, G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased apoptotic fraction. Additionally, the mRNA expression levels of ZnT and ZIP families in the three cell lines, when treated with high concentration of ZnSO4, increased and decreased corresponding to their functions, respectively.

  20. Long Non-coding RNAs Expression Profile in HepG2 Cells Reveals the Potential Role of Long Non-coding RNAs in the Cholesterol Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea has been shown to improve cholesterol metabolism in animal studies, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this function have not been fully understood. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs have recently emerged as a major class of regulatory molecules involved in a broad range of biological processes and complex diseases. Our aim was to identify important lncRNAs that might play an important role in contributing to the benefits of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG on cholesterol metabolism. Methods: Microarrays was used to reveal the lncRNA and mRNA profiles in green tea polyphenol(--epigallocatechin gallate in cultured human liver (HepG2 hepatocytes treated with EGCG and bioinformatic analyses of the predicted target genes were performed to identify lncRNA-mRNA targeting relationships. RNA interference was used to investigate the role of lncRNAs in cholesterol metabolism. Results: The expression levels of 15 genes related to cholesterol metabolism and 285 lncRNAs were changed by EGCG treatment. Bioinformatic analysis found five matched lncRNA-mRNA pairs for five differentially expressed lncRNAs and four differentially expressed mRNA. In particular, the lncRNA AT102202 and its potential targets mRNA-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR were identified. Using a real-time polymerase chain reaction technique, we confirmed that EGCG down-regulated mRNA expression level of the HMGCR and up-regulated expression of AT102202. After AT102202 knockdown in HepG2, we observed that the level of HMGCR expression was significantly increased relative to the scrambled small interfering RNA control (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Our results indicated that EGCG improved cholesterol metabolism and meanwhile changed the lncRNAs expression profile in HepG2 cells. LncRNAs may play an important role in the cholesterol metabolism.

  1. Effect of TGF-β1 on FGFR4 expression in HepG2 cells%TGF-β1对人肝癌细胞株HepG2的FGFR4表达的影响及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江松敏; 蔡琳; 朱婷婷; 施立华; 金芩; 夏清海

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of TGF-(31 on expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) inhepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.MethodsThe expression of FGFR4 in HepG2 cells were detected by Western blot withthe different induction time (0, 0.5h, 2h, 6h, 12h, 16h, 24h) and different TGF-(31 dosage (Ong/ml, 0.01ng/ml, 0.1ng/ml, 1ng/ml, 5ng/ml). The effects on proliferation of HepG2 cells induced by combination of TGF-(31 with different FGFs were also observed. With the same concentration of TGF-(31, FGFR4 expression was increased by time extension (P<0.01); while the number of HepG2 cells was decreased accordingly (P<0.01). With the same time, FGFR4 expression was enhanced by increasing concentration of TGF-(31 (P<0.01); while the number of HepG2 cells was decreased accordingly (P<0.01). The combination of TGF-(31 with FGF1, 2, 7 promoted HepG2 proliferation (P<0.01), where with FGF21 the cell proliferation was inhibited (P< 0.01).TGF-(31 can induce FGFR4 expression and influence proliferation by combination with FGFs in human hepa-tocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.%目的 通过观察转化生长因子β1(TGF-β1)对肝癌细胞株HepG2的成纤维细胞生长因子受体4(FGFR4)表达的影响,探讨其抑制肝癌细胞增殖的作用机制.方法 采用Western blot方法检测不同诱导时间(0、0.5、2、6、12、16、24h)、不同TGF-β1浓度(0、0.01、0.1、1、5ng/ml)对HepG2的FGFR4表达的影响.同时观察TGF-β1与不同FGFs联合应用对肝癌细胞增殖的影响.结果 在相同TGF-β1浓度下,FGFR4的表达随时间的延长而增强(P<0.01),HepG2细胞数随时间的延长而减少(P<0.01).在相同诱导时间下,FGFR4的表达随TGF-β1浓度的增大而增强(P<0.01),HepG2细胞数随TGF-β1浓度增加而减少(P<0.01).TGF-β1对FGF1、FGF2、FGF7效应均有显著增强作用,可使相应HepG2细胞数显著增加(P<0.01);对FGF21效应具有显著抑制作用,可使相应HepG2细胞数显著减少(P<0.01).

  2. Antigenotoxic properties of Eruca sativa (rocket plant), erucin and erysolin in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells towards benzo(a)pyrene and their mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Evelyn; Schröder, Julia; Paulus, Stefanie; Brenk, Peter; Stahl, Thorsten; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, rocket plant (Eruca sativa) has gained greater importance as a vegetable and spice, especially among Europeans. E. sativa is a member of the Brassicaceae, which is considered to be an important chemopreventive plant family. In the present study, we assessed the chemopreventive potency and underlying mechanisms of extracts of E. sativa in HepG2 cells. No genotoxic effect could be observed in HepG2 cells treated with up to 50 microl/ml plant juice for 24 h when using the comet assay. In antigenotoxicity experiments, E. sativa extract reduced the benzo(a)pyrene-induced genotoxicity in a U-shaped manner. This effect was accompanied by a significant induction of glutathione S-transferase. No significant suppression of B(a)P-induced CYP1A1 protein expression or enzyme activity could be observed. Chemical analysis of the plant material by gas chromatography identified the isothiocyanates erucin, sulforaphane, erysolin and phenylethyl isothiocyanate. Results derived with the single ITC compounds support the assumption that their synergistic interaction is responsible for the strong antigenotoxicity of the plant material. The present study provided an assessment of the bioactive effects of rocket plant extract in a human cell culture system. This could help to evaluate the balance between beneficial vs. possible adverse effects of rocket plant consumption.

  3. Sphingolipid transport to the apical plasma membrane domain in human hepatoma cells is controlled by PKC and PKA activity : A correlation with cell polarity in HepG2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, MMP; Hoekstra, D

    1997-01-01

    The regulation of sphingolipid transport to the bile canalicular apical membrane in the well differentiated HepG2 hepatoma cells was studied. By employing fluorescent lipid analogs, trafficking in a transcytosis-dependent pathway and a transcytosis-independent ('direct') route between the trans-Golg

  4. Wogonin inhibits the proliferation and invasion, and induces the apoptosis of HepG2 and Bel7402 HCC cells through NF‑κB/Bcl-2, EGFR and EGFR downstream ERK/AKT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Tian, Shuo; Liu, Mei; Jian, Lingyan; Zhao, Limei

    2016-10-01

    The anticancer effects of the natural flavonoid, wogonin, have been reported. However, its molecular mechanisms of action have not yet been fully explored. In the present study, we aimed to examine the molecular mechanisms of action of wogonin and its effects on the biological behavior of the HepG2 and Bel7402 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. We also examined the effects of wogonin on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/Bcl-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, as well as on downstream pathways of EGFR, namely extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/AKT signaling. We found that treatment with wogonin inhibited the proliferation and invasion, and induced the apoptosis of the HepG2 and Bel7402 cells. In addition, treatment with wogonin decreased cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK4/6, Bcl-2 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) expression, and promoted the cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in a concentration-dependent manner. Further experiments revealed that wogonin inhibited NF-κB/Bcl-2 signaling by decreasing the IκB and p65 phosphorylation levels. Wogonin also inhibited the activation of the EGFR (Tyr845) signaling pathway, and that of downstream pathways of EGFR, namely ERK/AKT/MMP2 signaling. The depletion of EGFR by siRNA partly abolished the inhibitory effects of wogonin on cyclin D1, MMP2 expression. On the whole, our our findings demonstrate that wogonin effectively suppresses the proliferation, invasion and survival of HCC cells through the modulation of the NF-κB and EGFR signaling pathways.

  5. 缺氧诱导HepG2细胞脂类代谢紊乱的作用机制%Mechanism of hypoxia-induced disturbance of lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹日昇; 赵晓丹; 李硕; 任丽华; 陈伟煦; 施瑞华

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨缺氧应激诱导肝癌HepG2细胞脂类代谢紊乱的作用机制.方法 分别在常氧及缺氧条件下培养HepG2细胞,采用尼罗红和非律平Ⅲ荧光染色分别检测细胞脂质和游离胆固醇蓄积,实时定量PCR和Western blot法检测胆固醇及脂肪酸代谢相关基因的表达.结果 与常氧条件相比,缺氧处理后HepG2细胞中脂类物质及游离胆固醇蓄积显著增加,胆固醇及脂肪酸外排、分解代谢相关基因表达受到抑制,脂肪酸摄取途径基因表达增强.结论 缺氧应激通过调节脂类摄取、外排及分解途径作用于细胞内脂类代谢紊乱,为缺氧性脂类代谢综合疾病的治疗提供了新思路.%Objective To investigate the underlying for hypoxia-induced disturbance of lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells of hepatic carcinoma.Methods The HepG2 cells were cultured under normoxia and hypoxia conditions at different times.Accumulations of intracellular lipid and free cholesterol were detected by Nile Red and Filipin Ⅲ] staining,respectively.The expressions of key genes relevant to cholesterol and lipid metabolism were determined by RQ-PCR and Western blot.Results Compared with normoxia group,the levels of intracellular lipid and free cholesterol were significantly increased,the expressions of key genes relevant to excretion and catabolism of cholesterol and fatty acid were downregulated,while gene expressions in fatty acid uptake pathway were upregulated in hypoxia-treated HepG2 cells.Conclusion Hypoxia can induce dysturbance of lipid metabolism by regulating uptake,catabolism and excretion of fatty acid and cholesterol,which may provide a new clue for the treatment of hypoxic lipid metabolism syndrome.

  6. EX VIVO STUDY OF GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L. (MANGOSTEEN PEEL EXTRACT AND XANTHONES AS ANTI-ADIPOGENESIS IN HEPG2 CELL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusiana Darsono, Meilinah Hidayat, Maesaroh Maesaroh, Nurul Fauziah, Wahyu Widowati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-adipogenesis is one of proposed mechanism for anti-obesity. Adipogenesis regulation of obesity is important, so identification of anti-adipogenic activity is a potential strategy to find anti-obesity agent. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-adipogenesis potential of Garcinia mangostana L. peel extract (GMPE compared to xanthones in HepG2 cells line as model. Material and Methods: GMPE was performed based on maceration method using distilated ethanol 70% as the solvent. The level of triglyceride and cholesterol and the inhibitory activity of triglyceride (TG and cholesterol (CHOL in HepG2 cells were assayed and determined as the anti-adipogenesis parameter. Results: The most active subtance to lower the triglyceride level was showed by GMPE in every concentration followed by the garcinone-C, γ-mangostin, garcinone-D and α-mangostin respectivelly. The highest activity to decrease the cholesterol level was showed by GMPE and followed by γ-mangostin, α-mangostin, garcinone-c, garcinone-d respectively. Conclusion: GMPE posses the anti-adipogenesis potential in inhibiting TG and CHOL synthesis was better than any other xanthone (α-mangostin, γ-mangostin, garcinone-C and garcinone-D.

  7. Effect of Cudrania tricuspidata and Kaempferol in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Inflammation and Hepatic Insulin Resistance in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ok-Kyung; Jun, Woojin; Lee, Jeongmin

    2016-01-21

    In this study, we quantitated kaempferol in water extract from Cudrania tricuspidata leaves (CTL) and investigated its effects on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. The concentration of kaempferol in the CTL was 5.07 ± 0.08 mg/g. The HepG2 cells were treated with 300 µg/mL of CTL, 500 µg/mL of CTL, 1.5 µg/mL of kaempferol or 2.5 µg/mL of kaempferol, followed immediately by stimulation with 100 nM of thapsigargin for ER stress induction for 24 h. There was a marked increase in the activation of the ER stress and inflammation response in the thapsigargin-stimulated control group. The CTL treatment interrupted the ER stress response and ER stress-induced inflammation. Kaempferol partially inhibited the ER stress response and inflammation. There was a significant increase in serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and the expression of C/EBPα and gluconeogenic genes in the thapsigargin-stimulated control group compared to the normal control. Both CTL and kaempferol suppressed serine phosphorylation of IRS-1, and the treatments did not interrupt the C/EBPα/gluconeogenic gene pathway. These results suggest that kaempferol might be the active compound of CTL and that it might protect against ER stress-induced inflammation and hyperglycemia.

  8. The Compound of Mangiferin-Berberine Salt Has Potent Activities in Modulating Lipid and Glucose Metabolisms in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mangiferin-berberine (MB salt was synthesized by ionic bonding of mangiferin (M and berberine (B at an equal molecular ratio. This study aimed to investigate the activities of MB salt in modulating lipid and glucose metabolisms in HepG2 cells. After 24 h treatment of the studying compounds, cellular AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC protein levels and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT 1 activities, intracellular lipid contents, mRNA expression levels of target genes, glucose consumption, and glucose production amounts were determined. Compound C (CC was used in the blocking experiments. Our results showed that MB salt increased p-AMPKα (Thr172/p-ACC (Ser79 levels and CPT1 activity and suppressed oleic acid- (OA- induced lipid accumulation and upregulation of lipogenic genes potently in HepG2 cells. The above activities of MB salt were AMPK dependent and were superior to those of M or B when administered at an equal molar concentration. MB salt enhanced basal and insulin-stimulated glucose consumption and suppressed gluconeogenesis more potently than M or B alone. The inhibiting activity of MB salt on cellular gluconeogenesis was AMPK dependent. Our results may support MB salt as a new kind of agent for the development of novel lipid or glucose-lowering drugs in the future.

  9. Diosgenin and 5-Methoxypsoralen Ameliorate Insulin Resistance through ER-α/PI3K/Akt-Signaling Pathways in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects and the underlying mechanism of diosgenin (DSG and 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP, two main active components in the classical Chinese prescription Hu-Lu-Ba-Wan (HLBW, on insulin resistance, HepG2 cells were incubated in medium containing insulin. Treatments with DSG, 5-MOP, and their combination were performed, respectively. The result showed that the incubation of HepG2 cells with high concentration insulin markedly decreased glucose consumption and glycogen synthesis. However, treatment with DSG, 5-MOP, or their combination significantly reversed the condition and increased the phosphorylated expression of estrogen receptor-α (ERα, sarcoma (Src, Akt/protein kinase B, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, and the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85 (PI3Kp85. At the transcriptional level, expression of the genes mentioned above also increased except for the negative regulation of GSK-3β mRNA. The increased expression of glucose transport-4 (GLUT-4 was meanwhile observed through immunofluorescence. Nevertheless, the synergistic effect of DSG and 5-MOP on improving glycometabolism was not obvious in the present study. These results suggested that DSG and 5-MOP may improve insulin resistance through an ER-mediated PI3K/Akt activation pathway which may be a new strategy for type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially for women in an estrogen-deficient condition.

  10. N-methylpyridinium, a degradation product of trigonelline upon coffee roasting, stimulates respiratory activity and promotes glucose utilization in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Annett; Hochkogler, Christina Maria; Lang, Roman; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-03-01

    N-Methylpyridinium (NMP) is a thermal degradation product of trigonelline formed upon coffee roasting and hypothesized to exert several health benefits in humans. Since for trigonelline evidence for hypoglycemic effects exists, we examined whether NMP also affects mechanisms of glucose utilization and cellular energy formation. For this purpose, the impact of trigonelline and NMP on respiratory activity, extracellular acidification, cellular adenosine nucleotides, energy supply from fatty acids and glucose as well as thermogenesis in HepG2 cells was analyzed. A 24 hour incubation with nanomolar concentrations of NMP enhanced oxygen consumption rates, resulting in increased ATP levels. Glucose was identified as the prevalent energy substrate as its uptake was augmented up to 18.1% ± 7.44% by NMP at 0.09 μM, whereas the uptake of fatty acids decreased upon NMP treatment. Cellular glucose uptake was also stimulated by trigonelline administration; however, a shift to the anaerobic energy production pathway was monitored. Both pyridine derivatives induced thermogenesis, although trigonelline presumably promoted proton leaks, while NMP increased the concentration of the uncoupling protein-2. We provide evidence that both compounds appear to stimulate cellular energy metabolism in HepG2 cells. Human intervention studies are warranted to ensure these effects in vivo.

  11. The Compound of Mangiferin-Berberine Salt Has Potent Activities in Modulating Lipid and Glucose Metabolisms in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Wu, Wei; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2016-01-01

    The mangiferin-berberine (MB) salt was synthesized by ionic bonding of mangiferin (M) and berberine (B) at an equal molecular ratio. This study aimed to investigate the activities of MB salt in modulating lipid and glucose metabolisms in HepG2 cells. After 24 h treatment of the studying compounds, cellular AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα)/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) protein levels and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1 activities, intracellular lipid contents, mRNA expression levels of target genes, glucose consumption, and glucose production amounts were determined. Compound C (CC) was used in the blocking experiments. Our results showed that MB salt increased p-AMPKα (Thr172)/p-ACC (Ser79) levels and CPT1 activity and suppressed oleic acid- (OA-) induced lipid accumulation and upregulation of lipogenic genes potently in HepG2 cells. The above activities of MB salt were AMPK dependent and were superior to those of M or B when administered at an equal molar concentration. MB salt enhanced basal and insulin-stimulated glucose consumption and suppressed gluconeogenesis more potently than M or B alone. The inhibiting activity of MB salt on cellular gluconeogenesis was AMPK dependent. Our results may support MB salt as a new kind of agent for the development of novel lipid or glucose-lowering drugs in the future.

  12. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protects against Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage by Modulating Inflammatory Mediators in Mice and HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Dae Lim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan is an l-fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on alcohol-induced murine liver damage. Liver injury was induced by oral administration of 25% alcohol with or without fucoidan (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg for seven days. Alcohol administration increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, but these increases were suppressed by the treatment of fucoidan. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, a liver fibrosis-inducing factor, was highly expressed in the alcohol-fed group and human hepatoma HepG2 cell; however, the increase in TGF-β1 expression was reduced following fucoidan administration. Treatment with fucoidan was also found to significantly reduce the production of inflammation-promoting cyclooygenase-2 and nitric oxide, while markedly increasing the expression of the hepatoprotective enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1, on murine liver and HepG2 cells. Taken together, the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of fucoidan on alcohol-induced liver damage may provide valuable insights into developing new therapeutics or interventions.

  13. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus protects against alcohol-induced liver damage by modulating inflammatory mediators in mice and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Dae; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Taeseong; Jang, Seon-A; Kang, Se Chan; Koo, Hyun Jung; Sohn, Eunsoo; Bak, Jong Phil; Namkoong, Seung; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Song, In Sung; Kim, Nari; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Han, Jin

    2015-02-16

    Fucoidan is an l-fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on alcohol-induced murine liver damage. Liver injury was induced by oral administration of 25% alcohol with or without fucoidan (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg) for seven days. Alcohol administration increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, but these increases were suppressed by the treatment of fucoidan. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), a liver fibrosis-inducing factor, was highly expressed in the alcohol-fed group and human hepatoma HepG2 cell; however, the increase in TGF-β1 expression was reduced following fucoidan administration. Treatment with fucoidan was also found to significantly reduce the production of inflammation-promoting cyclooygenase-2 and nitric oxide, while markedly increasing the expression of the hepatoprotective enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1, on murine liver and HepG2 cells. Taken together, the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of fucoidan on alcohol-induced liver damage may provide valuable insights into developing new therapeutics or interventions.

  14. Effect of the venom of the spider Macrothele raveni on the expression of p21 gene in HepG2 cells%雷氏大疣蛛毒液对人肝癌HepG2细胞p21基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉; 沈金宝; 孙捷; 单保恩

    2007-01-01

    本文研究了雷氏大疣蛛毒液对人肝癌细胞株HepG2增殖抑制作用及其分子机制.采用XTT法观察到雷氏大疣蛛毒液剂量依赖抑制HepG2细胞增殖;流式细胞仪检测发现,经过雷氏大疣蛛毒液作用的HepG2细胞周期发生明显的选择性改变;RT-PCR方法检测到p21基因表达增强;Western blot检测发现,p21蛋白表达增加.结果提示,雷氏大疣蛛毒液抑制人肝癌细胞HepG2增殖的可能机制之一是使p21基因和蛋白表达增加,G2/M细胞周期被阻滞,从而诱导细胞凋亡.%This paper focuses on the effect of the venom of the spider Macrothele raveni on the proliferation of human hepatocelluar carcinoma cell line HepG2 and the related molecular mechanism. XTT test showed that the proliferation of HepG2 cells in vitro was inhibited by the spider venom (P<0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner. By using flow cytometry, it was found that the spider venom caused selective G2/M cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells. RT-PCR and Western blot indicated the expressions of p21 mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells were obviously up-regulated by the spider venom. The venom of the spider Macrothele raveni inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells. These results suggest that the possible mechanism of the spider venom is to activate the expressions of p21 gene and protein and to cause selective cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, leading to HepG2 cell apoptosis.

  15. Effect of Oleanic Acid on Key Enzyme Activity in Insulin-Resistant HepG2 Cell Line%齐墩果酸对胰岛素抵抗 HepG2关键酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓峰; 周建

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of oleanic acid on key enzyme activity in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. Methods The HepG2 cells were divided into normal control,model control,metformin,and oleanic acid groups.Glycogen content in insulin-resistant HepG2 cell model were detected by hepatic glycogen test kit upon treatment with oleanic acid.Activities of glucokinase ( GK) ,phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PEPCK),and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) were assayed by the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase coupling colorimetric, lactate dehydrogenase coupling colorimetric and ammonium molybdate constant phosphorus methods. Results The oleanic acid enhanced glucose consumption,lowered the activity of G-6-Pase and PEPCK by 54.8% and 18.8%,respectively,and increased the activity of GK and glycogen content in also insulin-resistant HepG2 cells by 100.6% and 98.6%,respectively. Conclusion Aqueous extracts of shirako play a role in lowering PEPCK and G-6-Pase activities and inhibiting glucogenesis, resulting in the reduction of endogenous glucose in the cell. In addition,it can augment the activity of GK,accelerate the process of glucolysis,increase the glycogen content,and alleviate insulin resistance of HepG2.%目的:探讨齐墩果酸对胰岛素抵抗人肝癌细胞(HepG2)关键酶活性的影响。方法将 HepG2细胞分别设正常对照组、模型对照组、二甲双胍组、齐墩果酸组。采用肝糖原测定试剂盒检测齐墩果酸对胰岛素抵抗 HepG2细胞糖原含量的影响;采用葡萄糖-6-磷酸脱氢酶耦联比色法、乳酸脱氢酶耦联比色法及钼酸铵定磷法测定葡萄糖激酶(GK)、磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧激酶(PEPCK)和葡萄糖-6-磷酸酶( G-6-Pase)的活性。结果齐墩果酸能够促进胰岛素抵抗HepG2细胞的葡萄糖消耗,使 G-6-Pase 及 PEPCK 活性分别降低54.8%,18.8%,使 GK 活性和糖原含量分别升高100.6%,98.6%。结论齐墩果酸可降低胰岛素抵抗 HepG2细胞 G-6-Pase

  16. Adaptation of HepG2 cells to a steady-state reduction in the content of protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) catalytic subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boylan, Joan M. [Department of Pediatrics, Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Salomon, Arthur R. [Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Tantravahi, Umadevi [Division of Genetics, Department of Pathology, Brown University and Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Gruppuso, Philip A., E-mail: philip_gruppuso@brown.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) is a ubiquitous Ser/Thr phosphatase involved in an array of cellular processes. To assess the potential of PP6 as a therapeutic target in liver disorders, we attenuated expression of the PP6 catalytic subunit in HepG2 cells using lentiviral-transduced shRNA. Two PP6 knock-down (PP6KD) cell lines (90% reduction of PP6-C protein content) were studied in depth. Both proliferated at a rate similar to control cells. However, flow cytometry indicated G2/M cell cycle arrest that was accounted for by a shift of the cells from a diploid to tetraploid state. PP6KD cells did not show an increase in apoptosis, nor did they exhibit reduced viability in the presence of bleomycin or taxol. Gene expression analysis by microarray showed attenuated anti-inflammatory signaling. Genes associated with DNA replication were downregulated. Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic analysis yielded 80 phosphopeptides representing 56 proteins that were significantly affected by a stable reduction in PP6-C. Proteins involved in DNA replication, DNA damage repair and pre-mRNA splicing were overrepresented among these. PP6KD cells showed intact mTOR signaling. Our studies demonstrated involvement of PP6 in a diverse set of biological pathways and an adaptive response that may limit the effectiveness of targeting PP6 in liver disorders. - Highlights: • Lentiviral-transduced shRNA was used to generate a stable knockdown of PP6 in HepG2 cells. • Cells adapted to reduced PP6; cell proliferation was unaffected, and cell survival was normal. • However, PP6 knockdown was associated with a transition to a tetraploid state. • Genomic profiling showed downregulated anti-inflammatory signaling and DNA replication. • Phosphoproteomic profiling showed changes in proteins associated with DNA replication and repair.

  17. Gomisin J Inhibits Oleic Acid-Induced Hepatic Lipogenesis by Activation of the AMPK-Dependent Pathway and Inhibition of the Hepatokine Fetuin-A in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myungsuk; Lim, Sue Ji; Lee, Hee-Ju; Kim, Sun Young; Nho, Chu Won

    2015-11-11

    The aim of our study is to investigate the molecular mechanism of gomisin J from Schisandra chinensis on the oleic acid (OA)-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Gomisin J attenuated lipid accumulation in OA-induced HepG2 cells. It also suppressed the expression of lipogenic enzymes and inflammatory mediators and increased the expression of lipolytic enzymes in OA-induced HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the use of specific inhibitors and fetuin-A siRNA and liver kinase B1 (LKB1) siRNA transfected cells demonstrated that gomisin J regulated lipogenesis and lipolysis via inhibition of fetuin-A and activation of an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent pathway in HepG2 cells. Our results showed that gomisin J suppressed lipid accumulation by regulating the expression of lipogenic and lipolytic enzymes and inflammatory molecules through activation of AMPK, LKB1, and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and inhibition of fetuin-A in HepG2 cells. This suggested that gomisin J has potential benefits in treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  18. DNA and Proteomic Expression of Cervi parvum cornu Herbal-acupuncture Solution (CPC-HAS in HepG2 carcinomar cells

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    Ryu Sung-hyun

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : It has long been known about the osteogenic effect of CPC-HAS on bone tissues. However, it has not been determined the effect of CPC-HAS on cancer cells. The purpose of this study is to screen the CPC-HAS mediated differentially expressed genes in cancer cells such as HepG2 hepatoma cells. Oligonucleotide microarray and proteomics approaches were employed to screen the differential expression genes. Methods : CPC-HAS was prepared by boiling and stored at -70℃ until use. Cells were treated with various concentrations of CPC-HAS (0.1, 0.5, 1.5, 10, 20mg/㎖ for 24 h. Cell toxicity was tested by MTT assay. To screen the differentially expressed genes in cancer cells, cells were treated with 1.5mg/㎖ of CPC-HAS. For oligonucleotide microarray assay, total RNA was used for gene expression analysis using oligonucleotide Genechip(Human genome U133 Plus 2.0., Affimatrix Co.. For proteomic analysis, total protein was analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis and Q-TOF mass spectrometer. Results : It has no cytotoxic effects on both HepG2 cell in all concentrations(0.1, 0.5, 1.5, 10, 20mg/㎖. In oligonucleotide microarray assay, the number of more than twofold differentially regulated known genes was 23 with 5 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated genes in HepG2 cells. In proteomic analysis, three spots were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis and Q-TOF analysis. Two down-regulated proteins were aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 and enolase 1, and up-regulated protein was fatty acid binding protein 1 by 1.5mg/㎖ of CPC-HAS. Discussion : This study showed the screening of CPC-HAS mediated differentially regulated genes using combined approaches of oligonucleotide microarray and proteomic analysis. The screened genes will be used for the better understanding of the therapeutic effects of CPC-HAS on cancer fields.

  19. Lower concentrations of blueberry polyphenolic-rich extract differentially alter HepG2 cell proliferation and expression of genes related to cell-cycle, oxidation and epigenetic machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro cancer models have been used to study the effect of relatively high concentrations (>200 ug/ml) of phenolic plant extracts upon cell proliferation. In this study we report that the treatment of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells with lower concentrations of blueberry phenolic extract (6.5-10...

  20. Development of APTES-Decorated HepG2 Cancer Stem Cell Membrane Chromatography for Screening Active Components from Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuan; Cao, Yan; Yuan, Yongfang; Gong, Zhirong; Liu, Yue; Zhao, Liang; Lv, Lei; Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Dongyao; Jia, Dan; Zhu, Zhenyu; Hong, Zhanying; Chen, Xiaofei; Chai, Yifeng

    2016-12-20

    Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is an ideal method for screening potential active components acting on target cell membranes from a complex system, such as herbal medicines. But due to the decay and falling-off of membranes, the CMC column suffers from short life span and low reproducibility. This has greatly limited the application of this model, especially when the cell materials are hard to obtain. To solve this problem, a novel type of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES)-decorated silica gel was employed. The silica gel was decorated with aldehydes with the help of APTES, which react with the amino groups on cell membranes to form a covalent bond. In this way, cell membranes were immobilized on the surface of silica gel, so it is not easy for membranes to fall off. According to our investigation, the column life of the APTES-decorated group was prolonged to more than 12 days, while the control group showed a sharp decline in column efficiency in the first 3 days. To verify this model, a novel APTES-decorated HepG2 cancer stem cell membrane chromatography (CSCMC) was established and applied in a comprehensive two-dimensional chromatographic system to screen potential active components in Salvia miltiorrhiza. As a result, tanshinone IIA, cryptotanshinone, and dihydrotanshinone I were retained on this model and proved to be effective on HepG2 cancer stem cells by the following cell proliferation and apoptosis assay, with IC50 of 10.30 μM, 17.85 μM, and 2.53 μM, respectively. This improvement of CMC can significantly prolong its column life span and broaden the range of its application, which is very suitable for making invaluable or hard-to-obtain cell materials, such as stem cells, for specific drug screening.

  1. Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside regulates fatty acid metabolism via an AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling pathway in human HepG2 cells

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    Guo Honghui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic metabolic derangements are key components in the development of fatty liver disease. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1 pathway. In this study, cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-g, a typical anthocyanin pigment was used to examine its effects on AMPK activation and fatty acid metabolism in human HepG2 hepatocytes. Results Anthocyanin Cy-3-g increased cellular AMPK activity in a calmodulin kinase kinase dependent manner. Furthermore, Cy-3-g substantially induced AMPK downstream target ACC phosphorylation and inactivation, and then decreased malonyl CoA contents, leading to stimulation of CPT-1 expression and significant increase of fatty acid oxidation in HepG2 cells. These effects of Cy-3-g are largely abolished by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of AMPK. Conclusion This study demonstrates that Cy-3-g regulates hepatic lipid homeostasis via an AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Targeting AMPK activation by anthocyanin may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  2. Differences in TCDD-elicited gene expression profiles in human HepG2, mouse Hepa1c1c7 and rat H4IIE hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgoon Lyle D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD is an environmental contaminant that elicits a broad spectrum of toxic effects in a species-specific manner. Current risk assessment practices routinely extrapolate results from in vivo and in vitro rodent models to assess human risk. In order to further investigate the species-specific responses elicited by TCDD, temporal gene expression responses in human HepG2, mouse Hepa1c1c7 and rat H4IIE cells were compared. Results Microarray analysis identified a core set of conserved gene expression responses across species consistent with the role of AhR in mediating adaptive metabolic responses. However, significant species-specific as well as species-divergent responses were identified. Computational analysis of the regulatory regions of species-specific and -divergent responses suggests that dioxin response elements (DREs are involved. These results are consistent with in vivo rat vs. mouse species-specific differential gene expression, and more comprehensive comparative DRE searches. Conclusions Comparative analysis of human HepG2, mouse Hepa1c1c7 and rat H4IIE TCDD-elicited gene expression responses is consistent with in vivo rat-mouse comparative gene expression studies, and more comprehensive comparative DRE searches, suggesting that AhR-mediated gene expression is species-specific.

  3. Preparation of curcumin microemulsions with food-grade soybean oil/lecithin and their cytotoxicity on the HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Chuan; Lin, Hung-Yin; Chi, Ming-Hung; Shen, Chin-Min; Chen, Hwan-Wen; Yang, Wen-Jen; Lee, Mei-Hwa

    2014-07-01

    The choice of surfactants and cosurfactants for preparation of oral formulation in microemulsions is limited. In this report, a curcumin-encapsulated phospholipids-based microemulsion (ME) using food-grade ingredients soybean oil and soybean lecithin to replace ethyl oleate and purified lecithin from our previous study was established and compared. The results indicated soybean oil is superior to ethyl oleate as the oil phase in curcumin microemulsion, as proven by the broadened microemulsion region with increasing range of surfactant/soybean oil ratio (approx. 1:1-12:1). Further preparation of two formula with different particle sizes of formula A (30nm) and B (80nm) exhibited differential effects on the cytotoxicity of hepatocellular HepG2 cell lines. At 15μM of concentration, curcumin-ME in formula A with smaller particle size resulted in the lowest viability (approx. 5%), which might be explained by increasing intake of curcumin, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-ME is exclusively prominent on HepG2, not on HEK293, which showed over 80% of viability at 15μM. The results from this study might provide an innovative applied technique in the area of nutraceuticals and functional foods.

  4. Potentiation of LPS-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells by Aspirin via ROS and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Protection by N-Acetyl Cysteine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity and inflammation-associated toxic responses have been observed to be induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS in vitro and in vivo respectively. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as aspirin, has been reported to be beneficial in inflammation-associated diseases like cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Their precise molecular mechanisms, however, are not clearly understood. Our previous studies on aspirin treated HepG2 cells strongly suggest cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we have further demonstrated that HepG2 cells treated with LPS alone or in combination with aspirin induces subcellular toxic responses which are accompanied by increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS production, oxidative stress, mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and apoptosis. The LPS/Aspirin induced toxicity was attenuated by pre-treatment of cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC. Alterations in oxidative stress and glutathione-dependent redox-homeostasis were more pronounced in mitochondria compared to extra- mitochondrial cellular compartments. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with NAC exhibited a selective protection in redox homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that the altered redox metabolism, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in HepG2 cells play a critical role in LPS/aspirin-induced cytotoxicity. These results may help in better understanding the pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic properties of NSAIDs in cancer cells exposed to bacterial endotoxins.

  5. Role of PCSK9 and IDOL in curcumin accelerating LDL-C uptake in HepG2 cells%PCSK9及 IDOL 在姜黄素促进 HepG2细胞摄取 LDL-C 中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧露; 张彩平; 刘英; 乔新惠; 麻燕妮; 欧淳; 胡小波; 田英; 龙石银

    2015-01-01

    Aim To explore the lipid-lowering mecha-nisms of curcumin from the molecular levels and pro-vide scientific basis for clinical development of lipid-lowering drugs.Methods Using oil red O staining and enzymic to determinate the levels of cholesterol in HepG2 cells.Moreover,uptaking of DiI-LDL was also measured.The expressions of mRNA and protein were detected by RT-Q-PCR and Western blot.Results The red lipid droplets and the levels of TC and FC sig-nificantly increased in HepG2 cells after treated with curcumin.The orange red fluorescence was higher than that of control.Curcumin could promote the expression levels of mRNA and protein of SREBP2 and LDLR, what′s more,curcumin could reduce the expression of the mature PCSK9 level and IDOL protein.Conclu-sion Curcumin accelerates LDL-C uptake probably via downregulating the expression of PCSK9 and IDOL in HepG2 cells.%目的:从分子水平探讨姜黄素的降脂机制,为姜黄素作为降脂药物的临床开发提供科学依据。方法本研究运用油红 O 染色、酶法测定细胞内胆固醇含量,荧光染色检测细胞胆固醇摄取,RT-Q-PCR 及 Western blot 检测姜黄素对HepG2细胞内胆固醇代谢相关因子在 RNA 和蛋白水平的表达。结果姜黄素组的 HepG2细胞内红色脂滴明显增多,且TC 及 FC 含量增高。DiI 标记 LDL,姜黄素组 HepG2细胞橙红色荧光高于对照组。姜黄素能升高 SREBP2和 LDLR 的mRNA 和蛋白水平的表达;降低 PCSK9蛋白成熟体及 IDOL蛋白表达。结论姜黄素可能通过下调 PCSK9及 IDOL 的表达,进而减少 LDLR 降解,促进 HepG2细胞摄取 LDL-C。

  6. DNA-PKcs deficiency sensitizes the human hepatoma HepG2 cells to cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil through suppression of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Chai, Zongtao; Wang, Dansong; Kuang, Tiantao; Wu, Wenchuan; Lou, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DNA-PKcs deficiency on the chemosensitivity of human hepatoma HepG2 cells to cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu), and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. After transfection with DNA-PKcs siRNA or control siRNA, HepG2 cells were exposed to combination treatment of CDDP and 5-Fu. The cell viability, DNA damage, cell apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species and glutathione (GSH) level, expression of apoptosis related proteins, activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathway, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways were assessed. The combination of CDDP and 5-Fu had a synergistic cytotoxic effect in HepG2 cells in terms of the cell viability, DNA damage, apoptosis, and oxidative stress level. DNA-PKcs siRNA could sensitize the HepG2 cells to the combined treatment. DNA-PKcs suppression further reduced the Akt phosphorylation level and Bcl-2 expression in HepG2 cells exposed to CDDP and 5-Fu, but enhanced the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins p53 and caspase-3. Moreover, CDDP could inhibit the transcriptional activity of NF-κB through degradation of IkB-α, while 5-Fu alone seemed in some extent increases the NF-κB activity. The combined treatment with CDDP and 5-Fu resulted in significantly decrease of the transcriptional activity of NF-κB, which was further aggravated by DNA-PKcs siRNA treatment. In conclusion, DNA-PKcs suppression had complementary effects in combination with CDDP and 5-Fu treatment in HepG2 cells, which was associated with suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway cascade, activation of caspase-3 and p53, as well as down-regulation of Bcl-2 and GSH.

  7. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity and regulate the apoptotic genes through ROS in human liver cells (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Khan, M A Majeed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alshamsan, Aws

    2016-12-01

    Cobalt iron oxide (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (CIO NPs) have been one of the most widely explored magnetic NPs because of their excellent chemical stability, mechanical hardness and heat generating potential. However, there is limited information concerning the interaction of CIO NPs with biological systems. In this study, we investigated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated cytotoxicity and apoptotic response of CIO NPs in human liver cells (HepG2). Diameter of crystalline CIO NPs was found to be 23nm with a band gap of 1.97eV. CIO NPs induced cell viability reduction and membrane damage, and degree of induction was dose- and time-dependent. CIO NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress revealed by induction of ROS, depletion of glutathione and lower activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme. Real-time PCR data has shown that mRNA level of tumor suppressor gene p53 and apoptotic genes (bax, CASP3 and CASP9) were higher, while the expression level of anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was lower in cells following exposure to CIO NPs. Activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9 enzymes was also higher in CIO NPs exposed cells. Furthermore, co-exposure of N-acetyl-cysteine (ROS scavenger) efficiently abrogated the modulation of apoptotic genes along with the prevention of cytotoxicity caused by CIO NPs. Overall, we observed that CIO NPs induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HepG2 cells through ROS via p53 pathway. This study suggests that toxicity mechanisms of CIO NPs should be further investigated in animal models.

  8. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Squamous cell carcinoma Overview Squamous cell carcinoma: This man's skin ... a squamous cell carcinoma on his face. Squamous cell carcinoma: Overview Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a ...

  9. Purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) fruit and their effects on glucose consumption in human HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiukai; Sun, Chongde; Yan, Youyou; Chen, Qingjun; Luo, Fenglei; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2012-12-01

    Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) is rich in naringin and neohesperidin, which are natural flavanone glycosides with a range of biological activities. Among the different fruit parts, i.e. flavedo, albedo, segment membrane (SM), and juice sacs (JS), albedo showed the highest contents of both compounds, with 27.00 and 19.09mg/g DW for naringin and neohesperidin, respectively. Efficient simultaneous purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou albedo was established by the combination of macroporous D101 resin chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified naringin and neohesperidin were identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and their effects on glucose consumption were investigated in HepG2 cells. Cells treated with naringin and neohesperidin showed increased consumption of glucose, and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Therefore, naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou may act as potential hypoglycaemic agents through regulation of glucose metabolism.

  10. Hepatotoxic effect of ochratoxin A and citrinin, alone and in combination, and protective effect of vitamin E: In vitro study in HepG2 cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Loganathan; Dhivya, Rajakumar; Dhanasekaran, Dharumadurai; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri S; Alshatwi, Ali A; Akbarsha, Mohammad A

    2015-09-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CTN) are the most commonly co-occurring mycotoxins in a wide variety of food and feed commodities. The major target organ of these toxins is kidney but liver could also be a target organ. The combined toxicity of these two toxins in kidney cells has been studied but not in liver cell. In this study HepG2 cells were exposed to OTA and CTN, alone and in combination, with a view to compare the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying OTA, CTN and OTA + CTN hepatotoxicity. OTA and CTN alone as well as in combination affected the viability of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. OTA + CTN, at a dose of 20% of IC50 of each, produced effect almost similar to that produced by either of the toxins at its IC50 concentration, indicating that the two toxins in combination act synergistically. The cytotoxicity of OTA + CTN on hepatocytes is mediated by increased level of intracellular ROS followed/accompanied by DNA strand breaks and mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis. Co-treatment of vitamin E (Vit E) with OTA, CTN and OTA + CTN reduced the levels of ROS and the cytotoxicity. But the genotoxic effect of OTA and OTA + CTN was not completely alleviated by Vit E treatment whereas the DNA damage as caused by CTN when treated alone was obviated, indicating that OTA induces DNA damage directly whereas CTN induces ROS-mediated DNA damage and OTA + CTN combination induces DNA damage not exclusively relying on but influenced by ROS generation. Taken together, these findings indicate that OTA and CTN in combination affect hepatocytes at very low concentrations and, thereby, pose a potential threat to public and animal health.

  11. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA complex in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotnik, Breda; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila; Filipič, Metka; Žegura, Bojana

    2016-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) are common environmental pollutants and can be present in high concentrations in surface waters at the same time. Therefore, chelation of Cr with EDTA can occur and thereby stable Cr(III)-EDTA complex is formed. Since there are no literature data on Cr(III)-EDTA toxicity, the aim of our work was to evaluate and compare Cr(III)-EDTA cytotoxic and genotoxic activity with those of Cr(VI) and Cr(III)-nitrate in human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line. First the effect of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on cell viability was studied in the concentration range from 0.04 μg mL(-1) to 25 μg mL(-1) after 24 h exposure. Further the influence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on DNA damage and genomic stability was determined with the comet assay and cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay, respectively. Cell viability was decreased only by Cr(VI) at concentrations above 1.0 μg mL(-1). Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1) and Cr(III) at ≥1.0 μg mL(-1) induced DNA damage, while after Cr(III)-EDTA exposure no formation DNA strand breaks was determined. Statistically significant formation of micronuclei was induced only by Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1), while no influence on the frequency of nuclear buds nor nucleoplasmic bridges was observed at any exposure. This study provides the first evidence that Cr(III)-EDTA did not induce DNA damage and had no influence on the genomic stability of HepG2 cells.

  12. Plasmatic concentration of organochlorine lindane acts as metabolic disruptors in HepG2 liver cell line by inducing mitochondrial disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarbia, Mohammed el Amine [LUNAM Université, Angers (France); Inserm 1063, Angers (France); Macherel, David [LUNAM Université, Angers (France); UMR 1345 IRHS, Angers (France); Faure, Sébastien; Jacques, Caroline; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson [LUNAM Université, Angers (France); Inserm 1063, Angers (France); Malthièry, Yves, E-mail: yves.malthiery@univ-angers.fr [LUNAM Université, Angers (France); Inserm 1063, Angers (France)

    2013-10-15

    Lindane (LD) is a persistent environmental pollutant that has been the subject of several toxicological studies. However, concentrations used in most of the reported studies were relatively higher than those found in the blood of the contaminated area residents and effects of low concentrations remain poorly investigated. Moreover, effects on cell metabolism and mitochondrial function of exposure to LD have received little attention. This study was designed to explore the effects of low concentrations of LD on cellular metabolism and mitochondrial function, using the hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. Cells were exposed to LD for 24, 48 and 72 h and different parameters linked with mitochondrial regulation and energy metabolism were analyzed. Despite having any impact on cellular viability, exposure to LD at plasmatic concentrations led to an increase of maximal respiratory capacity, complex I activity, intracellular ATP and NO release but decreased uncoupled respiration to ATP synthesis and medium lactate levels. In addition, LD exposure resulted in the upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes. We suggest that, at plasmatic concentrations, LD acts as a metabolic disruptor through impaired mitochondrial function and regulation with an impact on cellular energetic metabolism. In addition, we propose that a cellular assay based on the analysis of mitochondria function, such as described here for LD, may be applicable for larger studies on the effects of low concentrations of xenobiotics, because of the exquisite sensitivity of this organelle. - Highlights: Our data clearly demonstrated in HepG2 cells that exposure at plasmatic low concentrations of LD were able to: • Impair mitochondrial function • Caused alteration on nucleo-mitochondrial cross-talk • Increase nitric oxide release and protein nitration • Impair cellular energetic metabolism and lipid accumulation.

  13. Evaluation of hepatitis B virus replication and proteornic analysis of HepG2.2.15 cell line after cyclosporine A treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-yang XIE; Wei-liang XIA; Chun-chao ZHANG; Li-ming WU; Hao-feng JI; Yu CHENG; Shu-sen ZHENG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The effect of cyclosporine A (CsA) on hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication was investigated, and proteomics expression differentiation after CsA treatment was studied in order to provide clues to explore the effect of CsA on HBV replication. Methods: Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of CsA. The HBV replication level in the HBV genomic DNA transfected HepG2.2.15 cell line was determined by an ELISA analysis of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) and Hepatitis B e antigens (HBeAg) in culture supernatant, while the intracellular HBV DNA replication level was ana-lyzed by slot blot hybridization. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to investigate the alteration of protein expression in HepG2.2.15 after CsA treatment in vitro. The differentially-expressed proteins were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry combined with an online database search. Results: CsA was able to inhibit the expression of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA replication in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. A proteomics analysis indicated that the expression of 17 proteins changed signifi-cantly in the CsA treatment group compared to the control group. Eleven of the 17 proteins were identified, including the overexpression of eukaryotic translation initiation factors (elF) 3k, otubain 1, 14.3.3 protein, elF2-1α, elF5A, and the tyrosine 3/tryptophan 5-mono-oxygenase activation protein in CsA-treated HepG2.2.15 cells. The down.regulation of the ferritin light subunit, erythrocyte cytosolic protein of 51 kDa (ECP-51), stathmin l/oncoprotein, adenine phosphoribosyl-transferase, and the position of a tumor protein, translationally-controlled 1, was shifted, suggesting it had undergone posttranslational modifications. Conclusion: Our study identified the inhibitory effect of CsA on HBV replication, and found that a group of proteins may be responsible for this inhibitory effect.

  14. Identiifcation of genes upregulated by recombinant inter feron-alpha in HepG2 cells by suppressive subtractive hybridization analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hui Qu; Jun Cheng; Ling-Xia Zhang; Li-Ying Zhang; Yan-Wei Zhong; Yan Liu; Lin Wang; Jiu-Zeng Dai; Dong-Ping Xu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is an important cytokine with multiple functions, but the target genes transactivated by IFN-αremain largely unknown. A study of such genes will help to understand the mechanism of function of IFN-α. To isolate the gene transcripts speciifcally upregulated by IFN-α in HepG2 cells, we conducted suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) analysis. METHODS: SSH was used to analyze the target genes transactivated by recombinant IFN-α protein, and a subtractive cDNA library was constructed from HepG2 cells treated with recombinant IFN-α (rIFN-α, 2000 IU/ml) for 16 hours as tester, and cells not treated with rIFN-αas driver. The SSH PCR products from the library were cloned into pGEM-T easy vector and with BLASTX, the positive clones were randomly selected, sequenced and compared to the database in GenBank of the 35 differentially expressed gene fragments from the library, 6 clones showed signiifcant homology to other known proteins. RESULTS: The subtractive cDNA library of genes upregulated by IFN-α was constructed successfully. rIFN-α upregulated the expression of the RAN binding protein 5 (RANBP5), NADH dehydrogenase, exosome component 3 (EXOSC3), zinc ifnger RNA binding protein, Dickkopf homolog 1 (DKK1) and acetyl-coenzyme A acetyltransferase 2 (ACAT2). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that rIFN-α can upregulate the expression of important genes to exert its functions, and provide new clues for discovering the molecular mechanisms of action of IFN-α.

  15. Body weight management effect of burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root is associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Daih-Huang; Hung, Ming-Chi; Hung, Chao-Ming; Liu, Li-Min; Chen, Fu-An; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2012-10-01

    Burdock (Arcticum lappa L.) root is used in folk medicine and also as a vegetable in Asian countries. In the present study, burdock root treatment significantly reduced body weight in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively extracted the burdock root with ethanol (AL-1), and fractionated it with n-hexane (AL-2), ethyl acetate (AL-3), n-butanol (AL-4), and water (AL-5). Among these fractions, AL-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potential in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. AL-2 decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through the LKB1 pathway. Three active compounds were identified from the AL-2, namely α-linolenic acid, methyl α-linolenate, and methyl oleate. These results suggest that burdock root is expected to be useful for body weight management.

  16. Long Non-coding RNAs Expression Profile in HepG2 Cells Reveals the Potential Role of Long Non-coding RNAs in the Cholesterol Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Liu; Xinxin Zheng; Yanlu Xu; Jie Lu; Jingzhou Chen; Xiaohong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Green tea has been shown to improve cholesterol metabolism in animal studies,but the molecular mechanisms underlying this function have not been fully understood.Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently emerged as a major class of regulatory molecules involved in a broad range of biological processes and complex diseases.Our aim was to identify important lncRNAs that might play an important role in contributing to the benefits of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on cholesterol metabolism.Methods:Microarrays was used to reveal the lncRNA and mRNA profiles in green tea polyphenol(-)-epigallocatechin gallate in cultured human liver (HepG2) hepatocytes treated with EGCG and bioinformatic analyses of the predicted target genes were performed to identify lncRNA-mRNA targeting relationships.RNA interference was used to investigate the role of lncRNAs in cholesterol metabolism.Results:The expression levels of 15 genes related to cholesterol metabolism and 285 lncRNAs were changed by EGCG treatment.Bioinformatic analysis found five matched lncRNA-mRNA pairs for five differentially expressed lncRNAs and four differentially expressed mRNA.In particular,the lncRNA4 T102202 and its potential targets mRNA-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) were identified.Using a real-time polymerase chain reaction technique,we confirmed that EGCG down-regulated mRNA expression level of the HMGCR and up-regulated expression ofAT102202.After AT102202 knockdown in HepG2,we observed that the level of HMGCR expression was significantly increased relative to the scrambled small interfering RNA control (P < 0.05).Conclusions:Our results indicated that EGCG improved cholesterol metabolism and meanwhile changed the lncRNAs expression profile in HepG2 cells.LncRNAs may play an important role in the cholesterol metabolism.

  17. The effect of pre-low-dose X-ray radiation on tumor inhibition of HepG2 cells in tumor-bearing nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua Sun; Hongsheng Yu; Qingjun Shang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of pre-low-dose X-ray radiation on P53, Bcl-2 and apoptosis of HepG2 cells in tumor-bearing nude mouse, and further explore the mechanism of low doses radiation. Methods: HepG2 cells were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. 14 days after the implanting, these mice were divided into 6 groups randomly, S group (sham-irradiation 0 cGy), D1 group (7.5 cGy, dosage rate = 7.5 cGy/min), D2 group, (200 cGy, dosage rate = 100 cGy/min), D1 + 2 h + D2 group, D1 + 6 h + D2 group and D1 + 12 h + D2 group. Tumor-bearing mice in each experimental group were executed at 24 h after the last irradiation. P53 and Bcl-2 were detected by immunohistochem-ical staining, the tumor tissues apoptosis were detected in site (Tunel). Results: Each combined exposure groups (D1 + 2 h + D2 group, D1 + 6 h + D2 group and D1 + 12 h + D2 group) compared with the D2 group, the percentages of positive P53 and Bcl-2 were decreased obviously, and the apoptotic indexs were increased (P< 0.01). Conclusion: Pre-low-dose radiation combined with the conventional radiation can increase the apoptosis of tumor tissues by decreasing the expression of P53 and Bcl-2, it can enhance the anti-tumor effect of conventional radiation, and it can have actual clinical significance on supporting radiotherapy.

  18. Moving into advanced nanomaterials. Toxicity of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles immobilized in nanokaolin nanocomposites on HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Maria João; Costa, Carla; Reinosa, Julian; Pereira, Cristiana; Fraga, Sónia; Fernández, José; Bañares, Miguel A; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2017-02-01

    Immobilization of nanoparticles on inorganic supports has been recently developed, resulting in the creation of nanocomposites. Concerning titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs(1)), these have already been developed in conjugation with clays, but so far there are no available toxicological studies on these nanocomposites. The present work intended to evaluate the hepatic toxicity of nanocomposites (C-TiO2(2)), constituted by rutile TiO2 NPs immobilized in nanokaolin (NK(3)) clay, and its individual components. These nanomaterials were analysed by means of FE-SEM(4) and DLS(5) analysis for physicochemical characterization. HepG2 cells were exposed to rutile TiO2 NPs, NK clay and C-TiO2 nanocomposite, in the presence and absence of serum for different exposure periods. Possible interferences with the methodological procedures were determined for MTT,(6) neutral red uptake, alamar blue (AB), LDH,(7) and comet assays, for all studied nanomaterials. Results showed that MTT, AB and alkaline comet assay were suitable for toxicity analysis of the present materials after slight modifications to the protocol. Significant decreases in cell viability were observed after exposure to all studied nanomaterials. Furthermore, an increase in HepG2 DNA damage was observed after shorter periods of exposure in the absence of serum proteins and longer periods of exposure in their presence. Although the immobilization of nanoparticles in micron-sized supports could, in theory, decrease the toxicity of single nanoparticles, the selection of a suitable support is essential. The present results suggest that NK clay is not the appropriate substrate to decrease TiO2 NPs toxicity. Therefore, for future studies, it is critical to select a more appropriate substrate for the immobilization of TiO2 NPs.

  19. Effects of binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene, arsenic, cadmium, and lead on oxidative stress and toxicity in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Sasikumar; Peng, Cheng; Ng, Jack C

    2016-12-01

    Mixed contamination of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) is a major environmental and human health concern. The mixture toxicity data on these co-contaminants are important for their risk assessment. In this study, we have determined the mixture toxicity of As, Cd and Pb, and B[a]P with As, Cd or Pb in HepG2 cells. The binary mixtures of Cd + As, Cd + Pb and As + Pb and B[a]P + metals (B[a]P + As, B[a]P + Cd and B[a]P + Pb) were evaluated for their interaction on the cytotoxicity using the MTS assay. A full factorial design (4 × 5) was used to determine the interaction toxicity and all the six mixtures showed significant interaction on the cytotoxicity. We further investigated the role of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation) and antioxidant defense mechanism (total glutathione (GSH) level) with the observed cytotoxicity. The mixtures of metals reduced the total GSH level and increased the ROS generation, respectively. In the case of mixtures of B[a]P and metals, both total GSH level and ROS generation were increased. Overall, the binary mixtures of metals and B[a]P with metals caused a dose dependent toxicity to HepG2 cells. The results also showed a significant contribution of oxidative stress to the observed toxicity and the potential protective role of the total GSH level against this mixture toxicity. The findings of interaction between B[a]P and metals might have an impact on the potential human health risk of this mixtures at contaminated sites.

  20. Nanog influences the proliferative ability of HepG2 cells through the modulation of the cell cycle related proteins%Nanog 调控细胞周期相关蛋白影响 HepG2细胞增殖能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓文; 于爱清; 杨毅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of pluripotency factor Nanog on the expression of the cell cy-cle related proteins,and then to explore its effect on the proliferative ability of HepG 2 cells.Methods TALENs gene editing tool was employed to induce mutation and downregulation expression of Nanog .T7 endonuclease 1 and genomic sequencing was used to analyze the mutation efficiency of Nanog .RT-PCR and western blot were used to determine the expression of mRNA and protein of Nanog ,respectively .Real-time cell based assay system was used to measure the proliferative ability of wild -type HepG2 cells and monoclonal HepG 2 cells with Nanog mutation.Results TALENs successfully induced mutation of Nanog gene .The targeting efficiency of mixed cells was analyzed by T7 endonuclease 1 approached 40%after two transfection with plasmid of Nanog -TALENs.Ad-ditionally,the Nanog mRNA expression level of monoclonal HepG 2 with Nanog mutation was downregulated by 3.4 times compared to the wild type HepG 2 cells,and the Nanog protein expression level was downregulated by 3.6 times.The cell cycle related proteins CyclinD1/D3,CyclinE1 and CDK2 expression were downregulated in monoclonal HepG2 with Nanog mutation in comparison to the wild type HepG 2 cells.Conclusion Nanog plays a role in influencing the proliferative ability of HepG 2 cells through modulating the expression of the cell cycle re-lated proteins CyclinD1/D3,CyclinE1 and CDK2.The downregulation expression of Nanog can inhibit the prolif-erative capacity of HepG 2 cells via the regulation of the cell cycle related proteins .%目的:研究多能性因子Nanog 对HepG2细胞周期相关蛋白表达的影响,进而探索其对HepG2细胞增殖能力的影响。方法本研究通过基因编辑工具TALENs介导Nanog突变而下调其表达, T7E1内切核酸酶和基因测序分析Nanog突变率,Western blot 检测Nanog蛋白表达水平,RT-PCR检测Nanog mRNA表达水平,实时细胞活性检

  1. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jane CJ Chao; Chia Chou Chu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761)containing 22-27% fiavonoids (ginkgo-flavone glycosides)and 5-7% terpenoids (ginkgolides and bilobalides) on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.METHODS: Human HCC cell lines (HepG2 and Hep3B) were incubated with various concentrations (0-1 000 mg/L) of EGb 761 solution. After 24 h incubation, cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)release, respectively. After 48 h incubation, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p53 protein was measured by Western blotting.RESULTS: The results showed that EGb 761 (50-1 000 mg/L)significantly suppressed cell proliferation and increased LDH release (P<0.05) in HepG2 and Hep3B cells compared with the control group. The cell proliferation of HepG2 and Hep3B cells treated with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L) was 45% and 39% of the control group (P<0.05), respectively. LDH release of HepG2 cells without and with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L) treatment was 6.7% and 37.7%, respectively, and that of Hep3B cells without and with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L) treatment was 7.2% and 40.3%, respectively. The expression of PCNA and p53 protein in HepG2 cells treated with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L)was 85% and 174% of the control group, respectively.CONCLUSION: Ginkgobilobaextract significantly can suppress proliferation and increase cytotoxicity in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. Additionally, Ginkgo biloba extract can decrease PCNA and increase p53 expression in HepG2 cells.

  2. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lammi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 secretion.

  3. Cytotoxic, apoptotic, and sensitization properties of ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis Gagnep on human liver cancer HepG2 and Hep3b cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh Quan; Iscache, Anne Laure; Pham, Quoc Long; Gairin, Jean Edouard

    2016-04-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer, the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. A very poor prognosis and a lack of effective treatments make liver cancer a major public health problem, notably in less developed regions, particularly in eastern Asia. This fully justifies the search of new molecules and therapeutic strategies against HCC. Ent-kaurane diterpenoids are natural compounds displaying a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects including anticancer activity. In this study, we analyzed the pharmacological properties of a family of ent-kaurane diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis Gagnep in human HepG2 and Hep3b cell lines, used as cellular reference models for in vitro evaluation of new molecules active on HCC. A structure-related cytotoxicity was observed against both HCC cell lines, enlighting the role of the 16-en-15-one skeleton of ent-kaurane diterpenoids. Cytotoxicity was closely correlated to apoptosis, evidenced by concentration-dependent subG1 cell accumulation, and increased annexin V expression. In addition, subtoxic concentration of ent-kaurane diterpenoid dramatically enhanced the sensitivity of HCC cells to doxorubicin. All together, our data bring strong support to the potential interest of ent-kaurane diterpenoids, alone or in combination with a cytotoxic agent, in cancer and more precisely against HCC.

  4. The Na+/H+ Exchanger NHE6 in the Endosomal Recycling System Is Involved in the Development of Apical Bile Canalicular Surface Domains in HepG2 Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohgaki, Ryuichi; Matsushita, Masafumi; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Ogihara, Satoshi; Hoekstra, Dick; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Polarized epithelial cells develop and maintain distinct apical and basolateral surface domains despite a continuous flux of membranes between these domains. The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE6 localizes to endosomes but its function is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that polarized hepatoma HepG2 cells express

  5. Low-concentration uranium enters the HepG2 cell nucleus rapidly and induces cell stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Yann; Suhard, David; Poisson, Clémentine; Manens, Line; Elie, Christelle; Landon, Géraldine; Bouvier-Capely, Céline; Rouas, Caroline; Benderitter, Marc; Tessier, Christine

    2015-12-25

    This study aimed to compare the cell stress effects of low and high uranium concentrations and relate them to its localization, precipitate formation, and exposure time. The time-course analysis shows that uranium appears in cell nuclei as a soluble form within 5 min of exposure, and quickly induces expression of antioxidant and DNA repair genes. On the other hand, precipitate formations began at the very beginning of exposure at the 300-μM concentration, but took longer to appear at lower concentrations. Adaptive response might occur at low concentrations but are overwhelmed at high concentrations, especially when uranium precipitates are abundant.

  6. Adaptation of HepG2 cells to silver nanoparticles-induced stress is based on the pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic changes in gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, Kamil; Męczyńska-Wielgosz, Sylwia; Stępkowski, T