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  1. The Role of the Immune Response in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triozzi, Pierre L., E-mail: triozzp@ccf.org [Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Fernandez, Anthony P. [Departments of Dermatology and Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States)

    2013-02-28

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is implicated in its pathogenesis. Immune mechanisms are also implicated. Patients who are immunosuppressed have an increased risk. There is evidence that high intratumoral T-cell counts and immune transcripts are associated with favorable survival. Spontaneous regressions implicate immune effector mechanisms. Immunogenicity is also supported by observation of autoimmune paraneoplastic syndromes. Case reports suggest that immune modulation, including reduction of immune suppression, can result in tumor regression. The relationships between MCPyV infection, the immune response, and clinical outcome, however, remain poorly understood. Circulating antibodies against MCPyV antigens are present in most individuals. MCPyV-reactive T cells have been detected in both MCC patients and control subjects. High intratumoral T-cell counts are also associated with favorable survival in MCPyV-negative MCC. That the immune system plays a central role in preventing and controlling MCC is supported by several observations. MCCs often develop, however, despite the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses. A better understanding on how MCPyV and MCC evade the immune response will be necessary to develop effective immunotherapies.

  2. The Role of the Immune Response in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is implicated in its pathogenesis. Immune mechanisms are also implicated. Patients who are immunosuppressed have an increased risk. There is evidence that high intratumoral T-cell counts and immune transcripts are associated with favorable survival. Spontaneous regressions implicate immune effector mechanisms. Immunogenicity is also supported by observation of autoimmune paraneoplastic syndromes. Case reports suggest that immune modulation, including reduction of immune suppression, can result in tumor regression. The relationships between MCPyV infection, the immune response, and clinical outcome, however, remain poorly understood. Circulating antibodies against MCPyV antigens are present in most individuals. MCPyV-reactive T cells have been detected in both MCC patients and control subjects. High intratumoral T-cell counts are also associated with favorable survival in MCPyV-negative MCC. That the immune system plays a central role in preventing and controlling MCC is supported by several observations. MCCs often develop, however, despite the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses. A better understanding on how MCPyV and MCC evade the immune response will be necessary to develop effective immunotherapies

  3. Role of cell adhesion signal molecules in hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Su; Li-Ying Wang; Yu-Long Liang; Xi-Liang Zha

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Cell adhesion molecules and their signal molecules play a very important role in carcinogenesis. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of these molecules and the signal molecules of integrins and E-cadherins, such as (focal adhesion kinase) FAK, (integrin linked kinase)ILK, and β-catenin in hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis.METHODS: We first synthesized the small molecular compound, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), and identified it, by element analysis and 1H NMR. To establish the apoptosis model of the SMMC-7721 hepatocellular carcinoma cell, we treated cells with DCVC in EBSS for different concentrations or for various length times in the presence of 20 μmol/L N,N-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine,which blocks necrotic cell death and identified this model by flow cytometry and DNA ladder. Then we studied the changes of FAK, ILK, β-catenin, and PKB in this apoptotic model by Western blot.RESULTS: We found that the loss or decrease of cell adhesion signal molecules is an important reason in apoptosis of SMMC-7721 hepatocellular carcinoma cell and the apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cell was preceded by the loss or decrease of FAK, ILK, PKB, and β-catenin or the damage of cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion.CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that the decrease of adhesion signal molecules, FAK, ILK, PKB, and β-catenin,could induce hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis.

  4. Role of everolimus in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma

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    Saby George

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Saby George1, Ronald M Bukowski21University of Texas Health Sciences Center, MC-8221, Division of Hematology and Oncology, San Antonio, Texas, USA; 2CCF Lerner College of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology, Cleveland, Ohio, USAAbstract: The therapeutic options in metastatic renal cell carcinoma have been recently expanded by the discovery of the VHL gene, the mutation of which is associated with development of clear cell carcinoma, and overexpression of the angiogenesis pathway, resulting in a very vascular tumor. This breakthrough in science led to the development of a variety of small molecules inhibiting the VEGF-dependent angiogenic pathway, such as sunitinib and sorafenib. These agents prolong overall and progression-free survival, respectively. The result was the development of robust front-line therapies which ultimately fail and are associated with disease progression. In this setting, there existed an unmet need for developing second-line therapies for patients with refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC. Everolimus (RAD 001 is an oral inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway. The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial of everolimus (RECORD-1 conducted in MRCC patients after progression on sunitinib or sorafenib, or both, demonstrated a progression-free survival benefit favoring the study drug (4.9 months vs 1.9 months, HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.43, P ≤ 0 0.001. Everolimus thus established itself as a standard of care in the second-line setting for patients with MRCC who have failed treatment with VEGF receptor inhibitors.Keywords: mTOR inhibitor, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, signal transduction inhibitor, renal cell carcinoma, targeted therapy

  5. The Role of Everolimus in Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Malek Meskawi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Everolimus (RAD001 is an orally administered agent that inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin serine-threonine kinase. A phase III pivotal trial on everolimus, published in 2008, provided the first evidence for the efficacy of sequential therapy for patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC. In this study, everolimus was used after failure of one or several previous lines of therapy, and it demonstrated a 3-month survival benefit relative to placebo. Currently, based on the level 1 evidence, everolimus represents the molecule of choice for third-line therapy after failure of previous two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. However, second-line use after failure of one TKI is challenged by two new molecules (nivolumab and cabozantinib, which proved to have better efficacy with similar toxicity profile. In non-clear cell metastatic RCC, the current evidence recommends everolimus as a second-line therapy after failure of previous first-line sunitinib.

  6. Merkel cell carcinoma: Outcome and role of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel cell carcinoma (M.C.C.) are rare neuroendocrine malignant tumor of the skin, occurring in elderly patients. It affects primarily the sun-exposed areas of the skin, with approximately 50% of all tumors occurring in the face and neck and 40% in the extremities. Immunohistochemical markers (C.K.20+, C.K.7- and T.T.F.1-) are used to distinguish between M.C.C. and other tumors. M.C.C. have a tendency to rapid local progression, frequent spread to regional lymph nodes and distant metastases. Due to the rarity of the disease, the optimal treatment has not been fully defined. Localized stages (stages I and II) are treated by surgical excision of the primary tumor (with 2 to 3 cm margin) and lymphadenectomy in case of node-positive disease, followed by external beam radiotherapy (E.B.R.T.) to a total dose of 50 to 60 Gy in the tumor bed. Adjuvant E.B.R.T. has been shown to decrease markedly locoregional recurrences and to increase survival in recent studies. Treatment of lymph nodes area is more controversial. Chemotherapy is recommended only for metastatic disease. (authors)

  7. Role of the ubiquitin proteasome system in renal cell carcinoma

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    Corn Paul G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal cell carcinoma (RCC accounts for approximately 2.6% of all cancers in the United States. While early stage disease is curable by surgery, the median survival of metastatic disease is only 13 months. In the last decade, there has been considerable progress in understanding the genetics of RCC. The VHL tumor suppressor gene is inactivated in the majority of RCC cases. The VHL protein (pVHL acts as an E3 ligase that targets HIF-1, the hypoxia inducible transcription factor, for degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS. In RCC cases with mutant pVHL, HIF-1 is stabilized and aberrantly expressed in normoxia, leading to the activation of pro-survival genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. This review will focus on the defect in the UPS that underlies RCC and describe the development of novel therapies that target the UPS. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com.

  8. Engrailed-2 might play an anti-oncogenic role in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cai-Yong; Xu, Yin; Yu, Gan-Shen; Wu, Xun; Li, Yun-Fei; Pan, Bin; Heng, Bao-Li; Xue, Yi-Jun; Su, Ze-Xuan

    2016-06-01

    Our preliminary study indicated that Engrailed-2 (EN2) is downregulated but also ectopically expressed in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC), and the absence of EN2 expression was associated with poor histological grade. However, the specific roles of EN2 in CCRCC have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined the effects of inhibiting EN2 expression by human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) and overexpressing EN2 by human clear-cell renal cells (786-O). Results showed that EN2 inhibition accelerated HK-2 cell proliferation, shortened the cell cycle, reduced apoptosis, and acted more invasively. By contrast, EN2 overexpression in 786-O cells decelerated the proliferative ability of 786-O, increased the percentage of cell apoptosis, and weakened the invasive ability. Overall, the results demonstrated that EN2 might play an anti-oncogenic role in oncogenesis and development of CCRCC, thereby maintaining the normal growth of human renal tubular epithelial cells. PMID:26948025

  9. Cytodiagnosis of myxoid adrenocortical carcinoma and role of immunocytochemistry to differentiate it from renal cell carcinoma

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    Santosh Kumar Mondal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC is a rare malignancy and cytodiagnosis of this tumor is not routinely encountered by a cytopathologist. Here, we report a case of ACC initially diagnosed by computed tomography (CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC with the help of immunocytochemistry. A 48-year-old lady presented with flank pain and abdominal mass for the last 6 months. A CT scan of her abdomen revealed a large mass arising from the upper part of the left kidney. CT-guided FNAC was performed. Cytologic smears showed pleomorphic large cells arranged discretely and in small aggregates against a myxoid background. The cells had a high nucleocytoplasmic ratio, anisonucleosis and conspicuous nucleoli. Based on cytomorphology, differential diagnoses of ACC and renal cell carcinoma (RCC were made. On immunocytochemistry, the tumor cells were synaptophysin, inhibin, vimentin and Melan-A positive but cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen negative. Thus, a cytodiagnosis of myxoid ACC was made and histopathologic examination was suggested. Subsequent histologic examination and immunohistochemistry proved the case to be myxoid ACC.

  10. The role of constitutive and inducible processes in the response of human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inherent radiation sensitivity of the cells within a tumor is thought to contribute to the success or failure of radiation therapy. In vitro studies have shown that differences in the radiation sensitivity of squamous cell carcinoma cell lines reflect alterations in DNA repair. These alterations result from constitutive changes in chromosome organization, not radiation-inducible processes. While inducible responses may play some role in the radiation response of tumor cells, there is no evidence for their involvement in inherent differences in tumor cell radiosensitivity or in the success or failure of radiotherapy of squamous cell carcinomas. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Do polyomavirus hominis strains BK and JC play a role in oral squamous cell carcinoma?

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    Dorota Polz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Head and neck cancers are the most common cancers worldwide. It is estimated that approximately 90% of all head and neck cancers are represented by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. There are many risk factors causing this type of cancer, including environmental factors and lifestyle choices, such as tobacco smoking or abusing alcohol. Other important risk factor include infectious factors. [b]Objective[/b]. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of BK and JC virus infections among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The correlation between BKV infection and OSCC, and correlation between BKV, OSCC, alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking, demographic data, pre-treatment staging, metastases of lymph node evidence, and grading, was analyzed. The study group consisted of 92 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, 75 males, and 17 females, aged between 40 – 87 (average 56.8. All the patients underwent surgery and were not subjected to chemotherapy or radiotherapy prior to treatment. The analyzed samples were collected from paraffin sections. [b]Results[/b]. BKV DNA was detected in 18.5% of patients with OSCC. In the control group, BKV DNA was detected in 3.3%. BKV DNA was statistically more frequently detected among patients with squamous carcinoma, compared to the control group (p<0.05. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The obtained results suggest that the BKV virus may play an important role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  12. Role of Mitochondrial Translocation of Telomerase in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells with Multidrug Resistance

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    Ling, Xianlong; Wen, Lei; Zhou, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle of cancer chemotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the role of mitochondrial translocation of telomerase (hTERT) in MDR of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In this study, three HCC cell lines (SK-Hep1/CDDP1 cells, SK-Hep1/CDDP2 cells and SK-Hep1/CDDP3 cells) with differential resistance index (RI) to cisplatin (CDDP) were induced by pulse treatment of SK-Hep1 (human hepatocellular cell line) with CDDP in vitro. The RI of SK-Hep1/C...

  13. Interleukin-37 expression and its potential role in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Lin; Jiayi Wang; Dongjuan Liu; Sai Liu; Hao Xu; Ning Ji; Min Zhou; Xin Zeng; Dunfang Zhang; Jing Li; Qianming Chen

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 37 (IL-37) has been reported to play a significant role in innate immune response and to be involved in several kinds of cancers. However, the investigation of association between IL-37 and oral mucosa carcinogenesis hasn't been clearly established. The aim of the study was to assess IL-37 expression and explore its role in oral mucosa carcinogenesis. The expression of IL-37 increased from normal control (NC) to Oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Moreo...

  14. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epithelioma, is the most common form of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially ... other health issues. Infiltrating or morpheaform basal cell carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive ...

  15. Klotho plays a critical role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma progression and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Hwang, Kyu-Hee; Lkhagvadorj, Sayamaa; Jung, Jae Hung; Chung, Hyun Chul; Park, Kyu-Sang; Kong, In Deok; Eom, Minseob; Cha, Seung-Kuy

    2016-05-01

    Klotho functions as a tumor suppressor predominantly expressed in renal tubular cells, the origin of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Altered expression and/or activity of growth factor receptor have been implicated in ccRCC development. Although Klotho suppresses a tumor progression through growth factor receptor signaling including insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), the role of Klotho acting on IGF-1R in ccRCC and its clinical relevance remains obscure. Here, we show that Klotho is favorable prognostic factor for ccRCC and exerts tumor suppressive role for ccRCC through inhibiting IGF-1R signaling. Our data shows the following key findings. First, in tumor tissues, the level of Klotho and IGF-1R expression are low or high, respectively, compared to that of adjacent non-neoplastic parenchyma. Second, the Klotho expression is clearly low in higher grade of ccRCC and is closely associated with clinical outcomes in tumor progression. Third, Klotho suppresses IGF-1-stimulated cell proliferation and migration by inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway. These results provide compelling evidence supporting that Klotho acting on IGF-1R signaling functions as tumor suppressor in ccRCC and suggest that Klotho is a potential carcinostatis substance for ccRCC. PMID:27162484

  16. The role of Med19 in the proliferation and tumorigenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-wu ZOU; Kai-xing AI; Zhi-gang WANG; Zhou YUAN; Jun YAN; Qi ZHENG

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To explore the role of Med19, a component of the Mediator complex that coactivates DNA-binding transcription factors, in the proliferation and tumorigenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.Methods: The human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B were infected with lentiviral vectors encoding interfering RNA (RNAi) targeting the Med19 gene. To further confirm the inhibitory effects of RNAi vectors on Med19 gene expression, quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting assays were used. The proliferation of HepG2 and Hep3B cells after transduction with the Med19-RNAi-Lentivirus vector was evaluated by MTT conversion, BrdU incorporation, colony formation, and cell-cycle assays in vitro.In addition, the ability of the Med19-RNAi-Lentivirus vector-infected Hep3B cells to form tumors after inoculation into nude mice was determined.Results: Recombinant lentiviral vectors expressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) against Med19 were constructed and were found to efficiently downregulate Med19 mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of Med19 by RNAi dramatically reduced hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation, induced cell-cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, and suppressed tumor formation.Conclusion: These results provide new evidence of an important role for Med19 in the development of hepatocellular carcinomas, suggesting that lentivirus-mediated RNAi to target Med19 is a potential tool for inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.

  17. Metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney: therapeutic role of bevacizumab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biology and pathogenesis of clear cell carcinoma of the kidney has been extensively investgated, and the role of von Hipple-Landau gene inactivation and tumor associated angiogenesis is now recognized. Development of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and phase 3 clinical trials utilizing this class of agents has produced a new treatment paradigm for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). One of the active regimens identified is the combination of bevacizumab and interferon-α. Recently published reports provided evidence of the clinical and biologic activity of this therapy. The current manuscript reviews the background and rationale for the activity of bevacizumab in RCC, and results from recent clinical trials with this agent alone or in combination with targeted agents or cytokines. The role of this therapy in contrast to other targeted agents is reviewed, and the potential utility as well as questions raised by recent studies are discussed

  18. RMP Plays Distinct Roles in the Proliferation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells and Normal Hepatic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Sijun; Wang, Hongmin; Guo, Yunlan; Chen, Shaomu; Zhang, Mei-Yin; Shen, Jian; Yu, Huijun; Miao, Jingcheng; Wang, Hui-Yun; Wei, Wenxiang

    2013-01-01

    RMP has been shown to function in the transcription regulation through association with RNA polymerase (RNAP) II subunit RPB5. It also has been shown to be required for the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells with an antiapoptotic property. In this article, we further demonstrate that RMP displays distinct features in HCC cells compared with normal hepatic cells. RMP expression is remarkably increased in various cancer cell lines including HCC cells when compared with normal...

  19. Metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney: therapeutic role of bevacizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    Ronald M BukowskiCleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center, CCF Lerner College of Medicine of CWRU Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: The biology and pathogenesis of clear cell carcinoma of the kidney has been extensively investgated, and the role of von Hipple-Landau gene inactivation and tumor associated angiogenesis is now recognized. Development of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and phase 3 clinical trials utilizing this class of agents has produced a new treatment paradigm for patie...

  20. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Jyotsna Vijaykumar Wader; Sujata S Kumbhar; Huddedar AD; Wasim GM Khatib

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the kidney comprised of different histological variants. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) mainly diagnosed in the sixth decade of life. It is important to identify this entity because it has significantly better prognosis than the clear cell (conventional) and papillary renal cell carcinomas. The chromophobe renal cell carcinoma should be differentiated from oncocytoma and clear cell ca...

  1. Metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney: therapeutic role of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M Bukowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ronald M BukowskiCleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center, CCF Lerner College of Medicine of CWRU Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: The biology and pathogenesis of clear cell carcinoma of the kidney has been extensively investgated, and the role of von Hipple-Landau gene inactivation and tumor associated angiogenesis is now recognized. Development of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and phase 3 clinical trials utilizing this class of agents has produced a new treatment paradigm for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC. One of the active regimens identified is the combination of bevacizumab and interferon-α. Recently published reports provided evidence of the clinical and biologic activity of this therapy. The current manuscript reviews the background and rationale for the activity of bevacizumab in RCC, and results from recent clinical trials with this agent alone or in combination with targeted agents or cytokines. The role of this therapy in contrast to other targeted agents is reviewed, and the potential utility as well as questions raised by recent studies are discussed.Keywords: metastatic renal cell carcinoma, bevacizumab, interferon-α

  2. TRPM7-like current in human head and neck carcinoma cells: role in cell proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jie; Li, Ming-Hua; Inoue, Koichi; Chu, Xiang-Ping; Seeds, Joshua; Zhi-Gang, Xiong

    2007-01-01

    Ion channels are involved in normal physiological processes, and in the pathology of various diseases. In this study, we investigated the presence and potential function of TRPM7 channels in the growth and proliferation of FaDu and SCC25 cells, two common human head and neck squamous carcinoma cell lines, using a combination of patch-clamp recording, Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, small interference RNA (siRNA), fluorescent Ca2+ imaging, and cell counting techniques. Although voltage-...

  3. The role of SOX2 in small cell lung cancer, lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    OpenAIRE

    Karachaliou, Niki; Rosell, Rafael; Viteri, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    SOX2 is a stem cell transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of embryonic development. It is one of the genes in a set of factors (Oct4, SOX2, Nanog) that are able to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells. Overexpression of SOX2 has been described in all types of lung cancer tissues, including small cell and squamous cell carcinoma but also adenocarcinoma. An in-depth view of the spectrum of genomic alterations in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has ide...

  4. Role of retinoic acid receptors in squamous-cell carcinoma in human esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Wolfgarten, E.; Bollschweiler, E.;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, cancer in the esophagus ranks among the 10 most common cancers. Alterations of retinoic acid receptors (e.g. RARalpha, beta, gamma, and RXRalpha, beta, gamma) expression is considered to play an important role in development of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), which is the most...... common esophageal cancer. Alcohol consumption and smoking, which can alter retinoic acid receptor levels, have been identified as key risk factors in the development of carcinoma in the aero-digestive tract. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate protein levels of retinoic acid receptors...... comparing protein levels of retinoic acid receptors between normal tissue of patients with SCC and controls, RARgamma protein levels were found to be significantly higher (approximately 2.7-fold) in normal esophageal tissue of SCC patients than in esophageal tissue obtained from controls. No differences...

  5. EGFR kinase-dependent and kinase-independent roles in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Muroni, Maria R; Sanges, Francesca; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Asunis, Anna; Tanca, Luciana; Onnis, Daniela; Pira, Giovanna; Manca, Alessandra; Dore, Simone; Uras, Maria G; Ena, Sara; De Miglio, Maria R

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with progression of many epithelial malignancies and represents a significant therapeutic target. Although clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) has been widely investigated for EGFR molecular alterations, genetic evidences of EGFR gene activating mutations and/or gene amplification have been rarely confirmed in the literature. Therefore, until now EGFR-targeted therapies in clinical trials have been demonstrated unsuccessful. New evidence has been given about the interactions between EGFR and the sodium glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) in maintaining the glucose basal intracellular level to favour cancer cell growth and survival; thus a new functional role may be attributed to EGFR, regardless of its kinase activity. To define the role of EGFR in CCRCC an extensive investigation of genetic changes and functional kinase activities was performed in a series of tumors by analyzing the EGFR mutational status and expression profile, together with the protein expression of downstream signaling pathways members. Furthermore, we investigated the co-expression of EGFR and SGLT1 proteins and their relationships with clinic-pathological features in CCRCC. EGFR protein expression was identified in 98.4% of CCRCC. Furthermore, it was described for the first time that SGLT1 is overexpressed in CCRCC (80.9%), and that co-expression with EGFR is appreciable in 79.4% of the tumours. Moreover, the activation of downstream EGFR pathways was found in about 79.4% of SGLT1-positive CCRCCs. The mutational status analysis of EGFR failed to demonstrate mutations on exons 18 to 24 and the presence of EGFR-variantIII (EGFRvIII) in all CCRCCs analyzed. FISH analysis revealed absence of EGFR amplification, and high polysomy of chromosome 7. Finally, the EGFR gene expression profile showed gene overexpression in 38.2% of CCRCCs. Our study contributes to define the complexity of EGFR role in CCRCC, identifying its bivalent kinase

  6. Rationale for targeted therapies and potential role of pazopanib in advanced renal cell carcinoma

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    Peter E Clark

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Peter E ClarkVanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USAAbstract: Advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC remains a challenging, major health problem. Recent advances in understanding the fundamental biology underlying one form of RCC, ie, clear cell (or conventional RCC, have opened the door to a series of targeted agents, such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs, which have become the standard of care in managing advanced clear cell RCC. Among the newest of these agents to receive Food and Drug Administration approval in this disease is pazopanib. This review will summarize what is known about the fundamental biology that underlies clear cell RCC, the data surrounding the previously approved targeted agents for this disease, including not only the TKIs but also the mTOR inhibitors and the vascular endothelial growth factor-specific agent, bevacizumab, and the newest TKI, pazopanib. It will also explore the potential role for pazopanib relative to the other available agents and where it may fit into the armamentarium for treatment of advanced/metastatic RCC.Keywords: pazopanib, targeted therapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, clear cell renal cell carcinoma

  7. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/2016 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is ...

  8. Role of LPAR3, PKC and EGFR in LPA-induced cell migration in oral squamous carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm with serious morbidity and mortality, which typically spreads through local invasive growth. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is involved in a number of biological processes, and may have a role in cancer cell migration and invasiveness. LPA is present in most tissues and can activate cells through six different LPA receptors (LPAR1-6). Although LPA is predominantly promigratory, some of the receptors may have antimigratory effects in certain cells. The signalling mechanisms of LPA are not fully understood, and in oral carcinoma cells the specific receptors and pathways involved in LPA-stimulated migration are unknown. The oral carcinoma cell lines E10, SCC-9, and D2 were investigated. Cell migration was studied in a scratch wound assay, and invasion was demonstrated in organotypic three dimensional co-cultures. Protein and mRNA expression of LPA receptors was studied with Western blotting and qRT-PCR. Activation of signalling proteins was examined with Western blotting and isoelectric focusing, and signalling mechanisms were further explored using pharmacological agents and siRNA directed at specific receptors and pathways. LPA stimulated cell migration in the two oral carcinoma cell lines E10 and SCC-9, but was slightly inhibitory in D2. The receptor expression profile and the effects of specific pharmacological antagonist and agonists indicated that LPA-stimulated cell migration was mediated through LPAR3 in E10 and SCC-9. Furthermore, in both these cell lines, the stimulation by LPA was dependent on PKC activity. However, while LPA induced transactivation of EGFR and the stimulated migration was blocked by EGFR inhibitors in E10 cells, LPA did not induce EGFR transactivation in SCC-9 cells. In D2 cells, LPA induced EGFR transactivation, but this was associated with slowing of a very high inherent migration rate in these cells. The results demonstrate LPA-stimulated migration in oral carcinoma cells through LPAR3

  9. RMP Plays Distinct Roles in the Proliferation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells and Normal Hepatic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sijun; Wang, Hongmin; Guo, Yunlan; Chen, Shaomu; Zhang, Mei-Yin; Shen, Jian; Yu, Huijun; Miao, Jingcheng; Wang, Hui-Yun; Wei, Wenxiang

    2013-01-01

    RMP has been shown to function in the transcription regulation through association with RNA polymerase (RNAP) II subunit RPB5. It also has been shown to be required for the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells with an antiapoptotic property. In this article, we further demonstrate that RMP displays distinct features in HCC cells compared with normal hepatic cells. RMP expression is remarkably increased in various cancer cell lines including HCC cells when compared with normal cells. Depletion of RMP could inhibit the proliferation of HCC cells, but not the normal hepatic cells. RMP significantly prevented apoptosis of HCC cells in SMMC-7721 and HepG2, but had little effect on apoptosis in the normal hepatic cells. The mechanisms of RMP's distinct features rely on different responsive expressions of apoptosis factors induced by RMP in HCC and hepatic cells. Either overexpression or depletion of RMP significantly affected the expression of apoptosis factors in HCC cells. However, normal hepatic cells showed a tendency to resist RMP for the regulation of apoptosis. In the clinical samples, the increased expression of RMP in HCCs was also observed when compared with the matched non-tumor tissues from 30 HCC patients. The different expression levels of and distinct responses to RMP between HCC and hepatic cells suggest that RMP might serve as not only a biomarker for the diagnosis of HCC, but also a potential target for the HCC therapy. PMID:23847445

  10. Role of Mitochondrial Translocation of Telomerase in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells with Multidrug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlong Ling, Lei Wen, Yuan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR is a major obstacle of cancer chemotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the role of mitochondrial translocation of telomerase (hTERT in MDR of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells. In this study, three HCC cell lines (SK-Hep1/CDDP1 cells, SK-Hep1/CDDP2 cells and SK-Hep1/CDDP3 cells with differential resistance index (RI to cisplatin (CDDP were induced by pulse treatment of SK-Hep1 (human hepatocellular cell line with CDDP in vitro. The RI of SK-Hep1/CDDP1 cells, SK-Hep1/CDDP2 cells and SK-Hep1/CDDP3 cells was 5.14, 8.66, and 14.25, respectively, and all the cell lines showed cross-resistance to Doxorubicin (DOX and 5-Fuorouracil (5-FU. The apoptosis rates in drug-resistant cells were significantly reduced. Cell cycle analysis revealed the ratio of drug-resistant cells in G2/M and S phases increased, while that in G1 phase decreased. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot assay demonstrated, with the gradual elevation in RI, increasing hTERT translocated from the nuclei to the mitochondria, while real-time PCR indicated the shortening of telomere length in drug-resistant cells under the chemotherapeutic stress and the reduction of damaged mtDNA with the increase in RI. Furthermore, JC-1 staining also indicated the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential in drug-resistant cells. The mitochondrial translocation of hTERT increases in multidrug-resistant cells and exerts protective effect on mitochondrial function. Drug-resistant tumor cells escape from apoptosis through hTERT-mediated mitochondrial protection. Mitochondrial translocation of hTERT may serve as an underlying mechanism of MDR.

  11. Role of mitochondrial translocation of telomerase in hepatocellular carcinoma cells with multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xianlong; Wen, Lei; Zhou, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle of cancer chemotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the role of mitochondrial translocation of telomerase (hTERT) in MDR of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In this study, three HCC cell lines (SK-Hep1/CDDP1 cells, SK-Hep1/CDDP2 cells and SK-Hep1/CDDP3 cells) with differential resistance index (RI) to cisplatin (CDDP) were induced by pulse treatment of SK-Hep1 (human hepatocellular cell line) with CDDP in vitro. The RI of SK-Hep1/CDDP1 cells, SK-Hep1/CDDP2 cells and SK-Hep1/CDDP3 cells was 5.14, 8.66, and 14.25, respectively, and all the cell lines showed cross-resistance to Doxorubicin (DOX) and 5-Fuorouracil (5-FU). The apoptosis rates in drug-resistant cells were significantly reduced. Cell cycle analysis revealed the ratio of drug-resistant cells in G2/M and S phases increased, while that in G1 phase decreased. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot assay demonstrated, with the gradual elevation in RI, increasing hTERT translocated from the nuclei to the mitochondria, while real-time PCR indicated the shortening of telomere length in drug-resistant cells under the chemotherapeutic stress and the reduction of damaged mtDNA with the increase in RI. Furthermore, JC-1 staining also indicated the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential in drug-resistant cells. The mitochondrial translocation of hTERT increases in multidrug-resistant cells and exerts protective effect on mitochondrial function. Drug-resistant tumor cells escape from apoptosis through hTERT-mediated mitochondrial protection. Mitochondrial translocation of hTERT may serve as an underlying mechanism of MDR. PMID:22991493

  12. A role of ghrelin in canine mammary carcinoma cells proliferation, apoptosis and migration

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    Majchrzak Kinga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghrelin is a natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R. They are often co-expressed in multiple human tumors and related cancer cell lines what can indicate that the ghrelin/GHS-R axis may have an important role in tumor growth and progression. However, a role of ghrelin in canine tumors remains unknown. Thus, the aim of our study was two-fold: (1 to assess expression of ghrelin and its receptor in canine mammary cancer and (2 to examine the effect of ghrelin on carcinoma cells proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. The expression of ghrelin and its receptor in canine mammary cancer tissues and cell lines (isolated from primary tumors and their metastases was examined using Real-time qPCR and immunohistochemistry. For apoptosis analysis the Annexin V and propidium iodide dual staining was applied whereas cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay and BrdU incorporation test. The influence of ghrelin on cancer cells migration and invasion was assessed using Boyden chamber assays and wound healing assay. Results The highest expression of ghrelin was observed in metastatic cancers whereas the lowest expression of ghrelin receptor was detected in tumors of the 3rd grade of malignancy. Higher expression of ghrelin and its receptor was detected in cancer cell lines isolated from metastases than in cell lines isolated from primary tumors. In vitro experiments demonstrated that exposure to low doses of ghrelin stimulates cellular proliferation, inhibits apoptosis and promotes motility and invasion of canine mammary cancer cells. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor inhibitor ([D-Lys3]-GHRP6 as well as RNA interference enhances early apoptosis. Conclusion The presence of ghrelin and GHS-R in all of the examined canine mammary tumors may indicate their biological role in cancer growth and development. Our experiments conducted in vitro confirmed that ghrelin promotes cancer development and

  13. The antioxidant protein PARK7 plays an important role in cell resistance to Cisplatin-induced apoptosis in case of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Rachana; Dihazi, Gry H; Eltoweissy, Marwa; Mishra, Durga P; Mueller, Gerhard A; Dihazi, Hassan

    2016-08-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most malignant tumor in the adult kidney. Many factors are responsible for the development and progression of this tumor. Increased reactive oxygen species accumulation and altered redox status have been observed in cancer cells and this biochemical property of cancer cells can be exploited for therapeutic benefits. In earlier work we identified and characterize Protein DJ-1 (PARK7) as an oxidative stress squevenger in renal cells exposed to oxidative stress. To investigate whether the PARK7 or other oxidative stress proteins play a role in the renal cell carcinoma and its sensitivity or resistance to cytostatic drug treatment, differential proteomics analysis was performed with a cell model for clear cell renal carcinoma (Caki-2 and A498). Caki-2 cells were treated with cisplatin and differentially expressed proteins were investigated. The cisplatin treatment resulted in an increase in reactive oxygen species accumulation and ultimately apoptosis of Caki-2 and A498 cells. In parallel, the apoptotic effect was accompanied by a significant downregulation of antioxidant proteins especially PARK7. Knockdown of PARK7 using siRNA and overexpression using plasmid highlights the role of PARK7 as a key player in renal cell carcinoma response to cisplatin induced apoptosis. Overexpression of PARK7 resulted in significant decrease in apoptosis, whereas knockdown of the protein was accompanied by an increase in apoptosis in Caki-2 and A498 cells treated with cisplatin. These results highlights for the first time the important role of PARK7 in cisplatin induced apoptosis in clear renal cell carcinoma cells. PMID:27112662

  14. Study on the role of mitochondria in sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis of ovarian carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei; Tang Chunsheng; Rong Fengnian

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role of mitochondria in sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis of ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro.Methods:Human ovarian epithelial cancer 3AO cells were cultured in vitro and treated with sodium butyrate of different concentration for different time. The characters of apoptosis were assessed through light microscopy and DNA ladder analysis. The morphological changes of mitochondria were detected through electron and epifluorescence microscopy. The functional changes of mitochondria and the expression of Bcl-2/Bax protein were analyzed by flow cytometry.Results:As the concentration of sodium butyrate rose to 4mmol/L, the morphologic characters of apoptosis were found by light microscopy, DNA ladder was observed. Under epifluorescence microscope the fluorescence of the control group was stronger than that of the experimental group. Under electron microscope swelled mitochondria was detected. Flow cytometry analysis showed mitochondria transmembrane potentials decreased and there were down-regulate of Bcl-2 protein and up-regulate of the Bax protein(P<0.05).Conclusion:Sodium butyrate can induce apoptosis of 3AO cells in a time-dose dependent manner. Mitochondrion may play a key role in the procedure of apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells.

  15. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

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    Faria, J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  16. Sperm associated antigen 9 plays an important role in bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

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    Deepika Kanojia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Majority of bladder cancer deaths are caused due to transitional cell carcinoma (TCC which is the most prevalent and chemoresistant malignancy of urinary bladder. Therefore, we analyzed the role of Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9 in bladder TCC. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We examined SPAG9 expression and humoral response in 125 bladder TCC patients. Four bladder cancer cell lines were assessed for SPAG9 expression. In addition, we investigated the effect of SPAG9 ablation on cellular proliferation, cell cycle, migration and invasion in UM-UC-3 bladder cancer cells by employing gene silencing approach. Our SPAG9 gene and protein expression analysis revealed SPAG9 expression in 81% of bladder TCC tissue specimens. High SPAG9 expression (>60% SPAG9 positive cells was found to be significantly associated with superficial non-muscle invasive stage (P = 0.042 and low grade tumors (P = 0.002 suggesting SPAG9 putative role in early spread and tumorigenesis. Humoral response against SPAG9 was observed in 95% of patients found positive for SPAG9 expression. All four bladder cancer cell lines revealed SPAG9 expression. In addition, SPAG9 gene silencing in UM-UC-3 cells resulted in induction of G0-G1 arrest characterized by up-regulation of p16 and p21 and consequent down-regulation of cyclin E, cyclin D and cyclin B, CDK4 and CDK1. Further, SPAG9 gene silencing also resulted in reduction in cellular growth, and migration and invasion ability of cancer cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data in clinical specimens indicated that SPAG9 is potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder TCC.

  17. The role of squamous cell carcinoma antigen as a prognostic and predictive factor in carcinoma of uterine cervix

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    Jeong, Bae Kwon; Choi, Doo Ho; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Bae, Duk Soo; Kim, Byoung Gie [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Although the role of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) as a predictive and prognostic factor for uterine cervical cancer has been identified ed in previous studies, 1) the effective patient group of screening for recurrence with SCC-Ag, 2) the relationship between SCC-Ag and recurrence site, and 3) the relationship between the change of SCC-Ag and treatment outcome or recurrence have not been described. The study included 506 patients with histologically proven uterine cervical cancer between January 1994 and December 2010. We determining the serum SCC-Ag level before treatment and after treatment, and conducted a retrospective review of the patients' records. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of SCC-Ag for the detection of tumor recurrence by comparing biochemical recurrence with clinical recurrence. The pretreatment SCC-Ag level and the proportion of patients over 1.5 ng/mL were higher in poor prognostic patient group. In the univariate and multivariate analysis, pretreatment SCC-Ag showed a statistically significant correlation with tumor size, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, pathology. In patients with biochemical recurrence vs. those without, 5-year DFS and OS were 27.6 vs. 92.7% (p{<=}0.001) and 53.7 vs. 92.5% (p{<=}0.001), respectively. Our study reconfirmed the known function of pretreatment SCC-Ag, but could not confirm the function of biochemical response as a predictive factor for treatment and as a prognostic factor. There was no statistically significant relationship between SCC-Ag level and recurrence site. We confirmed the role of SCC-Ag as a follow-up tool for recurrence of disease and which patient groups SCC-Ag was more useful for.

  18. Advanced basal cell carcinoma, the hedgehog pathway, and treatment options – role of smoothened inhibitors

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    Fecher LA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Leslie A Fecher,1,3 William H Sharfman2 1Department of Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Indiana University Health Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD, USA, 3Department of Internal Medicine and Dermatology, University of Michigan, MI, USA Abstract: Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common human cancer and its incidence is rising worldwide. Ultraviolet radiation exposure, including tanning bed use, as well as host factors play a role in its development. The majority of cases are treated and cured with local therapies including surgery. Yet, the health care costs of diagnosis and treatment of BCCs in the US is substantial. In the United States, the cost of nonmelanoma skin cancer care in the Medicare population is estimated to be US$426 million per year. While rare, locally advanced BCCs that can no longer be controlled with surgery and/or radiation, and metastatic BCCs do occur and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Vismodegib (GDC-0449, a smoothened inhibitor targeted at the hedgehog pathway, is the first US Food and Drug Association (FDA-approved agent in the treatment of locally advanced, unresectable, and metastatic BCCs. This class of agents appears to be changing the survival rates in advanced BCC patients, but appropriate patient selection and monitoring are important. Multidisciplinary assessments are essential for the optimal care and management of these patients. For some patients with locally advanced BCC, treatment with a hedgehog inhibitor may eliminate the need for an excessively disfiguring or morbid surgery. Keywords: basal cell carcinoma, hedgehog, smoothened, vismodegib, Gorlin, basal cell nevus syndrome

  19. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: Role of pretreatment imaging and its influence on management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the commonest malignancy in the oral cavity. The oral cavity has several subsites. Knowledge of the patterns of disease spread at each subsite with the impact on treatment and prognosis provides a deeper understanding of the role of imaging. Information from imaging helps accurate staging, assess resectability, and plan multimodality treatment. Mandibular erosion, posterior soft tissue extent, and perineural spread influence treatment and prognosis in gingival, buccal, and retromolar trigone (RMT) cancers. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with multiplanar reformations and bone and soft tissue algorithms provides the highest specificity for bone erosion. Hard palate SCC is optimally imaged with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect perineural spread. In oral tongue and floor of the mouth (FOM) SCC, extrinsic muscle invasion, extension across the midline, extent of posterior and inferior spread, and proximity to the hyoid are issues that impact therapeutic options. Contrast-enhanced MRI is the optimal imaging method for staging the primary due to its superior soft tissue resolution. In oral tongue SCCs with tumour thickness ≤4 mm, elective neck dissection can be avoided. For nodal staging (N-staging), all imaging methods are comparable, but fall short of surgical staging. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has a promising role in N-staging. Positron emission tomography (PET)/integrated PET/CT has no role in evaluating the clinically negative neck. PET/CT has a role in pretreatment evaluation of advanced oral cavity SCC for depicting distant metastases and for mapping nodal extent in the clinically positive neck. Diffusion-weighted MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and CT perfusion have a potential role as baseline pretreatment studies for response assessment to chemoradiation in advanced oral cavity SCC. - Highlights: • Brief outline of treatment principles in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC

  20. Non-small-cell lung carcinoma: role of the Notch signaling pathway

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    Barse L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Levi Barse, Maurizio Bocchetta Department of Pathology, Oncology Institute, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA Abstract: Notch signaling plays a pivotal role during embryogenesis. It regulates three fundamental processes: lateral inhibition, boundary formation, and lineage specification. During post-natal life, Notch receptors and ligands control critical cell fate decisions both in compartments that are undergoing differentiation and in pluripotent progenitor cells. First recognized as a potent oncogene in certain lymphoblastic leukemias and mesothelium-derived tissue, the role of Notch signaling in epithelial, solid tumors has been far more controversial. The overall consequence of Notch signaling and which form of the Notch receptor drives malignancy in humans is deeply debated. Most likely, this is due to the high degree of context-dependent effects of Notch signaling. More recently, it has been discovered that Notch (especially Notch-1 can exert different, even opposite effects in the same tissue under differing microenvironmental conditions. Further complicating the understanding of Notch receptors is the recently discovered role for non-canonical Notch signaling. Additionally, the most frequent Notch signaling antagonists used in biological systems have been inhibitors of the transmembrane protease complex γ-secretase, which itself processes a plethora of class one transmembrane proteins and thus cannot be considered a Notch-specific upstream regulator. Here we review the available empirical evidence gathered in recent years concerning Notch receptors and ligands in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC. Although an overview of the field reveals seemingly contradicting results, we propose that Notch signaling can be exploited as a therapeutic target in NSCLC and represents a promising complement to the current arsenal utilized to combat this malignancy, particularly in targeting NSCLC tissues under specific environmental

  1. Role of novel anticancer drug Roscovitine on enhancing radiosensitivity in carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the radiosensitization effect of Roscovitine (cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor) in carcinoma cell lines. Three cell lines are used liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2), brain carcinoma cell line (U251), Lung carcinoma cell line (H460) in this study cells were treated with Roscovitine in different concentrations ranging from 0.1 ?M to 100 ?M before exposure to radiation doses ranging from 0.5 Gy to 20 Gy according to each experiment. The cell viability by MTT assay, the cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation repair mechanism by diphenylamine were measured after Roscovitine treatment with or without radiation exposure to explore the sensitization effect of Roscovitine. The present study conclude that Roscovitine a good candidate as radiosensitizer for modifying the ionizing radiation (IR) response in cancer cells, beside its cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor function, Roscovitine can generate DNA Double strand Breaks and cooperate to enhance IR induce DNA damages. Roscovitine is currently in clinical trials, although our findings suggest that the combination of Roscovitine with IR appears to be a very promising especially for liver, brain and lung cancer treatment, further investigation is needed to evaluate the therapeutic index before tested in clinical trials

  2. Role of novel anticancer drug Roscovitine on enhancing radiosensitivity in carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the radiosensitization effect of Roscovitine (cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor) in carcinoma cell lines. Three cell lines are used (HepG2 liver carcinoma cell line, U251 brain carcinoma cell line, H460 Lung carcinoma cell line) in this study .cells were treated with Roscovitine in different concentrations ranging from 0.1μM to 100 μM before exposure to radiation doses ranging from 0.5 Gy to 20 Gy according to each experiment. The cell viability by MTT assay, The cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation repair mechanism by diphenylamine were measured after Roscovitine treatment with or without radiation to explore the sensitization effect of Roscovitine. The present study conclude that Roscovitine a good candidate as radiosensitizer for modifying the ionizing radiation (IR) response in cancer cells, beside its cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor function, roscovitine can generate DNA Double strand Breaks and cooperate to enhance IR induce DNA damages . Roscovitine is currently in clinical trials, although our findings suggest that the combination of Roscovitine with IR appears to be a very promising especially for liver, brain and lung cancer treatment, further investigation is needed to evaluate the therapeutic index before tested in clinical trial

  3. The Role of Heat Shock Proteins in Pathogenesis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Adi Prayitno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell in the distress situation, denaturation of proteins may occur, and may also respond by expressing stress proteins. However, such homeostasis effort does not always succeed and even may lead to disease, including cancer. In distress situation also ensue much protein misfolding. Objective: This research were to explain the role of heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40 and Hsp70 in pathogenesis of occurred oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC patient which realized human papilloma virus (HPV infection. Material and Method: Tissue biopsy frozen section were taken from BOSC and OSCC patients was cut into three part. Parrafin blocks were made from cutting I, which was subsequently stains with HE to ascertain the type of neoplasm. Cutting II was subjected to DNA isolation. The DNA isolation results were subjected to PCR to amplify L1-HPV gene for fixed the HPV stressoor. Protein isolation was treated from Cutting III, folloewd with Blottdot test by using antibody monoclonal anti Hsp40 and Hsp70 and continued with measurement using densitometer to find the concentration of Hsp40 and Hsp70. The collected data were analyzed with F Test (Manova and discriminant analysis. Result: This experiment showed the differences in concentration of Hsp40 (p<=0,070 and Hsp70 (p<=0,006 between beningn oral squamous cell (BOSC and OSCC patients which realized HPV infection. Conclusion: This experiment proved that OSCC patients which realized HPV infection indicated an up regulated of Hsp70 concentration, so that there was occurs misfolding of the proteins cell. The misfolding was ensue obstacle of apoptosis and to raise cell proliferation which to storm carcinogenesis. An up regulated of Hsp40 was role as co-chaperone.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.91 

  4. Role of p53 and CDKN2A Inactivation in Human Squamous Cell Carcinomas

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    Alessia Pacifico

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available p53 tumor suppressor gene is the most commonly mutated gene in human and mouse cancers. Disruption of the p53 and Rb pathways is a fundamental trend of most human cancer cells. Inactivation of CDKN2A can lead to deregulation of these two pathways. Genetic abnormalities in CDKN2A gene have been well documented in human melanoma but their involvement in human nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC and in particular in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is less clear. Several studies have shown that human SCCs harbour unique mutations in the p53 gene as well as inactivation of the CDKN2A gene. While mutations in the p53 gene are induced by UV radiation and represent tumor initiating events, the majority of alterations detected in the CDKN2A gene do not appear to be UV-dependent. In conclusion, in addition to p53 mutations, silencing of the CDKN2A gene might play a significant role in SCC development.

  5. Clinical role in biopsy after interstitial irradiation to squamous cell carcinoma of tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical role of biopsy after interstitial irradiation therapy was evaluated in 44 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of tongue on which biopsy was done in our hospital. More residual tumors were observed in the induration-positive groups compared to those of the induration-negative groups. No tumor was histologically observed in 71.4% of the induration-positive groups. On the adjacent and covering mucous membranes, epithelial dysplasia was detected in 15 patients, 1 of them was Grade III and 9 were Grade IV. Two patients had recurrence. In the initial stage of interstitial irradiation, reaction of stoma showed decrease of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, regeneration and dilation of vessels after 6 weeks. The regeneration of collagen fiber increased within 3-14 weeks after irradiation, followed by decrease of its activity. After interstitial irradiation, 2 of 9 Grade IIb patients treated by surgery and 2 by re-interstitial irradiation survived. One of 3 Grade III patients manifested recurrence and was treated by surgery. All patients were alive. Fourteen of 17 Grade IV patients under careful observation were still alive. Eleven of 15 patients treated by total neck dissection after interstitial irradiation survived. Four Grade IV patients showed recurrence. Two-year primary lesion control rate was 91.2% and the survival rate for 5 year was 74.0%. (S.Y.). 54 refs

  6. Expression and clinical role of NF45 as a novel cell cycle protein in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Sujie; Zhu, Junya; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Shu; Li, Mei; Ni, Runzhou; Liu, Jinxia; Qiu, Huiyuan; Chen, Wenjuan; Wang, Huijie; Guo, Weijian

    2015-02-01

    NF45 (also known as ILF2), as one subunit of NF-AT (nuclear factor of activated T cells), repairs DNA breaks, inhibits viral replication, and also functions as a negative regulator in the microRNA processing pathway in combination with NF90. Recently, it was found that implicated in the mitotic control of HeLa cells and deletion of endogenous NF45 decreases growth of HeLa cells. While the role of NF45 in cancer biology remains under debate. In this study, we analyzed the expression and clinical significance of NF45 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma ESCC. The expression of NF45 was evaluated by Western blot in 8 paired fresh ESCC tissues and immunohistochemistry on 105 paraffin-embedded slices. NF45 was highly expressed in ESCC and significantly associated with ESCC cells tumor stage and Ki-67. Besides, high NF45 expression was an independent prognostic factor for ESCC patients' poor survival. To determine whether NF45 could regulate the proliferation of ESCC cells, we increased endogenous NF45 and analyzed the proliferation of TE1 ESCC cells using Western blot, CCK8, flow cytometry assays and colony formation analyses, which together indicated that overexpression of NF45 favors cell cycle progress of TE1 ESCC cells. While knockdown of NF45 resulted in cell cycle arrest at G0/G1-phase and thus abolished the cell growth. These findings suggested that NF45 might play an important role in promoting the tumorigenesis of ESCC, and thus be a promising therapeutic target to prevent ESCC progression. PMID:25286760

  7. The role of primary radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

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    Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Dong Won; Kwon, Byung Hyun; Nam, Ji Ho [College of Medicine, Pusan National Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Won Joo [College of Medicine, Donga Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    First of all, this study was performed to assess the result of curative radiotherapy and to evaluate different possible prognostic factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx treated at the Pusan National University Hospital. The second goal of this study was by comparing our data with those of other study groups, to determine the better treatment policy of supraglottic cancer in future. Thirty-two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx were treated with radiotherapy at Pusan National University Hospital, from August 1985 to December 1996. Minimum follow-up period was 29 months. Twenty-seven patients (84.4%.) were followed up over 5 years. Radiotherapy was delivered with 6 MV photons to the primary laryngeal tumor and regional lymphatics with shrinking field technique. All patients received radiotherapy under conventional fractionated schedule (once a. day). Median total tumor dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 55.8 to 75.6 Gy) on primary or gross tumor lesion. Thirteen patients had induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (1-3 cycles). Patient distribution, according to the different stages, were as follows: stage I, 5/32 (15.6%); stage II, 10/32 (31.3%); stage III, 8/32 (25%); stage IV, 9/32 (28. 1 %). The 5-year overall survival rate of the whole series (32 patients) was 51.7%. The overall survival rate at 5-years was 80% in stage I, 66.7% in stage II, 42.9% in stage III, 25% in stage IV.(p= 0,0958). The 5-year local control rates after radiotherapy were as follows: stage I, 100%; stage II, 60%; stage III, 62.5%; stage lV, 44.4% (p=0.233). Overall vocal preservation rates was 65.6%,100% in stage I, 70% in stage II, 62.5% in stage III, 44.4% in stage IV (p=0.210). There was no statistical significance in survival and local control rate between neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy group and radiotherapy alone group. Severe laryngeal edema was found in 2 cases after radiotherapy. emergent tracheostomy

  8. Renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. ... cancer; Kidney cancer; Hypernephroma; Adenocarcinoma of renal cells; Cancer - kidney

  9. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the role of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive skin tumor. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 27 patients treated at the Rabin Medical Center in Israel is presented. Data on 40 patients, including 13 additional patients from the Israel Cancer Registry, were analyzed for prognostic factors using uni- and multivariate analysis. Results: Univariate analysis revealed regional lymph node involvement and coexistence of secondary primary as unfavorable prognostic factors. In multivariate analysis only lymph node involvement showed borderline statistical significance. Radiation therapy was highly effective when given as consolidation after surgery or chemotherapy. In 11 patients irradiated prophylactically only one in-field relapse (9%) occurred. Radiation therapy yielded responses in 15 of 15 measurable sites (5CR, 10 PR). Chemotherapy produced responses in 18 of 26 treatments (70%), mostly CR (41%). However, in the absence of radiation therapy the responses were of short duration. Conclusion: Our data support combined treatment with chemotherapy followed by irradiation for advanced loco-regional disease. Further large scale investigations are warranted to confirm this approach

  10. State of the art toward defining the role of radiation therapy in the management of small cell bronchogenic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article with 70 references discusses the state of the art in defining the role of radiotherapy in managing small cell bronchogenic carcinoma (SCBC). It reviews the history of therapeutic approaches to SCBC. Several issues of particular interest to limited disease are discussed. They are: local radiation therapy for limited disease, combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy in limited disease, combination chemotherapy alone for limited disease, and an overview of the treatment of limited disease. A section on extensive disease discusses the role of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, chemotherapy only for extensive disease, and an overview of the treatment of extensive disease. An additional section discusses the use of elective brain irradiation in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma

  11. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kafil Akhtar; Ahmad Shamshad; Zaheer Sufian; Mansoor Tariq

    2011-01-01

    Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC) is an aggressive tumor variant thought to arise predominantly from differentiation of clear cell carcinoma. A few reports of SRCC asso-ciated with non-clear cell tumors led to the presumption that SRCC may arise from any renal cell carcinoma, although direct evidence of this is lacking. We report a case of a 70-year-old male patient, who presented with acute left upper quadrant abdominal pain and was diagnosed to have SRCC after pathological examination...

  12. The emerging role of immunotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC): anti-tumor immunity and clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulou, Panagiota; Perisanidis, Christos; Giotakis, Evaggelos I.

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) carries a poor prognosis, with low survival rates for advanced stage tumors and minimal improvement in survival trends through the past decades. It is becoming increasingly clear that HNSCC oncogenesis and evolution is characterized by profound immune defects, as cancer cells evade immunosurveillance due to accumulation of genetic mutations and tumor heterogeneity. Improved understanding of the role of the immune system in cancer has led to the identification of novel therapeutic targets, which are being investigated for their potential to provide durable responses. In this review, we will summarize the role of the immune system in HNSCC, the rationale behind immunotherapy strategies and their clinical applications.

  13. ROLE OF THE MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF INTRATUMORAL MICROVESSELS AND THE PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF TUMOR CELLS IN RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gorban

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis are essential factors for tumor growth, progression, and metastasis.Objective: to assess the relationship between the values of proliferative activity and the morphometric parameters of intratumoral microvessels in metastatic and localized carcinomas of the kidney.Materials and methods. Surgical specimens taken from 54 patients (32 men and 22 women aged 26 to 69 years (mean age 55 ± 1.5 years with the verified diagnosis of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC were studied.Conclusion. Proliferative activity and angioarchitectonics are an important biological characteristic of a tumor of unequal clinical value in RCC. Metastatic carcinoma has a higher proliferative activity and a low tumor vascularization than those of localized carcinoma.

  14. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: A Possible Role of S-1 as Chemotherapy for Acinar Cell Carcinoma. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tameyoshi Yamamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare malignancy, accounting for 1-2% of pancreatic exocrine malignancies. This rarity makes it difficult to standardize a protocol of treatment for acinar cell carcinoma. Case report A 71-year-old male without any particular past history was referred to our institute with abdominal distention and mild liver dysfunction. Computed tomography (CT revealed a cystic lesion with a diameter of 3.5 cm, which originated from the neck of pancreas and had solid nodules inside. Several nodules were demonstrated surrounding the cystic tumor. Laparotomy and histological study demonstrated peritoneal dissemination of acinar cell carcinoma. The patient was treated with S-1 monotherapy (80 mg/m2 for four weeks with a two-week interval as one cycle. After one cycle of S-1 monotherapy, CT demonstrated remarkable shrinkage of the main tumor and disappearance of the nodules on the peritoneum. The patient underwent a radical distal pancreatectomy. The patient was then treated with 16 cycles of S-1 monotherapy after the radical pancreatectomy and remains without any recurrence of the disease two years later. Conclusion Initially inoperable acinar cell carcinoma was treated by monotherapy using S-1, resulting in curative operation and two years disease free survival post operation. S-1 might be more effective on acinar cell carcinoma, rather than gemcitabine

  15. Potential role of differentially expressed lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanchuan; Tian, Lili; Ma, Penghua; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Kai; GuanchaoWang; Liu, Hongchen; Xu, Baohua

    2015-10-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently attracted more attention about the role in a broad range of biological processes and complex cancers. We aimed to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs that play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Microarray data GSE25099 consisting of 57 samples from patients with OSCC and 22 normal samples were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and lncRNAs were identified between OSCC samples and control using samr package in R and noncoder software. Co-expression network was constructed for lncRNAs and candidate target DEGs, followed by functional and pathway enrichment analysis using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery online tool. OSCC-related genes were screened by Genetic-Association-DB-Database analysis, and then protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction of OSCC-related and co-expressed genes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that there were 998 DEGs and 160 differentially expressed lncRNAs between OSCC and normal control. We found LOC100130547, FTH1P3, PDIA3F and GTF2IRD2P1 targeted most of DEGs. Predicted targets-related functional annotation showed significant changes in inflammation-related functions and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. By further conducting PPI network with lncRNA co-expressed DEGs, we found that OSCC-associated genes including MMP1 (matrix metallopeptidase), MMP3, MMP9, PLAU (plasminogen activator, urokinase) and IL8 (interleukin 8) were targeted by FTH1P3, PDIA3F and GTF2IRD2P1. Our results indicate that lncRNAs FTH1P3, PDIA3F and GTF2IRD2P1 may responsible for progression and metastasis of OSCC via targeting MMP1, MMP3, MMP9, PLAU and IL8 which are key regulators of tumorigenesis. PMID:26276270

  16. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Nasser; Nilton Nasser Filho; Bruno Trauczynski Neto; Lissandra Melati da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no s...

  17. Role of retinoic acid receptors in squamous-cell carcinoma in human esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgarten E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, cancer in the esophagus ranks among the 10 most common cancers. Alterations of retinoic acid receptors (e.g. RARα, β, γ, and RXRα, β, γ expression is considered to play an important role in development of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC, which is the most common esophageal cancer. Alcohol consumption and smoking, which can alter retinoic acid receptor levels, have been identified as key risk factors in the development of carcinoma in the aero-digestive tract. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate protein levels of retinoic acid receptors (i.e. RARα, β, γ, and RXRβ in esophageal SCC and surrounding normal tissue of patients with untreated SCC and controls. Methods All study participants completed a questionnaire concerning smoking and alcohol drinking habits as well as anthropometrical parameters. Protein levels of RARα, β, γ, and RXRβ were determined by Western Blot in normal esophageal tissue and tissue obtained from SCC of 21 patients with newly diagnosed esophageal SCC and normal esophageal tissue of 10 controls. Results Protein levels of RARγ were significantly lower by ~68% in SCC compared to normal surrounding tissue in patients with SCC that smoked and/or consumed elevated amounts of alcohol. Furthermore, RARα protein levels were significantly lower (~- 45% in SCC in comparison to normal esophageal mucosa in patients with elevated alcohol intake. When comparing protein levels of retinoic acid receptors between normal tissue of patients with SCC and controls, RARγ protein levels were found to be significantly higher (~2.7-fold in normal esophageal tissue of SCC patients than in esophageal tissue obtained from controls. No differences were found for RARα, β, and RXRβ protein levels between normal esophageal tissue of patients and that of controls. Conclusion In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that alterations of retinoic acid receptors protein may contribute

  18. Diagnostic delay in oral squamous cell carcinoma: the role of cognitive and psychological variables

    OpenAIRE

    Panzarella, Vera; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Calvino, Francesco; Compilato, Domenico; Colella, Giuseppe; Campisi, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective study investigated, in two cohorts of subjects living in Southern Italy and awaiting treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the variables related to diagnostic delay ascribable to the patient, with particular reference to the cognitive and psychological ones. A total of 156 patients with OSCC (mean age: 62 years, M/F: 2.39∶1) were recruited at the Universities of Palermo and Naples. Risk factors related to patient delay included: sociodemographic, health-related...

  19. Prognostic role of PPAR-γ and PTEN in the renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chaoyang; WEI, JINXING; Tian, Xin; Li, Yang; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expressions with prognosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: Our study subjects included 87 RCC tissues, 28 paracarcinoma tissues and 21 normal renal tissues. PPAR-γ and PTEN detection was conducted using immunohistochemistry staining. The association of PPAR-γ and PTEN with the clinical parameters and prognosis of RCC was analyzed. Kaplan-Meier method...

  20. Role of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in the Management of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Eric P. Arruda; Higgins, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and typically aggressive form of skin cancer. It most commonly affects the elderly and has a predilection for the sun-exposed skin of the head and neck region. Other etiological factors include immune suppression, organ transplantation, and polyoma virus infection. MCC has a propensity to spread to regional lymphatics with a high locoregional recurrence rate. Since its discovery in 1972, treatment paradigms have shifted, with no consensus on optimal manag...

  1. Role of targeted therapy in combination with surgery in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bex, Axel; Powles, Thomas; Karam, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Surgical complete resection is the only curative treatment of renal cell carcinoma including patients with locally advanced disease and those with limited metastatic disease. Patients at high risk of recurrence after complete resection might theoretically benefit from adjuvant and neoadjuvant systemic treatment strategies to prolong disease-free survival and ultimately overall survival. Another rationale for using targeted therapy includes downsizing/downstaging of surgically complex locally advanced renal cell carcinoma to facilitate complete resection or primary tumors to allow for nephron-sparing strategies. Unfortunately, a considerable percentage of patients are diagnosed with metastatic disease at first presentation. Although large population-based studies consistently show a survival benefit after cytoreductive nephrectomy in the targeted therapy era, confounding factors preclude definite conclusions for this heterogeneous patient group until ongoing phase III trials are published. Presurgical targeted therapy has been proposed to identify patients with clinical benefit and potentially long-term survival after cytoreductive nephrectomy. Recently, the use of targeted therapy before or after local treatment of metastases has been reported in small retrospective series. The present review revisits the current evidence base of targeted therapy in combination with surgery for the various disease stages in renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26238981

  2. Clinical role of early dynamic FDG-PET/CT for the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, Tsunenori; Tanabe, Kazunari [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Urology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    We studied the usefulness of early dynamic (ED) and whole-body (WB) FDG-PET/CT for the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). One hundred patients with 107 tumours underwent kidney ED and WB FDG-PET/CT. We visually and semiquantitatively evaluated the FDG accumulation in RCCs in the ED and WB phases, and compared the accumulation values with regard to histological type (clear cell carcinoma [CCC] vs. non-clear cell carcinoma [N-CCC]), the TNM stage (high stage [3-4] vs. low stage [1-2]), the Fuhrman grade (high grade [3-4] vs. low grade [1-2]) and presence versus absence of venous (V) and lymphatic (Ly) invasion. In the ED phase, visual evaluation revealed no significant differences in FDG accumulation in terms of each item. However, the maximum standardized uptake value and tumour-to-normal tissue ratios were significantly higher in the CCCs compared to the N-CCCs (p < 0.001). In the WB phase, in contrast, significantly higher FDG accumulation (p < 0.001) was found in RCCs with a higher TNM stage, higher Furman grade, and the presence of V and Ly invasion in both the visual and the semiquantitative evaluations. ED and WB FDG-PET/CT is a useful tool for the evaluation of RCCs. (orig.)

  3. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Year Award Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in Medicine Award Diversity Mentorship Program Eugene Van ... 300 PUVA treatments. What causes Merkel cell carcinoma? Scientists are still studying what causes this skin cancer. ...

  4. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  5. Predictive role of vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms in the survival of renal cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y-Q; Chen, J

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study to investigate the possible role of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms -2578C/A, -1154G/A and -634C/G and clinical factors in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) prognosis in a cohort of 336 RCC cases. A total of 336 patients with RCC were recruited from PLA General Hospital between January 2004 and December 2005. All patients were followed up until December 2010, and no patient was lost to follow-up. The follow-up time of this study was 60 months. At the time of analysis, a total of 210 died during the follow-up. The median overall survival for patients was 29.1 months (95%CI = 17.1 to 41.3 months), and the 5-year survival rate for the patients was 37.5%. Our study showed that Karnofsky performance status ≥60 could delay death from RCC, with HR (95%CI) of 0.57 (0.39-0.84). Patients with anemia, platelet count >400 x 10(9)/L, neutrophilia and lymphocytes >160 g/L had increased risk of death from RCC, with HR (95%CI) of 1.84 (1.18-2.96), 2.01 (1.27-3.25), 1.65 (1.03-2.56) and 1.49 (0.99-2.71), respectively. The VEGF -2578AA and -1154AA genotypes were significantly associated with a poor overall survival of RCC patients, with HR (95%CI) of 2.41 (1.32-5.13) and 3.77 (1.42-15.67), respectively. In conclusion, our study presented the factors regarding the prognosis of RCC patients, and high platelet and neutrophil counts, low lymphocytes, and VEGF -2578C/A and -1154G/A polymorphisms were shown to be independent factors for a lower prognosis of RCC patients. PMID:25062489

  6. Management of Merkel cell carcinoma: Role of radiotherapy in elderly patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose Merkel cell carcinoma carcinoma (M.C.C.) or primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy affecting elderly. Optimal therapeutic strategy has not yet been established in elderly patients. Patients and methods From March 1996 to March 2007, 29 patients with Merkel cell carcinoma of were treated at the University Hospital of Amiens, France. Adjuvant radiotherapy (R.T.) was performed for 14 patients (50%) on the tumor bed with margins of 3 to 5 cm, an average dose of 46 Gy (30-60 Gy), by 2 Gy per fraction. Ten of them also received R.T. to the lymph node area at mean dose of 44.3 Gy (26-50 Gy). Duration of R.T. was 35 days. A retrospective analysis was conducted to better evaluate survival and prognostic factors. Results Median overall survival (O.S.) was 18.9 months (3-122) and the median time to progression (M.T.P.) 5.5 months (1-26). At 5 years, O.S. for irradiated patients was 47% (IC95: 12-82%) versus 27% (IC95: 5-49%) in cases of surgery alone (p = 0.032). The most frequent sites of recurrence were nodal (34.5%), local (24.1%) and metastatic (17.2%). For patients over 70 years, eight (36.5%) were free of disease at last news, 8 (36.5%) had died from cancer and six from other causes (27%). In this subgroup, M.T.P. was 6 months (2-19) and median O.S. of 19 months (4-87). There was no acute toxicity greater than grade 2. Conclusion Although limited by a retrospective analysis, this report suggests an advantage of postoperative R.T. for patients with M.C.C.. It combined low toxicity and improvement of survival. Prospective multicenter trials are needed to clarify and validate the optimal strategy. (authors)

  7. The role of bleomycin combination in radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to improve tumor control by radiation therapy, a treatment regimen consisting of concurrent combination of bleomycin (90 mg/3 weeks) and radiation (30 Gy/3 weeks) was applied. Between 1972 and 1981, 287 patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity were subjected to this bleomycin-radiation combination regimen. All except 4 patients experienced marked response after treatment using the bleomycin-radiation combination alone. One hundred thirty-four patients (47 %) obtained CR and 149 (53 %) PR. Higher CR rates were obtained in patients with carcinoma of the lower gum (62 %), of the upper gum (68 %), and of the cheek mucosa (43 %), compared to patients with carcinoma of the floor of the mouth (21 %), and of the tongue (15 %). In each of the tumor sites, small lesions (T1, T2) obtained higher CR rates, compared with large lesions (T3, T4). Of the 134 patients who experienced CR, 83 were observed without any further treatment after bleomycin-radiation combination alone. Local recurrence-free rates of these patients were 72 % for T1, T2 lesions and 48 % for T3, T4 lesions. Local control rates were increased to 85 % and 78 %, respectively, with successful salvage treatment involving surgery or interstitial radiotherapy for post-irradiation failures. (author)

  8. Role of acetylcholine receptors in proliferation and differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordinated proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells is the base for production of appropriate numbers of neurons and glia during neuronal development in order to establish normal brain functions. We have used murine embryonal carcinoma P19 cells as an in vitro model for early differentiation to study participation of nicotinic (nAChR) and muscarinic acetylcholine (mAChR) receptors in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and their differentiation to neurons. We have previously shown that functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) already expressed in embryonic cells mediate elevations in cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) via calcium influx through nAChR channels whereas intracellular stores contribute to nAChR- and mAChR-mediated calcium fluxes in differentiated cells [Resende et al., Cell Calcium 43 (2008) 107-121]. In the present study, we have demonstrated that nicotine provoked inhibition of proliferation in embryonic cells as determined by BrdU labeling. However, in neural progenitor cells nicotine stimulated proliferation which was reversed in the presence of inhibitors of calcium mobilization from intracellular stores, indicating that liberation of intracellular calcium contributed to this proliferation induction. Muscarine induced proliferation stimulation in progenitor cells by activation of Gαq/11-coupled M1, M3 and M5 receptors and intracellular calcium stores, whereas Gαi/o-protein coupled M2 receptor activity mediated neuronal differentiation

  9. Targeted therapies in the management of renal cell carcinoma: role of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Escudier

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bernard Escudier1, Jan Cosaert2, Sangeeta Jethwa21Unité Immunothérapie, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France; 2F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, SwitzerlandAbstract: Bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks, in combination with interferon alpha-2a (IFN, is an effective option for first-line therapy for advanced and/or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Two phase III trials clearly show significant improvements in progression-free survival and response rate in patients with treatment-naïve metastatic RCC receiving bevacizumab combined with IFN compared with IFN. The dose of IFN, which was initiated at 9 MIU 3 times a week in these trials, can be reduced to effectively manage IFN-related side effects without compromising the efficacy of bevacizumab plus IFN. Bevacizumab has good tolerability with manageable side effects, both alone and in combination with other agents; the tolerability profile of bevacizumab in combination with IFN is consistent with the well-characterized and well-established profiles of these therapies. The tolerability of bevacizumab combined with IFN and the flexibility to manage IFN-related side effects are important considerations when selecting first-line therapy. With a number of options now available for RCC therapy, optimizing their use is a key consideration in improving patient benefit.Keywords: bevacizumab (Avastin®, interferon alpha, efficacy, tolerability, renal cell carcinoma (RCC, low-dose interferon

  10. Role of Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number Alteration in Human Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Sung Lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number alteration in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC. The mtDNA copy numbers of paired cancer and non-cancer parts from five resected RCC kidneys after radical nephrectomy were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR. An RCC cell line, 786-O, was infected by lentiviral particles to knock down mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM. Null target (NT and TFAM-knockdown (TFAM-KD represented the control and knockdown 786-O clones, respectively. Protein or mRNA expression levels of TFAM; mtDNA-encoded NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1, ND6 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (COX-2; nuclear DNA (nDNA-encoded succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 gene (AKT-encoded AKT and v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog gene (c-MYC-encoded MYC; glycolytic enzymes including hexokinase II (HK-II, glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI, phosphofructokinase (PFK, and lactate dehydrogenase subunit A (LDHA; and hypoxia-inducible factors the HIF-1α and HIF-2α, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1, and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component α subunit (PDHA1 were analyzed by Western blot or Q-PCR. Bioenergetic parameters of cellular metabolism, basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (mOCRB and basal extracellular acidification rate (ECARB, were measured by a Seahorse XFe-24 analyzer. Cell invasiveness was evaluated by a trans-well migration assay and vimentin expression. Doxorubicin was used as a chemotherapeutic agent. The results showed a decrease of mtDNA copy numbers in resected RCC tissues (p = 0.043. The TFAM-KD clone expressed lower mtDNA copy number (p = 0.034, lower mRNA levels of TFAM (p = 0.008, ND1 (p = 0.007, and ND6 (p = 0.017, and lower protein levels of TFAM and COX-2 than did the NT clone. By contrast, the protein levels of HIF-2α, HK-II, PFK, LDHA, AKT, MYC and vimentin; trans-well migration activity (p = 0

  11. The Role of Transoral Robotic Surgery in the Management of HPV Negative Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sload, Ryan; Silver, Natalie; Jawad, Basit Abjul; Gross, Neil D

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is on the rise. This is largely due to the rapid increase in HPV positive OPSCC, which has been shown to confer a survival advantage. HPV negative OPSCC, however, has a more aggressive tumor biology and is a challenge to treat with standard current therapies. Chemoradiation has demonstrated poor locoregional control in HPV negative OPSCC, and open surgeries are associated with high morbidity. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been proposed as an option to both intensify treatment and decrease surgical morbidity for patients with HPV negative OPSCC. TORS can be utilized as a primary treatment or in persistent, recurrent, or second primary OPSCC. There is emerging data showing improved functional outcomes with TORS versus open surgery or chemoradiation. Unfortunately, there have been no randomized trials comparing TORS to chemoradiation in HPV negative OPSCC. This article will review utility of TORS for HPV negative OPSCC. PMID:27469262

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... cell carcinoma public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  13. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... cell carcinoma public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  14. Role of p53 mutation in the effect of boron neutron capture therapy on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a selective radiotherapy, being effective for the treatment of even advanced malignancies in head and neck regions as well as brain tumors and skin melanomas. To clarify the role of p53 gene, the effect of BNCT on oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells showing either wild- (SAS/neo) or mutant-type (SAS/mp53) p53 was examined. Cells were exposed to neutron beams in the presence of boronophenylalanine (BPA) at Kyoto University Research Reactor. Treated cells were monitored for modulations in colony formation, proliferation, cell cycle, and expression of cell cycle-associated proteins. When SAS/neo and SAS/mp53 cells were subjected to BNCT, more suppressive effects on colony formation and cell viability were observed in SAS/neo compared with SAS/mp53 cells. Cell cycle arrest at the G1 checkpoint was observed in SAS/neo, but not in SAS/mp53. Apoptotic cells increased from 6 h after BNCT in SAS/neo and 48 h in SAS/mp53 cells. The expression of p21 was induced in SAS/neo only, but G2 arrest-associated proteins including Wee1, cdc2, and cyclin B1 were altered in both cell lines. These results indicate that oral SCC cells with mutant-type are more resistant to BNCT than those with wild-type p53, and that the lack of G1 arrest and related apoptosis may contribute to the resistance. At a physical dose affecting the cell cycle, BNCT inhibits oral SCC cells in p53-dependent and -independent manners

  15. Pancreatic metastasis in a case of small cell lung carcinoma: Diagnostic role of fine-needle aspiration cytology and immunocytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip K Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell lung carcinoma represents a group of highly malignant tumors giving rise to early and widespread metastasis at the time of diagnosis. However, the pancreas is a relatively infrequent site of metastasis by this neoplasm, and there are only occasional reports on its fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology diagnosis. A 66-year-old man presented with extensive mediastinal lymphadenopathy and a mass in the pancreatic tail. Ultrasound-guided FNA smears from the pancreatic mass contained small, round tumor cells with extensive nuclear molding. The cytodiagnosis was metastatic small cell carcinoma. Immunocytochemical staining showed that a variable number of neoplastic cell were positive for cytokeratin, chromogranin A, neurone-specific enolase and synaptophysin but negative for leukocyte common antigen. The trans-bronchial needle aspiration was non-diagnostic, but biopsy was suspicious of a small cell carcinoma. This case represents a rare metastatic lesion in the pancreas from small cell lung carcinoma, diagnosed by FNA cytology.

  16. The role of Rac1 in the regulation of NF-kB activity, cell proliferation, and cell migration in non-small cell lung carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastonguay, Adam; Berg, Tracy; Hauser, Andrew D.; Schuld, Nathan; Lorimer, Ellen; Williams, Carol L.

    2012-01-01

    The small GTPase Rac1 regulates many cellular processes, including cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, proliferation, and survival. Additionally, Rac1 plays a major role in activating NF-κB-mediated transcription. Both Rac1 and NF-κB regulate many properties of the malignant phenotype, including anchorage-independent proliferation and survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Despite these findings, the roles of Rac1and NF-κB in non-small cell lung carcinoma, a leading cause of cancer deaths, have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we compared the effects of Rac1 siRNA to that of the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 on multiple features of the NSCLC malignant phenotype, including NF-κB activity. We show that the siRNA-mediated silencing of Rac1 in lung cancer cells results in decreased cell proliferation and migration. The decrease in proliferation was observed in both anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent assays. Furthermore, cells with decreased Rac1 expression have a slowed progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. These effects induced by Rac1 siRNA correlated with a decrease in NF-κB transcriptional activity. Additionally, inhibition of NF-κB signaling with BAY 11–7082 inhibited proliferation; indicating that the loss of cell proliferation and migration induced by the silencing of Rac1 expression may be attributed in part to loss of NF-κB activity. Interestingly, treatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 strongly inhibits cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and NF-κB activity in lung cancer cells, to an even greater extent than the inhibition induced by Rac1 siRNA. These findings indicate that Rac1 plays an important role in lung cancer cell proliferation and migration, most likely through its ability to promote NF-κB activity, and highlight Rac1 pathways as therapeutic targets for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:22549160

  17. Reduced L/B/K alkaline phosphatase gene expression in renal cell carcinoma: plausible role in tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ujjawal; Pal, Deeksha; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Kakkar, Nandita; Prasad, Rajendra

    2014-09-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kidney cancer in adults. Although several genes have been found to be involved in carcinogenesis of RCC, more great efforts are needed to identify new genes which are responsible for the process. Clear cell RCC, originates from proximal tubule cells, is the most common pathological type of RCC. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a marker enzyme of brush border membrane of proximal tubular cells. Our previous studies showed a significant decreased activity of Liver/Bone/Kidney (L/B/K) alkaline phosphatase in RCC. In the present study, we explored the molecular basis of the decreased activity of ALP in RCC. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis showed decreased ALP protein in RCC. Additionally, real time PCR documented significantly reduced ALP gene expression (P = 0.009). Moreover, RCC cell lines (ACHN and A498) transfected with full length L/B/K cDNA showed decreased migratory property as well as viability of these cells as compared with controls (P = 0.000). Further, L/B/K ALP cDNA transfected cells (ACHN and A498) showed significant increased apoptosis as compared to control (P = 0.000). These findings suggest the new role of ALP in cell viability and apoptosis and involvement in RCC tumorigenesis. However, further studies are needed to explore the exact molecular mechanism. PMID:24909115

  18. DLEC1 Expression Is Modulated by Epigenetic Modifications in Hepatocelluar Carcinoma Cells: Role of HBx Genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleted in Lung and Esophageal Cancer 1 (DLEC1) is a functional tumor suppressor gene (TSG). It has been found to be silenced in a variety of human cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The silencing of DLEC1 can be modulated by epigenetic modifications, such as DNA hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation. In the case of HCC, hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) has been implicated in methylation of target promoters resulting in the down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes, which in turn contributes to the development of HCC. In the present study, we first established a cell system in which epigenetic modifications can be modulated using inhibitors of either DNA methylation or histone deacetylation. The cell system was used to reveal that the expression of DLEC1 was upregulated by HBx in a genotype-dependent manner. In particular, HBx genotype A was found to decrease DNA methylation of the DLEC1 promoter. Our results have provided new insights on the impact of HBx in HCC development by epigenetic modifications

  19. Comedo-ductal carcinoma in situ: A paradoxical role for programmed cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar, Malathy P. V.; Tait, Larry; Pauley, Robert J.; Wu, Gen Sheng; Santner, Steven J.; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Shekhar, Varun; Nassar, Hind; Visscher, Daniel W.; Heppner, Gloria H.; Miller, Fred R.

    2008-01-01

    Comedo-DCIS is a histologic subtype of preinvasive breast neoplasia that is characterized by prominent apoptotic cell death and has greater malignant potential than other DCIS subtypes. We investigated the mechanisms of apoptosis in comedo-DCIS and its role in conversion of comedo-DCIS to invasive cancer. Clinical comedo-DCIS excisions and the MCF10DCIS.com human breast cancer model which produces lesions resembling comedo-DCIS were analyzed. Apoptotic luminal and myoepithelial cells were ide...

  20. Role of the p53/p21 system in the response of human colon carcinoma cells to Doxorubicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colon adenocarcinomas are refractory to a number of widely used anticancer agents. Multifactorial mechanisms have been implicated in this intrinsically resistant phenotype, including deregulation of cell death pathways. In this regard, the p53 protein has a well established role in the control of tumor cell response to DNA damaging agents; however, the relationship between p53-driven genes and drug sensitivity remains controversial. The present study investigates the role of the p53/p21 system in the response of human colon carcinoma cells to treatment with the cytotoxic agent doxorubicin (DOX) and the possibility to modify the therapeutic index of DOX by modulation of p53 and/or p21 protein levels. The relationship between p53 and p21 protein levels and the cytotoxic effect of DOX was investigated, by MTT assay and western blot analysis, in HCT116 (p53-positive) and HT29 (p53-negative) colon cancer cells. We then assessed the effects of DOX in two isogenic cell lines derived from HCT116 by abrogating the expression and/or function of p53 and p21 (HCT116-E6 and HCT116 p21-/-, respectively). Finally, we evaluated the effect of pre-treatment with the piperidine nitroxide Tempol (TPL), an agent that was reported to induce p21 expression irrespective of p53 status, on the cytotoxicity of DOX in the four cell lines. Comparisons of IC50 values and apoptotic cell percentages were performed by ANOVA and Bonferroni's test for independent samples. C.I. calculations were performed by the combination Index method. Our results indicate that, in the colon carcinoma cell lines tested, sensitivity to DOX is associated with p21 upregulation upon drug exposure, and DOX cytotoxicity is potentiated by pre-treatment with TPL, but only in those cell lines in which p21 can be upregulated. p21 induction may significantly contribute to the response of colon adenocarcinomas cells to DOX treatment; and small molecules that can exploit p53-independent pathways for p21 induction, such as

  1. The role of cofilin-l in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma: A marker of carcinogenesis, progression and targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Jiang, Ying; Cui, Shoubin; Wang, Yanshi; Wu, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies have revealed that cofilin-l (CFL1) is associated with cancer cell migration and invasion in various types of tumor tissues. We investigated the roles of CFL1 in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). CFL1 expression was detected in VSCC and normal vulvar tissues using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The vulvar carcinoma SW962 cell line was transfected with CFL1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and exposed to periplocoside. We then assessed changes in cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis. We detected changes in CFL1 mRNA and protein expression by RT-PCR and western blotting, and alterations in protein expression of various relevant molecules by western blotting. CFL1 expression was found to be significantly upregulated in the VSCC tissues compared with the normal vulvar tissues by immunohistochemistry and western blotting (PInternational Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, differentiation and lymphatic metastasis (Pmigration, and lamellipodium formation. Periplocoside exposure resulted in lower CFL1, Bcl-xL, cyclin A1, MMP2, MMP9 and STAT3 levels, but a higher Bax level compared with the control group. We demonstrated that abnormal CFL1 expression may affect vulvar carcinogenesis and subsequent progression. CFL1 silencing by siRNA significantly inhibited VSCC cell progression, which suggests that CFL1 is a potential therapeutic target for vulvar cancer. Periplocoside, which was utilized in the present study for the clinical treatment of vulvar cancer, showed strong antitumor effects by suppression of CFL1 expression. PMID:26936386

  2. The role of consolidation irradiation in combined modality therapy of small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-four patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL) were treated with a program of combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was given concurrent with the first of six planned cycles of chemotherapy consisting of Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, Vincristine and high dose Methotrexate (CAV-M). All patients judged as complete responders (CR) received consolidative thoracic irradiation (CTI) to the locoregional primary lung involvement. The CR rate to chemotherapy alone was 84% for patients with limited disease (LD) and 44% for extensive disease. In comparison to a prior trial, which used similar chemotherapy, but with irradiation withheld until primary site relapse, the actuarial primary site relapse rate at 2 years was reduced by CTI from 92% to 18% (P < .01). The median primary site remission duration has not yet been reached in the CTI group and was 34 weeks without CTI (P < .01). CTI increased the 2 year actuarial survival from 6% to 66% (P < .01) in the chemotherapy CR patients.Median survival has not yet been reached in the CTI group, but was 48 weeks without CTI (P < .01). Leptomeningeal spinal cord relapse in patients with no prior central nervous system (CNS) involvement occurred in 16% of patients relapsing

  3. Clinical experience and critical evaluation of the role of sorafenib in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zustovich F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fable Zustovich1, Giuseppe Lombardi1, Davide Pastorelli1, Patrizia Farina1, Massimo Dal Bianco2, Luca De Zorzi2, Maurizia Dalla Palma1, Ornella Nicoletto1, Vittorina Zagonel11Oncologia Medica 1, Istituto Oncologico Veneto-IRCCS, Padova, Italy; 2UO Urologia, Ospedale Sant'Antonio, ULSS 16, Padova, ItalyAbstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is a common malignancy worldwide with approximately 95,000 new cases per year and ranks as the sixth cause of cancer deaths. Until recently, the slightly active and very toxic cytokines were available for patients with advanced RCC. Advances have been made in understanding the molecular biology of renal cancer. The introduction of targeted agents has led to promising possibilities for treating these highly vascularized tumors. Angiogenesis inhibition is likely to represent the main potential therapeutic target. Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor with activity against tyrosine kinase receptors that are responsible for blood vessel development and has shown to be active in treating advanced RCC. In this review, we summarize the pharmacology, mode of action, pharmacokinetics, and safety of sorafenib use in therapy for advanced RCC.Keywords: sorafenib, pharmacokinetics, angiogenesis 

  4. Curcumin-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma J5 Cells: Critical Role of Ca+2-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antitumor effects of curcumin, a natural biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, have been studied in many cancer cell types including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Here, we investigated the effects of Ca2+ on curcumin-induced apoptosis in human HCC J5 cells. The abrogation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and calcium release were demonstrated with flow cytometry as early as 15 minutes after curcumin treatment. In addition, an increase level of cytochrome c in the cytoplasm which led to DNA fragmentation was observed. To verify the role of Ca2+ in curcumin-induced apoptosis, 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxyethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA, an intracellular calcium chelator, was applied. Cell viability was increased, but ΔΨm, ROS production, activation of caspase 3, and cell death were decreased in J5 cells pretreated with BAPTA for 2 h followed by the treatment of 25 μM curcumin. These results suggest that the curcumin-induced apoptosis in human HCC J5 cells is via mitochondria-dependent pathway and is closely related to the level of intracellular accumulation of calcium.

  5. Papillary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1976 and 1987, 395 patients with kidney tumors were studied with radiological techniques and sonography. In 37 cases (9.4%) histopathology diagnosed pure papillary renal cell carcinoma. Analyzing the radiographic patterns of these neoplasms, the authors observed constantly diminished vascularity (100%) frequent calcifications (35.1%) and necrotic areas (51.3%). Such X-ray features are not specific: nevertheless, their coexistence is strongly suggestive of papillary renal cell cancer. No consistent US pattern was found; however, necrotic areas were easily demonstrated in most cases. It must be stressed how patients with papillary carcinoma experienced a longer post-operative survival; it has not yet been established whether such favorable behavior is due to low biological aggressiveness or to earlier diagnosis

  6. Ipsilateral synchronous renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. W.; Kim, M. J.; Song, J H; Kim, J H; Kim, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The simultaneous occurrence of renal cell carcinoma(RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma(TCC) in the same kidney is unusual. We report a 53-year-old man with ipsilateral synchronous renal adenocarcinoma and renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma with severe hypercalcemia and a huge staghorn calculus in the opposite kidney. The patient was admitted to the hospital because of left flank pain and intermittent fever which he had had for 2 months. Computerized tomography revealed a huge stone in...

  7. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor Hernández Piñero; José Luis Rodríguez López; María de Lourdes Menéndez Villa

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagn...

  8. Clear Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Wang; Tracey Harbert; Jennifer Olivella; Daniel Olson; Sarma, Deba P; Stephanie Ortman

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Clear cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an uncommon and unusual variant of BCC, which is characterized by a variable component of clear cells. The pathogenesis of this histological variant and its clinical significance has not been clarified. Differentiation of this uncommon variant of BCC from other clear cell tumors is important for the treatment. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male presented with a 0.9 cm dome-shaped lesion on his upper chest. A shave biopsy revealed a der...

  9. ROLE OF LYMPHDISSECTION IN THE SURGICAL TREATMENT OF RENAL-CELL CARCINOMA,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Tillyashaikhov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: to define interrelation of lymphdissection at radical nephrectomy in surgical treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC.Materials and methods: 221 patients were investigated with RCC. The men — 119, women — 102. Middle age of patients has made 53,3 years. T1 stage in 16 patients (7.3 %, T2 — in 55 patients (24.8 %, T3-133 (60.2%, T4-17(7.7% patients. N1 occurred in 22 (9.9 % patients, N2 in 8 (3.6 %, N0 in 191 (86.5 % patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on volume of lymphdissection, with the period of supervision of 3 years.Results: Group I. Simple nephrectomy was executed in 130 patients without removal of regional lymph nodes. Metastases during the postoperative period occurred in the remote organs in 25.1 % cases, loco-regional metastasis in lymph nodes in 3.8 % cases was revealed, relapse 3%. Average life expectancy has made 25,6 months (of calculation 3 years. Group II. Nephrectomy with expanded lymphdissection from legs of a diaphragm to bifurcation of illiac arteries by midline approach was performed in 91 patients. On pathogistological research, metastases in regional lymph node was revealed in 15.3 % cases. Metastases during the postoperative period occurred in the remote organs in 6.6 % cases, metastasises in kept away lymph node in 1.08 % cases was revealed, relapse 3,2%. Average life expectancy has made 33,4 months (of calculation 3 years.Conclusion: we have come to opinion on inexpediency of performance usual nephrectomy on RCC. Application expanded lymphdissection from from legs of a diaphragm to bifurcation of illiac arteries is improved by the remote results.Напоминаем

  10. Do the fusion regions have a role in the development of basal cell carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Kayaçetin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequently observed cancer. Its ethiopathogenesis is not totally clarified. In recent years one of the factors mentioned on ethiopathogenesis is ‘fusion regions’. In our study we aimed to investigate whether the number of BCC is more or not in anatomic areas which contain more fusion regions. Materials and Methods: Three hundred twenty-eight BCC case whose anatomic region is indicated in histopathology report is taken into study. Fusion regions are determined according to the mapping system given in Tessier’s publication. First the number of total fusion region for each anatomic area on face is calculated. Then, the number of BCC located in each anatomic area and the number of fusion region located in the same anatomic area are compared. In conclusion findings are commented with respect to cause result relationship. Results: The most important anatomic areas with respect to fusion region number were forehead and lip. In forehead and lip there were 11 fusion regions. 34 BCC on forehead and 14 BCC on lip are observed. There were 10 fusion regions on around the eye and a total of 74 BCC were observed on both periorbital area. But 9 fusion area is detected on nose area where BCC is mostly present (135. Conclusion: More BCC is not observed in anatomic areas where fusion region is plenty compared to anatomic areas where fusion region is less. As a result; in BCC development, it is seen that only fusion regions do not have ethiopathogenetic importance.

  11. The Role Of Nitric Oxide After Repeated Low Dose Photodynamic Treatments In Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rapozzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a clinically approved treatment that causes a selective cytotoxic effect in cancer cells. In addition to the production of singlet oxygen and reactive oxygen species, PDT can induce the release of nitric oxide (NO by up-regulating nitric oxide synthases (NOS. Since non-optimal PDT often causes tumor recurrence, understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the photoprocess is a challenging task for scientists. The present study has examined the response of the PC3 human metastatic prostate cancer cell line, following repeated low-dose pheophorbide a treatments, mimicking non-optimal PDT treatment. The analysis was focused on the NF-kB/YY1/RKIP circuitry as it is (i dysregulated in cancer cells (ii modulated by NO and (iii correlated with the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. We hypothesized that a repeated treatment of non-optimal PDT induces low levels of NO that lead to cell growth and EMT via regulation of the above circuitry. The expressions of gene products involved in the circuitry and in EMT were analyzed by western blot. The findings demonstrate the cytoprotective role of NO following non-optimal PDT treatments that was corroborated by the use of l-NAME, an inhibitor of NOS.

  12. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Hernández Piñero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagnosed belatedly. Partial amputation of the penis was considered to be performed, but there was no consent on behalf of his family. The patient’s general condition was getting worse until he died.

  13. A role for sunlight in skin cancer: UV-induced p53 mutations in squamous cell carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Brash, D E; Rudolph, J A; Simon, J A; Lin, A.; McKenna, G J; Baden, H P; Halperin, A J; Pontén, J

    1991-01-01

    Sunlight is a carcinogen to which everyone is exposed. Its UV component is the major epidemiologic risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Of the multiple steps in tumor progression, those that are sunlight-related would be revealed if they contained mutations specific to UV. In a series of New England and Swedish patients, we find that 14/24 (58%) of invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the skin contain mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene, each altering the amino acid seq...

  14. Downregulation of SAV1 plays a role in pathogenesis of high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical outcome of patients with high-grade ccRCC (clear cell renal cell carcinoma) remains still poor despite recent advances in treatment strategies. Molecular mechanism of pathogenesis in developing high-grade ccRCC must be clarified. In the present study, we found that SAV1 was significantly downregulated with copy number loss in high-grade ccRCCs. Therefore, we investigated the SAV1 function on cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, we attempted to clarify the downstream signaling which is regulated by SAV1. We performed array CGH and gene expression analysis of 8 RCC cell lines (786-O, 769-P, KMRC-1, KMRC-2, KMRC-3, KMRC-20, TUHR4TKB, and Caki-2), and expression level of mRNA was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. We next re-expressed SAV1 in 786-O cells, and analyzed its colony-forming activity. Then, we transfected siRNAs of SAV1 into the kidney epithelial cell line HK2 and renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTECs), and analyzed their proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, the activity of YAP1, which is a downstream molecule of SAV1, was evaluated by western blot analysis, reporter assay and immunohistochemical analysis. We found that SAV1, a component of the Hippo pathway, is frequently downregulated in high-grade ccRCC. SAV1 is located on chromosome 14q22.1, where copy number loss had been observed in 7 of 12 high-grade ccRCCs in our previous study, suggesting that gene copy number loss is responsible for the downregulation of SAV1. Colony-forming activity by 786-O cells, which show homozygous loss of SAV1, was significantly reduced when SAV1 was re-introduced exogenously. Knockdown of SAV1 promoted proliferation of HK2 and RPTEC. Although the phosphorylation level of YAP1 was low in 786-O cells, it was elevated in SAV1-transduced 786-O cells. Furthermore, the transcriptional activity of the YAP1 and TEAD3 complex was inhibited in SAV1-transduced 786-O cells. Immunohistochemistry frequently demonstrated nuclear

  15. The role of sentinel node biopsy in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Justo Serrano-Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the state of the art of this procedure. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC) is a novel and proven useful technique alternative to the neck dissection (ND) in the management of OSCC.Methods: The authors searched PubMed for literature in English published for the last five years, addressing this topic. Prospective studies articles were selected with at least thirty patients studied.Results: Of 235 studies found, 14 studies met the exclusion and inclusion criteria for this review. The studies selected focused on the role of the SNB in the OSCC, advantages compared to ND and its limitations, testing different solutions and innovations that could implement the conventional procedure. Meta-analysis studies and review articles were also selected in order to perform the introduction and support the discussion. Based upon these findings authors have tried to establish the state of the art of the SNB and authors have highlighted recent advances that improve the sentinel lymphatic node biopsy technique in the future.Conclusion: SNB is an excellent staging method in OSCC and an interesting alternative to ND. The authors show the most appropriate procedures recommended in the bibliography revised in a trend to depict the actual state of the art.

  16. The p53 molecule and its prognostic role in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylander, K; Dabelsteen, Erik; Hall, P A

    2000-01-01

    Despite intense research, the 5-year survival rate for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is still low. Several different factors have been studied in the search for one or more factors that give important prognostic information at the time of diagnosis. Many recen...

  17. Antroquinonol displays anticancer potential against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells: a crucial role of AMPK and mTOR pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Cheng; Lin, Ssu-Chia; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Kuo, Ching-Hua; Tsai, I-Lin; Kuo, Mao-Tien; Wen, Wu-Che; Chen, Peini; Guh, Jih-Hwa

    2010-01-15

    5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are two serine/threonine protein kinases responsible for cellular energy homeostasis and translational control, respectively. Evidence suggests that these two kniases are potential targets for cancer chemotherapy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Antroquinonol that is isolated from Antrodia camphorate, a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine for treatment of liver diseases, displayed effective anticancer activity against both HBV DNA-positive and -negative HCC cell lines. The rank order of potency against HCCs is HepG2>HepG2.2.15>Mahlavu>PLC/PRF/5>SK-Hep1>Hep3B. Antroquinonol completely abolished cell-cycle progression released from double-thymidine-block synchronization and caused a subsequent apoptosis. The data were supported by down-regulation and reduced nuclear translocation of G1-regulator proteins, including cyclin D1, cyclin E, Cdk4 and Cdk2. Further analysis showed that the mRNA expressions of the G1-regulator proteins were not modified by antroquinonol, indicating an inhibition of translational but not transcriptional levels. Antroquinonol induced the assembly of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-1/TSC2, leading to the blockade of cellular protein synthesis through inhibition of protein phosphorylation including mTOR (Ser(2448)), p70(S6K) (Thr(421)/Ser(424) and Thr(389)) and 4E-BP1 (Thr(37)/Thr(46) and Thr(70)). Furthermore, the AMPK activity was elevated by antroquinonol. Compound C, a selective AMPK inhibitor, significantly reversed antroquinonol-mediated effects suggesting the crucial role of AMPK. Besides, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and depletion of mitochondrial content indicated the mitochondrial stress caused by antroquinonol. In summary, the data suggest that antroquinonol displays anticancer activity against HCCs through AMPK activation and inhibition of mTOR translational pathway, leading to G1 arrest of the cell-cycle and subsequent cell

  18. The role of radiotherapy for thymic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate retrospectively the role of radiotherapy for thymic carcinoma. Between 1973 and 1998, 14 patients with thymic carcinoma were treated at Gunma Prefectural Cancer Center. Two patients who had hematogenous metastasis were excluded from this study, therefore 12 patients were analyzed. The Masaoka staging system was used; four patients were diagnosed with stage III disease and eight patients with stage IV disease. The pathological subtype according to the World Health Organization histological criteria for thymic tumors was squamous cell carcinoma (low-grade histology) in six cases and undifferentiated carcinoma (high-grade histology) in six. Ten patients underwent thoracotomy, and two patients underwent excisional biopsy without thoracotomy. Ten patients (83%) received radiotherapy as a curative intent, and the median dose was 60 Gy. Systemic chemotherapy was administered to four patients (33%), and the majority (75%) of the regimens contained cisplatin. The 3-year overall survival rate was 25%. Histological subtype (low-grade versus high-grade), surgical resection (complete versus incomplete), radiotherapy and chemotherapy were evaluated as prognostic factors in a univariate analysis. Low-grade histology and complete resection were good prognostic factors, although these were not statistically significant. Patients who received radiotherapy had a better outcome than those who did not. The major sites of recurrence were the pleura and pericardium. Recurrence within the radiation field was observed in one of seven patients in whom failure patterns could be evaluated. Complete resection is mandatory if possible. Radiotherapy plays an important role in treating thymic carcinoma in terms of reducing local recurrence and prolonging survival time. Establishment of an innovative treatment protocol that includes chemotherapy is necessary to control intrathoracic relapse and distant metastasis. (authors)

  19. Morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma peritumoral stroma varies among basal cell carcinoma subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Lesack Kyle; Naugler Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The role that the peritumoral stroma plays in the growth of tumours is currently poorly understood. In this manuscript the morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma subtypes and their associated peritumoral stromas are presented. Methods Ninety eight digitized basal cell carcinoma histology slides were categorized as infiltrative, nodular, or superficial subtypes, and were analysed using a combination of manual and computer-assisted approaches. The morphometric ...

  20. Renal cell carcinoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present five cases of renal cell carcinoma in children, describing its aspects on excretory urography, ultra-sonography and computerized tomography. The clinical, pathological and radiological features are compared with those of the literature. (author)

  1. The Expression of p53 and Cox-2 in Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Actinic Keratosis Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülker KARAGECE YALÇIN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate p53 and COX-2 expressions in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratoses, and to determine a possible relationship.Material and Method: 50 basal cell carcinoma, 45 squamous cell carcinoma and 45 actinic keratosis cases were evaluated. The type of tumor in basal cell carcinoma and tumor differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma were noted and the paraffin block that best represented the tumor was chosen. Immunostaining by p53 and COX-2 was performed on sections of the paraffin blocks.Results: p53 expression was observed in 98% of basal cell carcinoma, 88.9% of squamous cell carcinoma and all actinic keratosis cases. p53 expression was also noted in non-dysplastic appearing epithelium in actinic keratosis cases. COX-2 expression was seen in 90, 100 and 88.9% of the basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis groups, respectively. Skin appendages, inflammatory cells and vascular structures were also stained by COX-2 besides tumor tissue. COX-2 expression increased by the p53 expression increase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. p53 and COX-2 expressions were not related in terms of tumor type in the BCC and were not related in terms of differentiation in SCC.Conclusion: The existence of p53 expression in actinic keratosis cases has supported the idea that p53 plays a role in the early steps of carcinogenesis in skin cancers. The fact that the expression of COX-2 increases in line with the increase of p53 expression in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cases indicates that COX-2 expression may be affected by p53

  2. Nimesulide has a role of radio-sensitizer against lung carcinoma A549 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Joo Yoon; Park, Jong Kuk; Hong, Sung Hee [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Cyclooxygenases (COX) are key enzymes in the prostaglandin synthesis. There are two isoforms of the COX enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 expression is associated with carcinogenesis in variety of cancers and to render cells resistant to apoptotic stimuli. Increased expression of COX-2 is shown in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), specifically in adenocarcinomas. Radiotherapy has been the important treatment for NSCLC. In recent studies, newer molecules that target specific pathophysiology or molecular pathways have been tested for the radiation sensitizers. COX-2 inhibitors are shown to enhanced radioresponse of cultured human cancer cell lines and immunodeficient mice. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms how NSAIDs enhance radioresponse of tumor cells. Nimesulide (methanesulfonamide, N-(4-nitro-2- phenoxyphenyl)), selective COX-2 inhibitors, is a drug with anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic properties. Nimesulide has the specific affinity to inhibit the inducible form of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) rather than the constitutive form (COX-1), and is well tolerated by adult, elderly and pediatric patients. Nimesulide was found also to have a chemopreventive activity against colon, urinary bladder, breast, tongue, and liver carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined whether nimesulide can increase radiation induced cell death and its mechanism in NSCLC cells A549.

  3. Nimesulide has a role of radio-sensitizer against lung carcinoma A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclooxygenases (COX) are key enzymes in the prostaglandin synthesis. There are two isoforms of the COX enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 expression is associated with carcinogenesis in variety of cancers and to render cells resistant to apoptotic stimuli. Increased expression of COX-2 is shown in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), specifically in adenocarcinomas. Radiotherapy has been the important treatment for NSCLC. In recent studies, newer molecules that target specific pathophysiology or molecular pathways have been tested for the radiation sensitizers. COX-2 inhibitors are shown to enhanced radioresponse of cultured human cancer cell lines and immunodeficient mice. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms how NSAIDs enhance radioresponse of tumor cells. Nimesulide (methanesulfonamide, N-(4-nitro-2- phenoxyphenyl)), selective COX-2 inhibitors, is a drug with anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic properties. Nimesulide has the specific affinity to inhibit the inducible form of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) rather than the constitutive form (COX-1), and is well tolerated by adult, elderly and pediatric patients. Nimesulide was found also to have a chemopreventive activity against colon, urinary bladder, breast, tongue, and liver carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined whether nimesulide can increase radiation induced cell death and its mechanism in NSCLC cells A549

  4. Role of multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) in chemoresistance and clinical outcome in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yamasaki, M; Makino, T; Masuzawa, T; Kurokawa, Y.; Miyata, H.; Takiguchi, S; K. Nakajima; Fujiwara, Y.; Matsuura, N; M. Mori; Doki, Y

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) confers chemoresistance in some cancer types, its implication on oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. Methods: We evaluated MRP2 expression by immunohistochemistry and RT–PCR using 81 resected specimens from ESCC patients who did or did not receive neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), including 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (CDDP). Correlation between MRP2 expression and response to chemotherapy was al...

  5. VHL Gene Mutations in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Role as a Biomarker of Disease Outcome and Drug Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Cowey, C Lance; Rathmell, W. Kimryn

    2009-01-01

    The therapeutic landscape for renal cell carcinoma has changed drastically over the last several years with the emergence of molecularly-targeted therapies. With previous prognostic and predictive tools based on studies of patients treated with cytokine therapies, confirmation of these prior methods and discovery of new markers in this new era of targeted therapy is of great importance. Alteration of the VHL gene by mutation, loss of heterozygosity, and promoter methylation has been found to ...

  6. Pulmonary Metastasis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Shim, Woo-Haing; SHIN, DONG-HOON; Kim, Yun-Seong; Sung, Hyun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, it rarely metastasizes. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma may, therefore, initially elude diagnosis and management. We describe the case of a patient with a metastatic basal cell carcinoma present in the lungs. The differential diagnosis of suspected metastatic lesions should include metastases from a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, in addition to those from more commonly metastasizing carcinomas, especially in patients with a histor...

  7. Fluctuating Roles of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Suvi-Tuuli Vilen; Tuula Salo; Timo Sorsa; Pia Nyberg

    2013-01-01

    One hallmark of cancer is the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is caused by proteinases. In oral cancers, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-9, are associated with this degradation. MMPs break down the ECM allowing cancer to spread; they also release various factors from their cryptic sites, including cytokines. These factors modulate cell behavior and enhance cancer progression by regulating angiogenesis, migration, proliferation, and invasion. The developme...

  8. Role of protein kinase C and epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in growth stimulation by neurotensin in colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurotensin has been found to promote colon carcinogenesis in rats and mice, and proliferation of human colon carcinoma cell lines, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. We have examined signalling pathways activated by neurotensin in colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma cells. Colon carcinoma cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1 were cultured and stimulated with neurotensin or epidermal growth factor (EGF). DNA synthesis was determined by incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine into DNA. Levels and phosphorylation of proteins in signalling pathways were assessed by Western blotting. Neurotensin stimulated the phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt in all three cell lines, but apparently did so through different pathways. In Panc-1 cells, neurotensin-induced phosphorylation of ERK, but not Akt, was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC), whereas an inhibitor of the β-isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), TGX221, abolished neurotensin-induced Akt phosphorylation in these cells, and there was no evidence of EGF receptor (EGFR) transactivation. In HT29 cells, in contrast, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib blocked neurotensin-stimulated phosphorylation of both ERK and Akt, indicating transactivation of EGFR, independently of PKC. In HCT116 cells, neurotensin induced both a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of ERK and a metalloproteinase-mediated transactivation of EGFR that was associated with a gefitinib-sensitive phosphorylation of the downstream adaptor protein Shc. The activation of Akt was also inhibited by gefitinib, but only partly, suggesting a mechanism in addition to EGFR transactivation. Inhibition of PKC blocked neurotensin-induced DNA synthesis in HCT116 cells. While acting predominantly through PKC in Panc-1 cells and via EGFR transactivation in HT29 cells, neurotensin used both these pathways in HCT116 cells. In these cells, neurotensin-induced activation of ERK

  9. Role of protein kinase C and epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in growth stimulation by neurotensin in colon carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajani Olav

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotensin has been found to promote colon carcinogenesis in rats and mice, and proliferation of human colon carcinoma cell lines, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. We have examined signalling pathways activated by neurotensin in colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma cells. Methods Colon carcinoma cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1 were cultured and stimulated with neurotensin or epidermal growth factor (EGF. DNA synthesis was determined by incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine into DNA. Levels and phosphorylation of proteins in signalling pathways were assessed by Western blotting. Results Neurotensin stimulated the phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt in all three cell lines, but apparently did so through different pathways. In Panc-1 cells, neurotensin-induced phosphorylation of ERK, but not Akt, was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC, whereas an inhibitor of the β-isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, TGX221, abolished neurotensin-induced Akt phosphorylation in these cells, and there was no evidence of EGF receptor (EGFR transactivation. In HT29 cells, in contrast, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib blocked neurotensin-stimulated phosphorylation of both ERK and Akt, indicating transactivation of EGFR, independently of PKC. In HCT116 cells, neurotensin induced both a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of ERK and a metalloproteinase-mediated transactivation of EGFR that was associated with a gefitinib-sensitive phosphorylation of the downstream adaptor protein Shc. The activation of Akt was also inhibited by gefitinib, but only partly, suggesting a mechanism in addition to EGFR transactivation. Inhibition of PKC blocked neurotensin-induced DNA synthesis in HCT116 cells. Conclusions While acting predominantly through PKC in Panc-1 cells and via EGFR transactivation in HT29 cells, neurotensin used both these pathways in HCT116

  10. The Essential Role of Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A Study From the Rare Cancer Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Methods and Materials: A retrospective multicenter study was performed in 180 patients with MCC treated between February 1988 and September 2009. Patients who had had surgery alone were compared with patients who received surgery and postoperative RT or radical RT. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS), regional relapse-free survival (RRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were assessed together with disease-free survival (DFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) rates. Results: Seventy-nine patients were male and 101 patients were female, and the median age was 73 years old (range, 38–93 years). The majority of patients had localized disease (n = 146), and the remaining patients had regional lymph node metastasis (n = 34). Forty-nine patients underwent surgery for the primary tumor without postoperative RT to the primary site; the other 131 patients received surgery for the primary tumor, followed by postoperative RT (n = 118) or a biopsy of the primary tumor followed by radical RT (n = 13). Median follow-up was 5 years (range, 0.2–16.5 years). Patients in the RT group had improved LRFS (93% vs. 64%; p < 0.001), RRFS (76% vs. 27%; p < 0.001), DMFS (70% vs. 42%; p = 0.01), DFS (59% vs. 4%; p < 0.001), and CSS (65% vs. 49%; p = 0.03) rates compared to patients who underwent surgery for the primary tumor alone; LRFS, RRFS, DMFS, and DFS rates remained significant with multivariable Cox regression analysis. However OS was not significantly improved by postoperative RT (56% vs. 46%; p = 0.2). Conclusions: After multivariable analysis, postoperative RT was associated with improved outcome and seems to be an important component in the multimodality treatment of MCC.

  11. The Essential Role of Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A Study From the Rare Cancer Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadjar, Pirus, E-mail: pirus.ghadjar@insel.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Kaanders, Johannes H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Institute of Oncology (Netherlands); Poortmans, Philipp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands); Zaucha, Renata [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University, Gdansk (Poland); Krengli, Marco [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Novara (Italy); Lagrange, Jean L. [Service de Radiotherapie, Hopital Henri-Mondor, Creteil (France); Oezsoy, Orhan [Department of Radiation Oncology, CHCVs-RSV, Sion (Switzerland); Nguyen, Tan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Miralbell, Raymond [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Baize, Adele [Department de Radio-Oncologie, Institut Jules Bordet, Bruxelles (Belgium); Boujelbene, Noureddine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Collen, Timothy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen (Switzerland); Scandolaro, Luciano [Radioterapia, Azienda Ospedale Sant' Anna, Como (Italy); Untereiner, Michel [Centre Francois Baclesse, Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Goldberg, Hadassah [Oncology Departement, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel); Pesce, Gianfranco A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Opedale San Giovanni, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Anacak, Yavuz [Department of Radiation Oncology, EGE University, Izmir (Turkey); Friedrich, Esther E.; Aebersold, Daniel M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Beer, Karl T. [Radio Onkologiezentrum Biel (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Methods and Materials: A retrospective multicenter study was performed in 180 patients with MCC treated between February 1988 and September 2009. Patients who had had surgery alone were compared with patients who received surgery and postoperative RT or radical RT. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS), regional relapse-free survival (RRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were assessed together with disease-free survival (DFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) rates. Results: Seventy-nine patients were male and 101 patients were female, and the median age was 73 years old (range, 38-93 years). The majority of patients had localized disease (n = 146), and the remaining patients had regional lymph node metastasis (n = 34). Forty-nine patients underwent surgery for the primary tumor without postoperative RT to the primary site; the other 131 patients received surgery for the primary tumor, followed by postoperative RT (n = 118) or a biopsy of the primary tumor followed by radical RT (n = 13). Median follow-up was 5 years (range, 0.2-16.5 years). Patients in the RT group had improved LRFS (93% vs. 64%; p < 0.001), RRFS (76% vs. 27%; p < 0.001), DMFS (70% vs. 42%; p = 0.01), DFS (59% vs. 4%; p < 0.001), and CSS (65% vs. 49%; p = 0.03) rates compared to patients who underwent surgery for the primary tumor alone; LRFS, RRFS, DMFS, and DFS rates remained significant with multivariable Cox regression analysis. However OS was not significantly improved by postoperative RT (56% vs. 46%; p = 0.2). Conclusions: After multivariable analysis, postoperative RT was associated with improved outcome and seems to be an important component in the multimodality treatment of MCC.

  12. Simultaneous Development of Renal Cell Carcinoma and Multifocal Urothelial Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Keng Chuang; Heng-Chang Chuang; Kwai-Fong Ng

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of multifocal urothelial carcinoma (UC) and ipsilateral renalcell carcinoma (RCC) is rare. We report a 67-year-old woman with multifocal, infiltratingurothelial carcinoma and unilateral renal cell carcinoma. She was referred to our departmentbecause of painless gross hematuria. Cystoscopy, computed tomography and retrogradepyelography studies revealed bladder, bilateral renal and ureter UC. She was treated withtransurethral resection of the bladder tumor followed by bi...

  13. Simultaneous Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bighan Khademi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The association of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx with thyroid papillary carcinoma is an unusual finding. From 2004 to 2011, approximately 250 patients underwent laryngectomies due to squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx at the Otolaryngology Department of Khalili Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In three patients, synchronous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma was found. Histopathologic study of the lymph nodes revealed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. We report three cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma incidentally found on histological examinations of resected thyroid lobes, as a procedure required for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In comparison, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma needs more aggressive treatment than well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The prevalence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, as an incidental finding in our study was 0.01%. Therefore, preoperative evaluation of the thyroid gland by ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspicious lesions is recommended in patients who are candidates for open laryngectomy.

  14. Stem cell research in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengyi SUN; Shi ZUO

    2008-01-01

    The traditional view that adult human liver tumors, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), arise from mature cell types has been challenged in recent dec-ades. The results of several studies suggest that HCC can be derived from liver stem cells. There are four levels of cells in the liver stem cell lineage: hepatocytes, hepatic stem cells/oval cells, bone marrow stem cells and hepato-pancreas stem cells. However, whether HCC is resulted from the differentiation block of stem cells and, moreover, which liver stem cell lineage is the source cell of hepatocarcinogenesis remain controversial. In this review, we focus on the current status of liver stem cell research and their roles in carcinogenesis of HCC, in order to explore new approaches for stem cell therapy of HCC.

  15. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

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    Divvya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differentiation is practically very rare.

  16. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Divvya; Rehana; Viswanathan; Krishnaswamy; Anvar Ali

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differen...

  17. Basal cell carcinoma of penis: case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, M Z; Polacarz, S V; Partington, P E

    1988-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is rare. A patient who presented with a penile and scrotal ulcer due to basal cell carcinoma is reported. Wide local excision and split skin grafting were performed to excise the lesion completely.

  18. A role for sunlight in skin cancer: UV-induced p53 mutations in squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunlight is a carcinogen to which everyone is exposed. Its UV component is the major epidemiologic risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Of the multiple steps in tumor progression, those that are sunlight-related would be revealed if they contained mutations specific to UV. In a series of New England and Swedish patients, the authors find that 14/24 (58%) of invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the skin contain mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene, each altering the amino acid sequence. Involvement of UV light in these p53 mutations is indicated by the presence in three of the tumors of a CC → TT double-base change, which is only known to be induced by UV. UV is also implicated by a UV-like occurrence of mutations exclusively at dipyrimidine sites, including a high frequency of C → T substitutions. p53 mutations in internal malignancies do not show these UV-specific mutations. The dipyrimidine specificity also implicates dipyrimidine photoproducts containing cytosine as oncogenic photoproducts. They believe these results identify a carcinogen-related step in a gene involved in the subsequent human cancer

  19. Susceptibility to Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Renal Transplant Recipients Associates with Genes Regulating Melanogenesis Independent of their Role in Pigmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Kjærheim; Torbjørn Leivestad; Per Helsing; Per A. Andresen; Nymoen, Dag A

    2013-01-01

    The highly polymorphic melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene plays a crucial role in pigmentation. Variants of the gene have been implicated in risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the general population. In renal transplant (RT) recipients these cancers are more aggressive and very common. To evaluate the risk of SCC relative to MC1R and the pigmentation-associated genes ASIP, TYR, and TYRP1, a group of 217 RT recipients with and without SCC was genotyped. Associations with SCC r...

  20. Evaluation of the prognostic role of tumor cell podoplanin expression in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the potential prognostic role of tumor cell podoplanin expression in patients treated with resection followed by irradiation or chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Podoplanin expression (≤10 % versus > 10 %) and 12 other factors were evaluated in 160 patients for their association with locoregional control (LRC), metastases-free (MFS) and overall survival (OS). Other factors were age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, preradiotherapy (pre-RT) hemoglobin level, tumor site, histological grading, T category, N category, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, extent of resection and concurrent chemotherapy. In multivariate analysis, ECOG performance status 0-1 (risk ratio, RR: 3.01; 95 % confidence interval, CI: 1.42-7.14; p = 0.003), pre-RT hemoglobin levels ≥ 7.45 mmol/l (12 g/dl; RR: 2.03; 95 % CI: 1.04-3.94; p = 0.038), oropharyngeal cancer (RR: 1.25; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.55; p = 0.038) and T category T1-2 (RR: 1.81; 95 % CI: 1.24-2.79; p = 0.002) were significantly associated with improved LRC. T category T1-2 (RR: 1.90; 95 % CI: 1.25-3.06; p = 0.002) and N category N0-2a (RR: 5.22; 95 % CI: 1.96-18.09; p 10 %. (orig.)

  1. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  2. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur S; Thami G; Kanwar A

    2003-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  3. Current treatment approach to non-clear cell renal carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    I. V. Tsimafeyeu

    2015-01-01

    Non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma has various histologic subtypes. Tumor biology plays significant role in the disease development. However, despite the one surgical approach both to clear cell and non-clear cell renal carcinoma, patients’ outcomes within one stage of the disease may vary. Furthermore, tumor sensitivity and its response to therapy are highly dependent on the same histologic subtype.The article gives detailed data on the current treatment of papillary, chromophobe and other ...

  4. Histological, Immunohistological, and Clinical Features of Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Correlation to Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jaeger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, but highly malignant tumor of the skin with high rates of metastasis and poor survival. Its incidence rate rises and is currently about 0.6/100000/year. Clinical differential diagnoses include basal cell carcinoma, cyst, amelanotic melanoma, lymphoma and atypical fibroxanthoma. In this review article clinical, histopathological and immunhistochemical features of Merkel cell carcinoma are reported. In addition, the role of Merkel cell polyomavirus is discussed.

  5. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  6. Cryotherapy in basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra A; Balachandran C; Shenoi S; Sabitha L; Pai Satish; Ravikumar B; Roy Alfred

    1999-01-01

    Cryotherapy has proved to be an effective tool in the management of various dermatoses. We report 6 patients with histopathologically proven basal cell carcinoma of variable sizes treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy by the open spray technique. Lesions tended to heal with depigmentation and scar formation. However depigmented areas often repigmented over a period of time.

  7. MRI analysis of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze MRI manifestation and enhancement of renal cell carcinoma, and to improve the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Methods: 48 cases of renal cell carcinoma proven by surgery and pathology were reviewed. MRI scans including T1WI, T2WI, TRUFI and contrast enhancement were carried out in all cases and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was performed in 15. Results: Of the 48 cases, there were clear cell carcinoma in 41, chromophobe cell carcinoma in 4 and papillary cell carcinoma in 3. The tumors were homogeneously T1 iso- or hypointense in 33 and heterogeneous in 15; homogeneously T2 hyperintense in 14, isointense in 6 and heterogeneous in 28 patients. Pseudocapsule was found in 10 cases. Contrast enhancement was homogeneous in 6, heterogeneous in 34, irregularly peripheral within the wall in 5, and homogeneously circular in 3. Conclusion: MRI can accurately diagnose renal cell carcinoma and help to determine the cell subsets. (authors)

  8. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the current treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, focusing on medical treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The most important recent publications have been selected after a literature search employing PubMed using the search terms: advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma, anti-angiogenesis drugs and systemic therapy; also significant meeting abstracts were consulted. RESULTS: Progress in understanding the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma, especially related to genetics and angiogenesis, has been achieved mainly through of the study of von Hippel-Lindau disease. A great variety of active agents have been developed and tested in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. New specific molecular therapies in metastatic disease are discussed. Sunitinib, Sorafenib and Bevacizumab increase the progression-free survival when compared to therapy with cytokines. Temsirolimus increases overall survival in high-risk patients. Growth factors and regulatory enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase IX may be targets for future therapies. CONCLUSIONS: A broader knowledge of clear cell carcinoma molecular biology has permitted the beginning of a new era in mRCC therapy. Benefits of these novel agents in terms of progression-free and overall survival have been observed in patients with mRCC, and, in many cases, have become the standard of care. Sunitinib is now considered the new reference first-line treatment for mRCC. Despite all the progress in recent years, complete responses are still very rare. Currently, many important issues regarding the use of these agents in the management of metastatic renal cancer still need to be properly addressed.

  9. The roles of tumor- and metastasis-promoting carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in human carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezawa, Yoshihiro; Orimo, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) constitute a substantial proportion of the non-neoplastic mesenchymal cell compartment in various human tumors. These fibroblasts are phenotypically converted from their progenitors via interactions with nearby cancer cells during the course of tumor progression. The resulting CAFs, in turn, support the growth and progression of carcinoma cells. These fibroblasts have a major influence on the hallmarks of carcinoma and promote tumor malignancy through the secretion of tumor-promoting growth factors, cytokines and exosomes, as well as through the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Coevolution of CAFs and carcinoma cells during tumorigenesis is therefore essential for progression into fully malignant tumors. Recent studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms underlying CAF functions, especially in tumor invasion, metastasis and drug resistance and have highlighted the significant heterogeneity among these cells. In this review, we summarize the impacts of recently identified roles of tumor-promoting CAFs and discuss the therapeutic implications of targeting the heterotypic interactions of these fibroblasts with carcinoma cells. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27506216

  10. Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma in the epididymis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-wei; YUAN Lin; Hu Hong-hui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma is a special type of tumor which is usually found in the lungs. However, it is very rare in extra pulmonary tissues, especially in epididymis. One case of small cell undifferentiated carcinoma in the right epididymis, with partial differentiation to adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma is reported as follows.

  11. Targeting Btk with ibrutinib inhibit gastric carcinoma cells growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin Dao; Chen, Xiao Ying; Ji, Ke Wei; Tao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Tec-family non-receptor tyrosine kinases family. It has previously been reported to be expressed in B cells and has an important role in B-cell malignancies. While the roles of Btk in the pathogenesis of certain B-cell malignancies are well established, the functions of Btk in gastric carcinoma have never been investigated. Herein, we found that Btk is over-expressed in gastric carcinoma tissues and gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of Btk expression selectively inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells, but not that of the normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell, which express very little Btk. Inhibition of Btk by its inhibitor ibrutinib has an additive inhibitory effect on gastric cancer cell growth. Treatment of gastric cancer cells, but not immortalized breast epithelial cells with ibrutinib results in effective cell killing, accompanied by the attenuation of Btk signals. Ibrutinib also induces apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cells as well as is a chemo-sensitizer for docetaxel (DTX), a standard of care for gastric carcinoma patients. Finally, ibrutinib markedly reduces tumor growth and increases tumor cell apoptosis in the tumors formed in mice inoculated with the gastric carcinoma cells. Given these promising preclinical results for ibrutinib in gastric carcinoma, a strategy combining Btk inhibitor warrants attention in gastric cancer. PMID:27508020

  12. The many faces of basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most easily cured carcinoma, but because of the many forms it can take, and because it grows so slowly, it can be misdiagnosed or neglected. The author discusses its more common forms and etiologic considerations.

  13. The sonic hedgehog signaling pathway is reactivated in human renal cell carcinoma and plays orchestral role in tumor growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helwig Jean-Jacques

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CRCC remains resistant to therapies. Recent advances in Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIF molecular network led to targeted therapies, but unfortunately with only limited clinical significance. Elucidating the molecular processes involved in kidney tumorigenesis and resistance is central to the development of improved therapies, not only for kidney cancer but for many, if not all, cancer types. The oncogenic PI3K/Akt, NF-kB and MAPK pathways are critical for tumorigenesis. The sonic hedgehog (SHH signaling pathway is crucial to normal development. Results By quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot, we report that the SHH signaling pathway is constitutively reactivated in tumors independently of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL tumor suppressor gene expression which is inactivated in the majority of CRCC. The inhibition of the SHH signaling pathway by the specific inhibitor cyclopamine abolished CRCC cell growth as assessed by cell counting, BrdU incorporation studies, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and β-galactosidase staining. Importantly, inhibition of the SHH pathway induced tumor regression in nude mice through inhibition of cell proliferation and neo-vascularization, and induction of apoptosis but not senescence assessed by in vivo studies, immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. Gli1, cyclin D1, Pax2, Lim1, VEGF, and TGF-β were exclusively expressed in tumors and were shown to be regulated by SHH, as evidenced by immunoblot after SHH inhibition. Using specific inhibitors and immunoblot, the activation of the oncogenic PI3K/Akt, NF-kB and MAPK pathways was decreased by SHH inhibition. Conclusions These findings support targeting SHH for the treatment of CRCC and pave the way for innovative and additional investigations in a broad range of cancers.

  14. Role of receptor activity modifying protein 1 in function of the calcium sensing receptor in the human TT thyroid carcinoma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya J Desai

    Full Text Available The Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR plays a role in calcium homeostasis by sensing minute changes in serum Ca(2+ and modulating secretion of calciotropic hormones. It has been shown in transfected cells that accessory proteins known as Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins (RAMPs, specifically RAMPs 1 and 3, are required for cell-surface trafficking of the CaSR. These effects have only been demonstrated in transfected cells, so their physiological relevance is unclear. Here we explored CaSR/RAMP interactions in detail, and showed that in thyroid human carcinoma cells, RAMP1 is required for trafficking of the CaSR. Furthermore, we show that normal RAMP1 function is required for intracellular responses to ligands. Specifically, to confirm earlier studies with tagged constructs, and to provide the additional benefit of quantitative stoichiometric analysis, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to show equal abilities of RAMP1 and 3 to chaperone CaSR to the cell surface, though RAMP3 interacted more efficiently with the receptor. Furthermore, a higher fraction of RAMP3 than RAMP1 was observed in CaSR-complexes on the cell-surface, suggesting different ratios of RAMPs to CaSR. In order to determine relevance of these findings in an endogenous expression system we assessed the effect of RAMP1 siRNA knock-down in medullary thyroid carcinoma TT cells, (which express RAMP1, but not RAMP3 constitutively and measured a significant 50% attenuation of signalling in response to CaSR ligands Cinacalcet and neomycin. Blockade of RAMP1 using specific antibodies induced a concentration-dependent reduction in CaSR-mediated signalling in response to Cinacalcet in TT cells, suggesting a novel functional role for RAMP1 in regulation of CaSR signalling in addition to its known role in receptor trafficking. These data provide evidence that RAMPs traffic the CaSR as higher-level oligomers and play a role in CaSR signalling even after cell surface localisation has

  15. Epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria Pessoa Chinem

    2011-04-01

    associated with its cause. However, other elements of risk are described, such as light skin phototypes, advanced age, family history of skin carcinoma, light eyes and blond hair, freckles in childhood and immunosuppression. Behavioral aspects such as occupational sun exposure, rural labor and sunburns at a young age also play a role. Between 30% and 75% of the sporadic cases are associated with patched hedgehog gene mutation, but other genetic changes are also described. The tumor is commonly found in concomitance with skin lesions related to chronic sun exposure, such as actinic keratoses, solar lentigines and facial telangiectasia. The prevention of basal cell carcinoma is based on the knowledge of risk factors, early diagnosis and treatment, as well as on the adoption of specific measures, particularly in susceptible populations. The authors present a review of the epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma.

  16. Diagnostic and pathogenetic role of café-au-lait macules in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Giovanni; Tomasi, Aldo; Pastorino, Lorenza; Ruini, Cristel; Guarneri, Carmelo; Mandel, Victor Desmond; Seidenari, Stefania; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Café au lait spots (CALS) are common dermatologic findings that can at the same time arise in a variety of pathologic conditions such as Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), together with numerous hereditary syndromes for which they represent either diagnostic criteria or associated elements (McCune Albright, Silver-Russell, LEOPARD, Ataxia-Telangiectasia). A review of the literature also revealed two cases of association with NBCCS. We report here the case of a female proband with CALS associated to Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) with known PTCH1 germline mutation (C.1348-2A>G) who had been misdiagnosed with NF1 in her childhood because of 5 CALS and cutaneous nodules. The patient presented a giant cell tumor of the skin, palmar and calcaneal epidermoidal cystic nodules, odontogenic keratocystic tumors and deformity of the jaw profile. Her family history brought both her brother and father to our attention because of the presence of KCOTs diagnosed at early age: after genetic testing, the same PTCH1 germline mutation was identified in the three family members. Clinical criteria are used for discerning NF1 diagnosis (size, number and onset age), while there are no definite guidelines concerning CALS except for their presence. In our experience, we have noted an association of CALS with NBCCS; this seems interesting because we already know clinical criteria are a dynamic entity and can be modified by epidemiologic evidences. PMID:23107377

  17. Diagnostic and pathogenetic role of café-au-lait macules in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponti Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Café au lait spots (CALS are common dermatologic findings that can at the same time arise in a variety of pathologic conditions such as Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, together with numerous hereditary syndromes for which they represent either diagnostic criteria or associated elements (McCune Albright, Silver-Russell, LEOPARD, Ataxia-Telangiectasia. A review of the literature also revealed two cases of association with NBCCS. We report here the case of a female proband with CALS associated to Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS with known PTCH1 germline mutation (C.1348-2A>G who had been misdiagnosed with NF1 in her childhood because of 5 CALS and cutaneous nodules. The patient presented a giant cell tumor of the skin, palmar and calcaneal epidermoidal cystic nodules, odontogenic keratocystic tumors and deformity of the jaw profile. Her family history brought both her brother and father to our attention because of the presence of KCOTs diagnosed at early age: after genetic testing, the same PTCH1 germline mutation was identified in the three family members. Clinical criteria are used for discerning NF1 diagnosis (size, number and onset age, while there are no definite guidelines concerning CALS except for their presence. In our experience, we have noted an association of CALS with NBCCS; this seems interesting because we already know clinical criteria are a dynamic entity and can be modified by epidemiologic evidences.

  18. Limited disease of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma. Impact of local treatment and nodal status, role of cranial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.C.; Gani, C.; Weinmann, M.; Bamberg, M.; Eckert, F. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology; Mayer, F. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medical Oncology; Sipos, B. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Pathology

    2012-03-15

    As extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is a rare entity of tumors, the available treatment recommendations are mainly based on retrospective analyses and deduction from treatment of small cell lung cancer. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed analysis concerning prognostic factors and treatment modalities. A total of 20 patients with limited disease (LD) of EPSCC treated at our institution from 1999-2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Data were gathered from chart review. Localization, lymph node involvement, as well as local and systemic treatment were documented and their impact on pattern of failure and survival times statistically evaluated. With a median follow-up of 21 months, the estimated median overall- and disease-free survival were 59 and 25 months, respectively. Local control was excellent with 100% at 2 years. Nodal involvement was observed in 74% (n = 14/19) of evaluable patients. However, outcome was not altered by this parameter. Local treatment consisted of surgery in 10 cases, radiotherapy in 7 cases, and a combination of both in 3 cases. Only 3 patients (15%) developed hematogenous central nervous system metastases, while none of the patients received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Nodal involvement did not worsen prognosis. Local control was excellent irrespective of local treatment modality and the leading cause of failure was distant metastasis. Therefore, systemic treatment should not be omitted. Prophylactic cranial irradiation might be dispensable but discussed for head and neck malignancies.

  19. Immunotherapy in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, R M

    1999-06-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma continue to present a therapeutic challenge. Current therapeutic approaches involve surgery and various types of immunotherapy. The rationale for this latter form of therapy include the observations of spontaneous tumor regression, the presence of a T-cell-mediated immune response, and the tumor responses observed in patients receiving cytokine therapy. Analysis of prognostic factors in these patients demonstrates that clinical responses occur most frequently in individuals with good performance status. The cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2, aldesleukin [Proleukin], interferon-alfa (Intron A, Roferon-A), or the combination produce responses in 15% to 20% of patients. Randomized trials suggest that administration of interferon-alfa may result in a modest improvement in median survival. Investigation of the molecular genetics of renal cell carcinoma and the presence of T-lymphocyte immune dysregulation have suggested new therapeutic strategies. Further preclinical and clinical studies investigating inhibitors of angiogenesis or pharmacologic methods to reverse immune dysregulation are ongoing. Therapeutic results in patients with renal cell carcinoma remain limited, and investigational approaches are warranted. PMID:10378218

  20. Survival and patterns of failure in endometrial serous papillary and clear cell carcinoma: role of adjuvant therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serous papillary carcinoma (UPSC) and clear-cell carcinoma (CCC) of the endometrium account for only 10% of the total cases of endometrial cancer, yet they represent about 50% of all relapses in endometrial cancer, with a high propensity for extra-pelvic recurrences. Due to a lack of consensus on the best treatment method for these unique but unfavourable subtypes of endometrial cancer, we aim to assess the survival and patterns of failure in patients with UPSC and CCC of the endometrium, and to examine whether adjuvant therapy alters the outcome. Methods and Material: 550 patients underwent primary surgery for their endometrial cancer at King Edward Memorial Hospital between 1991 and 2002. Of these 52 (9.5%) had UPSC or CCC histology. The most common histology was UPSC mixed with endometriod carcinoma (22 cases), followed by UPSC alone (14 cases), then CCC mixed with endometriod carcinoma (11 cases). Surgery was undertaken in all, and majority of patients received para-aortic lymph node biopsy and pelvic lymph node dissection. FIGO staging were as follows: two Stage IA, twenty Stage IB, eight Stage IC, five Stage 2, fourteen Stage 3 and three Stage 4. Adjuvant therapy was as follows: 27 radiotherapy (18 vaginal brachytherapy, 6 external beam pelvic +/- para-aortic radiotherapy, 3 both), 5 chemotherapy (4 alone, 1 with progesterone), 6 hormone alone, and 11 received no treatment. No patient received whole-abdominal radiotherapy. As a group, with a median follow-up of 22 months, the actuarial 5-year overall-survival was 49.6%. Cause-specific survival at 5 year was 60.1%. Stratified by stages, the median overall-survival for Stage 1 was 111 months versus 13 months for all other stages (p<0.0001). Likewise, median survival was not reached for cause-specific survival with Stage 1 patients, but for all other stages it was 15 months (p<0.0001). 35% of patients relapsed, however, only 3 relapsed locally (one also had distant metastases). Most were Stage 2 and above. Of

  1. Analysis of the Role of PET/CT SUVmax in Prognosis and Its Correlation with 
Clinicopathological Characteristics in Resectable Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang REN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the world, more than one-half of cases are diagnosed at a advanced stage, and the overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer is 18%. Lung cancer is divided into non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC. Approximately 80%-85% of cases are NSCLC which includes three main types: adenocarcinoma (40%, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (20%-30%, and large cell carcinoma (10%. Although therapies that target driver mutations in adenocarcinomas are showing some promise, they are proving ineffective in smoking-related SCC. We need pay more attention to the diagnosis and treatment of SCC. 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT has emerged as an accurate staging modality in lung cancer diagnosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax on PET-CT in prognosis and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics in resectable SCC. Methods One hundred and eighty-two resectable SCC patients who underwent PET/CT imaging between May 2005 and October 2014 were enrolled into this retrospectively study. All the enrolled patients had underwent pulmonary resection with mediastinal lymph node dissection without preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Survival outcomes were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Correlation between SUVmax and clinicopathological factors was analysed using Pearson correlation analysis and Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of SUVmax 13.0 as cutoff value, and patients with SUVmax more than 13.0 had shorter median overall survival than patients less than 13.0 in univariate analysis (56 months vs 87 months; P=0.022. There was remarkable correlation between SUVmax and gender, tumor size, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM stage

  2. Role of chromosome 3p12–p21 tumour suppressor genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma: analysis of VHL dependent and VHL independent pathways of tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, A.; Fullwood, P; Kondo, K.; Kishida, T.; Yao, M.; Maher, E R; Latif, F

    2000-01-01

    Aims—Chromosome 3p deletions and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for 3p markers are features of clear cell renal cell carcinoma but are rare in non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The VHL tumour suppressor gene, which maps to 3p25, is a major gatekeeper gene for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and is inactivated in most sporadic cases of this disease. However, it has been suggested that inactivation of other 3p tumour suppressor genes might be crucial for clear cell renal cell carcinoma tumorig...

  3. Surgical resection of a renal cell carcinoma involving the inferior vena cava: the role of the cardiothoracic surgeon

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Parissis, Haralabos

    2010-11-05

    Abstract Background The techniques for the resection of renal tumors with IVC extension are based on the experience of individual units. We attempt to provide a logical approach of the surgical strategies in a stepwise fashion. Methods Over 6-years 9 patients with renal cell carcinoma invading the IVC, underwent surgery. There were 6 males. The extension was at level IV in 4 and III in 5 cases. CPB used in 8 and hypothermia and circulatory arrest in all patients with level IV disease. The results and an algorithm of the plan of action, as per level of extension are presented. Results Plan of action: For level I-II disease: No Cardiothoracic involvement, For level III: Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB) & control of the cavo-atrial junction. For level IV: use of brief periods of Circulatory Arrest & repair of the Cavotomy with a pericardial patch. Postoperative morbidity: prolonged ICU stay, 3 patients (33.3%); tracheostomy, 1 (11.1%); Sepsis, 2 (22.2%); CVA 1, (11.1%). Mortality: 2 patients (22.2%) Conclusions Total clearance of the IVC from an adherent tumor is important, therefore extensive level IV disease presents a surgical challenge. We recommend CPB for level III and brief periods of Total Circulatory Arrest (TCA) for level IV disease.

  4. A Case-Control Study of the Role of Human Papillomavirus in Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi S. Liyanage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC tissues compared to oesophageal tissue from healthy controls, in an Australian cohort. Methods. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 99 patients with OSCC and 100 healthy controls to examine the presence of HPV DNA. Paraffin tissues were tested using the PapType high-risk HPV detection and genotyping kit and with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra. The biopsy samples were tested for HPV using a PCR-ELISA method based on the L1 consensus primer set PGMY09-PGMY11. Results. HPV DNA of the oncogenic genotype 16 was detected in 1/99 case specimens, a rate of 1010 per 100,000 (95% CI: 30–5500. All control specimens were negative for HPV. Significantly higher rates of smoking, other aerodigestive cancers, and mortality were seen among cases than controls. A pooled analysis of this study and the only other Australian case-control study found that 9/321 cases and 0/155 controls were positive for HPV. The pooled odds ratio for HPV being a risk factor for OSCC was 9.35 (95% CI: 0.47–190.33. Conclusion. Our results suggest that in this multifactorial cancer HPV may be an additional risk factor; although a larger, better powered study is needed.

  5. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H;

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  6. GPC3 reduces cell proliferation in renal carcinoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Valsechi, Marina Curado; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz Bortolozo; Conceição, André Luis Giacometti; Stuqui, Bruna; Candido, Natalia Maria; Provazzi, Paola Jocelan Scarin; de Araújo, Luiza Ferreira; Silva, Wilson Araújo; Calmon, Marilia Freitas; Rahal, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background Glypican 3 (GPC3) is a member of the family of glypican heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). The GPC3 gene may play a role in controlling cell migration, negatively regulating cell growth and inducing apoptosis. GPC3 is downregulated in several cancers, which can result in uncontrolled cell growth and can also contribute to the malignant phenotype of some tumors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mechanism of action of the GPC3 gene in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. ...

  7. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome; Naevoid Basalzellkarzinom-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, A.; Heinrich, M.; Heckmann, M.; Kramann, B. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Aliani, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Dill-Mueller, D. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Hautklinik und Poliklinik; Uder, M. [Erlange-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2005-07-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar/plantar pits, calcification of the falx cerebri, and spine and rib anomalies. The combination of clinical, imaging, and histological findings is helpful in identifying NBCCS patients. Imaging plays a crucial role in evaluation of these patients. We present a wide variety of clinical and radiological findings characteristic of this disease. (orig.)

  8. The role of radiotherapy in small cell lung carcinoma: study of 137 apparently non-metastatic cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrospective analysis of 137 patients with limited stage small cell lung carcinoma who received radiotherapy between 1978 and 1990 and literature review. The actuarial survival rate was 20 % at 2 years and 9 % at 5 years. It was 25 % at 2 years and 17 % at 5 years for 12 patients with surgical resection. For patients who did not undergo surgical resection, it was 20 % at 2 years and 9 % at 5 years for 96 patients belonging to group 2, while it was 14 % at 2 years and 3.5 % at 5 years for group 1. Deaths due to local relapse reached 48 % in the group treated with 45 Gy and 33 % in the group treated with 65 Gy(NS). For the 33 patients who were more than 70 years old at the time of treatment, the actuarial survival rate was 18 % at 2 years and 6 % at 5 years with death from other causes twice as high as that of patients who were less than 70 years old at the time of treatment. For the 59 patients who were less than 70 years old at the time of treatment, in whom supraclavicular node, pleural effusion or superior vena cava syndrome were not depicted and were treated with the highest dose (4 % of the total number of patients), the actuarial survival rate was 20 % at 2 years and 14 % at 5 years. Literature analysis shows that treatment of limited small cell lung cancer with chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation increased the overall survival rate from 16.5 % to 23 % at 2 years and the local control from 23 % to 48 %, in comparison with chemotherapy alone. Although these results are modest, they seem to be improved with more effective chemotherapy, especially with the association of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy. (author)

  9. Scalp squamous cell carcinoma in xeroderma pigmentosum

    OpenAIRE

    Awan, Basim A; Hanadi Alzanbagi; Osama A Samargandi; Hossam Ammar

    2014-01-01

    Context: Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that appears in early childhood. Squamous cell carcinoma is not uncommon in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and mostly involving the face, head, neck, and scalp. However, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp may exhibit an aggressive course. Case Report: Here, we present a huge squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp in a three-years-old child with xeroderma pigmentosum. In addition, we illustrate the challenges of a child...

  10. Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma and Tonsil Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dario Marcotullio; Giannicola Iannella; Gian Franco Macri; Caterina Marinelli; Melissa Zelli; Giuseppe Magliulo

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common renal tumor in adults. Clear cell carcinoma represents 85% of all histological subtypes. In February 2012 a 72-year-old woman came to our department due to the appearance of massive hemoptysis and pharyngodinia. Previously, this patient was diagnosed with a renal cell carcinoma treated with left nephrectomy. We observed an exophytic, grayish, and ulcerated mass in the left tonsillar lodge and decided to subject the patient to an immediate tonsillectomy....

  11. Clear cell carcinoma of the lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, C; Carlile, A

    1985-01-01

    Six tumours of the lung initially classified as clear cell carcinoma, were studied. Examination of further material by light and electron microscopy showed adenocarcinomatous differentiation in three cases and squamous differentiation in two. One case showed the features of a large cell anaplastic carcinoma. The clear appearance of the cytoplasm in paraffin sections was due to accumulations of glycogen that were partially removed during processing. It is concluded that clear cell carcinoma is...

  12. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Çiçek, Tufan; Coşkunoğlu, Esra Zeynep; Duran, Berkan; Çiftci, Egemen

    2015-01-01

    Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder a...

  13. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Tufan Cicek; Esra Zeynep Coskunoglu; Berkan Duran; Egemen Ciftci

    2015-01-01

    Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder ...

  14. Synchronous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Multiple Digits

    OpenAIRE

    Abner, Sabra; Redstone, Jeremiah; Chowdhry, Saeed; Kasdan, Morton L.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2011-01-01

    Cancers of the perionychium are relatively rare occurrences and are often related to chronic inflammation associated with trauma, infection, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, or other carcinogens. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common tumor reported of the nail bed. Synchronous squamous cell carcinomas of the perionychium have been rarely reported. We present a case of a 46-year-old woman with synchronous squamous cell carcinomas involving both hands and multiple digits. Treatment modal...

  15. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Concurrent with Bowen's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyun Chul; Kang, Ho Song; Park, Kyoung Tae; Oh, Young Ha; Yu, Hee Joon; Kim, Joung Soo

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive cutaneous malignancy of the elderly and immunocompromised patients. It is occasionally found coexisting with other diseases, such as squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, miscellaneous adnexal tumors, and rarely Bowen disease. A 75-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of an irregularly shaped erythematous patch on the left mandibular angle. Three months later, a 1.5×1.0 cm sized painless and rapidly growi...

  16. Case of hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Sadaf; Jadidi, Nima; Faraj, Sheila F.; Rodriquez, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of renal malignancy and it originates from the renal tubular epithelium. Due to the diversity in the histopathological and molecular characteristics, it is typically subclassified into five different categories. Papillary renal cell carcinoma is one subclassification and it includes two variants: sporadic and hereditary. Although the hereditary form comprises a smaller number of cases of papillary renal cell carcinoma, an understanding of the molec...

  17. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD; Waseem-Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi, MD; Julie Gehl, MD, PhD; Christen Krag, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstruct...

  18. The role of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in evaluating the response to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors in patients with metastatic primary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is increasingly used in the evaluation of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), primarily for staging purposes. The aim of this paper is to perform a systematic review about the usefulness of PET-CT using FDG in response assessment after treatment with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with advanced RCC. The scientific literature about the role of PET-CT using FDG in the assessment of response to treatment with TKIs in patients affected by advanced RCC was systematically reviewed. Seven studies about the role of PET-CT using FDG in the response assessment after treatment with TKIs (essentially sunitinib and sorafenib) in advanced RCC were retrieved in full-text and analysed, to determine the predictive role of this morpho-functional imaging method on patient outcome. To date, the role of PET-CT using FDG in evaluating the response to TKIs in metastatic RCC patients is still not well defined, partly due to heterogeneity of available studies; however, PET-CT reveals potential role for the selection of patients undergoing therapy with TKIs. The use of contrast-enhanced PET-CT appears to be promising for a “multi-dimensional” evaluation of treatment response in these patients

  19. Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting as Dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Sharad; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma presenting with dysphagia is rare. We report a case who presented with dysphagia as the only manifestations of renal malignancy. Biopsy from the pyriform fossa nodules revealed a clear cell neoplasm. Immuno-histochemical analysis of tissue confirmed metastasis of renal cell carcinoma.

  20. Interaction of Stellate Cells with Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by its late detection, aggressive growth, intense infiltration into adjacent tissue, early metastasis, resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy and a strong “desmoplastic reaction”. The dense stroma surrounding carcinoma cells is composed of fibroblasts, activated stellate cells (myofibroblast-like cells), various inflammatory cells, proliferating vascular structures, collagens and fibronectin. In particular the cellular components of the stroma produce the tumor microenvironment, which plays a critical role in tumor growth, invasion, spreading, metastasis, angiogenesis, inhibition of anoikis, and chemoresistance. Fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and activated stellate cells produce the extracellular matrix components and are thought to interact actively with tumor cells, thereby promoting cancer progression. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the role of pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) in the desmoplastic response of pancreas cancer and the effects of PSC on tumor progression, metastasis and drug resistance. Finally we present some novel ideas for tumor therapy by interfering with the cancer cell-host interaction

  1. Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Radiotherapy or Radiochemotherapy: Prognostic Role of TP53 and HPV Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of the TP53 mutation and human papilloma virus (HPV) status in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Methods and materials: The TP53 mutation and HPV status were analyzed in 78 cases of locoregionally advanced OPSCC. The possible correlation of these factors with locoregiownal control, relapse-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival (OS) was also investigated. Results: Of these 78 cases, 22 had disruptive and 22 had non-disruptive (silent) TP53 mutations; the remaining 34 cases had wild-type (WT) TP53. HPV 16 DNA was found in 9 cases (11%), but all HPV-positive (HPV+) cases carried a functional p53 protein, except for 1 case that had a silent mutation. HPV+ patients fared better than HPV-negative (HPV-) patients in terms of all survival parameters, with highly statistically significant differences between the groups. Specifically, no distant metastases were observed in the HPV+ patients, whereas they occurred in 17% of the HPV- patients. However, no difference was observed between the WT TP53 and mutation group, even when this was analyzed in terms of disruptive and non-disruptive mutations. Regardless, treatment with chemotherapy nearly doubled the 5-year OS rates, both in the mutation (42% vs. 22%) and WT (30 vs. 16%) group, but only the mutation group showed improvement in all survival parameters. In addition, the second tumor-free 5-year survival rate was 72% in HPV- cases, but no second tumors were observed in HPV+ and WT p53 cases. Conclusions: Patients with HPV+ OPSCC have an excellent prognosis after radiochemotherapy, but cisplatin-based chemotherapy may not confer a satisfactory outcome, especially in WT cases, thereby justifying the additional or alternative use of taxanes and epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors. Uncommon distant metastases and second tumors in the HPV+ group may be cause for clinicians to review the follow-up policies in these patients.

  2. Role of NR1I2 (pregnane X receptor) polymorphisms in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tasmin; Warta, Rolf; Theile, Dirk; Meid, Andreas D; Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Mogler, Carolin; Herpel, Esther; Grabe, Niels; Lahrmann, Bernd; Plinkert, Peter K; Herold-Mende, Christel; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Weiss, Johanna

    2015-11-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a transcription factor regulating genes involved not only in pharmacokinetics but also in chemotherapy resistance and cancer progression. The significance of PXR for survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients is unknown so far. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PXR-encoding NR1I2 gene influence receptor functionality and inducibility by ligands and thus modulate expression and activity of its target genes. In this study, seven SNPs in the NR1I2 gene were investigated for an association with PXR protein expression and survival of HNSCC patients. Genotyping was conducted using hybridisation probe format methodology. PXR protein expression was quantified by immunohistochemistry of tissue microarray samples of HNSCC biopsies. Genotypes were correlated to PXR protein expression by a linear model regressing on the continuous gene expression value and a Cox model regressing on overall survival times. Haplotype analysis was performed by reconstruction of haplotypes from genotype information according to the expectation-maximisation algorithm. Of all tested SNPs, rs1054190 and rs1054191 allele variants tended to correlate with a reduced protein expression score of PXR (p = 0.088). Four haplotypes, each consisting of two SNPs, rs3814055/rs1054190 and rs3814055/rs1054191 as well as rs1523127/rs1054190 and rs1523127/rs1054191, showed a significant reduction of the PXR expression score (p = 0.049 and p = 0.032). However, neither allele variants nor haplotypes influenced overall survival of the respective patients. Certain NR1I2 SNPs showed an impact on PXR protein expression in HNSCC but did not influence overall survival times, questioning their value as prognostic biomarkers. PMID:26141049

  3. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis. PMID:27398205

  4. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne – case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P.

    2016-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment‐resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.

  5. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-12-16

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  6. Decreased expression of mucin 18 is associated with unfavorable postoperative prognosis in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Qi; Liu, Li; Long, Qilai; Xia, Yu; Wang, Jiajun; Xu, Jiejie; Guo, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Background: MUC18 is correlated with tumor progression and metastasis in types of malignancy. But the role of MUC18 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of MUC18 and its correlation with clinical outcomes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was performed in samples from 288 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We used Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard...

  7. Study the response to acetate in colorectal carcinoma cells harbouring different genetic background: the role of the lysosome.

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Carolina Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Biotecnologia para as Ciências da Saúde O carcinoma colorectal é o terceiro tipo de cancro mais comum no mundo, estimando-se que existam mais de um milhão de novos casos por ano e aproximadamente metade dos casos resultam em morte, sendo uma das causas mais comuns de morte por cancro no mundo. Neste contexto, torna-se importante a descoberta de novas abordagens terapêuticas para este tipo de carcinomas. Existem dois oncogenes principais implicados no desenvolvime...

  8. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Luiz De Souza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We previously published our and Johns Hopkins data titled: "Platinum-based therapy in adenosquamous pancreatic cancer: experience at two institutions” [1]. We will here like to submit a related case report as a letter to the editor to JOP in reference to the above paper. Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas has various reported incidence rates, ranging from 0.5% to as high as 5% of pancreatic ductal carcinomas [2, 3]. Of the 1300 cases of pancreatic cancers observed at autopsy in a survey in Japan in 1992, 0.7% were squamous cell carcinoma [4]. A Mayo clinic review of very rare exocrine tumors showed an even rarer incidence of squamous cell carcinoma when compared to acinar and small cell carcinoma of the pancreas [5]. This discrepancy in the reported incidence rates related to the fact that some of the cases represent adenosquamous carcinoma rather than pure squamous cell carcinoma of pancreas. In an analysis of 25 patients, mean age at diagnosis of pancreatic squamous cell carcinoma was 62 years (range: 33–80 years and there was no gender difference [6]. There is no study about the molecular profile of squamous carcinoma of the pancreas. There are no retrospective or prospective studies about the best therapy for these tumors

  9. The Expression of p53 and Cox-2 in Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Actinic Keratosis Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Ülker KARAGECE YALÇIN; Selda SEÇKİN

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate p53 and COX-2 expressions in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratoses, and to determine a possible relationship.Material and Method: 50 basal cell carcinoma, 45 squamous cell carcinoma and 45 actinic keratosis cases were evaluated. The type of tumor in basal cell carcinoma and tumor differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma were noted and the paraffin block that best represented the tumor was chosen. Immunostainin...

  10. Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis.

  11. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Li; Qiang Li

    2008-01-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare tumor which is defined as a carcinoma that exhibits pancreatic enzyme production by neoplastic cells. This review includes re-cent developments in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of ACC, imaging and pathological diagnosis and ap-proaches to treatment with reference to the literature.

  12. Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, Helen; Walsh, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), also known as kidney cancer, renal adenocarcinoma or hypernephroma, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma is a global burden. This article aims to provide a brief overview of RCC. It outlines epidemiology and presentation; invesitgation and staging; treatments and prognosis. The article also includes a focus on currently available drug treatments, and serves as an introduction to the topic.

  13. Renal cell carcinoma presenting with malignant ascites

    OpenAIRE

    Jennison, Erica; Wathuge, Gayathri W; Gorard, David A

    2015-01-01

    Lesson It is rare for renal cell carcinoma to involve the peritoneum and cause malignant ascites. Furthermore, it is uncommon for malignant ascites to be a presenting feature of this cancer. An unusual case of renal cell carcinoma presenting with malignant ascites is reported, and its response to sunitinib described.

  14. Renal Cell Carcinoma in Transplanted Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    M. Naroienejad; Salouti, R

    2005-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are prescribed routinely to kidney transplant recipients to prevent rejection. These medications are associated wi th an increased risk of secondary malignancies,including renal cell carcinoma in the transplanted kidney itself. We present a case of renal cell carcinoma in a transplanted kidney.

  15. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  16. Clear Cell Carcinoma and Clear Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma: a Comparative Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bilodeau, Elizabeth A.; Hoschar, Aaron P.; Barnes, E. Leon; Hunt, Jennifer L.; Seethala, Raja R.

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma or hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (CCC) and clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) are rare, low-grade and typically indolent malignancies that can be diagnostically challenging. In this study the clinicopathologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of 17 CCCs and 12 CCOCs are examined. The differential diagnosis of clear cell malignancies in the head and neck is discussed. The relationship of CCCs and CCOCs to other clear cell tumors on the basis of their i...

  17. Basal cell carcinoma with progression to metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Adsay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC or primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma is a malignant tumor considered to demonstrate differentiation towards Merkel cells that are present at the base of the epidermis or around the apical end of some hair follicles and are thought to play an yet uncertain role in sensory transduction. Here we present the case of a 54-year-old female with a basal cell carcinoma (BCC of the skin with neuroendocrine features (positivity for chromogranin that has evolved during multiple recurrences and radiotherapy into a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma with morphologic and immunohistochemical features of MCC (trabecular and nesting arrangement, positivity for chromogranin, cytokeratin 20, neuron specific enolase, and also neurosecretory granules on electron microscopy. The progression from a chromogranin positive basal cell carcinoma of the skin, to a high grade neuroendocrine carcinoma demonstrates the potential for cross differentiation among skin tumors.

  18. Synchronous Renal Cell Carcinoma and Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Dafashy, Tamer J.; Cameron K. Ghaffary; Keyes, Kyle T.; Joseph Sonstein

    2016-01-01

    While renal cell carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm of the kidney, its simultaneous diagnosis with a gastrointestinal malignancy is a rare, but well reported phenomenon. This discussion focuses on three independent cases in which each patient was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma and a unique synchronous gastrointestinal malignancy. Case 1 explores the diagnosis and surgical intervention of a 66-year-old male patient synchronously diagnosed with clear cell renal cell carcinom...

  19. Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Potential Mimic of Conventional Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma on Core Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Heath Liddell; Anton Mare; Sean Heywood; Genevieve Bennett; Hin Fan Chan

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCP-RCC) is a recently described, relatively uncommon variant of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with a reported incidence of 4.1%. Thought to only arise in those with end stage renal disease, CCP-RCC is increasingly identified in those without renal impairment. CCP-RCCs have unique morphologic, genetic, and immunohistochemical features distinguishing them from both conventional clear cell renal cell carcinomas and papillary renal cell carcinomas. Immunoh...

  20. Association between human papillomavirus infection and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Kamal

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma using two methods: PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay (PCR/DEIA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detection of HPV in specimens of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate the presence of HPV with the epidemiological and clinicopathological features of recurrence and survival. HPV DNA was amplified from 93 paraffin-embedded laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissue specimens by the short PCR fragment (SPF 10) primer set using PCR/DNA method. HPV detection using monoclonal anti-human papilloma virus antibodies Clone K1H8 for IHC reaction was performed on 130 specimens. HPV was identified in 35.5% of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma using PCR/DEIA and 27.7% using IHC. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of HPV and the epidemiological and clinicopathological features and recurrence. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of HPV and overall survival nor disease specific survival. Statistically significant correlation between HPV detection using PCR/DEIA technique and IHC technique was found. The presence of HPV infection in 27.7% and 38.9% of the patients suggests a possible role in the etiology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The SPF(10) PCR/DEIA technique is the most accurate method for detection of HPV in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:20419817

  1. Mast cells dysregulate apoptotic and cell cycle genes in mucosal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Paul

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is a disease of high mortality and morbidity. Interactions between the squamous cell carcinoma and the host's local immunity, and how the latter contributes to the biological behavior of the tumor are unclear. In vivo studies have demonstrated sequential mast cell infiltration and degranulation during squamous cell carcinogenesis. The degree of mast cell activation correlates closely with distinct phases of hyperkeratosis, dysplasia, carcinoma in-situ and invasive carcinoma. However, the role of mast cells in carcinogenesis is unclear. Aim This study explores the effects of mast cells on the proliferation and gene expression profile of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma using human mast cell line (HMC-1 and human glossal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCC25. Methods HMC-1 and SCC25 were co-cultured in a two-compartment chamber, separated by a polycarbonate membrane. HMC-1 was stimulated to degranulate with calcium ionophore A23187. The experiments were done in quadruplicate. Negative controls were established where SCC25 were cultured alone without HMC-1. At 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation and viability of SCC25 were assessed with MTT colorimetric assay. cDNA microarray was employed to study differential gene expression between co-cultured and control SCC25. Results HMC-1/SCC25 co-culture resulted in suppression of growth rate for SCC-25 (34% compared with 110% for the control by 72 hours, p Conclusion We show that mast cells have a direct inhibitory effect on the proliferation of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro by dysregulating key genes in apoptosis and cell cycle control.

  2. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH RENAL-CELL CARCINOMA AND A ROLE OF ONCOPHAGE IN INCREASING SURVIVAL RATES AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ya. Alekseyev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prognostic value of the Fuhrman renal-cell carcinoma (RCC gradation system has been supported by numerous studies. The high RCC  grade after Fuhrman is a sign of the high risk of recurrence even in patients with the early stages of the disease, in clear-cell tumor in par-  ticular. The anticancer vaccine Oncophage is recommended to prevent a recurrence and/or to increase a relapse-free period in patients with  early stages of RCC. While using this vaccine, one should follow the Fuhrman histological gradation system and use a coordinated multi-  disciplinary approach to treating this group of patients. This paper describes the Fuhrman histological gradation system, indications for the  use of Oncophage in patients with the early stages of ECC and a moderate risk of a recurrence. The role of urological surgeons, oncologists,  and pathomorphologists in the treatment of patients with early stages of ECC is also considered.    

  3. Homeostatic regulatory role of Pokemon in NF-κB signaling: stimulating both p65 and IκBα expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan-Nan; Sun, Qin-Sheng; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Yu-Yang

    2013-01-01

    NF-κB consists of p50, p65 (RelA), p52, c-Rel, and RelB, and among them p65 is a representative protein to investigate the regulation and function of this signaling. NF-κB integrates inflammation and carcinogenesis and regulates the expression of a variety of genes in response to immunity, inflammation, and apoptosis. IκBα acts as an inhibitor of NF-κB through forming an inactive NF-κB/IκBα complex. Pokemon is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in different signaling pathways, playing a pivotal role in cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, embryonic development, and maintenance. In this study, we found that p65 and IκBα are both novel regulatory targets of Pokemon. Ectopic expression of Pokemon in immortalized liver cells HL7702 enhanced p65 and IκBα expression, whereas silencing of Pokemon in hepatocellular carcinoma cells QGY7703 reduced cellular p65 levels. ChIP assay and targeted mutagenesis revealed that Pokemon directly binds to the element of -434 to -430 bp in p65 promoter and of -453 to -448 bp in IκBα promoter and stimulates luciferase reporter gene expression. Co-transfection of Pokemon with p65 or IκBα promoter-reporter notably enhanced their promoter activity. These data suggest that Pokemon activates the expression of both p65 and IκBα by sequence-specific binding to their promoters and plays a dual role in regulating NF-κB signaling. PMID:23054188

  4. The important tumor suppressor role of PER1 in regulating the cyclin–CDK–CKI network in SCC15 human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-Juan; Li, Han-Xue; Yang, Kai; Chen, Dan; Tang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that the abnormal expression of the circadian clock gene PER1 is closely related to the development and progression of cancer. However, the exact molecular mechanism by which the abnormal expression of PER1 induces carcinogenesis is unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the alterations in downstream cell cycle genes, cell cycle distribution, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and in vivo tumorigenicity in SCC15 oral squamous cell carcinoma cells after PER1 downregulation. Materials and methods A stable SCC15 cell line was established to constitutively express shRNA targeting PER1. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analyses were conducted to estimate PER1 mRNA and protein expression. The expression of PER1, P53, CyclinD1, CyclinE, CyclinA2, CyclinB1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, P16, P21, WEE1, and CDC25 mRNA was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Cell cycle distribution, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. The in vivo tumorigenicity of SCC15 cells was evaluated in female BALB/c nu/nu mice. Results PER1 downregulation resulted in significantly increased mRNA expression levels of CyclinD1, CyclinE, CyclinB1, CDK1, and WEE1 (P<0.05), and significantly decreased mRNA expression levels of P53, CyclinA2, P16, P21, and CDC25 (P<0.05) compared to control cells. Additionally, PER1 downregulation led to significantly fewer cells in S phase (P<0.05), but significantly more cells in G2/M phase (P<0.05) compared to the control group. After PER1 downregulation, the cell proliferation index was significantly higher (P<0.05), and the apoptotic index was significantly lower (P<0.05). The in vivo tumorigenicity of SCC15 cells was significantly enhanced by PER1 downregulation (P<0.05). Conclusion PER1 is an important tumor suppressor gene which acts by regulating the Cyclin-CDK-cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor regulatory network. An in

  5. Breast metastasis from clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Botticelli, A.; De Francesco, G. P.; D. Di Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In Western countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, whereas metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies are extremely rare. We present the case of a 60-year-old woman, who underwent surgery in 2007 for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and who 4 years later presented with a breast metastasis from clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  6. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma: A rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    P Venkat Baghirath; J Vijay Kumar; B Hari Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is an uncommon malignant salivary gland tumor accounting for about 1% of all intra-oral salivary gland tumors. Microscopic diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma may be challenging because of the spectrum of features which frequently overlaps with the other salivary gland tumors that contain clear cells, and thus it may be a diagnosis of exclusion. Here we, report a case of HCCC in a 36 years old female with detailed histological, histochemical and immunohis...

  7. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare; only several studies have been reported in the English literature. A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Bladder endoscopy revealed a large polypoid tumor at the bladder base. Transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. Many TUR-BT specimens were obtained. Histologically, the bladder tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positi...

  8. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliz Bilir; Erkan Gokce; Banu Ozturk; Faik Alev Deresoy; Ruken Yuksekkaya; Emel Yaman

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity...

  9. ACANTHOLYTIC SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF PREPUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An uncircumcised 65 year male, with history of phimosis presented with retention of urine and ulceration and bleeding in the prepuce. Circumcision was done under local anesthesia which revealed an ulcero-proliferative growth involving the prepuce and glans. The prepucial skin was sent for histopathological examination. The diagnosis was histopathologically confirmed as Acantholytic Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is a highly malignant, unusual variant of squamous cell carcinoma invading deeper anatomic structures and is associated with a higher incidence of regional metastasis and mortality.

  10. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Cicek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder arising in an unusual localization. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 604-608

  11. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  12. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  13. Herbal Formulation C168 Attenuates Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in HCT 116 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells: Role of Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lek Mun Leong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbal formulations has gained scientific interest, particularly in cancer treatment. In this study, the herbal formulation of interest, denoted as C168, is a mixture of eight genera of plants. This study aims to investigate the antiproliferative effect of C168 methanol extract (CME on various cancer cells and its underlying mechanism of action on the most responsive cell line, namely, HCT 116 cells. CME exerted antiproliferative activities on HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells and HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells but not on CCD-841-CoN normal colon epithelial cells, Jurkat E6.1 lymphoblastic leukemic cells, and V79-4 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts. Further investigation on HCT 116 cells showed that CME induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Treatment of CME induced oxidative stress in HCT 116 cells by increasing the superoxide anion level and decreasing the intracellular glutathione. CME also increased tail moment value and H2AX phosphorylation in HCT 116 cells, suggesting DNA damage as an early signal of CME induced apoptosis. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in CME-treated cells also indicated the involvement of mitochondria in CME induced apoptosis. This study indicated the selectivity of CME toward colon cancer cells with the involvement of oxidative damage as its possible mechanism of action.

  14. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Ashish Chauhan; Subhash Kashyap

    2016-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition ...

  15. Primary clear cell carcinoma of the larynx.

    OpenAIRE

    G.Pesavento; Ferlito, A; Recher, G.

    1980-01-01

    The clinical and pathological findings in three patients with clear cell carcinoma of the larynx are described. This type of neoplasm in the larynx is extremely rare. The aggressiveness of the tumour and its high biological malignancy are stressed.

  16. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is an extremely rare tumor that exhibits aggressive behavior and accounts for approximately less than 1% of all primary bladder tumors. Small cell carcinoma generally occurs in the lung, accounting for 25% of all pulmonary malignancies. SCCUB exhibits a similar microscopic and immunohistochemical appearance to that of small cell carcinoma of the lung. There is no consensus about the standard therapy, owing to its rarity. Surgical resection seems to be the mainstay of treatment for patients with limited stage, together with neoadjuvant or adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Radiation therapy has same small effect for palliative purposes, as well as being an alternative to radical cystectomy. Patients with advanced stage, although given platinum-based chemotherapy, have a poor prognosis. We herein review epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, pathological features, and current management of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. (author)

  17. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  18. Evaluation of the prognostic role of tumor cell podoplanin expression in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttenlocher, Stefan; Seibold, Nina D.; Rades, Dirk [University of Luebeck, Department of Radiation Oncology, Luebeck (Germany); Gebhard, Maximilian P.; Noack, Frank; Thorns, Christoph [University of Luebeck, Institute of Pathology, Luebeck (Germany); Hasselbacher, Katrin; Wollenberg, Barbara [University of Luebeck, Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Luebeck (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdalel, Department of Radiation Oncology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the potential prognostic role of tumor cell podoplanin expression in patients treated with resection followed by irradiation or chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Podoplanin expression (≤10 % versus > 10 %) and 12 other factors were evaluated in 160 patients for their association with locoregional control (LRC), metastases-free (MFS) and overall survival (OS). Other factors were age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, preradiotherapy (pre-RT) hemoglobin level, tumor site, histological grading, T category, N category, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, extent of resection and concurrent chemotherapy. In multivariate analysis, ECOG performance status 0-1 (risk ratio, RR: 3.01; 95 % confidence interval, CI: 1.42-7.14; p = 0.003), pre-RT hemoglobin levels ≥ 7.45 mmol/l (12 g/dl; RR: 2.03; 95 % CI: 1.04-3.94; p = 0.038), oropharyngeal cancer (RR: 1.25; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.55; p = 0.038) and T category T1-2 (RR: 1.81; 95 % CI: 1.24-2.79; p = 0.002) were significantly associated with improved LRC. T category T1-2 (RR: 1.90; 95 % CI: 1.25-3.06; p = 0.002) and N category N0-2a (RR: 5.22; 95 % CI: 1.96-18.09; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with better MFS. Pre-RT hemoglobin levels ≥ 7.45 mmol/l (RR: 2.44; 95 % CI: 1.27-4.74; p = 0.007), T category T1-2 (RR: 1.97; 95 % CI: 1.36-3.04; p < 0.001) and N category N0-2a (RR: 2.87; 95 % CI: 1.37-6.61; p = 0.005) were significantly associated with improved OS. Podoplanin expression ≤ 10 % showed a trend towards improved OS on both univariate (p = 0.050) and multivariate analysis (RR: 1.86; 95 % CI: 0.96-3.59; p = 0.07). Treatment outcomes were significantly associated with performance status, pre-RT hemoglobin level, tumor site and tumor stage. Tumor cell expression of podoplanin ≤ 10 % showed a trend towards improved OS when compared to podoplanin expression of

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jae Jung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong Hee [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst is uncommon. The diagnosis of carcinoma arising in a cyst requires that there must be an area of microscopic transition from the benign epithelial cyst lining to the invasive squamous cell carcinoma. We report a histopathologically proven case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a residual mandibular cyst in a 54-year-old woman.

  20. Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval, Mark Anthony S; Paz-Pacheco, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A 63-year-old man consulted for a non-toxic thyroid nodule of 2 years’ duration. Fine needle aspiration revealed cell findings consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma. He eventually underwent total thyroidectomy. Microscopic examination revealed histologic features of Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid. He received radioactive iodine therapy and suppressive levothyroxine treatment. Post-therapy whole body iodine-131 scan revealed thyroid tissue remnants limited to the anterior neck. Fo...

  1. ACANTHOLYTIC SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF PREPUCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mamina; Sarvesh; Viswanathan; Rehana

    2014-01-01

    An uncircumcised 65 year male, with history of phimosis presented with retention of urine and ulceration and bleeding in the prepuce. Circumcision was done under local anesthesia which revealed an ulcero-proliferative growth involving the prepuce and glans. The prepucial skin was sent for histopathological examination. The diagnosis was histopathologically confirmed as Acantholytic Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is a highly malignant, unusual...

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is rather rare and amounts to 3.5% of all rectal neoplasms. Though it has a clear-cut clinical picture, 29.5% of patients admitted for specialized treatment suffer from stage 4 due to inadequate diagnosis. Surgery is the most effective method of management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Radiation therapy may be an adjuvant procedure to surgery

  3. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic ...

  4. Renal vein thrombosis in transitional cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A rare case of renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) associated with bland thrombus of the renal vein extending into the inferior vena cava is described. Tumour thrombus in renal cell carcinoma is frequently encountered, but only very rarely occurs with TCC. Bland renal vein thrombosis occurring with renal TCC has not been described before. Contrast enhanced computed tomography assisted in distinguishing between bland and tumour thrombosis and aided in surgical management

  5. The Role of 3 Tesla Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Differential Diagnosis of Benign versus Malignant Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Barchetti; Nicola Pranno; Guglielmo Giraldi; Alessandro Sartori; Silvia Gigli; Giovanni Barchetti; Luigi Lo Mele; Luigi Tonino Marsella

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to validate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 Tesla in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant laterocervical lymph nodes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Materials and Methods. Before undergoing surgery, 80 patients, with biopsy proven HNSCC, underwent a magnetic resonance exam. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Spe) of conventional criteria and DWI in detecting laterocervical lymph node metas...

  6. Merkel cell carcinoma and iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnoli, A.; Biti, G.; De Cristofaro, M.T.R.; Papi, M.G. (Florence Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisiopatologia); Ferri, P. (Florence Univ. (Italy). U.O. Medicina Nuclear USL 10D); Magrini, S.M. (Florence Univ. (Italy). U.O. Radioterapia USL 10D); Bianchi, S. (Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Anatomia Patologica)

    1992-10-01

    Two cases of Merkel cell carcinoma, a neuroendocrine neoplasia of the skin, investigated with iodine, 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 131}I-mIBG) scintigraphy, are reported. Uptake in the tumor was evident only in 1 case. The possible diagnostic and therapeutic role of {sup 131}I-mIBG in patients with this rare neoplasm is discussed. (orig.).

  7. Merkel cell carcinoma and iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of Merkel cell carcinoma, a neuroendocrine neoplasia of the skin, investigated with iodine, 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-mIBG) scintigraphy, are reported. Uptake in the tumor was evident only in 1 case. The possible diagnostic and therapeutic role of 131I-mIBG in patients with this rare neoplasm is discussed. (orig.)

  8. ERG gene rearrangements are common in prostatic small cell carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Lotan, Tamara L.; Gupta, Nilesh S; Wang, Wenle; Toubaji, Antoun; Haffner, Michael C; Chaux, Alcides; Hicks, Jessica L.; Meeker, Alan K.; Bieberich, Charles J.; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J.

    2011-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the prostate is a rare subtype with an aggressive clinical course. Despite the frequent occurrence of ERG gene rearrangements in acinar carcinoma, the incidence of these rearrangements in prostatic small cell carcinoma is unclear. In addition, molecular markers to distinguish prostatic small cell carcinomas from lung and bladder small cell carcinomas may be clinically useful. We examined the occurrence of ERG gene rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization in...

  9. Planoepitheliale cell carcinoma arising from ampullopancreatic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: We report a case of planoepitheliale cell carcinoma located in the ampulla of Vater. We report the surgical results and pathological findings of a patient with an ampullary planoepitheliale cell carcinoma. From what we know it is the first case with successful surgical treatment. Case Report: A 58-year-old woman who presented with jaundice and preoperative endoscopic and radiological procedures could not show whether the tumour was carcinoma planoepitheliale. The clinical presentation, biochemical, radiographic and endoscopic investigation pronounced advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Results: We performed pancreaticoduodenectomy with curative intention. Histological examination revealed: planoepitheliale cell carcinoma of the ampullo-pancreatic unit. Conclusions: In conclusion, preoperative endoscopic and radiological evaluations can all prove insufficient to distinguish between benign and malignant tumour. Thus, for malignant tumours surgeons may be forced to perform extensive surgery. (authors)

  10. [Outlook: Future therapy of renal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Lothar; Miller, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Targeted therapies have fundamentally altered the therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Sunitinib today is an internationally recommended reference standard in first-line therapy; other drugs such as Temsirolimus, Everolimus, Bevacizumab (in combination with Interferon-alpha) and Sorafenib are part of the therapeutic arsenal. Practitioners thus have now more and better therapeutic options at hand, leading to a significantly improved prognosis for mRCC patients. Numerous ongoing research activities aim at the improvement of the benefits of the new compounds in the metastatic situation or application earlier in the course of the disease. Key aspects of future development in RCC are the optimization of the current therapy options by developing new targeted therapies, the search for the best combinations and sequences including the role of nephrectomy and the assessment in the adjuvant or neo-adjuvant setting. The following contribution provides an overview of ongoing studies, thus giving insight into the future therapy of RCC. PMID:20164673

  11. The role of Langerhans cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma%朗氏细胞在口腔鳞状细胞癌中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ram B. Upadhyay; Juhi Upadhyay; Nirmala N. Rao; Pankaj Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    During the initiation, promotion, and progression of multi-step carcinogenesis, changes in specific host immuno-logical factors have been observed. Although immunology of oral cancer has long been focused on antigens and lymphocytes, the fact remains that the antigen presenting cells, like the Langerhans cells (LCs) of the epithelium are initiators and modula-tors of the immune response. LCs as sentinels of immune response, have been investigated in several oral mucosal diseases, including cancer. Inadequate presentation of tumor antigens by host dendritic cells is one potential mechanism that allows tumor progression. In this review, the role of LCs in OSCC is discussed. Elucidation of the role of APCs, in particular LCs, may help to better understand the mechanisms underlying anti-tumour immune responses and, improve the effectiveness of anti-cancer immunity in tumour-bearing hosts. This section focuses on the roles LCs in the immunity of cancer and how cancer bypasses the dendritic cell-mediated immune responses, are discussed. Subsequently, the effects of tumor microenviornment on LC's and their therapeutic implications are elaborated.

  12. Up-Regulation of Cyclooxygenase 2 and Matrix Metalloproteinases-2 and -9 in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Active Role of Inflammation and Tissue Remodeling in Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Piao, Mei Shan; Choi, Jee-Young; Yun, Sook Jung; Lee, Jee-Bum; Lee, Seung-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Background Tissue inflammation and remodeling have been extensively studied in various tumors in relation with their invasiveness and metastasis. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in tissue inflammation and remodeling markers in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods Expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as an inflammatory marker and matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 (MMPs 2/9) as remodeling markers were studied in mouse and human SCCs. Weste...

  13. The role of Inositol Phosphoglycan as a possible mediator of the radiation effects on undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In our laboratory we demonstrated that the Inositol Phosphoglycan (IPG) inhibits thyroperoxidase (TPO) activity and other oxidoreductases in normal bovine thyroid gland cultures, thus increasing the H2O2 levels. On the other hand, when a cell is irradiated, damage is caused either by an increase of free radicals (H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS)) or by the direct ionization of molecules, depending on the radiation quality. With the purpose to establish if the IPG participates in damage mechanisms by radiation, UTC cells of the tumoral line (ARO) in proliferation, were exposed to high and low LET radiation: gamma, neutrons, He and 7 Li nucleus (the lasts ones produced through Boron Neutron Capture Reaction). In each group, the total physical absorbed doses were 3 and 8 Gy (Ra-3 reactor neutrons flux = 7.5 109 n/cm2 s). The results show a significant increase in the IPG activity in cells irradiated with gamma and neutrons in comparison with control cultures (p2O2 levels (p<0.01). These results suggest that the inhibition of oxidoreductases by IPG would produce an increase in peroxides which would add to the ROS produced by low LET radiation strengthening the damage along with cell viability decrease

  14. Should patients with extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naidoo, Jarushka

    2013-09-01

    Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is a rare disease. Management is based on small-cell lung carcinoma. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is not routinely administered in EPSCC. This study investigates the role of PCI in EPSCC, by analyzing the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with brain metastases in a national cohort. Disease biology and epidemiology are also investigated.

  15. The dreadful and the deadly erection—Malignant priapism from renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ling Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Penile metastasis of renal cell carcinoma is a rare occurrence. We report a case in a 44-year-old man who presented with malignant priapism as the first sign of recurrence of renal cell carcinoma. Although invasive procedures have a limited role in survival benefits, we performed a total penectomy to alleviate pain and provide a better quality of life.

  16. A Novel Protein Is Lower Expressed in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruili Guan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Engrailed-2 (EN2 has been identified as a candidate oncogene in breast cancer and prostate cancer. It is usually recognized as a mainly nuclear staining in the cells. However, recent studies showed a cytoplasmic staining occurred in prostate cancer, bladder cancer and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The inconsistency makes us confused. To clarify the localization and expression of EN2 in renal cell carcinoma, anti-EN2 antibody (ab28731 and anti-EN2 antibody (MAB2600 were used for immunohistochemistry (IHC respectively. Interestingly, we found that EN2 detected by ab28731 was mainly presented in cytoplasm while EN2 detected by MAB2600 was mainly presented in nucleus. To further investigate the different patterns observed above, lysates from full-length EN2 over expression in HEK293T cells were used to identify which antibody the EN2 molecule bound by western blot. Results showed ab28731 did not react with the lysates. For this reason, the novel specific protein detected by ab28731 was not the EN2 molecule and was named nonEN2. Then using the renal carcinoma tissue microarray and renal tissues, we found that the protein expression levels of nonEN2 in kidney tumor tissues was significantly lower than that in kidney normal tissues (p < 0.05, so was in renal cell lines. Taken together, nonEN2 is lower expressed and may play an important role in renal cell carcinoma.

  17. Expression and role of Tie-2 in rectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of Tie-2 in rectal carcinoma and its relationship with invasion and metastasis in rectal carcinoma.Materials S-P immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expression of Tie-2 in 40 cases of rectal carcinoma and 10 cases of normal rectal tissues.Results Tie-2 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of vascular endothelial cells in cancerous tissues and partly in the cytoplasm of some cancerous cells.The expression of Tie-2 in rectal carcinoma was signi...

  18. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang, E-mail: wenfang64@hotmail.com; Zhang, Yi, E-mail: syzi960@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  19. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients

  20. Renal cell carcinoma presenting as mandibular metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahmadnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC has different manifestations, including uncommon metastasis and paraneoplastic syndromes. Here we report a rare case of RCC presenting as metastasis to the mandible. A 57-year-old patient with mandibular swelling was referred to the dentist. After necessary evaluations, an incisional biopsy of mandible showed metastatic RCC. The patient was referred to the urologist. The patient underwent right radical nephrectomy. Pathological examination showed clear renal cell carcinoma. Every abnormal bone lesion in the oral cavity should be evaluated carefully and the possibility of a malignant lesion should always be considered.

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Samet Vasfi Kuvat; Zuhal Gücin; Barış Keklik; Gülzade Özyalvaçlı; Karaca Başaran

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly seen nonmelanoma skin cancer which is rarely encountered in the childhood period. An 11-year old child was admitted to our clinic due to an erythematous and a slightly pigmented lesion with a 3 × 4 cm diameter on his posterior scalp. Macroscopically, the lesion was excised with a 10 mm safety margin. Pathologic examination revealed a basal cell carcinoma. No symptoms or signs of a syndrome were observed both in the patient and his family.

  2. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-min; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area.

  3. Diagnosis of Thymic Clear Cell Carcinoma by Cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Lale, Seema A.; Tiscornia-Wasserman, Patricia G.; Mohamed Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma of the thymus is a rare tumor. Few cases of clear-cell carcinoma of thymus have been documented (Truong et al., 1990 and Wolfe III et al., 1983). All these cases were diagnosed by histopathological examination of the tissue. Diagnosis of thymic clear cell carcinoma on cytology is extremely challenging. Here we report the first case of thymic clear cell carcinoma diagnosed by cytological examination of the pericardial fluid with the help of immunocytochemistry. Differentia...

  4. Resident Stem Cells and Renal Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetta Bussolati; Alessia Brossa; Giovanni Camussi

    2011-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell hypothesis tumors are maintained by a cancer stem cell population which is able to initiate and maintain tumors. Tumor-initiating stem cells display stem or progenitor cell properties such as self-renewal and capacity to re-establish tumors that recapitulate the tumor of origin. In this paper, we discuss data relative to the presence of cancer stem cells in human renal carcinoma and their possible origin from normal resident stem cells. The cancer stem cells ...

  5. The role of cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells: association with migration, invasion and prediction of distant metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .033). Our current study showed that COX Va may play a role in migration and invasion of NSCLC cells and can be used as a biomarker to predict aggressiveness of NSCLC

  6. Renal Preservation Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichun Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal preservation therapy has been a promising concept for the treatment of localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC for 20 years. Nowadays partial nephrectomy (PN is well accepted to treat the localized RCC and the oncological control is proved to be the same as the radical nephrectomy (RN. Under the result of well oncological control, minimal invasive method gains more popularity than the open PN, like laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN and robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN. On the other hand, thermoablative therapy and cryoablation also play an important role in the renal preservation therapy to improve the patient procedural tolerance. Novel modalities, but limited to small number of patients, include high-intensity ultrasound (HIFU, radiosurgery, microwave therapy (MWT, laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT, and pulsed cavitational ultrasound (PCU. Although initial results are encouraging, their real clinical roles are still under evaluation. On the other hand, active surveillance (AS has also been advocated by some for patients who are unfit for surgery. It is reasonable to choose the best therapeutic method among varieties of treatment modalities according to patients' age, physical status, and financial aid to maximize the treatment effect among cancer control, patient morbidity, and preservation of renal function.

  7. Glycogen Rich Clear Cell Breast Carcinoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Çınkır, Havva Yeşil; Dilek, Gülay Bilir; Demirci, Ayşe; Başal, Fatma Buğdaycı; Aydın, Kübra; Demirci, Umut; Öksüzoğlu, Berna; Alkış, Necati

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare type of breast carcinoma. Tumoral tissue is consist of intracytoplasmic glycogen-rich clear cells. We presented in here a 44-year old woman diagnosed with glycogen-rich clear cell carcinoma.

  8. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma involving floor of the mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sah Kunal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Basaloid squamous cell carcinomas of oral mucosa are uncommon. Majority of them can be differentiated from squamous cell carcinoma by their aggressive clinical course and their histopathological features. This case report presents a case of 70-year-old male with basaloid squamous cell carcinoma involving the floor of the mouth.

  9. Comparative analysis of metastasis variants derived from human prostate carcinoma cells: roles in intravasation of VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and uPA-mediated invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conn, Erin M; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø; Kupriyanova, Tatyana A;

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the process of tumor cell intravasation, we used the human tumor-chick embryo spontaneous metastasis model to select in vivo high (PC-hi/diss) and low (PC-lo/diss) disseminating variants from the human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell line. These variants dramatically differed in their...... intravasation and dissemination capacities in both chick embryo and mouse spontaneous metastasis models. Concomitant with enhanced intravasation, PC-hi/diss exhibited increased angiogenic potential in avian and murine models. PC-hi/diss angiogenesis and intravasation were dependent on increased secretion of...... vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), since treating developing tumors with a function-blocking anti-VEGF antibody simultaneously inhibited both processes without affecting primary tumor growth. PC-hi/diss cells were also more migratory and invasive, suggestive of heightened ability to escape from...

  10. Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy. The infectivity of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), an apparent agent in MCC development, may be exacerbated with impaired immune responses. This paper reviews relevant data regarding the role of immunosuppression in the development of MCC and describes modes of immunodeficient states. Because of the inherently low incidence rate of MCC, several case studies and series are also briefly mentioned to provide a more comprehensive summary of MCC in the setting of immunosuppression. We describe immunosuppressed patients who have experienced excessive UV radiation, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus infection/AIDS, autoimmune diseases, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Iatrogenic forms of immunosuppression are also highlighted. Studies that quantify risks consistently report that individuals with a history of solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, and/or lymphoproliferative diseases have a significantly elevated risk of developing MCC. Overall, immunocompromised patients also appear to have an early onset and more aggressive course of MCC, with poorer outcomes. Recommendations for multidisciplinary approaches are proposed to effectively prevent and manage MCC in these patients

  11. Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Janice E. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Brewer, Jerry D., E-mail: brewer.jerry@mayo.edu [Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2014-06-27

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy. The infectivity of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), an apparent agent in MCC development, may be exacerbated with impaired immune responses. This paper reviews relevant data regarding the role of immunosuppression in the development of MCC and describes modes of immunodeficient states. Because of the inherently low incidence rate of MCC, several case studies and series are also briefly mentioned to provide a more comprehensive summary of MCC in the setting of immunosuppression. We describe immunosuppressed patients who have experienced excessive UV radiation, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus infection/AIDS, autoimmune diseases, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Iatrogenic forms of immunosuppression are also highlighted. Studies that quantify risks consistently report that individuals with a history of solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, and/or lymphoproliferative diseases have a significantly elevated risk of developing MCC. Overall, immunocompromised patients also appear to have an early onset and more aggressive course of MCC, with poorer outcomes. Recommendations for multidisciplinary approaches are proposed to effectively prevent and manage MCC in these patients.

  12. Clinical presentation of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most common malignant tumour of the kidney is Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) and is known for its unpredictable clinical behaviour. Aetiology and risk factors are not completely understood. Extensive workup is being done in the understanding of the disease, especially to diagnose early and to treat promptly. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical presentation and pathological pattern of RCC. Methods: After approval from ethical committee a retrospective review of records was conducted extending from January 2012 to January 2014 to identify clinical characteristics of renal cell carcinomas. The study included all renal cancer patients presented to Sheikh Zayed Hospital Lahore with in this specified period. The data was retrieved regarding, history, physical examination and necessary investigations such as ultrasonography of abdomen and pelvis and CT scan of abdomen and pelvis. Results: There were total of 50 cases. The male to female ratio was 3:2. Mean age of patients were 52.38 (18-93) years old. Most common clinical presentation was gross haematuria(66%).The mean tumour size was 8.34 (3-24) cm. Tumour histology were clear cell (84%), papillary transitional cell carcinoma (12%) and oncosytoma contributed 4%. Conclusion: We observed that large number of the patients with RCC presented with haematuria and most of them were male. Common pathological type was clear cell carcinoma. (author)

  13. Sarcomatoid carcinoma with small cell carcinoma component of the urinary bladder: a case report with review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIDA, MITSUAKI; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; OKABE, HIDETOSHI

    2013-01-01

    Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an uncommon neoplasm characterized histopathologically by the presence of malignant spindle cell and epithelial components. Albeit extremely rare, sarcomatoid carcinoma with small cell carcinoma has been reported. Herein, we describe an additional case of sarcomatoid carcinoma with small cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and review the clinicopathological features of this type of tumor. An 82-year-old Japanese mal...

  14. CONVENTIONAL RENAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH GRANULOMATOUS REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available : Granulomatous inflammation is a distinctive pattern of chronic inflammatory reaction characterized by microscopic aggregation of activated macrophages which often develop epithelioid appearance and multinucleate giant cells. Granulomas are encountered in limited number of infectious and some non-infectious conditions. Granulomas have been described within the stroma of malignancies like carcinomas of the breast and colon, seminoma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma, where they represent T-cell-mediated reaction of the tumor stroma to antigens expressed by the tumor. Granulomatous reaction in association with renal cell carcinoma (RCC is uncommon, with only few published reports in the literature. We describe a case of conventional (clear cell RCC associated with epithelioid cell granulomas within the tumor parenchyma.

  15. Do programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) play a role in patients with non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mahmoud; Steffens, Sandra; Bellut, Maria; Becker, Jan U; Großhennig, Anika; Eggers, Hendrik; Wegener, Gerd; Kuczyk, Markus A; Kreipe, Hans H; Grünwald, Viktor; Schrader, Andres J; Ivanyi, Philipp

    2016-06-01

    Clinical trials targeting programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 (PD-L1) for metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC) are ongoing. The aim of this study is to validate their roles as prognostic markers in non-clear cell (non-cc) RCC. Sixty-four non-cc RCC tissue specimens were collected from patients undergoing renal tumor surgery. Expressions of biomarkers were assessed using immunohistochemistry and compared with clinical characteristics. Survival analyses were performed with a median follow-up of 77.5 (range: 0-176) months. No significant correlations were found for PD-1(+) tumor-infiltrating mononuclear cells (TIMC) or PD-L1(+) expression and clinical attributes in patients with non-cc RCC. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed no differences in 5- and 10-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) for PD-1(-) TIMC compared to PD-1(+) TIMC (71.4 and 63 % versus 72.2 and 61.9 %; p = 0.88). Intratumoral expression of PD-L1 did not appear to influence the 5- and 10-year CSS significantly, even though a trend was identified (68 and 53.6 % versus 80.1 and 75.7 %; p = 0.08). In multivariate analysis, neither PD-1(+) TIMC nor intratumoral PD-L1(+) expression proved to be independent predictors of CSS (p = 0.99 and p = 0.68, respectively). Our study demonstrates that PD-1(+) TIMC and intratumoral PD-L1(+) expression did not significantly impact tumor aggressiveness or clinical outcome in non-ccRCC specimens. Due to rare incidence of non-cc RCC in particular according to PD-L1 expression, further analyzes are warranted. PMID:27165272

  16. The role of ultrasound-guided cytology of groin lymph nodes in the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: 5-year experience in 44 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To assess the accuracy of ultrasound combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the detection of lymph node metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The groin nodes of 44 consecutive patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva undergoing groin node dissection were assessed with ultrasound and FNAC. The results were compared with histology from subsequent inguinofemoral lymph node dissection. Twenty-nine patients underwent bilateral groin node dissections and 15 unilateral providing comparable data for 73 groins. RESULTS: Histology demonstrated metastatic disease in 28 groins and no evidence of metastatic disease in 45. Ultrasound agreed with the histology in 67 of the 73 groins (92%), with two false-positives, four false-negatives and two indeterminate appearances. Cytology agreed with the histology in 65 of 72 FNAC samples obtained (90%), with six false-negatives, and one indeterminate result. No false-positive cytology results were seen. Ultrasound and FNAC together failed to detect metastatic disease in four groins, one with an indeterminate ultrasound appearance, another with indeterminate cytology, the two others each having a single positive inguinal node despite a negative ultrasound and FNAC. CONCLUSION: The combination of ultrasound and FNAC provides a sensitive and specific tool for pre-operative assessment and may prevent unnecessary groin dissection and the attendant morbidity in selected patients with vulval cancer

  17. The role of ultrasound-guided cytology of groin lymph nodes in the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: 5-year experience in 44 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, T.B.; Barton, D.P.J.; Trott, P.A.; Nasiri, N.; Shepherd, J.H.; Thomas, J.M.; Moskovic, E.C. E-mail: eleanor.moskovic@rmh.nthames.nhs.uk

    2003-05-01

    AIM: To assess the accuracy of ultrasound combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the detection of lymph node metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The groin nodes of 44 consecutive patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva undergoing groin node dissection were assessed with ultrasound and FNAC. The results were compared with histology from subsequent inguinofemoral lymph node dissection. Twenty-nine patients underwent bilateral groin node dissections and 15 unilateral providing comparable data for 73 groins. RESULTS: Histology demonstrated metastatic disease in 28 groins and no evidence of metastatic disease in 45. Ultrasound agreed with the histology in 67 of the 73 groins (92%), with two false-positives, four false-negatives and two indeterminate appearances. Cytology agreed with the histology in 65 of 72 FNAC samples obtained (90%), with six false-negatives, and one indeterminate result. No false-positive cytology results were seen. Ultrasound and FNAC together failed to detect metastatic disease in four groins, one with an indeterminate ultrasound appearance, another with indeterminate cytology, the two others each having a single positive inguinal node despite a negative ultrasound and FNAC. CONCLUSION: The combination of ultrasound and FNAC provides a sensitive and specific tool for pre-operative assessment and may prevent unnecessary groin dissection and the attendant morbidity in selected patients with vulval cancer.

  18. Choroidal metastasis from tubulopapillary renal cell carcinoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Elghissassi, Ibrahim; Inrhaoun, Hanane; Ismaili, Nabil; Errihani, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Choroidal metastases from renal carcinoma are rare. Most reported cases describe a clear cell carcinoma histologic subtype. Metastatic tubulopapillary renal cell carcinoma to the choroid plexus is very exceptional. We report the case of a 31-year-old man with a history of tubulopapillary renal cell carcinoma who presented two years later with metastatic disease to lungs and presternal soft tissue and three months after with choroidal metastasis revealed on ophtalmoscopic examination and magne...

  19. Role of chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Paiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a unique malignant head and neck cancer with clinical, demographic, and geographic features distinct from other head and neck epithelial malignancies. Non-keratinizing, poorly differentiated, and undifferentiated WHO types 2 and 3 is the most common subtypes of NPC. NPC is also characterized by its relatively high sensitivity to radiation, so that in the last decades radiotherapy (RT has been the cornerstone of treatment. However, in the majority of cases NPC is discovered at locally advanced stage. The results are disappointing when RT alone is offered. The 5-year survival rates have been reported to be about 34-52%. The poor prognosis for advanced NPC led to increasing interests in exploring the use of chemotherapy (CT. NPC has been considered to be not only radiosensitive but also chemo-sensitive and has shown high response rate to various chemotherapeutic agents. Certainly, the treatment strategies for NPC will continue to change and evolve as a better understanding is gained of the molecular and immune mechanisms that drive this disease. We reviewed the current literature focusing on the role of CT and new-targeted agents.

  20. CT differentiation of renal tumor invading parenchyma and pelvis: renal cell carcinoma vs transitional cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differentiation between renal cell carcinoma(RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma(TCC) is important due to the different methods of treatment and prognosis. But occasionally it is difficult to draw a distinction between the two diseases when renal parenchyma and renal collecting systems are invaded simultaneously. We reviewed CT scans of 37 cases of renal cell carcinoma and 12 cases of transitional cell carcinoma which showed involvement of renal parenchyma and renal sinus fat on CT. Retrospective analysis was performed by 3 abdominal radiologists. Check points were renal contour bulging or reinform shape, location of mass center, intact parenchyma overlying the tumor, cystic change, calcification, LN metastasis, vessel invasion, and perirenal extention. There were renal contour bulging due to the tumor mass in 33 out of 37 cases of renal cell carcinoma, where a and nine of 12 cases of transitional cell carcinoma maintained the reinform appearance. This is significant statiscal difference between the two(P<0.005). Center of all TCCs were located in the renal sinus, and 24 out of 35 cases of RCC were located in the cortex(P<0.005). Thirty-six out of 37 cases of RCC lost the overlying parenchyma, where as 4 out of 9 cases of well enhanced TCC had intact overlying parenchyma(P<0.005) RCC showed uptic change within the tumor mags in 31 cases which was significanity higher than the 4 cases in TCC(P<0.05). CT findings of renal cell carcinoma are contour bulging, peripheral location, obliteration of parenchyma, and cystic change. Findings of transitional cell carcinoma are reinform appearance, central location within the kidney, intact overlying parenchyma, and rare cystic change

  1. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of feline oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma are described. In both cases, diagnosis was achieved by radiography, endoscopy and cytology, and later confirmed by histology. One cat underwent oesophagectomy followed by end-to-end anastomosis, but died three days postsurgery; the second cat was euthanased after diagnosis

  2. Local thermal ablation of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: With evolving local thermal ablation technology, the clinical application of thermal ablation has been actively investigated in the treatment for renal cell carcinoma. We review the evolution and current status of radiofrequency ablation and microwave ablation for renal cell carcinoma. Materials and methods: All articles published in English on radiofrequency ablation or microwave ablation as a treatment for renal cell carcinoma were identified with a MEDLINE® and PubMed® search from 1990 to 2010. Results: Local thermal ablation has several advantages, including keeping more normal renal units, relatively simple operation, easy tolerance, fewer complications, a shorter hospitalization and convalescence period. Long-term data has determined radiofrequency ablation is responsible for poor surgical candidates with renal cell carcinoma, however, tumor size, location and shape might affect the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation. Microwave ablation can induce large ablation volumes and yield good local tumor control. Associated complications appear to be low. Conclusions: Local ablative approaches seem to represent an attractive alternative to extirpative surgery for the treatment of small renal neoplasms in select patients. Potential developments include concepts to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of thermal ablation by improving the guiding, monitoring capabilities and detection capacity of multi-center lesions to provide at least equivalent cancer control to conventional surgery.

  3. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to...

  4. Role of cancer stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bo; Jacob, Samson T.

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in cancer stem cells (CSCs) among cancer biologists and clinicians, most likely because of their role in the heterogeneity of cancer and their potential application in cancer therapeutics. Recent studies suggest that CSCs play a key role in liver carcinogenesis. A small subpopulation of cancer cells with CSC properties has been identified and characterized from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, animal models and human primary HCCs. Considering the...

  5. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  6. The role of MR imaging in invasive cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the role of MR imaging in the management of cervical cancer is reviewed and illustrated. The appearance of the normal uterine cervix and of cervical carcinoma is shown. Important factors for optimal MR imaging of cervical carcinoma are reviewed. The value of MR imaging in the staging of cervical carcinoma is illustrated by showing parametrial invasion and lymph node involvement. Finally, the value of MR imaging staging is compared with clinical staging, CT staging, and surgical findings. The role of new imaging techniques, such as fast dynamic enhanced MR imaging, is described. (orig.)

  7. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of suspected lesions by performing histopathological examination in unusual circumstances. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2452-2454

  8. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jean Y.; So, Po-Lin; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2006-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastro-intestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overvi...

  9. Polydactylous Subungual Squamous Cell Carcinoma Caused by Chemical Contact

    OpenAIRE

    J. Alexa Potter, BM, BCh, MRCS; Philip A. Griffin, FRACS

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Polydactylous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rare and has been associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Our recent case was HPV negative and provides greater evidence for chemical irritants being an alternative cause of subungual SCC. Our patient had spent a number of years with her hands in direct contact with undiluted cleaning chemicals including one containing ethanolamine. Ethanolamine has been shown to have carcinogen sensitizing role. Although HPV has a strong association...

  10. Expression and significance of PTEN and PCNA in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长青; 文莲姬; 金春顺; 崔树勋

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the expression and significance of PTEN and PCNA in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: Immunochemical method was used to study 60 cases of laryngeal carcinoma, 20 cases of normal laryngeal tissues which were closely adjacent to carcinoma and 10 cases of normal laryngeal tissues. Results: It was showed that PTEN gene was expressed in 85 % laryngeal carcinoma tissues. The percentage of lymph node metastasis of laryngeal carcinoma which were negative or positive of PTEN protein was 77.8 % and 33.3 % respectively, and the difference was significance ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: Expression of PTEN in laryngeal carcinoma was different from that of normal laryngeal tissues. It may play a role but not important in the tumorigenesis and development of laryngeal carcinoma.

  11. Mammary serine protease inhibitor and CD138 immunohistochemical expression in ovarian serous and clear cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasby, Eiman Adel

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of mammary serine protease inhibitor (maspin) and CD138 in primary ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) as compared to low-grade serous carcinomas (LGSC) and clear cell carcinomas and investigate if the studied markers have a correlation to International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, Ki67 proliferation index, and to each other. Maspin cellular location varied significantly between studied groups with only nuclear expression seen in 46.7 % of LGSC group, mixed nuclear and cytoplasmic in 13.3, 28.6, and 20 % of LGSC, HGSC, and clear cell carcinoma, respectively, and was only cytoplasmic in 26.7, 71.4, and 80 % of LGSC, HGSC, and clear cell carcinoma, respectively. Mean maspin and CD138 counts were significantly higher in HGSC and clear cell carcinoma compared to LGSC. Both maspin and CD138 scores varied significantly between studied groups and were positively correlated with adverse prognostic factors in studied carcinomas including FIGO stage and Ki67 proliferation index. Besides, both maspin and CD138 had significant correlation to each other. These findings suggest that epithelial cytoplasmic expression of maspin and CD138 may have a significant role in tumorigenesis in ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas and clear cell carcinomas; these markers may regulate tumor cell proliferation, and their significant correlation to each other may suggest that CD138 probably induces maspin expression to protect tumor growth factors from being lysed by proteolytic enzymes. PMID:26526579

  12. Accurate detection of carcinoma cells by use of a cell microarray chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Yamamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate detection and analysis of circulating tumor cells plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cancer treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cell microarray chip was used to detect spiked carcinoma cells among leukocytes. The chip, with 20,944 microchambers (105 µm width and 50 µm depth, was made from polystyrene; and the formation of monolayers of leukocytes in the microchambers was observed. Cultured human T lymphoblastoid leukemia (CCRF-CEM cells were used to examine the potential of the cell microarray chip for the detection of spiked carcinoma cells. A T lymphoblastoid leukemia suspension was dispersed on the chip surface, followed by 15 min standing to allow the leukocytes to settle down into the microchambers. Approximately 29 leukocytes were found in each microchamber when about 600,000 leukocytes in total were dispersed onto a cell microarray chip. Similarly, when leukocytes isolated from human whole blood were used, approximately 89 leukocytes entered each microchamber when about 1,800,000 leukocytes in total were placed onto the cell microarray chip. After washing the chip surface, PE-labeled anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody and APC-labeled anti-CD326 (EpCAM monoclonal antibody solution were dispersed onto the chip surface and allowed to react for 15 min; and then a microarray scanner was employed to detect any fluorescence-positive cells within 20 min. In the experiments using spiked carcinoma cells (NCI-H1650, 0.01 to 0.0001%, accurate detection of carcinoma cells was achieved with PE-labeled anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, verification of carcinoma cells in the microchambers was performed by double staining with the above monoclonal antibodies. CONCLUSION: The potential application of the cell microarray chip for the detection of CTCs was shown, thus demonstrating accurate detection by double staining for cytokeratin and EpCAM at the single carcinoma cell level.

  13. Perfusion computed tomography in renal cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandan; J; Das; Usha; Thingujam; Ananya; Panda; Sanjay; Sharma; Arun; Kumar; Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Various imaging modalities are available for the diagnosis, staging and response evaluation of patients with renal cell carcinoma(RCC). While contrast enhanced computed tomography(CT) is used as the standard of imaging for size, morphological evaluation and response assessment in RCC, a new functional imaging technique like perfusion CT(p CT), goes down to the molecular level and provides new perspectives in imaging of RCC. p CT depicts regional tumor perfusion and vascular permeability which are indirect parameters of tumor angiogenesis and thereby provides vital information regarding tumor microenvironment. Also response evaluation using p CT may predate the size criteria used in Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, as changes in the perfusion occurs earlier following tissue kinase inhibitors before any actual change in size. This may potentially help in predicting prognosis, better selection of therapy and more accurate and better response evaluation in patients with RCC. This article describes the techniques and role of p CT in staging and response assessment in patients with RCCs.

  14. Perfusion computed tomography in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Chandan J; Thingujam, Usha; Panda, Ananya; Sharma, Sanjay; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2015-07-28

    Various imaging modalities are available for the diagnosis, staging and response evaluation of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). While contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) is used as the standard of imaging for size, morphological evaluation and response assessment in RCC, a new functional imaging technique like perfusion CT (pCT), goes down to the molecular level and provides new perspectives in imaging of RCC. pCT depicts regional tumor perfusion and vascular permeability which are indirect parameters of tumor angiogenesis and thereby provides vital information regarding tumor microenvironment. Also response evaluation using pCT may predate the size criteria used in Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, as changes in the perfusion occurs earlier following tissue kinase inhibitors before any actual change in size. This may potentially help in predicting prognosis, better selection of therapy and more accurate and better response evaluation in patients with RCC. This article describes the techniques and role of pCT in staging and response assessment in patients with RCCs. PMID:26217456

  15. Role of VEGF in the growth and metastasis of a murine bladder carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng; WU Jihong; TIAN Yuhua; CHEN Xiafang; HU Honghui; WU Wensen; LI Chuanyuan; HUANG Qian

    2003-01-01

    Bladder transitional cell carcinoma is the most common form of carcinoma in the urinary system. Although overexpression of VEGF has been identified in tissue, serum, and urine of patients with bladder cancer, the role of VEGF in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder has not been clearly elucidated. Here, we dissected the effect of VEGF during bladder tumor growth and progression by modifying a BBN (N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine) induced mouse bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell line BTT-T739 by stable transfection of antisense VEGF121 cDNA. The transfection resulted in more than 80% reduction in VEGF production. The growth of the transduced tumor cells in vitro was not affected, however, these cells formed small or no tumors in vivo. Even in the tumors formed, there were mini- mal vascularization, extensive necrosis and longer latency compared to those formed by parental cells. The permeability of tumor vasculature and metastatic tumor growth were also significantly suppressed in antisense VEGF cDNA trans- fected cells. In addition, the transfer of anti-angiogenic gene in a combination of sFlk-1 and ExTek with electroporation can suppress the tumor growth efficiently. Taken together, these results demonstrated that VEGF plays an important role in bladder tumor angiogenesis and angiogenesis plays an important role in bladder tumor growth and metastasis.

  16. Myoepithelial cells in lobular carcinoma in situ: distribution and immunophenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Jindal, Sonali; Martel, Maritza; Wu, Yaping; Schedin, Pepper; Troxell, Megan

    2016-09-01

    Myoepithelial cells have important physical and paracrine roles in breast tissue development, maintenance, and tumor suppression. Recent molecular and immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated phenotypic alterations in ductal carcinoma in situ-associated myoepithelial cells. Although the relationship of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and myoepithelial cells was described in 1980, further characterization of LCIS-associated myoepithelial cells is lacking. We stained 27 breast specimens harboring abundant LCIS with antibodies to smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, smooth muscle actin, and calponin. Dual stains for E-cadherin/smooth muscle myosin heavy chain and CK7/p63 were also performed. In each case, the intensity and distribution of staining in LCIS-associated myoepithelial cells were compared with normal breast tissue on the same slide. In 78% of the cases, LCIS-associated myoepithelial cells demonstrated decreased staining intensity for one or more myoepithelial markers. The normal localization of myoepithelial cells (flat against the basement membrane, pattern N) was seen in 96% of LCIS, yet 85% of cases had areas with myoepithelial cell cytoplasm oriented perpendicular to the basement membrane (pattern P), and in 30% of cases, myoepithelial cells appeared focally admixed with LCIS cells (pattern C). This study characterizes detailed architectural and immunophenotypic alterations of LCIS-associated myoepithelial cells. The finding of variably diminished staining favors application of several myoepithelial immunostains in clinical practice. The interaction of LCIS with myoepithelial cells, especially in light of the perpendicular and central architectural arrangements, deserves further mechanistic investigation. PMID:27195907

  17. Clear Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma with Sialomucin Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do Young; Cho, Sung Bin; Chung, Kee Yang; Kim, You Chan

    2006-01-01

    Clear cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a variant of BCC with a characteristic clear cell component that may occupy all or part of the tumor islands. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining for glycogen is variably positive, and mild deposition of sulfated mucin has been noted. However, to our knowledge, clear cell BCC with sialomucin deposition has not been reported. Here we report a case of clear cell BCC showing sialomucin deposition. The clear tumor cells stained with PAS and showed incomple...

  18. Increased MiR-221 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and its role in enhancing cell growth and inhibiting apoptosis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MiR-221 is over-expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its clinical significance and function in HCC remains uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between miR-221 overexpression and clinicopathological parameters in HCC formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, and the effect of miR-221 inhibitor and mimic on different HCC cell lines in vitro. MiR-221 expression was detected using real time RT-qPCR in FFPE HCC and the adjacent noncancerous liver tissues. The relationship between miR-221 level and clinicopathological features was also analyzed. Furthermore, miR-221 inhibitor and mimic were transfected into HCC cell lines HepB3, HepG2 and SNU449. The effects of miR-221 on cell growth, cell cycle, caspase activity and apoptosis were also investigated by spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. The relative expression of miR-221 in clinical TNM stages III and IV was significantly higher than that in the stages I and II. The miR-221 level was also upregulated in the metastatic group compared to the nonmetastatic group. Furthermore, miR-221 over-expression was related to the status of tumor capsular infiltration in HCC clinical samples. Functionally, cell growth was inhibited, cell cycle was arrested in G1/S-phase and apoptosis was increased by miR-221 inhibitor in vitro. Likewise, miR-221 mimic accelerated the cell growth. Expression of miR-221 in FFPE tissues could provide predictive significance for prognosis of HCC patients. Moreover, miR-221 inhibitor could be useful to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in HCC cells. Thus miR-221 might be a critical targeted therapy strategy for HCC

  19. Role of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a case of renal cell carcinoma to differentiate tumor thrombus from bland thrombus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor thrombus is a rare complication of many solid tumors. We present a case of renal cell carcinoma whose baseline contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) revealed an heterogeneously enhancing mass in the upper half of right kidney with tumor thrombus in the right renal vein extending to suprarenal inferior vena cava (IVC), crossing the cavoatrial junction and reaching up to the right atrium (Grade IV). Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging revealed large irregular right renal mass, hypermetabolic tumor thrombus extending from the right renal vein to suprarenal IVC reaching up to the right atrium. There was no FDG uptake noted in the infrarenal IVC and bilateral iliofemoral venous thrombi. Thus, 18F-FDG PET/CT was not only helpful in the staging, but was also helpful in differentiating tumor thrombus from bland thrombus in our patient

  20. Pomegranate Bioactive Constituents Suppress Cell Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in an Experimental Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Role of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and chemoprevention represents a viable approach in lowering the mortality of this disease. Pomegranate fruit, an abundant source of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, is gaining tremendous attention for its wide-spectrum health benefits. We previously reported that a characterized pomegranate emulsion (PE prevents diethylnitrosamine (DENA-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis though inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB. Since NF-κB concurrently induces Wnt/β-catenin signaling implicated in cell proliferation, cell survival, and apoptosis evasion, we examined antiproliferative, apoptosis-inducing and Wnt/β-catenin signaling-modulatory mechanisms of PE during DENA rat hepatocarcinogenesis. PE (1 or 10 g/kg was administered 4 weeks before and 18 weeks following DENA exposure. There was a significant increase in hepatic proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen and alteration in cell cycle progression (cyclin D1 due to DENA treatment, and PE dose dependently reversed these effects. PE substantially induced apoptosis by upregulating proapoptotic protein Bax and downregulating antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. PE dose dependently reduced hepatic β-catenin and augmented glycogen synthase kinase-3β expression. Our study provides evidence that pomegranate phytochemicals exert chemoprevention of hepatic cancer through antiproliferative and proapoptotic mechanisms by modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PE, thus, targets two interconnected molecular circuits (canonical NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin pathways to exert chemoprevention of HCC.

  1. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong-Guang; Duan, Guang-Cai; Fan, Qing-Tang; Chen, Shuai-Yin

    2016-02-15

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common carcinoma and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection causes a series of precancerous lesions like gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, and is the strongest known risk factor for GC, as supported by epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies. However, the mechanism of H. pylori developing gastric carcinoma has not been well defined. Among infected individuals, approximately 10% develop severe gastric lesions such as peptic ulcer disease, 1%-3% progresses to GC. The outcomes of H. pylori infection are determined by bacterial virulence, genetic polymorphism of hosts as well as environmental factors. It is important to gain further understanding of the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection for developing more effective treatments for this common but deadly malignancy. The recent findings on the bacterial virulence factors, effects of H. pylori on epithelial cells, genetic polymorphism of both the bacterium and its host, and the environmental factors for GC are discussed with focus on the role of H. pylori in gastric carcinogenesis in this review. PMID:26909232

  2. Urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma with expression of KIT and PDGFRA and showing diverse differentiations into plasmacytoid, clear cell, acantholytic, nested, and spindle variants, and into adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and pleomorphic carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Various tumors can arise in the urinary bladder (UB); most common is urothelial carcinoma (UC). UC of the UB have many variants. Other types of carcinomas such as adenocarcinoma (AC) and small cell carcinoma (SmCC) can occur in UB carcinomas. Expression of KIT and PDGFRA has not been reported. A 66-year-old man admitted to our hospital because of hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed papillary invasive tumor and a transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. The TUR-BT showed UC, AC, Sm...

  3. Role of cytology in fibroadenoma with clinging carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Swetha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenoma is the most common benign breast tumor in adolescent girls and young women with a peak incidence in the second and third decades of life. Carcinoma arising within a fibroadenoma is rare and is usually discovered incidentally. We describe a case of clinging type of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS arising within a fibroadenoma. Clinging carcinoma, a variant of DCIS is an under recognized entity. Diagnosis of DCIS is made based on architecture and cytology. This case report highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of this entity coexisting in a fibroadenoma.

  4. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Initially Presented as a Tongue Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz ALTINEL

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is one of the most common tumours after lung and breast cancer to metastasize to the head and neck. Initial presentation by tongue metastasis is extremely rare. A 67-year-oldmale presented with a 4.8 cm mass on his tongue. The result of the punch biopsy from the tongue was diagnosed as a clear cell variant of squamous cell carcinoma. The biopsy was reevaluated due to the renal mass found during the check-up and the rapid enlargement of the mass. The excision of the tongue mass and the radical nephrectomy material confirmed the diagnosis of a metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the tongue and renal cell carcinoma in the kidney. Since metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the tongue is uncommon it may cause difficulties in diagnosis and proper management. The metastasis of renal cell carcinoma should always be considered in the differential diagnosis among the clear cell neoplasms.

  5. Prognostic role of metabolic parameters of 18F-FDG PET-CT scan performed during radiation therapy in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the prognostic value of 18F-FDG PET-CT performed in the third week (iPET) of definitive radiation therapy (RT) in patients with newly diagnosed locally advanced mucosal primary head and neck squamous-cell-carcinoma (MPHNSCC). Seventy-two patients with MPHNSCC treated with radical RT underwent staging PET-CT and iPET. The maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesional glycolysis (TLG) of primary tumour (PT) and index node (IN) [defined as lymph node(s) with highest TLG] were analysed, and results were correlated with loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), metastatic failure-free survival(MFFS) and overall survival (OS), using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Optimal cutoffs (OC) were derived from receiver operating characteristic curves: SUVmax-PT = 4.25 g/mL, MTVPT = 3.3 cm3, TLGPT = 9.4 g, for PT, and SUVmax-IN = 4.05 g/mL, MTVIN = 1.85 cm3 and TLGIN = 7.95 g for IN. Low metabolic values in iPET for PT below OC were associated with statistically significant better LRFS and DFS. TLG was the best predictor of outcome with 2-year LRFS of 92.7 % vs. 71.1 % [p = 0.005, compared with SUVmax (p = 0.03) and MTV (p = 0.022)], DFS of 85.9 % vs. 60.8 % [p = 0.005, compared with SUVmax (p = 0.025) and MTV (p = 0.018)], MFFS of 85.9 % vs. 83.7 % [p = 0.488, compared with SUVmax (p = 0.52) and MTV (p = 0.436)], and OS of 81.1 % vs. 75.0 % [p = 0.279, compared with SUVmax (p = 0.345) and MTV (p = 0.512)]. There were no significant associations between the percentage reduction of primary tumour metabolic parameters and outcomes. In patients with nodal disease, metabolic parameters below OC (for both PT and IN) were significantly associated with all oncological outcomes, while TLG was again the best predictor: LRFS of 84.0 % vs. 55.3 % (p = 0.017), DFS of 79.4 % vs. 38.6 % (p = 0.001), MFFS 86.4 % vs. 68.2 % (p = 0.034) and OS 80.4 % vs. 55.7 % (p = 0.045). The metabolic parameters of iPET can be

  6. Prognostic role of metabolic parameters of {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT scan performed during radiation therapy in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Myo; Forstner, Dion [Liverpool Hospital, Cancer Therapy Centre, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Lin, Peter; Shon, Ivan Ho; Lin, Michael [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Lee, Mark T. [Liverpool Hospital, Cancer Therapy Centre, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Bray, Victoria; Fowler, Allan [Liverpool Hospital, Cancer Therapy Centre, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Chicco, Andrew [Liverpool Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Tieu, Minh Thi [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate the prognostic value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT performed in the third week (iPET) of definitive radiation therapy (RT) in patients with newly diagnosed locally advanced mucosal primary head and neck squamous-cell-carcinoma (MPHNSCC). Seventy-two patients with MPHNSCC treated with radical RT underwent staging PET-CT and iPET. The maximum standardised uptake value (SUV{sub max}), metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesional glycolysis (TLG) of primary tumour (PT) and index node (IN) [defined as lymph node(s) with highest TLG] were analysed, and results were correlated with loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), metastatic failure-free survival(MFFS) and overall survival (OS), using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Optimal cutoffs (OC) were derived from receiver operating characteristic curves: SUV{sub max-PT} = 4.25 g/mL, MTV{sub PT} = 3.3 cm{sup 3}, TLG{sub PT} = 9.4 g, for PT, and SUV{sub max-IN} = 4.05 g/mL, MTV{sub IN} = 1.85 cm{sup 3} and TLG{sub IN} = 7.95 g for IN. Low metabolic values in iPET for PT below OC were associated with statistically significant better LRFS and DFS. TLG was the best predictor of outcome with 2-year LRFS of 92.7 % vs. 71.1 % [p = 0.005, compared with SUV{sub max} (p = 0.03) and MTV (p = 0.022)], DFS of 85.9 % vs. 60.8 % [p = 0.005, compared with SUV{sub max} (p = 0.025) and MTV (p = 0.018)], MFFS of 85.9 % vs. 83.7 % [p = 0.488, compared with SUV{sub max} (p = 0.52) and MTV (p = 0.436)], and OS of 81.1 % vs. 75.0 % [p = 0.279, compared with SUV{sub max} (p = 0.345) and MTV (p = 0.512)]. There were no significant associations between the percentage reduction of primary tumour metabolic parameters and outcomes. In patients with nodal disease, metabolic parameters below OC (for both PT and IN) were significantly associated with all oncological outcomes, while TLG was again the best predictor: LRFS of 84.0 % vs. 55.3 % (p = 0.017), DFS of 79.4 % vs. 38.6 % (p = 0.001), MFFS 86.4 % vs. 68.2 % (p = 0

  7. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production on diallyl disulfide (DADS) induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human A549 lung carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xinjiang [Institute of Indoor and Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Aulweg 123, D-35385 Giessen (Germany); Kassie, Fekadu [Institute of Indoor and Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Aulweg 123, D-35385 Giessen (Germany); Mersch-Sundermann, Volker [Institute of Indoor and Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Aulweg 123, D-35385 Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: Volker.mersch-sundermann@uniklinikum-giessen.de

    2005-11-11

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), an oil soluble constituent of garlic (Allium sativum), has been reported to cause antimutagentic and anticarcinogenic effects in vitro and in vivo by modulating phases I and II enzyme activities. In recent years, several studies suggested that the chemopreventive effects of DADS can also be attributed to induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. In the present study, we reported that DADS-induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M and apoptosis in human A549 lung cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Additionally, a significant increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced in A549 cells less than 0.5 h after DADS treatment, indicating that ROS may be an early event in DADS-modulated apoptosis. Treatment of A549 cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) completely abrogated DADS-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The result indicated that oxidative stress modulates cell proliferation and cell death induced by DADS.

  8. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production on diallyl disulfide (DADS) induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human A549 lung carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), an oil soluble constituent of garlic (Allium sativum), has been reported to cause antimutagentic and anticarcinogenic effects in vitro and in vivo by modulating phases I and II enzyme activities. In recent years, several studies suggested that the chemopreventive effects of DADS can also be attributed to induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. In the present study, we reported that DADS-induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M and apoptosis in human A549 lung cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Additionally, a significant increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced in A549 cells less than 0.5 h after DADS treatment, indicating that ROS may be an early event in DADS-modulated apoptosis. Treatment of A549 cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) completely abrogated DADS-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The result indicated that oxidative stress modulates cell proliferation and cell death induced by DADS

  9. Oral Cavity Clear Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Villaflor, Victoria; Cipriani, Nicole A

    2016-06-01

    A case of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma of the oral cavity is described in this sine qua non radiology-pathology correlation article. CT demonstrated a solid and cystic mass arising from the mandible. Histology demonstrated variably-sized nests of clear to pale eosinophilic cells with occasional central necrosis embedded in a hyalinized to fibrocellular stroma. The specimen was also positive for the characteristic rearrangement of the EWSR1 (22q12) locus in 93.5 % of interphase cells. PMID:25994920

  10. Multilocular Cystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Unusual Gross Appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Nikumbh, Dhiraj B.; Sunil V. Jagtap; Gaurav Jain; Roopali K Mali

    2011-01-01

    Multilocular Cystic Renal Cell Carcinoma (MCRCC) represents a rare variant of clear cell (conventional) renal cell carcinomas. Attributable to its distinct characteristics in prognosis and its natural history, MCRCC was recognised as a separate subtype of renal cell carcinoma in the 2004 WHO classification of adult renal tumors. We report this case of MCRCC from antemortem surgical specimen, due to its unusual gross appearance and a rare clinical entity.

  11. Sarcomatoid chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: Cytohistopathological correlation of a case

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti Indranil; Giri Amita; Majumdar Kaushik; DE, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas of the kidney are rare neoplasms constituting about 1-5% of all renal malignant neoplasms. These are aggressive tumors and are commonly associated with conventional (clear cell) renal cell carcinomas, but cases associated with chromophobe renal cell carcinomas are sparse. Cytological features of such lesions have rarely been reported. Here, we report a unique case of a 48-year-old male patient who presented with right flank lump and pain. A fine needle...

  12. Multilocular Cystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Unusual Gross Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj B Nikumbh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Multilocular Cystic Renal Cell Carcinoma (MCRCC represents a rare variant of clear cell (conventional renal cell carcinomas. Attributable to its distinct characteristics in prognosis and its natural history, MCRCC was recognised as a separate subtype of renal cell carcinoma in the 2004 WHO classification of adult renal tumors. We report this case of MCRCC from antemortem surgical specimen, due to its unusual gross appearance and a rare clinical entity.

  13. Renal Preservation Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yichun Chiu; Allen W. Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Renal preservation therapy has been a promising concept for the treatment of localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for 20 years. Nowadays partial nephrectomy (PN) is well accepted to treat the localized RCC and the oncological control is proved to be the same as the radical nephrectomy (RN). Under the result of well oncological control, minimal invasive method gains more popularity than the open PN, like laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) and robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy...

  14. Targeted therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, P H; Chaganti, R.S.K.; Motzer, R J

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has historically been refractory to cytotoxic and hormonal agents; only interleukin 2 and interferon alpha provide response in a minority of patients. We reviewed RCC biology and explored the ways in which this understanding led to development of novel, effective targeted therapies. Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies and novel agents are all being studied, and phase II studies show promising activity of sunitinib, sorafenib a...

  15. Linear Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ichinokawa, Yuko; Ohtuki, Akiko; Hattori, Mariko; Sadamasa, Hiroko; Hiruma, Masataro; Matumoto, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) presents with diverse clinical features, and several morphologic and histologic variants of BCC have been reported [Sexton et al.: J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1118-1126]. Linear BCC was first described as a new clinical subtype in 1985 by Lewis [Int J Dematol 1985;24:124-125]. Here, we present a case of linear BCC that we recently encountered in an elderly Japanese patient, and review other cases reported in Japan.

  16. Targeting cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    MISHRA, LOPA

    2014-01-01

    Aiwu Ruth He,1 Daniel C Smith,1 Lopa Mishra2 1Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: The poor outcome of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is attributed to recurrence of the disease after curative treatment and the resistance of HCC cells to conventional chemotherapy, which may be explained partly by the fun...

  17. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma is a rare neoplasm with very few cases reported in the literature. We report a case of a 50-year-old female patient with the malignancy at a less common location. Diagnosis was given based on the histopathologic findings. The demographic data and understanding for this tumor needs to be strengthened by reporting all new cases, which are diagnosed, in literature.

  18. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Pant-Purohit, Mukta; López Beltrán, Antonio; Montironi, Rodolfo; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Cheng, Lian

    2010-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder(SCCUB) is a rare and aggressive cancer of the bladder.SCCUB is part of neuroendocrine family of tumors thataffect several organ systems including respiratory,gastrointestinal and male and female genitourinary tract.SCCUB affect males predominantly with common riskfactors include smoking, bladder calculi, bladdermanipulation, and chronic cystitis. Prognosis of SCCUBremains poor due to high metastatic potential and lack ofsymptoms in earlier stages of...

  19. Sequential Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Bradford R.; Burke, John M.; Manish Agrawal; Hauke, Ralph J.; Hutson, Thomas E.; Gury Doshi; Mark T Fleming; Vogelzang, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has changed dramatically in the past decade. As the number of available agents, and related volume of research, has grown, it is increasingly complex to know how to optimally treat patients. The authors are practicing medical oncologists at the US Oncology Network, the largest community-based network of oncology providers in the country, and represent the leadership of the Network's Genitourinary Research Committee. We outline our though...

  20. Basal cell carcinoma of the perineum

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Adriane Ann; Dabade, Tushar; Dandekar, Monisha; Rogers, Gary; Rosmarin, David

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most BCCs are found on areas of UV-damaged skin, The study of BCCs of sun-protected regions, however, suggests a more complex pathogenesis. We present a case of BCC of the perineum in a man with no previous history of skin cancer. This is the first report of BCC in this region and one of a small body of cases arising on or near the genital and perianal regions.

  1. Systemic adjuvant therapies in renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastiano Buti; Melissa Bersanelli; Maddalena Donini; Andrea Ardizzoni

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the ten most frequent solid tumors worldwide. Recent innovations in the treatment of metastatic disease have led to new therapeutic approaches being investigated in the adjuvant setting. Observation is the only current standard of care after radical nephrectomy, although there is evidence of efficacy of adjuvant use of vaccine among all the strategies used. This article aims to collect published experiences with systemic adjuvant approaches in RCC and to d...

  2. Papillocystic Variant of Acinar Cell Pancreatic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Radhi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinar cell pancreatic carcinoma is a rare solid malignant neoplasm. Recent review of the literature showed occasional cases with papillary or papillocystic growth patterns, ranging from 2 to 5 cm in diameter. We report a large 10 cm pancreatic tumor with papillocystic pathology features involving the pancreatic head. The growth pattern of these tumors could be mistaken for intraductal papillary mucinous tumors or other pancreatic cystic neoplasms.

  3. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt LS; Linehan WM

    2014-01-01

    Laura S Schmidt,1,2 W Marston Linehan11Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Basic Science Program, Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, USAAbstract: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is an autosomal-dominant hereditary syndrome, which is caused by germline mutations in the FH gene that encodes the tricarboxylic ac...

  4. The Role of Embryologic Fusion Planes in the Invasiveness and Recurrence of Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Classic Mix-Up of Causation and Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Linus T. D.; Guppy, Michelle P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The facial embryologic fusion planes as regions of mesenchymal and ectodermal fusion of the primordial facial processes during embryological development have been suggested to influence the spread, invasiveness, pathogenesis, and recurrence of cutaneous carcinoma. This study sought to establish whether basal cell carcinoma (BCC) originating in embryologic fusion planes has a greater propensity for earlier depth of invasion, leading to an increased rate of lesion recurrence. Methods: Facial BCCs excised in a single surgeon practice over 2 years were allocated into 2 anatomic domains according to their correlation with embryologic fusion planes. Lesion depth of invasion, surface area, and margins of excision were analyzed in conjunction with recurrence data over the following 70–80 months. Results: Of the 331 lesions examined, 70 were located in embryologic fusion planes. No difference was found in the mean surface area and depth of invasion for lesions located in the 2 domains (P > 0.05). Ten lesion recurrences were identified, none of which were located in embryologic fusion planes. Recurrent lesions were excised with a significantly greater percentage of close and incomplete excision margins (P < 0.05). Conclusions: BCC arising in embryologic fusion planes are not more invasive or at greater risk of recurrence. Excision margins seem to have the greatest influence on lesion recurrence. Because of the paucity of superfluous tissue and the cosmetic and functionally sensitive nature of these areas of embryologic fusion, specialist treatment of these lesions is recommended to ensure that adequacy of excision is not neglected at the cost of ease of closure and cosmesis. PMID:26894007

  5. CT features of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eelkema, E.A.; Stephens, D.H.; Ward, E.M.; Sheedy, P.F. II

    1984-11-01

    To determine the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, the CT scans of 27 patients with that disease were reviewed. The pancreatic tumor was identified as a mass in 26 patients (96%) Of the 25 tumors evaluated with contrast enhancement, 20 became partially diffusely hyperdense relative to nearby normal pancreatic tissue. Hepatic metastases were identified in 15 patients (56%), regional lymphadenopathy in 10 (37%), atrophy of the gland proximal to the tumor in six (22%), dilatation of the biliary ducts in five (19%), and dilatation of the pancreatic duct in four (15%). The CT appearances of the nonfunctioning islet cell tumors were compared with those of 100 ordinary (ductal) pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Although the two types of tumors were sometimes indistinguishable, features found to be more characteristic of islet cell carcinoma included a pancreatic mass of unusually large size, calcification within the tumor, and contrast enhancement of either the primary tumor or hepatic metastases. Involvement of the celiac axis or proximal superior mesenteric artery was limited to ductal carcinoma.

  6. Intradural squamous cell carcinoma in the sacrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujisawa Kozo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in patients with cancer at the rate of approximately 5%; it develops particularly in patients with breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, leukemia, or malignant lymphoma. We describe a rare case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in which spinal intradural squamous cell carcinoma with no lesions in the cerebral meninges and leptomeninx, was the primary lesion. Methods A 64-year-old man complained of sacral pain. Although the patient was treated with analgesics, epidural block and nerve root block, sacral pain persisted. Since acute urinary retention occurred, he was operated on. The patient was diagnosed as having an intradural squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin. Results Since the patient presented with a slightly decreased level of consciousness 2 months after surgery, he was subjected to MRI scanning of the brain and spinal cord, which revealed disseminated lesions in the medulla oblongata. The patient died of pneumonia and sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 5 months after surgery. Conclusion We report the first case of a patient with intradural squamous cell carcinoma with unknown origin that developed independently in the sacrum.

  7. Targeted treatments in advanced renal cell carcinoma: focus on axitinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verzoni E

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Elena Verzoni, Paolo Grassi, Isabella Testa, Roberto Iacovelli, Pamela Biondani, Enrico Garanzini , Filippo De Braud, Giuseppe ProcopioDepartment of Medical Oncology 1, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Antiangiogenesis options have evolved rapidly in the last few years, with an increasing number of agents currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. Angiogenesis inhibitors have been shown to be very effective for the treatment of metastatic renal cancer cell. Axitinib is a third-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and is currently being developed for the treatment of various malignancies. The pharmacokinetic properties of axitinib may have a selective therapeutic effect, with minimal adverse reactions and enhanced safety. In a large Phase III study of previously treated patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, axitinib achieved a longer progression-free survival than sorafenib with an acceptable safety profile and good quality of life. This review focuses on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity of axitinib in the current treatment of renal cell carcinoma. The role of axitinib in the adjuvant and/or neoadjuvant setting needs to be evaluated in further clinical trials.Keywords: axitinib, renal cell carcinoma, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, angiogenesis

  8. The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of anal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aretrospective review of 77 patients with anal carcinoma admitted to the A.C. Camargo Hospital - Funcadao Antonio Prudente (Sao Paulo - SP, Brazil) from January 1960 to December 1982 is presented. Radiation therapy was employed in 27 cases, with 5 receiving exclusive radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. Squamous cell carcinoma was the prevalent histological type. The age range was 35 to 76 years, with predominance of female in the proportion of 3:1. (M.A.C.)

  9. Case Report: Multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    A multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma in a 68-year-old man is reported. Four different peripheral tumor nodules were identified on gross examination. A fifth central tumor corresponded to a conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that has been very recently characterized as a distinct histotype within the spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Immunostaining with cyclin D1 seems to be specific of this tumor subtype. This is the first reported case with multifocal presentation. PMID:27158455

  10. Clear cell renal carcinoma with areas of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha Thodavadi Subbanna; Nandini Nandish Manoli

    2012-01-01

    The classification of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is based upon various histological features which aids in determining the treatment and prognosis. We report a unique case of RCC displaying features of predominantly clear cell RCC with areas of chromophobe RCC in an unusual edematous background. The tumor cells from chromophobe RCC were positive for Hales colloidal iron stain. On Immunohistochemistry majority of them were positive for vimentin and CD10, the markers of clear cell RCC with scat...

  11. Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svecova, D; Havrankova, M; Weismanova, E; Babal, P

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are arguably the second most common carcinoma of the skin and are responsible for the majority of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths. Gynecologist treated a Caucasian 56-years old female patient for genital wart with podophyllotoxin cream. She did not achieve complete response and therefore she has interrupted the therapy and the collaboration with the gynecologist. At the time of evaluation the lesion had a size of man's palm in anogenital region and showed characteristic features of neoplasm. The regional lymph nodes have produced infiltrated painful bubo. PCR analysis for HPV proved negative. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma from the tumor as well as from the regional lymph node packet. Staging computed tomography scans proved negative and pelvis scans disclosed regional lymphadenopathy underlying the tumor. Palliative radiation therapy (by linear accelerator) was administered for the oversized tumor to the total TD 50.0Gy. The patient died 6 months after diagnostic assessment from cardio-respiratory failure. Staging computed tomography before her death did not disclose distinct metastases in her inner organs. Well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma could be growing endophytically affecting the underlying adipose tissue and musculature, with spreading into the regional lymph nodes. The rate of metastases into inner organs seems to vary according to the aggressiveness and metastatic behavior of each SCC. The case report calls for attention to the importance of collaboration among various specialists assisting in the diagnosis and management of skin neoplasm (Fig. 5, Ref. 12). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk. PMID:22502759

  12. Xp11 Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma: Unusual Variant Masquerading as Upper Tract Urothelial Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Akhavein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the TFE3 gene located at the Xp11.2 locus. Initial cases were more common in children, but cases in older adults have begun to accrue and suggest a relatively more aggressive course. We report a case of Xp11 TRCC in a 63-year-old female patient with initial presentation mimicking upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma, with biopsy proving TRCC. She underwent a radical nephrectomy and paracaval lymph node dissection and is followed up with the intent to initiate vascular endothelial growth factor–targeted therapy in case of recurrence.

  13. Lactate Dehydrogenase B Is Associated with the Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyi Sun; Xiaomin Zhang; Xu Ding; Huaiqi Li; Meiyu Geng; Zuoquan Xie; Heming Wu; Min Huang

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) comprises a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with poor therapeutic outcomes and high glycolytic dependency. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens of docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) are currently accepted as standard regimens for HNSCC patients with a high risk of distant metastatic spread. However, the antitumor outcomes of TPF neoadjuvant chemotherapy in HNSCC remain controversial. This study investigated the role of lactat...

  14. Photon-deficient Mass on FDG-PET Scan in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    George Shih; Wei-Jen Shih; Bonnie Mitchell; Milan, Primo P

    2008-01-01

    F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography imaging (F-18 FDG PET) detects malignancies depending on the uptake profile of glycolysis of tumors; however, the role of FDG PET is limited in the evaluation of primary renal malignancy because of low FDG uptake by renal cell carcinoma and also because normal urinary excretion of FDG seen in the images. A patient with renal cell carcinoma whose FDG PET imaging study incidentally shows a photon-deficient mass in the upper pole of the right ...

  15. Obstructive jaundice in small cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar Pour, Ali; Masir, Noraidah; Isa, Mohd Rose

    2015-08-01

    Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) commonly metastasizes to distant organs. However, metastasis to the pancreas is not a common event. Moreover, obstructive jaundice as a first clinical presentation of SCLC is extremely unusual. This case reports a 51-year-old male with SCLC, manifesting with obstructive jaundice as the initial clinical presentation. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatograghy (ERCP) and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed a mass at the head of the pancreas. The patient underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure). Histopathology revealed a chromogranin- A-positive poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. No imaging study of the lung was performed before surgery. A few months later, a follow-up CT revealed unilateral lung nodules with ipsilateral hilar nodes. A lung biopsy was done and histopathology reported a TTF- 1-positive, chromogranin A-positive, small cell carcinoma of the lung. On review, the pancreatic tumour was also TTF-1-positive. He was then treated with combination chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide). These findings highlight that presentation of a mass at the head of pancreas could be a manifestation of a metastatic tumour from elsewhere such as the lung, and thorough investigations should be performed before metastases can be ruled out. PMID:26277673

  16. A Study of Varlilumab (Anti-CD27) and Sunitinib in Patients With Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Carcinoma, Renal Cell; Kidney Diseases; Kidney Neoplasms; Urogenital Neoplasms; Urologic Diseases; Urologic Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Clear-cell Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

  17. A rare bladder cancer - small cell carcinoma: review and update

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaili Nabil

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) is rare, highly aggressive and diagnosed mainly at advanced stages. Hematuria is the main symptom of this malignancy. The origin of the disease is unknown; however the multipotent stem cell theory applies best to this case. Histology and immunohistochemistry shows a tumour which is indistinguishable from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Coexistence of SCCB with other types of carcinoma is common. The staging system used is the TNM-staging o...

  18. Renal cell carcinoma in a setting of chronic lithium toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Zardawi, Ibrahim; Nagonkar, Santoshi; Patel, Purvish

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 72 Final Diagnosis: Renal cell carcinoma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Lithium salts are widely used in the treatment of affective disorders of the bipolar type. Lithium is a nephrotoxic substance which can cause both acute and chronic renal disease, including cyst formation. Cysts appear to predispose the kidney to renal cell carcinoma. Case Report: A case of renal cell carcinoma ...

  19. Painless pulsatile mass as first presentation of renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberley Hoyland; Nikhil Vasdev; Paul Nathan; Damian Hanbury

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma rarely presents with typical features of abdominal pain, flank mass and haematuria, and up to 30% of patients present with metastases. We present the case of an 81 year old man who presented with a painless, pulsatile sternal metastasis as an initial presentation of renal cell carcinoma. This case highlights the importance of recognizing even unusual presentations of renal cell carcinoma, and that although sternal metastases are rare, when they do occur there should be a ...

  20. PIGMENTED BASAL CELL CARCINOMA: A RARE CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL VARIANT

    OpenAIRE

    Chandralekha; Vijaya Bhaskar; Bhagyalakshmi; Sudhakar; Sumanlatha

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common malignant tumour of skin , commonly referred to as „rodent ulcer‟. It is common in the head and neck region. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a clinical and histological variant of basal cell carcinoma that exhibits inc reased pigmentation. It is a rare variant that can clinically mimic malignant melanoma. It is more common in males than females. Herein , we are...

  1. Transitional cell carcinoma of the sinonasal tract: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Mondal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant sinonasal carcinomas are a rare entity comprising less than 1% of all cancers and around 3% of all head and neck malignancies seen in humans. Among these 15-20% are transitional cell carcinoma also known as non keratinizing carcinoma of sinonasal tract. We are reporting the case of a 45 years female with history of nasal obstruction and epistaxis. A contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT was done which showed mucosal thickening in the right nasal cavity. Endoscopy assisted biopsy was taken which revealed non keratinizing carcinoma (transitional type. Very few reported cases of this type of malignancy was found. A possible reason could be multiple synonyms like cylindrical cell carcinoma, Schneiderian carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma.

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three hundred and four patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity were treated at the Finsen Institute in cooperation with the ENT-surgical departments between 1978 and 1982. The primary treatment consisted of radiotherapy alone in 74%, surgery alone in 4%, and a combination of radiotherapy and surgery in 15% of the patients. 2% received other treatment (cryotherapy), 5% did not complete the planned radiotherapy, and 1% were not treated at all. Of 203 patients with tumour remnant or first recurrence, 45% were operated, 2% received radiotherapy, and 2% combined treatment. This treatment strategy made 38% of the patients free of disease in the follow-up period (3 1/2 to 8 years) or until the patients died from other causes. Fifty-nine percent of the patients died from their oral carcinomas. Tumour size (T), lymph node status (N), and tumour stage were as expected important prognostic factors. (orig.)

  4. Increased expression of metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 in renal cell carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Zhong; Xu, Naijin; Guo, Kai; Xu, Peng; Li, Pengju; ZHANG, YIMING; Li, Xiezhao; ZHENG, SHAOBO; LIU, CHUNXIAO; XU, ABAI; Huang,Peng

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) expression in tumor specimens is an independent prognostic indicator of metastasis, which has recently gained considerable attention in cancer research, due to its overexpression in several types of carcinoma. However, MACC1 expression patterns and its possible role in renal cell carcinoma remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate MACC1 expression in renal cell carcinoma via immunohistochemical analysis and determine the relationship betwe...

  5. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  6. Spindle cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D DeLacure

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC is a unique variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. SpCC confined to the nasal cavity is extremely rare, with only one case having been previously reported. We present a case report of nasal cavity SpCC and review the literature on this rare entity. A 29-year-old male presented with intermittent epistaxis from the left nasal cavity. On physical examination, the patient had an ulcerated mass in the left nasal vestibule and a biopsy showed a proliferation of spindle and epitheliod cells. The patient underwent wide local excision of the mass via a lateral alotomy approach and reconstruction with a composite conchal bowl skin and cartilage graft. Histologically, the mass had dyplastic squamous epithelium and spindle-shaped cells admixed with epitheliod cells. Immunohistochemistry was only positive for pancytokeratin AE1/AE3 and vimentin. Six months after surgery, the patient continues to have no evidence of disease. On literature review, only one previous case of SpCC confined to the nasal cavity was identified. We present a rare case of nasal cavity SpCC. No definite treatment protocol exists for this unique entity, but we believe that this tumor should primarily be treated with aggressive, wide local excision. Adjuvant radiation and/or chemotherapy have also been used anecdotally.

  7. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid. PMID:26589365

  8. Clinical Significance of Langerhans Cells in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Francisco; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Gonzalez-Moles, Miguel Angel; Lopez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Funez, Rafael; Redondo, Maximino

    2012-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) may be involved in the immunosurveillance against tumors as antigen-presenting cells. Our objective has been to determine the relevance of LC in progression of larynx squamous cell carcinomas and their relationship with different subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating cells. LCs were investigated by immunohistochemical methods using anti-CD1 antibody. LCs were detected in most of the primary tumors studied (44 out of 50) and also in metastases (6 out of 10) and recurrences (2 out of 3), but we did not find any statistical association between number of LCs and clinical-pathological parameters or survival. However, the number of LCs was increased in patients with evident infiltration of lymphocytes, mainly cytotoxic T cells. We can conclude that although LCs did not show clinical utility as prognostic marker, they may play a role in releasing an active immune response in larynx carcinomas, according to their ability to present antigens to sensitized T cells. PMID:22481933

  9. Clinical Significance of Langerhans Cells in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Esteban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cells (LCs may be involved in the immunosurveillance against tumors as antigen-presenting cells. Our objective has been to determine the relevance of LC in progression of larynx squamous cell carcinomas and their relationship with different subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating cells. LCs were investigated by immunohistochemical methods using anti-CD1 antibody. LCs were detected in most of the primary tumors studied (44 out of 50 and also in metastases (6 out of 10 and recurrences (2 out of 3, but we did not find any statistical association between number of LCs and clinical-pathological parameters or survival. However, the number of LCs was increased in patients with evident infiltration of lymphocytes, mainly cytotoxic T cells. We can conclude that although LCs did not show clinical utility as prognostic marker, they may play a role in releasing an active immune response in larynx carcinomas, according to their ability to present antigens to sensitized T cells.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen patients with renal neoplasm underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 1.5 Tesla superconducting magnetic system and spin echo images were obtained by quick scan technique under holding breath. MR images were interpreted independently of the computerized tomography (CT) findings. The preoperative stagings of the 18 renal carcinomas, as judged by MRI, were compared with those obtained at laparotomy. The anatomic staging was correctly performed by MRI in 13 patients (72 %). In the patients who had intrarenal small tumor with normal renal contour, MRI demonstrated a solid mass clearly distinguishable from surrounding renal parenchyma using the paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium-DTPA). When compared with results of evaluation by CT in staging, MRI appeared to have several advantages in determination of whole mass; the detection of tumor thrombus into renal vein and inferior vena cava; and the evaluation of direct tumor invasion of adjacent organs. MRI should play an important role in the staging of renal cell carcinoma. (author)

  11. KRAS Mutations in Canine and Feline Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, C; Wood, G A; Foster, R A; Stasi, S; Liu, J H W; Bartlett, J M S; Coomber, B L; Sabine, V S

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals may serve as valuable models for studying human cancers. Although KRAS is the most commonly mutated gene in human ductal pancreatic cancers (57%), with mutations frequently occurring at codons 12, 13 and 61, human pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) lack activating KRAS mutations. In the present study, 32 pancreatic ACC samples obtained from 14 dogs and 18 cats, including seven metastases, were analyzed for six common activating KRAS mutations located in codons 12 (n = 5) and 13 (n = 1) using Sequenom MassARRAY. No KRAS mutations were found, suggesting that, similar to human pancreatic ACC, KRAS mutations do not play a critical role in feline or canine pancreatic ACC. Due to the similarity of the clinical disease in dogs and cats to that of man, this study confirms that companion animals offer potential as a suitable model for investigating this rare subtype of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:27290644

  12. Carcinoma basocelular em localizações incomuns Basal cell carcinoma in unusual locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Beatriz Mautari Niwa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam cinco pacientes que desenvolveram carcinomas basocelulares em locais incomuns de ocorrência desse tumor. O objetivo é relatar a raridade topográfica da neoplasia cutânea e discutir o conceito de localização incomum para o carcinoma basocelular.The authors present five patients who develop basal cell carcinomas in sites this tumor rarely occurs. The aim is to report the rare location of this frequent cutaneous malignancy and to briefly discuss the concept of unusual location of basal cell carcinoma.

  13. Renal cell carcinoma: evolving approaches to advanced non-clear cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bukowski, Ronald M; Heng, Daniel Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies including sunitinib, sorafenib, and temsirolimus. Because patients with conventional clear cell histology account for 75- 80% of all patients with RCC, there has been little accumulated evidence on the treatment of patients with non-clear cell histologies. Most clinical trials have excluded them from enrolment, except for randomized studies investigating temsirolimus. Ma...

  14. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Masquerading as a Primary Ovarian Mass in a Post-Operative Case of Meningioma and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sangita Bohara; Biswajit Dey; Swapnil Agarwal; Jyotsna Naresh Bharti; Nita Khurana; Poonam Sachdeva

    2015-01-01

    The clinical presentation of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to ovary is extremely rare as well as confusing due to its close resemblance to primary ovarian tumors, especially clear cell carcinoma. We present a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma diagnosed in a 48-year-old female, who had renal cell carcinoma of the right kidney and right sphenoid wing meningioma of transitional type.

  15. Pulmonary Large Cell Carcinoma Displays High Expression of EMMPRIN and VEGF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yushuang Zheng; Miao Yu; Huachuan Zheng; Yifu Guan; Yasuo Takano

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in lung carcinomas,and to clarify their roles in carcinoma progression.METHODS Expression of EMMPRIN and VEGF was examined with tissue microarrays (TMAs) of lung carcinomas (n = 181),and their suppression in adjacent normal lung samples (n = 40) were determined by immunohistochemistry.The results were compared with clinicopathological findings for the same tumors.RESULTS Both EMMPRIN and VEGF were occasionally expressed in pseudostratified columnar epithelium and frequently in lung carcinomas.Histologically,EMMPRIN and VEGF displayed higher levels in large (LCC) cell carcinomas than adenocarcinoma (AD),squamous (SQ) and small cell carcinomas (SCC) (P < 0.05).EMMPRIN was more highly expressed in SQ as compared with AD (P < 0.05),while the converse was true for VEGF (P < 0.05).Binding was generally more intense for EMMPRIN in samples from male compared to female patients (P < 0.05),whereas the latter tended to exhibit more VEGF expression (P < 0.05).Positive associations of VEGF expression with the TNM stage and amounts of EMMPRIN were noted in the lung carcinomas (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION EMMPRIN and VEGF possibly contribute to physiological repair of normal lung and histogenesis of lung carcinoma.Both proteins might be involved in the molecular basis for differences in the incidence of lung carcinoma between men and women.

  16. Transglutaminase 2 Expression and Its Prognostic Significance in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Min Jee; Baek, Hae Woon; Rhee, Ye-Young; Lee, Cheol; Park, Jeong Whan; Kim, Hwal Woong; Moon, Kyung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Background: A few recent studies have demonstrated a possible role of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in tumorigenesis or progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The aim of this study was to examine TG2 expression and its clinicopathologic significance in a large number of human clear cell RCCs (CCRCCs). Methods: We analyzed 638 CCRCC patients who underwent partial or radical nephrectomy between 1995 and 2005. The expression of TG2 was determined by immunohistochemistry and categorized into four ...

  17. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba S.; Hassan, Mohammad J.; Madaan, Garima; Jain, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one year’s duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up. PMID:26629388

  18. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B

    1997-01-01

    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore.......05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...... studies of vitamin D's effect on TCC cells in vitro are necessary before the efficacy of treatment with vitamin D analogues in TCC can be evaluated in patients....

  19. Review of photodynamic therapy with 5-methyl aminolevulinate in actinic keratosis, epidermoid carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliographic review was conduced on the use of 5-methyl aminolevulinate in dermatology, specifically in the treatment of actinic keratosis, epidermoid carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. The basic fundamentals of photodynamic therapy are described. The preparation and method of use of photodynamic therapy with 5-methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) are detailed. The clinical studies that were realized with photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic keratosis, epidermoid carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are mentioned. Different photo-inducible agents and other current therapeutic options of first-line are compared. The MAL-PDT has have the advantage of to present less side effects and the same have been more tolerable than liquid nitrogen and 5 fluorouracil. The MAL-PDT has been considered as an effective option for the treatment of Bowen's disease. Invasive epidermoid carcinoma has existed without evidence to support the routine use of this therapeutic. For superficial basal cell carcinoma, the MAL-PDT has presented a high cure rate and transient and manageable side effects in extensive and multiple lesions. The MAL-PDT has been an effective and safe treatment in patients with basal cell carcinoma, for those with less depth of 2mm. The MAL-PDT could play an important role in the field of prevention with immunosuppressed patients, particularly, those that have required transplant and its immunosuppression has been pharmacological. The use or not of the MAL-PDT, should be evaluated individually for each patient and to have suitable characteristics for each disease that was cited in this review. The photodynamic therapy with 5-methyl aminolevulinate has been a therapeutic modality of considerable economy, however, it should be evaluated in the context of number of inquiries and side effects that have offered other therapeutic modalities

  20. Inhibitory effects of Arhgap6 on cervical carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junping; Liu, Yang; Yin, Yihua

    2016-02-01

    Ras homology GTPase activation protein 6 (Arhgap6), as a member of the rhoGAP family of proteins, performs vital functions on the regulation of actin polymerization at the plasma membrane during several cellular processes. The role of Arhgap6 in the progression and development of cancer remains nearly unknown. This study aimed at exploring the effects of Arhgap6 on cervical carcinoma. Human cervical cancer cells HeLa and SiHa were transduced with a lentivirus targeting Arhgap6 (Arhgap6+), while CaSki and C4-1 cells were transfected with miRNA. Cell proliferation was identified by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis were identified by flow cytometry. The capacity of cell migration, invasion, and adhesion were detected by Transwell assay. Further, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were used to analyze the expression levels of Arhgap6 and several tumor-related genes. Co-immunoprecipitation assay was performed to validate the interaction between Arhgap6 and Rac3 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3). Results showed that Arhgap6 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and adhesion of cervical carcinoma, induced cell apoptosis, and caused cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase (n = 3, p < 0.05). Expression of the tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes were up- and down-regulated respectively by Arhgap6, and Rac3 was proved to be the target of Arhgap6. Besides, in in vivo assays, tumor size and weight were destructed in Arhgap6+ athymic nude mouse. This study indicated that Arhgap6 may play a role in the treatment of cervical cancer as a tumor supressor. PMID:26628301

  1. RETINOIC ACID NUCLEAR RECEPTOR α(RARα) PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN RETINOID-MEDIATED INHIBITIONOF GROWTH IN HUMAN BREAST CARCINOMA CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵志敏; 余黎明; 沈镇宙; JosephA.Fontana

    1996-01-01

    Retinoids mediate their actions via retinoic acid receptors (RARα) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Each of class of these nuclear retinoid receptor is further subdivided into three species narnely α,βandγ,Recently studies demonstrated that estrogen receptor(ER)-positive human breast cancer(HBC) cell lines are sensitive and ER-negative cell lines are resistant to growth inhibitory effeces of retinoic acid(RA).In this study,we found that only RARα mRNA levels was strongly correlated with ER-status.To further inwestigate the major role of RARα in retinoid-mediated inhibition of growth,we transfected RARα cDNA into two RA-resistant ER-negative HBC cell lines.Analysis of different clonal populations of RARα transfectants from each cell line revealed growth inhibition by retinoids.Our results demonstrated that RARα plays a major role in mediating retinoids inhibition of growth in HBC cells and sdequate levels of RARα are required for such an effect.

  2. The role of CXC-chemokine receptor CXCR2 and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemokine receptor signaling pathways are implicated in the pathobiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the clinical relevance of CXCR2 receptor, mediating the effects of all angiogenic chemokines, remains unclear. SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signaling)-3 is a negative regulator of cytokine-driven responses, contributing to interferon-α resistance commonly used to treat advanced RCC with limited information regarding its expression in RCC. In this study, CXCR2 and SOCS-3 were immunohistochemically investigated in 118 RCC cases in relation to interleukin (IL)-6 and (IL)-8, their downstream transducer phosphorylated (p-)STAT-3, and VEGF expression, being further correlated with microvascular characteristics, clinicopathological features and survival. In 30 cases relationships with hypoxia-inducible factors, i.e. HIF-1a, p53 and NF-κΒ (p65/RelA) were also examined. Validation of immunohistochemistry and further investigation of downstream transducers, p-JAK2 and p-c-Jun were evaluated by Western immunoblotting in 5 cases. Both CXCR2 and IL-8 were expressed by the neoplastic cells their levels being interrelated. CXCR2 strongly correlated with the levels of HIF-1a, p53 and p65/RelA in the neoplastic cells. Although SOCS-3 was simultaneously expressed with p-STAT-3, its levels tended to show an inverse relationship with p-JAK-2 and p-c-Jun in Western blots and were positively correlated with HIF-1a, p53 and p65/p65/RelA expression. Neither CXCR2 nor SOCS-3 correlated with the extent of microvascular network. IL-8 and CXCR2 expression was associated with high grade, advanced stage and the presence/number of metastases but only CXCR2 adversely affected survival in univariate analysis. Elevated SOCS-3 expression was associated with progression, the presence/number of metastasis and shortened survival in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Our findings implicate SOCS-3 overexpression in RCC metastasis and biologic aggressiveness advocating its

  3. Selective stimulation of prostatic carcinoma cell proliferation by transferrin.

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Rossi; Zetter, B R

    1992-01-01

    Aggressive prostatic carcinomas most frequently metastasize to the skeletal system. We have previously shown that cultured human prostatic carcinoma cells are highly responsive to growth factors found in human bone marrow. To identify the factor(s) responsible for the increased prostatic carcinoma cell proliferation, we fractionated crude bone marrow preparations by using hydroxylapatite HPLC. The major activity peak contained two high molecular weight bands (M(r) = 80,000 and 69,000) that cr...

  4. Delayed recurrence of renal cell carcinoma presenting as a haemorrhoid

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, James R.L.; Smith, Gavin; Cornaby, Andrew J.; Thomas, Teresa; Lamparelli, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic non-colorectal cancer of the anal canal is a rare entity. To date, only four cases have been described in the literature. We present a 76-year-old man who was referred with an unusual perianal lesion. He had a history of renal cell carcinoma 7 years previously. Histologically, the lesion revealed clear cell carcinoma in keeping with metastasis. To our knowledge, this is only the second time a renal carcinoma metastasis to the anal canal has been identified.

  5. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beggs, Rachel E

    2012-09-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater are rare and confer a very poor prognosis despite aggressive therapy. There are few case reports of large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater in the literature and to date no studies have been done to establish optimal management. We describe a pooled case series from published reports of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater including a case which presented to our institution.

  6. The Effect of Sortilin Silencing on Ovarian Carcinoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaemimanesh, Fatemeh; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Talebi, Saeed; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Hemmati, Shayda; Hadavi, Reza; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Farzi, Maryam; Akhondi, Mohammad mehdi; Rabbani, Hodjattallah

    2014-01-01

    Background Our preliminary data on the protein expression of SORT1 in ovarian carcinoma tissues showed that sortilin was overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma patients and cell lines, while non-malignant ovaries expressed comparably lower amount of this protein. In spite of diverse ligands and also different putative functions of sortilin (NTR3), the function of overexpressed sortilin in ovarian carcinoma cells is an intriguing subject of inquiry. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investi...

  7. ROLE OF PALLIATION IN STAGE IV CARCINOMA CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Palliation reduces the severity of disease symptoms, rather than reversing its progression or providing a cure. Metast atic cancer cervix (Ca Cx is incurable by surgery, radiation or chemotherapy, but these modali ties are useful for palliation. Globally about five to six lakh new cases of carcinoma cervi x are diagnosed every year. Of these, one lakh cases are diagnosed in India of which 25.0% are fro m West Bengal only. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to study the role of palliation in Sta ge IV Carcinoma Cervix. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: During the study period of five years from January 2 007 to December 2011, consecutive seventy five new cases of stage IV carc inoma cervix diagnosed at Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Cancer Research Institute, Kolkata, we re included in our study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical examination with relevant investigations l ike kidney function tests (KFT, biopsy, cystoscopy, CT scan etc were done for diagno sis & staging. Treatment was decided based on woman's age, general health and the locati on & type of the tumour. Treatment options were surgery, radiotherapy (RT, chemotherapy (CT an d simple palliation. In our study, combined CT+RT was done in 18.67% patients most of w ho presented with Stage IV disease. Radiation was given as brachytherapy following telet herapy. Chemotherapy was used as adjunct to RT or for palliation or as neo-adjuvant c hemotherapy (NACT, most commonly using paclitaxel (135mg/square metre, cisplatin (50mg/ squ are metre and 5- fluorouracil (600mg/ square metre. At times, chemotherapy could provide pa in relief only. Vault smear and metastatic workup was done during follow-up visits ev ery 8-12 weeks after treatment completion. RESULTS: Majority of patients belonged to the age group 42-69 years with a median age of 53 years. Bladder involvement was see n in 15(20.0% cases, bowel involvement in 14(19.0% and distant metastasis in 46(61.0% ca ses. Most cases were of Squamous

  8. Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans control adhesion and invasion of breast carcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Hooi Ching; Multhaupt, Hinke A. B.; Couchman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    breast carcinoma. This may derive from their regulation of cell adhesion, but roles for specific syndecans are unresolved. Methods: The MDA-MB231 human breast carcinoma cell line was exposed to exogenous glycosaminoglycans and changes in cell behavior monitored by western blotting, immunocytochemistry......, invasion and collagen degradation assays. Selected receptors including PAR-1 and syndecans were depleted by siRNA treatments to assess cell morphology and behavior. Immunohistochemistry for syndecan-2 and its interacting partner, caveolin-2 was performed on human breast tumor tissue arrays. Two......-tailed paired t-test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey¿s post-hoc test were used in the analysis of data. Results: MDA-MB231 cells were shown to be highly sensitive to exogenous heparan sulfate or heparin, promoting increased spreading, focal adhesion and adherens junction formation with concomitantly reduced...

  9. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Betekhtin M.; Ananiev J.; Tchernev G.; Zisova L.; Philipov S.; Hristova R.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset). The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. W...

  10. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  11. Percutaneous Cryoablation for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsitskari Maria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. Nephron sparing resection (partial nephrectomy has been the “gold standard” for the treatment of resectable disease. With the widespread use of cross sectional imaging techniques, more cases of renal cell cancers are detected at an early stage, i.e. stage 1A or 1B.  This has provided an impetus for expanding the nephron sparing options and especially, percutaneous ablative techniques.  Percutaneous ablation for RCC is now performed as a standard therapeutic nephron-sparing option in patients who are poor candidates for resection or when there is a need to preserve renal function due to comorbid conditions, multiple renal cell carcinomas, and/or heritable renal cancer syndromes. During the last few years, percutaneous cryoablation has been gaining acceptance as a curative treatment option for small renal cancers. Clinical studies to date indicate that cryoablation is a safe and effective therapeutic method with acceptable short and long term outcomes and with a low risk, in the appropriate setting.  In addition it seems to offer some advantages over radio frequency ablation (RFA and other thermal ablation techniques for renal masses.

  12. Aldesleukin in advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidinger, Manuela; Hejna, Michael; Zielinski, Christoph C

    2004-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 2-3% of all malignancies. The most common subtype [85%] is the clear cell variant. A total of 30% of patients present with metastatic disease at diagnosis and another 30-40% will develop metastases during the course of the disease. Conventional cancer treatment is not effective, but cytokines including recombinant interleukin-2 (aldesleukin) have demonstrated clinical activity of various degrees. This drug profile provides a review of the literature on studies using aldesleukin in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Aldesleukin has been used in different dose schedules applying various administration routes, as either monotherapy or in combination with other cytokines, chemotherapy, endocrine treatment and adoptive cellular immunotherapy. Although a large number of randomized trials have been performed with different treatment strategies, it still remains uncertain whether the dose or combination of aldesleukin with other agents substantially influence treatment outcome. It appears that factors other than those that are treatment related are responsible for the course of the disease. PMID:15606326

  13. OPIUM USE IN TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nourbakhsh; M. G. Mohseni Z. N. Hatmi

    2006-01-01

    Opium use is one of the most common forms of substance abuse in Iran and there are some evidence indicating it is a risk factor of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, so consideration of the high prevalence of smoking which is the most important risk factor of TCC of the urinary bladder among opium users is essential to assess the role of opium use as a possible risk factor of TCC. This study was done to evaluate th...

  14. IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING OF BIOTHERAPY FOR DISSEMINATED RENAL-CELL CARCINOMA

    OpenAIRE

    O. E. Molchanov; M. I. Karelin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: to assess a role of immunomonitoring in patients with disseminated renal-cell carcinoma.  Subjects and methods. One hundred and seventy-five patients treated in 1998 to 2008 were followed up. The patients received various immunochemotherapy regimens including interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-α (IFN-α), Xeloda, cyclophosphamide. The immune status, including lymphocytes and their subpopulations, cytokine components (IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12; IFN-α, IFN-γ; tumor necr...

  15. CT findings of signet ring cell carcinoma of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signet-ring cell carcinoma is rather invasive and infiltrative than other histologic types of gastric cancer. We evaluated the characteristic CT findings of signet-ring cell carcinoma especially in the intensity and pattern of contrast enhancement. We analyzed the CT findings of 22 cases with histologically proven signet-ring cell carcinoma, and compared them with those of 35 cases with histologically proven tubular adenocarcinoma. The double ring enhancement of the gastric mass was seen in 12 cases of signet-ring cell carcinoma and only one case of tubular adenocarcinoma. The masses of signet-ring cell carcinoma were enhanced more by the CT number of 10.2 than those of tubular adenocarcinoma. Of the masses of signet-ring cell carcinoma, those showed double ring enhancement were more intensely enhanced than those showed diffuse enhancement by the CT number of 22.9. We thought that neovascularity and different infiltration of the tumor cells in the gastric wall were responsible for the intense enhancement and double ring sign of signet-ring cell carcinoma. The possibility of signet-ring cell carcinoma is high if a gastric mass show double ring sign and strong contrast enhancement

  16. RASSF1A expression inhibits cell growth and enhances cell chemosensitivity to mitomycin in BEL-7402 hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Hong-geng; XUE Wan-jiang; QIAN Hai-xin; ZHOU Xiao-jun; QIN Lei; LAN Jing

    2009-01-01

    Background The antitumor role of Ras association domain family 1A (RASSFIA) gene and its potential molecular mechanisms are not well understood. The objective of this study was to observe the antitumor ability of RASSFIA in hepatoceliular carcinoma, and study the mechanisms of cell apoptosis induced by RASSFIA.Methods After stably transfecting a RASSF1A (wild-type or mutant) expression vector into the BEL-7402 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, RT-PCR and Westem blotting was used to detect the RASSF1A expression levels in recombinant cells. The effects of wild-type RASSF1A on cell growth were observed in vitro by analyzing cell proliferation rate, cell colony formation, and in vivo by analyzing tumorigenesis in nude mice. In addition, the effect of RASSF1A gene expression on the chemosensitivity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells to antitumor drugs was examined by inhibition of cell proliferation and the percentage of apoptotic cells.Results Wild-type RASSF1A, not the mutant, suppressed cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of wild-type RASSF1A could enhance the inhibition of cell proliferation and the percentage of apoptotic cells following cell treatment with mitomycin, but had no significant effect when combined with adriamycin, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil and cisplatJn treatment.Conclusion Wild-type RASSF1A inhibits cell growth and enhances cell chemosensitivity to mitomycin in hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that RASSF1A may serve as a new target for gene therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

  17. Role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in evaluating the efficiency of ultrasound guided percutaneous microwave ablation in patients with renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiency and feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with Sonovue in assessing of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) following ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA). Seventy-nine patients (60 males and 19 females) with 83 lesions (mean size 3.2±1.6 cm) were treated by US-guided percutaneous MWA. The CEUS results of the third day after the ablation were compared with the synchronous contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results and biopsy pathological results. The follow-up was performed by CEUS and CT/MRI after 1, 3, 6 months and every 6 months subsequently. The combination of clinical follow-up results and CT/MRI imaging findings was the reference standard of CEUS results for evaluating the therapeutic effect. The identification of residual or recurrence tumour was assessed by two blinded radiologists. On the third day after MWA, CEUS showed 68 of 83 lesions (68/83, 81.9%) successfully ablated and 15 of 83 (18.1%) with residual tumours. Among residual tumours, 13 (86.7%) were confirmed by contrast-enhanced CT/MRI findings and biopsy results. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive value of CEUS evaluating the short-term MWA effectiveness were 100%, 97.1%, 97.6%, 86.7% and 100%, respectively. During the six years follow-up (median 26 months), the CEUS showed recurrence in 7 patients, and six of them achieved consistent results on CEUS and CT/MRI imaging. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive value for CEUS evaluating long-term MWA effectiveness were 85.7%, 98.7%, 97.6%, 85.7% and 98.7%, respectively. The post-procedural CEUS demonstrated as an effective and feasible method in evaluating a therapeutic effect of RCCs following MWA

  18. Cancer Stem Cells Accountability in Progression of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The Most Recent Trends!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samapika Routray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs play a major role in local recurrence and metastatic spread in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC. Evidence suggests that cancer stem cells are resistant to conventional therapy. So the emerging concepts of the role of cancer stem cells in the pathobiology of HNSCC should be understood carefully to be able to create new paradigms in treatment plans.

  19. Aberrant expression of metallothioneins in clear cell renal cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymar V. I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To find candidate tumor suppressor genes among metallothioneins for clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Methods. Analysis of the microarray data, quantitative PCR. Results. We found three genes encoding metallothioneines that showed reduced expression in different types of renal tumors, using protocol of the cross-platform meta-analysis of microarray data with normalization on several reference genes. Decreased expression of the MT1G, MT1F, and MT1H genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma was confirmed by qPCR. Conclusions. The MT1G, MT1F and MT1H genes as well as may be considered as the candidate tumor suppressor genes for ccRCC.

  20. 11C-Acetate PET imaging for renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-acetate (AC) for evaluation of renal cell carcinoma. Enrolled in the study were 20 patients with suspected renal tumour, one of whom had three renal lesions. In all, 22 renal lesions were evaluated. Following administration of 350 MBq (10 mCi) of AC, whole-body PET images were obtained. Based on these PET findings, kidney lesions were scored as positive or negative. The PET results were correlated with the CT findings and histological diagnosis after surgery. In 18 patients, 20 tumours were diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma. Lesions in the remaining two patients were diagnosed as complicated cyst without malignant tissue. Of the 20 renal cell carcinomas. 14 (70%) showed positive AC PET findings; 6 were negative. The two patients with complicated cyst had negative AC PET findings. Of the 20 renal cell carcinomas, 19 were clear-cell carcinoma and 1 was a papillary cell carcinoma. This papillary cell carcinoma showed high AC uptake. AC demonstrates marked uptake in renal cell carcinoma. These preliminary data show that AC is a possible PET tracer for detection of renal cancer. (orig.)

  1. Successful treatment of a brain-metastasized renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Kim W.; Walid, M. Sami

    2009-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is an uncommon type of cancer that rarely metastasizes to the brain. The prognosis after discovering brain metastasis has traditionally been dismal. We are presenting a case of renal cell carcinoma with multiple brain metastases that was successfully treated with multimodal therapy including a new type of medication.

  2. PRL-3 expression in nasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Hui Chen; Min-Ying Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between liver regeneration phosphatase-3 (PRL-3) with differentiation extent of nasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma, and molecular biological effects on the pathogenesis of nasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma to comprehend its relevance, so as to make early diagnosis of patients, and to give guidance to the prognosis. Methods:Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PRL-3 in 30 cases of different degrees of sinus nasal squamous cell carcinoma. 20 cases of normal nasal cavity of mucosa tissues were set as control. Results:The PRL-3 in all levels of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma tissues, there was a significant difference compared with the normal nasal mucosa (P<0.05), squamous cell carcinoma and its expression increased with the grade with enhanced trend. Conclusions:PRL-3 expression increased significantly in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma than in nasal polyp tissue, showed that it may be associated with squamous cell carcinoma of nasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma, may be the early event.

  3. A rare case of primary malignant small cell carcinoma combined with urothelial cell carcinoma in the ureter

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Hoon; Yuk, Seung Mo; Kim, Jong Ok; Han, Dong Seok

    2013-01-01

    Background Extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas have been reported in a variety of organs, and their incidence in the genitourinary tract is second only to that in the gastrointestinal tract. To date, however, only a few cases of small cell carcinoma of the ureter have been reported. Because the extreme rarity of this type of carcinoma, its clinical behaviour, diagnostic methods, and effective treatment modalities have not yet been determined. Case presentation A 59-year-old man presented wit...

  4. Merkel cell carcinoma with an unusual immunohistochemical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pilloni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and morphological picture of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC may be rather challenging; therefore, the immunohistochemical profile plays a relevant role in confirming the microscopic diagnosis. A panel of antibodies including cytokeratins 20, 7 and epithelial membrane antigen, and neuronspecific enolase is used in confirming the morphological diagnosis of MCC. The majority of MCCs express CK20 and are CK7-negative. Herein, we present a case of primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma with an atypical immunohistochemical pattern. A 83-years old woman presented with a painless plaque, red to violaceous in colour, located in the leg. The skin tumor was excided, formalin-fixed and paraffinembedded. Tissue sections were immunostained with a panel of antibodies routinely utilized in complex primary skin tumors for evidencing epithelial and neuroendocrine differentiation of tumor cells. The neuroendocrine differentiation of tumor cells was evidenced by their immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, chromograninA and neuron-specific enolase. Tumor cells also showed diffuse cytoplasmic staining for CK7. No immunoreactivity was detected for CK20 and thyroid transcription factor-1. Our data, together with previous rare reports of CK20-/CK7+ MCCs, lay stress on the importance of routinely utilizing a panel of antibodies in the differential diagnosis of complex primary carcinomas of the skin and may have important implications in expanding the differential diagnosis of skin tumors. In particular, caution should be taken in excluding the diagnosis of MCC only on the basis of the absence of reactivity of tumor cells for CK20, favouring the wrong diagnosis of less aggressive skin tumors.

  5. Characterization of the Merkel Cell Carcinoma miRNome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Ning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been implicated in various skin cancers, including melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma; however, the expression of microRNAs and their role in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC have yet to be explored in depth. To identify microRNAs specific to MCC (MCC-miRs, next-generation sequencing (NGS of small RNA libraries was performed on different tissue samples including MCCs, other cutaneous tumors, and normal skin. Comparison of the profiles identified several microRNAs upregulated and downregulated in MCC. For validation, their expression was measured via qRT-PCR in a larger group of MCC and in a comparison group of non-MCC cutaneous tumors and normal skin. Eight microRNAs were upregulated in MCC: miR-502-3p, miR-9, miR-7, miR-340, miR-182, miR-190b, miR-873, and miR-183. Three microRNAs were downregulated: miR-3170, miR-125b, and miR-374c. Many of these MCC-miRs, the miR-183/182/96a cistron in particular, have connections to tumorigenic pathways implicated in MCC pathogenesis. In situ hybridization confirmed that the highly expressed MCC-miR, miR-182, is localized within tumor cells. Furthermore, NGS and qRT-PCR reveal that several of these MCC-miRs are highly expressed in the patient-derived MCC cell line, MS-1. These data indicate that we have identified a set of MCC-miRs with important implications for MCC research.

  6. Renal cell carcinoma: links and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabaria R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reena Kabaria, Zachary Klaassen, Martha K Terris Department of Surgery, Section of Urology, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA Abstract: This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses. The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect. Keywords: renal cell carcinoma, risk factors, incidence, smoking, obesity, hypertension

  7. Coculture System with an Organotypic Brain Slice and 3D Spheroid of Carcinoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Han-Ning; Lohaus, Raphaela; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Binder, Claudia; Dehghani, Faramarz; Pukrop, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Patients with cerebral metastasis of carcinomas have a poor prognosis. However, the process at the metastatic site has barely been investigated, in particular the role of the resident (stromal) cells. Studies in primary carcinomas demonstrate the influence of the microenvironment on metastasis, even on prognosis1,2. Especially the tumor associated macrophages (TAM) support migration, invasion and proliferation3. Interestingly, the major target sites of metastasis possess tissue-specific macro...

  8. Role of radiation therapy in the treatment of parotid carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy appears to be useful in postoperative management of patients with parotid gland tumors. Because the local recurrence rate is excessive, postoperative irradiation should be routinely considered for high grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas, all squamous cell, adeno- and undifferentiated carcinomas of the parotid. Doses should be at least equivalent to 6500 rads in 6 weeks to 4 cm. depth (or measured tumor depth). The radiation fields should cover the base of skull and lower neck to prevent extension of the cancer. (U.S.)

  9. Role of Percutaneous Microwave Ablation in Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tharwat Sayed *, Sahar M El Fiky*,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with an annual occurrence of one million new cases. An etiologic association between HBV infection and the development of HCC has been established. Hepatitis C virus is also proving an important predisposing factor for this malignancy, the use of minimally invasive Percutaneous ablative technique (e.g. Radiofrequency (RF and Microwave ablation (MW has gained great momentum and because of the drawbacks of RF ablation, several groups have successfully proved the efficacious nature of Microwave ablation in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Aim of the Work: The aim of this work is to highlight the role, the principles and the applications of percutaneous Microwave Ablation in Hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: The studied group included 30 patients (25 men and 5 women with hepatocellular carcinoma. All patients underwent microwave ablation for the hepatocellular carcinoma. Results: The results of the procedures will be assessed as regarding sizeand enhancement of the lesion (s on triphasic CT abdomen before the procedure and at the follow up at one month as well as the Alpha fetoprotein levels. Conclusion: MWA technique represents a safe, fast and efficacious way to perform hepatic ablation in patients with HCC. Initial results are encouraging; however, longer follow-up is needed for further classification of our results.

  10. Incidence of Mast Cells in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Short Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are regarded as complex and multifunctional cells, playing a significant role in immunopathology and a substantial role in tumor angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is a complex process that is tightly regulated by various growth factors in which mast cells act directly by releasing angiogenic factors and henceforth promoting tumor growth and metastasis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of mast cells in tissue sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in comparison with normal mucosa. A total of 40 cases (20 OSCC and 20 normal mucosa were stained with 1% toluidine blue and the quantitative analysis was done by using light microscope under 400x magnification. A significant increase in the mast cell count was observed in the sections of OSCC when compared to normal mucosa suggesting their contributing role in tumor growth and progression.

  11. CT staging of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of computerized tomography (CT) in the characterization of renal masses, in order to stage them, determine their prognosis and their appropriate clinical and/or surgical management. Material and Methods: Between 1988 and 2001, we selected 63 patients with renal tumors that had been examined by pathology. Patient's ages ranged from 16 to 88 years (25 women, 38 men). The studies were performed with a sequential helical CT, using 5 mm thickness sections every 5mm evaluating the cortico medullar and nephrographic phases. Renal tumors were characterized and staged without any knowledge about the pathological findings; subsequently the tomographic characteristics were compared to such findings. The following characteristics were evaluated: 1) mixed solid-cystic nature; 2) size; 3) borders; 4) enhancement; 5) necrosis; 6) hemorrhage; 7) central scar; 8) presence of fat; 9) collecting system; 10) capsular invasion; 11) perirenal fat invasion; 12) vessels; 13) Gerota's fascia; 14) lymph nodes; and 15) local and/or distant metastases. Results: Of the 63 tumors, 2 were complicated cysts; of the 61 remaining tumors, 10 were angiomyolipomas, 1 was a renal lymphoma, 1 was a focal xantogranulomatose pyelonephritis, 1 was a metanephric adenoma, 3 papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 4 transitional cell tumors, 4 oncocytomas, 37 clear cell renal carcinoma. The CT could correctly characterize the 2 cystic tumors as such, as well as the 9 angiomyolipomas and the 4 transitional cell tumors. The 48 other tumors (1 angiomyolipoma, 1 lymphoma, 1 focal xantogranulomatose pyelonephritis, 1 metanephric adenoma, 3 papillary RCC, 4 oncocytomas, and 37 cell renal carcinomas) remaining were characterized as renal adenocarcinomas and CT staged. Conclusion: CT is a useful method to characterize renal masses since it determines their solid-cystic or fatty structure; aiding in many cases to define a surgical treatment. For the CT staging of renal tumors, the

  12. Outcome of Patients With Metastatic Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results From the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakopoulos, Christos E; Chittoria, Namita; Choueiri, Toni K;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis. Data regarding outcome in the targeted therapy era are lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical, prognostic, and treatment parameters in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients with and without sarcomatoid histology...... of sRCC is needed to develop alternative therapeutics....

  13. Secondary signet ring cell carcinoma of prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available True metastases to prostate from solid tumors are reported only in 0.2% of all surgical prostatic specimens and 2.9% of all male postmortems. Clinical context, morphological features, and immunohistochemical localization of prostate specific antigen (PSA are supposed to clarify the differential diagnosis between a secondary and a primary tumor. We report an unusual and rare case of secondary signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC of prostate in which the clinical data and signet ring cell morphology pointed toward the diagnosis of a primary SRCC. Immunohistochemistry (IHC for PSA not only proved the case to be a secondary SRCC but also initiated the process for diagnosis of the occult primary malignancy in the patient′s stomach.

  14. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary tract: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kozyrakis, Diomidis; Papadaniil, Panteleimon; Stefanakis, Stefanos; Pantazis, Efstathios; Grigorakis, Alkiviadis; Petraki, Konstantina; Malovrouvas, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the urinary tract is rarely encountered and very few cases have been reported in the literature. Herein we describe a case of small cell malignancy located contemporarily in the ureter and the bladder.

  15. Fascin overexpression promotes neoplastic progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fascin is a globular actin cross-linking protein, which plays a major role in forming parallel actin bundles in cell protrusions and is found to be associated with tumor cell invasion and metastasis in various type of cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Previously, we have demonstrated that fascin regulates actin polymerization and thereby promotes cell motility in K8-depleted OSCC cells. In the present study we have investigated the role of fascin in tumor progression of OSCC. To understand the role of fascin in OSCC development and/or progression, fascin was overexpressed along with vector control in OSCC derived cells AW13516. The phenotype was studied using wound healing, Boyden chamber, cell adhesion, Hanging drop, soft agar and tumorigenicity assays. Further, fascin expression was examined in human OSCC samples (N = 131) using immunohistochemistry and level of its expression was correlated with clinico-pathological parameters of the patients. Fascin overexpression in OSCC derived cells led to significant increase in cell migration, cell invasion and MMP-2 activity. In addition these cells demonstrated increased levels of phosphorylated AKT, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Our in vitro results were consistent with correlative studies of fascin expression with the clinico-pathological parameters of the OSCC patients. Fascin expression in OSCC showed statistically significant correlation with increased tumor stage (P = 0.041), increased lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001), less differentiation (P = 0.005), increased recurrence (P = 0.038) and shorter survival (P = 0.004) of the patients. In conclusion, our results indicate that fascin promotes tumor progression and activates AKT and MAPK pathways in OSCC-derived cells. Further, our correlative studies of fascin expression in OSCC with clinico-pathological parameters of the patients indicate that fascin may prove to be useful in prognostication and treatment of OSCC

  16. PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF BIOMARKERS IN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA. REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ignatova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Advances in understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC have resulted in an increasing number of molecules-biomarkers that can be used for prediction of behaviour of this disease to achieve the above objective.We identified and classified 24 molecular biomarkers into five groups based on their biological functions: 1 cell cycle acceleration and proliferation; 2 hypoxia-inducible factors; 3 tumour suppression and apoptosis; 4 angiogenesis; 5 cell adhesion and matrix degradation. We considered articles published in PubMed-indexed journals over the past 8 years and conducted a literature review of studies examining the role of immunohistochemistry-based protein biomarkers in predicting OSCC outcome.

  17. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA IN MIDDLE EAR: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a very common skin cancer, it is much more common in fair – skinned individuals with a family history of Basal cell carcinoma and increases closure to the equator or at higher attitude, this tumor is a extremely rarely found in the middle ear, accounts for 45% of all au ricular carcinomas and is more common than squamous cell carcinoma, it is most frequently found in patient between 40 and 60 years of age, sunlight exposure is the most common modifiable risk factor, we are here presenting a case of Basal cell carcinoma in middle ear presented with ear discharge and polyp in external auditory canal and middle ear, treated with radiotherapy

  18. Osteoactivin Promotes Migration of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosarena, Oneida A; Dela Cadena, Raul A; Denny, Michael F; Bryant, Evan; Barr, Eric W; Thorpe, Ryan; Safadi, Fayez F

    2016-08-01

    Nearly 50% of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) die of metastases or locoregional recurrence. Metastasis is mediated by cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Osteoactivin (OA) overexpression plays a role in metastases in several malignancies. The aims were to determine how integrin interactions modulate OA-induced OSCC cell migration; and to investigate OA effects on cell survival and proliferation. We confirmed OA mRNA and protein overexpression in OSCC cell lines. We assessed OA's interactions with integrins using adhesion inhibition assays, fluorescent immunocytochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation. We investigated OA-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cell survival. Integrin inhibition effects on OA-mediated cell migration were determined. We assessed effects of OA knock-down on cell migration and proliferation. OA is overexpressed in OSCC cell lines, and serves as a migration-promoting adhesion molecule. OA co-localized with integrin subunits, and co-immunoprecipitated with the subunits. Integrin blocking antibodies, especially those directed against the β1 subunit, inhibited cell adhesion (P = 0.03 for SCC15 cells). Adhesion to OA activated MAPKs in UMSCC14a cells and OA treatment promoted survival of SCC15 cells. Integrin-neutralizing antibodies enhanced cell migration with OA in the extracellular matrix. OA knock-down resulted in decreased proliferation of SCC15 and SCC25 cells, but did not inhibit cell migration. OA in the extracellular matrix promotes OSCC cell adhesion and migration, and may be a novel target in the prevention of HNSCC spread. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1761-1770, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26636434

  19. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma thyroid from functionally cured cancer cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a very unusual occurrence of a metastatic squamous carcinoma to thyroid gland from a treated squamous cell carcinoma cervix 12 years before with no recurrence at the primary site. The case also has an additional complexity of rapid progression of the metastatic thyroid carcinoma to wide spread dissemination to lungs and bones while on concurrent chemo radio therapy confirming the aggressiveness of the entity

  20. Transitional cell carcinoma forming a perirenal cyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffan, E; Kipar, A; Barber, P J; Freeman, A I

    2008-03-01

    An eight-year-old, neutered male Burmese cat presented with five days vomiting and anorexia. Physical examination, clinical pathology and diagnostic imaging findings suggested a perirenal pseudocyst. After partial resection of the perirenal capsule clinical signs temporarily resolved, but the cat was euthanased 34 days postoperatively as a result of seizures and recurrence of vomiting. Postoperative histopathology showed neoplastic transitional cells within and lining the resected perirenal capsule; a diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma was confirmed post-mortem. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of this presentation of transitional cell carcinoma. Transitional cell carcinoma should be a differential diagnosis for the aetiology of perirenal pseudocyst. PMID:17784930

  1. Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Forehead: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Rudić, Milan; Kranjčec, Zoran; Lisica-Šikić, Nataša; Kovačić, Marijan

    2012-01-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is defined as a tumor 5cm or greater in diameter. They present less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. We present a case of an 85-year-old male patient with a giant ulcerating tumor of the left forehead (measuring 7x6cm). Under local anesthesia tumor was surgically excised. No involvement of the underlying periostal or bone structure was noted. Pathohystological exam revealed the giant basal cell carcinoma, with free surgical margins. Giant basal cell carc...

  2. Inflammatory Cell Distribution in Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cutaneous carcinoma associated with older age, immunodeficiency and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integrated within malignant cells. The presence of intra-tumoural CD8+ lymphocytes reportedly predicts better MCC-specific survival. In this study, the distribution of inflammatory cells and properties of CD8+ T lymphocytes within 20 primary MCC specimens were characterised using immunohistochemistry and multicolour immunofluorescent staining coupled to confocal microscopy. CD8+ cells and CD68+ macrophages were identified in 19/20 primary MCC. CD20+ B cells were present in 5/10, CD4+ cells in 10/10 and FoxP3+ cells in 7/10 specimens. Only two specimens had almost no inflammatory cells. Within specimens, inflammatory cells followed the same patchy distribution, focused at the edge of sheets and nodules and, in some cases, more intense in trabecular areas. CD8+ cells were outside vessels on the edge of tumour. Those few within malignant sheets typically lined up in fine septa not contacting MCC cells expressing MCPyV large T antigen. The homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 was expressed outside malignant nodules whereas its receptor CXCR4 was identified within tumour but not on CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells lacked CXCR3 and granzyme B expression irrespective of location within stroma versus malignant nodules or of the intensity of the intra-tumoural infiltrate. In summary, diverse inflammatory cells were organised around the margin of malignant deposits suggesting response to aberrant signaling, but were unable to penetrate the tumour microenvironment itself to enable an immune response against malignant cells or their polyomavirus

  3. Inflammatory Cell Distribution in Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Rachel [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Roberts, Claudia [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Waterboer, Tim [Infection and Cancer Program, DKFZ (German Cancer Research Centre), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Steele, Jane [Human Biomaterials Resource Centre, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Marsden, Jerry [University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Steven, Neil M., E-mail: n.m.steven@bham.ac.uk [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Blackbourn, David J., E-mail: n.m.steven@bham.ac.uk [Department of Microbial and Cellular Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-06

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cutaneous carcinoma associated with older age, immunodeficiency and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integrated within malignant cells. The presence of intra-tumoural CD8+ lymphocytes reportedly predicts better MCC-specific survival. In this study, the distribution of inflammatory cells and properties of CD8+ T lymphocytes within 20 primary MCC specimens were characterised using immunohistochemistry and multicolour immunofluorescent staining coupled to confocal microscopy. CD8+ cells and CD68+ macrophages were identified in 19/20 primary MCC. CD20+ B cells were present in 5/10, CD4+ cells in 10/10 and FoxP3+ cells in 7/10 specimens. Only two specimens had almost no inflammatory cells. Within specimens, inflammatory cells followed the same patchy distribution, focused at the edge of sheets and nodules and, in some cases, more intense in trabecular areas. CD8+ cells were outside vessels on the edge of tumour. Those few within malignant sheets typically lined up in fine septa not contacting MCC cells expressing MCPyV large T antigen. The homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 was expressed outside malignant nodules whereas its receptor CXCR4 was identified within tumour but not on CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells lacked CXCR3 and granzyme B expression irrespective of location within stroma versus malignant nodules or of the intensity of the intra-tumoural infiltrate. In summary, diverse inflammatory cells were organised around the margin of malignant deposits suggesting response to aberrant signaling, but were unable to penetrate the tumour microenvironment itself to enable an immune response against malignant cells or their polyomavirus.

  4. BCL10 is rarely mutated in human prostate carcinoma, small-cell lung cancer, head and neck tumours, renal carcinoma and sarcomas

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, S.; Broni, J.; Jefferies, S; Osin, P; Kovacs, G.; Maitland, N J; Eeles, R.; Edwards, S M; Dyer, M J S; Willis, T G; ,; Cooper, C. S.

    1999-01-01

    We have used single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis to screen for mutations in the BCL10 gene in 81 primary prostate carcinomas, 20 squamous cell cancers of the head and neck, 15 small-cell lung cancer cell lines, 24 renal carcinoma cell lines and 13 sarcoma cell lines. We failed to find evidence of somatically acquired mutations of the BCL10 gene suggesting that BCL10 does not play a major role in the development of these malignancies. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign

  5. Oncolytic vaccinia therapy of squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yong A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel therapies are necessary to improve outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC of the head and neck. Historically, vaccinia virus was administered widely to humans as a vaccine and led to the eradication of smallpox. We examined the therapeutic effects of an attenuated, replication-competent vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68 as an oncolytic agent against a panel of six human head and neck SCC cell lines. Results All six cell lines supported viral transgene expression (β-galactosidase, green fluorescent protein, and luciferase as early as 6 hours after viral exposure. Efficient transgene expression and viral replication (>150-fold titer increase over 72 hrs were observed in four of the cell lines. At a multiplicity of infection (MOI of 1, GLV-1h68 was highly cytotoxic to the four cell lines, resulting in ≥ 90% cytotoxicity over 6 days, and the remaining two cell lines exhibited >45% cytotoxicity. Even at a very low MOI of 0.01, three cell lines still demonstrated >60% cell death over 6 days. A single injection of GLV-1h68 (5 × 106 pfu intratumorally into MSKQLL2 xenografts in mice exhibited localized intratumoral luciferase activity peaking at days 2–4, with gradual resolution over 10 days and no evidence of spread to normal organs. Treated animals exhibited near-complete tumor regression over a 24-day period without any observed toxicity, while control animals demonstrated rapid tumor progression. Conclusion These results demonstrate significant oncolytic efficacy by an attenuated vaccinia virus for infecting and lysing head and neck SCC both in vitro and in vivo, and support its continued investigation in future clinical trials.

  6. The antiprogestins mifepristone and onapristone reduce cell proliferation in the canine mammary carcinoma cell line CMT-U27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guil-Luna, Silvia; Hellmén, Eva; Sánchez-Céspedes, Raquel; Millán, Yolanda; Martín de las Mulas, Juana

    2014-07-01

    Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) represent nearly half of all tumours in female dogs and some 50% have malignant behaviour. Simple epithelial carcinomas have shorter disease free periods after surgery and a higher reduction of the proliferation index reduction after antiprogestin aglepristone treatment in vivo related to the expression of progesterone receptors (PR). These findings make simple carcinomas good candidates for endocrine therapy. To further explore this possibility, the effects of the antiprogestins mifepristone (RU486) and onapristone (ZK299) on cell viability and PR expression of the canine mammary carcinoma cell line isolated from a simple epithelial carcinoma CMT-U27 were studied. Twenty five percent of CMT-U27 control cells expressed PR. RU486 (ptest) at 24h but only the latter treatment reduced significantly PR expression in viable tumour cells at 24h of incubation. The results suggest that both RU486 and ZK299 induce a decrease in the number of viable CMT-U27 tumour cells with different effects on PR expression. The canine mammary carcinoma cell line CMT-U27 is sensitive to the effects of antiprogestins and may serve to further explore the role of these drugs in canine mammary carcinomas. PMID:24500783

  7. Glottic carcinoma. The roles of surgery and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.J.; Johns, M.E.; Clark, D.A.; Cantrell, R.W.

    1984-06-15

    The treatment of 336 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx seen at the University of Virginia Medical Center from 1960 through 1977 was reviewed. Two hundred eighty-five patients form the basis of this report. Patients were grouped by stage and by other prognostic factors. Five-year actuarial survival, recurrences, salvage therapy, complications, second primaries, and incidence in patients younger than 45-years-old were examined. The actuarial 5-year survivals are Stage I, 96%; Stage II, 88%; Stage III, 65%; and Stage IV, 57%. Early glottic carcinoma responded equally well to radiation therapy or surgery, and mortality from intercurrent disease was more common than death from glottic carcinoma. Anterior commissure involvement was not found to significantly decrease prognosis in Stage I disease. Within Stage II, patients with impaired true cord mobility had a significantly decreased survival, 71%, versus 93% for Stage II carcinoma with mobile cords. Surgery was superior to irradiation when cord mobility was impaired or fixed. Surgical salvage was successful in 70% of cases when the cords were originally mobile but 11% when cord motion had been impaired or fixed. Patients younger than age 45 years presented with more advanced disease, but by stage, treatment response did not differ from the remaining older group. Based on this review and from data reported in the literature, the authors recommend curative radiation therapy in patients with glottic carcinoma where the vocal cords are fully mobile. When cord mobility is impaired or fixed, the inclusion of surgery in the initial management results increased survival over irradiation alone. Recognizing that glottic carcinoma is often part of a multisystem disease, individualization of treatment is especially important in these advanced tumors.

  8. Properties of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells Surviving Curcumin Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Yan, Michael E. Geusz, Roudabeh J. Jamasbi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory agent curcumin can selectively eliminate malignant rather than normal cells. The present study examined the effects of curcumin on the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC cell line and characterized a subpopulation surviving curcumin treatments. Cell density was measured after curcumin was applied at concentrations between 10 and 60 μM for 30 hours. Because of the high cell loss at 60 μM, this dose was chosen to select for surviving cells that were then used to establish a new cell line. The resulting line had approximately 20% slower growth than the original LLC cell line and based on ELISA contained less of two markers, NF-κB and ALDH1A, used to identify more aggressive cancer cells. We also injected cells from the original and surviving lines subcutaneously into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice and monitored tumor development over three weeks and found that the curcumin surviving-line remained tumorigenic. Because curcumin has been reported to kill cancer cells more effectively when administered with light, we examined this as a possible way of enhancing the efficacy of curcumin against LLC cells. When LLC cells were exposed to curcumin and light from a fluorescent lamp source, cell loss caused by 20 μM curcumin was enhanced by about 50%, supporting a therapeutic use of curcumin in combination with white light. This study is the first to characterize a curcumin-surviving subpopulation among lung cancer cells. It shows that curcumin at a high concentration either selects for an intrinsically less aggressive cell subpopulation or generates these cells. The findings further support a role for curcumin as an adjunct to traditional chemical or radiation therapy of lung and other cancers.

  9. The excision width in surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mališ M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma originates from pluripotent cells of basal layer of epiderm, external covering of hair follicles, sebaceous glands or other skin adnexa. It is characterized by local infiltrating and sometimes destructive growth. There are several types of basal cell carcinomas that may be manifested in over 12 clinical forms. Surgical treatment depends to a large extent on the histological type, localization and its clinical manifestation. The analysis included 250 patients of both gender and different age, operated for basal cell carcinoma. Clinical characteristics of basal cell carcinoma and the width of the excision were described. It was concluded that the width of the excision of basal cell cancer was in relation to histological type. .

  10. Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

  11. Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Charles, E-mail: Charles_Lin@health.qld.gov.au [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Poulsen, Michael [Mater Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Martin, Jarad [St. Andrews Hospital, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia); Jackson, James; Dickie, Graeme [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

  12. Role of sex steroid receptors in pathobiology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamta Kalra; Jary Mayes; Senait Assefa; Anil K Kaul; Rashmi Kaul

    2008-01-01

    The striking gender disparity observed in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) suggests an important role of sex hormones in HCC pathogenesis. Though the studies began as early as in 1980s, the precise role of sex hormones and the significance of their receptors in HCC still remain poorly understood and perhaps contribute to current controversies about the potential use of hormonal therapy in HCC. A comprehensive review of the existing literature revealed several shortcomings associated with the studies on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) in normal liver and HCC. These shortcomings include the use of less sensitive receptor ligand binding assays and immunohistochemistry studies for ERα alone until 1996 when ERβ isoform was identified. The animal models of HCC utilized for studies were primarily based on chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis with less similarity to virus-induced HCC pathogenesis. However, recent in vitro studies in hepatoma cells provide newer insights for hormonal regulation of key cellular processes including interaction of ER and AR with viral proteins. In light of the above facts, there is an urgent need for a detailed investigation of sex hormones and their receptors in normal liver and HCC. In this review, we systematically present the information currently available on androgens, estrogens and their receptors in normal liver and HCC obtained from in vitro, in vivo experimental models and clinical studies. This information will direct future basic and clinical research to bridge the gap in knowledge to explore the therapeutic potential of hormonal therapy in HCC. 2008 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  13. FGF2 mediates DNA repair in epidermoid carcinoma cells exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a well-known survival factor. However, its role in DNA repair is poorly documented. The present study was designed to investigate in epidermoid carcinoma cells the potential role of FGF2 in DNA repair. The side population (SP) with cancer stem cell-like properties and the main population (MP) were isolated from human A431 squamous carcinoma cells. Radiation-induced DNA damage and repair were assessed using the alkaline comet assay. FGF2 expression was quantified by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SP cells exhibited rapid repair of radiation induced DNA damage and a high constitutive level of nuclear FGF2. Blocking FGF2 signaling abrogated the rapid DNA repair. In contrast, in MP cells, a slower repair of damage was associated with low basal expression of FGF2. Moreover, the addition of exogenous FGF2 accelerated DNA repair in MP cells. When irradiated, SP cells secreted FGF2, whereas MP cells did not. FGF2 was found to mediate DNA repair in epidermoid carcinoma cells. We postulate that carcinoma stem cells would be intrinsically primed to rapidly repair DNA damage by a high constitutive level of nuclear FGF2. In contrast, the main population with a low FGF2 content exhibits a lower repair rate which can be increased by exogenous FGF2. (authors)

  14. Emerging surgical treatments for renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Fatima Z; Badani, Ketan K; Sfakianos, John P; Mehrazin, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of renal cell carcinoma has evolved considerably over the last few years. While total nephrectomy is necessary at times, nephron-sparing surgery, with a goal of renal function preservation, should always be considered. Although open partial nephrectomy is considered the gold standard approach for nephron-sparing surgery, laparoscopic- or robotic-assisted techniques allow urologists to perform renal surgery less invasively, with excellent long-term oncological outcomes. Cryotherapy and radiofrequency ablation are less invasive management approaches for carefully selected patients with small renal masses. Active surveillance should be considered in elderly or patients who are unfit for surgery. Ultimately, the method chosen for management of a renal mass is an informed decision made by the physician and patient. PMID:26892144

  15. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Gall Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, Max; Gahju, Badri; Schulz, Craig; Sterner, David; Falconer, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the gall bladder (SCCGB) is a rare condition, with only 53 prior cases reported in the world literature when our case was first diagnosed. Our patient was found to have limited stage disease and was treated with sequential laparoscopic cholecystectomy, etoposide/carboplatin chemotherapy followed by consolidating loco-regional radiation therapy. She is alive and well without evidence of disease more than 132 months since diagnosis. We describe here our experience in the diagnosis, staging workup, treatment, and surveillance of a case of SCCGB and review the published literature. Treated aggressively with currently available methods, patients with limited stage SCCGB can have an excellent prognosis. The authors' intent is to provide a reasonable plan of treatment for other physicians facing such an unusual patient. PMID:27197345

  16. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betekhtin M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset. The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. We describe a case of a 39-year-old woman who developed an early onset BCC of the nasolabial fold. After the subsequent surgical excision an excellent cosmetic result was achieved.

  17. Sequential Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford R Hirsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC has changed dramatically in the past decade. As the number of available agents, and related volume of research, has grown, it is increasingly complex to know how to optimally treat patients. The authors are practicing medical oncologists at the US Oncology Network, the largest community-based network of oncology providers in the country, and represent the leadership of the Network's Genitourinary Research Committee. We outline our thought process in approaching sequential therapy of mRCC and the use of real-world data to inform our approach. We also highlight the evolving literature that will impact practicing oncologists in the near future.

  18. [Thyroid's metastasis of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanelli, Giovanni; Aimoni, Claudia; Marchetti, Elisabetta; Geminiani, Matteo; Pastore, Antonio

    2005-09-01

    The authors describe the case of a 58 years old man, affected by squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, who underwent left tonsillectomy with bilateral neck dissection, followed by radiotherapy. After a 6 months period, the patient began to suffer from dysphonia, dysphagia and loss of weight: a painless neoformation was detected at the right lobe of the tyhroid, resulted a metastasis of the tonsillar neoplasm. The search for intranodular thyroglobulin was negative; the patient underwent thyroidectomy which showed a massive infiltration of the right cricothyroid space, cricoid and thyroid wing cartilage necrosis and intralaryngeal tumor infiltration. The authors describe the thyroid metastasis treatment, present an up-to-date review of the literature and suggest a thyroid careful clinical evaluation in every patient with a previous history of oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:16229323

  19. Renal cell carcinoma: links and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaria, Reena; Klaassen, Zachary; Terris, Martha K

    2016-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and a summary of the most commonly associated risk factors. A literature review was performed with a focus on recent studies with a high level of evidence (large prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses). The incidence rate of RCC varies globally, with the rate rising rapidly in more developed regions, demonstrating the effects of increased use of diagnostic imaging and prevalence of modifiable risk factors. Based on the current evidence, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most well-established risk factors for sporadic RCC worldwide. Acquired cystic kidney disease is also a significant risk factor, specifically in dialysis patients. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between RCC risk and moderate alcohol consumption. Certain analgesics and occupational exposure have been linked to an increased risk of RCC, although data are limited. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may provide a protective effect. PMID:27022296

  20. Changing trends in the management of small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuma Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma (SCC of the urinary bladder is a rare presentation, accounting for <1% of all bladder carcinomas. It has been considered as an aggressive variant of bladder carcinoma, with high incidence of distant relapse. Though cisplatin-based chemotherapy is considered the gold standard approach for this variety of bladder tumor, the role of radical cystectomy and radiotherapy cannot be neglected, due to its frequent association with transitional cell carcinoma. Different management strategies have been adopted by oncologists worldwide, in an effort to obtain survival benefits. Recently, neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery has been tried and the results are encouraging. This review article particularly focuses on the treatment evolution of SCC of bladder, various treatment options and their effects on the outcome, so that an optimal management can be planned for individual cases.

  1. Transcriptomic dissection of tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Joel L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNOSCC is a diverse group of cancers, which develop from many different anatomic sites and are associated with different risk factors and genetic characteristics. The oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC is one of the most common types of HNOSCC. It is significantly more aggressive than other forms of HNOSCC, in terms of local invasion and spread. In this study, we aim to identify specific transcriptomic signatures that associated with OTSCC. Results Genome-wide transcriptomic profiles were obtained for 53 primary OTSCCs and 22 matching normal tissues. Genes that exhibit statistically significant differences in expression between OTSCCs and normal were identified. These include up-regulated genes (MMP1, MMP10, MMP3, MMP12, PTHLH, INHBA, LAMC2, IL8, KRT17, COL1A2, IFI6, ISG15, PLAU, GREM1, MMP9, IFI44, CXCL1, and down-regulated genes (KRT4, MAL, CRNN, SCEL, CRISP3, SPINK5, CLCA4, ADH1B, P11, TGM3, RHCG, PPP1R3C, CEACAM7, HPGD, CFD, ABCA8, CLU, CYP3A5. The expressional difference of IL8 and MMP9 were further validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The Gene Ontology analysis suggested a number of altered biological processes in OTSCCs, including enhancements in phosphate transport, collagen catabolism, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling cascade, extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis, chemotaxis, as well as suppressions of superoxide release, hydrogen peroxide metabolism, cellular response to hydrogen peroxide, keratinization, and keratinocyte differentiation in OTSCCs. Conclusion In summary, our study provided a transcriptomic signature for OTSCC that may lead to a diagnosis or screen tool and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OTSCC.

  2. Ultrastructural proof of polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma tumour cells and its absence in small cell carcinoma of the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte T A H Wetzels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A new virus called the Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV has recently been found in Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC. MCC is a rare aggressive small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma primarily derived from the skin, morphologically indistinguishable from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC. So far the actual presence of the virus in MCC tumour cells on a morphological level has not been demonstrated, and the presence of MCPyV in other small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas has not been studied yet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated MCC tissue samples from five patients and SCLCs from ten patients for the presence of MCPyV-DNA by PCR and sequencing. Electron microscopy was used to search ultrastructurally for morphological presence of the virus in MCPyV-DNA positive samples. MCPyV was detected in two out of five primary MCCs. In one MCC patient MCPyV-DNA was detected in the primary tumour as well as in the metastasis, strongly suggesting integration of MCPyV in the cellular DNA of the tumour in this patient. In the primary MCC of another patient viral particles in tumour cell nuclei and cytoplasm were identified by electron microscopy, indicating active viral replication in the tumour cells. In none of the SCLCs MCPyV-DNA was detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results strongly suggest that MCPyV is an oncogenic polyomavirus in humans, and is potentially causally related to the development of MCC but not to the morphological similar SCLC.

  3. Primary Small Cell Carcinoma in Urinary Bladder: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Çamtosun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of bladder, which does not have a common and accepted treatment protocol, is a rare and highly aggressive tumor. It is mostly pulmonary originated; however, it can rarely be seen in extrapulmonary sites. We presented an interesting and uncommon case, in which the transitional cell tumor was found in the transurethral resection specimen, but the small cell carcinoma was detected in the final radical cystectomy material.

  4. Primary Small Cell Carcinoma in Urinary Bladder: A Rare Case

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Çamtosun; Huseyin Çelik; Ramazan Altıntaş; Nusret Akpolat

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of bladder, which does not have a common and accepted treatment protocol, is a rare and highly aggressive tumor. It is mostly pulmonary originated; however, it can rarely be seen in extrapulmonary sites. We presented an interesting and uncommon case, in which the transitional cell tumor was found in the transurethral resection specimen, but the small cell carcinoma was detected in the final radical cystectomy material.

  5. Unusual Presentation of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Gluteal Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Yunus Emre Goger; Mehmet Mesut Piskin; Mehmet Balasar; Mehmet Kilinc

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has widespread and unpredictable metastatic potential. The most common sites of metastatic RCC are the lungs, lymph nodes, bones, liver, and brain; however the soft tissue metastasis is rare (2,3). Here we report a 76-year-old male patient who had renal cell carcinoma presented with gluteal metastasis. To our knowledge this is the first renal cell cancer case with gluteal metastasis at the initial diagnosis.

  6. Sciatica leading to the discovery of a renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Amine Lakmichi, Mohamed; Jarir, Redouane; Kabour, Jamal; Dahami, Zakaria; Said Moudouni, Mohamed; Sarf, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell cancer is not exceptional in kidney cancer (30% of patients with kidneyl cancer). Its prognosis is particularly severe. However, sciatic neuralgia (sciatica) remains an exceptional revealing clinical sign of this disease. The authors report the case of a patient admitted with right sciatica as chief complain, leading to the discovery of a renal cell carcinoma. Although uncommon, renal cell carcinoma spine metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of bac...

  7. A Case of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Geun; Yang, Youngro; Kim, Kwang Sik; Hyun, Chang Lim; Lee, Ji Shin; Koh, Gwanpyo; Lee, Daeho

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis to the thyroid gland from distant cancer is rare, and, in some cases, is a diagnostic challenge. Here, we report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. A 77-year-old man presented with a neck mass detected about 1 month previously. He had undergone a right nephrectomy owing to renal cell carcinoma 14 years previously. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed a few atypical follicular cells with nuclear atypia. Under a tentative diagnosis of papillary thyroid ...

  8. Breast carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum, L M; Lauridsen, M C; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2001-01-01

    Primary carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells is a very rare tumour of the female breast. The clinical course, histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of 61 cases of invasive duct carcinoma with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells (OMGCs) are reviewed and a new...... stroma. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies have claimed a benign histiocytic nature of the OMGCs; they may represent a special type of polykaryon, distinct from both osteoclasts and inflammatory giant cells....

  9. Targeting cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He AR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiwu Ruth He,1 Daniel C Smith,1 Lopa Mishra2 1Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: The poor outcome of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is attributed to recurrence of the disease after curative treatment and the resistance of HCC cells to conventional chemotherapy, which may be explained partly by the function of liver cancer stem cells (CSCs. Liver CSCs have emerged as an important therapeutic target against HCC. Numerous surface markers for liver CSCs have been identified, and include CD133, CD90, CD44, CD13, and epithelial cell adhesion molecules. These surface markers serve not only as tools for identifying and isolating liver CSCs but also as therapeutic targets for eradicating these cells. In studies of animal models and large-scale genomic analyses of human HCC samples, many signaling pathways observed in normal stem cells have been found to be altered in liver CSCs, which accounts for the stemness and aggressive behavior of these cells. Antibodies and small molecule inhibitors targeting the signaling pathways have been evaluated at different levels of preclinical and clinical development. Another strategy is to promote the differentiation of liver CSCs to less aggressive HCC that is sensitive to conventional chemotherapy. Disruption of the tumor niche essential for liver CSC homeostasis has become a novel strategy in cancer treatment. To overcome the challenges in developing treatment for liver CSCs, more research into the genetic makeup of patient tumors that respond to treatment may lead to more effective therapy. Standardization of HCC CSC tumor markers would be helpful for measuring the CSC response to these agents. Herein, we review the current strategies for developing treatment to eradicate liver CSCs and to improve the outcome for patients with

  10. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic fac...

  11. Nivolumab versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motzer, Robert J; Escudier, Bernard; McDermott, David F;

    2015-01-01

    %). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with previously treated advanced renal-cell carcinoma, overall survival was longer and fewer grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred with nivolumab than with everolimus. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; CheckMate 025 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01668784.).......BACKGROUND: Nivolumab, a programmed death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor, was associated with encouraging overall survival in uncontrolled studies involving previously treated patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma. This randomized, open-label, phase 3 study compared nivolumab with everolimus...... in patients with renal-cell carcinoma who had received previous treatment. METHODS: A total of 821 patients with advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma for which they had received previous treatment with one or two regimens of antiangiogenic therapy were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to...

  12. Progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma accompanied with reduced E-cadherin expression but not cadherin switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hashimoto

    Full Text Available The cadherin switch from E-cadherin to N-cadherin is considered as a hallmark of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and progression of carcinomas. Although it enhances aggressive behaviors of adenocarcinoma cells, the significance and role of cadherin switch in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs are largely controversial. In the present study, we immunohistochemically examined expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in oral SCCs (n = 63 and its implications for the disease progression. The E-cadherin-positive carcinoma cells were rapidly decreased at the invasive front. The percentage of carcinoma cells stained E-cadherin at the cell membrane was reduced in parallel with tumor dedifferentiation (P<0.01 and enhanced invasion (P<0.01. In contrast, N-cadherin-positive cells were very limited and did not correlate with the clinicopathological parameters. Mouse tongue tumors xenotransplantated oral SCC cell lines expressing both cadherins in vitro reproduced the reduction of E-cadherin-positive carcinoma cells at the invasive front and the negligible expression of N-cadherin. These results demonstrate that the reduction of E-cadherin-mediated carcinoma cell-cell adhesion at the invasive front, but not the cadherin switch, is an important determinant for oral SCC progression, and suggest that the environments surrounding carcinoma cells largely affect the cadherin expression.

  13. Bone Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2016-01-01

    About one-third of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have bone metastasis that are often osteolytic and cause substantial morbidity, such as pain, pathologic fracture, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia. The presence of bone metastasis in RCC is also associated with poor prognosis. Bone-targeted treatment using bisphosphonate and denosumab can reduce skeletal complications in RCC, but does not cure the disease or improve survival. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of tumor-induced changes in the bone microenvironment is needed to develop effective treatment. The “vicious cycle” hypothesis has been used to describe how tumor cells interact with the bone microenvironment to drive bone destruction and tumor growth. Tumor cells secrete factors like parathyroid hormone-related peptide, transforming growth factor-β and vascular endothelial growth factor, which stimulate osteoblasts and increase the production of the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). In turn, the overexpression of RANKL leads to increased osteoclast formation, activation and survival, thereby enhancing bone resorption. This review presents a general survey on bone metastasis in RCC by natural history, interaction among the immune system, bone and tumor, molecular mechanisms, bone turnover markers, therapies and healthcare burden. PMID:27338367

  14. Comparative study of MRI appearances in clear cell renal cell carcinoma, papillary renal cell carcinoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the differential diagnostic features of subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI(DCE-MRI). Methods: The MRI appearances of 77 RCCs, including 55 clear cell RCCs (CCRCC), 14 papillary RCCs (PRCC) and 8 chromophobe RCCs (CRCC), were retrospectively analyzed and compared with findings of pathology. DCE-MRI was conducted in each case after intravenous administration of contrast agent. Region of interest measurements (cortical, nephrographic and delayed Phases) of signals within tumor and uninvolved renal cortex were used to calculate percentage signal intensity change and tumor-to-cortex enhancement index, and the data was analyzed by AVONA and t test. Results: On unenhanced and enhanced MRI, most CRCCs showed homogeneous signal (7/8). CCRCC and PRCC often show inhomogeneous signal with necrosis (36/55, 7/14). Hemorrhage and cystic degeneration were often found in PRCC (9/14). On the cortical, nephrographic and delayed phase images, CCRCCs showed greater signal intensity change [(296.15± 60.27)%, (236.33±58.31)% and (216.83±46.72)%, respectively than PRCCs (79.70±18.84)%, (122.81±27.35)% and (117.55±20.63)%, respectively], and CRCCs showed intermediate change [(119.56±40.76)%, (163.06±33.91)% and (179.72±32.89)%, respectively]. A phenomenon of quick staining and quick fainting was observed in CCRCCs. Both of CRCCs and PRCCs showed delayed enhancement. The tumor-to-cortex enhancement index at the cortical, nephrographic and delayed phases was highest for CCRCCs (1.26±0.34, 0.92±0.23 and 0.76±0.14, respectively), lowest for PRCCs (0.33±0.12, 0.41±0.23 and 0.35±0.11, respectively), and intermediate for CRCCs (0.54±0.10, 0.62±0.15 and 0.69±0.12, respectively, P<0.01). The degree of enhancement was significantly different among the 3 subtypes at the every contrast enhanced phase (F= 940.931, 124.515 and 38.194, P<0.01), so was the tumor-to-cortex enhancement index (F=798.625, 78.308 and 73.699, P

  15. The use of Ber-EP4 antigen in the differential diagnosis of basosquamous carcinoma from squamous and basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin KARAHAN

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma of skin are common tumors which can be easily distinguished on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections, but basosquamous carcinoma is a controversial entity. The aim of our study was to distinguish basal cell carcinoma and basosquamous carcinoma using Ber-EP4, immunohistochemically in 52 skin tumors. Twenty basal cell carcinomas, 20 squamous cell carcinomas, 10 basosquamous carcinomas and 2 collision tumors of the skin were stained with Ber-EP4 immunohistochemically. All basal cell carcinomas were stained strongly and diffusely with Ber-EP4, whereas squamous cell carcinomas were not, and basosquamous carcinomas were partially stained. Our results suggest that, distinction of basal cell carcinoma and basosquamous carcinoma can be achieved with routine immunohistochemical Ber-EP4 staining.

  16. Viral Therapy In Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  17. Mechanical properties of hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Zhang; Mian Long; Zhe-Zhi Wu; Wei-Qun Yu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the viscoelastic properties of humanhepatocytss and helatocellulsr carcinoma (HCC) cellsunder cytoslelstal perturbation, and to further to study theviscoelastic properties and the adhesive properties of mousehepatorna cells (HTC) in different cell cycls.METHODS: Micropipette aspiration technique was adopted tomeasure viscoelastic coefficients and adhesion force tocollagen coated surface ofthe cells. Three kinds ofcytoskeleton perturbing agents, colchiclnes (Col),cytochalssin D (CD) and vinblastine (VBL), were used totreat HCC cells and hepatocytes and the effects of thesetreatent on cell viscoelastic coefficients were investigated.The experimental results were analyzed with a thres-elsmentstandard linear solid. Further, the viscoelastic properties ofHTC cells and the adhesion force of different cycle HTC cellswere also investigated. The synchronous G1 and S phasecells were achieved through thymine-2-desoryriboside andcolchicines sequential blockage method and thymine-2-desoryriboside blockage method respectively.RESULTS: The elastic coefficients, but not viscouscoefficient of HCC cells (k1 = 103.6± 12.6N.m-2, k2 =42.5±10.4N. m-2, μ = 4.5 ± 1.9Pa. s), were significantly higherthan the corresponding value for hepatocytes (K1 = 87.5 ±12.1N.m-2, k2 =33.3± 10.3N.m-2, μ=5.9±3.0Pa. s, P<0.01). Upon treatment with CD, the viscoelastic coefficients ofboth hepotocytes and HCC cells decreased consistently,with magnitudes for the decrease in elastic coefficients ofHCC cells (k1: 68.7 N.m-2 to 81.7N.m-2, 66.3 % to 78.9 %;k2: 34.5 N.m-2 to37.1N.m-2, 81.2% to 87.3 %, P<0.001)larger than those for normal hepatocytes (k1: 42.6N. m-2 to49.8N.nt-2, 48.7% to56.9 %; k2: 17.2N.m-2 to 20.4N.m-2,51.7 % to 61.3 %, P< 0.001). There was a little decrease inthe vlscous coefficient of HCC cells (2.0 to 3.4Pa. s, 44.4 to75.6 %, P<0.001) than that for hepatocytes (3.0 to 3.gPa.s, 50.8to 66.1% P<0.001). Upon trastment with Col andVBL, the elastic coefficients

  18. Intratumoral Morphologic and Molecular Heterogeneity of Rhabdoid Renal Cell Carcinoma: Challenges for Personalized Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rajesh R.; Murugan, Paari; Patel, Lalit R; Voicu, Horatiu; Yoo, Suk-Young; Majewski, Tadeusz; Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Wani, Khalida; Tannir, Nizar; Karam, Jose A.; Jonasch, Eric; Wood, Christopher G; Creighton, Chad J.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Broaddus, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdoid histology in clear cell renal cell carcinoma is associated with a poor prognosis. The prognosis of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma may also be influenced by molecular alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between histologic features and salient molecular changes in rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We macrodissected the rhabdoid and clear cell epithelioid components from 12 cases of rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We assess...

  19. Downregulation of CCR1 inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) has an important role in the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. The migration and metastasis of tumor cells shares many similarities with leukocyte trafficking, which is mainly regulated by chemokine receptor-ligand interactions. CCR1 is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and tissues with unknown functions. In this study, we silenced CCR1 expression in the human HCC cell line HCCLM3 using artificial microRNA (miRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) and examined the invasiveness and proliferation of CCR1-silenced HCCLM3 cells and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The miRNA-mediated knockdown expression of CCR1 significantly inhibited the invasive ability of HCCLM3 cells, but had only a minor effect on the cellular proliferation rate. Moreover, CCR1 knockdown significantly reduced the secretion of MMP-2. Together, these findings indicate that CCR1 has an important role in HCCLM3 invasion and that CCR1 might be a new target of HCC treatment

  20. Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, and risk factors for renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Paglino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite only accounting for approximately 2% of all new primary cancer cases, renal cell carcinoma (RCC incidence has dramatically increased over time. Incidence rates vary greatly according to geographic areas, so that it is extremely likely that exogenous risk factors could play an important role in the development of this cancer. Several risk factors have been linked with RCC, including cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension (and antihypertensive drugs, chronic kidney diseases (also dialysis and transplantation, as well as the use of certain analgesics. Furthermore, although RCC has not generally been considered an occupational cancer, several types of occupationally-derived exposures have been implicated in its pathogenesis. These include exposure to asbestos, chlorinated solvents, gasoline, diesel exhaust fumes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, printing inks and dyes, cadmium and lead. Finally, families with a predisposition to the development of renal neoplasms were identified and the genes involved discovered and characterized. Therefore, there are now four well-characterized, genetically determined syndromes associated with an increased incidence of kidney tumors, i.e., Von Hippel Lindau (VHL, Hereditary Papillary Renal Carcinoma (HPRC, Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHD, and Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC. This review will address present knowledge about the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and risk factors of RCC.

  1. Aspirin and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: bedside to bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng; Cheng Rui; Zhang Shutian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the advances of studies on clinical results of aspirin's chemopreventive effect against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and evidences for mechanisms of the antitumoural effects of aspirin in experimental research.Data sources A comprehensive search of the PubMed literatures without restriction on the publication date was carried out using keywords such as aspirin and esophageal cancer.Study selection Articles associated with aspirin and esophageal cancer are analyzed.Results This review focuses on the current evidence for use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent in ESCC.Aspirin is the most widely used among all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),which is cheap and acceptable to patients.Several observational results provide the further investigation of prevention and therapy of aspirin or similar drugs in esophageal cancer.Data from case control studies,cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) also give some support of a beneficial role of aspirin on ESCC.Experimental data suggest that aspirin may prevent carcinogenesis of ESCC by favorably affecting proliferation,apoptosis,or other as yet unidentified growth-regulating processes.But the mechanism by which aspirin influence on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma needs further investigation.Conclusion A wealth of evidences ranging from clinical data to experimental results are building to suggest that aspirin has significant effects in reducing both the incidence and mortality of ESCC.

  2. Renal cell carcinoma: evolving approaches to advanced non-clear cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y.C. Heng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies including sunitinib, sorafenib, and temsirolimus. Because patients with conventional clear cell histology account for 75- 80% of all patients with RCC, there has been little accumulated evidence on the treatment of patients with non-clear cell histologies. Most clinical trials have excluded them from enrolment, except for randomized studies investigating temsirolimus. Many retrospective studies on the use of all three of these targeted therapies in patients with non-clear cell histology have demonstrated response rates ranging from 3.7%–16%. Although response rates may not be as high compared to patients with clear cell histologies, targeted therapy does provide a clinically meaningful response.

  3. What the EWSR1-ATF1 Fusion has Taught Us About Hyalinizing Clear Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tanguay, Jeff; Weinreb, Ilan

    2013-01-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is a unique low-grade tumor composed of cords and nests of clear cells in a hyalinized stroma that was first reported by Milchgrub et al. It was recognized as a separate entity from clear cell variants of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, myoepithelial carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. HCCC is included in a long list of clear cell-containing tumors of salivary gland, as well as odontogenic tumors and metastases (renal cell carcinoma). Up until n...

  4. Pigmented Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Clinical Variant, Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    K., Deepadarshan; M., Mallikarjun; N. Abdu, Noshin

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour of skin, comprising 80% of non-melanoma cancers. Intermittent exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a clinical and histological variant of basal cell carcinoma that exhibits increased pigmentation. It is a very rare variant, although its frequency can reach upto 6% of total basal cell carcinomas in Hispanics. Herein, we are reporting 2 cases of pigmented basal cell carcinoma.

  5. Epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Valquiria Pessoa Chinem; Hélio Amante Miot

    2011-01-01

    O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna mais comum em humanos e sua incidência vem aumentando nas últimas décadas. Sua grande frequência gera significativo ônus ao sistema de saúde, configurando problema de saúde pública. Apesar das baixas taxas de mortalidade e de rara ocorrência de metástases, o tumor pode apresentar comportamento invasivo local e recidivas após o tratamento, provocando importante morbidade. Exposição à radiação ultravioleta representa o principal fator de risco ambie...

  6. Gene Network Analysis of Glucose Linked Signaling Pathways and Their Role in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Growth and Survival in HuH7 and HepG2 Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Berger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer progression may be affected by metabolism. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effect of glucose on the proliferation and/or survival of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells. Human gene datasets regulated by glucose were compared to gene datasets either dysregulated in HCC or regulated by other signaling pathways. Significant numbers of common genes suggested putative involvement in transcriptional regulations by glucose. Real-time proliferation assays using high (4.5 g/L versus low (1 g/L glucose on two human HCC cell lines and specific inhibitors of selected pathways were used for experimental validations. High glucose promoted HuH7 cell proliferation but not that of HepG2 cell line. Gene network analyses suggest that gene transcription by glucose could be mediated at 92% through ChREBP in HepG2 cells, compared to 40% in either other human cells or rodent healthy liver, with alteration of LKB1 (serine/threonine kinase 11 and NOX (NADPH oxidases signaling pathways and loss of transcriptional regulation of PPARGC1A (peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors gamma coactivator 1 target genes by high glucose. Both PPARA and PPARGC1A regulate transcription of genes commonly regulated by glycolysis, by the antidiabetic agent metformin and by NOX, suggesting their major interplay in the control of HCC progression.

  7. Carcinoma basocelular em localizações incomuns Basal cell carcinoma in unusual locations

    OpenAIRE

    Ane Beatriz Mautari Niwa; Eugênio R. A. Pimentel

    2006-01-01

    Os autores apresentam cinco pacientes que desenvolveram carcinomas basocelulares em locais incomuns de ocorrência desse tumor. O objetivo é relatar a raridade topográfica da neoplasia cutânea e discutir o conceito de localização incomum para o carcinoma basocelular.The authors present five patients who develop basal cell carcinomas in sites this tumor rarely occurs. The aim is to report the rare location of this frequent cutaneous malignancy and to briefly discuss the concept of unusual locat...

  8. Analysis of exfoliated gastric carcinoma cells attached on surgical supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Fen; Ma, Ying-Yu; Hu, Xian-Qin; Zhang, Qin-Fang; Ye, Zai-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Surgery is considered to have a leading role in the treatment of gastric carcinoma. Surgical supplies are used to cut, divide, and ligate during surgery, and are not only in close contact with normal tissues, but may also be contaminated by pathological tissues and cells. This study sought to determine the presence of exfoliated tumor cells on surgical supplies at different stages during the surgical procedure. We collected five types of surgical supplies from 90 patients who underwent D2 radical gastrectomy to find out if there was any cancer cells attached to them. Highest numbers of cancer cells were found on gauze used to clean the surgical instruments and on the gloves of scrub nurses. The likelihood of finding cancer cells increased with advancing clinical stage of disease, lower differentiation of cancer cells, increasing frequency of use of supplies and extent of contact, and was also associated with the characteristic of surgical supplies. Dissemination of tumor cells could be prevented by using a number of methods, depending on the type of surgical supply items. PMID:25336978

  9. Genomic instability in human actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Sanches Cabral

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the repetitive DNA patterns of human actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas to determine the genetic alterations that are associated with malignant transformation. INTRODUCTION: Cancer cells are prone to genomic instability, which is often due to DNA polymerase slippage during the replication of repetitive DNA and to mutations in the DNA repair genes. The progression of benign actinic keratoses to malignant squamous cell carcinomas has been proposed by several authors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight actinic keratoses and 24 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC, which were pair-matched to adjacent skin tissues and/or leucocytes, were studied. The presence of microsatellite instability (MSI and the loss of heterozygosity (LOH in chromosomes 6 and 9 were investigated using nine PCR primer pairs. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA patterns were also evaluated using eight primers. RESULTS: MSI was detected in two (D6S251, D9S50 of the eight actinic keratosis patients. Among the 8 patients who had squamous cell carcinoma-I and provided informative results, a single patient exhibited two LOH (D6S251, D9S287 and two instances of MSI (D9S180, D9S280. Two LOH and one example of MSI (D6S251 were detected in three out of the 10 patients with squamous cell carcinoma-II. Among the four patients with squamous cell carcinoma-III, one patient displayed three MSIs (D6S251, D6S252, and D9S180 and another patient exhibited an MSI (D9S280. The altered random amplified polymorphic DNA ranged from 70% actinic keratoses, 76% squamous cell carcinoma-I, and 90% squamous cell carcinoma-II, to 100% squamous cell carcinoma-III. DISCUSSION: The increased levels of alterations in the microsatellites, particularly in D6S251, and the random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints were statistically significant in squamous cell carcinomas, compared with actinic keratoses. CONCLUSION: The overall alterations that were observed in the repetitive DNA of actinic

  10. Knockdown of asparagine synthetase by RNAi suppresses cell growth in human melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhou, Fusheng; Du, Wenhui; Dou, Jinfa; Xu, Yu; Gao, Wanwan; Chen, Gang; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, causes more than 40,000 deaths each year worldwide. And epidermoid carcinoma is another major form of skin cancer, which could be studied together with melanoma in several aspects. Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the glutamine- and ATP-dependent conversion of aspartic acid to asparagine, and its expression is associated with the chemotherapy resistance and prognosis in several human cancers. The present study aims to explore the potential role of ASNS in melanoma cells A375 and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. We applied a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system to study its function in cell growth of both cells. The results revealed that inhibition of ASNS expression by RNAi significantly suppressed the growth of melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells, and induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in melanoma cells. Knockdown of ASNS in A375 cells remarkably downregulated the expression levels of CDK4, CDK6, and Cyclin D1, and upregulated the expression of p21. Therefore, our study provides evidence that ASNS may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25858017

  11. The role of epidermal growth factor receptor and E-cadherin for the outcome of reduction in the overall treatment time of radiotherapy of supraglottic larynx squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Steiniche, Torben; Overgaard, Jens

    2005-01-01

    radiotherapy. A total of 209 patients from randomized DAHANCA-trials with supraglottic larynx squamous cell carcinomas treated with primary radiotherapy with different OTT of 9(1/2), 6(1/2), and 5(1/2) weeks. Available formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumour tissues were re-evaluated for histopathological...

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranu Patni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare condition and usually arises in mature cystic teratoma (MCT or dermoid cyst of the ovary. The reported incidence of malignant transformation in MCT is approximately 2%. A case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary presenting at an early stage is presented here. A 53-year-old postmenopausal lady, presented with the complaint of pain in right lower abdomen since one month and a large complex abdomino-pelvic mass on examination and investigations. Final histopathology was reported as squamous cell carcinoma of left ovary arising from dermoid cyst and a benign dermoid cyst in the right ovary. The patient was assigned to squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary arising in a mature cystic teratoma, surgical stage Ic2. In view of the poor prognosis, adjuvant chemotherapy was started.

  13. Complete remission with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Albiges, Laurence; Oudard, Stéphane; Negrier, Sylvie; Caty, Armelle; Gravis, Gwenaëlle; Joly, Florence; Duclos, Brigitte; Geoffrois, Lionel; Rolland, Frédéric; Guillot, Aline; Laguerre, Brigitte; Legouffe, Eric; Kohser, Frédéric; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Theodore, Christine A

    2012-01-01

    Complete remission (CR) is uncommon during treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but it may occur in some patients. It remains a matter of debate whether therapy should be continued after CR.

  14. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a unique disease on the rise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. van Monsjou; A.J.M. Balm; M.M. van den Brekel; V.B. Wreesmann

    2010-01-01

    Despite successful efforts to control tobacco and alcohol consumption in the western world, several developed countries report rising oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) incidence figures, specifically in young individuals. Similar to anogenital cancers, a significant proportion of OPSCC (

  15. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a smallpox vaccination site.

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, J D; Shesol, B F; Horne, D W

    1980-01-01

    A case of pigmented basal cell carcinoma developing in a smallpox revaccination site is presented. Any progressive change within a smallpox vaccination scar should be thoroughly evaluated and treated appropriately after tissue diagnosis.

  16. VX-970, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced HPV-Negative Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas with liver metastasis: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qiang-pu; OU Kun; GUAN Qing-hai; ZHANG Fan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas is an unusual cancer of ductal cell origin. In a review of 6668 cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer from various registries reported from 1950 through 1985, the incidence of squamous carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma was 0.005% and 0.01%, respectively.1 We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas with liver metastasis.

  18. CCN2/CTGF silencing blocks cell aggregation in embryonal carcinoma P19 cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Aguiar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF is a matricellular-secreted protein involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. The P19 cell line is an embryonic carcinoma line widely used as a cellular model for differentiation and migration studies. In the present study, we employed an exogenous source of CCN2 and small interference RNA to address the role of CCN2 in the P19 cell aggregation phenomenon. Our data showed that increasing CCN2 protein concentrations from 0.1 to 20 nM decreased the number of cell clusters and dramatically increased cluster size without changing proliferation or cell survival, suggesting that CCN2 induced aggregation. In addition, CCN2 specific silencing inhibited typical P19 cell aggregation, which could be partially rescued by 20 nM CCN2. The present study demonstrates that CCN2 is a key molecule for cell aggregation of embryonic P19 cells.

  19. Mast cells and human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabio Grizzi; Barbara Franceschini; Maurizio Chiriva-Internati; Young Liu; Paul L. Hermonat; Nicola Dioguardi

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the density of mast cells (MCs) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to determine whether the MCs density has any correlations with histopathological grading, staging or some baseline patient characteristics.METHODS: Tissue sections of 22 primary HCCs were histochemically stained with toluidine blue, in order to be able to quantify the MCs in and around the neoplasm using a computer-assisted image analysis system. HCC was staged and graded by two independent pathologists. To identify the sinusoidal capillarisation of each specimen 3μm thick sections were histochemically stained with sirius red, and semi-quantitatively evaluated by two independent observers. The data were statistically analysed using Spearman′s correlation and Student′s t-test when appropriate.RESULTS: MCs density did not correlate with the age or sex of the patients, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, or the stage or grade of the HCC. No significant differences were found between the MCs density of the patients with and without hepatitis C virus infection, but they were significantly higher in the specimens showing marked sinusoidal capillarisation.CONCLUSION: The lack of any significant correlation between MCs density and the stage or grade of the neoplastic lesions suggests that there is no causal relationship between MCs recruitment and HCC. However, as capillarisation proceeds concurrently with arterial blood supply during hepatocarcinogenesis, MCs may be considered of primary importance in the transition from sinusoidal to capillary-type endothelial cells and the HCC growth.

  20. Osteoblastic bone metastases from renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RCC accounts for only 2–3% of all cancers. Due to its’ non-specific symptoms disease is often diagnosed in advanced stage. Disseminated RCC frequently produces bone metastases that are almost always highly destructive, hyper vascularized and purely osteolytic. In this article we describe a case of a 71-year old male patient with disseminated osteoblastic bone metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and present a short review of published literature reporting cases of osteoblastic bone metastases from RCC. Our patient presented with thoracic pain aggravated by movement. He was diagnosed with predominantly osteoblastic bone metastases in the skeleton of thoracic and lumbar vertebra along with metastases in iliac bones, ribs, humerus and clavicles. Initially, origin of bone metastases was unknown, but later a small tumor in patient’s right kidney was identified. Microscopic evaluation of the open bone biopsy showed clear cell RCC with sarcomatoid differentiation. Although, due to its’ rarity, RCC is not included in the primary differential diagnosis in patients with osteoblastic metastases, such rare cases suggest that RCC may be considered in the diagnosis when there no other primary tumor is found

  1. Mutational Analysis of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erstad, Derek J. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Cusack, James C. Jr., E-mail: jcusack@mgh.harvard.edu [Division of Surgical Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2014-10-17

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy that is associated with a poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of MCC is not well understood, and despite a recent plethora of mutational analyses, we have yet to find a set of signature mutations implicated in the majority of cases. Mutations, including TP53, Retinoblastoma and PIK3CA, have been documented in subsets of patients. Other mechanisms are also likely at play, including infection with the Merkel cell polyomavirus in a subset of patients, dysregulated immune surveillance, epigenetic alterations, aberrant protein expression, posttranslational modifications and microRNAs. In this review, we summarize what is known about MCC genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities, and their clinical significance. We also examine aberrant protein function and microRNA expression, and discuss the therapeutic and prognostic implications of these findings. Multiple clinical trials designed to selectively target overexpressed oncogenes in MCC are currently underway, though most are still in early phases. As we accumulate more molecular data on MCC, we will be better able to understand its pathogenic mechanisms, develop libraries of targeted therapies, and define molecular prognostic signatures to enhance our clinicopathologic knowledge.

  2. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  3. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine corpus following irradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium following squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is reported. The patient had had a previous cervical biopsy which revealed squamous cell carcinoma (large cell non-keratinizing type), classified clinically as a stage IIb lesion. She was treated with external pelvic irradiation delivering an estimated tumor dose of approximately 7,000 rads and intracavital radium application delivering 4,995 mg.hr.radiation when she was 51 years old. She complained of post-menopausal bleeding at age 66 and was diagnosed by endometrial cytology as having clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy were performed. The clinical stage of the endometrial cancer was Ib. She is alive after 2 years with no evidence of disease. Endometrial cytology revealed several adenocarcinoma cells in small clusters. The shape of the nuclei was somewhat irregular, the chromatin pattern was fine granular, and single or multiple nucleoli were seen. The diameter of these nuclei ranged from 10 to 30 μm. The cytoplasm was pale green or vacuolated. The volume of the cytoplasm varied from scanty to abundant. These findings suggested clear cell carcinoma. Histopathologically, an irregular shaped polypoid tumor, 3 x 1.5 cm in size, was located on the lower anterior wall of the uterine corpus. The tumor was a clear cell carcinoma showing a solid and papillary pattern. A hobnail pattern was not observed. The cytoplasm was clear and abundant, and PAS-positive granules digestible by diastase were seen. These 2 cancers had different pathological features and their immunohistochemical reactivities for CEA and keratin were also different. The patient was regarded as having a rare heterochronous double cancer consisting of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. (author)

  4. Translocation Renal Cell Carcinomas in Adults: A Single Institution Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Minghao; De Angelo, Patricia; Osborne, Lisa; Mondolfi, Paniz; Geller, Matthew; Yang, Youfeng; Linehan, W. Marston; Merino, Maria J.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Cai, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    Translocation renal cell carcinoma is a newly recognized subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with chromosomal translocations involving TFE3 (Xp11.2) or, less frequently, TFEB (6p21). Xp11 translocation RCC was originally described as a pediatric neoplasm representing 20–40% of pediatric RCCs with a much lower frequency in the adult population. TFEB translocation RCC is very rare, with approximately 10 cases reported in the literature. Here, we describe the clinicopathological features of ad...

  5. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome: A Case Report and Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bala Subramanyam, S.; Naga Sujata, D.; Sridhar, K.; Pushpanjali, M

    2011-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder, comprises of a number of abnormalities such as multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas, skeletal abnormalities and multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Diagnosis may be difficult because of the variability of expressivity and different ages of onset for different traits of this disorder. The dental clinician may be the first to encounter and identify this syndrome, when the multiple cysts like radiolucencies are disc...

  6. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, W. Marston; Spellman, Paul T.; Ricketts, Christopher J.; Creighton, Chad J.; Fei, Suzanne S.; Davis, Caleb; Wheeler, David A.; Murray, Bradley A.; Schmidt, Laura; Vocke, Cathy D.; Peto, Myron; Al Mamun, Abu Amar M.; Shinbrot, Eve; Sethi, Anurag; Brooks, Samira; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brooks, Angela N.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Brooks, Denise; Bowlby, Reanne; Sadeghi, Sara; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz; Baylin, Stephen B.; Laird, Peter W.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Saksena, Gordon; Haake, Scott; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Akbani, Rehan; Leiserson, Mark D.M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Anur, Pavana; Bottaro, Donald; Albiges, Laurence; Barnabas, Nandita; Choueiri, Toni K.; Czerniak, Bogdan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Ho, Thai; Hsieh, James; Ittmann, Michael; Kim, William Y.; Krishnan, Bhavani; Merino, Maria J.; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Reuter, Victor E.; Reznik, Ed; Shelley, Carl Simon; Shuch, Brian; Signoretti, Sabina; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thomas, George; Tickoo, Satish; Burnett, Kenneth; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph D.; Penny, Robert J.; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, W. Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Avedon, Melissa T.; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Santos, Tracie; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Ayala, Brenda; Baboud, Julien; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bodenheimer, Tom; Buhay, Christian; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Chao, Hsu; Chuah, Eric; Clarke, Amanda; Covington, Kyle R.; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Dewal, Ninad; Dhalla, Noreen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Drummond, Jennifer; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Guin, Ranabir; Hale, Walker; Hawes, Alicia; Hayes, D. Neil; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Jones, Corbin D.; Kalra, Divya; Kovar, Christie; Lewis, Lora; Li, Jie; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Moore, Richard A.; Morton, Donna; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Muzny, Donna; Parker, Joel S.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Sougnez, Carrie; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Thiessen, Nina; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Wang, Min; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wong, Tina; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Zhou, Jane; Bedford, Jason; Chen, Fengju; Fu, Yao; Gerstein, Mark; Haussler, David; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lai, Phillip; Ling, Shiyun; Radenbaugh, Amie; Van Den Berg, David; Weinstein, John N.; Zhu, Jingchun; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Andersen, Jeremiah J; Auman, J. Todd; Bartlett, John; Bastacky, Sheldon; Bergsten, Julie; Blute, Michael L.; Boice, Lori; Bollag, Roni J.; Boyd, Jeff; Castle, Erik; Chen, Ying-Bei; Cheville, John C.; Curley, Erin; Davies, Benjamin; DeVolk, April; Dhir, Rajiv; Dike, Laura; Eckman, John; Engel, Jay; Harr, Jodi; Hrebinko, Ronald; Huang, Mei; Huelsenbeck-Dill, Lori; Iacocca, Mary; Jacobs, Bruce; Lobis, Michael; Maranchie, Jodi K.; McMeekin, Scott; Myers, Jerome; Nelson, Joel; Parfitt, Jeremy; Parwani, Anil; Petrelli, Nicholas; Rabeno, Brenda; Roy, Somak; Salner, Andrew L.; Slaton, Joel; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Thorne, Leigh; Tucker, Kelinda; Weinberger, Paul M.; Winemiller, Cythnia; Zach, Leigh Anne; Zuna, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Background Papillary renal cell carcinoma, accounting for 15% of renal cell carcinoma, is a heterogeneous disease consisting of different types of renal cancer, including tumors with indolent, multifocal presentation and solitary tumors with an aggressive, highly lethal phenotype. Little is known about the genetic basis of sporadic papillary renal cell carcinoma; no effective forms of therapy for advanced disease exist. Methods We performed comprehensive molecular characterization utilizing whole-exome sequencing, copy number, mRNA, microRNA, methylation and proteomic analyses of 161 primary papillary renal cell carcinomas. Results Type 1 and Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas were found to be different types of renal cancer characterized by specific genetic alterations, with Type 2 further classified into three individual subgroups based on molecular differences that influenced patient survival. MET alterations were associated with Type 1 tumors, whereas Type 2 tumors were characterized by CDKN2A silencing, SETD2 mutations, TFE3 fusions, and increased expression of the NRF2-ARE pathway. A CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was found in a distinct subset of Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma characterized by poor survival and mutation of the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Conclusions Type 1 and Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas are clinically and biologically distinct. Alterations in the MET pathway are associated with Type 1 and activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway with Type 2; CDKN2A loss and CIMP in Type 2 convey a poor prognosis. Furthermore, Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma consists of at least 3 subtypes based upon molecular and phenotypic features. PMID:26536169

  7. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in the Sinonasal Region

    OpenAIRE

    Jyothi A Raj; Mahantachar, V; Rajaram, T

    2013-01-01

    Sinonasal region is an exceptional site for metastatic tumors. Renal cell carcinoma is known to metastasise to the most unusual sites, the sinonasal region being one of them. Clear cell carcinoma is its most common histologic variant. A sixty year old male presented with epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Clinical examination and CT scan revealed a vascular tumor in the right nasal cavity and maxillary sinus. The tumor was resected and sent for histopathological examination. A diagnosis of meta...

  8. Transformation of Abdominal Wall Endometriosis to Clear Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Paula Ruiz; Darryl Lewis Wallace; Matthew Thomas Connell

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma is the least common of the malignant transformations reported in nonpelvic sites of endometriosis. Two cases with clear cell carcinoma transformation arising from endometriosis in abdominal wall scars are presented. These patients underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic washings, and abdominal wall lesion resection. The first case had initial treatment with chemotherapy, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy were given for th...

  9. Rare tumors of the gallbladder: Clear cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Huseyin Eken; Mecdi Gurhan Balci; Sercan Buyukakincak; Arda Isik; Deniz Firat; Orhan Cimen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Gallbladder cancer is a rare tumor in the gastrointestinal tract has poor prognosis, low survival and is difficult to diagnose. The most common type of gallbladder cancer is adenocarcinoma, and the incidence of clear cell carcinoma is low. Mostly, it is difficult to determine whether the isolated tumor is a primary tumor in the gallbladder or a metastatic tumor from another region. Before accepting a clear cell carcinoma as a primary gallbladder tumor, the kidneys and other poss...

  10. Oral cavity metastasis of renal cell carcinoma: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Will Thomas; Agarwal Neena; Petruzzelli Guy

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Despite being reported rarely, renal cell carcinoma is the third most frequent neoplasm to metastasize to the head and neck region preceded only by breast and lung cancer. Little information exists regarding the presentation and work-up of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the oral cavity. Case presentation We report the case of a 63-year-old Caucasian man presenting with an oral cavity lesion that was painful and that had grown substantially over several months. Biopsy...

  11. Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder; Case Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül SARI; Ermete, Murat; Canan SADULLAHOĞLU; Bal, Kaan; Ahmet BOLÜKBAŞI

    2013-01-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine tumor of the urinary bladder is very rare. It is a type of neuroendocrine carcinoma that is morphologically different from small cell carcinoma.This manuscript describes a 67-year-old man who presented with hematuria. Ultrasonogrophic and computer tomography revealed a 5 cm mass in right posterolateral wall of the bladder that invaded perivesical tissue and he subsequently underwent transurethral resection. Microscopic examination showed a tumor with a sheet-like and...

  12. Gallbladder metastasis from renal cell carcinoma mimicking acute cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sand M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal cell carcinoma constitutes about 3% of adult malignancies. It has a high metastatic potential associated with synchronous or metachronous metastatic disease. Further, it is known to metastasize mainly to the lung, bone, brain, liver, or adrenal glands. In very rare cases it can metastasize to the gallbladder mimicking acute cholecystitis on clinical exam. In this case we present a patient who developed a gallbladder metastasis five years after a renal cell carcinoma mimicking acute cholecystitis.

  13. Staghorn calculi and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Tseng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Untreated staghorn calculi can cause xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP, diminished renal function, and renal malignancy. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the upper urinary tract is associated with kidney stones and chronic infection, but their association with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC has not been proven and has rarely been reported in literature. We present a rare case of staghorn calculi and XGP associated with TCC.

  14. Trimodal therapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    OpenAIRE

    Matuschek C; Bölke E; Zahra T; Knoefel WT; Peiper M; Budach W; Erhardt A; Scherer A; Baldus SE; Gerber PA; Buhren BA; Schauer M; Hoff N-Ph; Gattermann N; Orth K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Patients with ESCC (squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus) are most commonly diagnosed with locally advanced tumor stages. Early metastatic disease and late diagnosis are common reasons responsible for this tumor's poor clinical outcome. The prognosis of esophageal cancer is very poor because patients usually do not have symptoms in early disease stages. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus frequently complicates patients with multiple co-morbidities and these patients often r...

  15. Familial renal cell carcinoma: clinical and molecular genetic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, E. R.; Yates, J. R. W.

    1991-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 2% of all human cancer, but familial cases are infrequent. Riches (1963) and Griffin et al. (1984) in a population-based case-control study found a family history of renal cell carcinoma in 2.4% of affected patients compared to 1.4% of controls. Nevertheless the importance of inherited tumours in clinical practice and medical research is disproportionate to their frequency. In clinical practice recognition of familial RCC can provide opportunities to pr...

  16. Breast Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic breast cancer from renal cell carcinoma is extremely rare and has non-specific findings that include a well circumscribed lesion without calcification on mammography and a well circumscribed hypoechoic lesion without posterior acoustic shadowing on sonography. We report a case of metastatic breast cancer from renal cell carcinoma and describe the radiologic findings in a 63-year-old woman who has no history of primary neoplasm

  17. Transcriptome network analysis reveals candidate genes for renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhai; Yun-Fei Xu; Min Liu; Jun-Hua Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Context: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kidney cancer that originates in renal parenchyma and it is the most common type of kidney cancer with approximately 80% lethal cases. Aims: To interpret the mechanism, explore the regulation of TF-target genes and TF-pathway, and identify the potential key genes of renal cell carcinoma. Settings and Design: After constructing a regulation network from differently expressed genes and transcription factors, pathway regulation network and gene onto...

  18. Breast Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Jeong; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Han, Se Hwan [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Metastatic breast cancer from renal cell carcinoma is extremely rare and has non-specific findings that include a well circumscribed lesion without calcification on mammography and a well circumscribed hypoechoic lesion without posterior acoustic shadowing on sonography. We report a case of metastatic breast cancer from renal cell carcinoma and describe the radiologic findings in a 63-year-old woman who has no history of primary neoplasm.

  19. Renal cell carcinoma in patient with crossed fused renal ectopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgur Cakmak; Cemal Selcuk Isoglu; Ercument Aziz Peker; Huseyin Tarhan; Ulku Kucuk; Orcun Celik; Ferruh Zorlu; Yusuf Ozlem Ilbey

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal cell carcinomas have rarely been reported in patients with crossed fused renal ectopia. We presented a patient with right to left crossed fused kidney harbouring renal tumor. The most frequent tumor encountered in crossed fused renal ectopia is renal cell carcinoma. In this case, partial nephrectomy was performed which pave way to preservation of the uninvolved both renal units. Due to unpredictable anatomy, careful preoperative planning and meticulous delineation of renal vascu...

  20. Corneal squamous cell carcinoma in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Claudia; Sansom, Jane; Dubielzig, R R; Hayes, Alison

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year-old, female, spayed Border Collie was presented to the Unit of Comparative Ophthalmology at the Animal Health Trust with a 6-month history of a progressive nonpainful opacity of the left cornea. A keratectomy was performed and the tissue submitted for histopathology. The diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma. There has been no recurrence of the neoplasm to date (5 months). Canine corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not been reported previously in the UK. PMID:18190354

  1. Radiosensitization by Inhibiting STAT1 in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been historically regarded as a radioresistant malignancy, but the molecular mechanism underlying its radioresistance is not understood. This study investigated the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), a transcription factor downstream of the interferon-signaling pathway, in radioresistant RCC. Methods and Materials: The expressions of STAT1 and STAT3 in 164 human clear cell RCC samples, 47 papillary RCC samples, and 15 normal kidney tissue samples were examined by microarray expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the total and phosphorylated STAT1 expression in CRL-1932 (786-O) (human clear cell RCC), SKRC-39 (human papillary RCC), CCL-116 (human fibroblast), and CRL-1441 (G-401) (human Wilms tumor). STAT1 was reduced or inhibited by fludarabine and siRNA, respectively, and the effects on radiation-induced cell death were investigated using clonogenic assays. Results: STAT1 expression, but not STAT3 expression, was significantly greater in human RCC samples (p = 1.5 x 10-8 for clear cell; and p = 3.6 x 10-4 for papillary). Similarly, the expression of STAT1 was relatively greater in the two RCC cell lines. STAT1 expression was reduced by both fludarabine and siRNA, significantly increasing the radiosensitivity in both RCC cell lines. Conclusion: This is the first study reporting the overexpression of STAT1 in human clear cell and papillary RCC tissues. Radiosensitization in RCC cell lines was observed by a reduction or inhibition of STAT1 signaling, using fludarabine or siRNA. Our data suggest that STAT1 may play a key role in RCC radioresistance and manipulation of this pathway may enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy

  2. Immunohistochemical assessment of the effect of tobacco on a molecular gatekeeper in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik Basavaraju; D K Shruthi; K V Suresh; Sasidhara Singaraju; Sandeep Jain; Medini Singaraju

    2012-01-01

    Background: It has been emphasized that the molecular gatekeeper p53 has a key role in carcinogenesis and its mutation is seen in more than 50% of the human cancers including head and neck carcinomas and tobacco is the most important etiological agent in head and neck cancer. Aims: To assess p53 mutations in relation to tobacco usage in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to understand the role of tobacco in the complex process of carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: Forty formalin-fixed pa...

  3. Cytochrome P450 levels are altered in patients with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Wolfgarten, E.; Bollschweiler, E.;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the carcinogenesis of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) in human esophagus by determining expression patterns and protein levels of representative CYPs in esophageal tissue of patients with SCC and controls. METHODS: mRNA expression of CYP2E1, ...

  4. Orai1 and STIM1 are critical for cell migration and proliferation of clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Orai1 channel is highly expressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissues. • Orai1 and STIM1 constitute a native store-operated Ca2+ entry in ccRCC cells. • Orai1 and STIM1 promote cell migration and proliferation of ccRCC cells. - Abstract: The intracellular Ca2+ regulation has been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Notably, store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a major Ca2+ entry mechanism in non-excitable cells, being involved in cell proliferation and migration in several types of cancer. However, the expression and biological role of SOCE have not been investigated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Here, we demonstrate that Orai1 and STIM1, not Orai3, are crucial components of SOCE in the progression of ccRCC. The expression levels of Orai1 in tumor tissues were significantly higher than those in the adjacent normal parenchymal tissues. In addition, native SOCE was blunted by inhibiting SOCE or by silencing Orai1 and STIM1. Pharmacological blockade or knockdown of Orai1 or STIM1 also significantly inhibited RCC cell migration and proliferative capability. Taken together, Orai1 is highly expressed in ccRCC tissues illuminating that Orai1-mediated SOCE may play an important role in ccRCC development. Indeed, Orai1 and STIM1 constitute a native SOCE pathway in ccRCC by promoting cell proliferation and migration

  5. AIF Downregulation and Its Interaction with STK3 in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shengqiang; Wu, Hongjin; Nie, Huan; Yue, Lei; Jiang, Huadong; Xiao, Sheng; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) plays a crucial role in caspase-independent programmed cell death by triggering chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Therefore, it might be involved in cell homeostasis and tumor development. In this study, we report significant AIF downregulation in the majority of renal cell carcinomas (RCC). In a group of RCC specimens, 84% (43 out of 51) had AIF downregulation by immunohistochemistry stain. Additional 10 kidney tumors, including an oxyphilic adenom...

  6. High expression of FER tyrosine kinase predicts poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Can; WU, SONG; Li, Xianxin; Wang, Yadong; Ren, Rui; LAI, YONGQING; YE, JIONGXIAN

    2012-01-01

    FER tyrosine kinase (FER) has been demonstrated to play a critical role in tumorigenesis and metastasis; however, its potential value as a novel prognostic marker for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains unclear. In 48 paired samples of ccRCCs and normal adjacent tissues (ADTs), real-time PCR was used to evaluate the expression of FER mRNA. The expression of FER protein was assessed in 87 ADTs and 206 samples of ccRCC using immunohistochemical methods. Statistical analysis was used...

  7. Pure primary small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: A rare diagnostic entity

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Gon; Bipasa Majumdar; Ranjan Kumar Dey; Subrata Kumar Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. Since the tumor is very rare, pathogenesis is uncertain. Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder are mixed with classic urothelial carcinomas or adenocarcinomas of the bladder in 68% cases, making pure primary small cell carcinoma even a rarer entity. The unknown etiology and natural history of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bla...

  8. LATE PRESENTATION OF BASAL CELL CARCINOMA - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present a case of basal cell carcinoma with late presentation. METHODS: A 55year - old woman with gradual progressive, nodular, small brown lesion at the left lower eye lid for past 3 years was examined with, computed tomography (CT and then Excisional biopsy was done. RESULTS: The presenting symptom s of the patient were gradual progressive, nodular, sma ll brown lesion at the left lower eye lid . Excisional bi opsy with frozen section of the lesion was performed. Histopathologic evaluation of the eyelid lesion disclosed Trichoblastic (basal cell carcinoma of lower eye lid with large nodular and cribiform (a denoid patterns without any lymph - vascula r and perineural invasion. Post - operative period was uneventful. CONCLUSION: We are hereby reporting this case of eyelid BCC, with no history of skin cancer, or radiation treatment but exposure to sunlight. With earl y adequate treatment the prognosis is good KEYWORDS: B asal cell carcinoma, Excisional biopsy, Trichoblastic carcinoma .

  9. The Role of 3 Tesla Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Differential Diagnosis of Benign versus Malignant Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Barchetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to validate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI at 3 Tesla in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant laterocervical lymph nodes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Materials and Methods. Before undergoing surgery, 80 patients, with biopsy proven HNSCC, underwent a magnetic resonance exam. Sensitivity (Se and specificity (Spe of conventional criteria and DWI in detecting laterocervical lymph node metastases were calculated. Histological results from neck dissection were used as standard of reference. Results. In the 239 histologically proven metastatic lymphadenopathies, the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC value was 0.903 × 10−3 mm2/sec. In the 412 pathologically confirmed benign lymph nodes, an average ADC value of 1.650 × 10−3 mm2/sec was found. For differentiating between benign versus metastatic lymph nodes, DWI showed Se of 97% and Spe of 93%, whereas morphological criteria displayed Se of 61% and Spe of 98%. DWI showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC of 0.964, while morphological criteria displayed an AUC of 0.715. Conclusions. In a DWI negative neck for malignant lymph nodes, the planned dissection could be converted to a wait-and-scan policy, whereas DWI positive neck would support the decision to perform a neck dissection.

  10. The Role of 3 Tesla Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Differential Diagnosis of Benign versus Malignant Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranno, Nicola; Sartori, Alessandro; Gigli, Silvia; Lo Mele, Luigi; Marsella, Luigi Tonino

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to validate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 Tesla in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant laterocervical lymph nodes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Materials and Methods. Before undergoing surgery, 80 patients, with biopsy proven HNSCC, underwent a magnetic resonance exam. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Spe) of conventional criteria and DWI in detecting laterocervical lymph node metastases were calculated. Histological results from neck dissection were used as standard of reference. Results. In the 239 histologically proven metastatic lymphadenopathies, the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was 0.903 × 10−3 mm2/sec. In the 412 pathologically confirmed benign lymph nodes, an average ADC value of 1.650 × 10−3 mm2/sec was found. For differentiating between benign versus metastatic lymph nodes, DWI showed Se of 97% and Spe of 93%, whereas morphological criteria displayed Se of 61% and Spe of 98%. DWI showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.964, while morphological criteria displayed an AUC of 0.715. Conclusions. In a DWI negative neck for malignant lymph nodes, the planned dissection could be converted to a wait-and-scan policy, whereas DWI positive neck would support the decision to perform a neck dissection. PMID:25003115

  11. Global gene expression profiling of a mouse model of ovarian clear cell carcinoma caused by ARID1A and PIK3CA mutations implicates a role for inflammatory cytokine signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Chandler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian clear-cell carcinoma (OCCC is an aggressive form of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. OCCC represents 5–25% of all EOC incidences and is the second leading cause of death from ovarian cancer (Glasspool and McNeish, 2013 [1]. A recent publication by Chandler et al. reported the first mouse model of OCCC that resembles human OCCC both genetically and histologically by inducing a localized deletion of ARID1A and the expression of the PIK3CAH1047R substitution mutation (Chandler et al., 2015 [2]. We utilized Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.1 ST arrays for the global gene expression profiling of mouse primary OCCC tumor samples and animal-matched normal ovaries to identify cancer-dependent gene expression. We describe the approach used to generate the differentially expressed genes from the publicly available data deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under the accession number GSE57380. These data were used in cross-species comparisons to publically available human OCCC gene expression data and allowed the identification of coordinately regulated genes in both mouse and human OCCC and supportive of a role for inflammatory cytokine signaling in OCCC pathogenesis (Chandler et al., 2015 [2].

  12. Expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The tumor suppressor gene PDCD4 is down-regulated in many tumorous entities. ► We investigate the impact of PDCD4 and its regulating factor miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma. ► We confirm PDCD4 as a tumor suppressor gene and it could be a diagnostic marker for this tumor. -- Abstract: Background: We investigated the role of the programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor gene in specimens of transitional cell carcinoma and of healthy individuals. Methods: PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was investigated in 294 cases in histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma in different tumorous stages (28 controls, 122 non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma, stages Tis-T1, 119 invasive transitional cell carcinoma stages T2–T4 and 25 metastases). MiR-21 expression, an important PDCD4 regulator, was assessed with real-time PCR analysis and showed inverse correlation to tissue PDCD4 expression. Results: Nuclear and cytoplasmatic PDCD4 immunostaining decreased significantly with histopathological progression of the tumor (p < 0001). Controls showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical staining. MiR-21 up regulation in tissue corresponded to PDCD4 suppression. Conclusions: These data support a decisive role for PDCD4 down regulation in transitional cell carcinoma and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator for PDCD4. Additionally, PDCD4 immunohistochemical staining turns out to be a possible diagnostic marker for transitional cell carcinoma.

  13. Expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Nicolas, E-mail: simplissimus@gmx.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Goeke, Friederike, E-mail: Friederike.goeke@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Pathology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Splittstoesser, Vera, E-mail: Veri.sp@web.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Lankat-Buttgereit, Brigitte, E-mail: Lankatbu@staff.uni-marburg.de [Department of Internal Medicine, Philipps-University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Mueller, Stefan C., E-mail: Stefan.mueller@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Ellinger, Joerg, E-mail: Joerg.ellinger@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tumor suppressor gene PDCD4 is down-regulated in many tumorous entities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the impact of PDCD4 and its regulating factor miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We confirm PDCD4 as a tumor suppressor gene and it could be a diagnostic marker for this tumor. -- Abstract: Background: We investigated the role of the programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor gene in specimens of transitional cell carcinoma and of healthy individuals. Methods: PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was investigated in 294 cases in histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma in different tumorous stages (28 controls, 122 non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma, stages Tis-T1, 119 invasive transitional cell carcinoma stages T2-T4 and 25 metastases). MiR-21 expression, an important PDCD4 regulator, was assessed with real-time PCR analysis and showed inverse correlation to tissue PDCD4 expression. Results: Nuclear and cytoplasmatic PDCD4 immunostaining decreased significantly with histopathological progression of the tumor (p < 0001). Controls showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical staining. MiR-21 up regulation in tissue corresponded to PDCD4 suppression. Conclusions: These data support a decisive role for PDCD4 down regulation in transitional cell carcinoma and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator for PDCD4. Additionally, PDCD4 immunohistochemical staining turns out to be a possible diagnostic marker for transitional cell carcinoma.

  14. Microarray profile of human kidney from diabetes, renal cell carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kosti, Adam; Harry Chen, Hung-I; Mohan, Sumathy; Liang, Sitai; Chen, Yidong; Habib, Samy L

    2015-01-01

    Recent study from our laboratory showed that patients with diabetes are at a higher risk of developing kidney cancer. In the current study, we have screened whole human DNA genome from healthy control, patients with diabetes or renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or RCC+diabetes. We found that 883 genes gain/163 genes loss of copy number in RCC+diabetes group, 669 genes gain/307 genes loss in RCC group and 458 genes gain/38 genes loss of copy number in diabetes group, after removing gain/loss genes ob...

  15. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Biological Continuum of Basal Cell Carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Karaninder S.; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Pushpinder S Chauhan; Anju Lath Sharma; Vikas Sharma; Abhinav, C.; Gayatri Khatri; Neel Prabha; Saurabh Sharma; Muninder Negi

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide s...

  16. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence

  17. Genetic Susceptibility to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and its incidence is growing. Although environmental carcinogens and carcinogenic viruses are the main etiologic factors, genetic predisposition obviously plays a risk-modulating role, given that not all individuals exposed to these carcinogens experience the disease. This review highlights some aspects of genetic susceptibility to HNSCC: among others, genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes, DNA repair pathway, apoptotic pathway, human papillomavirus-related pathways, mitochondrial polymorphisms, and polymorphism related to the bilirubin-metabolized pathway. Furthermore, epigenetic variations, familial forms of HNSCC, functional assays for HNSCC risk assessment, and the implications and perspectives of research on genetic susceptibility in HNSCC are discussed

  18. Genetic Susceptibility to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacko, Martin [Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Braakhuis, Boudewijn J.M. [Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sturgis, Erich M. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Boedeker, Carsten C. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Freiburg, Germany and Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, HELIOS Hanseklinikum Stralsund, Stralsund (Germany); Suárez, Carlos [Department of Otolaryngology, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain); Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio [ENT Clinic, University of Udine, Udine (Italy); Takes, Robert P., E-mail: robert.takes@radboudumc.nl [Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-05-01

    Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and its incidence is growing. Although environmental carcinogens and carcinogenic viruses are the main etiologic factors, genetic predisposition obviously plays a risk-modulating role, given that not all individuals exposed to these carcinogens experience the disease. This review highlights some aspects of genetic susceptibility to HNSCC: among others, genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes, DNA repair pathway, apoptotic pathway, human papillomavirus-related pathways, mitochondrial polymorphisms, and polymorphism related to the bilirubin-metabolized pathway. Furthermore, epigenetic variations, familial forms of HNSCC, functional assays for HNSCC risk assessment, and the implications and perspectives of research on genetic susceptibility in HNSCC are discussed.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase is associated with a decrease in cell proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Aguilar, Benjamín; Vidal, Cecilio J; Palomec, Guillermina; García-Dolores, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Olivares, José Luis; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique

    2015-07-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that rapidly splits acetylcholine into acetate and choline, presents non-cholinergic functions through which may participate in the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis. These two features are relevant in cancer, particularly in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a very aggressive liver tumor with high incidence and poor prognosis in advanced stages. Here we explored the relation between acetylcholinesterase and HCC growth by testing the influence of AChE on proliferation of Huh-7 and HepG2 cell lines, addressed in monolayer cultures, spheroid formation and human liver tumor samples. Results showed a clear relation in AChE expression and cell cycle progression, an effect which depended on cell confluence. Inhibition of AChE activity led to an increase in cell proliferation, which was associated with downregulation of p27 and cyclins. The fact that Huh-7 and HepG2 cell lines provided similar results lent weight to the relationship of AChE expression with cell cycle progression in hepatoma cell lines at least. Human liver tumor samples exhibited a decrease in AChE activity as compared with normal tissue. The evidence presented herein provides additional support for the proposed tumor suppressor role of AChE, which makes it a potential therapeutic target in therapies against hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25869328

  20. Collecting Duct Carcinoma of the Kidney Mimicking Invasive Transitional Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Joo Nam; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Lim, Sung Chul [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Approximately 100 cases of collecting duct carcinoma have been reported in the medical literature. We herein report on a case of collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney in a 75-year-old patient. The abdominal sonography depicted a relatively poorly defined 7x6 cm sized, isoechoic mass lesion, as compared to the normal parenchyma, at the left kidney lower pole and the affected kidney showed preservation of the reniform shape. CT revealed a heterogeneous poorly defined low-attenuation mass that was mainly located in the medulla with involvement of the cortex and the lower half of the renal pelvis. Retrograde ureter opyelography showed a filling defect at the lower renal pelvis and severe narrowing of the left proximal ureter. We initially thought this lesion was invasive transitional cell carcinoma. Subsequent surgery confirmed a collecting duct carcinoma

  1. Selective assembly of laminin variants by human carcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Wayner, E A; Hoffstrom, B G;

    1994-01-01

    in negligible amounts as detected by Northern blotting and PCR. The only exception was the HU-1 lung adenocarcinoma cell line which expressed significant quantities of laminin M chain mRNA and lower levels of laminin A chain mRNA. The presence in the HU-1 cells of translated polypeptides was...... chain. CONCLUSIONS: All human carcinoma cell lines produced laminin chains B1, B2 and S, but no or little A or M. The only exception was the lung carcinoma cell line HU-1. Human HU-1 carcinoma cells in culture synthesize several homologous laminin chains and regulate the process of assembly, secretion......BACKGROUND: The laminins are heterotrimeric basement membrane glycoproteins. Eight subunits that can be assembled into laminins have been characterized and are known as: A, B1, B2, S, M, K, B2t, B1k laminin chains. Although many neoplastic cells secrete laminins and some of them even assemble...

  2. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Simon N.; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10−12), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10−9), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10−12) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10−16). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained. PMID:25855136

  3. Systemic adjuvant therapies in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, Sebastiano; Bersanelli, Melissa; Donini, Maddalena; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the ten most frequent solid tumors worldwide. Recent innovations in the treatment of metastatic disease have led to new therapeutic approaches being investigated in the adjuvant setting. Observation is the only current standard of care after radical nephrectomy, although there is evidence of efficacy of adjuvant use of vaccine among all the strategies used. This article aims to collect published experiences with systemic adjuvant approaches in RCC and to describe the results of past and ongoing phase III clinical trials in this field. We explored all the systemic treatments, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted drugs while alternative approaches have also been described. Appropriate selection of patients who would benefit from adjuvant therapies remains a crucial dilemma. Although the international guidelines do not actually recommend any adjuvant treatment after radical surgery for RCC, no conclusions have yet been drawn pending the results of the promising ongoing clinical trials with the target therapies. The significant changes that these new drugs have made on advanced disease outcome could represent the key to innovation in terms of preventing recurrence, delaying relapse and prolonging survival after radical surgery for RCC. PMID:25992216

  4. Systemic adjuvant therapies in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Buti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is one of the ten most frequent solid tumors worldwide. Recent innovations in the treatment of metastatic disease have led to new therapeutic approaches being investigated in the adjuvant setting. Observation is the only current standard of care after radical nephrectomy, although there is evidence of efficacy of adjuvant use of vaccine among all the strategies used. This article aims to collect published experiences with systemic adjuvant approaches in RCC and to describe the results of past and ongoing phase III clinical trials in this field. We explored all the systemic treatments, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted drugs while alternative approaches have also been described. Appropriate selection of patients who would benefit from adjuvant therapies remains a crucial dilemma. Although the international guidelines do not actually recommend any adjuvant treatment after radical surgery for RCC, no conclusions have yet been drawn pending the results of the promising ongoing clinical trials with the target therapies. The significant changes that these new drugs have made on advanced disease outcome could represent the key to innovation in terms of preventing recurrence, delaying relapse and prolonging survival after radical surgery for RCC.

  5. Type I collagen inhibits differentiation and promotes a stem cell-like phenotype in human colorectal carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkland, S. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human colorectal cancer is caused by mutations and is thought to be maintained by a population of cancer stem cells. Further phenotypic changes occurring at the invasive edge suggest that colon cancer cells are also regulated by their microenvironment. Type I collagen, a promoter of the malignant phenotype in pancreatic carcinoma cells, is highly expressed at the invasive front of human colorectal cancer. Methods: This study investigates the role of type I collagen in specifying t...

  6. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes facilitate nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Si; Zhang, Qicheng; Xia, Yunfei; You, Bo; Shan, Ying; Bao, Lili; Li, Li; You, Yiwen; Gu, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types, are reported to exert multiple effects on tumor development. However, the relationship between MSCs and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells remains unclear. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that can be released by several cell types, including MSCs. Exosomes, which can carry membrane and cytoplasmic constituents, have been described as participants in a novel mechanism of cell-to-cell communicat...

  7. Expression of E-cadherin in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Avadhoot Avadhani; J V Tupkari; Yuwanati, Monal B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is evidence that E-cadherins may also play a role in progression of dysplasia to cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of E-cadherin during the process of oral carcinogenesis by comparing their expression in normal and oral dysplastic epithelium (OED) with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSSC).Materials and methods: The patients who were clinical suspected of having premalignant lesion and oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in the study after ...

  8. Expression of E-cadherin in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Yuwanati, Monal B.; J V Tupkari; Avadhani, Avadhoot

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is evidence that E-cadherins may also play a role in progression of dysplasia to cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of E-cadherin during the process of oral carcinogenesis by comparing their expression in normal and oral dysplastic epithelium (OED) with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSSC). Materials and methods: The patients who were clinical suspected of having premalignant lesion and oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in the study a...

  9. Evaluation of the ‘Hedgehog’ signaling pathways in squamous and basal cell carcinomas of the eyelids and conjunctiva

    OpenAIRE

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kiratli, Hayyam; SOYLEMEZOGLU, FIGEN

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the role of hedgehog signaling pathway in the carcinogenesis of eyelid skin and conjunctival epithelial malignant tumors. The study was conducted on specimens from 41 patients with cutaneous eyelid basal cell carcinoma, 22 with bulbar conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, 12 with bulbar conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia. Major molecules of Hedgehog signaling pathway (Sonic Hedgehog [Shh] and Patched-1 [Ptch-1] and Glioma-associated oncogene ...

  10. Circulating tumor cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma: An insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B V Prakruthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are those cells present in the blood and have antigenic and/or genetic characteristics of a specific tumor type. CTCs can be detected in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. Various techniques are available for detection of CTCs, which provide evidence for future metastasis. CTCs may provide new insight into the biology of cancer and process of metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. The detection of CTCs may represent a new diagnostic tool for predicting the occurrence of metastatic disease in OSCC and endow with the treatment strategies to efficiently treat and prevent cancer metastasis. This review gives an insight into the significance of CTCs and different techniques for detection of CTCs.

  11. Derived vascular endothelial cells induced by mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells: 3-dimensional collagen matrix model*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Sen; Guo, Li-Juan; Gao, Qing-hong; Xuan, Ming; Tan, Ke; Zhang, Qiang; Wen, Yu-ming; Wang, Chang-mei; Tang, Xiu-fa; Wang, Xiao-yi

    2010-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma undergoes uniquely vigorous angiogenic and neovascularization processes, possibly due to proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) induced by mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (MCCs) in their three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment. To date, no studies have dealt with tumor cells and vascular ECs from the same origin of mucoepidermoid carcinoma using the in vitro 3D microenvironment model. In this context, the current research aims to observe neovascularization w...

  12. Isolated abdominal wall metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: Unusual presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Kumar; Pramod Kumar Sharma; Malay Kumar Bera

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-seven-year-old gentleman, who was a known victim of left-sided clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), presented with isolated huge parietal swelling in left anterolateral aspect of abdomen. He had undergone open left radical nephrectomy 2 years back. Parietal swelling was widely excised and histopathology revealed clear cell RCC, nuclear Fuhrman grade 2.

  13. ALDH/CD44 identifies uniquely tumorigenic cancer stem cells in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Pearson, Alexander T; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Kim, Hong Sun; Mochizuki, Daiki; Basura, Gregory; Helman, Joseph; Mantesso, Andrea; Castilho, Rogério M; Wicha, Max S; Nör, Jacques E

    2015-09-29

    A small sub-population of cells characterized by increased tumorigenic potential, ability to self-renew and to differentiate into cells that make up the tumor bulk, has been characterized in some (but not all) tumor types. These unique cells, namedcancer stem cells, are considered drivers of tumor progression in these tumors. The purpose of this work is to understand if cancer stem cells play a functional role in the tumorigenesis of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Here, we investigated the expression of putative cancer stem cell markers (ALDH, CD10, CD24, CD44) in primary human mucoepidermoid carcinomas by immunofluorescence, in vitro salisphere assays, and in vivo tumorigenicity assays in immunodeficient mice. Human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (UM-HMC-1, UM-HMC-3A, UM-HMC-3B) sorted for high levels of ALDH activity and CD44 expression (ALDHhighCD44high) consistently formed primary and secondary salispheres in vitro, and showed enhanced tumorigenic potential in vivo (defined as time to tumor palpability, tumor growth after palpability), when compared to ALDHlowCD44low cells. Cells sorted for CD10/CD24, and CD10/CD44 showed varying trends of salisphere formation, but consistently low in vivo tumorigenic potential. And finally, cells sorted for CD44/CD24 showed inconsistent results in salisphere formation and tumorigenic potential assays when different cell lines were evaluated. Collectively, these data demonstrate that salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas contain a small population of cancer stem cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and that are characterized by high ALDH activity and CD44 expression. These results suggest that patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma might benefit from therapies that ablate these highly tumorigenic cells. PMID:26449187

  14. Current role of ultrasound for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Masaharu; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a decisive influence on the prognosis of cirrhotic patients. Although α-fetoprotein (AFP) is a known and specific tumor maker for HCC, it is not suitable for the screening and surveillance of HCC because of its poor predictive value and low sensitivity. The use of imaging modalities is essential for the screening, diagnosis and treatment of HCC. Ultrasound (US) plays a major role among them, because it provides real-time and non-invasive observation by a sim...

  15. Role of chemotherapy in stage llb nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Bin Pan; Xiao-Dong Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy on stage lib nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) remains unclear.Conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy combined with concurrent chemotherapy can improve the overall survival,progression-free survival,recurrence-free survival,and distant metastasis-free survival of patients with stage lib NPC.Intensity-modulated radiotherapy without concurrent chemotherapy also provides good outcomes for patients with stage lib NPC.This article summarizes the features of stage lib NPC and reviews the role of chemotherapy in this subgroup of NPC.

  16. NK-cell-dependent killing of colon carcinoma cells is mediated by natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) and stimulated by parvovirus infection of target cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigating how the immune system functions during malignancies is crucial to developing novel therapeutic strategies. Natural killer (NK) cells, an important component of the innate immune system, play a vital role in immune defense against tumors and virus-infected cells. The poor survival rate in colon cancer makes it particularly important to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Oncolytic viruses, in addition to lysing tumor cells, may have the potential to augment antitumor immune responses. In the present study, we investigate the role of NK cells and how parvovirus H-1PV can modulate NK-cell mediated immune responses against colon carcinoma. Human NK cells were isolated from the blood of healthy donors. The cytotoxicity and antibody-mediated inhibition of NK cells were measured in chromium release assays. Phenotypic assessment of colon cancer and dendritic cells was done by FACS. The statistical significance of the results was calculated with Student’s t test (*p <0.05; **, p < 0.01; ***, p < 0.001). We show that IL-2-activated human NK cells can effectively kill colon carcinoma cells. Killing of colon carcinoma cells by NK cells was further enhanced upon infection of the former cells with parvovirus H-1PV. H-1PV has potent oncolytic activity against various tumors, yet its direct killing effect on colon carcinoma cells is limited. The cytotoxicity of NK cells towards colon carcinoma cells, both mock- and H-1PV-infected, was found to be mostly mediated by a combination of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), namely NKp30, 44, and 46. Colon carcinoma cells displayed low to moderate expression of NK cell ligands, and this expression was modulated upon H-1PV infection. Lysates of H-1PV-infected colon carcinoma cells were found to increase MHC class II expression on dendritic cells. Altogether, these data suggest that IL-2-activated NK cells actively kill colon carcinoma cells and that this killing is mediated by several natural cytotoxicity receptors

  17. Effects of p53 overexpression on neoplastic cell pro-liferation and apoptosis in thymic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate p53 overexpression and its correlation with neoplastic cell proliferation and apoptosis in 20 thymic carcinomas. Methods: 20 surgical samples of thymic carcinoma were collected randomly during the past 15 years in the Guangzhou area. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using LSAB method with anti-p53 monoclonal antibody (DO-7) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (clone PC 10) as primary antibodies. The p53 index was indicated by the number of p53 positive cells among 100 carcinoma cells. More than 25 percentage of p53 positive cells found in tissue sections was recognized as p53 overexpression. Carcinoma cell proliferation activity was assayed by PCNA index (PI), and apoptosis degree was evaluated by TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-X nick end labeling) index (TI) using Boehringer Mannheim In Situ Death Detection Kit. Results: P53 positive cells could be found in vast majority of thymic carcinomas (19/20) and the overexpression rate reached 35% (7/20). The median PI (40%) of 7 cases with p53 overexpression was higher than that (31%) of 13 cases without p53 overexpression, but there was no statistical significance that existed between these two data (P>0.05). The median TI (0.5/HPF) of 7 p53 overexpression cases was much lower than that (4.5/HPF) of 13 non-overexpression cases, and there was a significant difference statistically (P<0.05). Conclusion: p53 expression was a frequent finding in thymic carcinoma cells, and the p53 overexpression which might represent p53 inactivation or gene mutation was often involved in thymic carcino-genesis. The median PCNA index of p53 overexpression group was higher than that of non-overexpression group though there existed no statistical difference. This indicates that the inhibiting function of p53 on cell proliferation seemed lost in p53 overexpressed thymic carcinomas. It is worthy to be specially mentioned that the inducing function of p53 on cell apoptosis was markedly lost in p53 overexpressed thymic

  18. Coculture System with an Organotypic Brain Slice and 3D Spheroid of Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Han-Ning; Lohaus, Raphaela; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Binder, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Patients with cerebral metastasis of carcinomas have a poor prognosis. However, the process at the metastatic site has barely been investigated, in particular the role of the resident (stromal) cells. Studies in primary carcinomas demonstrate the influence of the microenvironment on metastasis, even on prognosis1,2. Especially the tumor associated macrophages (TAM) support migration, invasion and proliferation3. Interestingly, the major target sites of metastasis possess tissue-specific macrophages, such as Kupffer cells in the liver or microglia in the CNS. Moreover, the metastatic sites also possess other tissue-specific cells, like astrocytes. Recently, astrocytes were demonstrated to foster proliferation and persistence of cancer cells4,5. Therefore, functions of these tissue-specific cell types seem to be very important in the process of brain metastasis6,7. Despite these observations, however, up to now there is no suitable in vivo/in vitro model available to directly visualize glial reactions during cerebral metastasis formation, in particular by bright field microscopy. Recent in vivo live imaging of carcinoma cells demonstrated their cerebral colonization behavior8. However, this method is very laborious, costly and technically complex. In addition, these kinds of animal experiments are restricted to small series and come with a substantial stress for the animals (by implantation of the glass plate, injection of tumor cells, repetitive anaesthesia and long-term fixation). Furthermore, in vivo imaging is thus far limited to the visualization of the carcinoma cells, whereas interactions with resident cells have not yet been illustrated. Finally, investigations of human carcinoma cells within immunocompetent animals are impossible8. For these reasons, we established a coculture system consisting of an organotypic mouse brain slice and epithelial cells embedded in matrigel (3D cell sphere). The 3D carcinoma cell spheres were placed directly next to the brain

  19. From aspecific to bispecific immunotherapy : immunomodulatory effects of interleukin-2 and T cell directed monoclonal antibodies in renal cell carcinoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Richard Antonius Jozef

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to get more insight into the immunological effects of rIL-2 therapy in renal cell carcinoma patients. Special attention was given to the activation of T cells, since these cells appear to play an important role in the immune response against tumour cells. In addition, the i

  20. Cyclin B1 overexpression in conventional oral squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma-A correlation with clinicopathological features

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Gururaj B.; Hallikeri, Kaveri S.; Balappanavar, Aswini Y.; Hongal, Sudheer G.; Sanjaya, PR; Sagari, Sheetalkumar G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nuclear localization of cyclin B1 is an indicator for cells undergoing mitotic division, and the overexpression has shown promising results as a good prognostic predictor for patients of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Cyclin B1 overexpression among histological grades of conventional oral squamous cell carcinoma (COSCC), as well as comparison with verrucous carcinoma (VC) has been less investigated. Study Design: Immunohistochemical expression of cyclin B1 was compared with variou...

  1. A Novel Protein Is Lower Expressed in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ruili Guan; Yongde Xu; Hongen Lei; Zhezhu Gao; Zhongcheng Xin; Yinglu Guo

    2014-01-01

    Engrailed-2 (EN2) has been identified as a candidate oncogene in breast cancer and prostate cancer. It is usually recognized as a mainly nuclear staining in the cells. However, recent studies showed a cytoplasmic staining occurred in prostate cancer, bladder cancer and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The inconsistency makes us confused. To clarify the localization and expression of EN2 in renal cell carcinoma, anti-EN2 antibody (ab28731) and anti-EN2 antibody (MAB2600) were used for immunohi...

  2. A novel combination of multiple primary carcinomas: Urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma- report of a case and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Giannikaki Elpida; Datseris George; Dambaki Konstantina I; Koutsopoulos Anastassios V; Froudarakis Marios; Stathopoulos Efstathios

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The incidence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms increases with age and they are encountered more frequently nowadays than before, the phenomenon is still considered to be rare. Case presentation We report a case of a man in whom urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, metachronous prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma were diagnosed within an eighteen-month period. The only known predisposing factor was that he was heavy smoker (90–100 packets pe...

  3. Overexpressed CacyBP/SIP leads to the suppression of growth in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcyclin-binding protein/Siah-1-interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP), a target protein of S100, has been identified as a component of a novel ubiquitinylation complex leading to β-catenin degradation, which was found to be related to the malignant phenotypes of gastric cancer. However, the roles of CacyBP/SIP in renal cell carcinoma still remain unclear. In the present study, we had analyzed the expression of the CacyBP/SIP protein in human renal cancer cells and clinical tissue samples. The possible roles of CacyBP/SIP in regulating the malignant phenotype of renal cancer cells were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the expression of CacyBP/SIP was markedly down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma tissues and cell lines. Ectopic overexpression of CacyBP/SIP in A498 cells inhibited the proliferation of this cell and delayed cell cycle progression significantly, which might be related to the down-regulation of Cyclin D1 through reducing β-catenin protein. CacyBP/SIP also suppressed colony formation in soft agar and its tumorigenicity in nude mice. Taken together, our work showed that CacyBP/SIP, as a novel down-regulated gene in renal cell carcinoma, suppressed proliferation and tumorigenesis of renal cancer cells

  4. Promoter Hypermethylation of DNA Repair Gene MGMT in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of O6methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)genes and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma was explored. Methylation-specific PCR and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were used to study the promoter methylation and mRNA expression of the MGMT gene in laryngeal carcinoma tissues, t issues adjacent to the tumor and normal laryngeal tissues. Hypermethylation of MGMT gene was detected in 16 samples of 46 (34.8 %) laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma samples. However, the MGMT hypermethylation was not detected in all tissues adjacent to the tumors and normal tissues. No significant difference in MGMT gene hypermethylation was found in samples with different histological grades (x2= 3. 130, P=0. 077) or in samples from patients with different TNM status (x2=3. 957, P=0. 138). No expression of MGMT mRNA was detected in all hypermethylated laryngeal carcinoma tissues. The expression of MGMT mRNA was detected in all unmethylated laryngeal carcinoma tissues, tissues adjacent to the tumors and normal tissues. It suggests that MGMT gene promoter hypermethylation is associated with MGMT gene transcription loss in laryngeal carcinoma tissues and possibly plays an important role in carcinogenesis of laryngeal tissues.

  5. The role of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in the differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma for the males in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Heavy and long-term smoking and drinking habit might pronouncedly increase the risk of triggering OSCC. Tobacco and alcohol consumption seems to play a role in the differentiation characteristics of the tumor.

  6. Systemic Therapy for Metastatic Non-Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Recent Progress and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Simon; Matrana, Marc; Tsang, Christopher; Atkinson, Bradley; Choueiri, Toni K.; Tannir, Nizar M.

    2011-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) encompasses a heterogeneous group of histological subtypes of which clear-cell RCC (CCRCC) is the most common comprising more than 70–80% of all cases. Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) is the next most common comprising 10–15% of cases. PRCC is refractory to chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy.

  7. MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES TO HUMAN EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA-CELLS - ANTIGENIC RELATIONSHIPS OF GERM-CELL TUMORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEWIT, TFR; WILSON, L; VANDENELSEN, PJ; THIELEN, F; BREKHOFF, D; OOSTERHUIS, JW; PERA, MF; STERN, PL

    1991-01-01

    Fifteen monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that show specificity for human embryonal carcinoma cells are described. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with Tera-2 embryonal carcinoma cells, and hybridomas were isolated and tested versus a set of human developmental tumor cell lines. The antigens exhibit relativel

  8. Low-Grade Clear Cell Carcinoma with Myoepithelial Features in the Submandibular Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Haruyama, Takuo; Furukawa, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Fumihiko; Abe, Keiko; Arakawa, Atsushi; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma is rarely found in the salivary gland. It is classified as a low-grade carcinoma. This case demonstrates a low-grade clear cell carcinoma with myoepithelial features in the submandibular gland which differs from hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. A 32-year-old man presented with a 7 month history of left submandibular swelling. Left submandibular gland excision and left-sided supra-omohyoid neck dissection were performed. Microscopica...

  9. RET-rearranged non-small-cell lung carcinoma: a clinicopathological and molecular analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuta, K; Kohno, T.; Yoshida, A.; Shimada, Y.; Asamura, H.; Furuta, K; Kushima, R

    2014-01-01

    Background: To elucidate clinicopathological characteristics of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cases carrying RET rearrangements causing oncogenic fusions to identify responders to therapy with RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Methods: We investigated 1874 patients with carcinomas, including 1620 adenocarcinomas (ADCs), 203 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 8 large cell carcinomas, and 43 sarcomatoid carcinomas (SACs). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and/or reverse transcriptio...

  10. Evaluation of the ‘Hedgehog’ signaling pathways in squamous and basal cell carcinomas of the eyelids and conjunctiva

    Science.gov (United States)

    CELEBI, ALI RIZA CENK; KIRATLI, HAYYAM; SOYLEMEZOGLU, FIGEN

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the role of hedgehog signaling pathway in the carcinogenesis of eyelid skin and conjunctival epithelial malignant tumors. The study was conducted on specimens from 41 patients with cutaneous eyelid basal cell carcinoma, 22 with bulbar conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, 12 with bulbar conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia. Major molecules of Hedgehog signaling pathway (Sonic Hedgehog [Shh] and Patched-1 [Ptch-1] and Glioma-associated oncogene [Gli-1]) were evaluated in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens using immunohistochemical staining. For each specimen, the percentage (50%) and the intensity of the immunohistochemical staining (graded from 0 to 3) were calculated and the scores obtained by multiplication of two values were analyzed using the Kruskall-Wallis test. Shh and Ptch-1 expression levels were statistically significantly lower in the basal cell carcinoma group compared with the squamous cell carcinoma group (P=0.043 for Shh; P=0.030 for Ptch-1). In the conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma group, the Ptch-1 score was 0 in ~25% of specimens and the Gli-1 score was ≤2 in ~45% of cases. In the conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia group, the Ptch-1 score was ≥2 in 66% of specimens, the Gli-1 score was ≤2 in ~92% of cases. Ptch-1 mutations contribute to the development of cutaneous eyelid basal cell carcinoma. The present study provides evidence that alterations in hedgehog signaling pathways may lead to transformation of the conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia into invasive squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27347166

  11. Report of a Rare Case of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Associated with Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sh. Borzouei; S. Mahmoodi; A.H. Moaddab; A.R. Salim Bahrami

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common well-differentiated cancer of the thyroid. Only in few cases of PTC entity of renal cell carcinoma has been observed in patients affected with PTC. Case Report: In this study we report a case of sporadic PTC and renal cell carcinoma in a 63 year-old woman. Conclusion: After surgery the patient was hospitalized for 1 month in ICU section. 3 months after being discharged from the hospital, she was still in a good condition and is u...

  12. Mixed Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma with Spindle Cell and Clear Cell Features in the Extrahepatic Bile Duct

    OpenAIRE

    John Wysocki; Rishi Agarwal; Laura Bratton; Jeremy Nguyen; Mandy Crause Weidenhaft; Nathan Shores; Kimbrell, Hillary Z.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas, spindle cell carcinomas, and clear cell carcinomas are all rare tumors in the biliary tract. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma composed of all three types. A 65-year-old man with prior cholecystectomy presented with painless jaundice, vomiting, and weight loss. CA19-9 and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were elevated. Cholangioscopy revealed a friable mass extending from the middle of the common bile duct to the c...

  13. Properties of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells Surviving Curcumin Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Dejun Yan, Michael E. Geusz, Roudabeh J. Jamasbi

    2012-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory agent curcumin can selectively eliminate malignant rather than normal cells. The present study examined the effects of curcumin on the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell line and characterized a subpopulation surviving curcumin treatments. Cell density was measured after curcumin was applied at concentrations between 10 and 60 μM for 30 hours. Because of the high cell loss at 60 μM, this dose was chosen to select for surviving cells that were then used to establis...

  14. Carcinoma verrucoso: uma variante clínico-histopatológica do carcinoma espinocelular Verrucous carcinoma: a clinical-histopathologic variant of squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Zanini

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma verrucoso é uma rara e indolente forma do carcinoma espinocelular descrita por Ackerman em 1948. Sua localização preferencial é a cavidade oral. Clinicamente manifesta-se como lesão verrucosa, de progressivo e lento crescimento e bom prognóstico. O tratamento de escolha é a exérese cirúrgica, devendo o paciente ser regularmente acompanhado devido ao risco de recorrências.Verrucous carcinoma is a rare and indolent variant of the squamous cell carcinoma described by Ackerman in 1948. The oral cavity is a most common site. Clinically, it presents most often as a slow-growing verrucous lesion. The prognosis is good. Treatment of choice is surgery. Patients require frequent reevaluation because recurrences may occur.

  15. Exposure to sun radiation as a risk factor for the occurrence of basal cell carcinoma in the Montenegrian population

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimović Nataša; Ražnatović Milena; Marinković Jelena; Janković Janko

    2006-01-01

    Backgound/aim: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent form of carcinomas in the whites. Among the environmental factors, the most important risk factor for its occurrence is the exposure to sun radiation. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the sun radiation in the development of basal cell carcinoma BCC in the Montenegrian population. Methods. A case-control study was conducted in a period from 2002-2003. The study group included 100 histopatologically confirmed cases wi...

  16. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2: Its Contribution to Acute Cellular Rejection and Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Wang; Al-Lamki, Rafia S.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein and one of the two receptors that orchestrate the complex biological functions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, also designed TNF- α ). Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that TNFR2 plays an important role in renal disorders associated with acute cellular rejection and clear cell renal carcinoma but its exact role in these settings is still not completely understood. This papers reviews the factors that may...

  17. EVALUATION OF STEROID HORMONES AND THEIR RECEPTORS IN DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Nigel Bennett; Retnagowri Rajandram; Keng Lim Ng; Gobe, Glenda C

    2014-01-01

    Steroid hormones and their receptors have important roles in normal kidney biology, and alterations in their expression and function help explain the differences in development of kidney diseases, such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. The distinct gender difference in incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with males having almost twice the incidence as females globally, also suggests a role for sex hormones or their receptors in RCC development and progression. There was a...

  18. The role of Epstein-Barr virus infection in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi; Man; Tsang; Sai; Wah; Tsao

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) is closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) infection. EBV episomes are detected in almost all NPC cells. The role of EBV in NPC pathogenesis has long been postulated but remains enigmatic. In contrast to infection of B lymphocytes, EBV infection does not directly transform nasopharyngeal epithelial cells into proliferative clones with malignant potential. EBV infection of normal pharyngeal epithelial cells is predominantly lytic in nature. Genetic alterations in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelium, in combination with inflammatory stimulation in the nasopharyngeal mucosa, presumably play essential roles in the establishment of a latent EBV infection in infected nasopharyngeal epithelial cells during the early development of NPC. Establishment of latent EBV infection in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells and expression of latent viral genes, including the BART transcripts and BART-encoded micro RNAs, are crucial features of NPC. Expression of EBV genes may drive further malignant transformation of premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells into cancer cells. The difficulties involved in the establishment of NPC cell lines and the progressive loss of EBV epsiomes in NPC cells propagated in culture strongly implicate the contribution of host stromal components to the growth of NPC cells in vivo and maintenance of EBV in infected NPC cells. Defining the growth advantages of EBV-infected NPC cells in vivo will lead to a better understanding of the contribution of EBV infection in NPC pathogenesis, and may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for NPC treatment.

  19. Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is responsible for approximately one-sixth of all cancer-related mortality worldwide. This malignancy has a multifactorial etiology involving several environmental, dietary and genetic factors. Since esophageal cancer has often metastasized at the time of diagnosis, current treatment modalities offer poor survival and cure rates. Chemoprevention offers a viable alternative that could well be effective against the disease. Clinical investigations have shown that primary chemoprevention of this disease is feasible if potent inhibitory agents are identified. The Fischer 344 (F-344) rat model of esophageal SCC has been used extensively to investigate the biology of the disease, and to identify chemopreventive agents that could be useful in human trials. Multiple compounds that inhibit tumor initiation by esophageal carcinogens have been identified using this model. These include several isothiocyanates, diallyl sulfide and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds influence the metabolic activation of esophageal carcinogens resulting in reduced genetic (DNA) damage. Recently, a few agents have been shown to inhibit the progression of preneoplastic lesions in the rat esophagus into tumors. These agents include inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and c-Jun [a component of activator protein-1 (AP-1)]. Using a food-based approach to cancer prevention, we have shown that freeze-dried berry preparations inhibit both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of esophageal SCC in F-344 rats. These observations have led to a clinical trial in China to evaluate the ability of freeze-dried strawberries to influence the progression of esophageal dysplasia to SCC

  20. EGCG-targeted p57/KIP2 reduces tumorigenicity of oral carcinoma cells: Role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) regulates gene expression differentially in tumor and normal cells. In normal human primary epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), one of the key mediators of EGCG action is p57/KIP2, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor. EGCG potently induces p57 in NHEK, but not in epithelial cancer cells. In humans, reduced expression of p57 often is associated with advanced tumors, and tumor cells with inactivated p57 undergo apoptosis when exposed to EGCG. The mechanism of p57 induction by EGCG is not well understood. Here, we show that in NHEK, EGCG-induces p57 via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. In p57-negative tumor cells, JNK signaling mediates EGCG-induced apoptosis, and exogenous expression of p57 suppresses EGCG-induced apoptosis via inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). We also found that restoration of p57 expression in tumor cells significantly reduced tumorigenicity in athymic mice. These results suggest that p57 expression may be an useful indicator for the clinical course of cancers, and could be potentially useful as a target for cancer therapies