La hipercalcemia secundaria a enfermedad neoplásica es una entidad frecuente causada en la mayor parte de los casos por secreción ectópica de PTHrp. A pesar de esto hay ciertos tumores, como los carcinomas uterinos, en donde este tipo de manifestación paraneoplásica está muy poco descrita. Presentamos un caso de hipercalcemia humoral en un carcinoma mixto de endometrio.Hypercalcemia secondary to neoplastic disease is a frequent entity caused in the majority of cases by ectopic secretions of P...
Chris M Fiacconi
Full Text Available Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR and facial electromyography (EMG. Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others.
Fiacconi, Chris M; Owen, Adrian M
Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others. PMID:26332843
Hung, Chiung-Yu; Ampel, Neil M.; Christian, Lara; Seshan, Kalpathi R.; Cole, Garry T.
Multinucleate parasitic cells (spherules) of Coccidioides immitis isolates produce a membranous outer wall component (SOW) in vitro which has been reported to be reactive with antibody from patients with coccidioidal infection, elicits a potent proliferative response of murine immune T cells, and has immunoprotective capacity in a murine model of coccidioidomycosis. To identify the antigenic components of SOW, the crude wall material was first subjected to Triton X-114 extraction, and a water...
MADANJitender; KAUSHIKDinesh; SARDANASatish; MISHRADn
The aim is to evaluate the effect of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol on anti-BSA antibody production triggered by bovine albumin encapsulated in non-ionic surfactant vesicle, niosomes. Reverse phase evaporation method was adopted to entrap the antigen in colloidal carrier composed of Span 80 and Span 85 followed by simultaneous characterization for particle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. The protein content was determined by Bradford method using UV Visible Spectrophotometer at 595 nm. Humoral immune response was measured in terms of systemic IgG antibody titre by ELISA method. Experimental data indicated that 7∶3 molar ratio of Span 80 and cholesterol based niosomal formulation possessed maximum (39.8±2.9)% of soluble protein.Ciprofloxacin markedly (P＜0.05) decreased the antibody titre. In contrast, chloramphenicol did not reduce the antibody titre significantly in comparison to control group (P＞0.05). It is necessary to explore the effect of a vaccine antigen when a candidate is medicated with a therapeutic agent, which might help in programming a new drug management and vaccination programme.
Li-Xin Zhu; Jing Liu; Ye Ye; You-Hua Xie; Yu-Ying Kong; Guang-Di Li; Yuan Wang
AIM: To investigate the immunogenicity of candidate DNA vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) delivered by two plasmids expressing HCV envelope protein 1 (E1) and envelope protein 2 (E2) antigens respectively and to study the effect of CpG adjuvant on this candidate vaccine.METHODS: Recombinant plasmids expressing HCV E1 and E2 antigens respectively were used to simultaneously inoculate mice with or without CpG adjuvant. Antisera were then collected and titers of anti-HCV antibodies were analyzed by ELISA. One month after the last injection, animals were sacrificed to prepare single-cell suspension of splenocytes.These cells were subjected to HCVantigen specific proliferation assays and cytokine secretion assays to evaluate the cellular immune responses of the vaccinated animals.RESULTS: Antibody responses to HCV E1 and E2 antigens were detected in vaccinated animals. Animals receiving CpG adjuvant had slightly lower titers of anti-HCV antibodies in the sera, while the splenocytes from these animals showed higher HCV-antigen specific proliferation. Analysis of cytokine secretion from the splenocytes was consistent with the above results. While no antigen-specific IL-4 secretion was detected for all vaccinated animals, HCV antigen-specific INF-γ secretion was detected for the splenocytes of vaccinated animals. CpG adjuvant enhanced the secretion of INF-γ but did not change the profile of IL-4 secretion.CONCLUSION: Vaccination of mice with plasmids encoding HCV E1 and E2 antigens induces humoral and cellular immune responses. CpG adjuvant significantly enhances the cellular immune response.
Liu Yuehua(刘跃华); Liu Wenjun(刘文军); Liu Xiaosong(刘晓松); Ian H.Frazer
Objective. To test whether intrarnuscular,intranasal, intrarectal and intravaginal administration of HPV 6b L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) could induce immune response in mice and to assess whether intra muscular and mucosal vaccination against HPV is feasible. Methods. HPV6b L1 proteins self-assembled into VLPs in Sf-9 cell in vitro. Mice were immunized on day 0 and 21 with 50 μg HPV 6b L1 VLPs intramuscularly, intranasally, intrarectally and intravagi nally respectively. Sera were collected for testing IgG titer after a further 7 days and 3 months respec tively. Results. After immunizations, all mice developed significant anti-HPV 6b L1 antibody titers in serum by 7 days after the second immunization. The titer of the serum IgG antibody against HPV 6b L1 VLPs in the intramuscularly immunized group was higher than that in the intranasally, intrarectally and intravaginally immunized groups respectively, indicating that both muscular and mucosal administration of HPV 6b L1 VLPs can stimulate a systemic HPV-specific antibody response. Sera of the mice in the in tramuscularly immunized group still maintained a high titer of the serum IgG antibody against HPV 6b L1 VLPs 3 months after the immunization. Conclusion. The results demonstrated that the HPV 6b L1 VLPs maintain strong antigenicity. Immu nization with HPV 6b L1 VLPs via intramuscular and mucosal routes, without adjuvant, can elicit spe cific antibody in sera. These findings suggest that the VLPs are able to induce protective antibodies.
Bringhurst, F R; Bierer, B E; Godeau, F; Neyhard, N; Varner, V; Segre, G. V.
Secretion by tumor cells of circulating bone-resorbing factors may frequently underlie the hypercalcemia that occurs in patients with malignancy. Efforts to identify the responsible mediators have been hampered by a lack of available human tumor cell systems suitable for study of the pathogenesis of the humoral hypercalcemia syndrome. We have established a transitional-cell carcinoma (TCC) line in vitro from a patient with humoral hypercalcemia. These cells are tumorigenic and cause hypercalc...
Herminia Y Kanamura
Full Text Available A study was undertaken to search for DNA recombinant Schistosoma mansoni proteins responsible for eliciting an antibody response from the host at a very early phase after infection. A S. mansoni adult worm cDNA expression library was screened using pooled sera from baboons with four weeks of infection. Based on their specific reactivity with the S. mansoni infected sera and no reactivity when tested against the pre-infection sera from the same baboons, four clones were selected for further studies. Sequence analysis revealed that they were homologous to the S. mansoni heat shock protein 70 (hsp70. The insert sizes of the four selected clones varied from 1150 to 2006 bp. The preliminary characterization for antibody reactivity against a panel of baboon sera showed that the longest clone was the most reactive, eight out of eight acute and three out of four chronic sera reacting positively to this clone. The shortest clone was the least reactive. Our results suggest that the S. mansoni hsp70 elicits an early and strong antibody response in baboons and that antibodies to this protein can be detected in chronically infected animals. Therefore S. mansoni hsp70 may be a valid target for immunodiagnosis. However further studies are needed to identify the portion of the hsp70 that best fits the requirements for a valuable diagnostic antigen.
Stamm, Lola V; Drapp, Rebecca L
The goal of this study was to investigate the use of a synthetic lymph node (SLN) for delivery of Treponema pallidum (Tp) antigens. Immune responses of C57BL/6 mice were analyzed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after SLN implantation. Group 1 mice received SLN with no antigen; Group 2, SLN with formalin-inactivated Tp (f-Tp); and Group 3, SLN with f-Tp plus a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. When tested by ELISA, sera from Group 2 and Group 3 mice showed stronger IgG antibody reactivity than sera from Group 1 mice to sonicates of f-Tp or untreated Tp, but not to sonicate of normal rabbit testicular extract at all times. The IgG1 level was higher than IgG2c level for Group 2 mice at all times and for Group 3 mice at 4 and 8 weeks. IgG1 and IgG2c levels were nearly equivalent for Group 3 mice at 12 weeks. Immunoblotting showed that IgG from Group 2 and Group 3 mice recognized several Tp proteins at all times. Supernatants of splenocytes from Group 2 and Group 3 mice contained significantly more IFNγ than those from Group 1 mice after stimulation with f-Tp at all times. A significant level of IL-4 was not detected in any supernatants. These data show that strong humoral and cellular immune responses to Tp can be elicited via a SLN. PMID:24106125
Miura, Kohji; Umegaki, Noriko; Kitaoka, Taichi; Kubota, Takuo; Namba, Noriyuki; Etani, Yuri; Hirai, Haruhiko; Kogaki, Shigetoyo; Nakajima, Shigeo; Takahashi, Yuji; Tamai, Katsuto; Katayama, Ichiro; Ozono, Keiichi
Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a severe skin disorder. Although the patients are at risk for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), no case of cutaneous SCC derived from RDEB with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) has been reported. We present the first case report of a male patient with HHM with leukocytosis caused by cutaneous SCC resulting from RDEB. A 20-yr-old Japanese male patient with RDEB; the diagnosis was confirmed by electron microscopic examination,...
Mani Harika eVemula
Full Text Available Conventionally, facultative intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, the tuberculosis (TB causing bacilli in human is cleared by cell-mediated immunity (CMI with CD4+ T cells playing instrumental role in protective immunity, while antibody-mediated immunity (AMI is considered non-protective. This longstanding convention has been challenged with recent evidences of increased susceptibility of hosts with compromised AMI and monoclonal antibodies conferring passive protection against TB and other intracellular pathogens. Therefore, novel approaches towards vaccine development include strategies aiming at induction of humoral response along with CMI. This necessitates the identification of mycobacterial proteins with properties of immunomodulation and strong immunogenicity. In this study, we determined the immunogenic potential of M.tb Zinc metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1, a secretory protein essential for intracellular survival and pathogenesis of M.tb. We observed that Zmp1 was secreted by in vitro grown M.tb under granuloma-like stress conditions (acidic, oxidative, iron deficiency and nutrient deprivation and generated Th2 cytokine microenvironment upon exogenous treatment of Peripheral Blood Mononulear Cells (PBMCs with recombinant Zmp1 (rZmp1. This was supported by recording specific and robust humoral response in TB patients in a cohort of 295. The anti-Zmp1 titers were significantly higher in TB patients (n=121 as against healthy control (n=62, household contacts (n=89 and non-specific infection controls (n=23. A significant observation of the study is the presence of equally high titers of anti-Zmp1 antibodies in a range of patients with high bacilli load (sputum bacilli load of 300+ per mL to paucibacillary smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases. This clearly indicated the potential of Zmp1 to evoke an effective humoral response independent of mycobacterial load. Such mycobacterial proteins can be explored as antigen
Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Leeming, Gail; Nikolaou, Georgios; Kipar, Anja; Wigley, Paul
Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow usually causes mild gastroenteritis in humans; however, it is frequently invasive and many isolates are resistant to a broad-range of therapeutic antimicrobials. Poultry meat is considered a major source of human infection. In this study, we characterize the infection biology and immune response to S. Virchow in chickens and determine protection against homologous and heterologous re-challenge, with S. Virchow or S. Typhimurium. Following oral infection of 7-day-old chickens, S. Virchow colonized the gastrointestinal tract and the spleen. Infection elicited an increase in specific IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies and relative quantitative changes in several leukocyte populations, including CD3, CD4, CD8α, CD8β, MHC II, KuL01, and γδ TCR positive cells, both in the gastrointestinal tract and systemically. Increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 and the chemokine CXCLi2 was also found. Primary infection with S. Virchow offered limited systemic protection against re-challenge with S. Virchow or S. Typhimurium, but no protection against cecal colonization. In conclusion, S. Virchow exhibits similar infection biology and immune responses in the chicken to that previously described for S. Typhimurium. Unlike S. Typhimurium, S. Virchow infection is poorly protective to homologous and heterologous re-challenge. These findings suggest that S. Virchow is capable of colonizing the chicken well and therefore, presents a risk of entering the food chain in meat production. Furthermore, the development of vaccines that protect effectively against S. Virchow and indeed multivalent vaccines that protect across all Salmonella serogroups in the chicken would appear to remain a challenging proposition. PMID:26664914
Miura, Kohji; Umegaki, Noriko; Kitaoka, Taichi; Kubota, Takuo; Namba, Noriyuki; Etani, Yuri; Hirai, Haruhiko; Kogaki, Shigetoyo; Nakajima, Shigeo; Takahashi, Yuji; Tamai, Katsuto; Katayama, Ichiro; Ozono, Keiichi
Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a severe skin disorder. Although the patients are at risk for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), no case of cutaneous SCC derived from RDEB with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) has been reported. We present the first case report of a male patient with HHM with leukocytosis caused by cutaneous SCC resulting from RDEB. A 20-yr-old Japanese male patient with RDEB; the diagnosis was confirmed by electron microscopic examination, suffered an intractable skin ulcer and hypercalcemia and leukocytosis. PTH-rP, SCC antigen and Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels were elevated. The histological diagnosis of the skin lesion was made well-differentiated SCC. Immunohistochemical staining showed the expression of PTH-rP in atypical tumor cells. For the control of hypercalcemia before an amputation, we used zoledronate safely and could control the serum Ca concentration in the normal range. After the amputation of his right leg including SCC, leukocytosis improved immediately and PTH-rP in blood decreased to the normal range. One month after the amputation, local recurrence of cutaneous SCC and multiple lung metastases were observed. PTH-rP increased gradually associated with hypercalcemia. Although the patient reached an unfortunate turning point about 4 mo after the amputation, we propose that zoledronate is an effective and safe treatment for HHM with cardiorenal complications. PMID:23926398
A tumor cell line (TCCB) was isolated from a patient with transitional cell carcinoma, who had tumor-associated hypercalcemia. Culture supernatants from TCCB had significant bone resorption activity in a 45Ca release assay from fetal mouse long bones. Furthermore, TCCB supernatants possessed potent interleukin 1 (IL-1) activity in a mouse thymocyte assay. Histomorphometric analysis of fetal mouse long bones incubated with TCCB supernatants showed a 7 fold increase in osteoclasts and a significant decrease in bone mass as compared to control bones. IL-1 activity in culture supernatants from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes comigrated with both IL-1 and bone resorption activities from TCCB tumor cells by gel chromatography on AcA-54 ultrogel. Furthermore, antisera against human IL-1 was shown to inhibit the Il-1 activity from both monocytes and TCCB tumor cells. In light of recent reports that IL-1 can cause bone resorption in vitro, these data suggest that the hypercalcemia of malignancy seen with certain solid tumors, may be the result of IL-1 release by the tumor which subsequently elevates serum calcium by induction of bone resorption
... Facebook Twitter Google Plus Email Print this page Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms ... aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out freely (follow blue arrow). Aqueous humor flows ...
Vårdal, Karianne Holt
This essay is a close reading of the humor and irony used in Michael Moore's feature documentaries; Roger and Me, Bowling for Columbine and Sicko. Based on existing theories on humor and the documentary, my analysis is a reading of carefully chosen scenes to illustrate the different methods used to create humor and irony, as well as a attempt to describe why we laugh at these particular scenes. A review of critical discourse surrounding Moore's films and their use of humor, identifies issues ...
Elkind, David; Parr, Jerry; Duffy, Vincent; Strader, Bill; Stephens, Karen
Presents five articles on humor in early child care: (1) "What Makes Young Children Laugh?" (David Elkind); (2) "Humor as a Tool in the Workplace" (Jerry Parr); (3) "Vincent's Vignettes" (Vincent Duffy); (4) "Family Humor" (Bill Strader); and (5) "Books to Tickle Funny Bones" (Karen Stephens). (SD)
Full Text Available The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this article, a review of the history of humor research is compared to a selection of studies (lesion-studies, ERP and fMRI on the relationship between humor, language and the brain, as an attempt to show how a broadly based theory of humor can help us to understand the relationship between cognition and emotion.
Murstein, B I; Brust, R G
A humor test composed of cartoons, comic strips, and jokes was administered to 30 college couples (26 single, 4 married) who rated them for humor. Subjects also stated how much they loved and liked their partner, their probability of marrying the partner, and filled out Rubin's Liking and Love Scales. The hypotheses were that similarity of rating of the humorous stimuli would be associated with loving, liking, and predisposition to marry. Hypotheses were confirmed. PMID:16367459
Study of humor discourse has attracted an increasingly numerousattention since 80’s of last century.Traditionally,they approach it mainly from pragmatic aspect.In this paper,I try a new research perspective,metonymic function and scenario concept to study how metonymic link works in the interpretation of humor as a cognitive and mental process.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though two prophylactic vaccines against HPV are currently licensed, infections by the virus continue to be a major health problem mainly in developing countries. The cost of the vaccines limits wide-scale application in poor countries. A promising strategy for producing affordable and efficient vaccines involves the expression of recombinant immunogens in plants. Several HPV genes have been expressed in plants, including L1, which can self-assemble into virus-like particles. A plant-based, dual prophylactic/therapeutic vaccine remains an attractive possibility. Results We sought to express in tomato plants chimeric HPV 16 VLPs containing L1 fused to a string of epitopes from HPV 16 E6 and E7 proteins. The L1 employed had been modified to eliminate a strong inhibitory region at the 5' end of the molecule to increase expression levels. Several tomato lines were obtained expressing either L1 alone or L1-E6/E7 from 0.05% to 0.1% of total soluble protein. Stable integration of the transgenes was verified by Southern blot. Northern and western blot revealed successful expression of the transgenes at the mRNA and protein level. The chimeric VLPs were able to assemble adequately in tomato cells. Intraperitoneal administration in mice was able to elicit both neutralizing antibodies against the viral particle and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes activity against the epitopes. Conclusion In this work, we report for the first time the expression in plants of a chimeric particle containing the HPV 16 L1 sequence and a string of T-cell epitopes from HPV 16 E6 and E7 fused to the C-terminus. The particles were able to induce a significant antibody and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes response. Experiments in vivo are in progress to determine whether the chimeric particles are able to induce regression of disease and resolution of viral infection in mice. Chimeric particles of the type described in this work may potentially be the basis for developing
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that humorous reappraisal can reduce elicited negative emotions, suggesting that humor may be a functional strategy to cope with emotionally negative situations. However, the effect of humorous reappraisal on later memory about the emotion-eliciting situation is currently unknown, although this is crucial for more adaptive responding in future situations. To address this issue, we examined the effects of humorous reappraisal on both emotional experience and memory, compared to non-humorous rational reappraisal and a non-reappraisal control condition. Replicating previous findings, humorous reappraisal reduced evoked negative valence and arousal levels very effectively, and the down-regulation of experienced negative emotions was even more pronounced after humorous compared to rational reappraisal. Regarding later memory for emotion-eliciting stimuli, both humorous and rational reappraisal reduced free recall, but recognition memory was unaffected, with memory strength being stronger after humorous than after rational reappraisal. These results indicate that humor seems to be indeed an optimal strategy to cope with negative situations because humor can help us to feel better when confronted with negative stimuli, but still allows us to retrieve stimulus information later when afforded to do so by the presence of appropriate contextual features.
The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily) in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this a...
Lucas, Vilhelm; Henriksen, Jesper Schnedler; Galting, Marie; Pejtersen, Susan June; Pedersen, Lasse Lindegaard; Van Kuylenstierna, Christine; Loznica, Javor
By looking at stand-up comedian Russell Peters’s show “The Green Card Tour”, we seek an understanding of how sociolinguistics and humor correlates and are applied for comedic effect. In order to achieve the latter, this project will firstly attempt to explain sociolinguistics and humor in relation to each other. Later, those concepts will be applied to the chosen sections within the The Green Card Tour, specifically revolving around how Russell Peters achieves comedic effect...
M Abid Hussain
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: H. pylori causes gastritis and peptic ulcers and is a risk factor for the development of gastric carcinoma. Many of the proteins such as urease, porins, flagellins and toxins such as lipo-polysaccharides have been identified as potential virulence factors which induce proinflammatory reaction. We report immunogenic potentials of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD, an important house keeping protein of H. pylori. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amino acid sequences of H. pylori ICD were subjected to in silico analysis for regions with predictably high antigenic indexes. Also, computational modelling of the H. pylori ICD as juxtaposed to the E. coli ICD was carried out to determine levels of structure similarity and the availability of surface exposed motifs, if any. The icd gene was cloned, expressed and purified to a very high homogeneity. Humoral response directed against H. pylori ICD was detected through an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in 82 human subjects comprising of 58 patients with H. pylori associated gastritis or ulcer disease and 24 asymptomatic healthy controls. The H. pylori ICD elicited potentially high humoral immune response and revealed high antibody titers in sera corresponding to endoscopically-confirmed gastritis and ulcer disease subjects. However, urea-breath-test negative healthy control samples and asymptomatic control samples did not reveal any detectable immune responses. The ELISA for proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 did not exhibit any significant proinflammatory activity of ICD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ICD of H. pylori is an immunogen which interacts with the host immune system subsequent to a possible autolytic-release and thereby significantly elicits humoral responses in individuals with invasive H. pylori infection. However, ICD could not significantly stimulate IL8 induction in a cultured macrophage cell line (THP1 and therefore, may not be a notable proinflammatory agent.
Humor v slovarju pomeni kakovost – da si zabaven ali smešen, ampak v oglaševanju je to zelo resen ter tvegan posel. Namen oglaševanja s humorjem je več kot samo spraviti v smeh par ljudi. Potrebno je upoštevati, da kadar se uporablja humor v oglaševanju, da so različne stvari smešne različnim ljudem. Oglas, ki lahko nekoga nasmeji, lahko pri drugem pusti slabi vtis. Humor se v oglaševanju uporablja že vrsto let, vendar na slovenskem trgu ni toliko prisoten še posebej v tiskanih oglasih. Kljub...
Humor je izraz za vsako sporočilo, povzročeno z dejanjem, govorom, pisanjem ali sliko, ki ima za svoj produkt nasmeh ali smeh. Ljudje različnih profilov tematiko preučujejo že vsaj od antike naprej, poskušajo jo umestiti tudi v kontekst. Zdi se, da je humor kulturno pogojen, integriran v kontekst časa, vezan na družbeno zgodovino, hkrati pa nam služi kot ključ do kulturnih kod, saj odnos do humorja (smeha), način uporabe v praksi ter njegove oblike in objekti niso konstantni, ampak spremenlji...
Javier Martín Camacho
In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects.
Javier Martín Camacho
Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects.
Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold
This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.
Barker, A F; Craig, S; Bardana, E J
Bronchiectasis occurs in patients with immunodeficiency and fungal hypersensitivity disorders. To assess the prevalence of abnormal humoral immune parameters in bronchiectasis, a retrospective study was carried out on sera from 30 patients. Studies included immunoglobulin quantitation and specific antibody to fungal species. Eleven patients were found to have immunodeficiency (nine with panhypoglobulinemia and two with selective IgM deficiency). Six patients had elevations of serum IgA and four patients had elevations of serum IgE. Six patients had elevated total antibody to Aspergillus or Candida species and six had precipitin bands to one or more fungal antigens. This study indicates that immunodeficiency is prevalent and plays a causative role in some patients with bronchiectasis. Hypersensitivity reactions to Aspergillus, Candida, and other ubiquitous environmental fungi may also play an etiopathogenic role in this disease (bronchiectasis, humoral immunity, immunodeficiency). PMID:3631652
Humor is the common favorite of people in all walks of life and at all ages. Studying the deep structure of humor, that is, the psychological and cognitive foundation in producing and comprehending humor, is quite practical in helping people first to recognize, understand and appreciate others' humor and then to apply their own humor to their daily communication.
Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed th...
Stephen Skalicky; Cynthia M. Berger; Scott A. Crossley; McNamara, Danielle S.
A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195) with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and ...
Kai-Ping Huang; Wen-Ching Kuo
Problem statement: This study is to provide an overview discussion on the issue of humor management of within organizations. Although there are limits to which a work environment can be relaxed through humor or any other device, bonding through humor can be an important device within an organization whereby unity and common purpose are realized. Types of humor in the workplace can include puns, slapstick, jokes and anecdotes and teasing. Humor is also an important device for dealing with chan...
Knowledge elicitation from human beings is important for many fields, such as decision support systems, risk communication, and customer preference studying. Traditional approaches include observations, questionnaires, structured and semi-structured interviews, and group discussions. Many publications have been studying different techniques for a…
Mireault, Gina; Sparrow, John; Poutre, Merlin; Perdue, Brittany; Macke, Laura
Infancy is a critical time for the development of secure attachment, which is facilitated by emotionally synchronous interactions with parents. Humor development, which includes shared laughter and joint attention to an event, emerges concurrently with attachment, but little is known regarding the relationship, if any, between humor development and attachment in the first year. Thirty 3-month-old infants were videoed at home each month until they were 6-months old while their parents attempted to amuse them. Frequency of infants' smiles and laughs served as a measure of "state humor", and the smiling/laughing subscale of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised served as a measure of "trait humor". State and trait humor were not correlated. Lower trait humor as 6 months predicted higher attachment security on the Attachment Q-sort at 12-months (r=.46), suggesting that less good-humored infants elicit greater parental engagement, which works to the benefit of attachment, or vice versa. Future studies should examine the importance of smiling and laughter as they relate to other developmental phenomena in the first year. PMID:22982281
Full Text Available Problem statement: This study is to provide an overview discussion on the issue of humor management of within organizations. Although there are limits to which a work environment can be relaxed through humor or any other device, bonding through humor can be an important device within an organization whereby unity and common purpose are realized. Types of humor in the workplace can include puns, slapstick, jokes and anecdotes and teasing. Humor is also an important device for dealing with change. Approach: The literature review and arguments were conducted to identify the function, importance and influence of humor within organizations. Results: By observing humor and by being sensitive to its implications, rather than dismissing it simply as frivolity, managers can implement changes based on their interpretations of workplace humor. Negatively, humor can be an important device for protecting self-image and ones social peers within an organization; where managers observe such socialization, they can move to improve staff relations. Spontaneous humor is also a useful training device, for evaluating how well new ideas have been communicated. Humor then can be a spur to initiative and to spontaneous responses. Where a manager wants to engage in pleasantries with employees then, it seems that industrially democratic humor is an important component of such interaction. Humor can be an important factor in industrial democracy and increased productivity. Conclusion: Humor can be an important device for building a tram spirit and for forming a cohesive unit, unanimously concerned with its own survival and profitability.
Humor can be found everywhere in our daily life. It shows one's wisdom and confidence, which reflects a person's character, mind and cultivation. While it makes people laugh, it enlightens and instruct people. As we all know, English humor is a manifestation of the western literature. However, people in non-English speaking countries cannot completely understand English humor because of the differences of different cultures. The present paper starts from the analysis of English humor, trying to find out some ways of achieving humor so as to better our understanding and appreciation of English humor.
Thomas E. Ford
Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.
Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander;
in the experiment. This raises two questions: (i) can we trust the existing belief elicitation results, (ii) can we avoid potential hedging confounds? Our results instill confidence regarding both issues. We propose an experimental design that eliminates hedging opportunities, and use this to test...... for the empirical relevance of hedging effects in the lab. We find no evidence for hedging, comparing the standard 'hedging-prone' belief elicitation treatment to a 'hedging-proof' design in a sequential prisoners' dilemma game. Our findings are strengthened by the absence of hedging even in an...... additional non-belief elicitation treatment using a financial investment frame, where hedging arguably would be most natural....
Ulloth, Joan Kay
Interviews with 31 nursing students and 3 teachers identified several benefits from using humor in class: relieving stress, focusing attention, making learning fun, enhancing learning, and strengthening relationships. Students overwhelmingly supported the use of appropriate humor. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)
Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.
Black humor is a kind of literary style rose in American and O .Henry's novels used it to express the satire to society and show the sympathy to the lower class .The most typical works contain black humor two are The Cop and the Anthem and The Gift of the Magi.By using black humor, he created his unique endings .This article is trying to analysis the use of black humor in his novels and the effect.
Barelds, Dick P. H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel
The present study examined relations between different aspects of humor and relationship quality Participants 114 married or cohabiting heterosexual couples from the general community with a mean relationship length of 22 years completed a number of measures assessing these two themes We expected di
Humor is universal. Nobody never gets involved with humor. It's the difference lies in its frequency and its target. One person may have a high sense of humor whereas another may have a low sense of humor. In fact every person needs humor in many communication activities. Though humor is only word game, people cannot avoid it. However, humor does not always cause the people to laugh. The creation of humor discourse can make use of articles, pictures, and sounds. Humor consumers assess humor v...
Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality.Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating
Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252
Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested. PMID:27547252
Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A.; Vrabel, Jennifer K.
Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor. PMID:27547254
Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.
Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.
The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251
Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J
The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251
Full Text Available Humor is universal. Nobody never gets involved with humor. It's the difference lies in its frequency and its target. One person may have a high sense of humor whereas another may have a low sense of humor. In fact every person needs humor in many communication activities. Though humor is only word game, people cannot avoid it. However, humor does not always cause the people to laugh. The creation of humor discourse can make use of articles, pictures, and sounds. Humor consumers assess humor variously. Sometimes people can feel happy when they hear humor; but sometimes they can feel infuriated, hateful, insinuated, or even aggrieved. This is caused by immeasurable humor context in each communication. It depends on the target that the humor creator wants.
Kárný, Miroslav; Guy, Tatiana Valentine
Prague : Institute of Information Theory and Automation, 2011, s. 20-25. ISBN 978-80-903834-6-3. [The 2nd International Workshop od Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers. Held in Conjunction with the 25th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS 2011). Sierra Nevada (ES), 16.12.2011-16.12.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : elicitation * decision making * Bayesian decision making * fully probabilistic design Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/karny-automated preferences elicitation.pdf
Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.
The main aim of this study was to develop and investigate a typology of humor in audiovisual media. We identified 41 humor techniques, drawing on Berger's (1976, 1993) typology of humor in narratives, audience research on humor preferences, and an inductive analysis of humorous commercials. We analy
Hamid Reza Sadeghpour; Ali Khazaeefar; Masood Khoshsaligheh
Dubbing is one of the developing areas in Translation Studies, and this study aimed at investigating the translation strategies used in the dubbing of comedy animations from English to Persian. Since colloquial, idiomatic, and humorous expressions have the capacity to elicit laughter and as it is not always easy to draw a clear-cut line between these three types of expressions, this study examines all three types, investigating the strategies used in translating these expressions. The data wa...
Gibbs, RW; Bryant, GA; Colston, HL
© 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Munich/Boston. Irony is often related to humor, both in spoken and written language. One possibility is that humor arises once people reconcile the incongruity between what speakers say and imply when using irony. Humor automatically emerges in these cases given the release of tension following a momentary sense of disparity. Our claim is that this proposal does not capture many of the dynamic complexities in real-world ironic discourse. We describe psycholo...
Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A
Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253
Scriven, Jolene; Hefferin, Linda
Humor contributes to teamwork, creative problem solving, mental flexibility, and risk taking in the workplace. As a classroom tool, it increases student attentiveness and retention of information. (SK)
This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking
Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.
Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253
Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric
The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with
Roth, Gene L.
Humor is an intriguing topic that exists in the contexts of adult education and human resource development. This paper describes my experiences at developing and facilitating a graduate course on humor and adult learning. Researchers and scholarly practitioners in adult education and human resource development are encouraged to build their…
Forsyth, G. Alfred; Altermatt, Ellen R.; Forsyth, Peggy D.
The devaluation of racial, ethnic, or religious groups, sometimes disguised as humor, is a major contributor to violence and aggression against these groups. In an effort to understand this process, five factors of humor: negative ethnic stereotype jokes, play-on-word jokes, academic/social referent cartoons, gender/establishment jokes, and gross…
Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E
This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. PMID:26580553
This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes. PMID:11641883
Victor Paramo Valero
Full Text Available Ética del humor es una obra original, abundantemente documentada, de contenido científico y filosófico, que aborda un problema de gran importancia en los actuales estudios de éticas aplicadas. La ética del humor es una nueva ética aplicada que pretende comprender el fenómeno del humor a la luz de sus implicaciones éticas. Como señala el autor, Juan Carlos Siurana, reputado experto en el ámbito de la filosofía práctica, el interés por el humor es un interés por la ética. En la obra no presenta una nueva teoría filosófica del humor –las cuales se han venido sucediendo, al menos, desde los Diálogos de Platón–, sino una nueva teoría ética, que toma al humor como objeto principal de análisis. Por tanto, la finalidad es realizar una aportación dentro del ámbito de la ética. Para ello se nutre de distintos estudios psicológicos, biológicos, fisiológicos y neurológicos sobre el humor, así como de clásicas obras de filosofía que han abordado esta cuestión.
Piemonte, Nicole M
This paper argues that "backstage" gallows humor among clinical mentors not only affects medical students' perceptions of what it means to be a doctor but is also symptomatic and indicative of a much larger problem in medicine-namely, the failure to attend fully to the complexity and profundity of the lived experiences of illness, suffering, and death. Reorienting the discourse surrounding gallows humor away from whether or in what context it is acceptable and toward the reasons why doctors feel the need to use such humor in the first place addresses this issue in a more illuminating way. PMID:26062447
Humor, as a relaxing topic, is a very complicate thing in the intercultural communication. The famous professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario, Rod A. Martin who focuses his study on functions of humor and laughter proposes four humor styles. In this essay, I use four dimensions referred by Hofstede to analyze the preferred humor styles in China and America.
Nijholt, Anton; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.
We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor s
Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…
Hamid Reza Sadeghpour
Full Text Available Dubbing is one of the developing areas in Translation Studies, and this study aimed at investigating the translation strategies used in the dubbing of comedy animations from English to Persian. Since colloquial, idiomatic, and humorous expressions have the capacity to elicit laughter and as it is not always easy to draw a clear-cut line between these three types of expressions, this study examines all three types, investigating the strategies used in translating these expressions. The data was collected from five popular American comedy animations dubbed into Persian. The original humorous, colloquial, and idiomatic expressions and their Persian translations were written down and the strategies used in translating them were identified and classified into nine groups for further analysis. The findings from the sample demonstrate that the Persian translators tend to use familiar expressions rather than translate literally and that beside humorous expressions, the translators tend to use idiomatic and colloquial expressions to produce laughter mostly in cases where the original animation has not used them. In short, the Persian translators have frequently and freely used idiomatic and colloquial expressions in their secondary function to elicit laughter which is a strategy that can be used in the translation of comedies, especially for children, where there are numerous linguistic and cultural barriers across the cultures.Keywords: Audiovisual translation, Dubbing, Idiom, Colloquial expressions, Persian
This dissertation focuses on the social philosophy of humor from the viewpoint of Erich Fromm’s critical humanistic thinking. The work consists of an introduction and four individual articles. The introduction discusses Fromm’s theories in relation to the phenomenon of humor to provide a basis for the articles. The central aim is to understand the dynamic nature of humor and how it is related to the problem of being a paradoxical creature, that is, a human being. It is...
MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated with a benefit in survival in patients with breast, lung, pancreatic, ovarian and gastric carcinomas. Antibodies bound to the mucin may curb tumor progression by restoring cell-cell interactions altered by tumor-associated MUC1, thus preventing metastatic dissemination, as well as counteracting the immune suppression exerted by the molecule. Furthermore, anti-MUC1 antibodies are capable of effecting tumor cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxic T cells are indispensable to achieve anti-tumor responses in advanced disease, abs to tumor-associated antigens are ideally suited to address minimal residual disease and may be sufficient to exert adequate immune surveillance in an adjuvant setting, destroying tumor cells as they arise or maintaining occult disease in an equilibrium state. Initial evaluation of MUC1 peptide/glycopeptide mono and polyvalent vaccines has shown them to be immunogenic and safe; anti-tumor responses are scarce. Progress in carbohydrate synthesis has yielded a number of sophisticated substrates that include MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes that are at present in preclinical testing. Adjuvant vaccination with MUC1 glycopeptide polyvalent vaccines that induce strong humoral responses may prevent recurrence of disease in patients with early stage carcinomas. Furthermore, prophylactic immunotherapy targeting MUC1 may be a strategy to strengthen immune surveillance and prevent disease in subjects at hereditary high risk of breast, ovarian and colon cancer
Mensdorff-Pouilly, Silvia von, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Moreno, Maria [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam 1081 HV (Netherlands); Verheijen, René H. M. [Department of Woman & Baby, Division of Surgical & Oncological Gynaecology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3508 GA (Netherlands)
MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated with a benefit in survival in patients with breast, lung, pancreatic, ovarian and gastric carcinomas. Antibodies bound to the mucin may curb tumor progression by restoring cell-cell interactions altered by tumor-associated MUC1, thus preventing metastatic dissemination, as well as counteracting the immune suppression exerted by the molecule. Furthermore, anti-MUC1 antibodies are capable of effecting tumor cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxic T cells are indispensable to achieve anti-tumor responses in advanced disease, abs to tumor-associated antigens are ideally suited to address minimal residual disease and may be sufficient to exert adequate immune surveillance in an adjuvant setting, destroying tumor cells as they arise or maintaining occult disease in an equilibrium state. Initial evaluation of MUC1 peptide/glycopeptide mono and polyvalent vaccines has shown them to be immunogenic and safe; anti-tumor responses are scarce. Progress in carbohydrate synthesis has yielded a number of sophisticated substrates that include MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes that are at present in preclinical testing. Adjuvant vaccination with MUC1 glycopeptide polyvalent vaccines that induce strong humoral responses may prevent recurrence of disease in patients with early stage carcinomas. Furthermore, prophylactic immunotherapy targeting MUC1 may be a strategy to strengthen immune surveillance and prevent disease in subjects at hereditary high risk of breast, ovarian and colon cancer.
N Schönfeldt, Sara; Miznikova, Jelena
This research was initiated due to the novelty of the topic. Humor is a common phenomenon in the daily interaction of many people; however this study is particularly interested in humor as used by managers. As a preconception to the study it was assumed that appropriately used humor results in benefits for a leader, thus we wish to explore how managers in Swedish organizations reason about if and how humor can be used as a management tool. For this purpose we employed qualitative research wit...
Aguinaga Benítez Óscar William
Full Text Available
El humor es un fenómeno demasiado complejo para ser explicado fácilmente, sin embargo la risa, es una de las formas más admirables del comportamiento humano. El humor forma parte de nuestra vida cotidiana y todos tenemos de él, ya desde nuestra más tierna infancia un conocimiento intuitivo. Muchos saben que el humor mejora las relaciones humanas, puede favorecer una cierta distensión y facilita el bienestar de todos los miembros de una empresa, dirigentes, empleados y obreros. Muchos esperan encontrar en él la forma de resolver los conflictos y de reducir la agresividad. Allí donde se encuentren hombres, existe el humor, comprenderlo mejor y utilizarlo más libremente y en el momento oportuno, puede ayudarnos a hacer nuestra vida más agradable.
Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-like gag-env particles produced in mammalian cells were inoculated into two New Zealand white rabbits. In parallel, two control rabbits were inoculated with the homologous HIV-1 virions inactivated by ultraviolet light (uv) and psoralen treatments. The humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV-1 were evaluated for both groups of animals. Recombinant particles elicited humoral immunity that was specific for all the viral structural proteins. The antibodies recognized both denatured and nondenatured proteins. Moreover, the sera neutralized the in vitro infectivity of the homologous virus in CEM cells. Importantly, the recombinant particles also generated a T helper response by priming with the HIV proteins. Similar results were observed with inactivated virus immunization. Therefore, the authors results suggest that the recombinant HIV-like particles elicit functional humoral immunity as well as cellular immunity and represent a novel vaccine candidate for AIDS
Minden, P; Houghten, R A; Spear, J R; Shinnick, T M
Monoclonal antibodies directed to Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) and to M. tuberculosis H37Rv (H37Rv) were used in conjunction with affinity chromatography to prepare a mycobacterial component which was designated BCG-a. A synthetic peptide antigen was prepared based on the amino acid sequence of BCG-a and was designated BCG-a-P. Significant immunological similarities were found between BCG-a-P and antigens in extracts of BCG and H37Rv but not between BCG-a-P and antigens of nontuberculous myc...
Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.
Full Text Available The traditional understanding of humor as being tolerant, full of non-aggressive life curiosities, funny situations, mocking national or human vices, and related to an optimistic and contemplative attitude towards reality, has changed its main supportive points: the optimistic view of reality has been altered into a pessimistic and destructive one, forbearing ridicule has turned into severe offence, strangeness into stupidity, funny situations into futile misunderstanding. Everything is regarded as a dramatic possibility to survive or an endless situational tragedy where the most strict evaluation criteria, censorship, and dogmatism are empowered, meaning that, in the current times of widely propagated tolerance and overwhelming comprehension, it is extremely dangerous to offend somebody with an innocent joke or light mockery, to evoke an urge to contradict or negate when ideological aspirations are beyond “decency” limits. One of the most advocated rules in the Lithuanian press is: “Joke carefully with foreign nationals” from an interview with Barry Tomelin, London “International house” consultant and teaching director, the author of the book “World’s Business Cultures: And How to Unlock Them” (with Michael Nicks. Identity is to be saved and nourished as the highest sanctity but its formation, meaningfulness and spread are not always attuned to the official approach.Our life is full of stereotypes and our neighboring countries are not to be excluded – we have a preconceived notion of them. Using the national stereotype term we characterize relatively stable generalized opinions, in an open or hidden form, containing one or another assessment of a nation.Our attitude towards neighbors is revealed in nicknames given to them – non-official ethnonyms usually bearing a negative connotation. Some monikers have already lasted for centuries while others have been coined during the last decades. Anecdotes with the most popular
Nazimek, Katarzyna; Kozlowski, Michael; Bryniarski, Pawel; Strobel, Spencer; Bryk, Agata; Myszka, Michal; Tyszka, Anna; Kuszmiersz, Piotr; Nowakowski, Jaroslaw; Filipczak-Bryniarska, Iwona
Depression is associated with an altered immune response, which could be normalized by antidepressant drugs. However, little is known about the influence of antidepressants on the peripheral immune response and function of macrophages in individuals not suffering from depression. Our studies were aimed at determining the influence of antidepressant drugs on the humoral and cellular immune response in mice. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with imipramine, fluoxetine, venlafaxine, or moclobemide and contact immunized with trinitrophenyl hapten followed by elicitation and measurement of contact sensitivity by ear swelling response. Peritoneal macrophages from drug-treated mice were either pulsed with sheep erythrocytes or conjugated with trinitrophenyl and transferred into naive recipients to induce humoral or contact sensitivity response, respectively. Secretion of reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, and cytokines by macrophages from drug-treated mice was assessed, respectively, in chemiluminometry, Griess-based colorimetry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the expression of macrophage surface markers was analyzed cytometrically. Treatment of mice with fluoxetine, venlafaxine, and moclobemide results in suppression of humoral and cell-mediated immunity with a reduction of the release of macrophage proinflammatory mediators and the expression of antigen-presentation markers. In contrast, treatment with imipramine enhanced the humoral immune response and macrophage secretory activity but slightly suppressed active contact sensitivity. Our studies demonstrated that systemically delivered antidepressant drugs modulate the peripheral humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, mostly through their action on macrophages. Imipramine was rather proinflammatory, whereas other tested drugs expressed immunosuppressive potential. Current observations may be applied to new therapeutic strategies dedicated to various disorders associated with excessive
Ueno, Hideki; Schmitt, Nathalie; Palucka, A. Karolina; Banchereau, Jacques
Summary Dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate the innate and adaptive immune systems to induce tolerance and immunity. DC plasticity and subsets are prominent determinants in the regulation of immune responses. Our recent studies suggest that humoral and cellular immunity is regulated by different myeloid DC subsets with distinct intrinsic properties in humans. While antibody response is preferentially mediated by CD14+ dermal DCs, cytotoxic T cell response is preferentially mediated by Langerhans cells (LCs). Thus, mechanisms whereby DCs induce humoral and cellular immunity appear to be fundamentally distinct. In this review, we will focus on the role of DCs in the development of humoral immunity. We will also discuss the mechanisms whereby DCs induce CD4+ T cells associated with the help of B cell response, including T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, and why human LCs lack this ability. PMID:20309010
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o perfil dos estados de humor de mulheres com fibromialgia, bem como analisar sua associação com características sociodemográficas e clínicas. MÉTODOS: Cento e seis participantes responderam ao Questionário Sociodemográfico e Clínico (QSDC e à Escala de Humor de Brunel (BRUMS. O QSDC é constituído por perguntas sobre dados pessoais e aspectos clínicos, enquanto o BRUMS avalia o humor por meio de seis fatores, a saber: tensão, depressão, raiva, vigor, fadiga e confusão mental. Os dados foram tratados com estatística descritiva e por meio dos testes de Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: As variáveis negativas do humor estiveram em níveis elevados, em especial a tensão, a depressão, a fadiga e a confusão mental, enquanto o vigor esteve baixo. Verificou-se ainda que as participantes mais jovens que trabalham com diagnóstico de depressão e, principalmente, as que possuíam maior número de sintomas relacionados à fibromialgia apresentavam humor mais deprimido do que seus pares. CONCLUSÃO: Mulheres com fibromialgia apresentaram tendência de humor deprimido, sendo que essa característica se apresentou associada a fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos.
Catalina M. Labarca R.
El humor es un fenómeno poco estudiado dentro del contexto de la psicología, menos aún, en el adulto mayor, grupo etario que se encuentra en constante crecimiento dentro de nuestro país.En tal sentido, la investigación, guiada por los planteamientos de Carbelo (2007) y DAnello (2010), denominada sentido del humor en el adulto mayor, tuvo por objetivo, determinar el significado que tiene este fenómeno para el adulto mayor. Para ello, se realizó un estudio de corte cualitativo,donde se utilizó ...
ar Mohammadi Kalesar; mk Yousefpour; ma Khazane Darloo
“Dialogue”, in Bakhtin’s thought, is a term which has a methodological nature. This term shows a method for facing cases which are not hegemonic. Dialogue, therefore, is in opposition to the hegemony of monophonic forces. The origins of the dialogical aspects of humor, laugh and carnival are in very character. In this article, we want to investigate the bases that make the dialogical carnival and form the humorous elements. In the first section, we illustrate the subversion of the superior vo...
Forabosco, Giovannantonio; Ruch, Willibald
The present study examines the role of sensation seeking, conservatism, toughmindedness, sex, and age in appreciation of humor in Italian adults. A sample of 100 females and 48 males responded to Italian adaptations of the 3 WD humor test, Form V of the sensation seeking scale, and the C-Scale. Funniness of incongruity-resolution humor correlated positively with conservatism, female sex, and age, and negatively with all components of sensation seeking. Funniness of nonsense humor correlated p...
This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11–13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial simila...
Nijholt, Anton; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.
We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor studies, where a broader view is taken, that is, a view that includes artificial intelligence, reasoning, common-sense and context representations, and machine learning. But there are other kinds of...
DiDonato, Theresa E.; Jakubiak, Brittany K.
Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256
The translatability of humor is gradually accepted and linguistic humor based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages is considered to be the most difficult to translate. This paper is to study the linguistic humor translation of British sitcoms in the light of Skopos theory and explore practical ways of E-C translation of linguistic hu⁃mor.
Carrica, Jennifer L.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…
Potter, W. James; Warren, Ron
Contributes to research on schema theory and media effects by examining how violence is portrayed in comedy programs. Finds a high rate of violence (especially verbal forms) on comedy programs; and the combination of humor, minor acts of violence, and program context tend to trivialize its presence. Suggests that viewers' schema for comedy uses…
W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)
textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent
Mala, Cynthia Lindquist
Humor is not only instinctive and a basic human need, but it also is very good medicine. Laughter boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, and is linked to healthy functioning organs. [This article was written with Mylo Redwater Smith.
Nilsen, Alleen Pace
Assistant vice president for academic personnel at public university took notes on incidents that caused participants to laugh during meetings of academic managers between 1988 and 1993. Recorded percentages of males and females in attendance, who conducted meeting, and who initiated laughter. Found differences in how men and women used humor to…
Full Text Available Este ensayo analiza la prosa panfletaria de Juan Montalvo desde el punto de vista del humor. Montalvo, además de dedicar muchas páginas a disertar sobre la risa, buscó con frecuencia insertar efectos humorísticos en su estilo, encaminados a ridiculizar a sus enemigos políticos. ¿Hasta qué punto un autor eminentemente moralista, un libelista cáustico como Montalvo, que echa mano del insulto, la burla y el sarcasmo, puede considerarse un humorista? Para comprender esta ambigüedad entre un Montalvo solemne y otro burlón, entre un Montalvo austero y otro irónico se analizan aquí ciertos recursos literarios que utiliza este autor y con los que provoca efectos que lindan con lo humorístico.This work analyses Juan Montalvo's pamphlet prose from a humorous perspective. To what extent can an eminently caustic moralist author as Montalvo, who uses insult, mockery and sarcasm, be considered a humorist? In order to understand this ambiguity between a solemn Montalvo and a Mocking one, between an austere and an ironic one, certain resources used by the author are analysed, resources that border on humour.
ar Mohammadi Kalesar
Full Text Available “Dialogue”, in Bakhtin’s thought, is a term which has a methodological nature. This term shows a method for facing cases which are not hegemonic. Dialogue, therefore, is in opposition to the hegemony of monophonic forces. The origins of the dialogical aspects of humor, laugh and carnival are in very character. In this article, we want to investigate the bases that make the dialogical carnival and form the humorous elements. In the first section, we illustrate the subversion of the superior voice as a semantic and formal structural method in Mathnavi. In the second section, the reflection of this method in formation of humor in the stories of Mathnavi has been investigated. In these stories, presence of the superior voice in the public space and its dialogue with the suppressed voices makes a space steeped in the elements of carnival and laugh. It can be said that the humors in Mathnavi are not the techniques for embellishing the text but the affects of the transcendental method of Mathnavi for interpreting the world.
Ruch, Willibald; Busse, Peter; Hehl, Franz-Josef
It was hypothesized that appreciation of the structural basis and of sexual content in humor is related to punitiveness in different ways. Sixty-eight male subjects served as lay judges and stipulated what would be the just minimum and maximum punishment of committing one of 25 criminal acts and filled in scales relating to humor appreciation, conservatism, dogmatism, and intolerance of ambiguity. Funniness of incongruity-resolution correlated positively with minimum and maximum punishment. A...
Allan L Reiss
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cataplexy is observed in a subset of patients with narcolepsy and affects approximately 1 in 2,000 persons. Cataplexy is most often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, which can result in transient, yet debilitating, muscle atonia. The objective of this study was to examine the neural systems underlying humor processing in individuals with cataplexy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: While undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, we showed ten narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and ten healthy controls humorous cartoons. In addition, we examined the brain activity of one subject while in a full-blown cataplectic attack. Behavioral results showed that participants with cataplexy rated significantly fewer humorous cartoons as funny compared to controls. Concurrent fMRI showed that patients, when compared to controls and in the absence of overt cataplexy symptoms, showed pronounced activity in the emotional network including the ventral striatum and hypothalamus while viewing humorous versus non-humorous cartoons. Increased activity was also observed in the right inferior frontal gyri--a core component of the inhibitory circuitry. In comparison, the one subject who experienced a cataplectic attack showed dramatic reductions in hypothalamic activity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest an overdrive of the emotional circuitry and possible compensatory suppression by cortical inhibitory regions in cataplexy. Moreover, during cataplectic attacks, the hypothalamus is characterized by a marked decrease in activity similar to that observed during sleep. One possible explanation for these findings is an initial overdrive and compensatory shutdown of the hypothalamus resulting in full cataplectic symptoms.
Deryabina O. G.
Full Text Available The aim was to study the influence of booster immunization with recombinant fragment of E2 CSFV on humoral immune response, elicited by candidate marker DNA-vaccine against CSF. Methods. The fragment of E2 CSFV gene has been detected by PCR, and the expression of encoded protein – by immunohistochemical analysis. The anti-E2 antibodies in blood serum after immunization have been detected by ELISA. Results. It has been shown that candidate marker DNA-vaccine transfected myocytes of murine biceps in situ. The data of immuno-histochemical analysis revealed the expression of fragment of glycoprotein E2 CSFV from the plasmid introduced. The booster immunization with recombinant E2 led to the significant increase of the titer of antibodies specific to the antigen studied. Conclusions. The data obtained show that boosting with recombinant E2 enhances humoral immune response elicited by the candidate marker DNA-vaccine against CSF.
An analysis of short effect of pelvic irradiation on cellular and humoral immunity was made in 24 patients treated by irradiation alone or a combination of surgery and irradiation for uterine carcinoma, at 2, 6, 12 months after loco-regional therapy. Twelve months later there is a decrease of T lymphocytes (P = 0.01), whereas the B lymphocytes count is normal; the percentage of T and B lymphocytes remains stable, but the lymphocyte response to PHA after 3 days is reduced (p = 0.03). A significant decrease of immunoglobulins G, A and M is observed
Sense of humor is a person’s ability to use humor in solving the problem, a person’s skill to create the humor, and the ability to appreciate or respond humor. Individuals who have a sense of humor is known to be better of use coping with stress, establish a relationship with the people around him and mentally and physically healthier. When the elderly can cope the stress feelings better, then feelings of sadness or disapointment that may arise will be reduced so that the elderly will have ha...
The subtitling translation in American sitcom is of great significance which helps Chinese audiences to understand pro-grams. Humor element is an essential part of the sitcom. However, the loss of humor is very common in subtitling translation, so the vivid and accurate translation for humor in sitcoms has become a challenge for the translators. This thesis analyzes the defini-tion of humor and the main features of subtitling translation, and then discusses several examples of humor loss in the subtitling translation of Friends to put forward corresponding strategies.
Lin Yutang is called the master humorist in China. He advocates humor and spiritual literature in his maga-zine Lun Yu (Analects) which attracts essays and readership. His informal but polished style in both Chinese and English makes him one of the most influential writers of his generation, and his compilations and translations of classic Chinese texts into English are bestsellers in the West. Humor is a distinctive feature in his works. In his book, he uses humor as he sees appropriate, and through humor he criticizes social realities, depicts characters and introduces original expressions, etc. His humor can be related to some aspects in his life. In this paper, I will briefly analysis Lin's sense of humor and how Lin' applies humor in his works.
Warren, Caleb; McGraw, A Peter
After 2.5 millennia of philosophical deliberation and psychological experimentation, most scholars have concluded that humor arises from incongruity. We highlight 2 limitations of incongruity theories of humor. First, incongruity is not consistently defined. The literature describes incongruity in at least 4 ways: surprise, juxtaposition, atypicality, and a violation. Second, regardless of definition, incongruity alone does not adequately differentiate humorous from nonhumorous experiences. We suggest revising incongruity theory by proposing that humor arises from a benign violation: something that threatens a person's well-being, identity, or normative belief structure but that simultaneously seems okay. Six studies, which use entertainment, consumer products, and social interaction as stimuli, reveal that the benign violation hypothesis better differentiates humorous from nonhumorous experiences than common conceptualizations of incongruity. A benign violation conceptualization of humor improves accuracy by reducing the likelihood that joyous, amazing, and tragic situations are inaccurately predicted to be humorous. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26692355
Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Rameyer, R.A.; Chang, S.P.; Berestecky, J.
Seven immature green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured from Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu were used to evaluate methods for assessing their immune response. Two turtles each were immunized intramuscularly with egg white lysozyme (EWL) in Freunda??s complete adjuvant, Gerbu, or ISA-70; a seventh turtle was immunized with saline only and served as a control. Humoral immune response was measured with an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell-mediated immune response was measured using in vitro cell proliferation assays (CPA) using whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) cultured with concanavalin A (ConA), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or soluble egg EWL antigen. All turtles, except for one immunized with Gerbu and the control, produced a detectable humoral immune response by 6 weeks which persisted for at least 14 weeks after a single immunization. All turtles produced an anamnestic humoral immune response after secondary immunization. Antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in PBM was seen in all turtles either after primary or secondary immunization, but it was not as consistent as humoral immune response; antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in whole blood was rarely seen. Mononuclear cells had significantly higher stimulation indices than whole blood regardless of adjuvant, however, results with whole blood had lower variability. Both Gerbu and ISA-70 appeared to potentiate the cell-mediated immune response when PBM or whole blood were cultured with PHA. This is the first time cell proliferation assays have been compared between whole blood and PBM for reptiles. This is also the first demonstration of antigen specific cell-mediated response in reptiles. Cell proliferation assays allowed us to evaluate the cell-mediated immune response of green turtles. However, CPA may be less reliable than ELISA for detecting antigen specific immune response. Either of the three adjuvants appears suitable to safely elicit a
Pàez-Ribes, Marta; Allen, Elizabeth; Hudock, James; Takeda, Takaaki; Okuyama, Hiroaki; Viñals, Francesc; Inoue, Masahiro; Bergers, Gabriele; Hanahan, Douglas; Casanovas, Oriol
Multiple angiogenesis inhibitors have been therapeutically validated in preclinical cancer models, and several in clinical trials. Here we report that angiogenesis inhibitors targeting the VEGF pathway demonstrate antitumor effects in mouse models of pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma and glioblastoma but concomitantly elicit tumor adaptation and progression to stages of greater malignancy, with heightened invasiveness and in some cases increased lymphatic and distant metastasis. Increased i...
The Bachelor Thesis Humour in advertisement is focused on creating humorous advertisements. The Thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is about advertisement, psychology of advertisement, emotions and emotional appeals that are used in advertising, primarily appeal humour. The practical part includes analysis of the survey focused on the effectiveness of humour in advertisements, analysis of selected campaign and the results of own survey.
Catalina M. Labarca R.
Full Text Available El humor es un fenómeno poco estudiado dentro del contexto de la psicología, menos aún, en el adulto mayor, grupo etario que se encuentra en constante crecimiento dentro de nuestro país.En tal sentido, la investigación, guiada por los planteamientos de Carbelo (2007 y DAnello (2010, denominada sentido del humor en el adulto mayor, tuvo por objetivo, determinar el significado que tiene este fenómeno para el adulto mayor. Para ello, se realizó un estudio de corte cualitativo,donde se utilizó la Entrevista en Profundidad como método de recolección de la información. Los informantes fueron 4 adultos mayores (2 hombres y 2 mujeres con edades comprendidas entre 60 y 73 años de edad, los cuales fueron seleccionados como una muestra de propósito. Para el análisis, se utilizó la Teoría Fundamentada, concluyéndose que para el adulto mayor, cuando el sentido del humor se convierte en parte de la personalidad, es un factor protector de la salud, da sentido de pertenencia y cambia positivamente el ambiente, trayendo como consecuencia una mejor calidad de vida, siendo esto último el principal significante que surgió del análisis de la información. Igualmente, se determinó que el sentido del humor es una construcción social que se va elaborando a lo largo de la vida y que se afianza en esta etapa vital.
stoma care would affect patients and, to the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to elicit preferences for potential improvements in ostomy pouches in the form of monetary values. Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements in...... the utility that patients would obtain from a potential improvement in their ostomy pouch. This provides information as to how treatment options in terms of stoma management can be structured so as to maximize the benefits for patients....
Any software development process is the combination of multiple development activities and each activity has a vital role in the software development cycle. Requirement Engineering is the main and basic branch of Software Engineering, it has many phases but the most initial phase is Requirement Elicitation. In this phase requirements are gathered for system development. This paper provides a literature review of the requirements engineering processes performed in traditional and ...
Full Text Available Humor is defined as a state of good spirit, exhibited with a smile or laughter, as a response to external stimuli. It constitutes a special form of human communication as well as a form of social conduct. The word «humor» appears for the first time in Hippocrates' writings. Psychology considers humor as one of the most powerful weapons against depression and disappointment. In psychiatric therapeutics humor serves many purposes, thereby acting as a supplement, not a substitute to treatment received. Purpose: of this article is to highlight the positive effects of humor in humans, health professionals and patient. Material and method: An extensive literature search databases such as Medline, Pub Med, Wikipedia, Cinahl, Medscape, with key words: humor, psychiatric patient, care, humor scales Results: Humor is an interpersonal process which facilitates and promotes expression and exchange of views; however it requires prudence, cautiousness and respect to patients' personality and sensitive issues. Humor is not innate, it is acquired and it can be learning and taught. Conclusion: The correct use of humor in therapeutic practice, contributes to the development of a therapeutic relationship between patient and healthcare professional as well as a sense of trust between them.
Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior
Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Adamle, Kathleen; Chiang, Ling-Chun
Humor has been recognized by nurse researchers and practitioners as a constructive therapeutic intervention and has shown positive psychological and physiological outcomes for patient care. Because cross-cultural research on humor is sparse, this preliminary study investigates how nursing faculty members approach teaching therapeutic humor in the classroom and clinical education in different countries. Through an investigation of classroom (didactic) education and clinical practicum with direct patient care, the study may elucidate the linkage between theory and practice as well as how nursing faculty members view therapeutic humor in general. Researching nursing faculty teaching practices and viewpoints of therapeutic humor may help reveal cultural differences in the use of humor in healthcare settings. This cross-cultural study included 40 nursing faculty at three nursing programs: two in the United States and one in Taiwan. A qualitative approach was used to perform content analysis on responses to the open-ended questionnaires. Research findings revealed cultural differences between faculties from the two countries. Taiwanese faculty members indicated that they teach more theory and concepts related to therapeutic humor in the classroom than do nursing faculty members from the United States. However, nursing faculty members in Taiwan reported that they observe and practice less therapeutic humor in clinical settings out of respect for the cultural value of "reverence of illness" operating within Taiwanese society. Therapeutic humor was family centered and interdependent on relationships, roles, duties, and responsibilities of family members. In contrast, the U.S. faculty members stated that they teach less theory and concepts related to therapeutic humor in the classroom but observe and practice humor more in clinical settings. United States faculty approached teaching therapeutic humor in the classroom on an informal basis because the subject was not part of
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.
Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Fokuo, J Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A
Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, the participants repeated the attitude measures and provided perceptions of the comic. Humor styles and perceptions significantly interacted with condition to reduce stigma. Perceptions of the self-disclosed comic were associated with reduced stigma. People exhibiting affiliative humor style (i.e., they enjoy making others laugh) were shown to have significantly greater stigma changes in the disclosed condition compared with the nondisclosed and control conditions. Affiliative humor endorsers also interacted with the nondisclosed condition, suggesting that mental health comedy might generally reduce stigma in people who use humor to improve relationships. PMID:24727719
Herrero Perucha, Sandra
Estudio sobre la traducción del humor y las referencias culturales de forma tanto teórica como práctica. Dicho estudio proporciona una base de conocimiento en la cual se explican los distintos tipos de humor y bromas, así como las técnicas de traducción de referentes culturales y una breve introducción al doblaje. Esta parte teórica se ve reflejada en el análisis de la serie de televisión Modern Family, de la cual se comparan algunos fragmentos seleccionados de la versión original con los fra...
Guidelines for using humor in training are as follows: (1) use a modicum of apt, relevant humor in an informative presentation; (2) self-disparaging humor enhances the presenter's image; (3) humor is only one factor that enhances interest; (4) apt, relevant humor does not affect persuasiveness; and (5) satire has unpredictable results. (SK)
Martin, Tara G; Burgman, Mark A; Fidler, Fiona; Kuhnert, Petra M; Low-Choy, Samantha; McBride, Marissa; Mengersen, Kerrie
Expert knowledge is used widely in the science and practice of conservation because of the complexity of problems, relative lack of data, and the imminent nature of many conservation decisions. Expert knowledge is substantive information on a particular topic that is not widely known by others. An expert is someone who holds this knowledge and who is often deferred to in its interpretation. We refer to predictions by experts of what may happen in a particular context as expert judgments. In general, an expert-elicitation approach consists of five steps: deciding how information will be used, determining what to elicit, designing the elicitation process, performing the elicitation, and translating the elicited information into quantitative statements that can be used in a model or directly to make decisions. This last step is known as encoding. Some of the considerations in eliciting expert knowledge include determining how to work with multiple experts and how to combine multiple judgments, minimizing bias in the elicited information, and verifying the accuracy of expert information. We highlight structured elicitation techniques that, if adopted, will improve the accuracy and information content of expert judgment and ensure uncertainty is captured accurately. We suggest four aspects of an expert elicitation exercise be examined to determine its comprehensiveness and effectiveness: study design and context, elicitation design, elicitation method, and elicitation output. Just as the reliability of empirical data depends on the rigor with which it was acquired so too does that of expert knowledge. PMID:22280323
Bozikas Vasilis P; Kosmidis Mary H; Giannakou Maria; Adamopoulou Aravela; Gonda Xenia; Fokas Kostas; Garyfallos George
Abstract Background It seems that the core neural regions and cognitive processes implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) pathophysiology may overlap with those involved in humor appreciation. However, to date, there have been no studies that have explored humor appreciation in OCD. The purpose of the present work was to investigate humor appreciation in a group of patients with OCD. Methods We examined 25 patients with OCD and 25 healthy controls, matched by age, education, and gen...
Hoang, Anh Thuc
The purpose of this study was to study the consumer decision process and its determinants, explore the concept and usage of humor in advertising to find out its impacts on consumer’s purchase decision. The theoretical framework gathered data from articles, books and previous re-searches. The author explained the process of purchase decision making, consumer buying behavior and presented the classification of humor, effects of humor and appropriate product types. Empirical data was collec...
This thesis is focused on the advertisements mainly those where humor and wit have appeared. Thesis is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical one. In the first part the marketing activities, psychology of the advertisement, humor and wit in advertisement are described. The second part is focused on mobile operator Vodafone, particular advertisements as well as on the own quantitative research. The main aim of the research is to find out how the humor and wit in the advertisement is...
CAROLINA M. CIFUENTES; JUANITA SÁNCHEZ
Effects of humor in advertisement published in Colombia were investigated in regards to brands,advertisement, purchase intention, recall and recognition.A simultaneous Classical Conditioning procedure was carried out, using Incongruous, Hostile and Allusivehumor associated to three brands. The procedure was applied to 30 university students. Results revealedthat the three kinds of humor work as unconditioning stimulus, generating positive attitudes towardsadvertisement and brand. Humor influe...
The study presented in this thesis is concerned with changes in the humoral immune system as a function of age in different inbred mouse strains. Their capacity to develop humoral immune responses to experimentally given thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens under various conditions is compared. Furthermore, experiments employing thymus transplantation and thymic humoral factors which are directed at the restoration of the diminished T cell functions in old age are reported. (Auth.)
Stephanie Plenty; Susanne Bejerot; Kimmo Eriksson
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ) and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biolo...
Lundquist, Lita Sander
The specificities of national humor are often mentioned in humor research, but seldom explained in depth. This article concerns two studies, which reveal that Danish humor (as used in professional settings) is judged by Danes and non-Danes alike as ironic, self-ironic, sarcastic, and direct, with...... no limits or taboos. These characteristics of Danish humor are analyzed here using two different theoretical frameworks: linguistics – where an explanation is found in certain type-specific features of the Danish language, namely the dialogical particles typical of the Nordic languages in general...
Alvita Nathaniel, Ph.D.
Full Text Available Classic grounded theory is an inductive process that focuses on the experiences and perceptions of research participants (Glaser, 1978, 1998. Although grounded theorists may utilize other types of data, most are likely to gather information through qualitative interviews. The theorist seeks to understand what is going on as people resolve their main concern in a given substantive area. People know what is important to them and most want to tell their stories. They feel encouraged to talk when they recognize that their stories are valued. Once the informant realizes that he or she is being heard, the story flows. This is what Glaser refers to as “spill.” When this occurs, the theorist becomes a vessel to receive the story. As Glaser describes it, “The researcher will become a ‘big ear’ to pour into incessantly” (1998, p. 124. But, as easy as this seems, the researcher must overcome certain positivist tendencies to allow this to happen. Rather than asking a list of pre-planned questions, the grounded theorist will try to develop one question that will trigger the telling of a story. Eliciting spill requires a deliberate process that employs a deep understanding of the fundamentals of classic grounded theory. Derived from Glaser’s writings, the following are suggestions intended to help the novice grounded theorist to elicit spill.
Full Text Available The study is aimed at assessing and comparing the immune response to BoHV-1 elicited by an inactivated marker vaccine in buffaloes and cattle. Vaccination did not produced any local or general reactions in buffaloes. Seroneutralizing antibodies and cellular response by IFN-γ- test have been detected in buffaloes and cattle after a prime/ booster vaccination strategy. Humoral and cellular responses were significantly higher in cattle than in buffaloes. Data pointed out the possibility to use the marker vaccine in buffaloes. However, further studies must be planned to assess the immune pressure of marker vaccines in terms of IBR eradicative attitude in infected buffalo herds.
Dra. Mirta Clara Echevarría
Full Text Available La autora indaga el humor propuesto por el diario ‘InterVoz’ (Córdoba, Argentina. El medio publica el "típico humor cordobés". Historietas, chistes y relatos representan la vida urbana cotidiana, confluencia de lo popular y lo masivo, a través de la inclusión de usos lingüísticos, costumbres, personajes típicos y personajes públicos, sobre todo políticos. Estos textos, en algunos casos, reproducen lo publicado en papel; sin embargo, son manifestaciones diferentes. En este discurso emergente, estudia las condiciones de producción, circulación y consumo desde varias vertientes. Subraya la autora la relación del humor con el resto del diario por: la fuerte relación intertextual con la información y el diseño hipertextual. Destaca tópicas y retórica del humor como parte de una política discursiva centrada en lo regional, con el objeto de construir un discurso identitario de clara apelación a "los cordobeses en el mundo". El humor de ‘InterVoz’ (el diario en su totalidad, en el marco de la globalización, se manifiesta como una otra voz, sin llegar a establecerse como contradiscurso. Este periódico –como tantos en la red– subraya las marcas de lo local para permanecer en lo global.
Humor is important in our daily life, whether our activities are at home, at work, or in public spaces, for example during sports or other recreational and entertainment activities. Until now, computational humor, the research area that investigates rules and algorithms to understand and to generate
Strick, Madelijn; van Baaren, Rick B.; Holland, Rob W.; van Knippenberg, Ad
Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often considered nonpredictive of product choice. Previous research relied exclusively on explicit self-report measures to assess attitudes and purchase intentions. The present research shows that unobtrusive association of a product with humor can affect…
This thesis,aiming to investigate the process of English-Chinese translation of humor from the perspective of RT theory(relevance translation theory),endeavors to apply its principles and methods to the re-construction of humor in the target language.
Recepoglu, Ergun; Kilinc, Ali Cagatay; Cepni, Osman
The purpose of this research is to examine the motivation level of teachers according to school principals' humor styles. The humor styles survey and job motivation scale were used to gather data from 305 randomly selected teachers employed in primary schools in Karabuk. Results indicated that 141 of the teachers claimed school principal had…
Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D
There is extensive evidence that emotional information is better remembered than neutral information across long delays, especially if the delay interval contains an opportunity for sleep. However, as prior studies have focused on memory for negative stimuli, it is unclear whether positive memories benefit from time and sleep as well. To investigate the consolidation of positive memories, the current study examined differences in memory for humorous and non-humorous cartoons. While prior evidence demonstrates that humorous information is preferentially remembered relative to non-humorous information over brief delays, it is unknown whether this benefit lasts across longer delay intervals or whether sleep is important for lasting humor memories to form. Thus, we tested memory for 27 cartoons across 12-h delay periods containing either sleep or wakefulness. Results indicate that humor's enhancing effect on recall memory is robust across a 12-h delay and that a period of sleep facilitates this effect over wakefulness when cartoons are novel to participants and ranked based on subjective emotional ratings. Further, in accordance with previous studies that reveal diminished emotional reactivity to stimuli following sleep, in a supplemental experiment, we found that sleep reduced subjective ratings of humor, arousal, and positivity of humorous cartoons. These findings provide preliminary evidence that sleep's impact on negative emotional memory consolidation and emotional reactivity can be extended to positive stimuli as well. PMID:24337230
Language humor is a usual phenomenon in human communication. It is an interdisciplinary subject connected with a wide range of learning. Up to now, a great deal of research has been done from the viewpoint of psychology and sociology. In the field of linguistics, some explorations have already been made in regard to its semantic and rhetorical aspects, but due attention has not been paid to it in pragmatics in that in everyday verbal communication, humorous utterances are easy to enjoy but hard to define. Apart from its capability of laughter-making, language humor is more often than not, produced to implicitly perform some communicative functions, not achievable by explicit expressions. This the - sis, based on the fruitful studies of humor, attempts to investigate the mechanisms of English humor from the perspective of a new theory 一 Co- operative Principle.
CAROLINA M. CIFUENTES
Full Text Available Effects of humor in advertisement published in Colombia were investigated in regards to brands,advertisement, purchase intention, recall and recognition.A simultaneous Classical Conditioning procedure was carried out, using Incongruous, Hostile and Allusivehumor associated to three brands. The procedure was applied to 30 university students. Results revealedthat the three kinds of humor work as unconditioning stimulus, generating positive attitudes towardsadvertisement and brand. Humor influences the purchase intention and recognition, but not the remembranceof brand when compared to neutral advertisement. Incongrous and Hostile Humor generate recognitionand positive attitude towards advertisement and brand. Allusions have a greater effect on purchaseintention than the other ones. Results corroborate the effectiveness of humor as an advertisement tool.
Jin Zheng; Rimas Orentas; Xiaofei Yan; Hongli Liu
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood and it can develop in the nerve tissue of the adrenal gland, neck, chest, or spinal cord A number of tumor-associated antigens(TAAs), which can elicit humoral immunity, have been identified in cancer patients. To investigate the humoral immunity during neuroblastoma development, we treated A/J mice with an aggressive clone of neuroblastoma(AGN2a)cells, then vaccinated the mice with cells expressing AGN2a-CD80/CD137L under the condihons with or without regulatory T cell blockade. Strong humoral immunity was induced by AGN2a-CD80/CD137L immunization in the context of regulatory T cell blockade. Sera from treated mice were used to screen an AGN2a cDNA expression library for identifying TAAs by SEREX(serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries). Clones were identified by sequencing and comparative analysis of gene pools. Further investigation of these gene products revealed that most of them play a role in the neuronal differentiation, cell metabolism, and are highly expressed in other types of malignancy. Asz1(ankyrin repeat, SAM, and basic leucine zipper domaincontaining protein)was found in all tumor-bearing groups. These results implicated that these candidates identified from tumor-bearing mice may be neuroblastoma-associated antigens, which can be used as biomarkers in early diagnosis of neuroblastoma, whereas those identified from vaccinated mice may be the potential therapeutic targets.
Aqueous humor dynamics was observed in patients treated for glaucoma. Aqueous flow was measured using the radionuclide method of contact application of 22NaCl and the detection of gamma radiation with external detectors. The sample of 184 eyes was divided into three groups: open-angle glaucoma with therapy, open-angle glaucoma without therapy and angle-closure glaucoma 47 eyes were used as controls. Changes were observed in 22Na outflow half-time in dependence on the duration of the disease, therapy, intraocular pressUre and changes in the perimeter. The new technique has been fully proven in practice, is a contribution to the diagnosis of glaucoma and an indicator of the compensation of the disease. (author)
Lyke, Kirsten E; Daou, Modibo; DIARRA, ISSA; Kone, Abdoulaye; Kouriba, Bourema; Thera, Mohamadou A.; Dutta, Sheetij; Lanar, David E.; Heppner, D Gray; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Plowe, Christopher V.; Sztein, Marcelo B.
The development of a safe and effective malaria vaccine is impeded by the complexity of the Plasmodium life cycle. A vaccine that elicits both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses might be needed for protection against this multistage parasitic infection. Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) plays a key role in erythrocytic invasion but is also expressed in sporozoites and in late stage liver schizonts, where it may provide a target of protective cell-mediated immunity (CMI). A Phase 1 tri...
James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise
It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children. PMID:27547258
Full Text Available Although there are many clinical programs designed to bring humor into pediatric hospitals, there has been very little research with children or adolescents concerning the specific utility of humor for children undergoing stressful or painful procedures. Rx Laughter™, a non-profit organization interested in the use of humor for healing, collaborated with UCLA to collect preliminary data on a sample of 18 children aged 7–16 years. Participants watched humorous video-tapes before, during and after a standardized pain task that involved placing a hand in cold water. Pain appraisal (ratings of pain severity and pain tolerance (submersion time were recorded and examined in relation to humor indicators (number of laughs/smiles during each video and child ratings of how funny the video was. Whereas humor indicators were not significantly associated with pain appraisal or tolerance, the group demonstrated significantly greater pain tolerance while viewing funny videos than when viewing the videos immediately before or after the cold-water task. The results suggest that humorous distraction is useful to help children and adolescents tolerate painful procedures. Further study is indicated to explore the specific mechanism of this benefit.
There has been a renaissance of research interest in the "sense of humor" in recent years, partly äs an attempt to define the concept but more strenuously to provide Instruments for its measurement. A quick count of recent publications shows an average of two to three new sense of humor- instruments per year — or one every four to six months. This intensity of research is unparalleled in the history of humor research and contrasts sharply with 25 years ago when the renewal of interest in hum...
Full Text Available Requirements elicitation is the process through which analysts determine the software requirements of stakeholders. Requirements elicitation is seldom well done, and an inaccurate or incomplete understanding of user requirements has led to the downfall of many software projects. This paper proposes a classification of problem types that occur in requirements elicitation. The classification has been derived from a literature analysis. Papers reporting on techniques for improving requirements elicitation practice were examined for the problem the technique was designed to address. In each classification the most recent or prominent techniques for ameliorating the problems are presented. The classification allows the requirements engineer to be sensitive to problems as they arise and the educator to structure delivery of requirements elicitation training.
Kelly, William E.
The importance of laughter and humor to enhance education, and special education in particular, is addressed. A sense of humor is an attitude, and humor together with enthusiasm helps students enjoy the learning process. Humor can make students become more alert, and can have very positive influences on affect. A funny remark, a pleasant…
Arthur Asa Berger
Humor (and related concerns such as the nature of comedy and of laughter) is an enigmatic subject that has perplexed our greatest thinkers from Aristotle’s time to the present. There are four competing theories that explain humor, each of which argues that all humor is based on: superiority, incongruity, cognitive problems in processing humor and psychoanalytic perspectives (such as masked aggression).
Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad
Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…
Kao, Justine T; Levy, Roger; Goodman, Noah D
Humor plays an essential role in human interactions. Precisely what makes something funny, however, remains elusive. While research on natural language understanding has made significant advancements in recent years, there has been little direct integration of humor research with computational models of language understanding. In this paper, we propose two information-theoretic measures-ambiguity and distinctiveness-derived from a simple model of sentence processing. We test these measures on a set of puns and regular sentences and show that they correlate significantly with human judgments of funniness. Moreover, within a set of puns, the distinctiveness measure distinguishes exceptionally funny puns from mediocre ones. Our work is the first, to our knowledge, to integrate a computational model of general language understanding and humor theory to quantitatively predict humor at a fine-grained level. We present it as an example of a framework for applying models of language processing to understand higher level linguistic and cognitive phenomena. PMID:26235596
Baron, Robert A.; Ball, Rodney L.
The present experiment sought to investigate the hypothesis that exposure to nonhostile humor would be highly effective in reducing the level of aggression subsequently evidenced by angry individuals. (Author/RK)
Vrticka, Pascal; Neely, Michelle; Walter, Elizabeth; Black, Jessica M.; Reiss, Allan L.
The developmental origin of sex differences in adult brain function is poorly understood. Elucidating neural mechanisms underlying comparable cognitive functionality in both children and adults is required to address this gap. Humor appreciation represents a particularly relevant target for such developmental research because explanatory theories apply across the life span and underlying neurocircuitry shows sex differences in adults. As a positive mood state, humor is also of interest due to...
Hashimoto, Hirotaka; Arai, Kiyomi; Hayashi, Shimmin; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Jiro; Chikuda, Makoto; Obara, Yoshitaka
We evaluated the antioxidative effects of astaxanthin through the changes in superoxide scavenging activity, levels of hydrogen peroxide and total hydroperoxides in human aqueous humor. The study subjects were 35 patients who underwent bilateral cataract surgery on one side before and the other side after intake of astaxanthin (6 mg/day for 2 weeks). Their aqueous humor was taken during the surgery and subjected to measurements of the three parameters. After astaxanthin intake, the superoxide...
Bacciu, Davide; Gervasi, Vincenzo (Ed.); Prencipe, Giuseppe
The mechanisms of humour have been the subject of much study and investigation, starting with and up to our days. Much of this work is based on literary theories, put forward by some of the most eminent philosophers and thinkers of all times, or medical theories, investigating the impact of humor on brain activity or behaviour. Recent functional neuroimaging studies, for instance, have investigated the process of comprehending and appreciating humor by examining functional activity in distinc...
Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J.; Fokuo, J. Konadu; Kosyluk, Kristin A.
Public stigma is a barrier for people with mental illness. Humor may have the potential to decrease stigmatizing attitudes in the context of disclosure. Participants completed measures on stigmatizing attitudes and humor style and were then randomized to one of three conditions (self-disclosure comedy sketch, the same comedy sketch with no disclosure, and a control comedy sketch). After reviewing the comedy sketch, participants repeated the attitude measures and provided per...
Bozikas Vasilis P
Full Text Available Abstract Background It seems that the core neural regions and cognitive processes implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD pathophysiology may overlap with those involved in humor appreciation. However, to date, there have been no studies that have explored humor appreciation in OCD. The purpose of the present work was to investigate humor appreciation in a group of patients with OCD. Methods We examined 25 patients with OCD and 25 healthy controls, matched by age, education, and gender. We administered Penn's Humor Appreciation Test (PHAT, a computerized test comprising captionless cartoons by Mordillo. Each set of stimuli consisted of two almost identical drawings, one of which was funny due to the alteration of a detail in the cartoon, whereas the other was not funny. Severity of psychopathology was evaluated with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS. Results No significant effect for group, gender or group × gender interaction was found on the PHAT scores. In OCD patients, humor appreciation was not significantly associated with age of onset, duration of illness, and obsessions, but correlated significantly with compulsions. Conclusions Humor appreciation, based on captionless cartoons in OCD, does not seem to be deficient compared to healthy subjects but may be related to illness characteristics.
Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily
This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255
Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily
This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255
Claire Louise Fox
Full Text Available This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating. Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer. In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.
Kim R. Edwards
Full Text Available In positive psychology, humor has been identified as one of 24 character strengths considered ubiquitously important for human flourishing. Unlike the other strengths, humor was a late addition to this classification system and its status as a strength continues to be somewhat controversial. Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to explore the associations between humor and several outcome variables of relevance to positive psychology (happiness, routes to happiness, resilience, and morality. The second purpose was to explore how best to conceptualize and measure humor as a character strength by comparing the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS Humor Scale with the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ in their ability to predict the outcome variables. A sample of 176 participants completed questionnaires assessing the humor and positive psychology constructs. The results indicated that the humor measures significantly predicted most of the outcome variables, supporting the importance of humor in positive psychology. Furthermore, although the VIA-IS Humor scale and positive humor styles on the HSQ showed considerable overlap, the negative humor styles added significantly to the prediction of outcome variables beyond these positive humor measures, supporting the importance of assessing maladaptive as well as adaptive uses of humor in research on positive psychology. These findings suggest that the HSQ may be a more useful measure than the VIA-IS Humor scale in future research in this field.
Full Text Available At the beginning of 21st century comics production in Argentina have experienced the emergence of new methods of publication, promotion and circulation consisting of a series of devices whose complex relationship has redefined the authorial figureas well as a new reading audience. The passage from the Internet and digital formats to the book has established itself as post-industrial strategy in the context of the reconstitution of a diverse comics field, where the national tradition of humor serves as example of the mentioned changes
Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco
This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion. PMID:25786353
Syftet med mitt arbete är att undersöka vad humor i reklam innebär. Humor uppfattas på olika sätt beroende på var man befinner sig i världen så kan man klarlägga en övergripande definition över vad humor i reklam är? Humor är något som får oss på bra humör, får oss att skratta, men får reklam mer synlighet med hjälp av humoristiska inslag? Jag har genom en kvalitativ metod intervjuat två personer inom reklambranschen för att få ett grepp över humorns innebörd och påverkan i reklam. Den te...
Cornelia C. Bergmann
Full Text Available The nervous system is the target for acute encephalitic viral infections, as well as a reservoir for persisting viruses. Intrathecal antibody (Ab synthesis is well documented in humans afflicted by infections associated with neurological complications, as well as the demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis. This review focuses on the origin, recruitment, maintenance, and biological relevance of Ab-secreting cells (ASC found in the central nervous system (CNS following experimental neurotropic RNA virus infections. We will summarize evidence for a highly dynamic, evolving humoral response characterized by temporal alterations in B cell subsets, proliferation, and differentiation. Overall local Ab plays a beneficial role via complement-independent control of virus replication, although cross or self-reactive Ab to CNS antigens may contribute to immune-mediated pathogenesis during some infections. Importantly, protective Ab exert anti-viral activity not only by direct neutralization, but also by binding to cell surface-expressed viral glycoproteins. Ab engagement of viral glycoproteins blocks budding and mediates intracellular signaling leading to restored homeostatic and innate functions. The sustained Ab production by local ASC, as well as chemokines and cytokines associated with ASC recruitment and retention, are highlighted as critical components of immune control.
Eosinophils perform numerous tasks. They are involved in inflammatory reactions associated with innate immune defence against parasitic infections and are also involved in pathological processes in response to allergens. Recently, however, it has become clear that eosinophils also play crucial non-inflammatory roles in the generation and maintenance of adaptive immune responses. Eosinophils, being a major source of the plasma cell survival factor APRIL (activation and proliferation-induced ligand), are essential not only for the long-term survival of plasma cells in the bone marrow, but also for the maintenance of these cells in the lamina propria which underlies the gut epithelium. At steady state under non-inflammatory conditions eosinophils are resident cells of the gastrointestinal tract, although only few are present in the major organized lymphoid tissue of the gut - the Peyer's patches (PP). Surprisingly, however, lack of eosinophils abolishes efficient class-switching of B cells to immunoglobulin (Ig)A in the germinal centres of PP. Thus, eosinophils are required to generate and to maintain mucosal IgA plasma cells, and as a consequence their absence leads to a marked reduction of IgA both in serum and in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Eosinophils thus have an essential part in long-term humoral immune protection, as they are crucial for the longevity of antibody-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow and, in addition, for gut immune homeostasis. PMID:26291602
Nikolić Desanka P.
Full Text Available This paper discusses humorous stories collected in the village of Brekovo near Arilje; the stories were created in the first half of the 20th century and noted down by Momčilo Jovanović, a villager from Brekovo. Later on, in the 1980's, the stories were passed down to the author of this paper. These narrations are mostly short stories and anecdotes; in a very realistic fashion, the stories depict life and culture of the Dinaric race from old Vlah - Zlatibor cultural area, namely, the type of person also known as "Era", well-known for its wittiness, smartness and wisdom. Based on the analysis of seven Era-stories, the author identified the social and cultural values highlighted in the stories (such as attitudes toward authorities intergenerational relationship, status of women, power relations between townsmen and peasants, propensity toward justice and truth. In summary, the stories document the mutual influence between traditional culture and the Era personality in this particular rural region; therefore, they could contribute to studies on character traits of the inhabitants in a given area of western Serbia.
This thesis takes the Skopos Theory which is the core of German functionalism as the breakthrough point. According to the general classification of humorous utterance, this thesis divides it into situational humor and language humor. This thesis aims to analyze the application of the Skopos Theory in the two classifications of humorous utterances translation from the two perspectives which are conformity and conflict between the source-te~tfunction and the target-text function.
Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja
The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16–24, 25–35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80–.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66–.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5–35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0–15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus–despite similar labels–these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles. PMID:27547259
Swathine.K*; Dr. J.KomalaLakshmi
Requirement Elicitation is also called as Requirement Gathering, in which requirements are collected from User, Stakeholders, and Customer to build the system. Requirements elicitation practices include interviews, questionnaires, task analysis, domain analysis, user observation, workshops, brainstorming, use cases, role playing and prototyping by using this practices quality of the requirements are satisfied. A wide variety of tools exist that have been developed and used to supp...
Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; de Stricker, Karin;
OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to investigate the expression of kit protein (KIT) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in parotid carcinomas in order to correlate the expression to histology and prognosis. Further we want to perform mutation analysis of KIT-positive adenoid cystic carcinomas....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections from 73 patients with parotid gland carcinomas were used for the study. The sections were stained with both KIT and EGFR polyclonal antibodies. Twelve KIT-positive adenoid cystic carcinomas were examined for c-kit mutation in codon 816....... RESULTS: Of all carcinomas 25% were KIT-positive and 79% were EGFR-positive. Ninety-two percentage of the adenoid cystic carcinomas were KIT-positive. None of the adenoid cystic carcinomas had mutations in codon 816 of the c-kit gene. CONCLUSION: Neither KIT- nor EGFR-expression seem to harbour...
Marie-Charlotte von Deetzen; Kerstin Müller; Leo Brunnberg; Robert Klopfleisch
Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are malignant tumors of the epidermal cells with varying degrees of keratinocyte differentiation. They are common tumors in mammalian and avian species but there are, however, only two description of SCC in tortoises. In this case report we describe two cases of non-metastatic squamous cell carcinomas of the carapax and the plastron in Hermann’s tortoises with evidence of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) in one case. HHM is thought to be associated with...
Rafael Faria Sanches
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as relações entre o uso agudo e crônico de cannabis e alterações do humor. MÉTODO: Os artigos foram selecionados por meio de busca eletrônica no indexador PubMed. Capítulos de livros e as listas de referências dos artigos selecionados também foram revisados. RESULTADOS: Observam-se elevados índices de comorbidade entre abuso/dependência de cannabis e transtornos afetivos em estudos transversais e em amostras clínicas. Estudos longitudinais indicam que, em longo prazo, o uso mais intenso de cannabis está relacionado com um risco maior de desenvolvimento de doença bipolar e, talvez, depressão maior em indivíduos inicialmente sem quadros afetivos; porém, os mesmos não encontraram maior risco de uso de cannabis entre aqueles com mania ou depressão sem esta comorbidade. Outra importante observação é que o uso de substâncias psicoativas em bipolares pode estar associado a uma série de características negativas, como dificuldade na recuperação dos sintomas afetivos, maior número de internações, piora na adesão ao tratamento, risco aumentado de suicídio, agressividade e a uma pobre resposta ao lítio. Tratamentos psicossociais e farmacológicos são indicados para o manejo da comorbidade entre cannabis e transtornos afetivos. CONCLUSÃO: As relações entre o uso de cannabis e alterações do humor são observadas tanto epidemiologicamente quanto nos contextos clínicos.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. METHOD: Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long
Ramanathan, Babu; Poh, Chit Laa; Kirk, Kristin; McBride, William John Hannan; Aaskov, John; Grollo, Lara
Dengue virus (DENV) is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine. PMID:27223692
Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine.
Humor plays an indispensable part in human communication. This thesis is a tentative analysis of verbal humor under-standing within the framework of Relevance Theory. This paper, using The Big Bang Theory as a corpus, analyzes the humor gener-ated in the cognitive process of searching for relevance. According to the Relevance Theory, the understanding of humor is a pro-cess in which the hearer finds"relevance"in what seems"irrelevant". The author hopes that this analysis can help more people un-derstand and appreciate the humor in The Big Bang Theory. And meanwhile their personal sense of humor can also be improved.
Humor study enjoys a long history with a variety of theories and methods. Among them, the pragmatic approach is a relatively new and vigorous perspective. Scholars have adopted the cooperative principle and relevance theory to explain humor. However, as to studying humor from the perspective of pragmatic presupposition, very few researches have been done in this regard. Such being the case, this paper will use presupposition as a tool to analyze humor in Lost in Thailand which is a sensational comedy in China. By analyzing cases from this film, the paper aims to explore how presupposition functions in the production of humorous effect, and to provide some new insights into humor study.
Theories about black humor usually regard that it as a contemporary phenomenon and a culmination of the literary modernism and beginning of post-modernism. My intent in this paper is to refute the thesis that the black humor is a modern invention. I am going to prove its existence still in Greek antiquity, quoting and analyzing humorous epitaphs and black humor epigrams. Putting in relation black humor with the joy and humor in religious (fertility and funeral) rituals, I am also going to set...
Southam, Marti; Schwartz, Kathleen Barker
SUMMARY Humor use in education has been studied in fields such as psychology and nursing. Research has demonstrated that effective educational humor needs to be integrated into the topic and used in moderation. Used appropriately, humor can gain attention, facilitate creative thinking and memory, motivate students to attend class, and promote learning outcomes. No studies were located in the occupational therapy literature that specifically related to humor as an aspect of teaching. The purpose of this article is to explore the merits of humor as an educational tool and to give examples of ways that occupational therapy faculty and clinical instructors can employ humor. PMID:23944666
Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G
The association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence is well established. Yet, little is known about why, exactly, relationally aggressive young adolescents are able to achieve and maintain high popular status among peers. The present study investigated the mediating role of humor in the association between relational aggression and popularity during early adolescence. Also considered was whether the association between relational aggression and humor varies according to adolescents' gender and their friends' levels of relational aggression. Participants were 265 sixth-grade students (48% female; 41% racial/ethnic minority; M age = 12.04 years) who completed peer nomination and friendship measures in their classrooms at two time points (Wave 1: February; Wave 2: May). The results indicated that Wave 1 relational aggression was related to Wave 1 and 2 popularity indirectly through Wave 1 humor, after accounting for the effects of Wave 1 physical aggression, ethnicity, and gender. Additional analyses showed that relational aggression and humor were related significantly only for boys and for young adolescents with highly relationally aggressive friends. The results support the need for further research on humor and aggression during early adolescence and other mechanisms by which relationally aggressive youth achieve high popular status. PMID:24136377
Hakala, Jussi; Kätsyri, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka
Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence (which were evaluated separately) and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65, 90, and 115 mm. The analyses controlled for participants' gender, gender match, emotional empathy, and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65 mm) camera base, whereas stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and most natural (15-65 mm) base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions. PMID:27551358
Full Text Available Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201 aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information.Results: High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively but both initiation competence (positively and conflict management competence (negatively predicted aggressive humor.Conclusion: The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor.Keywords: self-esteem, interpersonal competence, humor styles, differential effects
Pride and Prejudice, published in 1813, is the most influential work of British female writer Jane Austen (1775-1817). By analyzing Jane Austen's representative novel, Pride and Prejudice, we are convinced by the excellent humor and irony used in it. Irony in Pride and Prejudice is mainly embodied in Austen's verbal irony, situational irony and dramatic irony. Under the perspective of stylistics, this paper analyzes dialogues, descriptive and commentary language and the arrangement of the whole plots of Austen's Pride and Prejudice to show how the different tones of humor and irony are reflected in the novel. This paper also focuses on the significance in portraying the characteristics of the roles and theme performance of humor and irony used in Pride and Prejudice, which help us to appreciate the satire literature.
Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la importancia del erotismo, la sexualidad y el humor en las danzas del altiplano boliviano. Demuestra que estos elementos performativos no solo están fuertemente interconectados, sino también íntimamente ligados a la sacralidad andina. La primera parte del texto está dedicada a los componentes humorísticos y lúdicos del enamoramiento mediante la danza, postulando que humor y alegría forman parte del “erotismo andino”. Mientras tanto, la segunda parte estudia el “transformismo ritual andino”, que consiste en presentaciones dancísticas sumamente jocosas y fuertemente sexuadas a cargo de hombres hetero y homosexuales disfrazados de mujer.
Baliga, Chetana; Majhi, Sandipan; Mondal, Kajari; Bhattacharjee, Antara; VijayRaghavan, K; Varadarajan, Raghavan
Cold-sensitive phenotypes have helped us understand macromolecular assembly and biological phenomena, yet few attempts have been made to understand the basis of cold sensitivity or to elicit it by design. We report a method for rational design of cold-sensitive phenotypes. The method involves generation of partial loss-of-function mutants, at either buried or functional sites, coupled with selective overexpression strategies. The only essential input is amino acid sequence, although available structural information can be used as well. The method has been used to elicit cold-sensitive mutants of a variety of proteins, both monomeric and dimeric, and in multiple organisms, namely Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Drosophila melanogaster This simple, yet effective technique of inducing cold sensitivity eliminates the need for complex mutations and provides a plausible molecular mechanism for eliciting cold-sensitive phenotypes. PMID:27091994
Humor is, from a psychological point of view, a complex process involving cognitive, affective, interspersonal and social elements in a interpersonal context. Its cognitive core is based on the perception of incongruity between two related inconsistent or contradictory mental representations. The total or partial resolution of incongruity in a playful frame is associated with a specific positive emotion, which characteristics and intensity are determined by the structure of the humoristic stimulus more than its content, and the personal and social contexts. Main theories of humor are reviewed as well as its development, its cognitive and affective correlates, and the influence of genre, age and personality. PMID:27005341
This research has been conducted for Oulu University of Applied Sciences as a bachelor’s thesis. The study is part of the HURMOS-project initiated to understand the benefits of using humor in different fields of business. The topic was chosen to expand the understanding of social media as a marketing platform for businesses and the benefits as well as the potential setbacks of using humor to communicate with the followers. The research topic came about from the interest of the author on the u...
Sotomayor Sáez, María Victoria
El período franquista no es un tiempo favorable al humor en la literatura para niños, que se utilizaba como un vehículo de adoctrinamiento, y sólo algunos autores crean historias y personajes capaces de hacer reír y sonreír. Primero con un humor suave, nada crítico o innovador, basado en personajes infantiles divertidos y en situaciones de la vida cotidiana. Después con el juego lingüístico y el disparate en poesía y relatos. Pero, sobre todo, en las historietas cómicas, con...
Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd
We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the...... same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects with...
Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients' recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further. PMID:27347254
Blanc, Nathalie; Brigaud, Emmanuelle
This study tested the effect of humor in one particular type of print advertisement: the preventive health ads for three topics (alcohol, tobacco, obesity). Previous research using commercial ads demonstrated that individuals' attention is spontaneously attracted by humor, leading to a memory advantage for humorous information over nonhumorous information. Two experiments investigated whether the positive effect of humor can occur with preventive health ads. In Experiment 1, participants observed humorous and nonhumorous health ads while their viewing times were recorded. In Experiment 2, to compare humorous and nonhumorous ads, the memory of health messages was assessed through a recognition task and a convincing score was collected. The results confirmed that, compared to nonhumorous health ads, those using humor received prolonged attention, were judged more convincing, and their messages were better recognized. Overall, these findings suggest that humor can be of use in preventive health communication. PMID:24160572
Ligtenberg, M. A.; Witt, K.; Galvez-Cancino, F.; Sette, A.; Lundqvist, A.; Lladser, A.; Kiessling, R.
ABSTRACT Metastatic melanoma is a fatal disease that responds poorly to classical treatments but can be targeted by T cell-based immunotherapy. Cancer vaccines have the potential to generate long-lasting cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses able to eradicate established and disseminated tumors. Vaccination against antigens expressed by tumor cells with enhanced metastatic potential represents a highly attractive strategy to efficiently target deadly metastatic disease. Cripto-1 is frequently over-expressed in human carcinomas and melanomas, but is expressed only at low levels on normal differentiated tissues. Cripto-1 is particularly upregulated in cancer-initiating cells and is involved in cellular processes such as cell migration, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition, which are hallmarks of aggressive cancer cells able to initiate metastatic disease. Here, we explored the potential of Cripto-1 vaccination to target metastatic melanoma in a preclinical model. Cripto-1 was overexpressed in highly metastatic B16F10 cells as compared to poorly metastatic B16F1 cells. Moreover, B16F10 cells grown in sphere conditions to enrich for cancer stem cells (CSC) progressively upregulated cripto1 expression. Vaccination of C57Bl/6 mice with a DNA vaccine encoding mouse Cripto-1 elicited a readily detectable/strong cytotoxic CD8+ T cell response specific for a H-2 Kb-restricted epitope identified based on its ability to bind H-2b molecules. Remarkably, Cripto-1 vaccination elicited a protective response against lung metastasis and subcutaneous challenges with highly metastatic B16F10 melanoma cells. Our data indicate that vaccination against Cripto-1 represents a novel strategy to be tested in the clinic.
Nowadays, many scholars would like to use evidence derived from elicitation and introspection in their research. Both elicitation and introspection are common methods of data collection. The essay discusses the usefulness and pitfall of elicitation and introspection. It finds out that both elicitation and introspection have their own advantages and disadvantages.
Zeynep Merve Unal
Humor is a common dimension of human interaction. Therefore, it has an effect on working groups and organizations. The influence of humor on interpersonal relationship and behavior has been considered by various enterprises. In this work, we report that adaptive humor styles employed by leader buffers job related positive affective well-being of employees whereas maladaptive humor styles employed by leaders buffers job related negative affective well-being of employees. Our results indicate t...
Humor is the life buoy in waves of life. Pragmatics and humor are closely linked. Relevance is one of the important topics of Pragmatics. This paper takes the lines from The Big Bang Theory as a case study and analyzes the humorous effect from the perspective of Principle of Relevance and Conversational Relevance, hoping to help people deepen the appreciation and un⁃derstanding of humor.
S, Venkatesh; N, senthilkumar
The use of humour in advertising is the effective way of communication in any emotion to sell the products. Humor increase attention and attract more consumers so it became an effective advertising in any medium of advertising. Researchers and Advertisers more interested towards humor advertising more than century, but no review paper regarding impact of humor in radio and print advertising are published. Aim of this paper to get detailed review on impact of humor in radio and print advertisi...
Arnie Cann; Nicholas A. Kuiper
In this interview, Dr. Arnie Cann discusses his research and views on the ubiquitous role of humor in psychological health and well-being. The interview begins with Professor Cann recounting how he originally became interested in studying humor. He then reflects on the main findings associated with the wide variety of humor-related studies he has conducted over the years. In doing so, Dr. Cann provides suggestions and ideas for further research investigating the role of humor in health and we...
This research work has been conducted for Oulu University of Applied Sciences (OUAS) for bachelor’s thesis project. Commissioner is from inside OUAS concern called Verkkokaupan tutkimusryhmä. The topic of humor was chosen in order to broaden the understanding and appreciation towards humor in marketing communications. The views, mechanics, and politics of humor interest the author and thus the research project was born. Humor is a powerful tool in everyday life and conceals great potential ut...
Skripsi yang berjudul Pragmatic Analysis in Humorous Text in Reader’s Digest Magazine, menganalisis konteks dari humor yang berbentuk dialog dan bagaimana humor tersebut diinterpretasikan; yang terdapat di dalam teks humor di dalam majalah Reader’s Digest edisi Agustus, September, Oktober, November dan Desember 2010. Analisis ini menggunakan teori Yule tahun 1996 yang mengatakan bahwa beberapa fokus kajian pragmatik adalah mengkaji makna penutur di dalam konteks tertentu dan bagaimana konteks...
McCosker B; Moran CC
Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interperson...
Arthur Asa Berger
Full Text Available Humor (and related concerns such as the nature of comedy and of laughter is an enigmatic subject that has perplexed our greatest thinkers from Aristotle’s time to the present. There are four competing theories that explain humor, each of which argues that all humor is based on: superiority, incongruity, cognitive problems in processing humor and psychoanalytic perspectives (such as masked aggression.
Atta-Owusu, K. (Kwadwo)
Humor is important human behavior that plays a vital role in communication and social interactions. Being a social phenomenon, humor is pervasive in organizations and workplaces. Because of its playful nature and the amusement it engenders, its presence in organizations is usually seen a distraction. Traditionally, work has been conceived as a serious undertaking hence any seemingly frivolous behavior like humor should not form part of it. However, it has been suggested that humor has numero...
Yesudian Devakar P
Full Text Available A 50 year old woman presented with an ulceroproliferative mass in the value of 4 month duration. Biopsy of the lesion showed features of a basisquamous cell carcinoma. This is a rare tumour showing histopathological features of both basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. The clinical, histopathological and histogenetic status of this tumour are discussed.
Many scholars have shown great interest in Dickens’ humor writing.On the basis of the scholars’ studies,this thesis will make an analysis on the humor in his works that arise as reaction to what we perceive "incongruous".The thesis will apply the incongruity theory to Dickens’ humor writing.
Scott, Cliff; Klein, David M.; Bryant, Jennings
In a series of field studies, social and business events were promoted using humorous, non-humorous, and control formats. The humorous promotions significantly increased attendance for the social events, but showed no significant impact for business events. Copyright 1990 by the University of Chicago.
Huffman, Lois E.
Outlines the many benefits of humor. Describes a reading and writing strategy to help at-risk college students reduce stress, appreciate the humor in many areas of college life, and use reading and writing about humorous college situations as a tool for developing critical thinking. Describes an application of the strategy. (SR)
Vivona, Brian D.
Humor is common and purposeful in most work settings. Although researchers have examined humor and joking behavior in various work settings, minimal research has been done on humor applications in the field of crime scene investigation. The crime scene investigator encounters death, trauma, and tragedy in a more intimate manner than any other…
Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay
Humor is an integral component of any language and therefore has an impact on the way languages are acquired/learned. Numerous studies have investigated the role of instructor humor in teaching/learning processes; however, there is little empirical research on the relationship between instructor humor and learning of a second language. This paper…
Andrea C. Samson
Full Text Available The present study investigates humor appreciation of aggressive cartoons in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism. These traits were described to have a peculiar relation to laughter-related phenomena, in particular to disparagement humor. 185 participants rated highly aggressive and non-aggressive humorous stimuli for funniness and aversiveness and their scores on the gelotophobia, gelotophilia and katagelasticism scales were measured. The cartoons were controlled for their structural basis, i.e., incongruity-resolution and nonsense humor, as these two types of humor strongly influence the appreciation of humorous stimuli. The results revealed that high scores on gelotophobia lead to higher aversion to aggressive humor, whereas high scores on katagelasticism lead to more enjoyment of aggressive humor with less aversion. Gelotophobia and katagelasticism lead to sensitivity to aggression in humor, which fits the overt behavior of reacting sensitively towards laughter (gelotophobia and enjoying to laugh at others (katagelasticism. Gelotophilia did not predict reactions to either aggressive or non-aggressive humor but did predict more amusement in general: High scorers on gelotophilia seem to be relaxed towards any form of humor, even if it has an aggressive note. This study confirms the three dimensions to have peculiar responses to aggressive types of humor and opens up several questions to be explored in future research.
In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…
Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd
We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Harrison, Martínez-Correa and Swarthout  found that the binary lottery procedure works robustly to induce risk neutrality when subjects are given one risk task defined over o...
Melder, W.A.; Truong, K.P.; Uyl, M. den; Leeuwen, D.A. van; Neerincx, M.A.; Loos, L.R.; Stock Plum, B.
In this paper, we present a multimodal affective mirror that senses and elicits laughter. Currently, the mirror contains a vocal and a facial affect-sensing module, a component that fuses the output of these two modules to achieve a user-state assessment, a user state transition model, and a compone
Strick, M.A.; Baaren, R.B. van; Holland, R.W.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van
This reprinted article originally appeared in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2009 (Mar), Vol 15(1), 35-45. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2009-03685-005). Humor in advertising is known to enhance product liking, but this attitude change is often
Carson, David K.; And Others
Explores the relations between temperament, communicative competence, and humor expression among four- and five-year-old nursery school children. Shows that ratings of communicative competence and various dimensions of temperament account for a significant proportion of the variance in the reported frequency of children's laughter and verbal and…
Singh, V K; Tiwari, K N; Mohan, Bhardwaj; Mala, Chabbra; Rana, U V S; Ichhpujani, R L
Humoral immune response was studied in dogs vaccinated with different tissue culture vaccines commonly used for immunization of dogs in India. The results revealed that after single dose of vaccination only 56% dogs developed protective titer (> or = 1:8). The response of the three vaccines used in the study was not similar, highlighting the need to maintain post marketing surveillance. PMID:18338690
Ballesteros, Octavio A.
Careful reading of proverbs can aid an individual to develop self-awareness by providing insights into what one cultural group considers desirable human behavior. Respect for the elderly can be taught to the young through the study of proverbs. Through their proverbs, the Mexicans reveal their friendliness, love of animals, sense of humor, and…
This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…
Cecil, H. Wayne
This article shares the motivation, process, and outcomes of using humorous scenes from television comedies to teach the real world of tax practice. The article advances the literature by reviewing the use of video clips in a previously unexplored discipline, discussing the process of identifying and selecting appropriate clips, and introducing…
Psychoanalytic theory predicts that humor preference is a derivative of unresolved childhood conflicts. Analyzed students' (N=104) Rorschach protocols to yield measures of preoedipal fixation. Students ranked jokes from most to least funny. Results showed that the ranking of jokes was a function of the fixation measures for women only. (Author/RC)
Ruggieri, Colleen A.
Describes how one high school English teacher used humor when teaching Shakespearean tragedy. Describes how this improved students' attitudes and appreciation of the tragedies, helped them appreciate literature devices in the plays, and helped them review prior to their exam. (SR)
Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Cousineau, Kassandra; Pettinato, Christine; Woodard, Kelly
Smiling and laughing appear very early during the first year of life, but little is known about how infants come to appraise a stimulus as humorous. This short-term longitudinal study explored infant humor perception from 5 to 7 months of age as a function of parental affect during an absurd event. Using a within-participants design, parents alternated smiling/laughing with emotional neutrality while acting absurdly toward their infants. Group comparisons showed that infants (N = 37) at all ages smiled at the event regardless of parental affect but did so significantly longer at 5 and 6 months, and more often and sooner at 7 months, when parents provided humor cues. Similarly, sequential analyses revealed that after gazing at the event, 7-month-olds were more likely to smile at it only when parents provided humor cues and were comparatively more likely to look away when parents were neutral. Thus, starting at 5 months of age, parental affect influenced infants' affect toward an absurd event, an effect that was magnified at 7 months. These results are discussed in the context of emotional contagion, regulation, and the emergence of social referencing. PMID:25897958
Judith A. James
Full Text Available Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA and Lethal Factor (LF, and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus, B6 (H-2b, and B6.H2k (H-2k. IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA.
The existence of homologous anti-human growth hormone (anti-hGH) and heterologous anti-bovine growth hormone (anti-bGH) humoral immune responses in hypopituitary patients under hGH therapy has been reported previously. In order to study the influence of the hormone source, both responses were compared by radiobinding assays performed with [125I]hGH or [125I]bGH as tracers. 57 hypopituitary patients treated with extractive hGH, recombinant methionyl hGH or authentic recombinant hGH were studied. A very low incidence of heterologous antibodies was found in patients under recombinant hGH therapy, contrary to the high incidence observed in patients treated with extractive hGH preparations. In addition, immunochemical studies performed with a synthetic peptide (hGH 44-128) indicated that this peptide exhibited, in the anti-bGH/[125I]bGH radioimmunoassay system, higher reactivity than the native hGH, suggesting that such fragment resembled an altered conformation of the hormone. The high heterologous response elicited only by the extractive hGH along with the behaviour of the hGH 44-128 fragment supports the fact that the extraction and purification procedures in extractive preparations may alter slightly the structure of the hGH molecule and trigger a heterologous immune response. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Nielsen, Niels Asger
dimensions directed from theories of consumer buying behaviour. Although a number of differences between the techniques are identified in the study, the main findings are that the robustness of the different techniques for attribute elicitation is considerable Udgivelsesdato: JUN...
In this article some formal, content-related and procedural considerations towards the sense of humor are articulated and the analysis of both everyday humor behavior and of comic styles leads to the initial proposal of a four factor- model of humor (4FMH). This model is tested in a new dataset and it is also examined whether two forms of comic styles (benevolent humor and moral mockery) do fit in. The model seems to be robust but further studies on the structure of the sense of humor as a pe...
Hu, Xiaobo; Liu, Rui; Zhu, Naishuo
The development of effective vaccines against the rabies virus could prevent infection with this fatal virus. However, the current rabies vaccine fails to provide a full range of protection because of its limited ability to elicit a cellular immune response and the requirement for repeat vaccination. Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) is well known as a potent adjuvant to enhance immune responses against virus infection. Here we investigated the efficacy of MPLA as an adjuvant to improve the humoral and cellular immune responses to the rabies vaccine in BALB/c mice. Supplementation of the rabies vaccine with MPLA significantly accelerated the production of specific antibodies by 10 days compared to the original vaccines. Furthermore, MPLA promoted the induction of stronger cellular immune responses by the rabies vaccine, including the production of IL-4, IFN-γ and the activation of CD4⁺/CD8⁺ T cells, than those elicited without MPLA. Collectively, our findings indicated that MPLA enhances humoral and cellular immunity and is a promising adjuvant for the development of more effective rabies vaccines. PMID:23816301
Nicholas A. Kuiper
Full Text Available This article considers how humor may fit within a resiliency perspective. Following a brief overview of resiliency approaches, including selected work on positive psychology, several lines of research that provide initial support for resiliency effects of humor on stress and trauma are highlighted. This work ranges from anecdotal case report descriptions of facilitative humor use in extremely traumatic situations (e.g., paramedics, to more rigorous studies examining moderator and cognitive appraisal effects of humor on psychological well-being. Although these initial findings are quite promising, it is noted that some resiliency-based approaches to humor are limited by a sole focus on humor as a positive attribute. As such, a humor styles model, which acknowledges both the adaptive and maladaptive aspects of humor, is used to describe broader avenues of research within a resiliency perspective. This process orientation to humor use also highlights the importance of both negative and positive emotion regulation in modulating coping and growth. This model is then used to comment on limitations and potential extensions of current resiliency perspectives on humor, including programs and exercises that attempt to train humor use in a facilitative manner.
Full Text Available Theories about black humor usually regard that it as a contemporary phenomenon and a culmination of the literary modernism and beginning of post-modernism. My intent in this paper is to refute the thesis that the black humor is a modern invention. I am going to prove its existence still in Greek antiquity, quoting and analyzing humorous epitaphs and black humor epigrams. Putting in relation black humor with the joy and humor in religious (fertility and funeral rituals, I am also going to set a question about the attitude to death and life inherent for this kind of humor, arguing that its origin should be searched in the folk tradition.
Yue, Xiao Dong; Wong, Ashley Yuen Man; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan
This study examined the relationship between humor styles and loneliness among a sample of Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese. A total of 159 Hong Kong undergraduates and 178 Hangzhou undergraduates were recruited to complete a survey composed of the Humor Styles Questionnaire and the Emotional and Social Loneliness Scales. Multiple regression analyses showed that self-defeating humor explained significant variance in both social and emotional loneliness for Hong Kong students, but only in social loneliness for Hangzhou students. Hong Kong students scored significantly higher on aggressive humor and self-defeating humor, and scored significantly lower on affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor than did their counterparts in Hangzhou. This could be attributed to the greater influence of Confucianism in Mainland China than in Hong Kong. PMID:25153950
Liao, Lewis; Corsi, Armando; Lockshin, Larry;
Emotion has been an important concept in many areas of consumer research such as judgment, decision-making and advertising. Little research has been done on emotion in packaging adopting the physiological measures used in other areas. This paper draws on past studies in advertising that measure...... emotional responses toward image, colour and font, and apply them to packaging research. The study tests the extent at which packaging can elicit consumers’ spontaneous emotional response for each of those three elements, by using skin conductance, facial electromyography (EMG) and selfassessment scales....... The results show that packaging can elicit an emotional response via different elements. The paper also raises concerns about the accuracy of using selfreport measures of emotional responses to packaging research....
... of the Year Award Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in Medicine Award Diversity Mentorship Program Eugene Van ... What causes sebaceous carcinoma? SC is rare, so scientists still have much to learn, including what causes ...
De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Lamberton, Cait; Norton, Michael I.
Two experiments show that eliciting taxpayer preferences on government spending—providing taxpayer agency--increases tax compliance. We first create an income and taxation environment in a laboratory setting to test for compliance with a lab tax. Allowing a treatment group to express nonbinding preferences over tax spending priorities, leads to a 16% increase in tax compliance. A followup online study tests this treatment with a simulation of paying US federal taxes. Allowing taxpayers to sig...
Ding, Min; John R. Hauser; Dong, Songting; Dzyabura, Daria; Yang, Zhilin; Su, Chenting; Gaskin, Steven
We investigate the feasibility of unstructured direct-elicitation (UDE) of decision rules consumers use to form consideration sets. With incentives to think hard and answer truthfully, tested formats ask respondents to state non-compensatory, compensatory, or mixed rules for agents who will select a product for the respondents. In a mobile-phone study two validation tasks (one delayed 3 weeks) ask respondents to indicate which of 32 mobile phones they would consider from a fractional 4[supers...
Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Grkovic, Tanja; Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Quinn, Ronald J.; Hentschel, Ute
Genomic sequence data have revealed the presence of a large fraction of putatively silent biosynthetic gene clusters in the genomes of actinomycetes that encode for secondary metabolites, which are not detected under standard fermentation conditions. This review focuses on the effects of biological (co-cultivation), chemical, as well as molecular elicitation on secondary metabolism in actinomycetes. Our review covers the literature until June 2014 and exemplifies the diversity of natural prod...
Fisseni, Bernhard; Lawrence, Faith
The understanding of story variation, whether motivated by cultural currents or other factors, is important for applications of formal models of narrative such as story generation or story retrieval. We present the first stage of an experiment to elicit natural narrative variation data suitable for evaluation with respect to story similarity, to qualitative and quantitative analysis of story variation, and also for data processing. We also present few prelimary results from the first stage of...
Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei
In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor. PMID:27180510
Firmino, Paulo Renato A.; dos Santos Neto, Ademir B.
In probability elicitation exercises it has been usual to considerer scoring rules (SRs) to measure the performance of experts when inferring about a given unknown, Θ, for which the true value, θ*, is (or will shortly be) known to the experimenter. Mathematically, SRs quantify the discrepancy between f(θ) (the distribution reflecting the expert's uncertainty about Θ) and d(θ), a zero-one indicator function of the observation θ*. Thus, a remarkable characteristic of SRs is to contrast expert's beliefs with the observation θ*. The present work aims at extending SRs concepts and formulas for the cases where Θ is aleatory, highlighting advantages of goodness-of-fit and entropy-like measures. Conceptually, it is argued that besides of evaluating the personal performance of the expert, SRs may also play a role when comparing the elicitation processes adopted to obtain f(θ). Mathematically, it is proposed to replace d(θ) by g(θ), the distribution that model the randomness of Θ, and do also considerer goodness-of-fit and entropylike metrics, leading to SRs that measure the adherence of f(θ) to g(θ). The implications of this alternative perspective are discussed and illustrated by means of case studies based on the simulation of controlled experiments. The usefulness of the proposed approach for evaluating the performance of experts and elicitation processes is investigated.
Full Text Available In this interview, Dr. Arnie Cann discusses his research and views on the ubiquitous role of humor in psychological health and well-being. The interview begins with Professor Cann recounting how he originally became interested in studying humor. He then reflects on the main findings associated with the wide variety of humor-related studies he has conducted over the years. In doing so, Dr. Cann provides suggestions and ideas for further research investigating the role of humor in health and well-being. Specific topic areas discussed include the use of humor in the workplace and other social domains, personality approaches to humor, humor and interpersonal processes, humor and psychopathology, and humor’s role in dealing with stress and well-being. One of the prominent themes in this interview is the clear recognition of sense of humor as a multi-dimensional construct that includes various components that may either be beneficial or detrimental to well-being. A further important theme is the major distinction between humor as an inherent personality construct versus humor that results from exposure to stimuli (e.g., a comedy film. Comments are also provided by Dr. Cann on how the positive affect stemming from humor may be of particular benefit to the individual. Also discussed is the recent move to more fully integrate contemporary humor research with positive psychology approaches. The interview concludes with Dr. Cann providing several recommendations regarding future theorizing and research on the role of humor in psychological well-being.
Craun, Sarah W; Bourke, Michael L
Those who work with human trauma often use humor to handle job stressors. Research has demonstrated that lighthearted humor is related to lower secondary traumatic stress scores, while gallows humor has the inverse relationship. This work explores how three types of humor relate to secondary traumatic stress: (a) humor at the expense of victims, (b) humor at the expense of offenders, and (c) humor containing sexual innuendo. Internet crimes against children taskforce personnel completed questionnaires about secondary traumatic stress and coping techniques. Humor at the expense of victims was rarely used, but when it was, it was indicative of higher secondary traumatic stress. There were no relationships between secondary traumatic stress and the use of humor at the expense of offenders or humor containing sexual innuendo. PMID:26301442
The finding that women rate funnier humorous items with left-ear input, while men give higher ratings with right-ear input has been cited as evidence for a biological basis for sex differences in appreciation of humor. However, in 1991 Gallivan did not find this effect and suggested that the earlier finding could have been due to the use of 'male-oriented' stimuli. In this study, 72 subjects rated the funniness of 32 'female oriented' comedy excerpts, presented monaurally. Women gave higher ratings with right-ear input but men's ratings were not affected by ear of presentation. These findings represent another failure to replicate the earlier-reported hemispheric effect and support the conclusion that it may have been due to the stimuli used. PMID:9347538
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationship between sense of humorsand depression in adolescents in terms of gender. The subjects of this studywere students of SMA Negeri 1 Sewon, Bantul, Yogyakarta class X andXI. The data collection tools of this study used the Beck Depression Inventory(BDI and the Sense of Humor Scale Version-B, and used the analysiscovariance method to analyze the data. The results of this study showedsignificant differences in depression among female subjects and male subjects with a value of F = 6.905 and p = 0.010 (p <0.05 by controlling the sense of humor variable. The average level of female depression (7.284 was higher than male subjects (6.196. This result will be discussed further in this paper.
Erik H. Erikson wrote three articles when he was in his late-twenties and an up-and-coming member of the psychoanalytic community in Vienna. At the time he wrote these articles, he was in a training psychoanalysis with Anna Freud, teaching at the Heitzing School in Vienna, and learning the Montessori method of teaching. These articles focus on the loss of primary narcissism and the development of the superego (or punitive conscience) in early childhood, especially through the child's conflict with maternal authority. They support the idea that melancholia, with its internalized rage against the mother, is the inevitable outcome of the loss of primary narcissism. I note, however, that the third of these articles makes a case for the restorative role of humor, especially when Freud's view that humor is a function of the superego is taken into account. PMID:19105029
Lic. Elena del Carmen Pérez
Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone dar cuenta de las estrategias con que el humor hace emerger, en el contexto general de los discursos, aquellos fragmentos omitidos por el decir oficial. Por su naturaleza de articulador ideológico, el texto publicitario (como todo texto remite a lo ya dicho en un estado dado de sociedad. En este sentido, resulta interesante observar qué fragmentos del discurso social recoge la publicidad humorística, con qué retórica los hace risibles y quiénes son aquellos sobre los que recae la risa. Se comentan avisos que son emitidos actualmente por canales de cable o aire en la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina.
Ergün RECEPOĞLU; Özdemir, Servet
The aim of this research is to determine whether there is a meaningful difference or not between humor styles of school principals and their leadership behaviors This is a descriptive research in the relational survey model The population of the study is teachers who work in the primary schools in Kastamonu province in 2009 2010 and 2010 2011 Education year 1046 teachers who work in the 70 primary schools were reached in the process of data collection As a data collection instrument ldqu...
Liu, Fang; Ding, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yu; Li, Jiaqing; Tang, Miao; Yuan, Miner; Hu, Andina; Zhan, Zongyi; Li, Zijing
Purpose To investigate the chemokine expression profiles in the aqueous humor of wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) patients and to correlate their levels with clinical findings. Methods Undiluted aqueous humor samples (100–200 μl) were obtained from 16 wet AMD eyes and 12 control eyes. Forty chemokines were measured using a multiplex method. A 6×6 mm area of the macular region centered on the fovea was examined using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results The detection rates were 50% or more for 15 chemokines. Compared with the control group, the aqueous humor in wet AMD patients showed a significantly higher expression of CXCL10 (p=0.004), CCL14 (p=0.002), CXCL16 (p=0.013), CXCL7 (p=0.033), and CCL22 (p=0.037), while growth-related oncogene (GRO) was significantly decreased in the wet AMD patients (p=0.001). When compared with treatment-naïve patients, the recurrent group had significant upregulation of CXCL10 (p=0.012) and CCL22 (p=0.002). CXCL16 was positively correlated with lesion size, and CCL22 was higher in patients whose OCT images showed intraretinal fluid (IRF) or hyperreflective foci (HF). Conclusions Elevated levels of inflammation-related chemokines, including CXCL10, CCL14, CXCL16, CXCL7, and CCL22, in the aqueous humor of AMD patients may suggest a pathogenic role for inflammation. CXCL10 and CCL22 were more elevated in eyes with recurrent wet AMD than in treatment-naïve eyes. CXCL16 was positively correlated with lesion size. The increase in CCL22 was correlated with the presence of IRF or HF. These data may be of interest in the search for biomarkers associated with wet AMD and may potentially indicate different treatment strategies. PMID:27122966
The Dislexicon of Slapstick Humor, Funny Cinematography, and Very Special Effects is a richly illustrated glossary containing 138 witty words used in Mack Sennett's comedy studios between 1912 and 1933. It comprises clever concepts connected to slapstick comedy, gag strategies, funny pratfalls, dangerous stuntwork, and secrets of the filmmaking trade. In a mishmash of slapstick facts and fictions, the Dislexicon fully accepts small talk, tall tales, filmspeak, jokes, and gossip as historical ...
Yue, Xiao Dong; Hui, Anna Na
Humor is found to be an essential element of creative thinking in Western culture. In Eastern culture, however, the relationship between creativity and humor is ambivalent. This study examined the relationship among humor styles, creative personality traits, and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 118 Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong was recruited to complete the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the three Creative Personality subscales of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-2 (CPAI-2), and the Verbal Test of the Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests. Results show that humor styles are uncorrelated with creative thinking abilities of flexibility, fluency, and originality, but affiliative humor and aggressive humor are correlated with creative personality traits of novelty and diversity. A hierarchical multiple regression shows that both humor styles and creative personality traits of novelty and diversity account for non-significant variance on creative thinking abilities. These findings largely support a hypothesized non-association between humor styles and creative measures. They also pose a sharp contrast to findings obtained in the West, in which humor styles are typically correlated with both creative thinking abilities and creative personality traits. PMID:26595303
This article reports a rare manifestation of metastatic adenosquamous carcinoma of the colon in a patient presenting with humoral hypercalcaemia of malignancy mediated by parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP). A 58-year-old man with metastatic adenosquamous carcinoma of the colon presented with hypercalcaemia. A technetium bone scan was performed and excluded osteolytic bone secondaries. A negative parathyroid subtraction scan and a low serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone level made the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism unlikely. The diagnosis of humoral hypercalcaemia of malignancy was considered on the basis of an elevated serum PTHrP level and positive tumour immunoreactivity to PTHrP antiserum. The hypercalcaemia was effectively treated on two occasions with intravenous administration of aminohydroxy propilidene diphosphonate. Despite interventional chemotherapy, the patient died of progressive carcinomatosis. It is concluded that hypercalcaemia is an extremely rare occurrence in carcinoma of the colon, This being the first documented case of humoral hyper-calcaemia of malignancy associated with adenosquamous carcinoma of the colon mediated by PTHrP. 11 refs., 1 fig
Hamahashi, K; Sato, M; Yamato, M; Kokubo, M; Mitani, G; Ito, S; Nagai, T; Ebihara, G; Kutsuna, T; Okano, T; Mochida, J
The authors aimed to repair and regenerate articular cartilage with layered chondrocyte sheets, produced using temperature-responsive culture dishes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets. Articular chondrocytes and synovial cells were harvested during total knee arthroplasty. After co-culture, the samples were divided into three groups: a monolayer, 7 day culture sheet group (group M); a triple-layered, 7 day culture sheet group (group L); and a monolayer culture group with a cell count identical to that of group L (group C). The secretion of collagen type 1 (COL1), collagen type 2 (COL2), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13), transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Layered chondrocyte sheets produced the most humoral factors. PGE2 expression declined over time in group C but was significantly higher in groups M and L. TGFβ expression was low in group C but was significantly higher in groups M and L (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the humoral factors produced by layered chondrocyte sheets may contribute to cartilaginous tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:23165985
Wicksted, James P.; Erckens, Roel J.; Motamedi, Massoud; March, Wayne F.
Laser Raman scattering has been used to monitor glucose and lactate metabolites within aqueous humor specimens obtained from nine human eyes during cataract surgery. Nine postmortem rabbit eyes were also investigated. Raman measurements were obtained using a single grating Raman spectrometer with a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD. A 514.5 nm line from an argon laser was used to illuminate capillaries containing several microliters of aqueous humor. A water background was subtracted from each of the aqueous humor Raman spectra. This experimental system was calibrated so that each metabolite in water could be measured down to 0.1 weight percent. Raman peaks indicative of the stretching vibrations of methylene and methyl groups associated with glucose and lactate, respectively, were observed in the human specimens. A second stretching mode characteristic of lactate between the carbon atom and either the carboxylic acid group or carboxylate ion group was also observed providing a distinguishing feature between the glucose and lactate Raman peaks. Similar structure was observed from the rabbit specimens, but these samples have recently been found to have been contaminated during euthanasia.
Korb, Sebastian; Grandjean, Didier; Samson, Andrea C; Delplanque, Sylvain; Scherer, Klaus R
The neurophysiological study of emotion regulation focused on the strategy of reappraisal-i.e., the cognitive reinterpretation of a stimulus. Reappraisal reduces emotional expression, the experience of both negative and positive feelings, and the amplitude of an event-related potential (ERP)-the late positive potential (LPP). In contrast, the strategy of expressive suppression (ES), being the inhibition of emotional expression, has been reported to reduce subjective feelings of positive, but not negative emotion, and has not yet been investigated with ERPs. We focused on the LPP to assess the correlates of ES in the context of humor perception. Twenty-two female participants rated sequences of humorous (H) and non-humorous (NH) pictures, while their zygomaticus muscle was recorded. A spontaneous (SP) condition, in which participants attended naturally to the pictures, resulted in higher ratings of funniness, increased smiling, and increased LPP amplitude for H compared to NH stimuli. An ES condition, in which participants suppressed their facial reactions, resulted in reduced smiling, without affecting subjective ratings. LPP amplitude did not differ between H and NH stimuli during ES, suggesting equal allocation of processing resources to both stimuli. These results suggest that, similarly to reappraisal, ES modifies the way the brain processes positive emotional stimuli. PMID:22369232
Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A
Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin's research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin's earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin's subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin's comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and
Martin, Rod; Kuiper, Nicholas A.
Since the start of the 21st century, the investigation of various psychological aspects of humor and laughter has become an increasingly prominent topic of research. This growth can be attributed, in no small part, to the pioneering and creative work on humor and laughter conducted by Professor Rod Martin. Dr. Martin’s research interests in humor and laughter began in the early 1980s and continued throughout his 32 year long career as a professor of clinical psychology at the University of Western Ontario. During this time, Dr. Martin published numerous scholarly articles, chapters, and books on psychological aspects of humor and laughter. Professor Martin has just retired in July 2016, and in the present interview he recounts a number of research highlights of his illustrious career. Dr. Martin’s earliest influential work, conducted while he was still in graduate school, stemmed from an individual difference perspective that focused on the beneficial effects of sense of humor on psychological well-being. This research focus remained evident in many of Professor Martin’s subsequent investigations, but became increasingly refined as he developed several measures of different components of sense of humor, including both adaptive and maladaptive humor styles. In this interview, Dr. Martin describes the conceptualization, development and use of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, along with suggestions for future research and development. In doing so, he also discusses the three main components of humor (i.e., cognitive, emotional and interpersonal), as well as the distinctions and similarities between humor and laughter. Further highlights of this interview include Professor Martin’s comments on such diverse issues as the genetic versus environmental loadings for sense of humor, the multifaceted nature of the construct of humor, and the possible limitations of teaching individuals to use humor in a beneficial manner to cope with stress and enhance their social and
Pellegrino, M; Rodriguez, N; Vivas, A; Giraudo, J; Bogni, C
Bovine mastitis produces economic losses, attributable to the decrease in milk production, reduced milk quality, costs of treatment and replacement of animals. A successful prophylactic vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus should elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. In a previous report we evaluated the effectiveness of a live vaccine to protect heifers against challenge with a virulent strain. In the present study the immunological response of heifers after combined immunization schedule was investigated. In a first experimental trial, heifers were vaccinated with 3 subcutaneous doses of avirulent mutant S. aureus RC122 before calving and one intramammary dose (IMD) after calving. Antibodies concentration in blood, bactericidal effect of serum from vaccinated animals and lymphocyte proliferation was determined. The levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 in colostrum and the lymphocyte proliferation index were significantly higher in vaccinated respect to non-vaccinated group throughout the experiment. The second trial, where animals were inoculated with different vaccination schedules, was carried out to determine the effect of the IMD on the level of antibodies in blood and milk, cytokines (IL-13 and IFN-γ) concentration and milk's SCC and bacteriology. The bacterial growth of the S. aureus strains was totally inhibited at 1-3×10(6) and 1-3×10(3)cfu/ml, when the strains were mixed with pooled serum diluted 1/40. The results shown that IMD has not a significant effect on the features determinate. In conclusion, a vaccination schedule involving three SC doses before calving would be enough to stimulate antibodies production in milk without an IMD. Furthermore, the results showed a bactericidal effect of serum from vaccinated animals and this provides further evidence about serum functionality. Immune responses, humoral (antigen-specific antibodies and Th2 type cytokines) and cellular (T-lymphocyte proliferation responses and Th1 type cytokines), were
Vol. 3. Berlin: Springer, 2013, s. 65-99. (Studies in Computational Intelligence. 474). ISBN 978-3-642-36405-1 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S; GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Bayesian decision making * fully probabilistic design * DM preference elicitation * support of imperfect participants Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/AS/karny-0389631.pdf
Humorous advertisements are widely used in Morocco. Disparagement humour in particular is gaining popularity within Moroccan advertisers. However, little research has been done in order to assess consumer’s feelings and opinions towards these advertisements. This research will therefore examine female Moroccan’s sentiments and opinions towards disparagement advertisements by employing the persuasion knowledge model as a framework, and specifically focusing on the impact that the perceived adv...
Multiple primaries in a single patient are uncommon, though not very rare. The existence of such cancers in two un-related, non-paired organs is even more un-common. Here, we present a case of 55 years old male who presented to us with a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland and was operated. Later on, he presented with a large cystic swelling in the pelvis which turned out to be pseudomyxoma peritonei. A review of slides and immunohistochemistry indicated it to be adenocarcinoma colon. He presented again with recurrent mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid which was operated successfully with the use of myocutaneous flap for wound closure. He is currently undergoing chemotherapy. In order to establish a separate mono-clonal etiology of both tumours, immunohistochemistry was performed. To the best of our knowledge, carcinoma multiplex in the colon and the parotid has never been reported before. (author)
Godballe, Christian; Schultz, Joyce H; Krogdahl, Annelise;
OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical data and possible prognostic factors of patients with primary carcinoma of the parotid gland. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was made of 85 patients with suspected parotid cancer who were admitted to the Center of Head and Neck Oncology at Odense University...... guidelines from the World Health Organization. Five tumors (6%) did not fulfill the criteria of malignancy and were reclassified as benign. In another five cases the assumed primary parotid carcinomas were found to be metastatic disease from cancers of the breast, prostate, skin, and lungs. Ten patients (12...... significant influence on survival. CONCLUSIONS: A thorough histological revision is pivotal in retrospective parotid carcinoma studies, and tumor size; histological appearance; T, N, and M status; stage; facial nerve dysfunction; and pain from the face and/or neck seem to be significant prognostic indicators...
Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K
We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022
Full Text Available A motivação principal deste artigo é demonstrar que a metapsicologia do humor se oferece, na obra freudiana, como o paradigma a partir do qual se podem compreender as operações em jogo no processo da sublimação. Percebe-se, assim, que a associação entre duas problemáticas sombreadas pela tradição psicanalítica - o humor e a sublimação - contribui para o esclarecimento de ambas. Ao longo do texto são enfatizados o trabalho de desidealização promovido pelo humor, a modalidade identificatória envolvida na sua produção, a referência do humor negro à condição de orfandade que caracteriza o sujeito moderno, bem como a política que acompanha a anunciação do dito humorístico e, mesmo, do Witz (espirituosidade de modo geral. Finalmente, demonstra-se a filiação do humor ao realismo grotesco, amplamente analisado por Mikhail Bakhtin, indicando como, na enunciação humorística, é preciso considerar a participação da alegria, sua força motriz.This article's main motivation is to demonstrate that the metapsychology of humor offers itself, in the Freudian work, as a paradigm from which we can understand the operations at work in the process of sublimation. Thus, we can notice that the associations between two traditional psychoanalytical problems - humor and sublimation - contribute to its explanation. The text emphasizes the process of de-idealization through humor - as well as the aspect of identification involved in its production -, the reference of dark humor to the condition of "orphan" which characterizes the modern individual, and the politics that accompany the announcement of an amusing word (and even the Witz in general. Finally, it demonstrates the affinity of humor to grotesque realism, widely analyzed by Mikhail Bakhtin, showing how, in enunciating humor, it is necessary to consider the role of joy, its driving force.
Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja
The use of humor in the classroom has been investigated using a variety of humor operationalizations and methodologies with mixed results. The present study examined the role of teacher humor orientation (HO) rather than specific humorous behaviors. The relationship between teacher humor orientation and learning was the focus of this study.…
Koller, L D
The immune system of animals and man is extremely complex. This report will discuss the effect metals has on one segment of the immune system; that is, humoral immunity. Humoral immunity is essentially the production of antibody in response to an antigen. The B-lymphocyte is the primary cell responsible for producing antibody. However, this cell is regulated by T-lymphocytes and macrophages. Many methods are available to assess humoral immune responses. A multitude of immunoassays have been d...
Samson, Andrea C.; Yonni Meyer
The present study investigates humor appreciation of aggressive cartoons in relation to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism. These traits were described to have a peculiar relation to laughter-related phenomena, in particular to disparagement humor. 185 participants rated highly aggressive and non-aggressive humorous stimuli for funniness and aversiveness and their scores on the gelotophobia, gelotophilia and katagelasticism scales were measured. The cartoons were controlled for t...
Finley, Jessyka Nicole
This study considers the social, cultural, and political production of black women's humor, making the case that humor becomes more than merely a technique of entertainment. Instead, I argue that humor is a mode of literacy and site of self-authorship for African American women across a variety of discursive fields, including literature, sketch comedy, stand-up comedy, and electoral politics. Usually described as a "routine," the professional stand-up comics of this study are in fact presenti...
Bruntsch, Richard; Hofmann, Jennifer; Ruch, Willibald
he aim of the paper is fourfold: (a) show why humor scholars should study irony, (b) explore the need for considering interindividual differences in healthy adults’ irony performance, (c) stress the necessity for developing tools assessing habitual differences in irony performance, and (d) indicate future directions for joint irony and humor research and outline possible applications. Verbal irony is often employed with a benevolent humorous intent by speakers, but can also serve as a means o...
S, Venkatesh; N, senthilkumar
Television advertising is a most common commercial activity used in advertising medium. Humor in advertising contains an important aspect on changing attitude of the consumer, improves buying behavior and creates new patterns for buying any goods and services. Humor in television advertising is the effective and convenient way to attract the any consumers because they are emotional based content and makes the consumer to special for satisfaction. Compared to all emotions humor advertising is ...
Previous research shows that individuals with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism tend to have impaired processing of humor and laugh at things that are not commonly found funny. Here the relationship between humor styles and the broader autism phenotype was investigated in a sample of the general population. The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) and the humor styles questionnaire (HSQ) were administered to six hundred US participants recruited through an Internet-based service. On the w...
Elizabeth S. Bast; Elliot M. Berry
This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are...
Lehtovuori, H.-M. (Hilla-Maria)
The motivation for this research is to explore how humor is utilized in a tourism service encounter when creating a service experience. The aim of this study is to link an understanding between theory and empirical data, and construct a framework that answers the research questions. The aim is also to increase awareness of how a company can utilize humor in creating a new service. The delimitation has been made by studying one phenomenon, which is the humorous service encounter situation tha...
Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Vania, Maya; Ang, Marcus; Chee, Soon Phaik; Li, Jing
Purpose To compare the aqueous humor levels of proinflammatory and angiogenic factors of diabetic patients with and without retinopathy. Methods Aqueous humor was collected at the start of cataract surgery from diabetic subjects and non-diabetic controls. The presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy were graded with fundus examination. Levels of 22 different inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines and chemokines were compared. Results Aqueous humor samples from 47 diabetic patients (20 wit...
Yamit Peñas Zayas
Full Text Available El carcinoma de la vulva tiene una incidencia de aproximadamente un 3-5% dentro de todas las enfermedades ginecológicas malignas. El 90% de los tumores malignos de la vulva está constituido por carcinoma epidermoide, el resto son adenocarcinomas, carcinomas de células basales y melanomas. Se realiza la presentación de un caso de una paciente femenina de 25 años de edad con antecedentes de Diabetes Mellitus tipo II y trombopatia, que ingresa en el servicio de ginecología con un cuadro cutáneo polimorfo, localizado en labios mayores y menores, dado por lesiones eritematoerosivas y vegetante, sospechándose clínicamente el diagnóstico de un carcinoma epidermoide, corroborándose el mismo histológicamente al realizarse biopsia de piel. Se indicó tratamiento con quimioterapia. Por la edad de la paciente y ser menos frecuente en mucosa que en la piel, motivo la presentación del caso.
Qvist, N; Krøll, L; Ladefoged, C;
Parathyroid carcinoma is a slow growing tumor, and the patients most often die from complications to the hypercalcemia. Therefore, any attempt should be made to remove local recurrence and metastasis surgically, as medical treatment is disappointing. A case treated with extensive vascular surgery...
This paper will analyze the humorous language in advertisement and their English to Chinese and Chinese to English translations from the pragmatic perspective.Some pragmatic theories including the Relevance Theory,the Cooperative Principle,and the Speech Acts will be introduced to discuss how the humor effects and how to translate it efficiently,i.e.,achieving the equivalent effect in the context.The aim of the paper is to comprehend the humor and to analyze how to translate the humorous language in advertisements fromthe perspective ofpragmatics.
Berg, E M; Lippman, L G
The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall. PMID:11506048
Hone, Liana S E; Hurwitz, William; Lieberman, Debra
Evolutionary-minded scientists have proposed that humor is a sexually selected trait in men that signals mate quality. Indeed, women tend to prefer men who make them laugh and men tend to prefer women who laugh at their jokes. However, it is unclear how robust this pattern is. Here we report a replication of one of the first studies (Bressler, Martin, and Balshine, 2006) to examine the sex differences in preferences for humor receptivity versus humor production. We replicate Bressler et al.'s (2006) findings that men prefer women who are receptive to their humor whereas women prefer men who produce humor. These findings held even after we modified Bressler et al.'s questionnaire for better conceptual validity. Furthermore, using a separate measure designed to assess trade-offs, we found that men viewed humor receptivity as a necessity and humor production as a luxury when they were asked to create an ideal long-term partner. For women, it was just the opposite. These results bolster the claim that sexual selection has shaped sex differences regarding preferences for a prospective mate's sense of humor and that what one means by "sense of humor" can vary. PMID:25670631
Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Forchhammer, B. H.; Maier, Anja
inform designers about patients’ support needs and healthcare providers’ information needs.H ealthcare professionals offer a wealth of knowledge based on a clinical understanding of the condition as well as experience listening to patients' problems. Especially where patients are in denial about their......, and they are able to comment on trends, scale or proportions .We therefore explore how users' needs can be elicited by observing activities in which information is already being shared and discussed in the care process, and from the extensive knowledge of healthcare professionals. This is particularly...... include the large number of users required to represent the entire population. Failure to do so may lead to a solution that is over specialised to fit the needs of only a small subset of users. Both challenges are common in healthcare applications in which the end-user is also care recipient (or patient...
Camara, Souleymane Boundaouda; Oyugi, Cecilia; Abdelnour-Nocera, José; Smith, Andy
This paper offers context and culture elicitation in an inter-cultural and multi-disciplinary setting of ICT design. Localised usability evaluation (LUE) is augmented with a socio-technical evaluation tool (STEM) as a methodological approach to expose and address issues in a collaborative ICT design within the Village e-Science for Life (VeSeL) project in rural Kenya. The paper argues that designers need to locally identify context and culture in situ and further explicate their implications through the design process and at the global level. Stakeholders' context, culture, decisions, agendas, expectations, disciplines and requirements need to be locally identified and globally evaluated to ensure a fit for purpose solution.
Mahalakshmi, N; Aparnaa, R; Kaliraj, P
Filariasis caused by infectious parasitic nematodes has been identified as the second leading source of permanent and long-term disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Several vaccine candidates were identified from infective third-stage larvae (L3) which involves in the critical transition from arthropod to human. Hitherto studies of these antigens in combination with alum adjuvant have shown to elicit its characteristic Th2 responses. Inulin is a safe, non-toxic adjuvant that principally stimulates the innate immune response through the alternative complement pathway. In the present study, the immune response elicited by inulin and alum as adjuvants were compared with filarial antigens from different aetiological agents: secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) from Onchocerca volvulus and venom allergen homologue (VAH) from Brugia malayi as single or as cocktail vaccines in mice model. The study revealed that inulin can induce better humoral response against these antigens than alum adjuvant. Antibody isotyping disclosed inulin's ability to elevate the levels of IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies which mediates in complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively, in mice. Splenocyte analysis showed that T cells prestimulated with inulin have higher stimulation index (P < 0.05) than alum except for BmVAH antigen. In vitro ADCC assay showed that inulin formulation had induced higher cytotoxicity with filarial antigens (as single P < 0.01 and as cocktail P < 0.05, respectively) than alum. The results had confirmed the capability of inulin to deplete the levels of Treg and brought a balance in Th1/Th2 arms against filarial antigens in mice. PMID:25041426
La risa es un fenómeno aparentemente universal, pero el humor que la provoca muestra una variabilidad casi infinita. Este artículo trata de distinguir entre los aspectos universales de la risa y los que son culturalmente variables. Define la risa como una emoción básica del ser humano, provocada por un estímulo cognitivo que depende de definiciones sociales de la situación, lo cual explica al menos en parte su aparente heterogeneidad. Otros aspectos que también pueden variar son las no...
In her article "Roth's Humorous Art of Ghost Writing" Paule Lévy analyses Philip Roth's Exit Ghost, the last novel featuring Nathan Zuckerman, in which Roth reassesses his favorite alter ego's itinerary while exploring the troubled relation between writing and aging. Lévy considers Exit Ghost as an ironic sequel to The Ghost Writer and posits that in the light of Derrida's theories of writing and "hauntology" the central motifs of ghosts and "spectrality" in the novel are a means for Roth to ...
Saunders, J. M.; Folds, J D
To investigate the development of the humoral immune response of mice to infection with Treponema pallidum, Balb/c and C57Bl mice were injected intradermally with 10 x 10(6) virulent organisms. Serum samples were taken from the mice at weekly intervals after infection and used in the electrophoretic transblotting technique to detect T pallidum and T phagedenis biotype Reiter antigens. The serum samples taken from infected mice at 21, 42, 84, and 126 days after infection recognised two to 15 T...
Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by radiation therapy to the neck given ...
... epithelioma, is the most common form of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially ... other health issues. Infiltrating or morpheaform basal cell carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive ...
Elicitation methods have been explored extensively in social science research, and in business contexts, to uncover unarticulated informant knowledge. This qualitative study investigates the use of an audiovisual elicitation interviewing technique, developed by a UKbased creative multimedia production social enterprise; Fifth Planet Productions CIC. The method employs a system of using audiovisual stimulus to elicit participant responses in the interview setting. This study, conducted in t...
Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C; Schick, Robert S; Kraus, Scott
Expert elicitation is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert elicitation to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now eliciting expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert elicitation complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty. PMID:26610972
Full Text Available In 2010, there were estimated to be approximately 60.5 million people with glaucoma. This number is expected to increase to 79.6 million by 2020. In 2010, there were 8.4 million people with bilateral blindness caused by glaucoma, and this number is expected in increase to 11.2 million by 2020. Filtering implants are special devices that have been developed to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with refractory glaucoma. The success rate of these implants is relatively low, and they continue to fail over time. To avoid failure caused by the formation of scar tissue around the implants, attempts have been made to drain the aqueous humor to various sites, including the venous system, lacrimal sac, sinuses, and conjunctival fornix. Recently, a system to shunt aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the peritoneum has been developed. The surgical technique involved in this system is a modification of the technique currently used by neurosurgeons for the treatment of hydrocephalus. We present the first case operated using this technique.
Thomas, Licto; Asad, Mohammad; Hrishikeshavan, Heremaglur Jagannath; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli
Centchroman (Ormeloxifene) is a nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator that is used as once a week oral contraceptive agent. The effect of centchroman on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. The first three models namely carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and neutrophil adhesion test were used to study cell mediated immunity while the latter three models were used to see the effect on humoral immunity. Centchroman was administered orally at a dose of 5 mg/kg and levamisole (2.5 mg/kg/ p.o) was used as standard drug. Centchroman significantly increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and also prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased significantly the circulating antibody litre in indirect haemagglunation test. However, it did not show any significant effect on phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay and nor did influence the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Centchroman was also not effective in preventing the cyclophosphamde induced neutropenia. Hence, it was concluded that centchroman increases humoral immunity with no significant effect on cell mediated immunity. PMID:18476393
Full Text Available "nBackground: Crystalline silica may act as an immune adjuvant to increase inflammation and antibody production. The highest exposures to silica are known to occur in the dusty trades industries such as stone- cutting. We undertook this population based study to examine the association between occupational silica exposure and humoral immune system."nMethods: In this historical cohort study, 47 workers from 10 stone-cutting factories in Rey City, south of Tehran, Iran that had more than 10 years exposure to silica were included in case group and 45 individual without any exposure to silica were selected for control group. We measured serum immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, and IgA of participants with ELISA method and compared the results between exposed workers and control groups."nResults: The mean concentrations of two immunoglobulines (IgG, IgA and IgM in case group in comparison with control group were higher and lower respectively but both were in normal range. IgA concentration between two groups was statistically significant (P< 0.05."nConclusion: Crystalline silica exposure may promote the humoral immune system in some individuals. Additional research is recommended in other population, using study design that minimize potential selection bias and maximize the quality of exposure assessment.
This quantitative study was sparked by a keen interest in art teachers who practice humor in challenging school environments. Stressors unique to art education can cause teachers to lose heart in such a way that their ability to perform is compromised. To teach effectively, teachers must maintain resilience to cope with stress. Pedagogical humor,…
We all know that they do it, but what do students laugh about when learning science together? Although research has shown that students do use humor when they learn science, the role of humor in science education has received little attention. In this study, undergraduate students' laughter during collaborative work in physics has been investigated. In order to do this, a framework inspired by conversation analysis has been used. Empirical data was drawn from two video-recorded sessions in which first-year engineering students solved physics problems together. The analysis revealed that the students' use of humor was almost exclusively related to physics. Five themes identified summarize the role of humor in the group discussions: Something is obvious, Something is difficult, Something said might be wrong, Something is absurd, and Something said is not within informal norms. This study shows that humor may contribute not only to a good working atmosphere and thereby to the students' learning but also how humor interrelates with both disciplinary culture of physics and its epistemology. The students do not only create and re-create humor that facilitates their social interactions, but through humor they constitute local norms of science and engage with the disciplinary discourse.
Humor is everywhere in our daily life.It not only brings people laughter,but also reduces pressure,relaxes intensive atmosphere,and helps people avoid embarrassing situation.Meanwhile,humor can also reflect people’s attitude towards life and shows the charm of human being’s language and their wisdom.The problem is that humor cannot be accurately and vividly be translated due to varied factors such as culture,linguistics and spelling, etc. This thesis mainly analyzes the reasons and solutions of humor translation from the perspective of Skopos theory.This analysis is based on an abundance of humor examples.By such thorough analysis,it is found that differences in culture and linguistics account for the failures in humor translation.Chinese and westerners differ a lot in cultural vocabulary,conventional structure,semantic, syntax,social and historical background and value,which puts forth many problems for translation especially for humor translation that requires expressing the most vivid meaning in the least words.Under the guidance of Skopos theory,texts can also be successfully translated.It is under the guidance of Skopos theory no matter the translator adopts transliteration,domestication or method of notes.Therefore,by such analysis from the perspective of Skopos theory,readers will have a deep and thorough understanding of humor translation.
Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel
The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…
Greengross, Gil; Miller, Geoffrey
A good sense of humor is sexually attractive, perhaps because it reveals intelligence, creativity, and other "good genes" or "good parent" traits. If so, intelligence should predict humor production ability, which in turn should predict mating success. In this study, 400 university students (200 men and 200 women) completed measures of abstract…
Swanson, Peter B.
Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…
Berk, Ronald A.
There are two major global educational trends that have changed the form and execution of humor in the classroom and in professional conferences: (1) the burgeoning instructional technology, especially PowerPoint, which can provide a vehicle for several forms of low risk humor anyone can present; and (2) the diversity of classroom demographics,…
Kosiczky, Bonnie; Mullen, Carol A.
How can public schools improve public relations strategies, particularly in communications between teachers and students? The purposes of this study were to investigate teacher leaders' perceptions of the use of humor in the high school classroom and discover how humor might bridge instruction to student learning and strengthen…
Strick, M.A.; Holland, R.W.; Baaren, R.B. van; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van
This study aimed to demonstrate that the cognitive demands involved in humor processing can attenuate negative emotions. A primary aspect of humor is that it poses cognitive demands needed for incongruency resolution. On the basis of findings that cognitive distraction prevents mood-congruent proces
Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J.A.
Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our
Reviews current theories of humor development, discusses the interaction of humor with other developmental areas (including cognitive development, personality development, creativity, and moral development), and suggests ways in which research can be applied in the early childhood classroom. (Author/DST)
The development of children's humor is described, focusing on the cognitive aspect of what is funny and how this relates to children's intellectual growth. Cognitive elements that facilitate children's humor are identified as: (1) the ability to grasp incongruities, (2) the presence of an intellectual challenge, (3) timing, (4) novelty, and (5) a…
Dormann, Claire; Biddle, Robert
Computer games are now becoming ways to communicate, teach, and influence attitudes and behavior. In this article, we address the role of humor in computer games, especially in support of serious purposes. We begin with a review of the main theories of humor, including superiority, incongruity, and relief. These theories and their…
Lockwood, Nicholas L; Yoshimura, Stephen M
This study examines the uses of humor among cardiovascular patients to test the associations between humor use, satisfaction with companion relationships, and health during recovery. Self-report data were collected from members of two national support groups for patients recovering from cardiovascular disease. As expected, general humorousness associated with social and psychological well-being. Several specific functions of humor in cardiovascular recovery were identified and linked with health perceptions. Antidote humor increased social and psychological health perceptions, whereas conversation regulation humor and distancing humor were negatively related to perceived social and psychological health. Relationship satisfaction mediated most effects. The findings offer new insight into the variability of humor effects, particularly following cardiovascular treatment. PMID:23829386
Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Paaske, Kristian J.;
Humor utilized in the practice of forensic mental health nursing might seem somehow inappropriate, given the serious circumstances surrounding most forensic mental health patients. However, some recent research has pointed to the use of humor as an important component in staff interactions with...... forensic mental health patients. This study reviews the existing international forensic mental health research literature on humor to investigate (a) what characterizes forensic mental health staff-patient use of humor and (b) what significance humor holds within the forensic mental health setting. The...... search was conducted in June 2013. Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, and PsychINFO were searched using keywords relevant to the study. Articles were categorized using a literature matrix and analyzed using thematic analysis. Twelve research articles were reviewed and included in the analysis. Three themes were...
Mimi M. Y. Tse
Full Text Available The present study examined the effectiveness of a humor therapy program in relieving chronic pain, enhancing happiness and life satisfaction, and reducing loneliness among older persons with chronic pain. It was a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest controlled design. Older persons in a nursing home were invited to join an 8-week humor therapy program (experimental group, while those in another nursing home were treated as a control group and were not offered the program. There were 36 older people in the experimental group and 34 in the control group. Upon completion of the humor therapy program, there were significant decreases in pain and perception of loneliness, and significant increases in happiness and life satisfaction for the experimental group, but not for the control group. The use of humor therapy appears to be an effective nonpharmacological intervention. Nurses and other healthcare professionals could incorporate humor in caring for their patients.
Soner Cakmak; Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam; Ali Tasdemir; Mahmut Onur Karaytug
Purpose: Self-esteem and humor styles are significant factors for being a healthy person. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation ship between self-esteem and humor styles in medical students. Material and Methods: Two hundred three medical students (107 males, 96 females) were included this study. Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and humor style was measured with Humor Styles Questionnaire. Results: The rate of students who have mild or high ...
Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda
Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as warm glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this warm glow could express itself quite literally: people who act environmentally friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted environmentally friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted environmentally unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted environmentally friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting environmentally friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-environmental actions.
Eliciting and advocating the voice of the child remains at the heart of international political agenda and also remains a central role for educational psychologists (EPs). Previous research indicates that EPs tend to use language-based methods for eliciting and advocating views of children. However, these approaches are often limited. Taking a…
Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.
In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart…
Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander;
Belief-elicitation experiments usually reward accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. But this allows risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of the other decisions. So can we trust the existing belief-elicitation results? A...
Ateh, Comfort M.
In evaluating teachers' instructional decisions during instruction, it is clear that the nature of their elicitation is crucial for student learning. When instructional decisions are informed by information about students' conceptual understanding, significant learning is possible. This article examined the elicitation practices of two high school…
Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases
I Nyoman Tingkat
Full Text Available This article discusses the representation of the image of teachers in the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak written by Gde Srawana. Using the theory of literary sociology and the theory of representation as the basis of analysis, it was found that teachers were imaged of being dilemmatic, humanistic idealistic, caring about the Balinese culture, and being humorous. Sociologically, the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak pictured the life background of the Balinese society during 1930s, indicated by the critical attitude of the intellectuals through I Made Sarati and Ida Ayu Priya, the characters who played a role as teachers, towards the caste feudalism in marriage. Such a critical attitude was expressed in such an inciting way that the ethic and aesthetic values needed to educate society were not neglected.
Salmon, Henri; Berri, Mustapha; Gerdts, Volker; Meurens, François
Immunoglobulins cannot cross the placenta in pregnant sows. Neonatal pigs are therefore agammaglobulinemic at birth and, although immunocompetent, they cannot mount rapid immune responses at systemic and mucosal sites. Their survival depends directly on the acquisition of maternal immunity via colostrum and milk. Protection by maternal immunity is mediated by a number of factors, including specific systemic humoral immunity, involving mostly maternal IgG transferred from blood to colostrum and typically absorbed within the first 36 h of life. Passive mucosal immunity involves local humoral immunity, including the production of secretory IgA (sIgA), which is transferred principally via milk until weaning. The mammary gland (MG) produces sIgA, which is, then secreted into the milk via the poly-Ig receptor (pIgR) of epithelial cells. These antibodies are produced in response to intestinal and respiratory antigens, including pathogens and commensal organisms. Protection is also mediated by cellular immunity, which is transferred via maternal cells present in mammary secretions. The mechanisms underlying the various immunological links between MG and the mucosal surfaces involve hormonally regulated addressins and chemokines specific to these compartments. The enhancement of colostrogenic immunity depends on the stimulation of systemic immunity, whereas the enhancement of lactogenic immunity depends on appropriate stimulation at induction sites, an increase in cell trafficking from the gut and upper respiratory tract to the MG and, possibly, enhanced immunoglobulin production at the effector site and secretion in milk. In addition, mammary secretions provide factors other than immunoglobulins that protect the neonate and regulate the development of mucosal immunity--a key element of postnatal adaptation to environmental antigens. PMID:18761034
Esteban Quesada Jiménez
Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 76 años, vecino de Turrialba, agricultor, que consultó por una lesión de 3 años de evolución, localizada en la palma de la mano derecha a nivel palmar y compromiso de los dedos de la misma mano, caracterizada como una neoformación exofítica verrugosa de 5 por 11 cm. aproximadamente, con material caseoso entre sus crestas. La lesión ha estado creciendo de forma acelerada en los últimos 3 meses, causándole dolor y que le imposibilita ellaborar. Se le realizaron exámenes y se descartaron varias causas infecciosas, y concluyendo luego de varias biopsias con el diagnóstico de un carcinoma verrugoso. El paciente fue tratado mediante una amputación parcial de la mano. Este tumor es una variante del carcinoma epidermoide y presentamos su clasificación, patogénesis, histopatología, manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes y diagnóstico diferencial.
Kaur, Amandeep; Jyoti, Kiran; Rai, Shweta; Sidhu, Rupinder; Pandey, Ravi Shankar; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Katyal, Anju; Madan, Jitender
In the present investigation, non-aggregated cationic and unmodified nanoparticles (TT-C-NLPs4 and TT-NLPs1) were prepared of about 49.2 ± 6.8-nm and 40.8 ± 8.3-nm, respectively. In addition, spherical shape, crystalline architecture and cationic charge were also noticed. Furthermore, integrity and conformational stability of TT were maintained in both TT-C-NLPs4 and TT-NLPs1, as evidenced by symmetrical position of bands and superimposed spectra, respectively in SDS-PAGE and circular dichroism. Cellular uptake in RAW264.7 cells indicating the concentration-dependent internalisation of nanoparticles. Qualitatively, CLSM exhibited enhanced cellular uptake of non-aggregated TT-C-NLPs4 owing to interaction with negatively charged plasma membrane and clevaloe mediated/independent endocytosis. In last, in vivo immunisation with non-aggregated TT-C-NLPs4 elicited strong humoral (anti-TT IgG) and cellular (IFN-γ) immune responses at day 42, as compared to non-aggregated TT-NLPs1 and TT-Alum following booster immunisation at day 14 and 28. Thus, non-aggregated cationic lipid nanoparticles may be a potent immune-adjuvant for parenteral delivery of weak antigens. PMID:27056086
Full Text Available Skin represents an attractive target for DNA vaccine delivery because of its natural richness in APCs, whose targeting may potentiate the effect of vaccination. Nevertheless, intramuscular electroporation is the most common delivery method for ECTM vaccination. In this study we assessed whether intradermal administration could deliver the vaccine into different cell types and we analyzed the evolution of tissue infiltrate elicited by the vaccination protocol. Intradermal electroporation (EP vaccination resulted in transfection of different skin layers, as well as mononuclear cells. Additionally, we observed a marked recruitment of reactive infiltrates mainly 6–24 hours after treatment and inflammatory cells included CD11c+. Moreover, we tested the efficacy of intradermal vaccination against Her2/neu antigen in cellular and humoral response induction and consequent protection from a Her2/neu tumor challenge in Her2/neu nontolerant and tolerant mice. A significant delay in transplantable tumor onset was observed in both BALB/c (p≤0,0003 and BALB-neuT mice (p=0,003. Moreover, BALB-neuT mice displayed slow tumor growth as compared to control group (p<0,0016. In addition, while in vivo cytotoxic response was observed only in BALB/c mice, a significant antibody response was achieved in both mouse models. Our results identify intradermal EP vaccination as a promising method for delivering Her2/neu DNA vaccine.
Full Text Available This quantitative study examines the correlations between humor, loneliness, gender and aging by presenting the results from a sample of eighty-three older Romanian adults, aged sixty and above. The first section of the paper is a comprehensive review of the social-psychological literature on aging, gender and humor. The second section assesses the findings generated from a study that uses the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (Thorson & Powell, 1993 and the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults – short version, (diTomaso, Brannen & Best, 2004. Building on Robert Weiss’s (1973 reflections on the differences between feelings of loneliness because of social isolation or emotional isolation, the research findings nuance –and in some cases challenge several assumptions on gender, age, and emotional and social loneliness. The findings also point to the correlation between feelings of social loneliness and the use of humor in interpersonal communications. The data collected suggests that while Romanian men may value the use of humor more than women when self-reporting, that older Romanian women tend to use humor in interpersonal situations and that there is a significant correlation between the use of this type of humor and a reduced sense of social loneliness.
Jyotsna Vijaykumar Wader; Sujata S Kumbhar; Huddedar AD; Wasim GM Khatib
Renal cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the kidney comprised of different histological variants. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) mainly diagnosed in the sixth decade of life. It is important to identify this entity because it has significantly better prognosis than the clear cell (conventional) and papillary renal cell carcinomas. The chromophobe renal cell carcinoma should be differentiated from oncocytoma and clear cell ca...
Pablo Roberto Lillo
Full Text Available Over the last years there has been a growing interest in the study of the resources that people use from face to a problem. The interest in the study of the characteristics related to the humor has gone in increase, especially for the influence of the development of a new concept in psychology that derives in the call positive psychology (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Zinder and McCullog 2000, in Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003 which is centered in adaptive strengths such as optimism, faith, courage, as well as humor (Martin 2003, quoted in Martin et al., 2003. Sense of humor has been considered as an unidimensional construct (Omar, 1995 and the consequencies has been some errors in the assesment, as a result of a problem of validity. The present study seeks to introduce certain aspects that have not been considered in the past, so much the potential beneficial effects, as the deleterious forms of the sense of humor as for the psychological well-being. Four dimensions of the sense of humor were assesed (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray, Weir, 2003, version Lillo, 2006 relating to the uses or functions in everyday life and the ways of people cope (Fridenberg and Lewis, 1991, version Richaud de Minzi. 2003. They were also significant relationships among styles of humor and ways of coping that could explain the importance of the construct sense of humor, as an important resource to be used. Although it is necessary to highlight that it is not sought to embrace all the components of the sense of humor, but rather it is focused in the interpersonal functions and intrapsíquicas that adolescents use in daily life. These functions are considered most relevant to the well-being. Measuring these aspects of the humor, it is expected that they can explain a greater proportion of the variance as for the ways of people cope.
Daniel Paredes Gómez; Antonio Flores Nieto
Diferentes investigaciones demuestran la importancia del sentido del humor en el bienestar personal y la salud. En el presente trabajo se plantea examinar la utilidad e idoneidad para personas con discapacidad intelectual de la visualización y lectura de material humorístico en soporte impreso destinado a la población general, con un nivel de lectura característico de las edades comprendidas entre los 11 y 12 años; así como analizar si el modelo multidimensional del sentido del humor de Garcí...
Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K
The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of the essential oil isolated from the buds of Eugenia caryophyllata on some immunological parameters. Humoral immunity was assessed by measuring the hemagglutination titre to sheep red blood cells and delayed type hypersensitivity was assessed by measuring foot pad thickness. Clove oil administration produced a significant increase in the primary as well as secondary humoral immune response. In addition, it also produced a significant decrease in foot pad thickness compared with the control group. Thus, these results suggest that clove oil can modulate the immune response by augmenting humoral immunity and decreasing cell mediated immunity. PMID:21796701
Purpose: Controversies exist regarding the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of vulvar carcinoma. A retrospective review was performed to evaluate our institution's experience with surgery and radiation for this disease. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 47 patients treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva at our institution (1974-1992) were reviewed for TNM stage (AJCC criteria), treatment modality, and associated 5-year local control and survival based on Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Twenty-eight patients (60%) presented with Stage I and II disease and their 5-year survival was 69%. Stage III patients accounted for 12 (25%) of the patients and their 5-year survival was 73%. Seven patients presented with Stage IV disease and five died within 13 months of diagnosis after predominantly palliative therapy. The 40 patients with Stages I, II, and III disease were treated aggressively and were further evaluated for treatment-modality-associated survival and local control. Radiation therapy was used as primary treatment in nine patients, of whom seven were treated with radiation alone and two were treated postoperatively after wide excision. Surgery alone was performed in 31 patients consisting of either radical vulvectomy (20 patients) or wide excision (11 patients). When comparing outcomes of radical vulvectomy vs. radiation therapy, we noted that the 5-year actuarial survivals were comparable (74% for either modality), despite the presence of more favorable prognostic factors in the group treated with radical vulvectomy. Patients treated with wide excision alone had a trend for a poorer 5-year actuarial survival (51%) and local control (50%). Conclusions: Radical vulvectomy offers good locoregional control and survival. This retrospective review further supports the use of radiation therapy with conservative surgery as an alternative treatment option for patients with vulvar carcinoma treated with curative intent. In contrast, the use of
Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.
Pre-operative staging, using transrectal prostatic sonography and CT, was carried out in 30 patients with cytologically confirmed carcinomas of the prostate and the results compared with the clinical findings. All patients underwent radical prostatectomy and the pre-operative findings could be verified histologically. Transrectal prostatic sonography is better than CT or clinical examination for determining local tumour spread or penetration of the capsule. A high proportion of enlarged pelvic lymphnodes shown by CT had non-specific changes; failure to demonstrate enlarged nodes excludes lymph node metastases with considerable certainty. Transrectal prostatic sonography provides a higher degree of information regarding local tumour spread, whereas CT indicates the presence or absence of lymph node metastases. (orig.)
... Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/2016 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is ...
Background We have previously developed and characterized a monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody, designated 6B11, which mimics an ovarian carcinoma associated antigen OC166-9 and whose corresponding monoclonal antibody is COC166-9 (Ab1). In this study, we evaluate the humoral immune responses induced by the fusion protein 6B11 single-chain variable fragment (scFv)/human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) and 6B11scFv in BALB/c mice. Methods The fusion protein 6B11scFv/hGM-CSF was constructed by fusing a recombinant single-chain variable fragment of 6B11scFv to GM-CSF. BALB/c mice were administrated by 6B11scFv/hGM-CSF and 6B11scFv, respectively. Results The fusion protein 6B11scFv/hGM-CSF retained binding to the anti-mouse F(ab)2' and was also biologically active as measured by proliferation of human GM-CSF dependent cell TF1 in vitro. After immunization with the 6B11scFv/hGM-CSF and 6B11ScFv, BALB/c mice showed significantly enhanced Ab3 antibody responses to 6B11scFv/hGM-CSF compared with the 6B11scFv alone. The level of Ab3 was the highest after the first week and maintained for five weeks after the last immunization. Another booster was given when the Ab3 titer descended, and it would reach to the high level in a week. Conclusion The fusion protein 6B11scFv/hGM-CSF can induce humoral immunity against ovarian carcinoma in vivo. We also provide the theoretical foundation for the application of the fusion protein 6B11scFv/hGM-CSF for active immunotherapy of ovarian cancer.
Proyer, René T; Flisch, Rahel; Tschupp, Stefanie; Platt, Tracey; Ruch, Willibald
This scoping study examines the relation of the sense of humor and three dispositions toward ridicule and being laughed at to psychopathic personality traits. Based on self-reports from 233 adults, psychopathic personality traits were robustly related to enjoying laughing at others, which most strongly related to a manipulative/impulsive lifestyle and callousness. Higher psychopathic traits correlated with bad mood and it existed independently from the ability of laughing at oneself. While overall psychopathic personality traits existed independently from the sense of humor, the facet of superficial charm yielded a robust positive relation. Higher joy in being laughed at also correlated with higher expressions in superficial charm and grandiosity while fearing to be laughed at went along with higher expressions in a manipulative life-style. Thus, the psychopathic personality trait could be well described in its relation to humor and laughter. Implications of the findings are highlighted and discussed with respect to the current literature. PMID:22559907
Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.
The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a multi-laboratory simulation-driven effort to develop carbon capture technologies with the goal of accelerating commercialization and adoption in the near future. One of the key CCSI technical challenges is representing and quantifying the inherent uncertainty and risks associated with developing, testing, and deploying the technology in simulated and real operational settings. To address this challenge, the CCSI Element 7 team developed a holistic risk analysis and decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to document the CCSI Element 7 structured systematic expert elicitation to identify additional risk factors. We review the significance of and established approaches to expert elicitation, describe the CCSI risk elicitation plan and implementation strategies, and conclude by discussing the next steps and highlighting the contribution of risk elicitation toward the achievement of the overarching CCSI objectives.
In connection with the origin and mechanisms of immunitary depression due to irradiation, it is tried to find if changes of humoral immunitary response could be caused by a limited irradiation of central nervous system
... Up of Aqueous Humor Can Damage the Optic Nerve Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... in intraocular pressure causing damage to the optic nerve and leading to vision loss. Glossary of Terms ...
Elizabeth S. Bast
Full Text Available This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are also involved in eating behavior. Finally, we present a novel hypothesis that people may be trained to use humor as a “food substitute” at best, or to blunt hunger stimuli, to achieve similar advantages, without the side effect of weight gain.
Bast, Elizabeth S; Berry, Elliot M
This review explores the potential overlap between the fields of nutrition and therapeutic humor, together with the role of humor as a possible tool for aiding those in whom emotions, particularly negative ones, trigger eating as a means to improve mood. We review emotional eating, obesity, and the hypothesized mechanisms of emotional eating. We then review the field of therapeutic humor and its ability to de-stress individuals, possibly through endorphin and opioid systems, both of which are also involved in eating behavior. Finally, we present a novel hypothesis that people may be trained to use humor as a "food substitute" at best, or to blunt hunger stimuli, to achieve similar advantages, without the side effect of weight gain. PMID:24498514
Freddy Antonio González Ynfante
Full Text Available Recibido 09 de junio de 2011 • Aceptado 24 de octubre de 2011 • Corregido 27 de setiembre de 2011 Resumen. El presente ensayo tiene como finalidad reflexionar sobre la importancia del humor pedagógico como estrategia de enseñanza aprendizaje en el aula; esto, tomando en cuenta la problemática de desmotivación y aburrimiento que sucede normalmente en la clase. Para plantear si “el enseñar contento y el aprender con alegría” pueden aumentar la eficacia en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, se abordará cómo, a pesar de las múltiples ventajas que puede aportar el humor en las aulas, se omite su empleo por la existencia de ciertos prejuicios y temores. La idea no es que los docentes hagan el papel de comediantes o payasos, sino la de mediar y acercar la clase de manera pedagógica y didáctica a través del uso del humor, y sobre esto reflexionaba Platón (1992, cuando planteaba que muchas veces ayudaba una broma, en donde la seriedad oponía resistencia. Abstract. This paper studies the importance of humor as a teaching strategy in the classroom, considering the usual lack of motivation and boredom. To analyze whether the “happy teaching and happy learning” may increase effectiveness in the teaching-learning process, the author will discuss how, despite the many benefits it may bring, humor is not used in the classroom due to prejudices and fears. The idea is not for teachers to play the role of a comedian or a clown, but to intervene and get closer to the group with a teaching, didactic purpose through humor. Plato (1992 thought about this; he used to say that sometimes a joke may help, where seriousness put up resistance.
Ghanbari, Hadi; Similä, Jouni; Markkula, Jouni
Requirements elicitation is one of the most important and challenging activities in software development projects. A variety of challenges related to requirements elicitation are reported in the literature, of which the lack of proper communication and knowledge transfer between software stakeholders are among the most important. Communication and knowledge transfer are becoming even bigger challenges with the current increase in globally distributed software development projects due to the t...
Krupka and Weber (2013) introduce an incentive-compatible coordination game as an alternative method for elicitation of normative judgments. I show, however, that people provide virtually the same responses in incentivized and non-incentivized versions of the Krupka-Weber game. Besides ratings of social appropriateness, I also elicit ratings of fairness of all possible offers in an ultimatum game. Ratings of social appropriateness and fairness are similar for low offers (bel...
Restifo, Nicholas P
Whereas cancer cells are poor immunogens, some viruses are capable of eliciting powerful and lifelong immunity. Recombinant viruses and plasmid DNA encoding tumor-associated antigens can elicit powerful and specific immune responses that can be enhanced by the use of cytokines and costimulatory molecules. These immune responses have destroyed growing tumor cells in experimental animal models. For the first time, immunotherapeutic strategies that employ recombinant viruses are being tested in ...
This paper attempts to examine and measure ostomates’ preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches. Described are the study design, elicitation procedure and resulting preference structure of the Swedish ostomate sample. The method used to elicit the preferences is a Discrete Choice Experiment ......, emphasis should be placed on this attribute when decisions are made as to the allocation of scarce health care resources within research and development aimed at improving ostomy pouches....
Marryam Murtaza; Jamal Hussain Shah; Aisha Azeem; Wasif Nisar; Maria Masood
Requirement elicitation is very difficult process in highly challenging and business based software as well as in real time software. Common problems associated with these types of software are rapidly changing the requirements and understanding the language of the layman person. In this study, a framework for requirement elicitation by using knowledge based system is proposed, which is very helpful for knowledge documentation, intelligent decision support, self-learning and more specifically...
Anshu, Arundhati; Price, Marianne O; Richardson, Matthew R; Segu, Zaneer M.; Lai, Xianyin; Yoder, Mervin C.; Price, Francis W.
Purpose To investigate whether implantation of a glaucoma shunt device leads to inappropriate accumulation of plasma derived proteins in the aqueous humor. Methods Aqueous humor samples were collected from 11 patients (study group) with a glaucoma shunt device undergoing either cataract surgery or a corneal transplant and 11 patients (control) with senile cataract undergoing routine cataract extraction. Of the study group, 9 had an Ahmed valve implant and 2 eyes had a Baerveldt implant. Trypt...
Pickard, J. M.; Davidson, S M; Hausenloy, D.J.; Yellon, D M
The cardioprotection afforded by remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) is mediated via a complex mechanism involving sensory afferent nerves, the vagus nerve, and release of a humoral blood-borne factor. However, it is unknown whether release of the protective factor depends on vagal activation or occurs independently. This study aimed to evaluate the co-dependence of the neural and humoral pathways of RIC, focussing on the vagus nerve and intrinsic cardiac ganglia. In the first study, anesthet...
Jafar Bahadori-Khosroshahi; Zeynab Khanjani
Background: The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between humor and negative life events with depression among university students.Materials and Method: This is a cross sectional study. The statistical populations consisted of all students of Tabriz University, in which 200(100 male, 100 female) were selected by simple random sampling. To collect data we used Khoshouei Humor Scale, The List of Life Events and Beck Depression Test. Data were analyzed, using correlation c...
Humour research is often about verbal humour. Language allows us to play with words and with its syntactic, semantic and pragmatic aspects. It provides us with building blocks that can be composed in unusual ways, introducing ambiguities, confusion, inappropriate language use, and incongruities. This allows the design of humour, whether it is word play, verbal jokes, or humorous remarks triggered by conversational interaction. Design and analysis of verbal humor has become part of computation...
The nurse scholar, whether a supervisor, an educator, or a practitioner, has a lifetime of research opportunities as well as personal experiences related to the human need for humor. We need to develop the means to assess the individual's and group's response to humor. Nurse scholars, particularly the nurse supervisor, can make a significant contribution in the search to harness some of the energy we use in laughing and direct it toward helping us heal our human conditions. PMID:10110633
Mass-mediated American culture and the English language became raw materials for vernacular protest humor alongside images of headscarf-wearing middle-aged “aunties” during antigovernment protests in Turkey in the summer of 2013. Focusing on posts shared on Facebook and Twitter by Turkish protestors and their supporters in the first two months of the protests, this article studies the complex linguistic and visual humor that developed around Gezi Park and relates it to the identity politics m...
Salisbury, Anne-Marie; Leeming, Gail; Nikolaou, Georgios; Kipar, Anja; Wigley, Paul
Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow usually causes mild gastroenteritis in humans; however, it is frequently invasive and many isolates are resistant to a broad-range of therapeutic antimicrobials. Poultry meat is considered a major source of human infection. In this study, we characterize the infection biology and immune response to S. Virchow in chickens and determine protection against homologous and heterologous re-challenge, with S. Virchow or S. Typhimurium. Following oral infection of ...
Md. Rizwan Beg
Full Text Available Requirement Engineering process starts from gathering of requirements i.e.; requirements elicitation. Requirementselicitation (RE is the base building block for a software project and has very high impact onsubsequent design and builds phases as well. Accurately capturing system requirements is the major factorin the failure of most of software projects. Due to the criticality and impact of this phase, it is very importantto perform the requirements elicitation in no less than a perfect manner. One of the most difficult jobsfor elicitor is to select appropriate technique for eliciting the requirement. Interviewing and Interactingstakeholder during Elicitation process is a communication intensive activity involves Verbal and Nonverbalcommunication (NVC. Elicitor should give emphasis to Non-verbal communication along with verbalcommunication so that requirements recorded more efficiently and effectively. In this paper we proposea model in which stakeholders are classified by observing non-verbal communication and use it as a basefor elicitation technique selection. We also propose an efficient plan for requirements elicitation which intendsto overcome on the constraints, faced by elicitor.
Nilton Nasser; Nilton Nasser Filho; Bruno Trauczynski Neto; Lissandra Melati da Silva
The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no s...
Material and Methods: Two hundred three medical students (107 males, 96 females were included this study. Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and humor style was measured with Humor Styles Questionnaire. Results: The rate of students who have mild or high self-esteem levels was 89.7%. In Humor Styles Questionnaire, the average scores of affiliative and self-enhancing humor were significantly higher than the average scores of aggressive and self-defeating humor. Male students were using humor, especially aggressive and self-defeating humor styles more commonly than female students. A positive correlation was found between self-esteem and affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Conclusion: The present study revealed a positive correlation between self-esteem and positive humor styles. There is a need to develop educational models that would bolster self-esteem and positive humor in medical students. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 782-793
Franco Lotito Catino
Full Text Available En toda investigación que se lleva a cabo en torno a la incidencia del humor en la gestión y administración de una empresa, los autores destacan la relevancia de este factor en los buenos resultados que obtienen aquellas empresas, cuyos líderes están en condiciones de darle un espacio y uso apropiado al humor, razón por la cual, el objetivo principal de este artículo apuntará a destacar la relevancia de este elemento en la organizaciones, avalado por el grato ambiente laboral que prima en dichas empresas, así como por las observaciones y experiencias del autor del artículo, cuyas conclusiones demuestran que el buen humor no sólo “produce” más, sino que también mantiene más sanos y contentos a los trabajadores al bajar los niveles de estrés. In every research conducted on the use of humor in the management of a company, authors emphasize the importance of this factor in the good results obtained. This article aims to highlight the importance of humor in the organizations resulting in a pleasant working atmosphere. The author’s observation and experiences are also included. Conclusions show that humor not only results in higher e ciency but also in happier and healthier workers by lowering stress levels.
Dark humor is defined as a stylistic feature with irony at its core. The weapon for the powerless, dark humor always targets those in power. In Sula, Toni Morrison employs irony to satirize African American stereotypes established by racism and sexism. To survive, African Americans ann themselves with humor. Humor implies hope. The （dark） humor in Sula brings spiritual comfort to the victims of racism and sexism, strengthens the Bottom, the black community, challenges the grand narrative of the U.S. history, and proves an essential component of American humor.%黑色幽默是一种文体，反讽是其常用的技巧。黑色幽默是草根的武器，权势是黑色幽默的靶子。在《秀拉》中，莫里森采用反讽，嘲讽种族主义者设定的美国黑人刻板形象，条分缕析地抨击种族歧视和性别歧视。哪里有幽默，哪里就有希望。幽默不但令黑人取得了精神上的胜利，而且挑战美国官方历史的宏大叙事，更为美国幽默增添了多元视角。
Experiments were performed to investigate the influence of neonatal and adult splenectomy on humoral immunity in mice. In the bone marrow and lymph nodes of both groups of splenectomized mice the number of immunoglobulin (Ig)-positive (B) lymphocytes was significantly higher than in sham-operated mice. These higher numbers of B cells probably reflect a compensation for the absence of the B cell population of the spleen. Hardly any quantitative differences in the serum immunoglobulins were found between splenectomized and sham-splenectomized mice. Only for the IgM class was a significantly lower concentration found in the serum of splenectomized animals. This low concentration of IgM in the blood of splenectomized mice was caused by a failure of the remaining organs to compensate completely for the removal of the quantitatively important population of IgM-producing plasma cells in the spleen. Nevertheless, the number of precursors of IgM-producing plasma cells in bone marrow and lymph nodes and their ability to differentiate into IgM-producing plasma cells was not diminished by splenectomy. Probably the spleen provides a highly efficient environment for the differentiation into IgM-producing plasma cells. By investigating the synergistic ability of bone marrow cells and thymus cells from neonatally splenectomized mice it was found that these cells were fully capable of co-operating in the adoptive plaque-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells (SFBC). (author)
Carmen Elisa Escobar María
Full Text Available A partir de la afirmación de S. Critchley de que el psicoanálisis es la prolongación, profundización y complicación de lo que él llama paradigma trágico-heroico, se trata de precisar que lo trágico es lo que hace inseparables la teoría y la experiencia psicoanalítica de la risa y los fenómenos ligados a ella. Esto, en general, ha sido insuficientemente indagado. Siguiendo estos argumentos, se presentan algunas observaciones en torno a esa especie de exhortación volver a las cosas mismas, tan afín al método freudiano, al uso de lo trágico-heroico en Lacan, al concepto de Cosa y al aporte de Freud al humor. Por otra parte, y en completa relación con lo anterior, se destacan algunos señalamientos lacanianos que ubican al cuerpo como central en la experiencia de lo cómico. Y por último, se examina la contraposición Bergson - Freud - Lacan en torno a la risa, lo mecánico y el lenguaje.
Duarte G, Ignacio; Chuaqui F, Claudia
The term scrofula was used for a long time to designate a chronic swelling of cervical lymph nodes. This paper outlines the prevalent ideas on the nature, pathogenesis and the treatment of this disorder, from classical Greek medicine up to the 18th century. A Hippocratic treatise regarded scrofula as produced by an accumulation of phlegm, with a consequent imbalance or dyscrasia of the body humors. It was believed that it could heal spontaneously; but it could also soften, open through the skin and have an obstinate course. The treatment consisted mainly on local applications, incision to evacuate the soft content, or extirpation of the abnormal mass. In France and England, crowds of scrofulous patients were touched by the kings who were supposed to have a hereditary miraculous power to cure the disease. A Medieval text mentioned that scrofula could also affect other parts of the body. In the 17th century, scrofula was reputed as a frequent condition and was attributed to blood acrimony which coagulated in spongy organs. It was associated to phthisis or consumption due to the lethal outcome in some patients and to a cheese-like appearance of the pulmonary and the scrofulous lesions. PMID:27401383
A. P. Toptygina
Full Text Available Abstract. Age dynamics of humoral immunity was studied in healthy children, i.e., 11 newborns, 33 infants of 4 to 8 months, 32 children of 1 to 2 years old,, 17 children of 4 to 5 years old, 25 children of 6 to 8 years old, 15 children of 9 to 11 years old, and 28 adolescents of 14 to 16 years old. Evaluation of membrane receptors on B cells was performed by means of three-colour fluorescent label and allowed of characterizing B1 subpopulations (CD19+CD5+CD27-, naпve B2 cells (CD19+CD5-CD27-, and B2 memory cells (CD19+CD5-CD27+. B1 cells have been shown to dominate in blood of newborns and younger children (up to 5 years old. By the contrary, B2 memory cells were nearly undetectable in newborns, and exceeded 20% in adolescents (by 15 years old. Meanwhile, it has been revealed that the amounts of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses did progressively increase with age, whereas IgG2 remained decreased to 50% of adult values for a long time, and reached them by 11 years and later. We suggest that the age dynamics of IgG subclasses is connected with age-dependent changes in B cell subpopulations.
Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...
Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. ...
Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.;
Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of...... these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas......, comprising malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas...
DUAN Chun-guang; LIU Yan-fang; LI Kai-nan; YU Lu; CUI Ji-hong; LI Jing; YANG Shou-jing
@@ Elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin observed in patients with cancers of epithelial origin, including carcinomas of breast, colon, and liver1,2 have been interpreted as humoral responses of host to cancer growth.3 Recently, Qiu et al4 described in detail that human cancers of epithelial origin, including carcinomas of breast, colon, liver, lung, established epithelial cancer lines, produce immunoglobulin G (IgG) in their cytoplasm. Under normal conditions, heat shock proteins (HSPs) have multiple cellular functions, such as folding and translocating newly synthesized proteins. When a cell is injured or under stress, HSPs refold damaged protein or facilitate degradation of proteins. In most cancers, heat shock proteins can capture tumour specific peptide to inhibit the growth of cancer. This study demonstrated that human IgG and HSPs are co-localized in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Grajewski, Rafael S; Bosch, Jacobus J; Bruns, Heiko; Cursiefen, Claus; Heindl, Ludwig M
The metastatic spread of carcinoma cells is not fully understood. Here, we compare the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and intraocular metastatic cells in parotid gland carcinoma with the PBMCs of healthy donors by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. We found Ber-EP4 tumor marker-positive carcinoma cells in the aqueous humor of the patient's right eye and a CD45 and Ber-EP4-expressing PBMC population in his blood. These Ber-EP4-expressing cells exhibited a monocytic-myeloid phenotype with coexpression of CD11b, CD115, and the macrophage marker CD172a (SIRP-α). Uptake of pHrodogreen revealed their phagocytic activity. Our findings suggest that the tumor cells in the anterior chamber originally derived from cell fusions between tumor cells and myeloid cells in the peripheral blood. Thus, metastases of a solid malignancy could use monocytes-macrophages as the Trojan horse to enter the eye. PMID:26608963
Virginio, Veridiana Gomes; Gonchoroski, Taylor; Paes, Jéssica Andrade; Schuck, Desirée Cigaran; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP) and causes major economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Commercially available vaccines provide only partial protection and are relatively expensive. In this study, we assessed the humoral and cellular immune responses to three recombinant antigens of M. hyopneumoniae. Immune responses to selected domains of the P46, HSP70 and MnuA antigens (P46102-253, HSP70212-601 and MnuA182-378), delivered as recombinant subunit or DNA vaccines, were evaluated in BALB/c mice. All purified recombinant antigens and two DNA vaccines, pcDNA3.1(+)/HSP70212-601 and pcDNA3.1(+)/MnuA182-378, elicited a strong humoral immune response, indicated by high IgG levels in the serum. The cellular immune response was assessed by detection of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-4 in splenocyte culture supernatants. The recombinant subunit and DNA vaccines induced Th1-polarized immune responses, as evidenced by increased levels of IFN-γ. All recombinant subunit vaccines and the pcDNA3.1(+)/MnuA182-378 vaccine also induced the secretion of IL-10, a Th2-type cytokine, in large quantities. The mixed Th1/Th2-type response may elicit an effective immune response against M. hyopneumoniae, suggesting that P46102-253, HSP70212-601 and MnuA182-378 are potential novel and promising targets for the development of vaccines against PEP. PMID:25148775
Hickman, Gregory P.; Andrews, David W.
A self-report questionnaire on academic achievement, birth order, and family structure; the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire; the Parental Authority Questionnaire; and the Coping Humor Scale were administered to 257 first-year college students. Researchers examined the relationships among (a) authoritative parenting style, (b) family…
Mª. Gorete Reis
Full Text Available Los mayores están sujetos a riesgos acrecentados por el poco compromiso con la vida, el aislamiento, la precariedad de recursos y la enfermedad, entre otros. Hoy, la depresión es considerada la perturbación mental con mayor crecimiento, repercutiendo en los cambios en el estilo de vida y en la salud. Nos cuestionamos sobre el estado de humor deprimido de los mayores que viven en la comunidad. El objetivo es evaluar la depresión e identificar los factores relacionados con ella. Estudio descriptivo correlacional. Conclusión: Hay un número elevado de personas con humor deprimido. Ser mujer y estar enferma revela relaciones con la depresión, así como tener limitaciones para ejecutar las actividades.Old people are submit to risk factors that increase from life disengagement; loneliness, decrease in income and in resources and also from diseases, among others. Today depression is considered a mental disturb in a growing process which affects life style and health. That's why we questioned old people living in community, about depressed humor. The aim of this study is to evaluate depression's level nd associate factors. It's a descriptive, correlate study. Conclusions: There are a great number of people with depressed humor and, be woman, have diseabilities are factors relate to depression.
Llovet, Josep M; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Pikarsky, Eli; Sangro, Bruno; Schwartz, Myron; Sherman, Morris; Gores, Gregory
Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally and has an incidence of approximately 850,000 new cases per year. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents approximately 90% of all cases of primary liver cancer. The main risk factors for developing HCC are well known and include hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol intake and ingestion of the fungal metabolite aflatoxin B1. Additional risk factors such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are also emerging. Advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HCC have led to identification of critical driver mutations; however, the most prevalent of these are not yet druggable targets. The molecular classification of HCC is not established, and the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging classification is the main clinical algorithm for the stratification of patients according to prognosis and treatment allocation. Surveillance programmes enable the detection of early-stage tumours that are amenable to curative therapies - resection, liver transplantation or local ablation. At more developed stages, only chemoembolization (for intermediate HCC) and sorafenib (for advanced HCC) have shown survival benefits. There are major unmet needs in HCC management that might be addressed through the discovery of new therapies and their combinations for use in the adjuvant setting and for intermediate- and advanced-stage disease. Moreover, biomarkers for therapy stratification, patient-tailored strategies targeting driver mutations and/or activating signalling cascades, and validated measurements of quality of life are needed. Recent failures in the testing of systemic drugs for intermediate and advanced stages have indicated a need to refine trial designs and to define novel approaches. PMID:27158749
Edwards, J T; Macdonald, G A
The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) appears to be declining in Taiwan and potentially in other high-prevalence areas as a consequence of vaccination for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, there is evidence that the incidence of HCC is increasing in North America and Europe. This appears to be related to the increasing prevalence and duration of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in these countries. There is also growing evidence to support an increase in the risk of HCC in patients with HCV who are coinfected with occult HBV (patients who have lost HBV surface antigen but still have detectable HBV DNA either in blood or liver). Occult HBV infection in patients with HCV may be more common than previously thought, and HCC that occurs in this setting appears to have a worse prognosis. There is continuing interest in the effect of interferon therapy on the incidence of HCC in patients with HCV. Several studies from Japan have shown a benefit in patients without cirrhosis, although there are a number of potentially confounding variables that may partly explain these results. Prospective randomized studies are needed to investigate this important question. The molecular biology of HCC and the events of malignant transformation in the liver continue to be areas of intense study. Recently, there has been considerable interest in telomeres, the repeat units on the ends of chromosomes, and the enzyme that maintains these, telomerase. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and can be used to determine the number of divisions a cell has undergone. Eventually they reach a critical length, with further loss resulting in cellular senescence. Telomerase restores telomere length and may help malignant cells escape senescence. Nearly all HCCs have telomerase activity and assessments of telomeres and telomerase may be clinically useful. PMID:17023886
Hélio Arthur Reis Irigaray; Luiz Alex Silva Saraiva; Alexandre de Pádua Carrieri
To deal with multiple social manifestations in the organizational world, humor is an important form of communicating something, although not in an explicit way, smoothing critics and aggressions under the pretext of getting a laugh. In this paper we discuss humor as a form of manifesting discrimination of sexual orientation in the work place. Based on specialized literature about social, denotative and connotative functions of humor, and the insertion of female and male homosexuals in a profe...
Fardzadeh, Haghish Ebad
For over a century, jokes have been considered serious narratives indicating shared attitudes, beliefs, or conflicts that are ripped from the community’s mind. Notably, people’s ethical attitude toward ethnic jokes has been ignored in humor studies. The purpose of the current thesis is twofold: a) developing a scale for measuring people’s ethical attitude toward ethnic humor and b) exploring sociological and psychological factors that relate to ethical attitude toward ethnic humor. In brief, ...
Awad, Tahany; Thorlund, Kristian; Gluud, Christian
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignant cancer of the liver. Evidence for the role of cryotherapy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma is controversial. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to evaluate the potential benefits and harms of cryotherapy for...... the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS until June 2009. We identified further studies by...... hepatocellular carcinoma. Randomised clinical trials with low-risk of bias may help in defining the role of cryotherapy in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma....
Full Text Available To analyze the protein profile of human vitreous of untreated patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO.Sixty-eight vitreous humor (VH samples (44 from patients with treatment naïve RVO, 24 controls with idiopathic floaters were analyzed in this clinical-experimental study using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometer and tandem mass spectrometry. To define potential candidate protein markers of RVO, proteomic analysis was performed on RVO patients (n = 30 and compared with controls (n = 16. To determine validity of potential biomarker candidates in RVO, receiver operating characteristic (ROC was performed by using proteome data of independent RVO (n = 14 and control samples (n = 8.Ninety-four different proteins (736 tryptic peptides could be identified. Sixteen proteins were found to be significant when comparing RVO and control samples (P = 1.43E-05 to 4.48E-02. Five proteins (Clusterin, Complement C3, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5, Opticin and Vitronectin, remained significant after using correction for multiple testing. These five proteins were also detected significant when comparing subgroups of RVO (central RVO, hemi-central RVO, branch RVO to controls. Using independent samples ROC-Area under the curve was determined proving the validity of the results: Clusterin 0.884, Complement C3 0.955, IGLL5 1.000, Opticin 0.741, Vitronectin 0.786. In addition, validation through ELISA measurements was performed.The results of the study reveal that the proteomic composition of VH differed significantly between the patients with RVO and the controls. The proteins identified may serve as potential biomarkers for pathogenesis induced by RVO.
Fradin, Chantal; Salleron, Julia; Damiens, Sébastien; Moragues, Maria Dolores; Souplet, Vianney; Jouault, Thierry; Robert, Raymond; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Sendid, Boualem; Colombel, Jean Fréderic; Poulain, Daniel
Objective The protein Hwp1, expressed on the pathogenic phase of Candida albicans, presents sequence analogy with the gluten protein gliadin and is also a substrate for transglutaminase. This had led to the suggestion that C. albicans infection (CI) may be a triggering factor for Celiac disease (CeD) onset. We investigated cross-immune reactivity between CeD and CI. Methods Serum IgG levels against recombinant Hwp1 and serological markers of CeD were measured in 87 CeD patients, 41 CI patients, and 98 healthy controls (HC). IgA and IgG were also measured in 20 individuals from each of these groups using microchips sensitized with 38 peptides designed from the N-terminal of Hwp1. Results CI and CeD patients had higher levels of anti-Hwp1 (p=0.0005 and p=0.004) and anti-gliadin (p=0.002 and p=0.0009) antibodies than HC but there was no significant difference between CeD and CI patients. CeD and CI patients had higher levels of anti-transglutaminase IgA than HC (p=0.0001 and p=0.0039). During CI, the increase in anti-Hwp1 paralleled the increase in anti-gliadin antibodies. Microchip analysis showed that CeD patients were more reactive against some Hwp1 peptides than CI patients, and that some deamidated peptides were more reactive than their native analogs. Binding of IgG from CeD patients to Hwp1 peptides was inhibited by γIII gliadin peptides. Conclusions Humoral cross-reactivity between Hwp1 and gliadin was observed during CeD and CI. Increased reactivity to Hwp1 deamidated peptide suggests that transglutaminase is involved in this interplay. These results support the hypothesis that CI may trigger CeD onset in genetically-susceptible individuals. PMID:25793717
Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are the most important mosquito transmitted viral pathogens infecting humans. DENV infection produces a spectrum of disease, most commonly causing a self-limiting flu-like illness known as dengue fever; yet with increased frequency, manifesting as life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Waning cross-protective immunity from any of the four dengue serotypes may enhance subsequent infection with another heterologous serotype to increase the probability of DHF. Decades of effort to develop dengue vaccines are reaching the finishing line with multiple candidates in clinical trials. Nevertheless, concerns remain that imbalanced immunity, due to the prolonged prime-boost schedules currently used in clinical trials, could leave some vaccinees temporarily unprotected or with increased susceptibility to enhanced disease. Here we develop a DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1 DNA vaccine with the immunodominant cross-reactive B cell epitopes associated with immune enhancement removed. We compare wild-type (WT with this cross-reactivity reduced (CRR vaccine and demonstrate that both vaccines are equally protective against lethal homologous DENV-1 challenge. Under conditions mimicking natural exposure prior to acquiring protective immunity, WT vaccinated mice enhanced a normally sub-lethal heterologous DENV-2 infection resulting in DHF-like disease and 95% mortality in AG129 mice. However, CRR vaccinated mice exhibited redirected serotype-specific and protective immunity, and significantly reduced morbidity and mortality not differing from naïve mice. Thus, we demonstrate in an in vivo DENV disease model, that non-protective vaccine-induced immunity can prime vaccinees for enhanced DHF-like disease and that CRR DNA immunization significantly reduces this potential vaccine safety concern. The sculpting of immune memory by the modified vaccine and resulting redirection of humoral immunity provide insight into DENV vaccine induced immune
Fateme Ghanei Motlagh
Full Text Available Teacher’s sense of humor is like a miracle in creating effective teaching and learning environments where there is no place for stress and anxiety but instead intrinsic motivation is enhanced. The present study aims mainly, to explore the effects of teachers’ sense of humor of EFL intermediate learners' reading comprehension ability. Having administered a test of reading proficiency, 58 learners are selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. Also two English language teachers, based on TOEFL and Humor Questionnaire, are selected to teach these learners. The process of teaching and the materials were the same for both groups. But participants in humor class were taught in a well-defined humorous environment managed by the teacher. Considering the control group, the process of teaching reading texts was conducted in a normal manner. To measure the relationship between EFL teachers’ sense of humor and EFL learners' intrinsic motivation in reading comprehension ability, an Intrinsic Motivation in Reading Questionnaire (IMERQ including reading curiosity, is given to experimental participants both at the outset and at the end of the course. Finally based on the data, it was found that teachers’ sense of humor was effective in improving learners' reading comprehension ability and enhancing intrinsic motivation. The findings can also provide pedagogical implications for considering teachers’ sense of humor as an intrinsically motivating learning tool.Keywords: sense of humor, intrinsic motivation, reading comprehension, intermediate
Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hsiao, Yu-Ling; Liu, Shwu-Jiuan; Chang, Chueh
The nursing profession has generally accepted humor as beneficial to health care. As nursing has always emphasized holistic care and the importance of individual needs, the profession values the ability of humor to positively affect all aspects of a patient's well being. The purposes of this study were to develop a "Chinese Humor Scale (CHS)" for the nursing profession and then test its reliability and validity. The 405 individuals selected for participation in this study included nursing on-the-job students from a medical university and professional nurses practicing at four hospitals in north Taiwan. Researchers developed a list of 57 key humor measures which were filled out and returned by study participants. An evaluation of results using Cronbach's alpha coefficients demonstrated good consistency (alpha=.93) for the developed CHS. Intercorrelations amongst the four sub-scales were generally quite low, indicating each sub-scale measures dimensions relatively distinct from one another (r=.24 approximately .48, both p'shumorous creativity", "tendency to laugh", "perceptivity to humor", and "humorous attitude", were found to explain 55.42% of total variances. The CHS was found to provide good validity using a content validity index (CVI) developed by five experts. The results of this study provide encouraging evidence for the construct validity and reliability of the proposed humor scale and support its application by nursing educators and clinicians to further test and assess concepts related to humor. Further research is needed to explore more fully the implications of humor in nursing. PMID:16237632
Samo, Melissa; Choudhary, Neelima R; Riebe, Kristina J; Shterev, Ivo; Staats, Herman F; Sempowski, Gregory D; Leduc, Isabelle
The Ducreyi serum resistance A (DsrA) protein of Haemophilus ducreyi belongs to a large family of multifunctional outer membrane proteins termed trimeric autotransporter adhesins responsible for resistance to the bactericidal activity of human complement (serum resistance), agglutination and adhesion. The ability of DsrA to confer serum resistance and bind extracellular matrix proteins lies in its N-terminal passenger domain. We have previously reported that immunization with a recombinant form of the passenger domain of DsrA, rNT-DsrA, in complete/incomplete Freund's adjuvant, protects against a homologous challenge in swine. We present herein the results of an immunogenicity study in mice aimed at investigating the persistence, type of immune response, and the effect of immunization route and adjuvants on surrogates of protection. Our results indicate that a 20 μg dose of rNT-DsrA administered with alum elicited antisera with comparable bacterial surface reactivity to that obtained with complete/incomplete Freund's adjuvant. At that dose, high titers and bacterial surface reactivity persisted for 211 days after the first immunization. Administration of rNT-DsrA with CpG or imiquimod as adjuvants elicited a humoral response with similar quantity and quality of antibodies (Abs) as seen with Freund's adjuvant. Furthermore, intramuscular administration of rNT-DsrA elicited high-titer Abs with significantly higher reactivity to the bacterial surface than those obtained with subcutaneous immunization. All rNT-DsrA/adjuvant combinations tested, save CpG, elicited a Th2-type response. Taken together, these findings show that a 20 μg dose of rNT-DsrA administered with the adjuvants alum, CpG or imiquimod elicits high-quality Abs with reactivity to the bacterial surface that could protect against an H. ducreyi infection. PMID:26812077
Tyshenko, Michael G; Oraby, Tamer; Darshan, Shalu; Westphal, Margit; Croteau, Maxine C; Aspinall, Willy; Elsaadany, Susie; Krewski, Daniel; Cashman, Neil
A high degree of uncertainty exists for chronic wasting disease (CWD) transmission factors in farmed and wild cervids. Evaluating the factors is important as it helps to inform future risk management strategies. Expert opinion is often used to assist decision making in a number of health, science, and technology domains where data may be sparse or missing. Using the "Classical Model" of elicitation, a group of experts was asked to estimate the most likely values for several risk factors affecting CWD transmission. The formalized expert elicitation helped structure the issues and hence provide a rational basis for estimating some transmission risk factors for which evidence is lacking. Considered judgments regarding environmental transmission, latency of CWD transmission, management, and species barrier were provided by the experts. Uncertainties for many items were determined to be large, highlighting areas requiring more research. The elicited values may be used as surrogate values until research evidence becomes available. PMID:27556566
The specification of aMarkov decision process (MDP) can be difficult. Reward function specification is especially problematic; in practice, it is often cognitively complex and time-consuming for users to precisely specify rewards. This work casts the problem of specifying rewards as one of preference elicitation and aims to minimize the degree of precision with which a reward function must be specified while still allowing optimal or near-optimal policies to be produced. We first discuss how robust policies can be computed for MDPs given only partial reward information using the minimax regret criterion. We then demonstrate how regret can be reduced by efficiently eliciting reward information using bound queries, using regret-reduction as a means for choosing suitable queries. Empirical results demonstrate that regret-based reward elicitation offers an effective way to produce near-optimal policies without resorting to the precise specification of the entire reward function.
The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...
Kárný, Miroslav; Guy, Tatiana Valentine
Atlanta: IEEE, 2010, s. 5327-5332. ISBN 978-1-4244-7745-6. ISSN 0743-1546. [49th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control . Atlanta (US), 14.12.2010-18.12.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : knowledge elicitation * Bayesian decision making * fullz probabilistic design Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/AS/karny-preference elicitation in fully probabilistic design of decision strategies.pdf
Pillet, S; Racine, T; Nfon, C; Di Lenardo, T Z; Babiuk, S; Ward, B J; Kobinger, G P; Landry, N
In March 2013, the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed the first reported case of human infection with an avian influenza A H7N9 virus. Infection with this virus often caused severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting in a case fatality rate >35%. The risk of pandemic highlighted, once again, the need for a more rapid and scalable vaccine response capability. Here, we describe the rapid (19 days) development of a plant-derived VLP vaccine based on the hemagglutinin sequence of influenza H7N9 A/Hangzhou/1/2013. The immunogenicity of the H7 VLP vaccine was assessed in mice and ferrets after one or two intramuscular dose(s) with and without adjuvant (alum or GLA-SE™). In ferrets, we also measured H7-specific cell-mediated immunity. The mice and ferrets were then challenged with H7N9 A/Anhui/1/2013 influenza virus. A single immunization with the adjuvanted vaccine elicited a strong humoral response and protected mice against an otherwise lethal challenge. Two doses of unadjuvanted vaccine significantly increased humoral response and resulted in 100% protection with significant reduction of clinical signs leading to nearly asymptomatic infections. In ferrets, a single immunization with the alum-adjuvanted H7 VLP vaccine induced strong humoral and CMI responses with antigen-specific activation of CD3(+) T cells. Compared to animals injected with placebo, ferrets vaccinated with alum-adjuvanted vaccine displayed no weight loss during the challenge. Moreover, the vaccination significantly reduced the viral load in lungs and nasal washes 3 days after the infection. This candidate plant-made H7 vaccine therefore induced protective responses after either one adjuvanted or two unadjuvanted doses. Studies are currently ongoing to better characterize the immune response elicited by the plant-derived VLP vaccines. Regardless, these data are very promising for the rapid production of an immunogenic and protective vaccine against
Paula S Santos
Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease that causes considerable economic loss to the dairy and beef industries. Cattle immunized with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1 outer membrane protein complex presents a protective humoral immune response; however, its efficacy is variable. Immunodominant epitopes seem to be a key-limiting factor for the adaptive immunity. We have successfully demonstrated that critical motifs of the MSP1a functional epitope are essential for antibody recognition of infected animal sera, but its protective immunity is yet to be tested. We have evaluated two synthetic vaccine formulations against A. marginale, using epitope-based approach in mice. Mice infection with bovine anaplasmosis was demonstrated by qPCR analysis of erythrocytes after 15-day exposure. A proof-of-concept was obtained in this murine model, in which peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin were used for immunization in three 15-day intervals by intraperitoneal injections before challenging with live bacteria. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of specific IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies, as well as for the rickettsemia analysis. A panel containing the cytokines' transcriptional profile for innate and adaptive immune responses was carried out through qPCR. Immunized BALB/c mice challenged with A. marginale presented stable body weight, reduced number of infected erythrocytes, and no mortality; and among control groups mortality rates ranged from 15% to 29%. Additionally, vaccines have significantly induced higher IgG2a than IgG1 response, followed by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This is a successful demonstration of epitope-based vaccines, and protection against anaplasmosis may be associated with elicitation of effector functions of humoral and cellular immune responses in murine model.
Wahid, Rezwanul; Simon, Raphael; Zafar, Shah J; Levine, Myron M; Sztein, Marcelo B
Enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A infection has emerged as an important public health problem. Recognizing that in randomized controlled field trials oral immunization with attenuated S. enterica serovar Typhi live vaccine Ty21a conferred significant cross-protection against S. Paratyphi B but not S. Paratyphi A disease, we undertook a clinical study to ascertain whether humoral immune responses could explain the field trial results. Ty21a immunization of adult residents of Maryland elicited predominantly IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASC) that recognize S. Typhi lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cross-reactivity to S. Paratyphi A LPS was significantly lower than that to S. Paratyphi B LPS. ASC producing IgG and IgA that bind LPS from each of these Salmonella serovars expressed CD27 and integrin α4β7 (gut homing), with a significant proportion coexpressing CD62L (secondary lymphoid tissue homing). No significant differences were observed in serum antibody against LPS of the different serovars. Levels of IgA B memory (B(M)) cells to S. Typhi LPS were significantly higher than those against S. Paratyphi A or B LPS, with no differences observed between S. Paratyphi A and B. The response of IgA B(M) to outer membrane proteins (OMP) from S. Typhi was significantly stronger than that to OMP of S. Paratyphi A but similar to that to OMP of S. Paratyphi B. The percentages of IgG or IgA B(M) responders to LPS or OMP from these Salmonella strains were similar. Whereas cross-reactive humoral immune responses to S. Paratyphi A or B antigens are demonstrable following Ty21a immunization, they cannot explain the efficacy data gleaned from controlled field trials. PMID:22492745
Daniel Paredes Gómez
Full Text Available Diferentes investigaciones demuestran la importancia del sentido del humor en el bienestar personal y la salud. En el presente trabajo se plantea examinar la utilidad e idoneidad para personas con discapacidad intelectual de la visualización y lectura de material humorístico en soporte impreso destinado a la población general, con un nivel de lectura característico de las edades comprendidas entre los 11 y 12 años; así como analizar si el modelo multidimensional del sentido del humor de García-Larrauri (2006 es aplicable a la población del presente estudio; y descubrir las preferencias de los participantes entre el material en soporte impreso: “sólo texto” o “texto con dibujos”.Los resultados indican que las personas con discapacidad intelectual desarrollan experiencias de humor que pueden aprovecharse para aumentar su calidad de vida. Una buena forma de promoverlo es utilizando la literatura de humor popular, adaptada en forma de textos sencillos y/o acompañados de dibujos.
Wan Yu Chang
Full Text Available With a diversity of promotional channels and ever-increasing numbers of participants, the tourism industry in Taiwan faces keen competition. Along with the direct cross-strait flights policy, groups like Eastern Multimedia Group, Tsann Kuen Enterprise Company Limited and Want Want China Times Group have founded travel agencies for the purpose of increasing their market share in the tourism industry. Therefore, the formulation of marketing strategies has become a critical issue for all travel agencies that wish to ensure their prominence in the market. The frequent use of humorous materials and appeals has been the main tendency in advertising. However, no consistent conclusions regarding the actual effects of humorous advertising have been determined. The subjects of the current study were users of the Lion Travel website. Online questionnaires were sent to and collected from random respondents. One hundred questionnaires were delivered, and 512 valid questionnaires were collected. Each collected questionnaire represented a valid sample. The study generated the following five results: (1 humorous advertisements may partially influence brand awareness; (2 humorous elements may partially influence advertising effects; (3 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the advertising attitude of advertising effects; (4 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the brand attitude of advertising effects; (5 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the purchasing intention of advertising effects. Eventually, it is anticipated that the results of this study can serve as a reference and provide suggestions for humorous advertising strategies in the tourism industry.
Fay Caroline Mary Geisler
Full Text Available Whether or not one uses humor to cope with a setback may depend on the idiosyncratic relation of the setback to feeling of self-worth. All people pursue the higher order goal of self-validation, but people differ in what domains of life their self-worth is contingent upon and to what extent. In this article based on an incongruity theory of humor we argue that the use of humor in coping with a highly self-worth-contingent setback may be impeded by two cognitive-motivational processes: goal-driven activation and goal shielding. From the outlined theory we derived the hypothesis that the more a domain is contingent upon self-worth, the less likely a person will be to use humor to deal with a setback in that domain. We tested this hypothesis in two studies employing two forms of self-report, i.e., ratings of reaction likelihood to setbacks described at an abstract domain level (Study 1, and ranking of reaction likelihood to concrete setbacks from different domains (Study 2. The hypothesis was affirmed in different domains of self-worth contingency controlling for the influence of habitual coping with humor, coping by disengagement, and global self-esteem.
Full Text Available Protein vaccines combined with adjuvants have been widely used to induce immune responses, especially the humoral immune response, against molecular targets including parasites. Follicular T helper (Tfh cells are the specialized providers of B-cell help, however, the induction of Tfh cells in protein vaccination has been rarely studied. Here, we report that the Schistosoma japonicum recombinant protein (SjGST-32 combined with tacrolimus (FK506 augmented the induction of Tfh cells, which expressed the canonical markers CXCR5, BCL6, and IL-21, and enhanced the humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, the expression of IL-21R on germinal center (GC B cells and memory B cells increased in immunized mice, which indicated that IL-21 from the induced Tfh cells interacted with IL-21R for activation of B cells and maintenance of long-lived humoral immunity. Our results suggest that helminth protein vaccine combined with FK506 induces Tfh cell for stimulating humoral immune responses and inducing long-lived humoral immunity.
Moyer-Gusé, Emily; Mahood, Chad; Brookes, Sarah
Past research has examined the effects of entertainment narratives on story-related behaviors, but most has focused primarily on dramatic genres rather than comedy. The present study examines how the presence or absence of pregnancy-related humor influences viewers' counterarguing, perceived severity, and intentions to engage in unprotected sexual behavior. Results were consistent with expectations in that related humor reduced counterarguing while also trivializing the severity of the consequences of sexual behavior. When the pregnancy storyline was presented in its original humorous context, viewers reported greater intentions to engage in unprotected sex than when pregnancy was presented in a more serious tone. Model testing clarified this finding by revealing the underlying mechanisms. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21707390
林鸿飞; 张冬瑜; 杨亮; 徐博
幽默作为一种特殊的语言表达方式，是生活中活跃气氛、化解尴尬的重要元素。随着人工智能的快速发展，如何利用计算机技术识别和生成幽默成为自然语言处理领域热门的研究内容之一，并逐渐形成一个新兴研究领域：幽默计算。幽默计算致力于利用自然语言处理技术理解和识别包含幽默的文本表达，挖掘幽默表达潜在的语义内涵，构建面向幽默表达的计算模型。首先对当前幽默计算的背景进行概述，阐明幽默的可计算性和幽默计算对于人工智能的意义；在此基础上，对幽默研究的发展情况进行回顾，给出幽默研究的语言学基础；然后综述当前幽默计算在幽默识别和幽默生成两个方面的进展情况，分别给出针对幽默识别和幽默生成的计算框架；最后，对幽默计算在聊天机器人、机器翻译、儿童教育软件和外语教学等多个自然语言处理任务中的应用前景和应用模式进行展望。希望通过对幽默计算及其应用研究的总结和概述，完善现有幽默计算模型，增进计算机对于自然语言的理解，推动人工智能的进一步发展。%Humor,as a special phenomenon of human communications,can warm up the atmosphere and eliminate em-barrassment.In recent years,with the research development of artificial intelligence,research area related to how to model humorous expression using computers becomes a hot topic in natural language processing tasks,and evolves to become a new subject,called computational humor.Computational humor aims to recognize and interpret humorous ex-pressions in context using natural language processing technologies,and construct humor based computational models. In this article,we firstly introduce the backgrounds of computational humor research and detail the reasons for which hu-mor can be modeled using computers.After that,we review related research in two lines,humor
Full Text Available A humorous, an environmentally oriented and an authoritarian poster against littering were tested in a field experiment on their behavioural effectiveness. Corresponding slogans were placed on anti-littering posters designed for this study and used experimentally at four railway stations. The experimental design entailed 4 communication conditions including a control condition where no poster was presented. In each experimental run (N = 96, flyers were distributed for 30 minutes. The number of distributed flyers was counted, and the proportion of littered flyers was determined for each experimental run. It was found that the humorous and environmentally oriented posters achieved a reduction of 58% and 64%, respectively, in littering as compared with the control condition. The authoritarian poster was significantly less effective, but achieved a significant reduction of 25%. Considered together with some previous findings and theories, the results indicate that environmentally oriented and humorous anti-littering posters are more effective than authoritarian ones
Merets'kyĭ, V M
The results of studying in dynamics of the humoral immunity indices were adduced in experimental cranio-cerebral truma (CCT) in conjunction with diabetes mellitus (DM). Peculiarities of the immune answer while the period of an acute reaction on trauma and early signs of posttraumatic period have been characterized by reduction of content in the main classes of immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, IgG and enhancement of the circulating immune complexes (CIC) concentration. Experimental DM was accompanied by raising of functional activity of humoral immunity in accordance with immunoglobulins level and CIC. The specificity of changes in humoral immunity in conditions of CCT on the DM background consisted of more profound lowering of the immunoglobulins level and rapid enhancement of the CIC content. PMID:23888817
Full Text Available En este artículo reflexiono en las complejas y contradictorias maneras en que un equipo de Cuidados Paliativos desarrolla un discurso y un sentido del humor particulares mientras asisten a personas que experimentan enfermedades terminales. El objetivo es pensar cómo los profesionales paliativistas manipulan, refuerzan, resignifican, y sobre todo, se apropian de una forma de comunicación verbal y no-verbal en la cual el silencio, el humor y la risa conforman una parte central de las tácticas terapéuticas de interacción con pacientes. Además, considero el uso del humor como modo de relacionarse con las presiones y contradicciones de la construcción cotidiana de su campo profesional.
Osaka, Mariko; Yaoi, Ken; Minamoto, Takehiro; Osaka, Naoyuki
Serial changes of humor comprehension evoked by a well organized four-frame comic Manga were investigated by fMRI in each step of humor comprehension. The neural substrates underlying the amusing effects in response to funny and mixed order manga were compared. In accordance with the time course of the four frames, fMRI activations changed serially. Beginning with the second frame (development scene), activation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed, followed by activations in the temporal and frontal areas during viewing of the third frame (turn scene). For the fourth frame (punch line), strong increased activations were confirmed in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and cerebellum. Interestingly, distinguishable activation differences in the cerebellum between funny and non-funny conditions were also found for the fourth frame. These findings suggest that humor comprehension evokes activation that initiates in the TPJ and expands to the MPFC and cerebellum at the convergence level. PMID:25059843
为研究幽默交际中的回应策略，基于礼貌原则、关联理论、言语行为和刻意曲解等理论和原则，对幽默交际中听话人运用的非言语回应、言语回应、不回应等回应策略进行了深入分析，为言语和非言语幽默交际提供了更多研究视角和分析方法。%To study responding strategies in humorous communications, politeness principle, relevance theory, speech act theory and deliberate misinterpretation were adopted to deeply analyze several responding strategies employed by recipients in humorous communications:nonverbal response, verbal response, no response, etc. The result will provide a new per-spective for analyzing verbal and nonverbal humorous communication.
Ewertsen, Caroline; Henriksen, Birthe Merete; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs;
UNLABELLED: Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare tumours that are divided into four subtypes depending on tumour characteristics. Patients with NECs are known to have an increased risk of synchronous and metachronous cancers mainly located in the gastrointestinal tract. A case of...... synchronous gastric NEC and hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with several other precancerous lesions is presented. The patient had anaemia, and a gastric tumour and two duodenal polyps were identified on upper endoscopy. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed several lesions in the liver. The lesions were...... invisible on B-mode sonography and real-time sonography fused with CT was used to identify and biopsy one of the lesions. Histology showed hepatocellular carcinoma. A literature search showed that only one case of a hepatocellular carcinoma synchronous with a gastric NEC has been reported previously. TRIAL...
Blanco, M.; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, A. K.; Normann, H.-T.
Roč. 13, č. 4 (2010), s. 412-438. ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : belief elicitation * hedging * experimental methodology Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010
Morge, Shelby P.
This article highlights a series of activities designed to elicit students' mathematics-related beliefs, particularly those related to gender. As a result of the activities, females in upper-level classes rated themselves as having less confidence than males, and viewing a movie clip was sufficient for some students to modify their descriptions of…
Dalton, Angela C.; Brothers, Alan J.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Whitney, Paul D.
Research on integrative modeling has gained considerable attention in recent years and expert opinion has been increasingly recognized as an important data source and modeling contributor. However, little research has systematically compared and evaluated expert elicitation methods in terms of their ability to link to computational models that capture human behavior and social phenomena. In this paper, we describe a decision-making process we used for evaluating and selecting a task specific elicitation method within the framework of integrative computational social-behavioral modeling. From the existing literature, we identified the characteristics of problems that each candidate method is well suited to address. A small-scale expert elicitation was also conducted to evaluate the comparative strength and weaknesses of the methods against a number of consensus-based decision criteria. By developing a set of explicit method evaluation criteria and a description characterizing decision problems for the candidate methods, we seek to gain a better understanding of the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of integrating elicitation methods with computational modeling techniques. This serves an important first step toward expanding our research effort and trajectory toward greater interdisciplinary modeling research of human behavior.
Bird, Steven; Lee, Haejoong
Investigating a tone language involves careful transcription of tone on words and phrases. This is challenging when the phonological categories--the tones or melodies--have not been identified. Effects such as coarticulation, sandhi, and phrase-level prosody appear as obstacles to early elicitation and classification of tone. This article presents…
Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Docking, Kimberley; Arciuli, Joanne
This study is about the role of elicited verbal imitation in toddler word learning. Forty-eight toddlers were taught eight nonwords linked to referents. During training, they were asked to imitate the nonwords. Naming of the referents was tested at three intervals (one minute later [uncued], five minutes, and 1-7 days later [cued]) and recognition…
Martín, Adriana; Martinez, Claudia; Martínez Carod, Nadina; Aranda, Gabriela N.; Cechich, Alejandra
In a scene where stakeholders are geographically distributed, communication presents new challenges for research areas. Considering the characteristics of interpersonal communication and the virtual area where it is carried out, the importance of applying interdisciplinary approaches, such as Cognitive Engineering, is currently increasing. Particularly, our proposal aims at improving the interaction between stakeholders by applying learning models when eliciting distributed software requireme...
D. van Gucht; D. Vansteenwegen; O. Van den Bergh; T. Beckers
In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task. Th
A case study illustrates how art therapy was used to elicit the narrative of an adolescent male student in transition from incarceration to a transfer school setting. Childhood trauma was addressed in individual sessions and within a literacy group co-led by a reading specialist. The art therapist responded to the client's needs by broadening the…
Kužel, S.; Vydra, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Hrubý, Martin; Cígler, P.
Roč. 57, č. 17 (2009), s. 7907-7911. ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : elicitation * medical plant * Echinacea purpurea * secondary metabolite * foliar application * phenolics Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.469, year: 2009
Yankelewitz, Dina; Mueller, Mary; Maher, Carolyn A.
This paper reports on the forms of reasoning elicited as fourth grade students in a suburban district and sixth grade students in an urban district worked on similar tasks involving reasoning with the use of Cuisenaire rods. Analysis of the two data sets shows similarities in the reasoning used by both groups of students on specific tasks, and the…
Full Text Available Requirement elicitation is very difficult process in highly challenging and business based software as well as in real time software. Common problems associated with these types of software are rapidly changing the requirements and understanding the language of the layman person. In this study, a framework for requirement elicitation by using knowledge based system is proposed, which is very helpful for knowledge documentation, intelligent decision support, self-learning and more specifically it is very helpful for case based reasoning and explanation. Basically in this method requirements are gathered from Artificial Intelligence (AI expert system from various sources e.g., via interviews, scenarios or use cases. Then, these are converted into structured natural language using ontology and this new problem/case is put forward to Case Based Reasoning (CBR. CBR based on its previous information having similar requirements combines with new case and suggests a proposed solution. Based on this solution a prototype is developed and delivered to customer. The use of case-based reasoning in requirements elicitation process has greatly reduced the burden and saved time of requirement analyst and results in an effective solution for handling complex or vague requirements during the elicitation process.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: The concentration of ethanol measured in postmortem blood needs to be interpreted as to whether the person who had consumed alcohol has exceeded some threshold limit. However, interpreting postmortem BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration results and drawing correct conclusions about ante mortem levels is fraught with difficulties as under some circumstances alcohol might be produced after death by microbial activity.Subjects and Methods: In the case of ethanol, the blood samples should be taken from a femoral vein and whenever possible additional specimens, such as urine and vitreous humor (VH, should also be obtained and sent for analysis to be able to have the best interpretationResults: 167 Specimens of femoral vein blood and vitreous humor were analyzed. In this study, direct injection and gas-chromatographic techniques were employed to quantitate the ethanol concentrations. These two concentrations were then compared and the BAC/VHAC (Viterous Humor Alcohol Concentration ratio was evaluated.Among these specimens, there were 142 cases in which we have found ethanol in blood but not in vitreous humor. Also we have found 2 cases by positive VHAC but negative BAC. The average blood ethanol concentration was 61.5 mg/dLit while the average ethanol vitreous humor concentration was 127 mg/dLit. However, the ratio was measured as 0.7.Conclusion: The similarity in the results of the post mortem cases reinforces the assertion that co analysis of vitreous humor and blood is important to interpret post mortem results
Shimada, Hideaki; Nakashima, Kazue; Ochiai, Takenori; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Takiguchi, Masaki; Nomura, Fumio; Hiwasa, Takaki
Autoantibodies are often detected in the patients with esophageal cancer. We applied serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries (SEREX) to a case of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in order to identify tumor antigens. A cDNA library derived from an esophageal cancer cell line was bacterially expressed and screened for interaction with antibodies in five allogeneic sera of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. To examine the specific immunoreactivity of the antigens, sera from 16 more patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 16 patients with gastric cancer, 16 patients with colon cancer, 16 patients with breast cancer and 37 healthy volunteers were screened. We identified 11 independent cDNA clones that potentially encoded esophageal cancer tumor antigens. The identified cDNA clones were SURF1, HOOK2, CENP-F, ZIC2, hCLA-iso, Ki-1/57, enigma, HCA25a, SPK and two EST clones named LOC146223 and AGENCOURT_7565913. The sero-positive rates of antibodies against SURF1 (48%), LOC146223 (38%), HOOK2 (14%) and AGENCOURT_7565913 (14%) were significantly higher in esophageal cancer patients than in healthy controls. At least one of these antibodies was detected in 18 (86%) of 21 sera from esophageal cancer patients. A disease-specific humoral immune response against SURF1, LOC146223, HOOK2 or AGENCOURT_7565913 was observed in most patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Antibodies against these SEREX antigens may represent a pool of candidates for serum tumor markers of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:15586227
Bülow, Steffen; Svendsen, L B; Mellemgaard, A
During the period 1943-67, 903 Danish patients aged less than 40 years had colorectal carcinoma. The patients were followed up for up to 41 years and during this period 44 of 501 (9 per cent) operated on for cure developed a metachronous colorectal carcinoma. The cumulative risk of a metachronous...... colorectal carcinoma was 30 per cent after up to 41 years of observation. The occurrence of a metachronous colorectal carcinoma was evenly distributed in the observation period. The cumulative survival rate after operation for a metachronous colorectal carcinoma was 41 per cent after 20 years of observation....... We propose a lifelong follow-up programme after resection of colorectal carcinoma for cure in this age group, including annual Hemoccult test and colonoscopy at 3-year intervals....
薛丽燕; 吕宁; 何祖根; 林冬梅; 刘秀云
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features and diagnostic criteria of urachal carcinoma in the bladder.Methods: Seven cases of urachal carcinoma in the bladder were analyzed retrospectively. Results: All the tumors were found locating in the dome of bladder. Of them, 4 were mucinous adenocarcinoma, one was well differentiated papillary enteric adenocarcinoma, one was well differentiated squamous carcinoma, and one was neuroendocrine carcinoma. Cystomorphous urachal remnants were found in 4 cases. The main complaint was hematuria and all patients underwent partial excision of bladder and urachus. Conclusion: Mucinous adenocarcinoma is the main histo-pathological type, and cystomorphous urachal remnants are often accompanied with urachal carcinoma in the bladder. The key diagnostic criteria of urachal carcinoma in bladder are site and histopathology. And to examine the specimens carefully to find the urachal remnants is important.
Glinkina, L S; Heisele, O G; Garklava, R R; Muceniece, A J
The effect of a viral immunomodulator rigvir on humoral immunity was studied in patients with skin malignant melanoma. Peripheral blood levels of B-lymphocytes, IgA, G and M and circulating immune complexes were assayed and immunoglobulin/B-cell ratio (Ig/B) calculated. Preoperative treatment with rigvir brought the indexes of humoral immunity to normal. Response of melanoma patients to rigvir treatment was different from that seen in healthy subjects and was determined by the course of disease. PMID:1300751
Arnau Navarro, Juan
El artículo traza la genealogía de las divergencias sobre los humores en la literatura médica india del periodo clásico, utilizando como fuentes primarias las ediciones sánscritas de los compendios de Caraka, Susruta y Vagbha.ta. La tesis fundamental es sencilla, las diversas tradiciones médicas indias se desarrollaron en el marco de una teoría de los humores, pero las fuentes más antiguas de la tradición ayurvédica muestran que nunca hubo un acuerdo completo acerca de la naturaleza y funcion...
Doni, Andrea; Garlanda, Cecilia; Bottazzi, Barbara;
The innate immune system comprises a cellular and a humoral arm. The long pentraxin PTX3 is a fluid phase pattern recognition molecule, which acts as an essential component of the humoral arm of innate immunity. PTX3 has antibody-like properties including interactions with complement components....... PTX3 interacts with C1q, ficolin-1 and ficolin-2 as well as mannose-binding lectin, recognition molecules in the classical and lectin complement pathways. The formation of these heterocomplexes results in cooperative pathogen recognition and complement activation. Interactions with C4b binding protein...
Ewing, Glen Kingsley
The following study is a detailed account of the effects humorous TV advertising has upon brand awareness. The objective of this study is to uncover firstly, can humour gain attention for the brand and through using humour in TV ads, can this create more recognition towards the brand? Also is the brand remembered in conjunction with the humorous TV advert? These are the main questions that will be studied and answered. A brief introduction to the study and the purpose of the study is explaine...
Full Text Available In the paper, currently used methods for modeling the flow of the aqueous humor through eye structures are presented. Then a computational model based on rheological models of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is proposed. The proposed model may be used for modeling the flow of the aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork. The trabecular meshwork is modeled as an array of rectilinear parallel capillary tubes. The flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is considered. As a results of discussion mathematical equations of permeability of porous media and velocity of fluid flow through porous media have been received.
A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in 30 females infected with the human papilloma virus, attended in the office of Immunology of the Specialty Polyclinic belonging to 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Clinical Surgical Teaching Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from June 2009 to June 2010, in order to characterize them according to immune response. To evaluate the humoral and cellular immune response rosetting assay and quantification of immunoglobulins were used respectively. Women between 25-36 years of age (40 %) infected with this virus, especially those coming from urban areas, prevailed in the series, and a significant decrease of the cellular response as compared to the humoral response was evidenced
Holl, Eda K.; O’Connor, Brian P.; Holl, T. Matt; Roney, Kelly E.; Zimmermann, Albert G.; Jha, Sushmita; Kelsoe, Garnett; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.
Long-lived humoral immune responses depend upon the generation of memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells during the germinal center (GC) reaction. These memory compartments, characterized by class-switched IgG and high-affinity Abs, are the basis for successful vaccination. We report that a new member of the plexin family of molecules, plexin-D1, controls the GC reaction and is required for secondary humoral immune responses. Plexin-D1 was not required for B cell maturation, marginal zone...
Leonor Ruiz Gurrillo
Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo proponer un acercamiento pragmático a la apreciación del humor. La bibliografía sobre psicología ha mostrado que los niños disfrutan de las historias divertidas, humorísticas y fantásticas. Sin embargo, la apreciación del humor ha sido escasamente investigada desde una perspectiva productiva. Nuestro corpus está compuesto por 149 narraciones humorísticas de escolares de nueve y diez años . Así, los informantes de nuestro corpus se sitúan en el estadio 5 de acertijos y chistes (McGhee, 2002, lo que representa un punto de inflexión hacia el humor adulto. Concretamente, los niños desarrollan un sentido del humor (Thorson y Powell, 1993 en el que la apreciación del humor es el mecanismo más importante. En consecuencia, se describirán los tipos de apreciación del humor (Klein, 2003: 7; Orekoya et al., 2014, así como lo divertido, la fantasía y las emociones implicadas.
Vereen, Linwood G.; Hill, Nicole R.; Butler, S. Kent
In recent years, the use of culturally appropriate humor as a tool for change within the parameters of counseling has grown within the literature. In comparison, the art of storytelling has had little attention within the literature as a tool for strategic change. This article outlines a framework for the use of humor and storytelling as…
Nabi, Robin L
This research examines the possible benefit of using humor to reduce anxiety associated with performing cancer self-examination behaviors. In Study 1, 187 undergraduates read a humorous public service announcement (PSA) script promoting either breast or testicular self-exams. Results suggest that perception of humor reduced anxiety about self-exams, which, in turn, related to more positive self-exam attitudes. Simultaneously, humor perception associated with greater message processing motivation, which, in turn, associated with more supportive self-exam attitudes. Self-exam attitudes also positively associated with self-exam intentions. These results were largely replicated in Study 2. Further, self-exam intentions predicted self-exam behavior 1 week later. However, consistent with past research, the humorous and serious messages did not generate differences in subsequent self-exam behavior, though the intention-behavior relationship was stronger and significant for those exposed to the humorous versus the serious messages. In light of these findings, and given that humor has the advantage of attracting and holding attention in real message environments, the use of carefully constructed humor appeals may be a viable message strategy to promote health detection behaviors. PMID:26652312
Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Allen, J.A.
Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our
Campo, Shelly; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Spies, Erica L.; Losch, Mary
Web sites about sexual health lack the interactivity, humor, and "viral" nature required to attract young adults. The Midwest Teen Sex Show (www.midwestteensexshow.com) is an interactive, humor-based Web site that provides sexual health information to young adults. One episode from the Web site was shown to six focus groups of young women, ages…
Antu K Dey
Full Text Available The identification of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env structures that can generate broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNAbs is pivotal to the development of a successful vaccine against HIV-1 aimed at eliciting effective humoral immune responses. To that end, the production of novel Env structure(s that might induce BNAbs by presentation of conserved epitopes, which are otherwise occluded, is critical. Here, we focus on a structure that stabilizes Env in a conformation representative of its primary (CD4 receptor-bound state, thereby exposing highly conserved "CD4 induced" (CD4i epitope(s known to be important for co-receptor binding and subsequent virus infection. A CD4-mimetic miniprotein, miniCD4 (M64U1-SH, was produced and covalently complexed to recombinant, trimeric gp140 envelope glycoprotein (gp140 using site-specific disulfide linkages. The resulting gp140-miniCD4 (gp140-S-S-M64U1 complex was recognized by CD4i antibodies and the HIV-1 co-receptor, CCR5. The gp140-miniCD4 complex elicited the highest titers of CD4i binding antibodies as well as enhanced neutralizing antibodies against Tier 1 viruses as compared to gp140 protein alone following immunization of rabbits. Neutralization against HIV-2(7312/V434M and additional serum mapping confirm the specific elicitation of antibodies directed to the CD4i epitope(s. These results demonstrate the utility of structure-based approach in improving immunogenic response against specific region, such as the CD4i epitope(s here, and its potential role in vaccine application.
Full Text Available This paper examines the use of visual methods in geographical field research, and in particular photo-elicitation. The technique involves photos, videos and other forms of visual representation used in an interview, with informants asked to comment on the images. The aim is to promote more direct involvement of the informants in the research process and to encourage and stimulate the collection of quantitatively and qualitatively different information to that obtained in conventional interviews. The potential and limitations of this technique in the field are investigated, describing and discussing photo-elicitation data collection in the Maasai village of Mkuru in northern Tanzania to explore the use and preservation of natural resources. Results and methodological insights from the fieldwork are presented and discussed.
Cramer-Petersen, Claus Lundgaard; Marijnissen, Thomas
How can we develop innovative concepts? The purpose of this paper is to investigate how generative prototype sessions can elicit so-called tacit and latent knowledge from participants through interaction and play. To illustrate this, a session from the design process will be described along with ...... an indiscernible blend of different types of knowledge, but that tacit and latent constitutes an important part.......How can we develop innovative concepts? The purpose of this paper is to investigate how generative prototype sessions can elicit so-called tacit and latent knowledge from participants through interaction and play. To illustrate this, a session from the design process will be described along with a...... brief take on current theories. It is discussed how practical tools and methods along with the dynamics occurring during such a session can translate actor knowledge to become useful throughout a the entire design process. The paper concludes that knowledge gained from generative prototype sessions is...
Laura J. Damschroder
Full Text Available Open-ended methods that elicit willingness-to-pay (WTP in terms of absolute dollars often result in high rates of questionable and highly skewed responses, insensitivity to changes in health state, and raise an ethical issue related to its association with personal income. We conducted a 2x2 randomized trial over the Internet to test 4 WTP formats: 1 WTP in dollars; 2 WTP as a percentage of financial resources; 3 WTP in terms of monthly payments; and 4 WTP as a single lump-sum amount. WTP as a percentage of financial resources generated fewer questionable values, had better distribution properties, greater sensitivity to severity of health states, and was not associated with income. WTP elicited on a monthly basis also showed promise.
Nardelli, Mimma; Valenza, Gaetano; Greco, Alberto; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale
This study reports on the recognition of different arousal levels, elicited by affective sounds, performed using estimates of autonomic nervous system dynamics. Specifically, as a part of the circumplex model of affect, arousal levels were recognized by properly combining information gathered from standard and nonlinear analysis of heartbeat dynamics, which was derived from the electrocardiogram (ECG). Affective sounds were gathered from the International Affective Digitized Sound System and grouped into four different levels of arousal. A group of 27 healthy volunteers underwent such elicitation while ECG signals were continuously recorded. Results showed that a quadratic discriminant classifier, as applied implementing a leave-one-subject-out procedure, achieved a recognition accuracy of 84.26%. Moreover, this study confirms the crucial role of heartbeat nonlinear dynamics for emotion recognition, hereby estimated through lagged Poincare plots. PMID:26737686
Månsson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;
glucose-based medium. The different phenotypic responses to a natural growth substrate may reflect different niche-adaptations or ecological functions of the compounds produced and it represents a fruitful approach for elicitation of natural product production in marine bacteria....... uncharacterized chemical potential of these organisms. As part of a new project on ecology-driven drug discovery at the Technical University of Denmark, we investigate the use of chitin to elicit or alter production of antibacterial compounds in marine bacteria. Within our large collection of Gram...... indicating that andrimid serves a function while growing on chitin-containing surfaces. In contrast, a Photobacterium halotolerans sustained production of all metabolites including the antibiotic holomycin. Furthermore, chitin stimulated the production of two potentially novel metabolites not observed on...
Ronald L. Boring; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Julie Marble; William Galyean; Larry Blackwood; Harold Blackman
This report describes a simplified, tractable, and usable procedure within the US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) for seeking expert opinion and judgment. The NRC has increased efforts to document the reliability and risk of nuclear power plants (NPPs) through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) models. The Significance Determination Process (SDP) and Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programs at the NRC utilize expert judgment on the probability of failure, human error, and the operability of equipment in cases where otherwise insufficient operational data exist to make meaningful estimates. In the past, the SDP and ASP programs informally sought the opinion of experts inside and outside the NRC. This document represents a formal, documented procedure to take the place of informal expert elicitation. The procedures outlined in this report follow existing formal expert elicitation methodologies, but are streamlined as appropriate to the degree of accuracy required and the schedule for producing SDP and ASP analyses.
Deiter, Ronald E.
Previous research reports a strong positive correlation between class attendance and student performance. Consequently, college educators, often explore innovative ways of encouraging class attendance. While no substitute for substance, humor is a teaching tool that can create a more positive, fun, interesting environment that promotes class attendance and student learning.
Minchew, Sue S.; Hopper, Peggy F.
The authors, former middle and high school English teachers, review the rationale for using humor and fun in the classroom and provide detailed descriptions for teaching practices and activities that confer enjoyment and learning for language arts students. Although fun activities, these methods foster vocabulary development, grammar instruction,…
Kopytin, Alexander; Lebedev, Alexey
This article presents findings from a study of the therapeutic effects of group art therapy in a psychotherapy unit of a Russian hospital for war veterans. The researchers randomly assigned 112 veterans being treated for stress-related disorders to an experimental group (art therapy) and a control group. The emphasis was on the use of humor in the…
Janssen, Sarah F; Gorgels, Theo Gmf; van der Spek, Peter J; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Bergen, Arthur Ab
BACKGROUND: The ciliary body epithelia (CBE) of the eye produce the aqueous humor (AH). The equilibrium between the AH production by the CBE and the outflow through the trabecular meshwork ultimately determines the intraocular pressure (IOP). An increased IOP is a major risk factor for primary open
Prerost, Frank J.
Assessed male (N=60) and female (N=60) responses to pictorial humorous sexual material in relationship to degree of sexual expression and personal satisfaction with sexual behavior. Results showed persons with active and satisfying sexual expression enjoyed sexually explicit cartoons and showed less preference for aggressive themes. (LLL)
Hillman, Sara Katherine
Drawing on Lave and Wenger's (1991) and Wenger's (1998) "communities of practice" (CoP) framework, this study explores the shared repertoire of humor practices in the creation of community within the context of a culturally diverse and multilevel adult Arabic language classroom consisting of two native speakers, five heritage language learners…
Reid, Leonard N.; And Others
A study examined the attention getting value of nonsensical and sexual humor used in liquor advertisements to determine if one was more effective than the other in attracting male magazine readers. Thirty-two Starch-scored liquor ads taken from 1976 and 1977 issues of "Time,""Newsweek," and "Sports Illustrated" were analyzed by three male readers.…
Sherman, Tamah; Švelch, Jaroslav
This paper uses Language Management Theory (Nekvapil and Sherman, "Language management in contact situations. Perspectives from three continents". Peter Lang, Frankfurt/Main, 2009) to investigate Facebook pages as a site and instrument of behavior-toward-language, focusing specifically on the use of humor. The language in question is…
Akhter, Sohail; Ramazani, Farshad; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki; Ahmad, Farjam Jalees; Rahman, Ziyaur; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Storm, Gert
The present report describes the improved ocular retention and aqueous humoral drug availability of ganciclovir (GCV) when administered via topical instillation of different kind of nanoparticles onto the rabbit eye. GCV was loaded into PLGA nanoparticles, chitosan-coated nanoparticles and chitosan-
This paper combines with application examples to discuss and analyze the related concepts of relevance theory and humor.% 文章结合应用实例对关联理论与幽默的相关概念进行了探讨和分析。
Full Text Available Grice’s Cooperative Principle (CP was originally presented at Harvard University in 1967 as part of the William James lectures. Once established, Cooperative Principle had a widespread impact on a range of scholar activity, from work interested in the narrowest issues of language meaning to work interested in the broadest questions of social communication. As is known, verbal humor is a genre of linguistics interaction that often emerges in daily conversation. This paper is aimed at probing into the linguistic basis involved in the process of language humor from the perspective of Grice’s CP. It is also intended to reveal the relation between creation of humor and violation of cooperative principle, and then give critical comments on Grice’s cooperative principle, which mainly focuses on limitations Grice’s cooperative principle. Finally, the essay has a natural conclusion for contribution of study pragmatics of conversational principle, and its application in other fields. Keywords: Grice’s Cooperative Principle, humor, violation
Spector, Cecile Cyrul
Understanding ambiguous words, phrases, and sentences is an important part of reading well, communicating skillfully, and enjoying humor based on word play. With this seven-unit activity book--filled with creative, ready-to-use activities based on jokes and puns--students will learn how to decipher the language ambiguities they encounter inside…
Bell, Nancy D.
Research in the areas of second language (L2) pragmatics and of conversational humor has increased in recent decades, resulting in a strong base of knowledge from which applied linguists can draw information for teaching purposes and undertake future research. Yet, whereas empirical findings in L2 pragmatics are beginning to find their way into…
Mumladze, R B; Babaian, S S; Bobkov, Iu I; Chernyshev, V S; Taratuta, O V
The authors have studied the significance of factors of the humoral non-specific defense (HND) in 37 patients with cicatricial constrictions of the oesophagus and stomach. The data obtained were used for choosing the optimum terms for gastrostoma and oesophagoplasty. In 14 patients treatment with lysozyme was performed due to decreased indices of HND. PMID:6857955
Examines the work of Kate Sanborn (1839-1917), who edited an anthology of women's humor and crusaded for 20 years to alter the stereotype of women's humorlessness. It is suggested that her work adds to our knowledge of feminist history, as well as presaging current theoretical developments in the psychology of women. (Author/ABB)
Rizzolo, Denise; Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Stiskal, Doreen; Simpkins, Susan
Background: Health science programs can be demanding and difficult for many students, leading to high levels of stress. High levels of stress can have a negative effect on students and subsequently the practicing clinician. Research suggests that yoga, humor, and reading are simple, effective methods to help reduce stress. To date no research…
Full Text Available This paper deals on initial phase of argentine Humor magazine, between 1978 and 1980, during the military dictatorship period (1976-1983. Our text is focused on significative actores implied with the magazine. In that sense, we research the intervention of its public through reader’s letters section. Our goal was to analyze controversies in that section. We assert it was a useful space in restablishing broken social links resulting from state repression. In addition to this, the reader’s section was a way so Humor could evaluate the effects of contents offered to its public.The analysis let us detect two controversies developed about relevant public matters. The first one concerns horror representation, relating the jewish genocide (Shoah; the second one dealt with how comic cartoons depicts the Other in the shape of popular classes. Both controversies oblige Humor to state explicitly the values of its editorial project and also evidenced a notorious dissent between its readers. Our contribution is intended to bring complexity to an assumed vision that relates directly actors connected with Humor magazine with oposition to dictatorial government.
Renata de Paula dos Santos
Full Text Available Review of:SANTOS, Roberto Elísio dos; ROSSETTI, Regina (Org.. Humor e riso na cultura midiática: variações e permanências. São Paulo: Paulinas, 2012. (Coleção Comunicação em Pauta
Madhan, Balasubramanian; Barik, Ashish Kumar; Patil, Rajesh; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Reddy, Mora Sathi Rami
Although the health benefits of humor and the potential advantages of having a good Sense of Humor (SoH) have been long recognized, they have not been investigated in dental students. The aim of this study was to assess the extent and demographic correlates of SoH in dental students and its association with their self-reported level of psychological disturbances. Six hundred and five students (age 20.3±1.83 years, 250 males, 355 females) from two dental schools in India anonymously completed the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the intergroup differences based on gender and year of study, respectively. The association between SoH and each of the three negative affective states was evaluated with multiple linear regressions. The mean MSHS score of the sample was 59.65±11.77. Male students showed a marginally higher SoH than females (60.78 vs. 58.86, pstudents, the psychosocial roles of humor, and their application in improving the psychological climate in dental schools. PMID:24098038
Full Text Available Mass-mediated American culture and the English language became raw materials for vernacular protest humor alongside images of headscarf-wearing middle-aged “aunties” during antigovernment protests in Turkey in the summer of 2013. Focusing on posts shared on Facebook and Twitter by Turkish protestors and their supporters in the first two months of the protests, this article studies the complex linguistic and visual humor that developed around Gezi Park and relates it to the identity politics mobilized during the resistance. Exploring how the protestors projected themselves as both cosmopolitan (through the use of American mass culture and the English language and locally rooted (through the use of auntie humor, the essay delineates how “America” can function in local Middle Eastern politics even in the absence of actual US intervention on the ground. Humor at Gezi demonstrates how closely analyzing transculturated vernacular communication can help us modify Western-derived academic theories about culture and power, making the case for incorporating the study of folklore into transnational American Studies.
Hoad, Colin; Deed, Craig; Lugg, Alison
This article examines the relevance of humor to student engagement in outdoor education. A sociocultural framework is applied to this examination, based on a view of learning as constructed, cognitive, embodied, and affective. A set of affordances of outdoor education as a contextually situated learning activity is identified along with related…
Yang, X; Ji, H; Paljarvi, L; Soimakallio, S
Multiple primary bronchogenic carcinomas (MPBCa) are extremely rare. The differentiation of a MPBCa from a pulmonary metastasis due to an extrathoracic neoplasm is sometimes difficult. We reviewed 324 pathologically proved primary pulmonary carcinomas and found six cases of MPBCa (1.9%). We herewith present the series and discuss the diagnosis of MPBCa. PMID:21594435
Kingo Takiguchi; Michio Homma; Yasunori Yokoyama; Yohko Tanaka-Takiguchi; Tomoyoshi Takahashi; Fumimasa Nomura
Melittin induces various reactions in membranes and has been widely studied as a model for membrane-interacting peptide; however, the mechanism whereby melittin elicits its effects remains unclear. Here, we observed melittin-induced changes in individual giant liposomes using direct real-time imaging by dark-field optical microscopy, and the mechanisms involved were correlated with results obtained using circular dichroism, cosedimentation, fluorescence quenching of tryptophan residues, and e...
Phaf, R. Hans; Rotteveel, Mark
In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match–mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at...
Regev, Gil; Wegmann, Alain
Early requirements of information systems are often understood in terms of the elicitation of stakeholders' high-level goals to be supported by the system under discussion. Stakeholders' goals are considered as the ultimate explanation of requirements. It is assumed that the notion of a high-level goal is natural and that high-level goals need no explanation with regard to their origins. We believe that these assumptions result in the definition of inadequate goals. We propose an organization...
De Sabbata, Stefano; Alonso, Omar; Mizzaro, Stefano
Geographic relevance aims to assess the relevance of physical entities (e.g., shops and museums) in geographic space for a mobile user in a given context, thereby shifting the focus from the digital world (the realm of classical information retrieval) to the physical world. We study the elicitation of geographic relevance criteria by means of both a classical survey and an Amazon Mechanical Turk (a crowdsourcing platform) survey. This allows us to obtain three results: first, we gather a set ...
Patricia E. NORRIS; Randall A. Kramer
Probability judgements are important components of decision making under uncertainty. In particular, economic decisions can be aided by assuring more accurate assessment of probabilities and more realistic modelling of economic problems through the inclusion of subjective probabilities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the techniques which can be used to elicit subjective probabilities and the ways in which these techniques can be incorporated into agricultural economics research. The...
Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Takakura, Jun’ya; Motoi, Midori; Nishimura, Takayuki; Watanuki, Shigeki
Background: Some studies have reported gender differences in N170, a face-selective event-related potential (ERP) component. This study investigated gender differences in N170 elicited under oddball paradigm in order to clarify the effect of task demand on gender differences in early facial processing. Findings: Twelve males and 10 females discriminated targets (emotional faces) from non-targets (emotionally neutral faces) under an oddball paradigm, pressing a button as quickly as possible in...
Choi, Damee; Egashira, Yuka; Takakura, Jun’ya; Motoi, Midori; Nishimura, Takayuki; Watanuki, Shigeki
Background Some studies have reported gender differences in N170, a face-selective event-related potential (ERP) component. This study investigated gender differences in N170 elicited under oddball paradigm in order to clarify the effect of task demand on gender differences in early facial processing. Findings Twelve males and 10 females discriminated targets (emotional faces) from non-targets (emotionally neutral faces) under an oddball paradigm, pressing a button as quickly as possible in r...
Melike OZER KESKIN
Full Text Available This study aims to elicit secondary education pupils’ views on euthanasia based on a survey model and with a study group of 253 pupils in year 9 studying in the city of Ankara in the school year 2010-2011. The study makes use of a combination of qualitative and quantitative research techniques as well as a Questionnaire for Personal Particulars in order to clarify the pupils’ demographics in data collection, and scenarios based on ethical dilemmas about active and passive euthanasia in order to elicit their views on the issue.The pupils’ views were elicited through the argumentative paragraphs that they were asked to write on the situations given in the scenarios. Of the qualitative data analysis techniques, the content analysis method was selected for the analysis of the argumentative paragraphs on the scenarios. In light of the data yielded by the content analysis, the pupils’ basic ethical guidelines in their decision-making processes were studied taking into account such variables as gender, school type, and family’s income.
Toxoplasma gondii: humoral and cellular immune response of BALB/c mice immunized via intranasal route with rTgROP2 Toxoplasma gondii: avaliação da resposta imune humoral e celular de camundongos BALB/c imunizados pela via nasal com rTgROP2
Full Text Available TgROP2 is an intracellular protein associated with rhoptries of Toxoplama gondii and an antigen component of a candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of rTgROP2 to stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c mice via intranasal injection. TgROP2 partial coding sequence was (196-561 amplified by PCR from genomic T. gondii RH strain DNA and cloned into the pTrcHis expression vector. Escherichia coli Rosetta 2 cells transformed with pTrcHis-TgROP2 showed high levels (~1 mg.mL-1 of recombinant protein after 4 hours of IPTG induction. Recombinant TgROP2 exhibited an apparent Mr equal to 54 kDa. In order to test immunogenicity of the recombinant protein, 10 BALB/c mice received 10 µg of rROP2 protein + 10 µg of Quil-A via intranasal injection. Doses were administered at days 0, 21, and 42. Three animals were euthanized and used to evaluate cell-ular immune response on day 62. Five (50% and two (20% out of ten animals produced IgG (DO mean = 0.307; cut-off = 0.240 and IgA (DO mean = 0.133, cut-off = 0.101, respectively, by ELISA on day 62. The proliferation of splenocytes revealed high stimulation index (SI when co-cultured with 5, 10 and 15 µg.mL-1 of rTgROP2. These results indicate that intranasal immunization with recombinant protein ROP2 plus Quil-A can elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice.TgROP2 é uma proteína localizada nas roptrias do Toxoplasma gondii, sendo um antígeno candidato a componente de uma vacina contra a toxoplasmose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da TgROP2 recombinante em estimular a resposta imune celular e humoral de camundongos BALB/c após estímulo intranasal. A sequência da TgROP2 foi amplificada pela PCR a partir da cepa RH e clonada em vetor de expressão pTrc-His. Após a transformação em Escherichia coli- Rosetta 2, a pTrcHis-TgROP2 exibiu alto nível de expressão após 4 horas de indu
Frost, Markus Winther; Steiniche, Torben; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg;
This study describes a case of primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the skin and reviews the available literature on this topic. Myoepitheliomas and carcinomas arise most frequently from myoepithelial cells within the salivary glands but are found in many anatomical locations. We documented a case of...... an 80-year-old man with a 2 × 2 × 1 cm tumour located on the scalp. This tumour emerged over a period of 2 months. The tumour was radically excised, and histological examination revealed a cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma. At an 18-month follow-up, no recurrence of the tumour was found. A systematic...... literature search identified 23 papers that reported 58 cases of cutaneous myoepitheliomas and myoepithelial carcinomas. All cases are reviewed in the presented paper. This case report and literature review serves to increase awareness regarding myoepithelial carcinomas. These tumours exhibit high metastatic...
Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as relações das dinâmicas sociais (família, amigos e escola; i.e., três fatores sociais sobre os estados de humor. A pesquisa foi realizada com uma equipe feminina de voleibol (14/15 anos. Aplicou-se o teste POMS (Profile of Mood States para mensurar os estados de humor. Foi utilizada uma escala de 1 (muito mal a 5 (muito bem para que as atletas avaliassem cada um dos três fatores. Os resultados apontaram correlações significativas entre as escalas e os estados de humor; e diferenças significativas entre os níveis de intensidade apontados na escala dos três fatores e os estados de humor. Os resultados indicam clara interferência das dinâmicas sociais sobre os estados de humor, portanto, as interferências sociais não podem ser descartadas na preparação do atleta.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of social dynamics (family, friends and school; i.e., three social factors on mood states. The survey was conducted with a women's volleyball team (14/15 years. The POMS test (Profile of Mood States was employed to measure the team's mood states. The athletes assessed the three factors by the use of a Likert scale ranging from 1 (very bad to 5 (very good. Results showed significant correlations between scales and mood states, and significant differences between the intensity levels representing their moods for each of the three factors. The results show clear interference of social dynamics on the mood states. Therefore, social interference cannot be ignored during an athlete's training program.
Wu, Yajun; Li, Shuai; Li, Haixia; Zhao, Chunzhi; Ma, Hao; Zhao, Xiunan; Wu, Junhua; Liu, Kunlu; Shan, Junjie; Wang, Yuxia
Poria cocos has a long history of medicinal use in China. Polysaccharides and their derivatives in the medicine exhibit many beneficial biological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral activities. In this study, a new polysaccharide (PCP-II) was isolated from sclerotium of Poria cocos. Its physico-chemical characters were identified and its adjuvant activity was investigated in mice co-immunized with H1N1 influenza vaccine and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The results revealed that PCP-II has a molecular weight of 29.0kDa. It was composed of fucose, mannose, glucose and galactose in molar ration of 1.00:1.63:0.16:6.29 respectively. Pharmacological data demonstrated that PCP-II increased antigen-specific antibody levels in mice immunized with influenza vaccine. PCP-II also elicited anti-HBsAg antibodies at significantly higher titers and generated robust and durable immunity compared to mice immunized with HBsAg-alum following two administrations. PCP-II improved proliferation of splenocytes, stimulated IL-12p70 and TNF-α productions in dendritic cells and macrophages respectively. These results suggested that PCP-II-adjuvanted vaccines enhanced humoral and cellular immunity. PCP-II could be developed as an efficacious adjuvant in human and animal vaccines. PMID:27185068
Marie-Charlotte von Deetzen
Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC are malignant tumors of the epidermal cells with varying degrees of keratinocyte differentiation. They are common tumors in mammalian and avian species but there are, however, only two description of SCC in tortoises. In this case report we describe two cases of non-metastatic squamous cell carcinomas of the carapax and the plastron in Hermann’s tortoises with evidence of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM in one case. HHM is thought to be associated with SCC in mammals due to de novo secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP by the tumor cells or tumor induced osteolysis but has not been described in reptiles so far.
Díaz Anadón, Laura; Nemet, Gregory; Verdolini, Elena
Characterization of the anticipated performance of energy technologies to inform policy decisions increasingly relies on expert elicitation. Knowledge about how elicitation design factors impact the probabilistic estimates emerging from these studies is, however, scarce. We focus on nuclear power, a large-scale low-carbon power option, for which future cost estimates are important for the design of energy policies and climate change mitigation efforts. We use data from three elicitations in the USA and in Europe and assess the role of government research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) investments on expected nuclear costs in 2030. We show that controlling for expert, technology, and design characteristics increases experts’ implied public RD&D elasticity of expected costs by 25%. Public sector and industry experts’ cost expectations are 14% and 32% higher, respectively than academics. US experts are more optimistic than their EU counterparts, with median expected costs 22% lower. On average, a doubling of public RD&D is expected to result in an 8% cost reduction, but the uncertainty is large. The difference between the 90th and 10th percentile estimates is on average 58% of the experts’ median estimates. Public RD&D investments do not affect uncertainty ranges, but US experts are less confident about costs than Europeans.
Characterization of the anticipated performance of energy technologies to inform policy decisions increasingly relies on expert elicitation. Knowledge about how elicitation design factors impact the probabilistic estimates emerging from these studies is, however, scarce. We focus on nuclear power, a large-scale low-carbon power option, for which future cost estimates are important for the design of energy policies and climate change mitigation efforts. We use data from three elicitations in the USA and in Europe and assess the role of government research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) investments on expected nuclear costs in 2030. We show that controlling for expert, technology, and design characteristics increases experts’ implied public RD and D elasticity of expected costs by 25%. Public sector and industry experts’ cost expectations are 14% and 32% higher, respectively than academics. US experts are more optimistic than their EU counterparts, with median expected costs 22% lower. On average, a doubling of public RD and D is expected to result in an 8% cost reduction, but the uncertainty is large. The difference between the 90th and 10th percentile estimates is on average 58% of the experts’ median estimates. Public RD and D investments do not affect uncertainty ranges, but US experts are less confident about costs than Europeans. (letter)
Sinnig, Daniel; Pitula, Kristina; Becker, Richard; Radhakrishnan, T.; Forbrig, Peter
Due to the specific challenges that ICT4D projects present, conventional requirements elicitation techniques are often inapplicable or insufficient. We address this shortcoming by introducing structured digital storytelling (SDS) as an alternative elicitation technique especially suited for the ICD4D domain. SDS is supported by our mobile elicitation tool designed around the needs and capabilities of the targeted user population. We embed SDS in a requirements elicitation and specification pr...
Timofeeva Timofeev, Larissa
Este trabajo centra su atención en la representación lexicográfica de la fraseología humorística. El humor, aun siendo un fenómeno eminentemente pragmático, forma parte del significado de algunas unidades fraseológicas (UF). Sin embargo, son confusos los criterios para considerar un fraseologismo como humorístico, lo cual provoca la disparidad de descripciones lexicográficas recogidas en distintos diccionarios. Por eso, tras un análisis de la significación fraseológica y de los puntos básicos...
This study is concerned with developing scaffolding model to elicit bilingual kindergarten children's English speech production. It is aimed at describing what the teachers need in eliciting their students' speech production; how a scaffolding model should be developed to elicit the children's speech production; and how effective is the…
Primary subglottic carcinoma is rare with a uniformly poor prognosis. We present our experience of eight such cases treated over a period of ten years. One patient had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma while the rest has a squamous cell carcinoma. A combination of surgery and radiotherapy was employed in five cases, while one case underwent radiotherapy only, surgery only and salvage surgery following radical irradiation. Three cases died of locoregional failure within a year. The remaining five patients have been disease-free for six months to 3.5 years. (author). 15 refs., 1 tab
Kafil Akhtar; Ahmad Shamshad; Zaheer Sufian; Mansoor Tariq
Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC) is an aggressive tumor variant thought to arise predominantly from differentiation of clear cell carcinoma. A few reports of SRCC asso-ciated with non-clear cell tumors led to the presumption that SRCC may arise from any renal cell carcinoma, although direct evidence of this is lacking. We report a case of a 70-year-old male patient, who presented with acute left upper quadrant abdominal pain and was diagnosed to have SRCC after pathological examination...
Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M;
The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance of the...... expression of these structures in a retrospective study of 133 patients with salivary gland carcinomas, using immunohistochemistry and a panel of well-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Sialosyl-Tn, T and sialosyl-T antigens were not correlated with prognosis...
Freddy Antonio González Ynfante
Recibido 09 de junio de 2011 • Aceptado 24 de octubre de 2011 • Corregido 27 de setiembre de 2011 Resumen. El presente ensayo tiene como finalidad reflexionar sobre la importancia del humor pedagógico como estrategia de enseñanza aprendizaje en el aula; esto, tomando en cuenta la problemática de desmotivación y aburrimiento que sucede normalmente en la clase. Para plantear si “el enseñar contento y el aprender con alegría” pueden aumentar la eficacia en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje...
Gervais, Matthew; Wilson, David Sloan
A number of recent hypotheses have attempted to explain the ultimate evolutionary origins of laughter and humor. However most of these have lacked breadth in their evolutionary frameworks while neglecting the empirical existence of two distinct types of laughter--Duchenne and non-Duchenne--and the implications of this distinction for the evolution of laughter as a signal. Most of these hypotheses have also been proposed in relative isolation of each other and remain disjointed from the relevant empirical literature. Here we attempt to remedy these shortcomings through a synthesis of previous laughter and humor research followed by (i) a reevaluation of this research in light of theory and data from several relevant disciplines, and (ii) the proposal of a synthetic evolutionary framework that takes into account phylogeny and history as well as proximate mechanisms and adaptive significance. We consider laughter to have been a preadaptation that was gradually elaborated and co-opted through both biological and cultural evolution. We hypothesize that Duchenne laughter became fully ritualized in early hominids between 4 and 2 mya as a medium for playful emotional contagion. This mechanism would have coupled the emotions of small hominid groups and promoted resource-building social play during the fleeting periods of safety and satiation that characterized early bipedal life. We further postulate that a generalized class of nonserious social incongruity would have been a reliable indicator of such safe times and thereby came to be a potent distal elicitor of laughter and playful emotion. This class of stimuli had its origins in primate social play and was the foundation for formal human humor. Within this framework, Duchenne laughter and protohumor were well established in the hominid biobehavioral repertoire when more cognitively sophisticated traits evolved in the hominid line between 2 mya and the present. The prior existence of laughter and humor allowed them to be
LIU Xuan; WANG Ning-li; WANG Yan-ling; MA Chen; MA Li; GAO Li-xin; HUANG Ying-xiang; XIONG Shi-hong; WANG Kang
Background Ophthalmic gel has been developed to increase the drug concentration in aqueous humor and to retard the loss of drug from the conjunctival sac.The research was to compare the drug concentration in aqueous humor of cataract patients administered 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel with that in patients administered 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution.Methods Ninety-six patients with cataract (96 eyes) were randomly assigned to 8 groups.The patients in groups 1-4received topical gatifloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic gel and those in groups 5-8 received gatifloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution.The dose regimen was 1 drop, 4 times a day for 3 consecutive days prior to cataract surgery.On the day of surgery, 1drop was applied at 15, 30, 60 or 120 minutes before commencement of cataract surgery in groups 1 and 5, groups 2 and 6, goups 3 and 7, and groups 4 and 8, respectively.Aqueous humor was extracted during the cataract surgery for the analysis of gatifloxacin concentration..Results The concentrations of gatifloxacin in aqueous humor were (0.24±0.25) μg/ml, (1.11±0.74) μg/ml, (2.32±2.01)μg/ml and (1.85±1.14) μg/ml in groups 1 to 4, and (0.16±0.25) μg/ml, (0.31±0.24) μg/ml, (0.75±0.28) μg/ml and (0.33±0.22) μg/ml in groups 5 to 8, respectively.Patients receiving gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel showed greater mean values of gatifloxacin concentration in aqueous humor than those receiving gatifloxacin solution, and such differences were significant with P ＜0.05 for all comparisons except that between groups 1 and 5.Conclusion Topical gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel can attain significantly greater drug concentrations in human aqueous humor than gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution.
Preliminary studies over the past few years have yielded multiple design and operations alternatives for the planned Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). Waste isolation, pre-closure health and safety, and life cycle cost are among the many factors considered in developing these alternatives. The task of CRWMS designers is complicated by substantial heat and nuclear radiation energy output of the spent nuclear fuel and high level waste intended for disposal in an underground repository. Not only must the usual effectiveness, operability and cost objectives be balanced, but done so in the context of a constantly changing environment. Particular alternatives sometimes are favored by virtue of their outstanding performance relative to one of these factors. The Ultimate success of the potential repository, however, depends on reaching a defensible and traceable final decision through simultaneous and systematic weighing of all relevant factors. This paper documents the outcome of Structured Tradeoffs Preference (STP) elicitation as a method for the simultaneous and systematic weighing of factors relevant to repository thermal loading, waste package (WP) design, and emplacement mode decisions. The study provided a low-cost early indication of directions of further research on CRWMS design and operations likely to be most fruitful. The method of STP elicitation was utilized to avoid potential biases documented in other efforts which use only unstructured decision making, or open-quotes well-considered judgmentclose quotes. The STP elicitation procedure presented here complements the use of a parameter network-model pyramid suggested elsewhere in this proceedings to provide a framework for precisely articulating technical questions needing answers. It also forms an independent crosscheck of systems engineering study results and performance assessment modeling
As part of the evaluation of Canada's proposed nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Panel (FEARP) undertook an extensive, nation-wide public hearing process. The hearing process itself was contentious and has been criticized on numerous grounds. It is our contention that the fundamental weakness of the FEARP process was that it was designed as an information-based forum, as opposed to a value-based forum.' Our observations and analyses of these hearings indicate that the FEARP envisioned a different purpose and a different outcome of this process than the public in general. As a result, public acceptability for the Concept or even the assessment process itself was not garnered due to a failure in the process to identify, address and incorporate values. To address this, we proposed a seven-step value elicitation process specifically designed to assess public acceptability of the disposal concept. An unfortunate consequence of the flawed public consultation process employed by the FEARP is that it is unclear exactly what it is the public finds unacceptable. Both from discussions and observations, it is difficult to ascertain whether the unacceptability lies with the Concept itself and/or the process by which the Concept was to be assessed. As a result, there is uncertainty as to what questions should be asked and how should the 'unacceptability' be addressed. In other words, does Canada need a new concept? Does Canada need to develop a mechanism for assessing the public acceptability of the Concept? Or both? The inability of the current process to answer such fundamental questions demonstrates the importance of developing an effective public acceptability and consultation process. We submit that, to create an acceptable Public Participation mechanism, it is necessary to found the construction of such a mechanism on the principles of effectiveness, transparency and fairness. Moreover, we believe that the larger decision
The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company have jointly carried out a project on expert panel elicitation on the issue of glacial induced Swedish earthquakes. Following a broad nomination procedure, 5 experts were chosen by a selection committee of 4 professors within Earth sciences disciplines. The 5 experts presented judgments about the frequency of earthquakes greater the magnitude 6 within 10 km for two Swedish sites, Oskarshamn and Forsmark, in connection with a glaciation cycle. The experts' median value vas 0,1 earthquakes for one glaciation cycle
A level-k model based on a specific salience-pattern is the only model in the literature that accounts for behaviour in hide-and-seek games. This paper presents nine different experiments designed to measure salience. The elicited salience patterns tend to be similar, but none of them is similar to the pattern needed to allow the level-k model explain the hide-and-seek data. When based on any of the empirical salience measures, the salience-based level-k model does not fit the data well. p...
Hora, Stephen; Jensen, Mikael (eds.)
The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company have jointly carried out a project on expert panel elicitation on the issue of glacial induced Swedish earthquakes. Following a broad nomination procedure, 5 experts were chosen by a selection committee of 4 professors within Earth sciences disciplines. The 5 experts presented judgments about the frequency of earthquakes greater the magnitude 6 within 10 km for two Swedish sites, Oskarshamn and Forsmark, in connection with a glaciation cycle. The experts' median value vas 0,1 earthquakes for one glaciation cycle.
The natural history and the clinical findings in 227 patients with thyroid carcinoma are described and the etiology discussed. The need for uniform pathologic classification and staging is emphasized. (Auth.)
... of the Year Award Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in Medicine Award Diversity Mentorship Program Eugene Van ... 300 PUVA treatments. What causes Merkel cell carcinoma? Scientists are still studying what causes this skin cancer. ...
V S Medvedev; P. A. Isayev; Ilyin, A. A.; D. Yu. Semin; V. V. Polkin; D. N. Derbugov; S. V. Vasilkov
Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.
V. S. Medvedev
Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.
Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. ... cancer; Kidney cancer; Hypernephroma; Adenocarcinoma of renal cells; Cancer - kidney
Full Text Available Artiklen tager udgangspunkt i en empirisk undersøgelse af hvordan danskere og franskmænd anvender og reagerer på humor og ironi i professionelle sammenhænge. Humor er i sig selv et mangefacetteret fænomen der er beskrevet i flere sproglige og ikke sproglige discipliner, men når humor studeres som et tværsprogligt og tværkulturelt fænomen, inddrages endnu flere aspekter der kalder på andre former for belysning. Humor betragtes her først som en ikke-bona-fide sproghandling der for at være vellykket via sin semantiske og pragmatiske dobbelt(tydighed skal tolkes som en bona-fide-cum-humor sproghandling. Danskeres udbredte anvendelse af humor og (selvironi, også i faglige sammenhænge, i modsætning til franskmænds præference for ordspil, forklares sprogligt via særegenheder i det danske overfor det franske sprog, og kulturantropologisk og sociologisk via forskelle i civilisationsprocesser og ledelsesstrukturer i de to kulturer. Artiklen er således et forsøg på at slå bro mellem komparativ sprogforskning og sammenlignende lande- og kulturstudier.
The most ambitious and certainly the most extensive formal expert judgment process was the elicitation of numerous events and uncertain quantities for safety issues in five nuclear power plants in the U.S. The general methodology for formal expert elicitations are described. An overview of the expert elicitation process of NUREG 1150 is provided and the elicitation of probabilities for the interfacing systems loss of coolant accident LOCA (ISL) in PWRs is given as an example of this elicitation process. Some lessons learned from this study are presented. (DG)
Report is given on radiotherapy of anal carcinomas. Own experiences and a review of the recent literature are presented. Prior to surgery radiotherapy with high energy electrons in combination with chemotherapy is in the foreground. Especially in cloacogenous carcinoma no residual tumor was found after preliminary irradiation. Our recommended conception of post-operative radiotherapy of the regional lymphatic draining vessels is outlined. (orig./MG)
Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Sørensen, J A;
The age influence on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma was analyzed in a group of 67 patients. A marked decline in cause-specific survival was found for patients older than 60 years of age at the time of diagnosis. In order to find a tumor-biological explanation of the prognostic...... invasion and distant metastases. The results indicate that 60 years of age the time of diagnosis may be the "prognostic break-point" for papillary thyroid carcinoma....
Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie
Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics. PMID:26778815
As a special verbal form of human communication, humor should be studied together with face with face which embodies the individual’s social image. This article illustrates the double function of verbal humor on face, approaching from two perspectives, that is, face-saving function and face-threatening function.% 幽默作为一种特殊的言语交际形式，常常与体现个体社会形象的面子联系起来。本文从维护面子的功能和损坏面子的功能两个角度出发，着重探讨了幽默对面子的双重作用。
Kałuzny; Rózyczka, J; Gutsze, A; Mierzejewski, A; Pieniazek, W
In 13 rabbits, 1 month to 1 year after posterior chamber lens implantation/polymethylmetacrylate/, the level of aqueous humor proteins was evaluated and the proteins separation in polyacylamide gel was performed. The studies were also carried out in unoperated eyes of the same animals and control group was composed of the eyes before surgery. It was found that in pseudophakic eyes an increased level of proteins remained during the whole year/the highest one month after surgery, slowly decreasing afterwards/, with the appearance of additional fractions. The moderate increase of the proteins concentration was also observed in unoperated eyes. The increase of aqueous humor proteins in pseudophakic eyes indicates that the presence of polymethyl metacrylate is not completely indifferent to the eyeball in spite of the suggestions derived from the clinical observations. PMID:1911644
Macedo, Ermelinda; Nossa, Paulo Nuno Sousa; Silva, Carlos F.
introdução: As Doenças do Humor (DH) provocam um forte prejuízo nas pessoas, embora ainda não seja muito claro o seu impacte na qualidade de vida (QDV) conforme a especiicidade da doença. objetivos: Os objetivos deste estudo são: 1) identiicar relações signiicativas entre a QDV e variáveis sociodemográicas em pessoas com doenças do humor; 2) identiicar relações signiicativas entre a QDV e a Depressão Major (DM) Distimia (D) Doença Bipolar (DB) e Perturbações Depressivas Sem Outra ...
Sandra Cristina Genaro
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of probiotic supplementation on mineral mixture to the humoral immune response in cattle vaccinated with a single dose of rabies vaccine. Forty steers, Nellore, aged 12 months were randomly divided into 2 groups (20 animals / group: control group (CG with 70 grams of mineral / animal / day and probiotic group (GP with 70 grams of supplement mineral added with 4 grams of probiotic / animal. The individual titles of neutralizing antibodies were determined by neutralization technique based on the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT and Fluorescent Inhibition Microtest (FIMT. There were no statistic significant differences between the mean serum concentrations between groups, concluding that the administration of probiotics does not interfere with the humoral immune response rabies.
Boleto, Ana Raquel Soeiro
Mestrado em Marketing É certo e sabido que a utilização do humor no marketing é algo que não é novo para ninguém, no entanto, há que ter a astúcia em saber usá-lo da forma mais correta no nosso negócio. Pode vir a ser ouro se bem utilizado ou pode ser um fracasso total se mal utilizado. Este projeto pretende contar a história de sucesso do serviço de telecomunicações MEO, da PT Comunicações, ao adotar uma estratégia de marketing com um focus totalmente ligado ao Humor bem utilizado. ...
Critical energy policy decisions rely on expert assessments of key future uncertainties. But existing modelling techniques that help form these expert assessments often ignore the existence of uncertainty. Consequently, techniques to measure these uncertainties are of increasing importance. We use one technique, expert elicitation, to assess six key uncertain parameters with 25 UK energy experts across academia, government and industry. We obtain qualitative descriptions of the uncertain parameters and a novel data set of probability distributions describing individual expert beliefs. We conduct a sensitivity analysis on weights for a linear opinion pool and show that aggregated median beliefs in 2030 are: for oil price $120/barrel (90% CI: 51, 272); for greenhouse gas price $34/tCO2e (90% CI: 5, 256) and for levelised cost of low-carbon electricity 17.1 US cents/kWh (90% CI: 8.3, 31.0). The quantitative results could inform model validation, help benchmark policy makers’ beliefs or provide probabilistic inputs to models. - Highlights: • We conduct an expert elicitation of 25 UK energy experts from academia, industry and government. • We obtained expert beliefs for six national and international drivers of energy demand. • A linear pool of expert beliefs on oil price in 2030 is insensitive to correlation between the experts. • Experts agree on dependence structure of energy uncertainties, but individual assessments of future values exhibit variation
Meike Katrin Uhrig
Full Text Available AbstractPictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a single pictures presented for 6 s, (b a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation towards positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < .001 and were less arousing (all p ≤ .02. Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed.
Uhrig, Meike K; Trautmann, Nadine; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Henrich, Florian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Marschall, Susanne
Pictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a) single pictures presented for 6 s, (b) a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c) short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation toward positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < 0.001) and were less arousing (all p ≤ 0.02). Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed. PMID:26925007
Almada, Amalia A; Tarrant, Ann M
Copepods are abundant crustaceans that harbor diverse bacterial communities, yet the nature of their interactions with microbiota are poorly understood. Here, we report that Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis We pre-treated E. affinis with an antibiotic cocktail and exposed them to either a zooplankton specialist (Vibrio sp. F10 9ZB36) or a free-living species (Vibrio ordalii 12B09) for 24 h. We then identified via RNA-Seq a total of 78 genes that were differentially expressed following Vibrio exposure, including homologs of C-type lectins, chitin-binding proteins and saposins. The response differed between the two Vibrio treatments, with the greatest changes elicited upon inoculation with V. sp. F10 We suggest that these differentially regulated genes play important roles in cuticle integrity, the innate immune response, and general stress response, and that their expression may enable E. affinis to recognize and regulate symbiotic vibrios. We further report that V. sp. F10 culturability is specifically altered upon colonization of E. affinis These findings suggest that rather than acting as passive environmental vectors, copepods discriminately interact with vibrios, which may ultimately impact the abundance and activity of copepod-associated bacteria. PMID:27056917
Fateme Ghanei Motlagh; Khalil Motallebzade; Mohammad Ali Fatemi
Teacher’s sense of humor is like a miracle in creating effective teaching and learning environments where there is no place for stress and anxiety but instead intrinsic motivation is enhanced. The present study aims mainly, to explore the effects of teachers’ sense of humor of EFL intermediate learners' reading comprehension ability. Having administered a test of reading proficiency, 58 learners are selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. Also two English language teachers...
Oropallo, Michael A.; HELD, KATHERINE S.; Goenka, Radhika; Ahmad, Sifat A.; O’Neill, Patrick J.; Steward, Oswald; Lane, Thomas E.; Cancro, Michael P.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in immune depression. To better understand how injury inhibits humoral immunity, the effects of chronic thoracic SCI on B cell development and immune responses to thymus-independent (TI) type-2 and thymus-dependent (TD) antigens were determined. Mice received complete crush injury or control laminectomy at either thoracic level 3 (T3), which disrupts descending autonomic control of the spleen, or at T9, which conserves most splenic sympathetic activity. Althou...
KJG Díaz-Resendiz; CA Romero-Bañuelos; ML Robledo-Marenco; AE Rojas-García; BS Barrón-Vibanco; IM Medina-Díaz; MI Girón-Pérez
Naphthalene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in aquatic ecosystems, and it can cause alterations in the immune system of organisms that live there. The oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is a species native to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, with economic and ecological importance. In this study, we evaluated the effect of subacute exposure to sublethal concentrations of naphthalene on the parameters of the humoral immune response (lysozyme and phenoloxidase activ...
Tun, R. Y.; Peakman, M; Alviggi, L; Hussain, M J; Lo, S S; Shattock, M.; Pyke, D. A.; Bottazzo, G F; Vergani, D.; Leslie, R D
OBJECTIVES--To determine the pattern of cellular and humoral immune changes associated with insulin dependent diabetes before diabetes develops. DESIGN--Prospective study over 10 years of 25 non-diabetic identical twins of patients with insulin dependent diabetes. The non-diabetic twins were followed up either till they developed diabetes or to the end of the study. SETTING--Teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--25 non-diabetic identical cotwins of patients with diabetes; 46 controls of the same sex a...
Ramesh Narula; Varsha Chaudhary; Kusum Narula; Ram Narayan
Background: In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved in medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. Objective of the study was to explore the effectiveness of humor when used as intervention in large group teaching over negative emotions amongst students. Method: The present Interventional, Randomized control trial study was carried out on medical students of 4th Semester of RMCH, Bareilly, w...