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Sample records for carcinoma cells role

  1. The role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiseva, Swetha; Chitturi, Raviteja; Anumula, Vamsikrishna; Poosarla, Chandrashekar; Baddam, Venkat Ramana Reddy

    2017-01-01

    The mast cells are initial effective lineage in both humoral and adaptive immunity. They are ubiquitous in skin, mucosa, and in function. They contain biologically essential and dynamic mediators in healthy and harmful conditions of tissue. Mast cell malfunctioning could be attributed to various chronic allergic diseases. Considerately, emerging evidence of mast cell involvement in various cancers shows them to have both positive and negative roles in tumour growth. It mostly indulges in tumour progression and metastasis via angiogenesis, extracellular matrix degradation, and mitogenic activity in the tumour microenvironment. The current paper reviewed research papers on mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma through the PubMed database from 1980 to the present date. The present paper is an attempt to summarise the research reports on the role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further to this note, this paper also outlines the role of mast cells in normal physiological processes and tumour biology. PMID:28435394

  2. The role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Gudiseva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mast cells are initial effective lineage in both humoral and adaptive immunity. They are ubiquitous in skin, mucosa, and in function. They contain biologically essential and dynamic mediators in healthy and harmful conditions of tissue. Mast cell malfunctioning could be attributed to various chronic allergic diseases. Considerately, emerging evidence of mast cell involvement in various cancers shows them to have both positive and negative roles in tumour growth. It mostly indulges in tumour progression and metastasis via angiogenesis, extracellular matrix degradation, and mitogenic activity in the tumour microenvironment. The current paper reviewed research papers on mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma through the PubMed database from 1980 to the present date. The present paper is an attempt to summarise the research reports on the role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further to this note, this paper also outlines the role of mast cells in normal physiological processes and tumour biology.

  3. The Role of the Immune Response in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triozzi, Pierre L.; Fernandez, Anthony P.

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is implicated in its pathogenesis. Immune mechanisms are also implicated. Patients who are immunosuppressed have an increased risk. There is evidence that high intratumoral T-cell counts and immune transcripts are associated with favorable survival. Spontaneous regressions implicate immune effector mechanisms. Immunogenicity is also supported by observation of autoimmune paraneoplastic syndromes. Case reports suggest that immune modulation, including reduction of immune suppression, can result in tumor regression. The relationships between MCPyV infection, the immune response, and clinical outcome, however, remain poorly understood. Circulating antibodies against MCPyV antigens are present in most individuals. MCPyV-reactive T cells have been detected in both MCC patients and control subjects. High intratumoral T-cell counts are also associated with favorable survival in MCPyV-negative MCC. That the immune system plays a central role in preventing and controlling MCC is supported by several observations. MCCs often develop, however, despite the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses. A better understanding on how MCPyV and MCC evade the immune response will be necessary to develop effective immunotherapies

  4. The Role of the Immune Response in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triozzi, Pierre L., E-mail: triozzp@ccf.org [Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Fernandez, Anthony P. [Departments of Dermatology and Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States)

    2013-02-28

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is implicated in its pathogenesis. Immune mechanisms are also implicated. Patients who are immunosuppressed have an increased risk. There is evidence that high intratumoral T-cell counts and immune transcripts are associated with favorable survival. Spontaneous regressions implicate immune effector mechanisms. Immunogenicity is also supported by observation of autoimmune paraneoplastic syndromes. Case reports suggest that immune modulation, including reduction of immune suppression, can result in tumor regression. The relationships between MCPyV infection, the immune response, and clinical outcome, however, remain poorly understood. Circulating antibodies against MCPyV antigens are present in most individuals. MCPyV-reactive T cells have been detected in both MCC patients and control subjects. High intratumoral T-cell counts are also associated with favorable survival in MCPyV-negative MCC. That the immune system plays a central role in preventing and controlling MCC is supported by several observations. MCCs often develop, however, despite the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses. A better understanding on how MCPyV and MCC evade the immune response will be necessary to develop effective immunotherapies.

  5. The role of glutathione transferases in renal cell carcinoma

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    Ćorić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggest that members of the subfamily of cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs possess roles far beyond the classical glutathione-dependent enzymatic conjugation of electrophilic metabolites and xenobiotics. Namely, monomeric forms of certain GSTs are capable of forming protein: protein interactions with protein kinases and regulate cell apoptotic pathways. Due to this dual functionality of cytosolic GSTs, they might be implicated in both the development and the progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Prominent genetic heterogeneity, resulting from the gene deletions, as well as from SNPs in the coding and non-coding regions of GST genes, might affect GST isoenzyme profiles in renal parenchyma and therefore serve as a valuable indicator for predicting the risk of cancer development. Namely, GSTs are involved in the biotransformation of several compounds recognized as risk factors for RCC. The most potent carcinogen of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides, present in cigarette smoke, is of benzo(apyrene (BPDE, detoxified by GSTs. So far, the relationship between GST genotype and BPDE-DNA adduct formation, in determining the risk for RCC, has not been evaluated in patients with RCC. Although the association between certain individual and combined GST genotypes and RCC risk has been debated in a the literature, the data on the prognostic value of GST polymorphism in patients with RCC are scarce, probably due to the fact that the molecular mechanism supporting the role of GSTs in RCC progression has not been clarified as yet.

  6. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Squamous cell carcinoma Overview Squamous cell carcinoma: This man's skin ... a squamous cell carcinoma on his face. Squamous cell carcinoma: Overview Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a ...

  7. Role of Neurokinin 3 Receptor Signaling in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Kyoichi; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Okui, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Takada, Hiroyuki; Takabatake, Kiyofumi; Kunisada, Yuki; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Yoshioka, Norie; Kishimoto, Koji; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Akira

    2017-11-01

    The neurokinin 3 receptor (NK-3R) is differentially expressed in the central nervous system including cases of human oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the role of NK-3R signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma is not well known. NK-3R expression in surgically resected oral squamous cell carcinoma was examined immunohistochemically and the strength of the expression was quantified. We evaluated the function of NK-3R signaling using NK-3R antagonist in human oral squamous cell carcinoma bone invasion mouse model. NK-3R was significantly expressed in tumor cells that had invaded the bone matrix compared to the oral side tumor cells. SB222200, a selective antagonist of NK-3R, significantly suppressed the radiographic osteolytic lesion and tumorigenesis. NK-3R signaling is a potential target for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma in cases of bone destruction. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Immunotherapy in Merkel cell carcinoma: role of Avelumab

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    Palla AR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Amruth R Palla, Donald Doll Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Ellis Fischel Cancer Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA Abstract: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, a rare skin cancer, is associated with high mortality, especially in a metastatic setting. Though conventional chemotherapy with platinum and etoposide has had high response rates, many of the patients have had early relapse without any effective therapy thereafter. Recently, immune check point inhibitors have shown very good durable responses, leading to the approval of a programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitor Avelumab for these patients. We briefly review the epidemiology and immune basis of the pathogenesis of MCC, which therefore explains the excellent response to check point inhibitors, and throw light on future directions of immunotherapy for this cancer. Keywords: Merkel cell carcinoma, T cell, PD-L1, Avelumab, immunotherapy, check point inhibitors, neuroendocrine tumor

  9. Immunotherapy in Merkel cell carcinoma: role of Avelumab

    OpenAIRE

    Palla,Amruth; Doll,Donald

    2018-01-01

    Amruth R Palla, Donald Doll Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Ellis Fischel Cancer Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA Abstract: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare skin cancer, is associated with high mortality, especially in a metastatic setting. Though conventional chemotherapy with platinum and etoposide has had high response rates, many of the patients have had early relapse without any effective therapy thereafter. Recently, imm...

  10. Role of everolimus in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma

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    Saby George

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Saby George1, Ronald M Bukowski21University of Texas Health Sciences Center, MC-8221, Division of Hematology and Oncology, San Antonio, Texas, USA; 2CCF Lerner College of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology, Cleveland, Ohio, USAAbstract: The therapeutic options in metastatic renal cell carcinoma have been recently expanded by the discovery of the VHL gene, the mutation of which is associated with development of clear cell carcinoma, and overexpression of the angiogenesis pathway, resulting in a very vascular tumor. This breakthrough in science led to the development of a variety of small molecules inhibiting the VEGF-dependent angiogenic pathway, such as sunitinib and sorafenib. These agents prolong overall and progression-free survival, respectively. The result was the development of robust front-line therapies which ultimately fail and are associated with disease progression. In this setting, there existed an unmet need for developing second-line therapies for patients with refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC. Everolimus (RAD 001 is an oral inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway. The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial of everolimus (RECORD-1 conducted in MRCC patients after progression on sunitinib or sorafenib, or both, demonstrated a progression-free survival benefit favoring the study drug (4.9 months vs 1.9 months, HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.43, P ≤ 0 0.001. Everolimus thus established itself as a standard of care in the second-line setting for patients with MRCC who have failed treatment with VEGF receptor inhibitors.Keywords: mTOR inhibitor, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, signal transduction inhibitor, renal cell carcinoma, targeted therapy

  11. Role of human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Robbie SR; O’Regan, Esther M; Kennedy, Susan; Martin, Cara; O’Leary, John J; Timon, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. As a result, traditional paradigms in relation to the management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma have been changing. Research into HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is rapidly expanding, however many molecular pathological and clinical aspects of the role of HPV remain uncertain and are the subject of ongoing investigation. A detailed search of the literature pertaining to HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma was performed and information on the topic was gathered. In this article, we present an extensive review of the current literature on the role of HPV in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, particularly in relation to epidemiology, risk factors, carcinogenesis, biomarkers and clinical implications. HPV has been established as a causative agent in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and biologically active HPV can act as a prognosticator with better overall survival than HPV-negative tumours. A distinct group of younger patients with limited tobacco and alcohol exposure have emerged as characteristic of this HPV-related subset of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not completely understood and further studies are needed to assist development of optimal prevention and treatment modalities. PMID:24945004

  12. Immunotherapy in Merkel cell carcinoma: role of Avelumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, Amruth R; Doll, Donald

    2018-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare skin cancer, is associated with high mortality, especially in a metastatic setting. Though conventional chemotherapy with platinum and etoposide has had high response rates, many of the patients have had early relapse without any effective therapy thereafter. Recently, immune check point inhibitors have shown very good durable responses, leading to the approval of a programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitor Avelumab for these patients. We briefly review the epidemiology and immune basis of the pathogenesis of MCC, which therefore explains the excellent response to check point inhibitors, and throw light on future directions of immunotherapy for this cancer.

  13. [Care of Merkel cell carcinoma and role of the radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehailia-Blanchard, Amel; Pigné, Grégoire; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Vallard, Alexis; El Meddeb Hamrouni, Anis; Rancoule, Chloé; Magné, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare neuro-endocrine tumor of skin with a poor prognosis. Data available in literature are scarce. Current treatment for locoregional disease is based on combined treatment by surgery and radiotherapy. However these treatments are controversial. The aim of the present review is to sum up the different available studies and to compare national and international guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of Everolimus in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Meskawi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Everolimus (RAD001 is an orally administered agent that inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin serine-threonine kinase. A phase III pivotal trial on everolimus, published in 2008, provided the first evidence for the efficacy of sequential therapy for patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC. In this study, everolimus was used after failure of one or several previous lines of therapy, and it demonstrated a 3-month survival benefit relative to placebo. Currently, based on the level 1 evidence, everolimus represents the molecule of choice for third-line therapy after failure of previous two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. However, second-line use after failure of one TKI is challenged by two new molecules (nivolumab and cabozantinib, which proved to have better efficacy with similar toxicity profile. In non-clear cell metastatic RCC, the current evidence recommends everolimus as a second-line therapy after failure of previous first-line sunitinib.

  15. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  16. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Merkel cell carcinoma Overview Merkel cell carcinoma: This rare skin ... hard patch (1) or firm bump (2). Merkel cell carcinoma: Overview What is Merkel cell carcinoma? Merkel ...

  17. Evaluating the Role of Immunological Cells (Tissue Eosinophils and Mast Cells) in Progression of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, S; Singh, A; Singh, P; Sundaragiri, K S; Sankhla, B; Bhargava, A

    2018-04-01

    Mast cells and eosinophils are increased in oral squamous cell carcinoma. The significance of such an association has been variably thought to be either a potential diagnostic tool for stromal invasion or as a prognostic indicator. The aim of the study was to study the mast cells and eosinophils between normal oral mucosa, leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma and to study the significance of mast cells in the progression of the lesion. A retrospective study was done on archival tissue received from January 2015 to December 2015, in the Department of Oral Pathology, RUHS College of Dental Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Seventy (70) cases were studied (30 cases each of leukoplakia and carcinoma and 10 cases of control group), sections were stained with toluidine blue solution to reveal mast cells. Eosinophils were studied in Haematoxylin & Eosin stained sections. Mast cell density significantly increased from: normal mucosa to oral leukoplakia to carcinoma, suggesting a role of the mast cells in the development of these lesions. The higher eosinophil counts in carcinoma group compared to dysplasia group proved that they might have a role in stromal invasion. The assessment of these could become, in the future, useful for therapeutic approaches in this subset of the patient.

  18. Merkel cell carcinoma: Outcome and role of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador Alonso, R.; Lahbabi, I.; Ben Hassel, M.; Boisselier, P.; Crevoisier, R. de; Chaari, N.; Lesimple, T.; Chevrier, S.

    2008-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (M.C.C.) are rare neuroendocrine malignant tumor of the skin, occurring in elderly patients. It affects primarily the sun-exposed areas of the skin, with approximately 50% of all tumors occurring in the face and neck and 40% in the extremities. Immunohistochemical markers (C.K.20+, C.K.7- and T.T.F.1-) are used to distinguish between M.C.C. and other tumors. M.C.C. have a tendency to rapid local progression, frequent spread to regional lymph nodes and distant metastases. Due to the rarity of the disease, the optimal treatment has not been fully defined. Localized stages (stages I and II) are treated by surgical excision of the primary tumor (with 2 to 3 cm margin) and lymphadenectomy in case of node-positive disease, followed by external beam radiotherapy (E.B.R.T.) to a total dose of 50 to 60 Gy in the tumor bed. Adjuvant E.B.R.T. has been shown to decrease markedly locoregional recurrences and to increase survival in recent studies. Treatment of lymph nodes area is more controversial. Chemotherapy is recommended only for metastatic disease. (authors)

  19. Cytodiagnosis of myxoid adrenocortical carcinoma and role of immunocytochemistry to differentiate it from renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Mondal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC is a rare malignancy and cytodiagnosis of this tumor is not routinely encountered by a cytopathologist. Here, we report a case of ACC initially diagnosed by computed tomography (CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC with the help of immunocytochemistry. A 48-year-old lady presented with flank pain and abdominal mass for the last 6 months. A CT scan of her abdomen revealed a large mass arising from the upper part of the left kidney. CT-guided FNAC was performed. Cytologic smears showed pleomorphic large cells arranged discretely and in small aggregates against a myxoid background. The cells had a high nucleocytoplasmic ratio, anisonucleosis and conspicuous nucleoli. Based on cytomorphology, differential diagnoses of ACC and renal cell carcinoma (RCC were made. On immunocytochemistry, the tumor cells were synaptophysin, inhibin, vimentin and Melan-A positive but cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen negative. Thus, a cytodiagnosis of myxoid ACC was made and histopathologic examination was suggested. Subsequent histologic examination and immunohistochemistry proved the case to be myxoid ACC.

  20. The etiologic role of HPV in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma fine tuned.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van; Hullu, J.A. de; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Bulten, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) plays a role in the development of a subset of vulvar squamous cell carcinomas. Uncertainty exists about the true impact of HPV in this tumor type because conflicting reports have been published with diverging prevalence rates. This study was done to

  1. Role of fascin in the proliferation and invasiveness of esophageal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, J.J.; Xu, L.Y.; Zhang, H.H.; Cai, W.J.; Mai, R.Q.; Xie, Y.M.; Yang, Z.M.; Niu, Y.D.; Shen, Z.Y.; Li, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Fascin, an actin-bundling protein, induces membrane protrusions and increases cell motility in various transformed cells. The overexpression of fascin in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has been described only recently, but the roles and mechanism still remained unclear. Here, by using RNA interference (RNAi), we have stably silenced the expression of the fascin in EC109 cells, an ESCC cell line. Down-regulation of fascin resulted in a suppression of cell proliferation and as well as a decrease in cell invasiveness. Furthermore, we revealed that fascin might have functions in regulating tumor growth in vivo. The effect of fascin on cell invasiveness correlated with the activation of matrix metalloproteases such as MMP-2 and MMP-9. We examined that fascin down-expression also led to a decrease of c-erbB-2 and β-catenin at the protein level. These results suggested that fascin might play crucial roles in regulating neoplasm progression of ESCC

  2. Metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney: therapeutic role of bevacizumab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    The biology and pathogenesis of clear cell carcinoma of the kidney has been extensively investgated, and the role of von Hipple-Landau gene inactivation and tumor associated angiogenesis is now recognized. Development of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and phase 3 clinical trials utilizing this class of agents has produced a new treatment paradigm for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). One of the active regimens identified is the combination of bevacizumab and interferon-α. Recently published reports provided evidence of the clinical and biologic activity of this therapy. The current manuscript reviews the background and rationale for the activity of bevacizumab in RCC, and results from recent clinical trials with this agent alone or in combination with targeted agents or cytokines. The role of this therapy in contrast to other targeted agents is reviewed, and the potential utility as well as questions raised by recent studies are discussed

  3. The role of human papillomavirus in oral squamous cell carcinoma: myth and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansy, Katinka; Thiele, Oliver; Freier, Kolja

    2014-06-01

    As the traditional risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma, especially tobacco, decline, new potential causative agents become the focus of research. Since the discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its importance in carcinogenesis in cervical cancer, a lot of research has been undertaken to define its role in different types of cancer. In the present study, we evaluate the role of high-risk HPV types in initiation and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using a systematic review of the current literature. A literature research with the search term "HPV oral squamous cell carcinoma" was performed via PubMed. Results were screened systematically for relevance and classified into the following categories: molecular biology, genetics, clinical aspects, and prevalence. Articles were then further analyzed to assess quality. The literature research led to 527 results, with an overall HPV prevalence of 30.1 % in OSCCs. The most frequently identified subtypes were HPV-16 and HPV-18 (25.4 and 18.1 %, respectively). Prognostic relevance of HPV was discussed controversially. HPV detection via polymerase chain reaction is the most established method today. Molecular changes according to carcinogenic pathways described for cervix carcinoma were not routinely found in OSCC. In general, no definite role of high-risk HPV is currently deducible from the literature. High-risk subtypes 16 and 18 are present in the genome in approximately one third of OSCC. Its role as a causative agent is less clear than the role in oropharyngeal tumors. The infection might not be the cause of carcinogenesis in a significant number of patients but may become proportionally more important with the decrease of the classical risk factors of tobacco and alcohol.

  4. The radiologist's role in the management of papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral de la Calle, M Á; Encinas de la Iglesia, J; Martín López, M R; Fernández Pérez, G C; Águeda Del Bas, D S

    Papillary carcinoma is the second most common renal cell carcinoma. It has a better prognosis than the more frequent clear cell carcinoma, although this does not hold true for advanced cases, because no specific treatment exists. It presents as a circumscribed peripheral tumor (small and homogeneously solid or larger and cystic/hemorrhagic) or as an infiltrating lesion that invades the veins, which has a worse prognosis. Due to their low vascular density, papillary renal cell carcinomas enhance less than other renal tumors, and this facilitates their characterization. On computed tomography, they might not enhance conclusively, and in these cases they are impossible to distinguish from hyperattenuating cysts. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are more sensitive for detecting vascularization. Other characteristics include a specific vascular pattern, hypointensity on T2-weighted images, restricted water diffusion, and increased signal intensity in opposed phase images. We discuss the genetic, histologic, clinical, and radiological aspects of these tumors in which radiologists play a fundamental role in management. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-22

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  6. The Role of Capase-8 in Breast Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    and exposed to film. pcDNA3 or pcDNA3-huSNARK-transfected 293T cell extracts (100 #g of protein) were used to determine the phosphorylation of the...proteins (Itoh and Nagata, 1993; Boldin et al, 1995; Chinnaiyan et al, 1995; Siegel et al, 2000). Additional interactions mediated through the N...lanes 5–7) fractions were separated from total cellular membrane extract (lane 1). Following fractionation, association of FADD and caspase-8 with

  7. Metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney: therapeutic role of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M Bukowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ronald M BukowskiCleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center, CCF Lerner College of Medicine of CWRU Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: The biology and pathogenesis of clear cell carcinoma of the kidney has been extensively investgated, and the role of von Hipple-Landau gene inactivation and tumor associated angiogenesis is now recognized. Development of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and phase 3 clinical trials utilizing this class of agents has produced a new treatment paradigm for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC. One of the active regimens identified is the combination of bevacizumab and interferon-α. Recently published reports provided evidence of the clinical and biologic activity of this therapy. The current manuscript reviews the background and rationale for the activity of bevacizumab in RCC, and results from recent clinical trials with this agent alone or in combination with targeted agents or cytokines. The role of this therapy in contrast to other targeted agents is reviewed, and the potential utility as well as questions raised by recent studies are discussed.Keywords: metastatic renal cell carcinoma, bevacizumab, interferon-α

  8. Essential role of STX6 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma growth and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jin [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Affiliated Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210028 (China); Liu, Xiang [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wu, Yanhu, E-mail: wuyanhu@njmu.edu.cn [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Zhu, Jinfu; Tang, Yihu [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2016-03-25

    Abnormalities in endosomes, or dysregulation in their trafficking, play an important role directly in many diseases including oncogenesis. Syntaxin-6 (STX6) is involved in diverse cellular functions in a variety of cell types and has been shown to regulate many intracellular membrane trafficking events such as endocytosis, recycling and anterograde and retrograde trafficking. However, its expression pattern and biological functions in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remained unknown. Here, we have found that the expression of STX6 was up-regulated in ESCC samples, its expression was significantly correlated with tumor size, histological differentiation, lymph node metastasis and depth. On one hand, STX6 silencing inhibited ESCC cells viability and proliferation in a p53-dependent manner. On the other hand, STX6 effect integrin trafficking and regulate ESCC cells migration. Taken together, our study revealed the oncogenic roles of STX6 in the progression of ESCC, and it might be a valuable target for ESCC therapy.

  9. Role of retinoic acid receptors in squamous-cell carcinoma in human esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Wolfgarten, E.; Bollschweiler, E.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, cancer in the esophagus ranks among the 10 most common cancers. Alterations of retinoic acid receptors (e.g. RARalpha, beta, gamma, and RXRalpha, beta, gamma) expression is considered to play an important role in development of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), which is the most...... common esophageal cancer. Alcohol consumption and smoking, which can alter retinoic acid receptor levels, have been identified as key risk factors in the development of carcinoma in the aero-digestive tract. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate protein levels of retinoic acid receptors...... were found for RARalpha, beta, and RXRbeta protein levels between normal esophageal tissue of patients and that of controls. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that alterations of retinoic acid receptors protein may contribute in the development of SCC in esophagus...

  10. EGFR kinase-dependent and kinase-independent roles in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Muroni, Maria R; Sanges, Francesca; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Asunis, Anna; Tanca, Luciana; Onnis, Daniela; Pira, Giovanna; Manca, Alessandra; Dore, Simone; Uras, Maria G; Ena, Sara; De Miglio, Maria R

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with progression of many epithelial malignancies and represents a significant therapeutic target. Although clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) has been widely investigated for EGFR molecular alterations, genetic evidences of EGFR gene activating mutations and/or gene amplification have been rarely confirmed in the literature. Therefore, until now EGFR-targeted therapies in clinical trials have been demonstrated unsuccessful. New evidence has been given about the interactions between EGFR and the sodium glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) in maintaining the glucose basal intracellular level to favour cancer cell growth and survival; thus a new functional role may be attributed to EGFR, regardless of its kinase activity. To define the role of EGFR in CCRCC an extensive investigation of genetic changes and functional kinase activities was performed in a series of tumors by analyzing the EGFR mutational status and expression profile, together with the protein expression of downstream signaling pathways members. Furthermore, we investigated the co-expression of EGFR and SGLT1 proteins and their relationships with clinic-pathological features in CCRCC. EGFR protein expression was identified in 98.4% of CCRCC. Furthermore, it was described for the first time that SGLT1 is overexpressed in CCRCC (80.9%), and that co-expression with EGFR is appreciable in 79.4% of the tumours. Moreover, the activation of downstream EGFR pathways was found in about 79.4% of SGLT1-positive CCRCCs. The mutational status analysis of EGFR failed to demonstrate mutations on exons 18 to 24 and the presence of EGFR-variantIII (EGFRvIII) in all CCRCCs analyzed. FISH analysis revealed absence of EGFR amplification, and high polysomy of chromosome 7. Finally, the EGFR gene expression profile showed gene overexpression in 38.2% of CCRCCs. Our study contributes to define the complexity of EGFR role in CCRCC, identifying its bivalent kinase

  11. The predictive role of E2-EPF ubiquitin carrier protein in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao-Fen; Lee, Kuan-Der; Lu, Ming-Shian; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Liu, Yun-Hen; Lin, Paul-Yang; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2009-03-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome pathway has been implicated in carcinogenesis. However, the role of E2-EPF ubiquitin carrier protein (UCP) in esophageal cancer remains relatively unstudied. In the study, we examined the mRNA level of circulating tumor cells from 60 esophageal cancer patients by membrane arrays consisting of a panel of potential markers including UCP, compared to 40 normal populations. The predictive capacity of UCP was also assessed by immunohistochemical staining of a retrospective series of 84 biopsied esophageal squamous cell carcinomas in relation to clinical outcome. In addition, we studied in vitro biological changes including tumor growth, metastatic capacity, and the sensitivity to irradiation and cisplatin, after experimental manipulation of UCP expression in esophageal cancer cells. By the data of 25-gene membrane array analysis, UCP was the only factor significantly associated with the extent of tumor burden in esophageal cancer patients. Our immunochemistry findings further indicate that UCP positivity was linked to poor response to neoadjuvant therapy and worse survival. In cell culture, inhibited UCP significantly decrease tumor growth and the capacity for metastasis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by VHL/HIF-1alpha-TGF-beta1 pathway might be the underlying mechanism responsible to the more aggressive tumor growth in UCP-positive esophageal cancer. Our results suggest that UCP was significantly associated with poor prognosis of esophageal cancer and may be a new molecular target for therapeutic intervention for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  12. Role of LPAR3, PKC and EGFR in LPA-induced cell migration in oral squamous carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusevold, Ingvild J; Tveteraas, Ingun H; Aasrum, Monica; Ødegård, John; Sandnes, Dagny L; Christoffersen, Thoralf

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm with serious morbidity and mortality, which typically spreads through local invasive growth. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is involved in a number of biological processes, and may have a role in cancer cell migration and invasiveness. LPA is present in most tissues and can activate cells through six different LPA receptors (LPAR1-6). Although LPA is predominantly promigratory, some of the receptors may have antimigratory effects in certain cells. The signalling mechanisms of LPA are not fully understood, and in oral carcinoma cells the specific receptors and pathways involved in LPA-stimulated migration are unknown. The oral carcinoma cell lines E10, SCC-9, and D2 were investigated. Cell migration was studied in a scratch wound assay, and invasion was demonstrated in organotypic three dimensional co-cultures. Protein and mRNA expression of LPA receptors was studied with Western blotting and qRT-PCR. Activation of signalling proteins was examined with Western blotting and isoelectric focusing, and signalling mechanisms were further explored using pharmacological agents and siRNA directed at specific receptors and pathways. LPA stimulated cell migration in the two oral carcinoma cell lines E10 and SCC-9, but was slightly inhibitory in D2. The receptor expression profile and the effects of specific pharmacological antagonist and agonists indicated that LPA-stimulated cell migration was mediated through LPAR3 in E10 and SCC-9. Furthermore, in both these cell lines, the stimulation by LPA was dependent on PKC activity. However, while LPA induced transactivation of EGFR and the stimulated migration was blocked by EGFR inhibitors in E10 cells, LPA did not induce EGFR transactivation in SCC-9 cells. In D2 cells, LPA induced EGFR transactivation, but this was associated with slowing of a very high inherent migration rate in these cells. The results demonstrate LPA-stimulated migration in oral carcinoma cells through LPAR3

  13. The Janus-faced roles of Krüppel-like factor 4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Liu, Man; Su, Ying; Zhou, Xinying; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Xinyan

    2015-12-29

    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that regulates many essential processes, including development and cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Along with these roles in normal cells and tissues, KLF4 has important tumor suppressive and oncogenic functions in some malignancies. However, the roles of KLF4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma remain unclear. This study investigated the epigenetic alterations and possible roles of KLF4 in oral cancer carcinogenesis. Notably, KLF4 expression was significantly decreased in human oral cancer tissues compared with healthy controls, and KLF4 promoter hypermethylation contributed to the suppression of KLF4 expression. KLF4 expression was associated with tumor grade. Its expression was much lower in poorly differentiated oral cancers than in well-differentiated cancer cells. KLF4 exerted its antitumor activity in vitro and/or in vivo by inhibiting cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, cell colony formation and by inducing apoptosis. In addition, KLF4 over-expression promoted oral cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. Knockdown of KLF4 promoted oral cancer cells growth and colony formation, and simultaneously inhibited cell migration and invasion. Mechanistic studies revealed that MMP-9 might contribute to KLF4-mediated cell migration and invasion. These results provide evidence that KLF4 might play Janus-faced roles in oral cancer carcinogenesis, acting both as a tumor suppressor and as an oncogene.

  14. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    de Faria, J

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  15. The role of surgery in renal cell carcinoma with pancreatic metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hsu Chang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas is uncommon and, in most cases, presents as a single pancreatic mass that shows a more favorable prognosis than primary pancreatic tumors. We examined patients with renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the pancreas, and discuss the clinical findings, treatment administered, and final outcomes. The present study is a retrospective analysis of renal cell carcinoma patients with pancreatic metastasis. Pancreatic tumor specimens were obtained by surgical excision, surgical biopsy, fine-needle biopsy, or endoscopic ultrasound biopsy. The surgical approaches included distal splenopancreatectomy, total pancreatectomy, or distal pancreatectomy. The physician determined the postoperative treatment regimen with interferon-α or targeted therapy on the basis of patient's performance. A total of six patients with median age of 50 years were included in the study. The median time from the primary nephrectomy to the development of pancreatic metastasis was 16 years. In the biopsy-only group, the mean stable disease period was 16.5 months. In the patients treated with surgery combined with interferon-α or targeted therapy, the mean stable disease period was 29.5 months. The patients treated with repeat mastectomy showed a mean stable disease period of 33.3 months. Aggressive surgical management is more effective than observation or immunotherapy. Recent advances in the design of targeted therapies may provide alternative treatment strategies. Combination therapy may play an important role in the future. Considering patient compliance and cost-effectiveness, resection of pancreatic metastasis is currently the first choice of treatment.

  16. Pathological significance and prognostic roles of densities of CD57+ cells, CD68+ cells, and mast cells, and their ratios in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hiromi; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Mochizuki, Yasushi; Yasuda, Takuji; Nakamura, Yuichiro; Araki, Kyohei; Sagara, Yuji; Matsuo, Tomohiro; Ohba, Kojiro; Sakai, Hideki

    2018-05-19

    The immune system is closely associated with malignant behavior in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Therefore, understanding the pathological roles of immune cells in tumor stroma is essential to discuss the pathological characteristics of RCC. In this study, the clinical significance of densities of CD57+ cells, CD68+ cells, and mast cells, and their ratios were investigated in patients with clear cell RCC. The densities of CD57+, CD68+, and mast cells were evaluated by immunohistochemical techniques in 179 patients. Proliferation index (PI), apoptotic index (AI), and microvessel density (MVD) were evaluated by using anti-Ki-67, anti-cleaved caspase-3, and anti-CD31 antibodies, respectively. The density of CD57+ cell was negatively correlated with grade, pT stage, and metastasis, although densities of CD68+ cell and mast cell were positively correlated. Ratios of CD68+ cell/CD57+ cell and mast cell/CD57+ cell were significantly correlated with grade, pT stage, and metastasis. Survival analyses showed that the CD68+ cell/CD57+ cell ratio was a significant predictor for cause-specific survival by multi-variate analyses (hazard ratio=1.41, 95% confidential interval=1.03-1.93, P=.031), and was significantly correlated with PI, AI, and MVD (r=.47; P <. 001, r=-.31, P<.001, and r=.40, P<.001, respectively). In conclusion, CD57+ cell, CD68+ cell, and mast cell played important roles in malignancy in clear cell RCC. The CD68+ cell/CD57+ cell ratio was strongly correlated with pathological features and prognosis in these patients because this ratio reflected the status of cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Interleukin-37 expression and its potential role in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Wang, Jiayi; Liu, Dongjuan; Liu, Sai; Xu, Hao; Ji, Ning; Zhou, Min; Zeng, Xin; Zhang, Dunfang; Li, Jing; Chen, Qianming

    2016-05-26

    Interleukin 37 (IL-37) has been reported to play a significant role in innate immune response and to be involved in several kinds of cancers. However, the investigation of association between IL-37 and oral mucosa carcinogenesis hasn't been clearly established. The aim of the study was to assess IL-37 expression and explore its role in oral mucosa carcinogenesis. The expression of IL-37 increased from normal control (NC) to Oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Moreover, statistically highly significant difference was present between scores of OLK with and without mild/moderate dysplasia (P oral mucosa carcinogenesis. Overall, IL-37 can be used as a biomarker for early oral tumorigenesis and for malignant transformation risk assessment of premalignant lesions.

  18. The regulatory role of heparin on c-Met signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşcan, Evin; Güneş, Aysim; Korhan, Peyda; Yılmaz, Yeliz; Erdal, Esra; Atabey, Neşe

    2017-06-01

    The role of heparin as an anticoagulant is well defined; however, its role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression is not clear yet. Some studies have shown that anticoagulant treatment in cancer patients improve overall survival, however, recent clinical trials have not shown a survival benefit in cancer patients receiving heparin treatment. In our previous studies we have shown the inhibitory effects of heparin on Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF)-induced invasion and migration in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In this study, we showed the differential effects of heparin on the behaviors of HCC cells based on the presence or absence of HGF. In the absence of HGF, heparin activated HGF/c-Met signaling and promoted motility and invasion in HCC cells. Heparin treatment led to c-Met receptor dimerization and activated c-Met signaling in an HGF independent manner. Heparin-induced c-Met activation increased migration and invasion through ERK1/2, early growth response factor 1 (EGR1) and Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP) axis. Interestingly, heparin modestly decreased the proliferation of HCC cells by inhibiting activatory phosphorylation of Akt. The inhibition of c-Met signaling reversed heparin-induced increase in motility and invasion and, proliferation inhibition. Our study provides a new perspective into the role of heparin on c-Met signaling in HCC.

  19. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva appearing as a solitary branchial cyst carcinoma: diagnostic role of PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiong-Xin; Zhao, Kui; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Wang, Qin-Ying; Liu, Jian-Hua; Lu, Zhong-Jie

    2014-01-01

    We herein present a case of a left cervical cystic mass, for which the initial pathological diagnosis was branchial cleft cyst carcinoma (following complete mass excision). Thorough postoperative examinations, including with FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), revealed a primary tumor in the retromolar region of the left mandible. A 52-year-old female presented with a 2-month history of a painless, progressively enlarged left-sided neck mass. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy suggested a branchial cleft cyst. Physical examination revealed a 3 × 3-cm smooth, tender mass in the upper-left neck and anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Examination using nasendoscopy and a strobolaryngoscope revealed no abnormalities of the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx or larynx. MRI of the neck revealed a solitary, round, cystic mass under the left parotid gland. The mass was excised completely. Pathologic results indicated a branchial cleft cyst carcinoma. According to the diagnostic criteria for a branchial cleft cystic carcinoma, PET/CT was performed to detect the occult primary site. PET/CT revealed high FDG uptake in the tooth root of the left mandible. Frozen sections of the mass were indicative of moderate, differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The carcinoma in the retromolar region of the left mandible was locally excised under general anesthesia. A partial left maxillectomy, partial mandibulectomy, and left radical neck dissection were performed. The patient received postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and was disease-free at the 8-month follow-up. True branchial cleft cyst carcinoma is rare: once diagnosed, it should be distinguished from metastatic cystic cervical lymph and occult primary carcinoma. FDG PET/CT is useful in the identification of occult primary tumor.

  20. Sperm associated antigen 9 plays an important role in bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Kanojia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Majority of bladder cancer deaths are caused due to transitional cell carcinoma (TCC which is the most prevalent and chemoresistant malignancy of urinary bladder. Therefore, we analyzed the role of Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9 in bladder TCC. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We examined SPAG9 expression and humoral response in 125 bladder TCC patients. Four bladder cancer cell lines were assessed for SPAG9 expression. In addition, we investigated the effect of SPAG9 ablation on cellular proliferation, cell cycle, migration and invasion in UM-UC-3 bladder cancer cells by employing gene silencing approach. Our SPAG9 gene and protein expression analysis revealed SPAG9 expression in 81% of bladder TCC tissue specimens. High SPAG9 expression (>60% SPAG9 positive cells was found to be significantly associated with superficial non-muscle invasive stage (P = 0.042 and low grade tumors (P = 0.002 suggesting SPAG9 putative role in early spread and tumorigenesis. Humoral response against SPAG9 was observed in 95% of patients found positive for SPAG9 expression. All four bladder cancer cell lines revealed SPAG9 expression. In addition, SPAG9 gene silencing in UM-UC-3 cells resulted in induction of G0-G1 arrest characterized by up-regulation of p16 and p21 and consequent down-regulation of cyclin E, cyclin D and cyclin B, CDK4 and CDK1. Further, SPAG9 gene silencing also resulted in reduction in cellular growth, and migration and invasion ability of cancer cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data in clinical specimens indicated that SPAG9 is potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder TCC.

  1. Role of CXC chemokine ligand 13 in oral squamous cell carcinoma associated osteolysis in athymic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandruvada, Subramanya N M; Yuvaraj, Sambandam; Liu, Xiang; Sundaram, Kumaran; Shanmugarajan, Srinivasan; Ries, William L; Norris, James S; London, Steven D; Reddy, Sakamuri V

    2010-05-15

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are malignant tumors with a potent activity of local bone invasion; however, the molecular mechanisms of tumor osteolysis are unclear. In this study, we identified high level expression of chemokine ligand, CXCL13 and RANK ligand (RANKL) in OSCC cells (SCC1, SCC12 and SCC14a). OSCC cell-conditioned media (20%) induced osteoclast differentiation which was inhibited by OPG in peripheral blood monocyte cultures indicating that OSCC cells produce soluble RANKL. Recombinant hCXCL13 (10 ng/ml) significantly enhanced RANKL-stimulated osteoclast differentiation in these cultures. Trans-well migration assay identified that CXCL13 induces chemotaxis of peripheral blood monocytes in vitro which was inhibited by addition of anti-CXCR5 receptor antibody. Zymogram analysis of conditioned media from OSCC cells revealed matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity. Interestingly, CXCL13 treatment to OSCC cells induced CXCR5 and MMP-9 expression suggesting an autocrine regulatory function in OSCC cells. To examine the OSCC tumor cell bone invasion/osteolysis, we established an in vivo model for OSCC by subcutaneous injection of OSCC cells onto the surface of calvaria in NCr-nu/nu athymic mice, which developed tumors in 4-5 weeks. muCT analysis revealed numerous osteolytic lesions in calvaria from OSCC tumor-bearing mice. Histochemical staining of calvarial sections from these mice revealed a significant increase in the numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the tumor-bone interface. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed CXCL13 and MMP-9 expression in tumor cells. Thus, our data implicate a functional role for CXCL13 in bone invasion and may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent osteolysis associated with OSCC tumors in vivo.

  2. The Role of Free Tissue Transfer in Merkel Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londino, A. V.; Miles, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon neuroendocrine malignancy with a propensity for the head and neck. It typically presents a symptomatically in elderly Caucasians and is characterized by early local and regional spread. There is currently limited data on the appropriate algorithm for treatment of MCC. However, multimodal therapy with wide surgical excision with or without radiation therapy has become standard of care. The location of the primary tumor and intensive adjuvant therapy is often required, provides a challenge to the reconstructive head and neck surgeon. Occasionally, free tissue transfer reconstructive techniques are employed in the reconstruction of MCC defects. This paper will discuss the role of free tissue transfer as a reconstructive option after surgery for advanced head and neck MCC

  3. Role of RPLND and Metastasectomy in the Management of Oligometastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, H; Srivatsa, N; Hemalatha, S; Shweta, S; Raghunath, S K

    2018-03-01

    Although lymphadenectomy is currently accepted as most accurate and reliable staging procedure for lymph node metastases, its therapeutic benefit in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) still remains controversial. Although the new, targeted therapy paradigms have changed the treatment of patients with advanced RCC and offer prolonged survival, cure is extremely uncommon in the absence of surgical resections. In this paper, the current role of metastasectomy is reviewed. Review the available literature concerning the role of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and metastasectomy in outcome of oligometastatic RCC. A PubMed search was conducted to identify original articles, review articles, and editorials addressing the role of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and metastasectomy in outcome of oligometastatic RCC. Keywords included renal tumors, renal cell cancer, kidney cancer, lymphadenectomy, metastasectomy, and oligometastases. While there is no randomized study available, recent large observational studies have better defined the prognosis of patients with metastatic RCC with or without metastasectomy and RPLND. To date, the available evidence suggests that RPLND and metastasectomy may be beneficial when technically feasible in patients with locally advanced (unfavorable clinical and pathologic characteristics) and oligometastatic disease. A proportion of patients will achieve long-term survival with aggressive surgical resection.

  4. Advanced basal cell carcinoma, the hedgehog pathway, and treatment options – role of smoothened inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fecher LA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Leslie A Fecher,1,3 William H Sharfman2 1Department of Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Indiana University Health Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD, USA, 3Department of Internal Medicine and Dermatology, University of Michigan, MI, USA Abstract: Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common human cancer and its incidence is rising worldwide. Ultraviolet radiation exposure, including tanning bed use, as well as host factors play a role in its development. The majority of cases are treated and cured with local therapies including surgery. Yet, the health care costs of diagnosis and treatment of BCCs in the US is substantial. In the United States, the cost of nonmelanoma skin cancer care in the Medicare population is estimated to be US$426 million per year. While rare, locally advanced BCCs that can no longer be controlled with surgery and/or radiation, and metastatic BCCs do occur and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Vismodegib (GDC-0449, a smoothened inhibitor targeted at the hedgehog pathway, is the first US Food and Drug Association (FDA-approved agent in the treatment of locally advanced, unresectable, and metastatic BCCs. This class of agents appears to be changing the survival rates in advanced BCC patients, but appropriate patient selection and monitoring are important. Multidisciplinary assessments are essential for the optimal care and management of these patients. For some patients with locally advanced BCC, treatment with a hedgehog inhibitor may eliminate the need for an excessively disfiguring or morbid surgery. Keywords: basal cell carcinoma, hedgehog, smoothened, vismodegib, Gorlin, basal cell nevus syndrome

  5. Role of novel anticancer drug Roscovitine on enhancing radiosensitivity in carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaman, E.; Sayed, H.M.; Medhat, A.M.; Morcos, N.Y.S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the radiosensitization effect of Roscovitine (cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor) in carcinoma cell lines. Three cell lines are used liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2), brain carcinoma cell line (U251), Lung carcinoma cell line (H460) in this study cells were treated with Roscovitine in different concentrations ranging from 0.1 ?M to 100 ?M before exposure to radiation doses ranging from 0.5 Gy to 20 Gy according to each experiment. The cell viability by MTT assay, the cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation repair mechanism by diphenylamine were measured after Roscovitine treatment with or without radiation exposure to explore the sensitization effect of Roscovitine. The present study conclude that Roscovitine a good candidate as radiosensitizer for modifying the ionizing radiation (IR) response in cancer cells, beside its cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor function, Roscovitine can generate DNA Double strand Breaks and cooperate to enhance IR induce DNA damages. Roscovitine is currently in clinical trials, although our findings suggest that the combination of Roscovitine with IR appears to be a very promising especially for liver, brain and lung cancer treatment, further investigation is needed to evaluate the therapeutic index before tested in clinical trials

  6. Role of novel anticancer drug Roscovitine on enhancing radiosensitivity in carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the radiosensitization effect of Roscovitine (cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor) in carcinoma cell lines. Three cell lines are used (HepG2 liver carcinoma cell line, U251 brain carcinoma cell line, H460 Lung carcinoma cell line) in this study .cells were treated with Roscovitine in different concentrations ranging from 0.1μM to 100 μM before exposure to radiation doses ranging from 0.5 Gy to 20 Gy according to each experiment. The cell viability by MTT assay, The cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation repair mechanism by diphenylamine were measured after Roscovitine treatment with or without radiation to explore the sensitization effect of Roscovitine. The present study conclude that Roscovitine a good candidate as radiosensitizer for modifying the ionizing radiation (IR) response in cancer cells, beside its cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor function, roscovitine can generate DNA Double strand Breaks and cooperate to enhance IR induce DNA damages . Roscovitine is currently in clinical trials, although our findings suggest that the combination of Roscovitine with IR appears to be a very promising especially for liver, brain and lung cancer treatment, further investigation is needed to evaluate the therapeutic index before tested in clinical trial

  7. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: Role of pretreatment imaging and its influence on management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.; Rane, P.; Deshmukh, A.

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the commonest malignancy in the oral cavity. The oral cavity has several subsites. Knowledge of the patterns of disease spread at each subsite with the impact on treatment and prognosis provides a deeper understanding of the role of imaging. Information from imaging helps accurate staging, assess resectability, and plan multimodality treatment. Mandibular erosion, posterior soft tissue extent, and perineural spread influence treatment and prognosis in gingival, buccal, and retromolar trigone (RMT) cancers. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with multiplanar reformations and bone and soft tissue algorithms provides the highest specificity for bone erosion. Hard palate SCC is optimally imaged with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect perineural spread. In oral tongue and floor of the mouth (FOM) SCC, extrinsic muscle invasion, extension across the midline, extent of posterior and inferior spread, and proximity to the hyoid are issues that impact therapeutic options. Contrast-enhanced MRI is the optimal imaging method for staging the primary due to its superior soft tissue resolution. In oral tongue SCCs with tumour thickness ≤4 mm, elective neck dissection can be avoided. For nodal staging (N-staging), all imaging methods are comparable, but fall short of surgical staging. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has a promising role in N-staging. Positron emission tomography (PET)/integrated PET/CT has no role in evaluating the clinically negative neck. PET/CT has a role in pretreatment evaluation of advanced oral cavity SCC for depicting distant metastases and for mapping nodal extent in the clinically positive neck. Diffusion-weighted MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and CT perfusion have a potential role as baseline pretreatment studies for response assessment to chemoradiation in advanced oral cavity SCC. - Highlights: • Brief outline of treatment principles in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC

  8. Do Human Papilloma Viruses Play Any Role in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in North Indians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vineeta; Husain, Nuzhat; Akhtar, Naseem; Kumar, Vijay; Tewari, Shikha; Mishra, Sridhar; Misra, Sanjeev; Khan, M Y

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent malignancy among males in India. While tobacco and alcohol are main aetiological factors, human papilloma virus (HPV) presence has surprisingly increased in head and neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) in the past two decade but its frequency in OSCCS is still uncertain. We aim to explore the frequency of HPV and its major genotypes in North Indian patients and their association with clinicopathological and histopathological features and p16 expression pattern. The study group comprised 250 histologically proven cases of OSCC. HPV was detected by real time PCR in tumor biopsy specimens and confirmed by conventional PCR with PGMY09/ PGMY11 primers. Genotyping for high-risk types 16/ 18 was conducted by type specific PCR. p16 expression was assessed by immunohistochemsitry. HPV presence was confirmed in 23/250 (9.2%) OSCC cases, of which 30.4% had HPV 16 infection, 17.4%were positive for HPV 18 and 26.1% had co-infections. HPV presence was significantly associated with male gender (p=0.02) and habit of pan masala chewing (p=0.01). HPV positive cases also had a history of tobacco consumption in 91.3% cases. p16 over expression was observed in 39.1% of HPV positive cases but this was not significantly different from negative cases (p=0.54). The frequency of HPV in OSCC is low in North-India and majority of cases are associated with a tobacco habit. It appears that tobacco shows a confounding effect in HPV positive cases and use of p16 protein as a reliable marker to assess the potential etiological role of HPV in OSCC in our population is not suggested.

  9. Clinical role in biopsy after interstitial irradiation to squamous cell carcinoma of tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomoichi

    1995-01-01

    The clinical role of biopsy after interstitial irradiation therapy was evaluated in 44 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of tongue on which biopsy was done in our hospital. More residual tumors were observed in the induration-positive groups compared to those of the induration-negative groups. No tumor was histologically observed in 71.4% of the induration-positive groups. On the adjacent and covering mucous membranes, epithelial dysplasia was detected in 15 patients, 1 of them was Grade III and 9 were Grade IV. Two patients had recurrence. In the initial stage of interstitial irradiation, reaction of stoma showed decrease of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, regeneration and dilation of vessels after 6 weeks. The regeneration of collagen fiber increased within 3-14 weeks after irradiation, followed by decrease of its activity. After interstitial irradiation, 2 of 9 Grade IIb patients treated by surgery and 2 by re-interstitial irradiation survived. One of 3 Grade III patients manifested recurrence and was treated by surgery. All patients were alive. Fourteen of 17 Grade IV patients under careful observation were still alive. Eleven of 15 patients treated by total neck dissection after interstitial irradiation survived. Four Grade IV patients showed recurrence. Two-year primary lesion control rate was 91.2% and the survival rate for 5 year was 74.0%. (S.Y.). 54 refs

  10. Clinical role in biopsy after interstitial irradiation to squamous cell carcinoma of tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Tomoichi [Kanagawa Dental Coll., Yokosuka (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    The clinical role of biopsy after interstitial irradiation therapy was evaluated in 44 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of tongue on which biopsy was done in our hospital. More residual tumors were observed in the induration-positive groups compared to those of the induration-negative groups. No tumor was histologically observed in 71.4% of the induration-positive groups. On the adjacent and covering mucous membranes, epithelial dysplasia was detected in 15 patients, 1 of them was Grade III and 9 were Grade IV. Two patients had recurrence. In the initial stage of interstitial irradiation, reaction of stoma showed decrease of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, regeneration and dilation of vessels after 6 weeks. The regeneration of collagen fiber increased within 3-14 weeks after irradiation, followed by decrease of its activity. After interstitial irradiation, 2 of 9 Grade IIb patients treated by surgery and 2 by re-interstitial irradiation survived. One of 3 Grade III patients manifested recurrence and was treated by surgery. All patients were alive. Fourteen of 17 Grade IV patients under careful observation were still alive. Eleven of 15 patients treated by total neck dissection after interstitial irradiation survived. Four Grade IV patients showed recurrence. Two-year primary lesion control rate was 91.2% and the survival rate for 5 year was 74.0%. (S.Y.). 54 refs.

  11. Expression and role of oncogenic miRNA-224 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhimei; Li, Ming; Li, Shuo; Ren, Lihua; Zhu, Hong; Xiao, Bin; Shi, Ruihua

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of miR-224 is associated with tumor development and progression. This study investigated the role of miR-224 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) ex vivo and in vitro. A total of 103 esophageal intraepithelial neoplasia, ESCC tissue specimens, and their matched distant normal tissues were collected to test miR-224 expression using qRT-PCR analysis. Western blot was used to quantify the level of PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1) and PHLPP2 in ESCC tissues. Cell viability, apoptosis, invasion, and colony formation assays were used to assess the altered phenotypes of esophageal cancer cell lines after miR-224 expression or inhibition. A luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm miR-224 binding to PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 mRNA. miR-224 was significantly overexpressed in esophageal intraepithelial neoplasia and ESCC tissues, while the expression of PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 proteins, the target genes of miR-224, was downregulated in ESCC tissues. miR-224 expression was associated with advanced clinical TNM stage, pathologic grade, and the level of PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 proteins in ESCC tissues. Ectopic overexpression of miR-224 promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion, but suppressed apoptosis of ESCC cells. miR-224 was able to bind to the 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR) of PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 mRNA to suppress their expression. The current study demonstrated that miR-224 acts as an oncogenic miRNA in ESCC, possibly by targeting PHLPP1 and PHLPP2. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1581-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  12. The role of primary radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Dong Won; Kwon, Byung Hyun; Nam, Ji Ho [College of Medicine, Pusan National Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Won Joo [College of Medicine, Donga Univ, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    First of all, this study was performed to assess the result of curative radiotherapy and to evaluate different possible prognostic factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx treated at the Pusan National University Hospital. The second goal of this study was by comparing our data with those of other study groups, to determine the better treatment policy of supraglottic cancer in future. Thirty-two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx were treated with radiotherapy at Pusan National University Hospital, from August 1985 to December 1996. Minimum follow-up period was 29 months. Twenty-seven patients (84.4%.) were followed up over 5 years. Radiotherapy was delivered with 6 MV photons to the primary laryngeal tumor and regional lymphatics with shrinking field technique. All patients received radiotherapy under conventional fractionated schedule (once a. day). Median total tumor dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 55.8 to 75.6 Gy) on primary or gross tumor lesion. Thirteen patients had induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (1-3 cycles). Patient distribution, according to the different stages, were as follows: stage I, 5/32 (15.6%); stage II, 10/32 (31.3%); stage III, 8/32 (25%); stage IV, 9/32 (28. 1 %). The 5-year overall survival rate of the whole series (32 patients) was 51.7%. The overall survival rate at 5-years was 80% in stage I, 66.7% in stage II, 42.9% in stage III, 25% in stage IV.(p= 0,0958). The 5-year local control rates after radiotherapy were as follows: stage I, 100%; stage II, 60%; stage III, 62.5%; stage lV, 44.4% (p=0.233). Overall vocal preservation rates was 65.6%,100% in stage I, 70% in stage II, 62.5% in stage III, 44.4% in stage IV (p=0.210). There was no statistical significance in survival and local control rate between neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy group and radiotherapy alone group. Severe laryngeal edema was found in 2 cases after radiotherapy. emergent tracheostomy

  13. The role of primary radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Dong Won; Kwon, Byung Hyun; Nam, Ji Ho; Hur, Won Joo

    2000-01-01

    First of all, this study was performed to assess the result of curative radiotherapy and to evaluate different possible prognostic factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx treated at the Pusan National University Hospital. The second goal of this study was by comparing our data with those of other study groups, to determine the better treatment policy of supraglottic cancer in future. Thirty-two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx were treated with radiotherapy at Pusan National University Hospital, from August 1985 to December 1996. Minimum follow-up period was 29 months. Twenty-seven patients (84.4%.) were followed up over 5 years. Radiotherapy was delivered with 6 MV photons to the primary laryngeal tumor and regional lymphatics with shrinking field technique. All patients received radiotherapy under conventional fractionated schedule (once a. day). Median total tumor dose was 70.2 Gy (range, 55.8 to 75.6 Gy) on primary or gross tumor lesion. Thirteen patients had induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (1-3 cycles). Patient distribution, according to the different stages, were as follows: stage I, 5/32 (15.6%); stage II, 10/32 (31.3%); stage III, 8/32 (25%); stage IV, 9/32 (28. 1 %). The 5-year overall survival rate of the whole series (32 patients) was 51.7%. The overall survival rate at 5-years was 80% in stage I, 66.7% in stage II, 42.9% in stage III, 25% in stage IV.(p= 0,0958). The 5-year local control rates after radiotherapy were as follows: stage I, 100%; stage II, 60%; stage III, 62.5%; stage lV, 44.4% (p=0.233). Overall vocal preservation rates was 65.6%,100% in stage I, 70% in stage II, 62.5% in stage III, 44.4% in stage IV (p=0.210). There was no statistical significance in survival and local control rate between neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy group and radiotherapy alone group. Severe laryngeal edema was found in 2 cases after radiotherapy. emergent tracheostomy

  14. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic ... syndrome is known as PTCH ("patched"). The gene is passed down ...

  15. ROLE OF THE MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF INTRATUMORAL MICROVESSELS AND THE PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF TUMOR CELLS IN RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gorban

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis are essential factors for tumor growth, progression, and metastasis.Objective: to assess the relationship between the values of proliferative activity and the morphometric parameters of intratumoral microvessels in metastatic and localized carcinomas of the kidney.Materials and methods. Surgical specimens taken from 54 patients (32 men and 22 women aged 26 to 69 years (mean age 55 ± 1.5 years with the verified diagnosis of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC were studied.Conclusion. Proliferative activity and angioarchitectonics are an important biological characteristic of a tumor of unequal clinical value in RCC. Metastatic carcinoma has a higher proliferative activity and a low tumor vascularization than those of localized carcinoma.

  16. Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma: Role of the Radiologist in the Era of Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagare, Atul B; Krajewski, Katherine M; Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2017-08-01

    For the past decade, advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been at the forefront of oncologic innovation. Our rapidly evolving understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of RCC has revolutionized the management of advanced RCC; 10 novel molecular targeted agents and immune checkpoint inhibitor have received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for treatment of advanced RCC in a little over a decade. Amid this progress, imaging has assumed a central role in metastatic surveillance and follow-up of advanced RCC. State-of-the-art knowledge of the molecular basis of RCC and its treatment and imaging will help ensure that the radiology community remains relevant and central in the care of patients with advanced RCC. This article will review developments in management of advanced RCC from a radiologist's perspective to highlight our clinical role. It will describe how the underlying molecular mechanisms of RCC provide specific targets for novel anticancer agents. The relationship between the mechanisms of action of these novel anticancer agents and the imaging appearance of tumor response will be discussed, along with the available tumor response criteria and their strengths and weaknesses, thus assisting radiologists in response assessment in the setting of clinical trials or routine practice. The class- and drug-specific toxicities and complications associated with the novel anticancer agents will be summarized, since these are frequently missed or misinterpreted and require the radiologist's input in prompt detection and management. The potential role of radiogenomics and texture analysis in the management of advanced RCC will also be discussed. © RSNA, 2017.

  17. Advanced basal cell carcinoma, the hedgehog pathway, and treatment options – role of smoothened inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecher, Leslie A; Sharfman, William H

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human cancer and its incidence is rising worldwide. Ultraviolet radiation exposure, including tanning bed use, as well as host factors play a role in its development. The majority of cases are treated and cured with local therapies including surgery. Yet, the health care costs of diagnosis and treatment of BCCs in the US is substantial. In the United States, the cost of nonmelanoma skin cancer care in the Medicare population is estimated to be US$426 million per year. While rare, locally advanced BCCs that can no longer be controlled with surgery and/or radiation, and metastatic BCCs do occur and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Vismodegib (GDC-0449), a smoothened inhibitor targeted at the hedgehog pathway, is the first US Food and Drug Association (FDA)-approved agent in the treatment of locally advanced, unresectable, and metastatic BCCs. This class of agents appears to be changing the survival rates in advanced BCC patients, but appropriate patient selection and monitoring are important. Multidisciplinary assessments are essential for the optimal care and management of these patients. For some patients with locally advanced BCC, treatment with a hedgehog inhibitor may eliminate the need for an excessively disfiguring or morbid surgery. PMID:26604681

  18. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenig, Eyal; Katz, Alan; Brenner, Baruch; Rakovsky, Erica; Sulkes, Aaron

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the role of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive skin tumor. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 27 patients treated at the Rabin Medical Center in Israel is presented. Data on 40 patients, including 13 additional patients from the Israel Cancer Registry, were analyzed for prognostic factors using uni- and multivariate analysis. Results: Univariate analysis revealed regional lymph node involvement and coexistence of secondary primary as unfavorable prognostic factors. In multivariate analysis only lymph node involvement showed borderline statistical significance. Radiation therapy was highly effective when given as consolidation after surgery or chemotherapy. In 11 patients irradiated prophylactically only one in-field relapse (9%) occurred. Radiation therapy yielded responses in 15 of 15 measurable sites (5CR, 10 PR). Chemotherapy produced responses in 18 of 26 treatments (70%), mostly CR (41%). However, in the absence of radiation therapy the responses were of short duration. Conclusion: Our data support combined treatment with chemotherapy followed by irradiation for advanced loco-regional disease. Further large scale investigations are warranted to confirm this approach

  19. State of the art toward defining the role of radiation therapy in the management of small cell bronchogenic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, O.M.; Creech, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This review article with 70 references discusses the state of the art in defining the role of radiotherapy in managing small cell bronchogenic carcinoma (SCBC). It reviews the history of therapeutic approaches to SCBC. Several issues of particular interest to limited disease are discussed. They are: local radiation therapy for limited disease, combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy in limited disease, combination chemotherapy alone for limited disease, and an overview of the treatment of limited disease. A section on extensive disease discusses the role of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, chemotherapy only for extensive disease, and an overview of the treatment of extensive disease. An additional section discusses the use of elective brain irradiation in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma

  20. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  1. Clinical role of early dynamic FDG-PET/CT for the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, Tsunenori; Tanabe, Kazunari [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Urology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    We studied the usefulness of early dynamic (ED) and whole-body (WB) FDG-PET/CT for the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). One hundred patients with 107 tumours underwent kidney ED and WB FDG-PET/CT. We visually and semiquantitatively evaluated the FDG accumulation in RCCs in the ED and WB phases, and compared the accumulation values with regard to histological type (clear cell carcinoma [CCC] vs. non-clear cell carcinoma [N-CCC]), the TNM stage (high stage [3-4] vs. low stage [1-2]), the Fuhrman grade (high grade [3-4] vs. low grade [1-2]) and presence versus absence of venous (V) and lymphatic (Ly) invasion. In the ED phase, visual evaluation revealed no significant differences in FDG accumulation in terms of each item. However, the maximum standardized uptake value and tumour-to-normal tissue ratios were significantly higher in the CCCs compared to the N-CCCs (p < 0.001). In the WB phase, in contrast, significantly higher FDG accumulation (p < 0.001) was found in RCCs with a higher TNM stage, higher Furman grade, and the presence of V and Ly invasion in both the visual and the semiquantitative evaluations. ED and WB FDG-PET/CT is a useful tool for the evaluation of RCCs. (orig.)

  2. Clinical role of early dynamic FDG-PET/CT for the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Kondo, Tsunenori; Tanabe, Kazunari; Sakai, Shuji

    2016-06-01

    We studied the usefulness of early dynamic (ED) and whole-body (WB) FDG-PET/CT for the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). One hundred patients with 107 tumours underwent kidney ED and WB FDG-PET/CT. We visually and semiquantitatively evaluated the FDG accumulation in RCCs in the ED and WB phases, and compared the accumulation values with regard to histological type (clear cell carcinoma [CCC] vs. non-clear cell carcinoma [N-CCC]), the TNM stage (high stage [3-4] vs. low stage [1-2]), the Fuhrman grade (high grade [3-4] vs. low grade [1-2]) and presence versus absence of venous (V) and lymphatic (Ly) invasion. In the ED phase, visual evaluation revealed no significant differences in FDG accumulation in terms of each item. However, the maximum standardized uptake value and tumour-to-normal tissue ratios were significantly higher in the CCCs compared to the N-CCCs (p PET/CT is a useful tool for the evaluation of RCCs. • ED and WB FDG-PET/ CT helps to assess patients with RCC • ED FDG-PET/CT enabled differentiation between CCC and N-CCC • FDG accumulation in the WB phase reflects tumour aggressiveness • Management of RCC is improved by ED and WB FDG-PET/CT.

  3. The aetiological role of human papillomavirus in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi S Liyanage

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aetiological role of human papillomavirus (HPV in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC has been widely researched for more than three decades, with conflicting findings. In the absence of a large, adequately powered single case-control study, a meta-analysis of all available case-control studies is the most rigorous way of identifying any potential association between HPV and OSCC. We present the first global meta-analysis of case-control studies investigating the role of HPV in OSCC. METHODS: Case-control studies investigating OSCC tissue for presence of HPV DNA were identified. 21 case-control studies analyzing a total of 1223 cases and 1415 controls, met our inclusion criteria. HPV detection rates were tabulated for each study and all studies were assessed for quality. The random effects method was used to pool the odds ratios (OR. RESULTS: From all OSCC specimens included in this meta-analysis, 35% (426/1223 were positive for HPV DNA. The pooled OR for an HPV-OSCC association was 3.04 (95% CI 2.20 to 4.20. Meta-regression analysis did not find a significant association between OR and any of the quality domains. Influence analysis was non-significant for the effect of individual studies on the pooled estimate. Studies conducted in countries with low to medium OSCC incidence showed a stronger relationship (OR 4.65, 95% CI 2.47 to 8.76 than regions of high OSCC incidence (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.80 to 3.91. CONCLUSIONS: Uncertainty around the aetiological role of HPV in OSCC is due largely to the small number and scale of appropriately designed studies. Our meta-analysis of these studies suggests that HPV increases the risk of OSCC three-fold. This study provides the strongest evidence to date of an HPV-OSCC association. The importance of these findings is that prophylactic vaccination could be of public health benefit in prevention of OSCC in countries with high OSCC incidence.

  4. Management of Merkel cell carcinoma: Role of radiotherapy in elderly patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assouline, A.; Krzisch, C.; Assouline, A.; Levy, A.; Mazeron, J.J.; Mazeron, J.J.; Chargari, C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Merkel cell carcinoma carcinoma (M.C.C.) or primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy affecting elderly. Optimal therapeutic strategy has not yet been established in elderly patients. Patients and methods From March 1996 to March 2007, 29 patients with Merkel cell carcinoma of were treated at the University Hospital of Amiens, France. Adjuvant radiotherapy (R.T.) was performed for 14 patients (50%) on the tumor bed with margins of 3 to 5 cm, an average dose of 46 Gy (30-60 Gy), by 2 Gy per fraction. Ten of them also received R.T. to the lymph node area at mean dose of 44.3 Gy (26-50 Gy). Duration of R.T. was 35 days. A retrospective analysis was conducted to better evaluate survival and prognostic factors. Results Median overall survival (O.S.) was 18.9 months (3-122) and the median time to progression (M.T.P.) 5.5 months (1-26). At 5 years, O.S. for irradiated patients was 47% (IC95: 12-82%) versus 27% (IC95: 5-49%) in cases of surgery alone (p = 0.032). The most frequent sites of recurrence were nodal (34.5%), local (24.1%) and metastatic (17.2%). For patients over 70 years, eight (36.5%) were free of disease at last news, 8 (36.5%) had died from cancer and six from other causes (27%). In this subgroup, M.T.P. was 6 months (2-19) and median O.S. of 19 months (4-87). There was no acute toxicity greater than grade 2. Conclusion Although limited by a retrospective analysis, this report suggests an advantage of postoperative R.T. for patients with M.C.C.. It combined low toxicity and improvement of survival. Prospective multicenter trials are needed to clarify and validate the optimal strategy. (authors)

  5. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-02-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events.

  6. The role of oxidative stress and periodontal disease in squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simina Boia1,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND This multidisciplinary and retrospective study of the Periodontal, Ear nose and throat, Oral-Maxillofacial and Biochemical literature aims, highlights and recalls the important role of the oxidative stress (OS and periodontal disease in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (OSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS In the present study we analyzed a total number of 670 cases, collected from specialized scientific papers belonging to several authors of international level. These scientific papers are focused on highlighting the most common lipid peroxidation marker, Malondialdehyde (MDA, of both periodontal disease and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity from serum or saliva samples that are biochemically collected and analyzed. RESULTS In all analyzed studies, we found that oxidative stress alters the composition of saliva. Also the depletion of antioxidants was remarked in the groups of subjects diagnosed with OSCC and those affected by periodontal disease. Scientific studies that investigated smokers, revealed the fact that these patients also show increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Thus, it is very likely that oxidative damage is intensified by smoking. CONCLUSIONS The purpose of this review was to emphasize the importance of oxidative stress in the development of periodontal disease as a first stage towards the development of squamous cell carcinomas and to represent the essential foundation of more extensive future investigations. REFERENCES 1. Rashmi M, Saumya B. Evaluation of salivary and serum lipid peroxidation, and glutathione in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Journal of Oral Science. 2014;56:135-142. 2. Tóthová L, Kamodyová N, Červenka T, Celec P. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 2015. 3. Bahar G, Feinmesser R, Shpitzer T, Popovtzer A, Nagler RM, Salivary analysis in oral cancer patients: DNA and protein

  7. Bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossios, K.; Vazakas, P.; Argyropoulou, M.; Stefanaki, S.; Stavropoulos, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. We report the clinical and imaging findings of a case with multifocal and bilateral renal cell carcinoma which are nonspecific. (orig.)

  8. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  9. The role of bleomycin combination in radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki, Norie

    1986-01-01

    In an effort to improve tumor control by radiation therapy, a treatment regimen consisting of concurrent combination of bleomycin (90 mg/3 weeks) and radiation (30 Gy/3 weeks) was applied. Between 1972 and 1981, 287 patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity were subjected to this bleomycin-radiation combination regimen. All except 4 patients experienced marked response after treatment using the bleomycin-radiation combination alone. One hundred thirty-four patients (47 %) obtained CR and 149 (53 %) PR. Higher CR rates were obtained in patients with carcinoma of the lower gum (62 %), of the upper gum (68 %), and of the cheek mucosa (43 %), compared to patients with carcinoma of the floor of the mouth (21 %), and of the tongue (15 %). In each of the tumor sites, small lesions (T1, T2) obtained higher CR rates, compared with large lesions (T3, T4). Of the 134 patients who experienced CR, 83 were observed without any further treatment after bleomycin-radiation combination alone. Local recurrence-free rates of these patients were 72 % for T1, T2 lesions and 48 % for T3, T4 lesions. Local control rates were increased to 85 % and 78 %, respectively, with successful salvage treatment involving surgery or interstitial radiotherapy for post-irradiation failures. (author)

  10. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Walvekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the most common epithelial malignancy affecting the oral cavity. The most common sites for the development are lateral surface of tongue and floor of mouth; the least common sites are soft palate, gingiva, and buccal mucosa. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can mimic a multitude of oral lesions and enlargements, especially those of inflammatory origin. In addition, predisposing and presenting factors are different from those of other OSCCs. Careful examination as well as routine biopsy are crucial for accurate diagnosis.

  11. L-Arginine Increases Cytotoxicity in Irradiated Ehrlich Carcinoma Cell Line: Possible Potential Role of Nitric Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer cells possess nitric oxide syntheses (NOS) which metabolize L-Arginine (L-Arg) for producing nitric oxide (NO) The present study investigates the relations between NO and ionizing radiation in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell line. NOS activity was stimulated by exposure of cells to L-Arg just after irradiation. L-Arg (5 m M) supply led to an increase in ionizing radiation induced cytotoxicity (% of viability 18± 3 %) whereas, neither L-Arg itself nor ionizing irradiation caused cell death at the doses used in this study. Also, cells were treated either with L-Thio citrulline (L-Thio), an irreversible inhibitor of NOS or with exogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. L-Thio and SOD prevented L-Arg mediated deleterious effects on Irradiated cells, whereas catalase was ineffective. Intracellular antioxidant enzyme activity was also determined. Ionizing radiation + L-Arg stress altered the activity of catalase (66 % decrease) and glutathione peroxidase (83 % decrease). Our findings demonstrated that L-Arg induces increase the radiation-mediated deleterious effects in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells cytotoxicity and that the ratio NO/ O 2 plays a key role in these processes. NO could participate the deleterious effect of irradiation, in conjugation with others reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during the oxidation of intracellular components by ionizing radiation (dose 6 Gy)

  12. Unmet needs in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: potential role for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2014-05-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung accounts for 20-30% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Despite the differences in disease characteristics between squamous and non-squamous NSCLC, both have historically been treated similarly in the clinic. Recently approved drugs have revealed differences in activity and safety profiles across histologic subtypes and have applicability in treating non-squamous, but not typically squamous, NSCLC. Exploration of immune checkpoints--co-inhibitory molecules used to regulate immune responses--has resulted in novel immunotherapies designed to interrupt signaling through the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 or programmed cell death protein-1 pathways on lymphocytes. Modulation of these pathways can lead to restored antitumor immune responses, and preliminary evidence shows that agents targeting these pathways have activity in lung cancer, including squamous NSCLC.

  13. LEPREL1 Expression in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Its Suppressor Role on Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most aggressive malignancies worldwide. It is characterized by its high invasive and metastatic potential. Leprecan-like 1 (LEPREL1 has been demonstrated to be downregulated in the HCC tissues in previous proteomics studies. The present study is aimed at a new understanding of LEPREL1 function in HCC. Methods. Quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemical analysis, and western blot analysis were used to evaluate the expression of LEPREL1 between the paired HCC tumor and nontumorous tissues. The biology function of LEPREL1 was investigated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8 assay and colony formation assay in HepG2 and Bel-7402 cells. Results. The levels of LEPREL1 mRNA and protein were significantly lower in the HCC tissues as compared to those of the nontumorous tissues. Reduced LEPREL1 expression was not associated with conventional clinical parameters of HCC. Overexpression of LEPREL1 in HepG2 and Bel-7402 cells inhibited cell proliferation (P<0.01 and colony formation (P<0.05. LEPREL1 suppressed tumor cell proliferation through regulation of the cell cycle by downregulation of cyclins. Conclusions. Clinical parameters analysis suggested that LEPREL1 was an independent factor in the development of HCC. The biology function experiments showed that LEPREL1 might serve as a potential tumor suppressor gene by inhibiting the HCC cell proliferation.

  14. Intraosseous acinic cell carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-17

    Dec 17, 2011 ... Salivary gland tumors are also known to develop within jaw bones, arising within the jaw as a ... Treatment of acinic cell carcinoma in most cases is surgical. High recurrence rates ... Panoramic radiograph [Figure 3] showed a ...

  15. The role of immunosuppression in squamous cell carcinomas arising in seborrheic keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conic, Ruzica Z; Napekoski, Karl; Schuetz, Heidi; Piliang, Melissa; Bergfeld, Wilma; Atanaskova Mesinkovska, Natasha

    2017-06-01

    Seborrheic keratoses (SK) are common skin neoplasms considered to be benign. Reports of associated squamous cell carcinoma arising within seborrheic keratosis (SCC-SK) have been described. To describe the histopathologic characteristics of SCC-SK and identify predisposing factors in formation of these rare lesions. There were 162 cases of SCC-SK in a span of a decade (2003-2014). All of the histopathologic specimens and medical records were reviewed. Data from these patients were compared to a control group with seborrheic keratosis who were matched by age, sex, and location of lesion from the same time period (n = 162). SCC-SK has the classic histopathologic features of SK, such as hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, papillomatosis, and pseudohorn cysts. The areas of squamous cell carcinoma were characterized by areas of squamous dysplasia (100%), hypogranulosis (79.6%), squamous eddies (79.6%), solar elastosis (80.9%), and brown pigmentation (59.9%). Patients with a history of immunosuppression had an increased risk for developing SCC-SK (19% vs 3%; P < .01), particularly when inhibition was transplant-associated (10% vs 0%; P < .01). This was a single center, retrospective study. SCC-SK occurs more often in elderly men with a history of immunosuppression associated with organ transplants. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of IgG4 (+) plasma cells in the association of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with papillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşli, Funda; Ozkök, Güliz; Argon, Asuman; Ersöz, Didem; Yağci, Ayşe; Uslu, Adam; Erkan, Nazif; Salman, Tarik; Vardar, Enver

    2014-12-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is considered to be a risk factor for the formation of papillary carcinoma. The association of IgG4-related sclerosing disease with tumor is reported to be as sporadic cases in many organs. In this study, it was intended to re-classify the HT diagnosed cases on the basis of the existence of IgG4 (+) plasma cells; to investigate the clinicopathologic and histopathologic features of the both groups; and in addition, to evaluate the papillary carcinoma prevalence in IgG4 (+) and IgG4 (-) HT cases as well as the prognostic parameters between these groups. Totally 59 cases between the years 2008-2013, 29 of which contain Hashimoto thyroiditis diagnosis in total thyroidectomy materials, and 30 of which contain the diagnosis of HT+papillary carcinoma, were included in the study. The materials were immunohistochemically applied IgG and IgG4; and the cases were classified in two groups as IgG4-positive HT and IgG4-negative HT containing cases, on the basis of IgG4/IgG rate. All histopathologic and clinicopathologic parameters between these two groups, as well as their association with papillary carcinoma were investigated. Thirty eight (64.4%) of total 59 cases were NonIgG4 thyroiditis, and 21 (35.5%) were IgG4 thyroiditis. Tumors were detected in 14 (36.8%) of the NonIgG4 thyroiditis cases, and in 16 (76.1%) of the IgG4 thyroiditis cases. The association of IgG4 thyroiditis with tumor is statistically significant (p thyroiditis cases. Perithyroidal extension was detected in six of the cases with tumor, and five of the six cases were IgG4 thyroiditis cases. The association of IgG4 (+) HT cases with increased papillary carcinoma prevalence is suggestive of that IgG4 (+) plasma cells can play a role in carcinogenesis in papillary carcinomas developed in HTs, without a chronic sclerosing ground. In addition, although the number of cases is limited, the high-association of IgG4 (+) plasma cells with adverse prognostic parameters such as

  17. Role and mechanism of PKC on radiosensitization in pancreatic carcinoma cell line Panc-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Qiao; Zhang Shuo; Chen Yanzhi; Li Guang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of PKC on radiosensitization in pancreatic carcinoma cell line Panc-1, and its mediating mechanism. Methods: Panc-1 cells were treated with the specific activator of PKC (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA) and the specific inhibitor of PKC (chelerythrine, CH) to observe the SF2 changes. Cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay. The apoptosis rates of the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI staining. The expression of apoptosis related protein Bcl-2 and Bax after the treatment of CH and/or irradiation was determined by immunocytochemistry. Results: The SF 2 values of radiation group, PMA group and CH group were 0.78 ± 0.02, 0.92 ± 0.11 and 0.19 ± 0.20, respectively. CH can significantly increase the sensitivity of Panc-1 to irradiation. SERs of Panc-1 cells were 1.05, 1.24 and 1.77 after the treatment of 0.5, 2 and 8 μmol/L of CH, respectively. The result of flow cytometry analysis showed that PMA decreased the apoptosis index with irradiation, while CH significantly increased the apoptosis index. Expression of Bax protein was increased significantly (P<0.05) while that of Bcl-2 was not influenced; however, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was increased. Conclusions: PKC regulates the radiosensitivity of Panc-1 by mediating the apoptosis of tumor cells. (authors)

  18. Role of Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number Alteration in Human Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Chen-Sung Lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number alteration in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC. The mtDNA copy numbers of paired cancer and non-cancer parts from five resected RCC kidneys after radical nephrectomy were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR. An RCC cell line, 786-O, was infected by lentiviral particles to knock down mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM. Null target (NT and TFAM-knockdown (TFAM-KD represented the control and knockdown 786-O clones, respectively. Protein or mRNA expression levels of TFAM; mtDNA-encoded NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1, ND6 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (COX-2; nuclear DNA (nDNA-encoded succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 gene (AKT-encoded AKT and v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog gene (c-MYC-encoded MYC; glycolytic enzymes including hexokinase II (HK-II, glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI, phosphofructokinase (PFK, and lactate dehydrogenase subunit A (LDHA; and hypoxia-inducible factors the HIF-1α and HIF-2α, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1, and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component α subunit (PDHA1 were analyzed by Western blot or Q-PCR. Bioenergetic parameters of cellular metabolism, basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (mOCRB and basal extracellular acidification rate (ECARB, were measured by a Seahorse XFe-24 analyzer. Cell invasiveness was evaluated by a trans-well migration assay and vimentin expression. Doxorubicin was used as a chemotherapeutic agent. The results showed a decrease of mtDNA copy numbers in resected RCC tissues (p = 0.043. The TFAM-KD clone expressed lower mtDNA copy number (p = 0.034, lower mRNA levels of TFAM (p = 0.008, ND1 (p = 0.007, and ND6 (p = 0.017, and lower protein levels of TFAM and COX-2 than did the NT clone. By contrast, the protein levels of HIF-2α, HK-II, PFK, LDHA, AKT, MYC and vimentin; trans-well migration activity (p = 0

  19. Is there a role of whole-body bone scan in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Correct detection of bone metastases in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is pivotal for prognosis and selection of an appropriate treatment regimen. Whole-body bone scan for staging is not routinely recommended in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of bone scan in detecting bone metastases in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods We retrospectively evaluated the radiographic and scintigraphic images of 360 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients between 1999 and 2008. Of these 360 patients, 288 patients received bone scan during pretreatment staging, and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of bone scan were determined. Of these 360 patients, surgery was performed in 161 patients including 119 patients with preoperative bone scan and 42 patients without preoperative bone scan. Among these 161 patients receiving surgery, 133 patients had stages II + III disease, including 99 patients with preoperative bone scan and 34 patients without preoperative bone scan. Bone recurrence-free survival and overall survival were compared in all 161 patients and 133 stages II + III patients, respectively. Results The diagnostic performance for bone metastasis was as follows: sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 90.1%; positive predictive value, 43.5%; and negative predictive value, 97.9%. In all 161 patients receiving surgery, absence of preoperative bone scan was significantly associated with inferior bone recurrence-free survival (P = 0.009, univariately). In multivariate comparison, absence of preoperative bone scan (P = 0.012, odds ratio: 5.053) represented the independent adverse prognosticator for bone recurrence-free survival. In 133 stages II + III patients receiving surgery, absence of preoperative bone scan was significantly associated with inferior bone recurrence-free survival (P = 0

  20. Is there a role of whole-body bone scan in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shau-Hsuan; Huang, Yung-Cheng; Huang, Wan-Ting; Lin, Wei-Che; Liu, Chien-Ting; Tien, Wan-Yu; Lu, Hung-I

    2012-01-01

    Correct detection of bone metastases in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is pivotal for prognosis and selection of an appropriate treatment regimen. Whole-body bone scan for staging is not routinely recommended in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of bone scan in detecting bone metastases in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated the radiographic and scintigraphic images of 360 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients between 1999 and 2008. Of these 360 patients, 288 patients received bone scan during pretreatment staging, and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of bone scan were determined. Of these 360 patients, surgery was performed in 161 patients including 119 patients with preoperative bone scan and 42 patients without preoperative bone scan. Among these 161 patients receiving surgery, 133 patients had stages II + III disease, including 99 patients with preoperative bone scan and 34 patients without preoperative bone scan. Bone recurrence-free survival and overall survival were compared in all 161 patients and 133 stages II + III patients, respectively. The diagnostic performance for bone metastasis was as follows: sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 90.1%; positive predictive value, 43.5%; and negative predictive value, 97.9%. In all 161 patients receiving surgery, absence of preoperative bone scan was significantly associated with inferior bone recurrence-free survival (P = 0.009, univariately). In multivariate comparison, absence of preoperative bone scan (P = 0.012, odds ratio: 5.053) represented the independent adverse prognosticator for bone recurrence-free survival. In 133 stages II + III patients receiving surgery, absence of preoperative bone scan was significantly associated with inferior bone recurrence-free survival (P = 0.003, univariately) and overall survival (P = 0

  1. The role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

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    Zidar, Nina; Boštjančič, Emanuela; Malgaj, Marija; Gale, Nina; Dovšak, Tadej; Didanovič, Vojko

    2018-02-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has emerged as a possible mechanism of cancer metastasizing, but strong evidence for EMT involvement in human cancer is lacking. Our aim was to compare oral spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC) as an example of EMT with oral conventional squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with and without nodal metastases to test the hypothesis that EMT contributes to metastasizing in oral SCC. Thirty cases of oral SCC with and without nodal metastasis and 15 cases of SpCC were included. Epithelial (cytokeratin, E-cadherin), mesenchymal (vimentin, N-cadherin), and stem cell markers (ALDH-1, CD44, Nanog, Sox-2) and transcription repressors (Snail, Slug, Twist) were analyzed immunohistochemically. We also analyzed the expression of microRNAs miR-141, miR-200 family, miR-205, and miR-429. SpCC exhibited loss of epithelial markers and expression of mesenchymal markers or coexpression of both up-regulation of transcription repressors and down-regulation of the investigated microRNAs. SCC showed only occasional focal expression of mesenchymal markers at the invasive front. No other differences were observed between SCC with and without nodal metastases except for a higher expression of ALDH-1 in SCC with metastases. Our results suggest that SpCC is an example of true EMT but do not support the hypothesis that EMT is involved in metastasizing of conventional SCC. Regarding oral SCC progression and metastasizing, we have been facing a shift from the initial enthusiasm for the EMT concept towards a more critical approach with "EMT-like" and "partial EMT" concepts. The real question, though, is, is there no EMT at all?

  2. Role of Bax in resveratrol-induced apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahyar-Roemer, Mojgan; Köhler, Hans; Roemer, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    The natural plant polyphenol resveratrol present in some foods including grapes, wine, and peanuts, has been implicated in the inhibition, delay, and reversion of cellular events associated with heart diseases and tumorigenesis. Recent work has suggested that the cancer chemoprotective effect of the compound is primarily linked to its ability to induce cell division cycle arrest and apoptosis, the latter possibly through the activation of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax. The expression, subcellular localization, and importance of Bax for resveratrol-provoked apoptosis were assessed in human HCT116 colon carcinoma cells and derivatives with both bax alleles inactivated. Low to moderate concentrations of resveratrol induced co-localization of cellular Bax protein with mitochondria, collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspases 3 and 9, and finally, apoptosis. In the absence of Bax, membrane potential collapse was delayed, and apoptosis was reduced but not absent. Resveratrol inhibited the formation of colonies by both HCT116 and HCT116 bax -/- cells. Resveratrol at physiological doses can induce a Bax-mediated and a Bax-independent mitochondrial apoptosis. Both can limit the ability of the cells to form colonies

  3. Role of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in the Management of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

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    Eric P. Arruda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a rare and typically aggressive form of skin cancer. It most commonly affects the elderly and has a predilection for the sun-exposed skin of the head and neck region. Other etiological factors include immune suppression, organ transplantation, and polyoma virus infection. MCC has a propensity to spread to regional lymphatics with a high locoregional recurrence rate. Since its discovery in 1972, treatment paradigms have shifted, with no consensus on optimal management strategies. Currently, standard of care includes surgical intervention to the primary and locoregional site with adjuvant radiotherapy for high-risk disease. In this paper, we discuss the history, pathology, and epidemiology of this rare disease with a focus on the evidentiary basis of treatment protocols. The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a management option will be the focus of this paper.

  4. Role of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in the Management of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda, E.P.; Higgins, K.M.; Higgins, K. M.; Higgins, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and typically aggressive form of skin cancer. It most commonly affects the elderly and has a predilection for the sun-exposed skin of the head and neck region. Other etiological factors include immune suppression, organ transplantation, and polyoma virus infection. MCC has a propensity to spread to regional lymphatics with a high locoregional recurrence rate. Since its discovery in 1972, treatment paradigms have shifted, with no consensus on optimal management strategies. Currently, standard of care includes surgical intervention to the primary and locoregional site with adjuvant radiotherapy for high-risk disease. In this paper, we discuss the history, pathology, and epidemiology of this rare disease with a focus on the evidentiary basis of treatment protocols. The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a management option will be the focus of this paper.

  5. The role of lymph node dissection in the contemporary management of renal cell carcinoma: A critical appraisal of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Joseph; Gershman, Boris

    2017-11-01

    The role of lymph node dissection (LND) in the management of renal cell carcinoma has been controversial. Older studies provided initial support to a potential survival benefit in resection of lymph node metastases, and several predictive models were developed to identify patients with lymph node involvement. However, the only randomized trial on the subject did not report a survival benefit to LND in the nonmetastatic setting. Several studies have recently reexplored the therapeutic benefit of LND. In both nonmetastatic and metastatic settings, LND does not appear to be associated with a survival benefit. Moreover, it does not appear that LND confers a survival advantage to patients at increased risk of lymph node metastases, such as those with preoperative radiographic lymphadenopathy or across increasing probability of lymph node disease. Among patients with clinically isolated lymph node metastases, the majority develop disease progression following surgical resection, suggesting a high prevalence of occult systemic disease. Lymph node metastases appear to have prognostic value in both nonmetastatic and metastatic settings. LND may, therefore, have an increasingly important staging role in the management of renal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pancreatic metastasis in a case of small cell lung carcinoma: Diagnostic role of fine-needle aspiration cytology and immunocytochemistry

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    Dilip K Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell lung carcinoma represents a group of highly malignant tumors giving rise to early and widespread metastasis at the time of diagnosis. However, the pancreas is a relatively infrequent site of metastasis by this neoplasm, and there are only occasional reports on its fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology diagnosis. A 66-year-old man presented with extensive mediastinal lymphadenopathy and a mass in the pancreatic tail. Ultrasound-guided FNA smears from the pancreatic mass contained small, round tumor cells with extensive nuclear molding. The cytodiagnosis was metastatic small cell carcinoma. Immunocytochemical staining showed that a variable number of neoplastic cell were positive for cytokeratin, chromogranin A, neurone-specific enolase and synaptophysin but negative for leukocyte common antigen. The trans-bronchial needle aspiration was non-diagnostic, but biopsy was suspicious of a small cell carcinoma. This case represents a rare metastatic lesion in the pancreas from small cell lung carcinoma, diagnosed by FNA cytology.

  7. CXCR4 expression in feline mammary carcinoma cells: evidence of a proliferative role for the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis

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    Ferrari Angelo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammary tumours frequently develop in female domestic cats being highly malignant in a large percentage of cases. Chemokines regulate many physiological and pathological processes including organogenesis, chemotaxis of inflammatory cells, as well as tumour progression and metastasization. In particular, the chemokine/receptor pair SDF-1/CXCR4 has been involved in the regulation of metastatic potential of neoplastic cells, including breast cancer. The aim of this study was the immunohistochemical defininition of the expression profile of CXCR4 in primary and metastatic feline mammary carcinomas and the evaluation of the role of SDF-1 in feline mammary tumour cell proliferation. Results A total of 45 mammary surgical samples, including 33 primary tumours (31 carcinomas and 2 adenomas, 6 metastases, and 4 normal mammary tissues were anlyzed. Tumor samples were collected from a total number of 26 animals, as in some cases concurrent occurrence of neoplasm in more than one mammary gland was observed. Tissues were processed for standard histological examination, and all lesions were classified according to the World Health Organization criteria. CXCR4 expression in neoplastic cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The level of CXCR4 immunoreactivity was semi-quantitatively estimated as CXCR4 score evaluating both the number of positive cells and the intensity of staining. Six primary, fibroblast-free primary cultures were obtained from fresh feline mammary carcinomas and characterized by immunofluorescence for CXCR4 and malignant mammary cell marker expression. SDF-1-dependent in vitro proliferative effects were also assayed. CXCR4 expression was observed in 29 out of 31 malignant tissues with a higher CXCR4 score observed in 4 out of 6 metastatic lesions than in the respective primary tumours. In 2 benign lesions analyzed, only the single basaloid adenoma showed a mild positive immunostaining against CXCR4. Normal tissue did

  8. DLEC1 Expression Is Modulated by Epigenetic Modifications in Hepatocelluar Carcinoma Cells: Role of HBx Genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Dandan; Feng, Huixing; Chen, Wei Ning

    2010-01-01

    Deleted in Lung and Esophageal Cancer 1 (DLEC1) is a functional tumor suppressor gene (TSG). It has been found to be silenced in a variety of human cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The silencing of DLEC1 can be modulated by epigenetic modifications, such as DNA hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation. In the case of HCC, hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) has been implicated in methylation of target promoters resulting in the down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes, which in turn contributes to the development of HCC. In the present study, we first established a cell system in which epigenetic modifications can be modulated using inhibitors of either DNA methylation or histone deacetylation. The cell system was used to reveal that the expression of DLEC1 was upregulated by HBx in a genotype-dependent manner. In particular, HBx genotype A was found to decrease DNA methylation of the DLEC1 promoter. Our results have provided new insights on the impact of HBx in HCC development by epigenetic modifications

  9. Roles for miR-375 in Neuroendocrine Differentiation and Tumor Suppression via Notch Pathway Suppression in Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Karan J; Zhang, Xiao; Vidal, Ricardo; Paré, Geneviève C; Feilotter, Harriet E; Tron, Victor A

    2016-04-01

    Dysfunction of key miRNA pathways regulating basic cellular processes is a common driver of many cancers. However, the biological roles and/or clinical applications of such pathways in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare but lethal cutaneous neuroendocrine (NE) malignancy, have yet to be determined. Previous work has established that miR-375 is highly expressed in MCC tumors, but its biological role in MCC remains unknown. Herein, we show that elevated miR-375 expression is a specific feature of well-differentiated MCC cell lines that express NE markers. In contrast, miR-375 is strikingly down-regulated in highly aggressive, undifferentiated MCC cell lines. Enforced miR-375 expression in these cells induced NE differentiation, and opposed cancer cell viability, migration, invasion, and survival, pointing to tumor-suppressive roles for miR-375. Mechanistically, miR-375-driven phenotypes were caused by the direct post-transcriptional repression of multiple Notch pathway proteins (Notch2 and RBPJ) linked to cancer and regulation of cell fate. Thus, we detail a novel molecular axis linking tumor-suppressive miR-375 and Notch with NE differentiation and cancer cell behavior in MCC. Our findings identify miR-375 as a putative regulator of NE differentiation, provide insight into the cell of origin of MCC, and suggest that miR-375 silencing may promote aggressive cancer cell behavior through Notch disinhibition. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of Rad 51 protein in radioresistance of spheroid model of Du 145 prostate carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghizadeh, M.; Khoei, S.; Nikoofar, A. R.; Ghamsari, L.; Goliaei, B.

    2009-01-01

    Rad 51 is a protein with critical role in double strand break repair. Down-regulation of this protein has a significant effect in radiosensitivity of some cell lines like prostate carcinoma. Compared to monolayer cell culture model, the spheroids are more resistant to radiation. The aim of the current study was to determine the Rad 51 protein level in Du 145 spheroids, and monolayer cells before and after exposure to gamma irradiation. Materials and Methods: In the present study, western blot was used to determine the level of Rad 51 protein in Du 145 cell line grown as monolayer and spheroid. Results: Western blot analysis showed that in the spheroid cells, Rad 51 had an elevated level before and after radiation in comparison with monolayer cells. Higher doses of radiation induced elevated expression of Rad 51 protein in both culture models.The level of at protein after exposure to gamma rays had been time-dependent. Conclusion: Rad 51 might act as a mediator of radiation resistance in tumor cells. Repression of Rad 51 activity could be a prominent strategy to overcome radiation resistance of tumors.

  11. Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: Is there a role of histology-specific treatment?

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    Takano Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several clinical trials to establish standard treatment modality for ovarian cancers included a high abundance of patients with serous histologic tumors, which were quite sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy. On the other hand, ovarian tumor with rare histologic subtypes such as clear cell or mucinous tumors have been recognized to show chemo-resistant phenotype, leading to poorer prognosis. Especially, clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC is a distinctive tumor, deriving from endometriosis or clear cell adenofibroma, and response rate to platinum-based therapy is extremely low. It was implied that complete surgical staging enabled us to distinguish a high risk group of recurrence in CCC patients whose disease was confined to the ovary (pT1M0; however, complete surgical staging procedures could not lead to improved survival. Moreover, the status of peritoneal cytology was recognized as an independent prognostic factor in early-staged CCC patients, even after complete surgical staging. In advanced cases with CCC, the patients with no residual tumor had significantly better survival than those with the tumor less than 1 cm or those with tumor diameter more than 1 cm. Therefore, the importance of achieving no macroscopic residual disease at primary surgery is so important compared with other histologic subtypes. On the other hand, many studies have shown that conventional platinum-based chemotherapy regimens yielded a poorer prognosis in patients with CCC than in patients with serous subtypes. The response rate by paclitaxel plus carboplatin (TC was slightly higher, ranging from 22% to 56%, which was not satisfactory enough. Another regimen for CCC tumors is now being explored: irinotecan plus cisplatin, and molecular targeting agents. In this review article, we discuss the surgical issues for early-staged and advanced CCC including possibility of fertility-sparing surgery, and the chemotherapy for CCC disease.

  12. Clinical experience and critical evaluation of the role of sorafenib in renal cell carcinoma

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    Zustovich F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fable Zustovich1, Giuseppe Lombardi1, Davide Pastorelli1, Patrizia Farina1, Massimo Dal Bianco2, Luca De Zorzi2, Maurizia Dalla Palma1, Ornella Nicoletto1, Vittorina Zagonel11Oncologia Medica 1, Istituto Oncologico Veneto-IRCCS, Padova, Italy; 2UO Urologia, Ospedale Sant'Antonio, ULSS 16, Padova, ItalyAbstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is a common malignancy worldwide with approximately 95,000 new cases per year and ranks as the sixth cause of cancer deaths. Until recently, the slightly active and very toxic cytokines were available for patients with advanced RCC. Advances have been made in understanding the molecular biology of renal cancer. The introduction of targeted agents has led to promising possibilities for treating these highly vascularized tumors. Angiogenesis inhibition is likely to represent the main potential therapeutic target. Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor with activity against tyrosine kinase receptors that are responsible for blood vessel development and has shown to be active in treating advanced RCC. In this review, we summarize the pharmacology, mode of action, pharmacokinetics, and safety of sorafenib use in therapy for advanced RCC.Keywords: sorafenib, pharmacokinetics, angiogenesis 

  13. Downregulation of tropomyosin-1 in squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus, the role of Ras signaling and methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Maryam; Jazii, Ferdous Rastgar; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Moghanibashi, Mohamad-Mehdi

    2012-10-01

    Tropomyosins (TMs) are a family of cytoskeletal proteins that bind to and stabilize actin microfilaments. Non-muscle cells express multiple isoforms of TMs including three high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms: TM1, TM2, and TM3. While reports have indicated downregulation of TMs in transformed cells and several human cancers, nevertheless, little is known about the underlying mechanism of TMs suppression. In present study the expression of HMW TMs was investigated in squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus (SCCE), relative to primary cell cultures of normal esophagus by western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. Our results showed that TM1, TM2, and TM3 were significantly downregulated in cell line of SCCE. Moreover, mRNA level of TPM1 and TPM2 were markedly decreased by 93% and 96%, in tumor cell line relative to esophagus normal epithelial cells. Therefore, downregulation of TMs could play an important role in tumorigenesis of esophageal cancer. To asses the mechanism of TM downregulation in esophageal cancer, the role of Ras dependent signaling and promoter hypermethylation were investigated. We found that inhibition of two Ras effectory downstream pathways; MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt leads to significant increased expression of TM1 protein and both TPM1 and TPM2 mRNAs. In addition, methyltransferase inhibition significantly upregulated TM1, suggesting the prominent contribution of promoter hypermethylation in TM1 downregulation in esophageal cancer. These data indicate that downregulation of HMW TMs occurs basically in SCCE and the activation of MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways as well as the epigenetic mechanism of promoter hypermethylation play important role in TM1 suppression in SCCE. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Curcumin-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma J5 Cells: Critical Role of Ca+2-Dependent Pathway

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    Wei-Hsun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antitumor effects of curcumin, a natural biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, have been studied in many cancer cell types including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Here, we investigated the effects of Ca2+ on curcumin-induced apoptosis in human HCC J5 cells. The abrogation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and calcium release were demonstrated with flow cytometry as early as 15 minutes after curcumin treatment. In addition, an increase level of cytochrome c in the cytoplasm which led to DNA fragmentation was observed. To verify the role of Ca2+ in curcumin-induced apoptosis, 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxyethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA, an intracellular calcium chelator, was applied. Cell viability was increased, but ΔΨm, ROS production, activation of caspase 3, and cell death were decreased in J5 cells pretreated with BAPTA for 2 h followed by the treatment of 25 μM curcumin. These results suggest that the curcumin-induced apoptosis in human HCC J5 cells is via mitochondria-dependent pathway and is closely related to the level of intracellular accumulation of calcium.

  15. Immunosuppressive Environment in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Nielsen, Patricia S; Gjerdrum, Lise M R

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tumour survival tactics and anti-tumour immune response is a major determinant for cancer growth. Regulatory T cells (T-regs) contribute to tumour immune escape, but their role in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not understood. The fraction of T-regs among T cells was analysed b...

  16. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

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    Leonor Hernández Piñero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagnosed belatedly. Partial amputation of the penis was considered to be performed, but there was no consent on behalf of his family. The patient’s general condition was getting worse until he died.

  17. The role of whole brain radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery on brain metastases from renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Lav K.; Suh, John H.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Barnett, Gene H.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed our experience with patients who have undergone stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases secondary to renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Analysis was performed to determine the survival, local control, distant brain failure (DBF), and then to define which tumors may not require upfront whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-nine patients with 66 tumors underwent SRS from 1991 to 1998. Median follow-up from time of brain metastases diagnoses relative to each tumor was 12.5 months and 6.8 months from the time of SRS. Median SRS dose was 1,800 cGy to the 60% isodose line. Three patients had undergone SRS for previously treated tumors. Results: Median survival time from diagnosis was 10.0 months. Overall survival was not affected by age, addition of WBRT, number of lesions, tumor volume, or the presence of systemic disease. Of the 23 patients with follow-up neuroimaging, 4 of 47 (9%) tumors recurred. The addition of WBRT did not improve local control. Of the 13 patients who presented with a single lesion, 3 went on to develop DBF (23%), while 6 of the 10 patients who presented with multiple metastases developed DBF (60%). Conclusion: Patients with brain metastases secondary to RCC treated by SRS alone have excellent local control. The decision of whether or not to add WBRT to SRS should depend on whether the patient has a high likelihood of developing DBF. Our study suggests that patients who present with multiple brain lesions may be more likely to benefit from the addition of WBRT because they appear to be more than twice as likely to develop DBF as compared to patients with a single lesion

  18. Merkel cell carcinoma: the role of radiation therapy in general management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, M.; Kampen, M. van; Huber, P.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare malignant, locally aggressive tumor of the skin. Because few data exist about the clinical course of irradiated patients, we reviewed the 17 patients treated at our institution since 1982. Patients and Methods: The median age at diagnosis was 71 years (range 47 to 88 years). Twelve patients presented with lymph node involvement (Stage II), 5 patients with negative lymph nodes (Stage I). Five patients were irradiated immediately after initial surgical excision of the primary tumor. Eleven patients underwent a surgical treatment of recurrence prior to the first irradiation. Only 1 patient received primary radiotherapy. A median dose of 52.8 Gy (range 40 to 60 Gy) in the region of the primary tumor and a median dose of 49.5 Gy (range 30 to 54 Gy) in the regional lymph nodes were delivered. Results: The median overall survival after first diagnosis was 45 months. Three-year overall survival was 57%, 5-year cause-specific survival was 73% (Kaplan Meier). Local control could be achieved in the 5 patients irradiated immediately after surgical treatment of the primary tumor. In contrast, an in-field recurrence occurred in 5 of 12 patients irradiated after surgical excision of relapsed disease. Five patients developed distant metastases. None of these patients was irradiated immediately after surgical excision of the primary tumor. Conclusions: With respect to our experience, a local control can be achieved with an immediate postoperative radiotherapy of the primary tumor site and the adjacent lymph nodes. (orig.) [de

  19. Potential role of mTORC2 as a therapeutic target in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamatsu, Takeshi; Mabuchi, Seiji; Matsumoto, Yuri; Kawano, Mahiru; Sasano, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Ryoko; Sawada, Kenjiro; Ito, Kimihiko; Kurachi, Hirohisa; Schilder, Russell J; Testa, Joseph R; Kimura, Tadashi

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the role of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) as a therapeutic target in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC), which is regarded as an aggressive, chemoresistant histologic subtype. Using tissue microarrays of 98 primary ovarian cancers [52 CCCs and 46 serous adenocarcinomas (SAC)], activation of mTORC2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Then, the growth-inhibitory effect of mTORC2-targeting therapy, as well as the role of mTORC2 signaling as a mechanism for acquired resistance to the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor RAD001 in ovarian CCC, were examined using two pairs of RAD001-sensitive parental (RMG2 and HAC2) and RAD001-resistant CCC cell lines (RMG2-RR and HAC2-RR). mTORC2 was more frequently activated in CCCs than in SACs (71.2% vs. 45.7%). Simultaneous inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 by AZD8055 markedly inhibited the proliferation of both RAD001-sensitive and -resistant cells in vitro. Treatment with RAD001 induced mTORC2-mediated AKT activation in RAD001-sensitive CCC cells. Moreover, increased activation of mTORC2-AKT signaling was observed in RAD001-resistant CCC cells compared with the respective parental cells. Inhibition of mTORC2 during RAD001 treatment enhanced the antitumor effect of RAD001 and prevented CCC cells from acquiring resistance to RAD001. In conclusion, mTORC2 is frequently activated, and can be a promising therapeutic target, in ovarian CCCs. Moreover, mTORC2-targeted therapy may be efficacious in a first-line setting as well as for second-line treatment of recurrent disease developing after RAD001-treatment.

  20. The diagnostic value of long non-coding RNA MIR31HG and its role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kaiyan; Zhao, Xinwei; Wan, Junhu; Yang, Lijun; Chu, Jie; Dong, Shuling; Yin, Huiqing; Ming, Liang; He, Fucheng

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to assess plasma lncRNA microRNA-31 hist gene (MIR31HG) as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to investigate its role in ESCC. The expression of MIR31HG, Furin and MMP1 was examined via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. MIR31HG expression between plasma and ESCC tissues was compared using Pearson correlation analysis; furthermore, the association between Furin/MMP1 levels and MIR31HG levels in ESCC tissues was analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of plasma MIR31HG. A WST-1 assay was performed to assess cell proliferation. The migratability and invasiveness of cells was determined via Transwell assays. MIR31HG was significantly upregulated in ESCC tissues and plasma (P occurance. Furthermore, knockdown of MIR31HG suppressed the capacity for proliferation, migration, and invasion of ESCC cells (P < 0.01). In addition, silencing of MIR31HG inhibited the expression of Furin and MMP1 in EC9706 and EC1 and the level of Furin/MMP1 in ESCC tissues displayed a significant positive correlation with MIR31HG (P < 0.01). MIR31HG can be used as a novel potential diagnostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for ESCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  2. The p53 molecule and its prognostic role in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylander, K.; Dabelsteen, Erik; Hall, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    and poor patient outcome was found when looking only at patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Also, in oral premalignant lesions, expression of p53-positive cells in the suprabasal layers of the epithelium has been seen as an indication of impending malignant development. Concerning......Despite intense research, the 5-year survival rate for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is still low. Several different factors have been studied in the search for one or more factors that give important prognostic information at the time of diagnosis. Many recent...

  3. The Prognostic Role of NEDD9 and P38 Protein Expression Levels in Urinary Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola A. Harb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most common malignant tumor of the urinary bladder is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC. Neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated protein 9 (NEDD9 is found to be a cell adhesion mediator. P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase is a serine/threonine kinases member which can mediate carcinogenesis through intracellular signaling. Methods. To assess their prognostic role; NEDD9 and p38 protein were evaluated in sections from 50 paraffin blocks of TCC. Results. The high expressions of NEDD9 and p38 protein were significantly associated with grade, stage, distant metastasis (p<0.001, number of tumors, lymph node metastasis, and tumor size (p<0.001, 0.002; 0.018, <0.001; and 0.004, 0.007, respectively. High NEDD9 and p38 detection had a worse 3-year OS (p=0.041 and <0.001, respectively. By multivariate analysis the NEDD9 and p38 protein expression levels and various clinicopathological criteria including gender, grade, stage of the tumor, and regional lymph node involvement were independent prognostic parameters of TCC of the urinary bladder patients’ outcome. Conclusion. NEDD9 and p38 protein expressions were poor prognostic markers of TCC.

  4. Role of Brg1 in progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Torkamandi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Epigenetic regulation of gene expression can be carried out through chromatin remodeling enzymes such as SWI/SNF. Brg1 also known as SMARCA4 is a catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF, which is necessary for MMPs expression. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are known as important player enzymes during tumor progression and metastasis. Aberrant epigenetic modification of chromatin should be precisely clarified to reveal probable unknown pathways in ESCC progression. Probable role of Brg1 in ESCC tumorigenesis and metastasis was studied through the assessment of Brg1 mRNA expression in KYSE30, and further evaluation about the biology of Brg1 was performed through the Brg1 silencing. Materials and Methods: Level of Brg1 mRNA expression in KYSE30 was compared to normal tissues using the real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Moreover, KYSE30 cells were transfected with Brg1-siRNA to silence the Brg1. Results: Our results showed for the first time that Brg1 mRNA expression was increased in KYSE30 cell line (ESCC cell line compared with normal esophageal tissue of ESCC patients. Rate of transfection in KYSE30 was also between 40 to 50%, using the pSilencer-Brg1shRNA (1:1 ratio. Conclusion: Our data indicated that chromatin remodeling machinery is a novel aspect in tumor biology of ESCC, and overexpression of Brg1 as an important member of SWI/SNF might be involved in the migration and invasion of ESCC tumoral cells.

  5. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Vishwas; Seykora, John T

    2017-09-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a malignant neoplasm of the skin characterized by an aberrant proliferation of keratinocytes. Cutaneous SCC is the second most common malignancy globally, and usually arises in the chronically sun-damaged skin of elderly white individuals. From a pathologist's perspective, it is important to differentiate cSCC from the benign and reactive squamoproliferative lesions and identify the high-risk features associated with aggressive tumor behavior. In this article, we provide an up-to-date overview of cSCC along with its precursor lesions and important histologic variants, with a particular emphasis on the histopathologic features and molecular pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Renal cell carcinoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanier, J.F.C.; Ramos, C.O.P.; Pereira, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present five cases of renal cell carcinoma in children, describing its aspects on excretory urography, ultra-sonography and computerized tomography. The clinical, pathological and radiological features are compared with those of the literature. (author)

  7. Synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seo

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma occurring as a second primary associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unusual. This report presents a synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the anterior palate region of a 41-year-old man. The clinical, radiologic, and histologic features are described. At 10-month follow-up after operation, no evidence of recurrence ana metastasis was present

  8. Nimesulide has a role of radio-sensitizer against lung carcinoma A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Joo Yoon; Park, Jong Kuk; Hong, Sung Hee

    2006-01-01

    Cyclooxygenases (COX) are key enzymes in the prostaglandin synthesis. There are two isoforms of the COX enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 expression is associated with carcinogenesis in variety of cancers and to render cells resistant to apoptotic stimuli. Increased expression of COX-2 is shown in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), specifically in adenocarcinomas. Radiotherapy has been the important treatment for NSCLC. In recent studies, newer molecules that target specific pathophysiology or molecular pathways have been tested for the radiation sensitizers. COX-2 inhibitors are shown to enhanced radioresponse of cultured human cancer cell lines and immunodeficient mice. However, little is known about the molecular and biochemical mechanisms how NSAIDs enhance radioresponse of tumor cells. Nimesulide (methanesulfonamide, N-(4-nitro-2- phenoxyphenyl)), selective COX-2 inhibitors, is a drug with anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic properties. Nimesulide has the specific affinity to inhibit the inducible form of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) rather than the constitutive form (COX-1), and is well tolerated by adult, elderly and pediatric patients. Nimesulide was found also to have a chemopreventive activity against colon, urinary bladder, breast, tongue, and liver carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined whether nimesulide can increase radiation induced cell death and its mechanism in NSCLC cells A549

  9. The Role of Compounds Derived from Natural Supplement as Anticancer Agents in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Inamul; Subramanian, Arvind; Huang, Chao H.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Van Veldhuizen, Peter J.; Banerjee, Snigdha; Banerjee, Sushanta K.

    2017-01-01

    Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is the most prominent kidney cancer derived from renal tubules and accounts for roughly 85% of all malignant kidney cancer. Every year, over 60,000 new cases are registered, and about 14,000 people die from RCC. The incidence of this has been increasing significantly in the U.S. and other countries. An increased understanding of molecular biology and the genomics of RCC has uncovered several signaling pathways involved in the progression of this cancer. Significant ...

  10. Role of protein kinase C and epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in growth stimulation by neurotensin in colon carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajani Olav

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotensin has been found to promote colon carcinogenesis in rats and mice, and proliferation of human colon carcinoma cell lines, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. We have examined signalling pathways activated by neurotensin in colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma cells. Methods Colon carcinoma cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1 were cultured and stimulated with neurotensin or epidermal growth factor (EGF. DNA synthesis was determined by incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine into DNA. Levels and phosphorylation of proteins in signalling pathways were assessed by Western blotting. Results Neurotensin stimulated the phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt in all three cell lines, but apparently did so through different pathways. In Panc-1 cells, neurotensin-induced phosphorylation of ERK, but not Akt, was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC, whereas an inhibitor of the β-isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, TGX221, abolished neurotensin-induced Akt phosphorylation in these cells, and there was no evidence of EGF receptor (EGFR transactivation. In HT29 cells, in contrast, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib blocked neurotensin-stimulated phosphorylation of both ERK and Akt, indicating transactivation of EGFR, independently of PKC. In HCT116 cells, neurotensin induced both a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of ERK and a metalloproteinase-mediated transactivation of EGFR that was associated with a gefitinib-sensitive phosphorylation of the downstream adaptor protein Shc. The activation of Akt was also inhibited by gefitinib, but only partly, suggesting a mechanism in addition to EGFR transactivation. Inhibition of PKC blocked neurotensin-induced DNA synthesis in HCT116 cells. Conclusions While acting predominantly through PKC in Panc-1 cells and via EGFR transactivation in HT29 cells, neurotensin used both these pathways in HCT116

  11. Role of protein kinase C and epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in growth stimulation by neurotensin in colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Kristin M; Tveteraas, Ingun H; Aasrum, Monica; Ødegård, John; Dawood, Mona; Dajani, Olav; Christoffersen, Thoralf; Sandnes, Dagny L

    2011-01-01

    Neurotensin has been found to promote colon carcinogenesis in rats and mice, and proliferation of human colon carcinoma cell lines, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. We have examined signalling pathways activated by neurotensin in colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma cells. Colon carcinoma cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Panc-1 were cultured and stimulated with neurotensin or epidermal growth factor (EGF). DNA synthesis was determined by incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine into DNA. Levels and phosphorylation of proteins in signalling pathways were assessed by Western blotting. Neurotensin stimulated the phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt in all three cell lines, but apparently did so through different pathways. In Panc-1 cells, neurotensin-induced phosphorylation of ERK, but not Akt, was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC), whereas an inhibitor of the β-isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), TGX221, abolished neurotensin-induced Akt phosphorylation in these cells, and there was no evidence of EGF receptor (EGFR) transactivation. In HT29 cells, in contrast, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib blocked neurotensin-stimulated phosphorylation of both ERK and Akt, indicating transactivation of EGFR, independently of PKC. In HCT116 cells, neurotensin induced both a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of ERK and a metalloproteinase-mediated transactivation of EGFR that was associated with a gefitinib-sensitive phosphorylation of the downstream adaptor protein Shc. The activation of Akt was also inhibited by gefitinib, but only partly, suggesting a mechanism in addition to EGFR transactivation. Inhibition of PKC blocked neurotensin-induced DNA synthesis in HCT116 cells. While acting predominantly through PKC in Panc-1 cells and via EGFR transactivation in HT29 cells, neurotensin used both these pathways in HCT116 cells. In these cells, neurotensin-induced activation of ERK

  12. The Role of Radiotherapy Alone in Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Reporting the Australian Experience of 43 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veness, Michael; Foote, Matthew; Gebski, Val; Poulsen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To review the role of radiotherapy (RTx) alone in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Methods and Materials: The records of 43 patients with MCC treated with RTx alone between 1993 and 2007 at the Westmead and Royal Brisbane/Mater Hospitals, Australia, were reviewed. Multivariate analysis was performed by use of Cox regression analysis. Results: The median age was 79 years (range, 48-91 years) in 19 women (44%) and 24 men (56%). All patients were white, and 5 (12%) had immunosuppression. A majority (56%) underwent irradiation at initial diagnosis, with the remainder (44%) treated in the relapse setting. The median duration of follow-up was 39 months. The head and neck comprised the most frequently treated site (47%). The median maximum lesion size was 30 mm (range, 5-130 mm). Relapse developed in 60% of patients, with most being out-of-field relapses. The in-field control rate was 75%. Most out-of-field relapses were to visceral organs. Relapse developed outside the irradiated field in 53% of patients. On multivariate analysis, only nodal status (negative nodes vs. nodes present) was significantly associated with relapse-free survival, with p = 0.005 (hazard ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-0.663). Overall survival at 2 and 5 years was 58% and 37%, respectively. Conclusions: Patients with MCC treated with RTx have a high likelihood of obtaining in-field control. Doses of 50 to 55 Gy in 20 to 25 fractions are recommended. A minority of patients are cured, with many dying of systemic relapse. Lower dose fractionation schedules (e.g., 25 Gy in 5 fractions) may be considered in patients with a very poor performance status.

  13. The Essential Role of Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A Study From the Rare Cancer Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadjar, Pirus, E-mail: pirus.ghadjar@insel.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Kaanders, Johannes H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Institute of Oncology (Netherlands); Poortmans, Philipp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands); Zaucha, Renata [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University, Gdansk (Poland); Krengli, Marco [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Novara (Italy); Lagrange, Jean L. [Service de Radiotherapie, Hopital Henri-Mondor, Creteil (France); Oezsoy, Orhan [Department of Radiation Oncology, CHCVs-RSV, Sion (Switzerland); Nguyen, Tan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Miralbell, Raymond [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Baize, Adele [Department de Radio-Oncologie, Institut Jules Bordet, Bruxelles (Belgium); Boujelbene, Noureddine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Collen, Timothy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen (Switzerland); Scandolaro, Luciano [Radioterapia, Azienda Ospedale Sant' Anna, Como (Italy); Untereiner, Michel [Centre Francois Baclesse, Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Goldberg, Hadassah [Oncology Departement, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel); Pesce, Gianfranco A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Opedale San Giovanni, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Anacak, Yavuz [Department of Radiation Oncology, EGE University, Izmir (Turkey); Friedrich, Esther E.; Aebersold, Daniel M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Beer, Karl T. [Radio Onkologiezentrum Biel (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Methods and Materials: A retrospective multicenter study was performed in 180 patients with MCC treated between February 1988 and September 2009. Patients who had had surgery alone were compared with patients who received surgery and postoperative RT or radical RT. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS), regional relapse-free survival (RRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were assessed together with disease-free survival (DFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) rates. Results: Seventy-nine patients were male and 101 patients were female, and the median age was 73 years old (range, 38-93 years). The majority of patients had localized disease (n = 146), and the remaining patients had regional lymph node metastasis (n = 34). Forty-nine patients underwent surgery for the primary tumor without postoperative RT to the primary site; the other 131 patients received surgery for the primary tumor, followed by postoperative RT (n = 118) or a biopsy of the primary tumor followed by radical RT (n = 13). Median follow-up was 5 years (range, 0.2-16.5 years). Patients in the RT group had improved LRFS (93% vs. 64%; p < 0.001), RRFS (76% vs. 27%; p < 0.001), DMFS (70% vs. 42%; p = 0.01), DFS (59% vs. 4%; p < 0.001), and CSS (65% vs. 49%; p = 0.03) rates compared to patients who underwent surgery for the primary tumor alone; LRFS, RRFS, DMFS, and DFS rates remained significant with multivariable Cox regression analysis. However OS was not significantly improved by postoperative RT (56% vs. 46%; p = 0.2). Conclusions: After multivariable analysis, postoperative RT was associated with improved outcome and seems to be an important component in the multimodality treatment of MCC.

  14. Specific role of targeted molecular therapy in treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gupta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease that constitutes an important portion of tumors that occur in the head and neck region. Oral cancer can affect overall and mental health, appearance, employment, social life, and family living. The disease can cause serious changes in the functioning of the upper aero digestive tract that affects the quality of life in patients. The use of conventional treatment modalities (surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy depends on tumor respectability and location as well as whether an organ preservation approach is feasible. However, their role in oral cancer treatment is nonselective and can cause damage to normal tissue. In particular, chemo radiotherapy is associated with systemic toxicities that often reduce patient compliance and prevent timely completion of therapy. The development of targeted therapies to target select pathways involved in carcinogenesis, potentially decrease systemic toxicities and morbidities associated with cancer burden and hence improve the prognosis in cancer patients. In the present article, the role of various targeted molecules in the treatment of oral cancer is discussed.

  15. Role of human papillomavirus in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: A review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha; Gupta, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are epitheliotropic viruses with an affinity for keratinocytes and are principally found in the anogenital tract, urethra, skin, larynx, tracheobronchial and oral mucosa. On the basis of high, but variable frequency of HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), malignant potential of HPV infection has been hypothesized but not definitely confirmed. The aim of this review was to highlight the genomic structure and possible mechanism of infection and carcinogenesis by HPV in the oral mucosa and to review the frequency of HPV prevalence in OSCC and oral potentially malignant disorders. A computer database search was performed through the use of PubMed from 1994 to 2014. Search keywords used were: HPV and oral cancer, HPV and oral leukoplakia, HPV and oral lichen planus, HPV and OSCC, HPV and verrucous carcinoma, HPV and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, HPV and oral papilloma. PMID:26097339

  16. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  17. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  18. Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Campos Arbulú

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis

  19. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  20. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda Plovmand

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.......Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis....

  1. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  2. Multiple gastrointestinal metastases of Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poškus, Eligijus; Platkevičius, Gediminas; Simanskaitė, Vilma; Rimkevičiūtė, Ernesta; Petrulionis, Marius; Strupas, Kestutis

    2016-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive skin malignancy. Primary Merkel cell carcinomas are treated by wide radical excision with or without adjuvant radiotherapy, while benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy remain doubtful. There are only several cases of gastrointestinal metastases of Merkel cell carcinoma reported so far. We report a case of recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma with metastases to the stomach and the small intestines after wide excision of primary Merkel cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the current treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, focusing on medical treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The most important recent publications have been selected after a literature search employing PubMed using the search terms: advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma, anti-angiogenesis drugs and systemic therapy; also significant meeting abstracts were consulted. RESULTS: Progress in understanding the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma, especially related to genetics and angiogenesis, has been achieved mainly through of the study of von Hippel-Lindau disease. A great variety of active agents have been developed and tested in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. New specific molecular therapies in metastatic disease are discussed. Sunitinib, Sorafenib and Bevacizumab increase the progression-free survival when compared to therapy with cytokines. Temsirolimus increases overall survival in high-risk patients. Growth factors and regulatory enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase IX may be targets for future therapies. CONCLUSIONS: A broader knowledge of clear cell carcinoma molecular biology has permitted the beginning of a new era in mRCC therapy. Benefits of these novel agents in terms of progression-free and overall survival have been observed in patients with mRCC, and, in many cases, have become the standard of care. Sunitinib is now considered the new reference first-line treatment for mRCC. Despite all the progress in recent years, complete responses are still very rare. Currently, many important issues regarding the use of these agents in the management of metastatic renal cancer still need to be properly addressed.

  4. Histological, Immunohistological, and Clinical Features of Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Correlation to Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jaeger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, but highly malignant tumor of the skin with high rates of metastasis and poor survival. Its incidence rate rises and is currently about 0.6/100000/year. Clinical differential diagnoses include basal cell carcinoma, cyst, amelanotic melanoma, lymphoma and atypical fibroxanthoma. In this review article clinical, histopathological and immunhistochemical features of Merkel cell carcinoma are reported. In addition, the role of Merkel cell polyomavirus is discussed.

  5. Evaluation of the prognostic role of tumor cell podoplanin expression in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttenlocher, Stefan; Seibold, Nina D.; Rades, Dirk; Gebhard, Maximilian P.; Noack, Frank; Thorns, Christoph; Hasselbacher, Katrin; Wollenberg, Barbara; Schild, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential prognostic role of tumor cell podoplanin expression in patients treated with resection followed by irradiation or chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Podoplanin expression (≤10 % versus > 10 %) and 12 other factors were evaluated in 160 patients for their association with locoregional control (LRC), metastases-free (MFS) and overall survival (OS). Other factors were age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, preradiotherapy (pre-RT) hemoglobin level, tumor site, histological grading, T category, N category, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, extent of resection and concurrent chemotherapy. In multivariate analysis, ECOG performance status 0-1 (risk ratio, RR: 3.01; 95 % confidence interval, CI: 1.42-7.14; p = 0.003), pre-RT hemoglobin levels ≥ 7.45 mmol/l (12 g/dl; RR: 2.03; 95 % CI: 1.04-3.94; p = 0.038), oropharyngeal cancer (RR: 1.25; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.55; p = 0.038) and T category T1-2 (RR: 1.81; 95 % CI: 1.24-2.79; p = 0.002) were significantly associated with improved LRC. T category T1-2 (RR: 1.90; 95 % CI: 1.25-3.06; p = 0.002) and N category N0-2a (RR: 5.22; 95 % CI: 1.96-18.09; p 10 %. (orig.) [de

  6. Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ Overlying Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Maria A; Helm, Matthew F; Tarbox, Michelle B

    2016-11-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous neoplasm that has exhibited an exponential increase in incidence in the past 3 decades. Combined MCC and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC/MCC) is an uncommon variant of MCC that exhibits worse prognosis than pure MCC. To describe the clinical presentation, dermoscopy, and histology of an unusual subtype of combined SCC/MCC. A 73-year-old white woman presented with an ulcerated and violaceous 10-mm plaque on her right jawline that had been present for 2 to 3 months. On dermoscopy, the lesion was predominantly milky pink to red with peripheral crusting and large-caliber polymorphous vessels. Histology revealed SCC in situ above and adjacent to MCC. The tumor was excised with clear margins, and sentinel lymph node scintography was negative for nodal involvement. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Role of KEAP1/NRF2 and TP53 mutations in lung squamous cell carcinoma development and radiotherapy response prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youngtae; Hoang, Ngoc T.; Lovejoy, Alexander; Stehr, Henning; Newman, Aaron M.; Gentles, Andrew J.; Kong, William; Truong, Diana; Martin, Shanique; Chaudhuri, Aadel; Heiser, Diane; Zhou, Li; Say, Carmen; Carter, Justin N.; Hiniker, Susan M.; Loo, Billy W.; West, Robert B.; Beachy, Philip; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Diehn, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Lung squamous cell carcinomas (LSCC) pathogenesis remains incompletely understood and biomarkers predicting treatment response remain lacking. Here we describe novel murine LSCC models driven by loss of Trp53 and Keap1, both of which are frequently mutated in human LSCCs. Homozygous inactivation of Keap1 or Trp53 promoted airway basal stem cell (ABSC) self-renewal, suggesting that mutations in these genes lead to expansion of mutant stem cell clones. Deletion of Trp53 and Keap1 in ABSCs, but not more differentiated tracheal cells, produced tumors recapitulating histological and molecular features of human LSCCs, indicating that they represent the likely cell of origin in this model. Deletion of Keap1 promoted tumor aggressiveness, metastasis, and resistance to oxidative stress and radiotherapy (RT). KEAP1/NRF2 mutation status predicted risk of local recurrence after RT in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and could be non-invasively identified in circulating tumor DNA. Thus, KEAP1/NRF2 mutations could serve as predictive biomarkers for personalization of therapeutic strategies for NSCLCs. PMID:27663899

  8. Update on Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Paul W

    2017-09-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy. Merkel cell polyomavirus, a tumorigenic DNA virus, is present in most MCC tumors, with implications for tumor biology, diagnosis, and management. Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative tumors have a high burden of UV-signature mutations, similar to melanoma. The histopathologic diagnosis of MCC requires immunohistochemistry to exclude morphologically similar entities. Therapies for advanced disease are currently lacking. Here, the features of MCC are reviewed, including recent molecular discoveries with implications for improved therapy for advanced disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Merkel cell carcinoma in an immunosuppressed patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, Heliana Freitas de Oliveira; Lima, Caren Dos Santos; Issa, Maria Cláudia de Almeida; Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Pantaleão, Luciana; Paixão, José Gabriel Miranda da

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommon neuroendocrine carcinoma with a rising incidence and an aggressive behavior. It predominantly occurs in older patients, with onset occurring at a mean age of 75-80 years. Recognized risk factors are ultraviolet sunlight exposure, immunosuppression, and, more recently, Merkel cell polyomavirus. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma in a young HIV positive patient with Merkel Cell polyomavirus detected in the tumor.

  10. Incidence trends in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in Slovenia, 1983-2009: role of human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strojan, Primož; Zadnik, Vesna; Šifrer, Robert; Lanišnik, Boštjan; Didanović, Vojislav; Jereb, Sara; Poljak, Mario; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Gale, Nina

    2015-12-01

    An increase in the incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) was observed in several population-based registries and has been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In the present study, we aimed to assess the contribution of HPV infection to the burden of mucosal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in Slovenia. For this purpose, data from the nationwide Cancer Registry of Slovenia for cases diagnosed between 1983 and 2009 were analyzed to determine time trends of age-adjusted incidence rates and survival in terms of annual percentage change (APC) for HNSCC in potentially HPV-related and HPV-unrelated sites. In addition, determination of p16 protein, HPV DNA and E6/E7 mRNA was performed in a cohort of OPSCC patients identified from the prospective database for the years 2007-2008. In total, 2,862 cases of HNSCC in potentially HPV-related sites and 7,006 cases in potentially HPV-unrelated sites were identified with decreased incidence observed over the time period in both groups (-0.58; 95 % CI -1.28 to -0.13 and -0.90; 95 % CI -1.23 to -0.57). Regardless of the group, incidence trends for both genders showed a significant decrease in men and increase in women. In a cohort of 99 OPSCC patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2008, 20 (20.2 %) patients had HPV positive tumors and exhibited a superior outcome compared to HPV-negative patients. In conclusion, results of the epidemiologic and histopathologic study confirmed that HPV infection had no major impact on the incidence trends in the Slovenian patients with HNSCC and, specifically, OPSCC during the studied period.

  11. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  12. Inflammation and cancer: role of annexin A1 and FPR2/ALX in proliferation and metastasis in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Santana Gastardelo

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory protein annexin A1 (ANXA1 has been associated with cancer progression and metastasis, suggesting its role in regulating tumor cell proliferation. We investigated the mechanism of ANXA1 interaction with formylated peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX in control, peritumoral and tumor larynx tissue samples from 20 patients, to quantitate the neutrophils and mast cells, and to evaluate the protein expression and co-localization of ANXA1/FPR2 in these inflammatory cells and laryngeal squamous cells by immunocytochemistry. In addition, we performed in vitro experiments to further investigate the functional role of ANXA1/FPR2 in the proliferation and metastasis of Hep-2 cells, a cell line from larynx epidermoid carcinoma, after treatment with ANXA1(2-26 (annexin A1 N-terminal-derived peptide, Boc2 (antagonist of FPR and/or dexamethasone. Under these treatments, the level of Hep-2 cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ANXA1/FPR2 co-localization, and the prostaglandin signalling were analyzed using ELISA, immunocytochemistry and real-time PCR. An influx of neutrophils and degranulated mast cells was detected in tumor samples. In these inflammatory cells of peritumoral and tumor samples, ANXA1/FPR2 expression was markedly exacerbated, however, in laryngeal carcinoma cells, this expression was down-regulated. ANXA1(2-26 treatment reduced the proliferation of the Hep-2 cells, an effect that was blocked by Boc2, and up-regulated ANXA1/FPR2 expression. ANXA1(2-26 treatment also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and affected the expression of metalloproteinases and EP receptors, which are involved in the prostaglandin signalling. Overall, this study identified potential roles for the molecular mechanism of the ANXA1/FPR2 interaction in laryngeal cancer, including its relationship with the prostaglandin pathway, providing promising starting points for future research. ANXA1 may contribute to the regulation of tumor growth

  13. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  14. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  15. Role of toll-like receptor 4 on the immune escape of human oral squamous cell carcinoma and resistance of cisplatin-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zujun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is expressed on immune cells as a sensor that recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a microbial conserved component. It has recently been determined that the expression of TLR4 is also found in various types of tumor cells. Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC treatment. However, the mechanisms responsible for cisplatin resistance are not well understood. Results The present study was designed to elucidate the role of TLR4 expression in human OSCC regarding immune escape and apoptotic resistance to cisplatin. TLR4 and the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88 were highly expressed in OSCC cell lines. Upon LPS stimulation both NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways were activated in OSCC cell lines, followed by the production of large quantities of IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF compared with human immortalized oral epithelia cells (HIOECs. OSCC cell lines were found to be resistant to cisplatin-mediated apoptosis after pretreatment with LPS. Conclusions Our results suggested that TLR4 was functionally expressed in human OSCC cells and development of resistance to cisplatin in human OSCC might occur through the mechanism involving TLR4 and its signaling pathway. Suppression of TLR4 and its signaling pathway might thus elevate sensitivity to cisplatin and potentially help improve the prognosis of patients with OSCC.

  16. Diagnostic and pathogenetic role of café-au-lait macules in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponti Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Café au lait spots (CALS are common dermatologic findings that can at the same time arise in a variety of pathologic conditions such as Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, together with numerous hereditary syndromes for which they represent either diagnostic criteria or associated elements (McCune Albright, Silver-Russell, LEOPARD, Ataxia-Telangiectasia. A review of the literature also revealed two cases of association with NBCCS. We report here the case of a female proband with CALS associated to Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS with known PTCH1 germline mutation (C.1348-2A>G who had been misdiagnosed with NF1 in her childhood because of 5 CALS and cutaneous nodules. The patient presented a giant cell tumor of the skin, palmar and calcaneal epidermoidal cystic nodules, odontogenic keratocystic tumors and deformity of the jaw profile. Her family history brought both her brother and father to our attention because of the presence of KCOTs diagnosed at early age: after genetic testing, the same PTCH1 germline mutation was identified in the three family members. Clinical criteria are used for discerning NF1 diagnosis (size, number and onset age, while there are no definite guidelines concerning CALS except for their presence. In our experience, we have noted an association of CALS with NBCCS; this seems interesting because we already know clinical criteria are a dynamic entity and can be modified by epidemiologic evidences.

  17. The Role of Compounds Derived from Natural Supplement as Anticancer Agents in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Inamul; Subramanian, Arvind; Huang, Chao H.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Van Veldhuizen, Peter J.; Banerjee, Snigdha; Banerjee, Sushanta K.

    2017-01-01

    Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is the most prominent kidney cancer derived from renal tubules and accounts for roughly 85% of all malignant kidney cancer. Every year, over 60,000 new cases are registered, and about 14,000 people die from RCC. The incidence of this has been increasing significantly in the U.S. and other countries. An increased understanding of molecular biology and the genomics of RCC has uncovered several signaling pathways involved in the progression of this cancer. Significant advances in the treatment of RCC have been reported from agents approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that target these pathways. These agents have become drugs of choice because they demonstrate clinical benefit and increased survival in patients with metastatic disease. However, the patients eventually relapse and develop resistance to these drugs. To improve outcomes and seek approaches for producing long-term durable remission, the search for more effective therapies and preventative strategies are warranted. Treatment of RCC using natural products is one of these strategies to reduce the incidence. However, recent studies have focused on these chemoprevention agents as anti-cancer therapies given they can inhibit tumor cell grow and lack the severe side effects common to synthetic compounds. This review elaborates on the current understanding of natural products and their mechanisms of action as anti-cancer agents. The present review will provide information for possible use of these products alone or in combination with chemotherapy for the prevention and treatment of RCC. PMID:29301217

  18. The Role of Compounds Derived from Natural Supplement as Anticancer Agents in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Inamul; Subramanian, Arvind; Huang, Chao H; Godwin, Andrew K; Van Veldhuizen, Peter J; Banerjee, Snigdha; Banerjee, Sushanta K

    2017-12-31

    Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is the most prominent kidney cancer derived from renal tubules and accounts for roughly 85% of all malignant kidney cancer. Every year, over 60,000 new cases are registered, and about 14,000 people die from RCC. The incidence of this has been increasing significantly in the U.S. and other countries. An increased understanding of molecular biology and the genomics of RCC has uncovered several signaling pathways involved in the progression of this cancer. Significant advances in the treatment of RCC have been reported from agents approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that target these pathways. These agents have become drugs of choice because they demonstrate clinical benefit and increased survival in patients with metastatic disease. However, the patients eventually relapse and develop resistance to these drugs. To improve outcomes and seek approaches for producing long-term durable remission, the search for more effective therapies and preventative strategies are warranted. Treatment of RCC using natural products is one of these strategies to reduce the incidence. However, recent studies have focused on these chemoprevention agents as anti-cancer therapies given they can inhibit tumor cell grow and lack the severe side effects common to synthetic compounds. This review elaborates on the current understanding of natural products and their mechanisms of action as anti-cancer agents. The present review will provide information for possible use of these products alone or in combination with chemotherapy for the prevention and treatment of RCC.

  19. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome; Naevoid Basalzellkarzinom-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, A.; Heinrich, M.; Heckmann, M.; Kramann, B. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Aliani, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Dill-Mueller, D. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Hautklinik und Poliklinik; Uder, M. [Erlange-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2005-07-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar/plantar pits, calcification of the falx cerebri, and spine and rib anomalies. The combination of clinical, imaging, and histological findings is helpful in identifying NBCCS patients. Imaging plays a crucial role in evaluation of these patients. We present a wide variety of clinical and radiological findings characteristic of this disease. (orig.)

  20. Pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma following head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Metastasis or second primary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Tom W.; Nederlof, Petra M.; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.; van't Veer, Laura J.; de Jong, Daphne; Hart, August A. M.; van Zandwijk, Nico; Klomp, Houke; Balm, Alfons J. M.; van Velthuysen, Marie-Louise F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To distinguish a metastasis from a second primary tumor in patients with a history of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and subsequent pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma. Experimental Design: For 44 patients with a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck followed by a

  1. Analysis of the Role of PET/CT SUVmax in Prognosis and Its Correlation with 
Clinicopathological Characteristics in Resectable Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang REN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the world, more than one-half of cases are diagnosed at a advanced stage, and the overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer is 18%. Lung cancer is divided into non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC. Approximately 80%-85% of cases are NSCLC which includes three main types: adenocarcinoma (40%, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (20%-30%, and large cell carcinoma (10%. Although therapies that target driver mutations in adenocarcinomas are showing some promise, they are proving ineffective in smoking-related SCC. We need pay more attention to the diagnosis and treatment of SCC. 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT has emerged as an accurate staging modality in lung cancer diagnosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax on PET-CT in prognosis and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics in resectable SCC. Methods One hundred and eighty-two resectable SCC patients who underwent PET/CT imaging between May 2005 and October 2014 were enrolled into this retrospectively study. All the enrolled patients had underwent pulmonary resection with mediastinal lymph node dissection without preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Survival outcomes were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Correlation between SUVmax and clinicopathological factors was analysed using Pearson correlation analysis and Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of SUVmax 13.0 as cutoff value, and patients with SUVmax more than 13.0 had shorter median overall survival than patients less than 13.0 in univariate analysis (56 months vs 87 months; P=0.022. There was remarkable correlation between SUVmax and gender, tumor size, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM stage

  2. [Analysis of the Role of PET/CT SUVmax in Prognosis and Its Correlation with 
Clinicopathological Characteristics in Resectable Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongliang; Xu, Wengui; You, Jian; Song, Xiuyu; Huang, Hui; Zhao, Ning; Ren, Xiubao; Zhang, Xinwei

    2016-04-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the world, more than one-half of cases are diagnosed at a advanced stage, and the overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer is 18%. Lung cancer is divided into non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Approximately 80%-85% of cases are NSCLC which includes three main types: adenocarcinoma (40%), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (20%-30%), and large cell carcinoma (10%). Although therapies that target driver mutations in adenocarcinomas are showing some promise, they are proving ineffective in smoking-related SCC. We need pay more attention to the diagnosis and treatment of SCC. 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has emerged as an accurate staging modality in lung cancer diagnosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on PET-CT in prognosis and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics in resectable SCC. One hundred and eighty-two resectable SCC patients who underwent PET/CT imaging between May 2005 and October 2014 were enrolled into this retrospectively study. All the enrolled patients had underwent pulmonary resection with mediastinal lymph node dissection without preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Survival outcomes were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Correlation between SUVmax and clinicopathological factors was analysed using Pearson correlation analysis and Spearman rank correlation analysis. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of SUVmax 13.0 as cutoff value, and patients with SUVmax more than 13.0 had shorter median overall survival than patients less than 13.0 in univariate analysis (56 months vs 87 months; P=0.022). There was remarkable correlation between SUVmax and gender, tumor size, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, neutrophil, NLR, hemoglobin (Pdifference by

  3. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and neck squamous cell carcinoma Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... Consumer Version: Overview of Mouth, Nose, and Throat Cancers Orphanet: Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck University of Michigan ...

  4. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  5. Surgical resection of a renal cell carcinoma involving the inferior vena cava: the role of the cardiothoracic surgeon

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Parissis, Haralabos

    2010-11-05

    Abstract Background The techniques for the resection of renal tumors with IVC extension are based on the experience of individual units. We attempt to provide a logical approach of the surgical strategies in a stepwise fashion. Methods Over 6-years 9 patients with renal cell carcinoma invading the IVC, underwent surgery. There were 6 males. The extension was at level IV in 4 and III in 5 cases. CPB used in 8 and hypothermia and circulatory arrest in all patients with level IV disease. The results and an algorithm of the plan of action, as per level of extension are presented. Results Plan of action: For level I-II disease: No Cardiothoracic involvement, For level III: Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB) & control of the cavo-atrial junction. For level IV: use of brief periods of Circulatory Arrest & repair of the Cavotomy with a pericardial patch. Postoperative morbidity: prolonged ICU stay, 3 patients (33.3%); tracheostomy, 1 (11.1%); Sepsis, 2 (22.2%); CVA 1, (11.1%). Mortality: 2 patients (22.2%) Conclusions Total clearance of the IVC from an adherent tumor is important, therefore extensive level IV disease presents a surgical challenge. We recommend CPB for level III and brief periods of Total Circulatory Arrest (TCA) for level IV disease.

  6. A Case-Control Study of the Role of Human Papillomavirus in Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi S. Liyanage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC tissues compared to oesophageal tissue from healthy controls, in an Australian cohort. Methods. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 99 patients with OSCC and 100 healthy controls to examine the presence of HPV DNA. Paraffin tissues were tested using the PapType high-risk HPV detection and genotyping kit and with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra. The biopsy samples were tested for HPV using a PCR-ELISA method based on the L1 consensus primer set PGMY09-PGMY11. Results. HPV DNA of the oncogenic genotype 16 was detected in 1/99 case specimens, a rate of 1010 per 100,000 (95% CI: 30–5500. All control specimens were negative for HPV. Significantly higher rates of smoking, other aerodigestive cancers, and mortality were seen among cases than controls. A pooled analysis of this study and the only other Australian case-control study found that 9/321 cases and 0/155 controls were positive for HPV. The pooled odds ratio for HPV being a risk factor for OSCC was 9.35 (95% CI: 0.47–190.33. Conclusion. Our results suggest that in this multifactorial cancer HPV may be an additional risk factor; although a larger, better powered study is needed.

  7. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the thyroid gland: ultrasonographic features and the diagnostic role of core needle biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ok Kyu; Koo, Ja Seung; Kwak, Jin Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The aims of this study were to present the ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the thyroid gland and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of fine needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB). Eight patients with nine metastatic RCC nodules in the thyroid glands who were treated from January 2002 to March 2015 in a single tertiary hospital were consecutively selected and retrospectively reviewed. US features and clinical history were obtained from the institution’s medical database. FNA was performed nine times on eight nodules and CNB was performed six times on six nodules. The diagnostic utility of FNA and CNB was evaluated. All nine nodules showed mass formation without diffuse thyroid involvement. On ultrasonography, metastatic RCC nodules were solid (100%), hypoechoic (100%), and ovalshaped nodules with a well-defined smooth margin (88.9%) and increased vascularity (100%, with 55% showing extensive vascularity). No calcifications were noted in any nodules. Lymph node metastasis and direct extension to nearby structures beyond the thyroid gland were not found. One FNA (11%) was able to confirm metastatic RCC, whereas all six CNBs confirmed metastatic RCC. Metastatic RCC appears as oval-shaped hypoechoic solid nodules with well-defined smooth margins, no calcifications, and increased vascularity on ultrasonography. Characteristic US features along with a previous history of RCC should raise clinical suspicion, and CNB should be performed to make an accurate diagnosis.

  8. The role of postoperative radiation and chemoradiation in Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaakir eHasan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to investigate whether adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapeutics offered any additional benefit than surgery alone in the treatment of Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC. Methods: A PubMed, MEDLINE search was conducted between 1995-2013, to identify reported cases of surgically treated MCC followed by either observation, radiation, or chemoradiation. Patient demographics and outcomes were recorded and compared in a systematic fashion. Results: Thirty-four studies (n = 4475 were included. The median age was 73 years, median follow-up was 36 months and there was a 1.5:1 ratio of men to women. All 4475 patients had surgery, 1975 had no further treatment, 1689 received postoperative RT, and 301 received postoperative chemoRT. The most common site was face/head/neck, 47.8%. Stage 1 was the most common clinical stage at diagnosis (57%. Three-year LC was 20% [median 10%] in the observation cohort, compared to 65% [62%] with postoperative RT and 67% [75%] with postoperative chemoRT; these findings were statistically significant (P

  9. Urinary bladder carcinoma with divergent differentiation featuring small cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, and liposarcomatous component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Mariko; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Miyakawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Daichi; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Both small cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder are highly aggressive tumors, and a concurrence of these tumors is extremely rare. We report a case of urinary bladder cancer with small cell carcinoma as a predominant component, accompanied by sarcomatoid carcinoma and conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC). Although the small cell carcinoma component had resolved on receiving chemoradiotherapy, rapid growth of the residual tumor led to a fatal outcome. A 47-year-old man presented with occasional bladder irritation and had a 2-year history of asymptomatic hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a huge mass in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Microscopically, small cell carcinoma was detected as the major tumor component. Spindle-shaped sarcomatoid cells were also observed that were intermingled with small cell carcinoma and conventional UC. In addition, a sheet-like growth of the lipoblast-like neoplastic cells was observed focally. Initially, by providing chemoradiotherapy, we achieved a marked tumor regression; however, the tumor rapidly regrew after the completion of chemoradiotherapy, and the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Only conventional UC and sarcomatoid carcinoma were identified in the cystectomy specimen. The patient died of the disease 4 months after cystectomy. Urinary bladder cancer may include a combination of multiple aggressive histologies as in the present case. Because the variation in the tumor components may affect the efficacy of therapy, a correct diagnosis of every tumor component is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of EMMPRIN expression in ovarian epithelial carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Chen, Shuo; Gou, Wen-feng; Niu, Zhe-feng; Zhao, Shuang; Xiao, Li-jun; Takano, Yasuo; Zheng, Hua-chuan

    2013-09-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) was reported to involve in the invasion and metastasis of malignancies by regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in stromal and cancer cells. The study aimed to clarify the role of EMMPRIN expression in tumorigenesis and progression of ovarian epithelial carcinomas. EMMPRIN siRNA were transfected into ovarian carcinoma cells with the phenotypes and their related molecules examined. EMMPRIN expression was determined in ovarian normal tissue, benign and borderline tumors, and epithelial carcinomas by real-time PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. EMMPRIN siRNA treatment resulted in a lower growth, G 1 arrest, apoptotic induction, decreased migration, and invasion. The transfectants showed reduced expression of Wnt5a, Akt, p70s6k, Bcl-xL, survivin, VEGF, and MMP-9 than mock and control cells at both mRNA and protein levels. According to real-time PCR and western blot, EMMPRIN mRNA or protein level was higher in ovarian borderline tumor and carcinoma than normal ovary and benign tumors (PEMMPRIN expression was positively correlated with FIGO staging, dedifferentiation, Ki-67 expression, the lower cumulative and relapse-free survival rate (PEMMPRIN protein and mRNA might be involved in the pathogenesis, differentiation, and progression of ovarian carcinomas, possibly by modulating cellular events, such as proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion.

  11. Neglected basal cell carcinoma on scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant basal cell carcinoma (BCC is a very rare entity. Usually, they occur due to the negligence of the patient. Local or distant metastasis is present in most cases. Here, we present a case of giant BCC that clinically resembled squamous cell carcinoma and demonstrated no metastasis at presentation.

  12. Combination therapies in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthi, S.; Shanta, V.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical trials are reported involving combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in oral squamous cell carcinomas. Bleomycin was the only drug that potentiated radiation response in buccal squamous cell carcinomas. The response of the primary tumors was consistent, predictable and reproducible. The following drugs or chemicals were used: synkavit, methotrexate, metronidazole, bleomycin, pepleomycin, and hyperbaric oxygen. The results and their comparison is given in tables

  13. Scalp squamous cell carcinoma in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Basim A; Alzanbagi, Hanadi; Samargandi, Osama A; Ammar, Hossam

    2014-02-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that appears in early childhood. Squamous cell carcinoma is not uncommon in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and mostly involving the face, head, neck, and scalp. However, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp may exhibit an aggressive course. Here, we present a huge squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp in a three-years-old child with xeroderma pigmentosum. In addition, we illustrate the challenges of a child with xeroderma pigmentosum who grows up in a sunny environment where the possibility of early onset of squamous cell carcinoma is extremely high in any suspected skin lesion. In xeroderma pigmentosum patients, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp can present early and tends to be unusually aggressive. In sunny areas, proper education to the patient and their parents about ultra-violet light protection and early recognition of any suspicious lesion could be life-saving.

  14. Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Radiotherapy or Radiochemotherapy: Prognostic Role of TP53 and HPV Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallai, Carlo; Perrone, Federica; Licitra, Lisa; Pilotti, Silvana; Locati, Laura; Bossi, Paolo; Orlandi, Ester; Palazzi, Mauro; Olmi, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of the TP53 mutation and human papilloma virus (HPV) status in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Methods and materials: The TP53 mutation and HPV status were analyzed in 78 cases of locoregionally advanced OPSCC. The possible correlation of these factors with locoregiownal control, relapse-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival (OS) was also investigated. Results: Of these 78 cases, 22 had disruptive and 22 had non-disruptive (silent) TP53 mutations; the remaining 34 cases had wild-type (WT) TP53. HPV 16 DNA was found in 9 cases (11%), but all HPV-positive (HPV+) cases carried a functional p53 protein, except for 1 case that had a silent mutation. HPV+ patients fared better than HPV-negative (HPV-) patients in terms of all survival parameters, with highly statistically significant differences between the groups. Specifically, no distant metastases were observed in the HPV+ patients, whereas they occurred in 17% of the HPV- patients. However, no difference was observed between the WT TP53 and mutation group, even when this was analyzed in terms of disruptive and non-disruptive mutations. Regardless, treatment with chemotherapy nearly doubled the 5-year OS rates, both in the mutation (42% vs. 22%) and WT (30 vs. 16%) group, but only the mutation group showed improvement in all survival parameters. In addition, the second tumor-free 5-year survival rate was 72% in HPV- cases, but no second tumors were observed in HPV+ and WT p53 cases. Conclusions: Patients with HPV+ OPSCC have an excellent prognosis after radiochemotherapy, but cisplatin-based chemotherapy may not confer a satisfactory outcome, especially in WT cases, thereby justifying the additional or alternative use of taxanes and epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors. Uncommon distant metastases and second tumors in the HPV+ group may be cause for clinicians to review the follow-up policies in these patients.

  15. Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stem Cells as Immunotherapy Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0260 TITLE: Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stem Cells as Immunotherapy Targets PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Carla Kim... Cell Carcinoma Stem Cells as Immunotherapy Targets 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0260 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common type of lung cancer, and immunotherapy is a promising new

  16. p16 expression is not associated with human papillomavirus in urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Riley E; Hu, Yingchuan; Kum, Jennifer B; Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Maclennan, Gregory T; Idrees, Muhammad T; Emerson, Robert E; Ulbright, Thomas M; Grignon, David G; Eble, John N; Cheng, Liang

    2012-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is unusual and of unknown etiology. There is a well-established association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical and head/neck squamous cell carcinomas. However, the role of HPV in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is uncertain. The purposes of this study were to investigate the possible role of HPV in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and to determine if p16 expression could serve as a surrogate marker for HPV in this malignancy. In all, 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation were investigated. HPV infection was analyzed by both in situ hybridization at the DNA level and immunohistochemistry at the protein level. p16 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. HPV DNA and protein were not detected in 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (0%, 0/42) or 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation (0%, 0/15). p16 expression was detected in 13 cases (31%, 13/42) of squamous cell carcinoma and 9 cases (33%, 9/27) of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. There was no correlation between p16 expression and the presence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. Our data suggest that HPV does not play a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. p16 expression should not be used as a surrogate marker for evidence of HVP infection in either squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation as neither HVP DNA nor protein is detectable in these neoplasms.

  17. Mast cells dysregulate apoptotic and cell cycle genes in mucosal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Paul

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is a disease of high mortality and morbidity. Interactions between the squamous cell carcinoma and the host's local immunity, and how the latter contributes to the biological behavior of the tumor are unclear. In vivo studies have demonstrated sequential mast cell infiltration and degranulation during squamous cell carcinogenesis. The degree of mast cell activation correlates closely with distinct phases of hyperkeratosis, dysplasia, carcinoma in-situ and invasive carcinoma. However, the role of mast cells in carcinogenesis is unclear. Aim This study explores the effects of mast cells on the proliferation and gene expression profile of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma using human mast cell line (HMC-1 and human glossal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCC25. Methods HMC-1 and SCC25 were co-cultured in a two-compartment chamber, separated by a polycarbonate membrane. HMC-1 was stimulated to degranulate with calcium ionophore A23187. The experiments were done in quadruplicate. Negative controls were established where SCC25 were cultured alone without HMC-1. At 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation and viability of SCC25 were assessed with MTT colorimetric assay. cDNA microarray was employed to study differential gene expression between co-cultured and control SCC25. Results HMC-1/SCC25 co-culture resulted in suppression of growth rate for SCC-25 (34% compared with 110% for the control by 72 hours, p Conclusion We show that mast cells have a direct inhibitory effect on the proliferation of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro by dysregulating key genes in apoptosis and cell cycle control.

  18. Merkel cell carcinoma: is this a true carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Marek; Kopinski, Piotr; Schwartz, Robert; Czajkowski, Rafal

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have brought an enhanced understanding of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) biology, especially with regard to the Merkel cell polyoma virus as a causative agent. Differences between Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive and Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative MCC in morphology; gene expression, miRNA profiles and prognosis have been reported. Origin of MCC is controversial. Presence of neurosecretory granules has suggested that these carcinomas originate from one of the neurocrest derivatives, most probably Merkel cells; the name Merkel cell carcinoma is now widely accepted. Expression of PGP 9.5, chromogranin A and several neuropeptides, initially regarded as specific markers for neural and neuroendocrine cells, has recently been shown in a subset of lymphomas. MCC commonly expresses terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and PAX5. Their co-expression under physiologic circumstances is restricted to pro/pre-B cells and pre-B cells. These findings lead to the hypothesis by zur Hausen et al. that MCC originates from early B cells. This review was intended to critically appraise zur Hausen's hypothesis and discuss the possibility that MCC is a heterogenous entity with distinct subtypes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Role of presurgical targeted molecular therapy in renal cell carcinoma with an inferior vena cava tumor thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cheng Peng,1,* Liangyou Gu,1,* Lei Wang,2 Qingbo Huang,1 Baojun Wang,1 Gang Guo,1 Yang Fan,1 Yu Gao,1 Xin Ma,1 Xu Zhang1 1Department of Urology, State Key Laboratory of Kidney Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Chinese PLA Medical Academy, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Urology, Chinese PLA 534 Hospital, Luoyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The clinical benefit of targeted molecular therapy (TMT in renal cell carcinoma (RCC with an inferior vena cava (IVC tumor thrombus remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of presurgical TMT on the heights and levels of IVC thrombi, and to assess its impact on surgical strategy. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from 18 patients with RCC involving IVC tumor thrombi who were treated at our hospital with presurgical TMT followed by an IVC thrombectomy. The changes in heights and levels of the IVC thrombi were compared using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Clinicopathological factors were also evaluated to assess their association with TMT efficacy. Results: The tumor thrombus levels before TMT were stage I in 1 patient (5.6%, II in 12 patients (66.7%, III in 4 patients (22.2%, and IV in 1 patient (5.6%. After a median of two treatment cycles (range: 1–3, the thrombus height decreased measurably in 11 patients (61.1% with an average shrinkage of 17.7%. The thrombus height remained stable in five patients (27.8% and was enlarged in two (11.1%. Downstaging of the thrombus level occurred in four patients (22.2%; the surgical strategy was modified in three patients (16.7% to avoid cardiopulmonary bypass and complicated liver mobilization under robot-assisted laparoscopy. Furthermore, a higher neutrophil count tended to be associated with a worse clinical TMT-associated outcome (P=0.056. Conclusion: Our data suggest a limited influence of presurgical TMT

  20. Comparative analysis of metastasis variants derived from human prostate carcinoma cells: roles in intravasation of VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and uPA-mediated invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conn, Erin M; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø; Kupriyanova, Tatyana A

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the process of tumor cell intravasation, we used the human tumor-chick embryo spontaneous metastasis model to select in vivo high (PC-hi/diss) and low (PC-lo/diss) disseminating variants from the human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cell line. These variants dramatically differed in their int...

  1. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  2. Proteomic Analysis Revealed the Important Role of Vimentin in Human Cervical Carcinoma HeLa Cells Treated With Gambogic Acid*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qingxi; Feng, Lixing; Cao, Biyin; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Dongmei; Wu, Wanying; Jiang, Baohong; Yang, Min; Liu, Xuan; Guo, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Gambogic acid (GA) is an anticancer agent in phase IIb clinical trial in China. In HeLa cells, GA inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis, as showed by results of MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Possible target-related proteins of GA were searched using comparative proteomic analysis (2-DE) and nine proteins at early (3 h) stage together with nine proteins at late (24 h) stage were found. Vimentin was the only target-related protein found at both early and late stage. Results of both 2-DE analysis and Western blotting assay suggested cleavage of vimentin induced by GA. MS/MS analysis of cleaved vimentin peptides indicated possible cleavage sites of vimentin at or near ser51 and glu425. Results of targeted proteomic analysis showed that GA induced change in phosphorylation state of the vimentin head domain (aa51–64). Caspase inhibitors could not abrogate GA-induced cleavage of vimentin. Over-expression of vimentin ameliorated cytotoxicity of GA in HeLa cells. The GA-activated signal transduction, from p38 MAPK, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), vimentin, dysfunction of cytoskeleton, to cell death, was predicted and then confirmed. Results of animal study showed that GA treatment inhibited tumor growth in HeLa tumor-bearing mice and cleavage of vimentin could be observed in tumor xenografts of GA-treated animals. Results of immunohistochemical staining also showed down-regulated vimentin level in tumor xenografts of GA-treated animals. Furthermore, compared with cytotoxicity of GA in HeLa cells, cytotoxicity of GA in MCF-7 cells with low level of vimentin was weaker whereas cytotoxicity of GA in MG-63 cells with high level of vimentin was stronger. These results indicated the important role of vimentin in the cytotoxicity of GA. The effects of GA on vimentin and other epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers provided suggestion for better usage of GA in clinic. PMID:26499837

  3. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Barkla, D. H.; Whitehead, R. H.; Foster, H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting f...

  4. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  5. Histological, Immuno histological, and Clinical Features of Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Correlation to Merkel Cell Polyoma virus Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, T.; Ring, J.; Andres, C.

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, but highly malignant tumor of the skin with high rates of metastasis and poor survival. Its incidence rate rises and is currently about 0.6/100000/year. Clinical differential diagnoses include basal cell carcinoma, cyst, a melanotic melanoma, lymphoma and atypical fibroxanthoma. In this review article clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of Merkel cell carcinoma are reported. In addition, the role of Merkel cell polyoma virus is discussed.

  6. Cetuximab & Nivolumab in Patients With Recurrent/Metastatic Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-10

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Cancer; Head and Neck Carcinoma

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... common for Merkel cell carcinoma to recur. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... common for Merkel cell carcinoma to recur. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  9. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  10. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Therapeutic Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassler, Nicole M; Merrill, Dean; Bichakjian, Christopher K; Brownell, Isaac

    2016-07-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. Early-stage disease can be cured with surgical resection and radiotherapy (RT). Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an important staging tool, as a microscopic MCC is frequently identified. Adjuvant RT to the primary excision site and regional lymph node bed may improve locoregional control. However, newer studies confirm that patients with biopsy-negative sentinel lymph nodes may not benefit from regional RT. Advanced MCC currently lacks a highly effective treatment as responses to chemotherapy are not durable. Recent work suggests that immunotherapy targeting the programmed cell death receptor 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) checkpoint holds great promise in treating advanced MCC and may provide durable responses in a portion of patients. At the same time, high-throughput sequencing studies have demonstrated significant differences in the mutational profiles of tumors with and without the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV). An important secondary endpoint in the ongoing immunotherapy trials for MCC will be determining if there is a response difference between the virus-positive MCC tumors that typically lack a large mutational burden and the virus-negative tumors that have a large number of somatic mutations and predicted tumor neoantigens. Interestingly, sequencing studies have failed to identify a highly recurrent activated driver pathway in the majority of MCC tumors. This may explain why targeted therapies can demonstrate exceptional responses in case reports but fail when treating all comers with MCC. Ultimately, a precision medicine approach may be more appropriate for treating MCC, where identified driver mutations are used to direct targeted therapies. At a minimum, stratifying patients in future clinical trials based on tumor viral status should be considered as virus-negative tumors are more likely to harbor activating driver mutations.

  11. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH RENAL-CELL CARCINOMA AND A ROLE OF ONCOPHAGE IN INCREASING SURVIVAL RATES AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ya. Alekseyev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prognostic value of the Fuhrman renal-cell carcinoma (RCC gradation system has been supported by numerous studies. The high RCC  grade after Fuhrman is a sign of the high risk of recurrence even in patients with the early stages of the disease, in clear-cell tumor in par-  ticular. The anticancer vaccine Oncophage is recommended to prevent a recurrence and/or to increase a relapse-free period in patients with  early stages of RCC. While using this vaccine, one should follow the Fuhrman histological gradation system and use a coordinated multi-  disciplinary approach to treating this group of patients. This paper describes the Fuhrman histological gradation system, indications for the  use of Oncophage in patients with the early stages of ECC and a moderate risk of a recurrence. The role of urological surgeons, oncologists,  and pathomorphologists in the treatment of patients with early stages of ECC is also considered.    

  12. Merkel cell polyomavirus and Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCaprio, James A

    2017-10-19

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) causes the highly aggressive and relatively rare skin cancer known as Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). MCPyV also causes a lifelong yet relatively innocuous infection and is one of 14 distinct human polyomaviruses species. Although polyomaviruses typically do not cause illness in healthy individuals, several can cause catastrophic diseases in immunocompromised hosts. MCPyV is the only polyomavirus clearly associated with human cancer. How MCPyV causes MCC and what oncogenic events must transpire to enable this virus to cause MCC is the focus of this essay.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Homeostatic regulatory role of Pokemon in NF-κB signaling: stimulating both p65 and IκBα expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan-Nan; Sun, Qin-Sheng; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Yu-Yang

    2013-01-01

    NF-κB consists of p50, p65 (RelA), p52, c-Rel, and RelB, and among them p65 is a representative protein to investigate the regulation and function of this signaling. NF-κB integrates inflammation and carcinogenesis and regulates the expression of a variety of genes in response to immunity, inflammation, and apoptosis. IκBα acts as an inhibitor of NF-κB through forming an inactive NF-κB/IκBα complex. Pokemon is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in different signaling pathways, playing a pivotal role in cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, embryonic development, and maintenance. In this study, we found that p65 and IκBα are both novel regulatory targets of Pokemon. Ectopic expression of Pokemon in immortalized liver cells HL7702 enhanced p65 and IκBα expression, whereas silencing of Pokemon in hepatocellular carcinoma cells QGY7703 reduced cellular p65 levels. ChIP assay and targeted mutagenesis revealed that Pokemon directly binds to the element of -434 to -430 bp in p65 promoter and of -453 to -448 bp in IκBα promoter and stimulates luciferase reporter gene expression. Co-transfection of Pokemon with p65 or IκBα promoter-reporter notably enhanced their promoter activity. These data suggest that Pokemon activates the expression of both p65 and IκBα by sequence-specific binding to their promoters and plays a dual role in regulating NF-κB signaling.

  14. Eyelid Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-hyun Song1§, Sae-kwang Ku2§, Hwan-soo Jang3, Eun-young Kye, Sung-ho Yun, Kwang-ho Jang and Young-sam Kwon*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old, female, Yorkshire Terrier was presented with a left lower eyelid mass. No other abnormality was detected on affected eye in a general eye examination. The mass was surgically removed and histologically diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. The advancement flap used in this case may be an appropriate therapeutic choice for eyelid squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Jung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae; Choi, Jeong Hee

    2003-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst is uncommon. The diagnosis of carcinoma arising in a cyst requires that there must be an area of microscopic transition from the benign epithelial cyst lining to the invasive squamous cell carcinoma. We report a histopathologically proven case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a residual mandibular cyst in a 54-year-old woman.

  16. Center for Cancer Research plays key role in first FDA-approved drug for treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Cancer Research’s ability to rapidly deploy integrated basic and clinical research teams at a single site facilitated the rapid FDA approval of the immunotherapy drug avelumab for metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare, aggressive form of skin cancer. Learn more...  

  17. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma: A diagnostic impediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Rani Koduganti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinomas represent 3% of cancers in men and 2% of cancers in women. More than 90% of oral cancer occurs in people older than 45 years Lesions of gingiva account for approximately 10% of the oral squamous cell carcinomas and may present clinically as an area of ulceration, exophytic mass, or red/white speckled patches. The proximity to the underlying periosteum may invite early bone invasion. Carcinoma of gingiva constitutes an extremely important group of neoplasms as the lesion frequently mimics the reactive and inflammatory conditions affecting the periodontium, delaying the diagnosis and making the prognosis of the patient poorer. A rare case of gingival squamous cell carcinoma has been reported here, in a 40 Year old male patient. Careful recording of the case history and results of clinical examination, radiographic, and laboratory investigations, along with a critical review of similar conditions led to the diagnosis, and treatment was initiated.

  18. Basal cell carcinoma of the nipple. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, R J; Sau, P; Benson, P M

    1990-02-01

    Two cases of basal cell carcinoma of the nipple are presented, bringing the total number of reported cases to 15. The majority, including our two patients, are elderly men. This finding suggests a causal role of exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In our cases excision was curative.

  19. Merkel cell carcinoma and iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnoli, A.; Biti, G.; De Cristofaro, M.T.R.; Papi, M.G.; Ferri, P.; Magrini, S.M.; Bianchi, S.

    1992-01-01

    Two cases of Merkel cell carcinoma, a neuroendocrine neoplasia of the skin, investigated with iodine, 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 131 I-mIBG) scintigraphy, are reported. Uptake in the tumor was evident only in 1 case. The possible diagnostic and therapeutic role of 131 I-mIBG in patients with this rare neoplasm is discussed. (orig.)

  20. The role of long noncoding RNA-LET in cell proliferation and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lei Chen,1,* Lingling Sun,1,* Lei Dong,2 Peng Cui,3 Ziwei Xia,4 Chao Li,1 Yu Zhu5 1Department of Otolaryngology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of Multidisciplinary Consultation Center of TCM and Western Medicine, The Affiliated Qingdao Hiser Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, The Second Clinical Medical School of Tianjin Medical University, 5Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cerebral Vessels and Neural Degeneration, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: LncRNA-LET, a recently identified long noncoding RNA, has been shown to act as a tumor suppressor; however, its biological function and mechanism have not been fully investigated. Our research found that there was less expression of LET in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC tissues than normal tissues and that LET might inhibit proliferation, adhesion and invasion of NPC in vitro by enhancing its expression. By contrast, decreased LET expression could promote the proliferation, adhesion and invasion of NPC. In addition, the expression profiles of related genes and MAPK/ERK pathway were also regulated effectively via overexpression or silencing of LET. This result provides comprehensive evidence of LET’s antitumor effect on NPC in vitro, which might provide a new approach for clinical treatment. Keywords: LncRNA-LET, proliferation, invasion, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, MAPK/ERK pathway

  1. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  2. Evaluation of the prognostic role of tumor cell podoplanin expression in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttenlocher, Stefan; Seibold, Nina D.; Rades, Dirk [University of Luebeck, Department of Radiation Oncology, Luebeck (Germany); Gebhard, Maximilian P.; Noack, Frank; Thorns, Christoph [University of Luebeck, Institute of Pathology, Luebeck (Germany); Hasselbacher, Katrin; Wollenberg, Barbara [University of Luebeck, Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Luebeck (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdalel, Department of Radiation Oncology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the potential prognostic role of tumor cell podoplanin expression in patients treated with resection followed by irradiation or chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Podoplanin expression (≤10 % versus > 10 %) and 12 other factors were evaluated in 160 patients for their association with locoregional control (LRC), metastases-free (MFS) and overall survival (OS). Other factors were age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, preradiotherapy (pre-RT) hemoglobin level, tumor site, histological grading, T category, N category, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, extent of resection and concurrent chemotherapy. In multivariate analysis, ECOG performance status 0-1 (risk ratio, RR: 3.01; 95 % confidence interval, CI: 1.42-7.14; p = 0.003), pre-RT hemoglobin levels ≥ 7.45 mmol/l (12 g/dl; RR: 2.03; 95 % CI: 1.04-3.94; p = 0.038), oropharyngeal cancer (RR: 1.25; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.55; p = 0.038) and T category T1-2 (RR: 1.81; 95 % CI: 1.24-2.79; p = 0.002) were significantly associated with improved LRC. T category T1-2 (RR: 1.90; 95 % CI: 1.25-3.06; p = 0.002) and N category N0-2a (RR: 5.22; 95 % CI: 1.96-18.09; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with better MFS. Pre-RT hemoglobin levels ≥ 7.45 mmol/l (RR: 2.44; 95 % CI: 1.27-4.74; p = 0.007), T category T1-2 (RR: 1.97; 95 % CI: 1.36-3.04; p < 0.001) and N category N0-2a (RR: 2.87; 95 % CI: 1.37-6.61; p = 0.005) were significantly associated with improved OS. Podoplanin expression ≤ 10 % showed a trend towards improved OS on both univariate (p = 0.050) and multivariate analysis (RR: 1.86; 95 % CI: 0.96-3.59; p = 0.07). Treatment outcomes were significantly associated with performance status, pre-RT hemoglobin level, tumor site and tumor stage. Tumor cell expression of podoplanin ≤ 10 % showed a trend towards improved OS when compared to podoplanin expression of

  3. Roles of posttherapy 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Yuan; Su, Tzu-Pei; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chao, Angel; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Chang, Yu-Chen; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2018-07-01

    To assess the clinical roles of [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed 2-3 months after completion of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), along with pretherapy characteristics, in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Posttherapy PET/CT in patients with advanced FIGO stage or positive pelvic or para-aortic lymph node (PALN) defined on pretherapy PET/CT was classified as positive, equivocal, or negative. Overall survival (OS) rates between patients with different PET/CT results are compared. Pretherapy characteristics are examined for association with posttherapy PET/CT results and for prognostic significance in patients with equivocal or negative PET/CT. PET/CT scans (n = 55) were positive, equivocal and negative in 9, 13 and 33 patients, respectively. All patients with positive scans were confirmed to have residual or metastatic disease and died despite salvage therapies. There is a significant OS difference between patients with positive and equivocal scans (P PET/CT (P = .033) and predicts a poorer survival in patients with equivocal or negative posttherapy PET/CT (P PET/CT 2-3 months posttherapy implies treatment failure and novel therapy is necessary to improve outcomes for such patients. A more intense posttherapy surveillance may be warranted in patients with positive pretherapy PALN.

  4. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Yavuz; Topaloglu, Ilhan; Ozcan, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient's clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment.

  5. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Atar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient′s clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment.

  6. Small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma colliding with squamous cell carcinoma at esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luoluo; Sun, Xun; Zou, Yabin; Meng, Xiangwei

    2014-01-01

    Collision tumor is an extremely rare tumor which defined as the concrescence of two distinct primaries neoplasms. We report here a case of collision tumor at lower third esophagus composed of small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), which is an very rare, highly aggressive and poorly prognostic carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). In our case, pathologically, the small cell carcinoma display the characteristic of small, round, ovoid or spindle-shaped tumor cells with scant cytoplasm, which colliding with a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated positive activities for CD56, synaptophysin, 34βE12, CK 5/6, ki-67 (70%-80%), but negative for CD99, chromogranin A, and TTF-1. Accurate diagnosis was made base on these findings. PMID:24817981

  7. Clinicopathological characteristics of head and neck Merkel cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Andreas; Bas, Murat; Hofauer, Benedikt; Mansour, Naglaa; Stark, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    There are still controversies about the therapeutic strategies and subsequent outcome in head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma. Clinicopathological data of 23 Merkel cell carcinomas, 93 cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), 126 malignant melanomas, and 91 primary parotid gland carcinomas were comprehensively analyzed. Merkel cell carcinomas were cytokeratin 20 (CK20)/neuron-specific enolase (NSE)/chromogranin A (CgA)/synaptophysin (Syn)/thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1)/MIB1 immunostained. All Merkel cell carcinomas underwent wide local excision. Parotidectomy/neck dissection was performed in 40%/33% cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma and 100%/100% in parotid gland Merkel cell carcinoma. Five-year recurrence-free interval (RFI)/overall survival (OS) was significantly higher in malignant melanoma (81/80%) than in cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma/HNSCC. Interestingly, 5-year RFI/OS was significantly higher in Merkel cell carcinoma (61%/79%) than in HNSCC (33%/65%; p Merkel cell carcinoma and parotid gland carcinomas, nor in the immunohistochemical profile. Five-year RFI/OS was significantly better in cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma when compared with TNM classification matched HNSCC. Five-year RFI/OS was comparable in parotid gland Merkel cell carcinoma and other primary parotid gland malignancies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 92-97, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Interaction of Stellate Cells with Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Siech

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is characterized by its late detection, aggressive growth, intense infiltration into adjacent tissue, early metastasis, resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy and a strong “desmoplastic reaction”. The dense stroma surrounding carcinoma cells is composed of fibroblasts, activated stellate cells (myofibroblast-like cells, various inflammatory cells, proliferating vascular structures, collagens and fibronectin. In particular the cellular components of the stroma produce the tumor microenvironment, which plays a critical role in tumor growth, invasion, spreading, metastasis, angiogenesis, inhibition of anoikis, and chemoresistance. Fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and activated stellate cells produce the extracellular matrix components and are thought to interact actively with tumor cells, thereby promoting cancer progression. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the role of pancreatic stellate cells (PSC in the desmoplastic response of pancreas cancer and the effects of PSC on tumor progression, metastasis and drug resistance. Finally we present some novel ideas for tumor therapy by interfering with the cancer cell-host interaction.

  9. Hepatocellular carcinoma-associated mesenchymal stem cells promote hepatocarcinoma progression: role of the S100A4-miR155-SOCS1-MMP9 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin-Long; Jia, Ya-Li; Chen, Lin; Zeng, Quan; Zhou, Jun-Nian; Fu, Chun-Jiang; Chen, Hai-Xu; Yuan, Hong-Feng; Li, Zhi-Wei; Shi, Lei; Xu, Ying-Chen; Wang, Jing-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Juan; Zhai, Chao; Yue, Wen; Pei, Xue-Tao

    2013-06-01

    Cancer-associated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a pivotal role in modulating tumor progression. However, the interactions between liver cancer-associated MSCs (LC-MSCs) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unreported. Here, we identified the presence of MSCs in HCC tissues. We also showed that LC-MSCs significantly enhanced tumor growth in vivo and promoted tumor sphere formation in vitro. LC-MSCs also promoted HCC metastasis in an orthotopic liver transplantation model. Complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray analysis showed that S100A4 expression was significantly higher in LC-MSCs compared with liver normal MSCs (LN-MSCs) from adjacent cancer-free tissues. Importantly, the inhibition of S100A4 led to a reduction of proliferation and invasion of HCC cells, while exogenous S100A4 expression in HCC cells resulted in heavier tumors and more metastasis sites. Our results indicate that S100A4 secreted from LC-MSCs can promote HCC cell proliferation and invasion. We then found the expression of oncogenic microRNA (miR)-155 in HCC cells was significantly up-regulated by coculture with LC-MSCs and by S100A4 ectopic overexpression. The invasion-promoting effects of S100A4 were significantly attenuated by a miR-155 inhibitor. These results suggest that S100A4 exerts its effects through the regulation of miR-155 expression in HCC cells. We demonstrate that S100A4 secreted from LC-MSCs promotes the expression of miR-155, which mediates the down-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, leading to the subsequent activation of STAT3 signaling. This promotes the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 9, which results in increased tumor invasiveness. S100A4 secreted from LC-MSCs is involved in the modulation of HCC progression, and may be a potential therapeutic target. (HEPATOLOGY 2013). Copyright © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Should patients with extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naidoo, Jarushka

    2013-09-01

    Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is a rare disease. Management is based on small-cell lung carcinoma. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is not routinely administered in EPSCC. This study investigates the role of PCI in EPSCC, by analyzing the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with brain metastases in a national cohort. Disease biology and epidemiology are also investigated.

  11. The role of c-Src in the invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells induced by association of cell surface GRP78 with activated α2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Song; Li, Hongdan; Wang, Qingjun; Su, Chang; Wang, Guan; Song, Huijuan; Zhao, Liang; Luan, Zhidong; Su, Rongjian

    2015-01-01

    Emerging data have suggested that cell surface GRP78 is a multifunctional receptor and has been linked to proliferative and antiapoptotic signaling cascades. Activated α 2− macroglobin (α 2 M*) is a natural circulating ligand of cell surface GRP78. Association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M* is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis in human cancers. The invasion and metastasis of HCC cells were examined using transwell and wound healing assay; Cell surface expression of GRP78 was detected by in cell western assay. Translocation of GRP78 from cytosol to cell surface was observed by transfection of GRP78-EGFP plus TRIRC-WGA staining. The levels of Src, phosphor-Src, FAK, phospho-FAK, EGFR, phospho-EGFR, phospho-Cortactin, phospho-Paxillin were determined by western blot. Cell surface expression of GRP78 in HCC tissue samples was observed by immunofluorescence. The distribution of Paxillin and Cortactin in HCC cells was also observed by immunofluorescence. The interaction between GRP78 and Src were detected by far-western blot, co-immunoprecipitation and GST pulldown. GRP78 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. In the current study, we showed that association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M* stimulated the invasion and metastasis of HCC. Cell surface GRP78 could interact directly with c-Src, promoted the phosphorylation of c-Src at Y416. Inhibition of the tyrosine kinase activity of c-Src with PP2 reverted the stimulatory effect caused by association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M*. Moreover, association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M* facilitates the interaction between EGFR and c-Src and consequently phosphorylated EGFR at Y1101 and Y845, promoting the invasion and metastasis of HCCs. However, inhibition of the tyrosine kinase of c-Src do not affect the interaction between EGFR and Src. c-Src plays a critical role in the invasion and metastasis of HCC induced by association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M*. Cell surface GRP

  12. Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Lamine; Bouassida, Mahdi; Kilani, Houda; Medhioub, Mouna; Chelbi, Emna

    2015-11-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach is very rare. Its pathogenesis is unclear and the treatment strategy is controversial. We report an agressive primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach with liver and lung metastases in a 55-year-old man. The patient presented with a 1-month history of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss. Abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple liver metastases. Endoscopic examination showed two tumour masses on the fundus of the stomach. Biopsy of the lesions revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach. Chest x-ray showed multiple large pulmonary nodules highly suggestive of pulmonary metastases. The patient died ten days after he was admitted because of progression of the tumour and before any therapeutic decision.

  13. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  14. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel cell carcinoma treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Get detailed information about the diagnosis and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma in this summary for clinicians.

  15. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang; Zhang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients

  16. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang, E-mail: wenfang64@hotmail.com; Zhang, Yi, E-mail: syzi960@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  17. The role of Inositol Phosphoglycan as a possible mediator of the radiation effects on undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, Maria A.; Crivello, M.; Perona, Marina; Thorp, Silvia; Pozzi, Emiliano; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.; Krawiec, Leon

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In our laboratory we demonstrated that the Inositol Phosphoglycan (IPG) inhibits thyroperoxidase (TPO) activity and other oxidoreductases in normal bovine thyroid gland cultures, thus increasing the H 2 O 2 levels. On the other hand, when a cell is irradiated, damage is caused either by an increase of free radicals (H 2 O 2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS)) or by the direct ionization of molecules, depending on the radiation quality. With the purpose to establish if the IPG participates in damage mechanisms by radiation, UTC cells of the tumoral line (ARO) in proliferation, were exposed to high and low LET radiation: gamma, neutrons, He and 7 Li nucleus (the lasts ones produced through Boron Neutron Capture Reaction). In each group, the total physical absorbed doses were 3 and 8 Gy (Ra-3 reactor neutrons flux = 7.5 109 n/cm 2 s). The results show a significant increase in the IPG activity in cells irradiated with gamma and neutrons in comparison with control cultures (p 2 O 2 levels (p [es

  18. Renal cell carcinoma presenting as mandibular metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahmadnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC has different manifestations, including uncommon metastasis and paraneoplastic syndromes. Here we report a rare case of RCC presenting as metastasis to the mandible. A 57-year-old patient with mandibular swelling was referred to the dentist. After necessary evaluations, an incisional biopsy of mandible showed metastatic RCC. The patient was referred to the urologist. The patient underwent right radical nephrectomy. Pathological examination showed clear renal cell carcinoma. Every abnormal bone lesion in the oral cavity should be evaluated carefully and the possibility of a malignant lesion should always be considered.

  19. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area. PMID:20523804

  20. The role of lymphoscintigraphy, sentinel mode biopsy and positron emission tomography in the staging of the neck in early oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Nicholas Charles

    This thesis explores the limitations of current imaging modalities in the evaluation of the clinically node negative (N0) neck in early oral squamous cell carcinoma and evaluates the utility of two new interventions. It will become evident that the use of clinical parameters and conventional imaging to detect clinically occult cervical lymph node metastases is an imprecise science. The presence of metastases in the neck is the single most important determinant of survival. Hitherto the lack of timely intervention in this regard may have been contributory in amplifying their effect upon survival. There is an obvious requirement for a more accurate technique to stage the neck in this patient group. Therefore the application of lymphoscintigraphy in combination with sentinel node biopsy (SNB), and positron emission tomography (PET) have been investigated. It appears that PET, whilst having a number of useful roles in the generic head and neck oncology patient, has little to contribute in the diagnosis of occult neck disease. In contra-distinction lymphoscintigraphy and SNB are not only feasible in the diagnosis of occult metastases, but also enhance our knowledge of lymphatic drainage from the oral cavity. This has, in some circumstances, led to the modification of initially prescribed treatment plans. Such is the current pace of technological advance that over the course of this research an entirely new imaging modality has emerged - PET/CT. Whilst it has not been possible to apply this retrospectively to the original patient population early experience of this novel technique in head and neck malignancy is explored and reported. The results of these initial applications are encouraging.

  1. Asymptomatic renal cell carcinoma incidentally detected by abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Fumio; Miyake, Noriaki; Tsujimura, Haruhiro; Nakajima, Mikio; Akiyama, Hajime

    1987-01-01

    Four cases of renal cell carcinoma that were incidentally detected by abdominal CT are reported. Abdominal CT was performed during gastro-intestinal examination in two patients and for suspected liver disease in the other two. No patient had symptoms of renal cell carcinoma, or hematuria. In all cases, the histopathological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma of a low stage. (author)

  2. Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanoszek, Lauren M; Wang, Grace Y; Harms, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    - Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment. - To review key features distinguishing BCC from histologic mimics, including current evidence regarding immunohistochemical markers useful for that distinction. - Review of pertinent literature on BCC immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. - In most cases, BCC can be reliably diagnosed by histopathologic features. Immunohistochemistry may provide useful ancillary data in certain cases. Awareness of potential mimics is critical to avoid misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate management.

  3. Clinical presentation of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.A.; Ashraf, S.; Jamil, N.

    2015-01-01

    Most common malignant tumour of the kidney is Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) and is known for its unpredictable clinical behaviour. Aetiology and risk factors are not completely understood. Extensive workup is being done in the understanding of the disease, especially to diagnose early and to treat promptly. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical presentation and pathological pattern of RCC. Methods: After approval from ethical committee a retrospective review of records was conducted extending from January 2012 to January 2014 to identify clinical characteristics of renal cell carcinomas. The study included all renal cancer patients presented to Sheikh Zayed Hospital Lahore with in this specified period. The data was retrieved regarding, history, physical examination and necessary investigations such as ultrasonography of abdomen and pelvis and CT scan of abdomen and pelvis. Results: There were total of 50 cases. The male to female ratio was 3:2. Mean age of patients were 52.38 (18-93) years old. Most common clinical presentation was gross haematuria(66%).The mean tumour size was 8.34 (3-24) cm. Tumour histology were clear cell (84%), papillary transitional cell carcinoma (12%) and oncosytoma contributed 4%. Conclusion: We observed that large number of the patients with RCC presented with haematuria and most of them were male. Common pathological type was clear cell carcinoma. (author)

  4. Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Janice E. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Brewer, Jerry D., E-mail: brewer.jerry@mayo.edu [Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2014-06-27

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy. The infectivity of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), an apparent agent in MCC development, may be exacerbated with impaired immune responses. This paper reviews relevant data regarding the role of immunosuppression in the development of MCC and describes modes of immunodeficient states. Because of the inherently low incidence rate of MCC, several case studies and series are also briefly mentioned to provide a more comprehensive summary of MCC in the setting of immunosuppression. We describe immunosuppressed patients who have experienced excessive UV radiation, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus infection/AIDS, autoimmune diseases, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Iatrogenic forms of immunosuppression are also highlighted. Studies that quantify risks consistently report that individuals with a history of solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, and/or lymphoproliferative diseases have a significantly elevated risk of developing MCC. Overall, immunocompromised patients also appear to have an early onset and more aggressive course of MCC, with poorer outcomes. Recommendations for multidisciplinary approaches are proposed to effectively prevent and manage MCC in these patients.

  5. Merkel Cell Carcinoma in Immunosuppressed Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Janice E.; Brewer, Jerry D.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy. The infectivity of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), an apparent agent in MCC development, may be exacerbated with impaired immune responses. This paper reviews relevant data regarding the role of immunosuppression in the development of MCC and describes modes of immunodeficient states. Because of the inherently low incidence rate of MCC, several case studies and series are also briefly mentioned to provide a more comprehensive summary of MCC in the setting of immunosuppression. We describe immunosuppressed patients who have experienced excessive UV radiation, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus infection/AIDS, autoimmune diseases, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Iatrogenic forms of immunosuppression are also highlighted. Studies that quantify risks consistently report that individuals with a history of solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, and/or lymphoproliferative diseases have a significantly elevated risk of developing MCC. Overall, immunocompromised patients also appear to have an early onset and more aggressive course of MCC, with poorer outcomes. Recommendations for multidisciplinary approaches are proposed to effectively prevent and manage MCC in these patients

  6. Human papillomavirus-mediated carcinogenesis and HPV-associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Part 2: Human papillomavirus associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the mouth and oropharynx can be acquired by a variety of sexual and social forms of transmission. HPV-16 genotype is present in many oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomata. It has an essential aetiologic role in the development of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a subset of subjects who are typically younger, are more engaged with high-risk sexual behaviour, have higher HPV-16 serum antibody titer, use less tobacco and have better survival rates than in subjects with HPV-cytonegative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. In this subset of subjects the HPV-cytopositive carcinomatous cells have a distinct molecular profile. In contrast to HPV-cytopositive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, the causal association between HPV-16 and other high-risk HPV genotypes and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa is weak, and the nature of the association is unclear. It is likely that routine administration of HPV vaccination against high-risk HPV genotypes before the start of sexual activity will bring about a reduction in the incidence of HPV-mediated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This article focuses on aspects of HPV infection of the mouth and the oropharynx with emphasis on the link between HPV and squamous cell carcinoma, and on the limitations of the available diagnostic tests in identifying a cause-and-effect relationship of HPV with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx. PMID:20633288

  7. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas.

  8. Next-Generation Sequencing to Detect Deletion of RB1 and ERBB4 Genes in Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Potential Role in Distinguishing Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma from Renal Oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Cornejo, Kristine M; Cheng, Liang; Hutchinson, Lloyd; Wang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Tomaszewicz, Keith; Cosar, Ediz F; Woda, Bruce A; Jiang, Zhong

    2018-04-01

    Overlapping morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features make it difficult to diagnose chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) and renal oncocytoma (RO). Because ChRCC is a malignant tumor, whereas RO is a tumor with benign behavior, it is important to distinguish these two entities. We aimed to identify genetic markers that distinguish ChRCC from RO by using next-generation sequencing (NGS). NGS for hotspot mutations or gene copy number changes was performed on 12 renal neoplasms, including seven ChRCC and five RO cases. Matched normal tissues from the same patients were used to exclude germline variants. Rare hotspot mutations were found in cancer-critical genes (TP53 and PIK3CA) in ChRCC but not RO. The NGS gene copy number analysis revealed multiple abnormalities. The two most common deletions were tumor-suppressor genes RB1 and ERBB4 in ChRCC but not RO. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on 65 cases (ChRCC, n = 33; RO, n = 32) to verify hemizygous deletion of RB1 (17/33, 52%) or ERBB4 (11/33, 33%) in ChRCC, but not in RO (0/32, 0%). In total, ChRCCs (23/33, 70%) carry either a hemizygous deletion of RB1 or ERBB4. The combined use of RB1 and ERBB4 fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect deletion of these genes may offer a highly sensitive and specific assay to distinguish ChRCC from RO. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yücel, D.; Themstrup, L.; Manfredi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most...

  10. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma: 10 Years of Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, E.; Tarallo, M.; Maruccia, M.; Sorvillo, V.; Pollastrini, A.; Scuderi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a locally invasive malignant epidermal tumour. Incidence is increasing by 10% per year; incidence of metastases is minimal, but relapses are frequent (40%-50%). The complete excision of the BCC allows reduction of relapse. Materials and Methods. The study cohort consists of 1123 patients underwent surgery for basal cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Patient and tumor characteristics recorded are: age; gender; localization (head and neck, trunk, and upper and lower extremities), tumor size, excisional margins adopted, and relapses. Results. The study considered a group of 1123 patients affected by basal cell carcinoma. Relapses occurred in 30 cases (2,67%), 27 out of 30 relapses occurred in noble areas, where peripheral margin was <3mm. Incompletely excised basal cell carcinoma occurred in 21 patients (1,87%) and were treated with an additional excision. Discussion. Although guidelines indicate 3mm peripheral margin of excision in BCC <2cm, in our experience, a margin of less than 5mm results in a high risk of incomplete excisions

  12. Granuloma Inguinale Simulating Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Z Mani

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of extensive granuloma inguinale simulating squamous cell carcinoma is described. There was past history of urethritis leading to a urethral fistula. The ulcer healed almost completely within 19 days of receiving streptomycin injections. The patient had associated scabies and presumably also had latent syphillis (His VDRL was reactive in 1:8 dilution. The patient belonged to Madhya Pradesh.

  13. Basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancar, B.

    2007-01-01

    A 91-year-old female patient was treated with irradiation for histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek. The tumour, measuring 3 x 3 cm, with the depth of 2 cm, was extending up to the lower lid of the left eye. (author)

  14. Merkel cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, P.; Sapp, H.; Walsh, N.M.G.; Logan, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare highly malignant tumour. There have been previous descriptions of the CT appearances of this tumour, but to our knowledge this is the first MRI description. MRI may be a more sensitive method of initial evaluation of the local extension of the primary tumour. (orig.)

  15. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma, a rare location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nitipir

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most common human malignant neoplasm. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma is rare, accounting for less than 5% of all vulvar neoplasms. Vulvar basal cell carcinomas are usually diagnosed late because they are often asymptomatic and tend to grow at slow rates. They are usually diagnosed late because they are often asymptomatic. However, these tumours may appear in areas which are normally covered with ultraviolet light. We present the case of a 60 years old woman diagnosed with invasive breast cancer for which she underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient presented to our department with an ulcerated vulvar lesion. On inspection, the tumour measured 3/2 cm and was located on the left labium majus. The biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of vulvar basal cell carcinoma and a wide local excision was performed with no relapse at one year. In conclusion, early detection of BCC’s is critical to allow complete surgical cure so any abnormality on the vulva should be biopsied. A wide safety margin of 1cm should be achieved when resecting the tumour and the physician should keep in mind that the BCC’s of the vulva has a high recurrence rate. Previous chemotherapy is not associated with this type of non-melanoma skin cancer.

  16. Cardiac Metastasis in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... Metastatic disease of the heart is over twenty times more common than primary heart tumors [1]. They are among the least known and highly debated issues in oncology, and few systematic studies are devoted to this topic. Cardiac involvement in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) commonly arises from direct ...

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma in bladder extrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral-Ribeiro, J; Silva, C; Sousa, L; Pérez García, D; Ribeiro dos Santos, A

    2005-01-01

    Bladder extrophy is a rare congenital malformation that nowadays is surgically corrected in neonatal period. We present a case report of a 71-year-old male with a verrucous squamous cell carcinoma arising in a classical uncorrected form of bladder extrophy.

  18. Presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, K.W.; Rosenwasser, G.O.; Alexander, E. III; Rossitch, G.; Dutton, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin tumor of neural crest origin and is part of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase system. It typically occurs on the face of elderly people. Distant metastasis is almost uniformly fatal. Choroidal metastasis, to our knowledge, has not been described. We report a patient with Merkel cell carcinoma who had a synchronous solid choroidal tumor and a biopsy-proven brain metastasis. Our 56-year-old patient presented with a rapidly growing, violaceous preauricular skin tumor. Computed tomography of the head disclosed incidental brain and choroidal tumors. Light and electron microscopy of biopsy specimens of both the skin and the brain lesions showed Merkel cell carcinoma. Ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and A and B echography revealed a solid choroidal mass. The brain and skin tumors responded well to irradiation. A radioactive episcleral plaque was applied subsequently to the choroidal tumor. All tumors regressed, and the patient was doing well 28 months later. To our knowledge this is the first case of presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

  19. Merkel cells carcinoma of the aged patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, A.; Assouline, A.; Mazeron, J.J.; Chargari, C.; Krzisch, C.

    2009-01-01

    The carcinoma at Merkel cells is a rare and aggressive skin cancer, principally of the aged adult. The surgery is the fundamental treatment. The interest of the adjuvant radiotherapy is discussed for the aged patient. In the limits of this retrospective analysis, the postoperative radiotherapy appeared to bring a similar benefit as for younger patients. (N.C.)

  20. CT differentiation of renal tumor invading parenchyma and pelvis: renal cell carcinoma vs transitional cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Cho, Seong Beum; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung

    1994-01-01

    The differentiation between renal cell carcinoma(RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma(TCC) is important due to the different methods of treatment and prognosis. But occasionally it is difficult to draw a distinction between the two diseases when renal parenchyma and renal collecting systems are invaded simultaneously. We reviewed CT scans of 37 cases of renal cell carcinoma and 12 cases of transitional cell carcinoma which showed involvement of renal parenchyma and renal sinus fat on CT. Retrospective analysis was performed by 3 abdominal radiologists. Check points were renal contour bulging or reinform shape, location of mass center, intact parenchyma overlying the tumor, cystic change, calcification, LN metastasis, vessel invasion, and perirenal extention. There were renal contour bulging due to the tumor mass in 33 out of 37 cases of renal cell carcinoma, where a and nine of 12 cases of transitional cell carcinoma maintained the reinform appearance. This is significant statiscal difference between the two(P<0.005). Center of all TCCs were located in the renal sinus, and 24 out of 35 cases of RCC were located in the cortex(P<0.005). Thirty-six out of 37 cases of RCC lost the overlying parenchyma, where as 4 out of 9 cases of well enhanced TCC had intact overlying parenchyma(P<0.005) RCC showed uptic change within the tumor mags in 31 cases which was significanity higher than the 4 cases in TCC(P<0.05). CT findings of renal cell carcinoma are contour bulging, peripheral location, obliteration of parenchyma, and cystic change. Findings of transitional cell carcinoma are reinform appearance, central location within the kidney, intact overlying parenchyma, and rare cystic change

  1. Fisetin inhibits growth, induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells: Role of mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and consequent caspases activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Harish C.; Sharma, Samriti; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh

    2013-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) one of the most common neoplasms causes serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identification of non-toxic phytochemicals for prevention/treatment of NMSCs is highly desirable. Fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid, present in fruits and vegetables possesses anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemotherapeutic potential of fisetin in cultured human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Treatment of A431 cells with fistein (5-80 μM) resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Employing clonogenic assay, we found that fisetin treatment significantly reduced colony formation in A431 cells. Fisetin treatment of A431 cells resulted in G2/M arrest and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of A431 cells with fisetin resulted in (i) decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1), (ii) increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bak and Bad), (iii) disruption of mitochondrial potential, (iv) release of cytchrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria, (v) activation of caspases, and (vi) cleavage of PARP protein. Pretreatment of A431 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) blocked fisetin-induced cleavage of caspases and PARP. Taken together, these data provide evidence that fisetin possesses chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Overall, these results suggest that fisetin could be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of NMSCs. PMID:23800058

  2. NEDD 4 binding protein 2-like 1 promotes cancer cell invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahira, Tomonori; Kurihara, Miyako; Nishiguchi, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Rina; Kirita, Tadaaki; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    Head and neck cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma, is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Although cancer cell invasion and metastasis are crucial for tumor progression, detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma are unclear. Comparison of transcriptional profiles using a cDNA microarray demonstrated that N4BP2L1, a novel oncogene expressed by neural precursor cells, is involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of N4BP2L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma is regulated by activation of miR-448 and is higher than in normal oral mucosa. Knockdown of N4BP2L1 and upregulation of miR-448 significantly reduced the invasive potential of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. We studied N4BP2L1 expression in 187 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma and found its overexpression to be significantly associated with nodal metastasis (P = 0.0155) and poor prognosis (P = 0.0136). Expression of miR-448 was found to be inversely associated with that of N4BP2L1 (P = 0.0019). Cox proportional hazards analysis identified N4BP2L1 expression as an independent predictor of disease-free survival (P = 0.0349). Our results suggest that N4BP2L1 plays an important role in tumor cell invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further studies on expression of N4BP2L1 may provide new insight into its function and clarify its potential as biomarker in human oral cancer.

  3. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  4. The role of cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells: association with migration, invasion and prediction of distant metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen-Liang; Kuo, Kuang-Tai; Chou, Teh-Ying; Chen, Chien-Lung; Wang, Chih-Hao; Wei, Yau-Huei; Wang, Liang-Shun

    2012-01-01

    .033). Our current study showed that COX Va may play a role in migration and invasion of NSCLC cells and can be used as a biomarker to predict aggressiveness of NSCLC

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofstee Mans

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cells are normally not found inside the breast, so a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is an exceptional phenomenon. There is a possible explanation for these findings. Case presentation A 72-year-old woman presented with a breast abnormality suspected for breast carcinoma. After the operation the pathological examination revealed a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. Conclusion The presentation of squamous cell carcinoma could be similar to that of an adenocarcinoma. However, a squamous cell carcinoma of the breast could also develop from a complicated breast cyst or abscess. Therefore, pathological examination of these apparent benign abnormalities is mandatory.

  6. Cutaneous metastasis of bilateral renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Fariba; Alizadeh, Mansur; Noroozinia, Farahnaz; Moradi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant lethal tumour with high potential of metastasis. However, metastasis from RCC to the skin is much less common. It is virtually a sign of poor prognosis. We represent a 42 years old man with bilateral RCC of clear cell type followed by metastasis to the scalp one month later. In this case the relatively young age of the patient, bilaterality of RCC and occurance of skin metastasis in the absence of recurrent kidney tumour are interesting.

  7. Epigenetic Dysregulation in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thian-Sze Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal carcinoma is a common head and neck cancer with poor prognosis. Patients with laryngeal carcinoma usually present late leading to the reduced treatment efficacy and high rate of recurrence. Despite the advance in the use of molecular markers for monitoring human cancers in the past decades, there are still no reliable markers for use to screen laryngeal carcinoma and follow the patients after treatment. Epigenetics emerged as an important field in understanding the biology of the human malignancies. Epigenetic alterations refer to the dysregulation of gene, which do not involve the alterations of the DNA sequence. Major epigenetic changes including methylation imbalance, histone modification, and small RNA dysregulation could play a role in the development of human malignancies. Global epigenetic change is now regarded as a molecular signature of cancer. The characteristics and behavior of a cancer could be predicted based on the specific epigenetic pattern. We here provide a review on the understanding of epigenetic dysregulation in laryngeal carcinoma. Further knowledge on the initiation and progression of laryngeal carcinoma at epigenetic level could promote the translation of the knowledge to clinical use.

  8. Accurate detection of carcinoma cells by use of a cell microarray chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Yamamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate detection and analysis of circulating tumor cells plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cancer treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cell microarray chip was used to detect spiked carcinoma cells among leukocytes. The chip, with 20,944 microchambers (105 µm width and 50 µm depth, was made from polystyrene; and the formation of monolayers of leukocytes in the microchambers was observed. Cultured human T lymphoblastoid leukemia (CCRF-CEM cells were used to examine the potential of the cell microarray chip for the detection of spiked carcinoma cells. A T lymphoblastoid leukemia suspension was dispersed on the chip surface, followed by 15 min standing to allow the leukocytes to settle down into the microchambers. Approximately 29 leukocytes were found in each microchamber when about 600,000 leukocytes in total were dispersed onto a cell microarray chip. Similarly, when leukocytes isolated from human whole blood were used, approximately 89 leukocytes entered each microchamber when about 1,800,000 leukocytes in total were placed onto the cell microarray chip. After washing the chip surface, PE-labeled anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody and APC-labeled anti-CD326 (EpCAM monoclonal antibody solution were dispersed onto the chip surface and allowed to react for 15 min; and then a microarray scanner was employed to detect any fluorescence-positive cells within 20 min. In the experiments using spiked carcinoma cells (NCI-H1650, 0.01 to 0.0001%, accurate detection of carcinoma cells was achieved with PE-labeled anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, verification of carcinoma cells in the microchambers was performed by double staining with the above monoclonal antibodies. CONCLUSION: The potential application of the cell microarray chip for the detection of CTCs was shown, thus demonstrating accurate detection by double staining for cytokeratin and EpCAM at the single carcinoma cell level.

  9. Induction of Human Squamous Cell-Type Carcinomas by Arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, V. D.; Becker-Santos, D. D.; Vucic, E. A.; Lam, S.; Lam, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a potent human carcinogen. Around one hundred million people worldwide have potentially been exposed to this metalloid at concentrations considered unsafe. Exposure occurs generally through drinking water from natural geological sources, making it difficult to control this contamination. Arsenic biotransformation is suspected to have a role in arsenic-related health effects ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies associated with chronic exposure. It has been demonstrated that arsenic exhibits preference for induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the human, especially skin and lung cancer. Interestingly, keratins emerge as a relevant factor in this arsenic-related squamous cell-type preference. Additionally, both genomic and epi genomic alterations have been associated with arsenic-driven neoplastic process. Some of these aberrations, as well as changes in other factors such as keratins, could explain the association between arsenic and squamous cell carcinomas in humans.

  10. Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma: imaging and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yong; Zhang Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma (MCRCC) is a subtype of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and has mild clinical symptoms and a favorable prognosis. Accordingly, nephron-sparing surgery is recommended as a therapeutic strategy. If histologic subtype of MCRCC can be predicted preoperatively with an acceptable level of accuracy, it may be important in predicting prognosis and make clinical management. Most MCRCCs show characteristic cross-sectional imaging findings and permit accurate diagnosis before the treatment. Cross -sectional imaging of MCRCC reveals a well -defined multilocular cystic mass with irregularly enhanced thickened septa and without enhanced intracystic solid nodule. It is often classified as Bosniak classification Ⅲ , which is significantly different from that of other renal cystic masses. The clinical, pathologic, and radiologic features of MCRCC were discussed and illustrated in this article. The role of the imaging preoperative evaluation for MCRCC, and management implications were emphasized. (authors)

  11. The role of ultrasound-guided cytology of groin lymph nodes in the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: 5-year experience in 44 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, T.B.; Barton, D.P.J.; Trott, P.A.; Nasiri, N.; Shepherd, J.H.; Thomas, J.M.; Moskovic, E.C.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess the accuracy of ultrasound combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the detection of lymph node metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The groin nodes of 44 consecutive patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva undergoing groin node dissection were assessed with ultrasound and FNAC. The results were compared with histology from subsequent inguinofemoral lymph node dissection. Twenty-nine patients underwent bilateral groin node dissections and 15 unilateral providing comparable data for 73 groins. RESULTS: Histology demonstrated metastatic disease in 28 groins and no evidence of metastatic disease in 45. Ultrasound agreed with the histology in 67 of the 73 groins (92%), with two false-positives, four false-negatives and two indeterminate appearances. Cytology agreed with the histology in 65 of 72 FNAC samples obtained (90%), with six false-negatives, and one indeterminate result. No false-positive cytology results were seen. Ultrasound and FNAC together failed to detect metastatic disease in four groins, one with an indeterminate ultrasound appearance, another with indeterminate cytology, the two others each having a single positive inguinal node despite a negative ultrasound and FNAC. CONCLUSION: The combination of ultrasound and FNAC provides a sensitive and specific tool for pre-operative assessment and may prevent unnecessary groin dissection and the attendant morbidity in selected patients with vulval cancer

  12. Reevaluation and reclassification of resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Nitadori, Jun-ichi; Rekhtman, Natasha; Jones, David R.; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Travis, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, non-small cell lung carcinomas are primarily classified by light microscopy. However, recent studies have shown that poorly-differentiated tumors are more accurately classified by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we investigated the use of immunohistochemical analysis in reclassifying lung carcinomas that were originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor slides and blocks were available for histologic evaluation, and tissue microarrays were constructed from 480 patients with resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Immunohistochemistry for p40, p63, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1; clone SPT24 and 8G7G3/1), Napsin A, Chromogranin A, Synaptophysin, and CD56 were performed. Staining intensity (weak, moderate, or strong) and distribution (focal or diffuse) were also recorded. Of all, 449 (93.5%) patients were confirmed as having squamous cell carcinomas; the cases were mostly diffusely positive for p40 and negative for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1). Twenty cases (4.2%) were reclassified as adenocarcinoma since they were positive for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1 or SPT24) with either no or focal p40 expression, and all of them were poorly-differentiated with squamoid morphology. In addition, 1 case was reclassified as adenosquamous carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 2 cases as small cell carcinoma. In poorly-differentiated non-small cell lung carcinomas, an accurate distinction between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cannot be reliably determined by morphology alone and requires immunohistochemical analysis, even in resected specimens. Our findings suggest that TTF-1 8G7G3/1 may be better suited as the primary antibody in differentiating adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25871623

  13. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Whitehead, R H; Foster, H; Tutton, P J

    1988-09-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting from the apical surface. The microvilli are attached by a core of long microfilaments passing deep into the apical cytoplasm. Between the microvilli are parallel arrays of vesicles (caveoli) containing flocculent material. Two different but not mutually exclusive explanations for the presence of tuft cells are proposed. The first explanation is that tuft cells came from the resected tumour and have survived by mitotic division during subsequent passages. The second explanation suggests that tuft cells are the progeny of undifferentiated tumour cells. Descriptions of tuft cells in colon carcinomas are uncommon and possible reasons for this are presented. The morphology of tuft cells is consistent with that of a highly differentiated cell specialised for absorption, and these new models provide an opportunity to further investigate the structure and function of tuft cells.

  14. Immunohistochemical analysis of the role and relationship between Notch-1 and Oct-4 expression in urinary bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; El-Wahed, Moshira Mohammed Abd; Kandil, Mona Abd-Elhalim; Samaka, Rehab Monir; Elkady, Noha

    2013-10-01

    Most tumors contain a minor population of cancer stem cells that are responsible for tumor heterogeneity, resistance to therapy and recurrence. Oct-4 is a transcription factor responsible for self-renewal of stem cells, whereas the Notch family of receptors and ligands may play a pivotal role in the regulation of stem cell maintenance and differentiation. This study aimed at an evaluation of Oct-4 and Notch-1 expression in both carcinoma and stromal cells of 83 cases of primary bladder carcinoma and to study the relationship between them. Notch-1 was expressed in carcinoma and stromal cells of all malignant cases, where expression in both cell types was correlated with parameters indicating differentiation, such as low grade (p bladder carcinoma, such as poor differentiation (p = 0.001), high proliferation (p bladder carcinoma, where they may cooperate in the progression of bladder carcinoma by acquiring aggressive features, such as a liability for recurrence and dissemination. Notch-1 is also expressed in both carcinoma cells and stromal cells of bladder carcinoma. Although they could share in enhancing differentiation, stromal expression of Notch-1 may have a bad impact, possibly through up-regulation of the active nuclear form of Oct-4 in carcinoma cells. © 2013 APMIS Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Diagnostic role of barium enema in carcinoma rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this barium enema study was to evaluate its role in patients suspected to have rectal pathologies with complaints of change in bowel habit, anorexia/weight loss, bleeding per rectum and acute/sub-acute colonic obstruction. Results: barium enema study as screening test for colo-rectal carcinoma was undertaken. Contrast outlined the colonic growth in 35 cases, out of which the cases of carcinoma colon were 24 including 13 patients suffering from carcinoma rectum. The percentage of carcinoma colon to total colonic growth was 68% while, carcinoma rectum to total carcinoma colon was 54%. Conclusion: On the basis of these investigations, it is concluded that patient's compliance is important factor in the early detection of colonic neoplasia. Though results of colonoscopy are more reliable but in practice, barium enema (double contrast) is performed initially to outline the lesion and then colonoscopy for biopsy purpose. (author)

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma presenting as an endodontic-periodontic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Paul A; Kim, David M; Harsfield, Scott L; Jacobson, Erica R

    2005-10-01

    Regardless of advances in diagnosis and treatment during the past 40 years, the overall 5-year survival rates for oral and oropharyngeal squamous cancers have only slightly improved and remain around 50%. Thus, the early diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma by health care providers are essential in achieving a good prognosis. We report a case of invasive squamous cell carcinoma that presented as a benign endodontic-periodontic lesion with a 7-mm periodontal pocket on tooth #15 in a 40-year-old, non-smoking woman. The subsequent management of the case is also discussed. The study was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Our patient was seen for a comprehensive periodontal examination including a periodontal charting, occlusal analysis, study casts, electronic pulp test for tooth #15, and complete mouth periapical radiographs. As there was a periapical radiolucency, an endodontic consultation was obtained. A periodontal flap surgical procedure was performed on teeth #13 to #15, and as there was bone erosion into the maxillary sinus, a biopsy of the soft tissue was submitted to the local hospital for histological analysis. The biopsied lesion was diagnosed as invasive, moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with focal spindle and clear cell differentiation (grade II to III of IV). Bone invasion was also identified. The treatment of the carcinoma involved a hemimaxillectomy with the removal of the maxillary left posterior teeth. The patient remained free of tumor for 5 years after the initial presentation. Patient education and periodic oral cancer examinations by dental professionals are necessary to reduce diagnostic delay and improve prognosis. This case report emphasizes the important role of dental professionals, especially periodontists and endodontists, of being aware that squamous cell carcinoma may manifest itself clinically and/or radiographically as a common periodontal or endodontic lesion.

  17. Metallothionein gene expression in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metallothioneins (MTs are a group of low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich proteins. In general, MT is known to modulate three fundamental processes: (1 the release of gaseous mediators such as hydroxyl radical or nitric oxide, (2 apoptosis and (3 the binding and exchange of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium or copper. Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between the expression of MT with invasion, metastasis and poor prognosis in various cancers. Most of the previous studies primarily used immunohistochemistry to analyze localization of MT in renal cell carcinoma (RCC. No information is available on the gene expression of MT2A isoform in different types and grades of RCC. Materials and Methods: In the present study, total RNA was isolated from 38 histopathologically confirmed cases of RCC of different types and grades. Corresponding adjacent normal renal parenchyma was taken as control. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR analysis was done for the MT2A gene expression using b-actin as an internal control. All statistical calculations were performed using SPSS software. Results: The MT2A gene expression was found to be significantly increased (P < 0.01 in clear cell RCC in comparison with the adjacent normal renal parenchyma. The expression of MT2A was two to three-fold higher in sarcomatoid RCC, whereas there was no change in papillary and collecting duct RCC. MT2A gene expression was significantly higher in lower grade (grades I and II, P < 0.05, while no change was observed in high-grade tumor (grade III and IV in comparison to adjacent normal renal tissue. Conclusion: The first report of the expression of MT2A in different types and grades of RCC and also these data further support the role of MT2A in tumorigenesis.

  18. RENAL MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS: RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Giachini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of malignant kidney tumors, to contribute to identifying factors which the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas. Through this study, we understand that kidney disease over the years had higher incidence rates, especially in adults in the sixth decade of life. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the third most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract, affecting 2% to 3% of the population. There are numerous ways of diagnosis; however, the most important are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In general most of the patients affected by the CCR, have a good prognosis when diagnosed early and subjected to an effective treatment. This study conducted a literature review about the CCR, through this it was possible to understand the development needs of the imaging methods used for precise diagnosis and classification of RCC through the TNM system.

  19. Gallic acid modulates phenotypic behavior and gene expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by interfering with leptin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eliane Macedo Sobrinho; da Rocha, Rogério Gonçalves; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; da Silveira, Luiz Henrique; Batista, Paulo Ricardo; de Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes; Melo, Geraldo Aclécio; Santos, Sérgio Henrique; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; Farias, Lucyana Conceição

    2018-01-01

    Gallic acid is a polyphenolic compost appointed to interfere with neoplastic cells behavior. Evidence suggests an important role of leptin in carcinogenesis pathways, inducing a proliferative phenotype. We investigated the potential of gallic acid to modulate leptin-induced cell proliferation and migration of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. The gallic acid effect on leptin secretion by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, was also assessed. For this, we performed proliferation, migration, immunocytochemical and qPCR assays. The expression levels of cell migration-related genes (MMP2, MMP9, Col1A1, and E-cadherin), angiogenesis (HIF-1α, mir210), leptin signaling (LepR, p44/42 MAPK), apoptosis (casp-3), and secreted leptin levels by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells were also measured. Gallic acid decreased proliferation and migration of leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, and reduced mRNA expression of MMP2, MMP9, Col1A1, mir210, but did not change HIF-1α. Gallic acid decreased levels of leptin secreted by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, accordingly with downregulation of p44/42 MAPK expression. Thus, gallic acid appears to break down neoplastic phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by interfering with leptin pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Asami

    1997-01-01

    We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

  1. Linear Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ichinokawa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC presents with diverse clinical features, and several morphologic and histologic variants of BCC have been reported [Sexton et al.: J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1118–1126]. Linear BCC was first described as a new clinical subtype in 1985 by Lewis [Int J Dematol 1985;24:124–125]. Here, we present a case of linear BCC that we recently encountered in an elderly Japanese patient, and review other cases reported in Japan.

  2. Avelumab Impresses in Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The PD-L1 inhibitor avelumab-approved by the FDA in March for the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma-demonstrated a high number of durable responses in an international, open-label, prospective phase II study. The results of the study, which supported the FDA's decision, were presented in April at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2017. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Papillary renal cell carcinoma in allograft kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Catherine; El Ghali, Sofiane; Buy, Xavier; Gangi, Afshin; Lindner, Veronique

    2005-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. Its occurrence in allograft transplanted kidney has not been debated in the literature. We report two pathologically proven cases and discuss the clinical hypothesis for such neoplasms and the aspect on MR images. The paramagnetic effect of the iron associated with an absence of signal coming from calcifications is a plausible explanation for this unusual hypointense appearance on T2-weighted sequence. (orig.)

  4. The Role of Embryologic Fusion Planes in the Invasiveness and Recurrence of Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Classic Mix-Up of Causation and Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Linus T D; Magnusson, Mark R; Guppy, Michelle P B

    2015-12-01

    The facial embryologic fusion planes as regions of mesenchymal and ectodermal fusion of the primordial facial processes during embryological development have been suggested to influence the spread, invasiveness, pathogenesis, and recurrence of cutaneous carcinoma. This study sought to establish whether basal cell carcinoma (BCC) originating in embryologic fusion planes has a greater propensity for earlier depth of invasion, leading to an increased rate of lesion recurrence. Facial BCCs excised in a single surgeon practice over 2 years were allocated into 2 anatomic domains according to their correlation with embryologic fusion planes. Lesion depth of invasion, surface area, and margins of excision were analyzed in conjunction with recurrence data over the following 70-80 months. Of the 331 lesions examined, 70 were located in embryologic fusion planes. No difference was found in the mean surface area and depth of invasion for lesions located in the 2 domains (P > 0.05). Ten lesion recurrences were identified, none of which were located in embryologic fusion planes. Recurrent lesions were excised with a significantly greater percentage of close and incomplete excision margins (P planes are not more invasive or at greater risk of recurrence. Excision margins seem to have the greatest influence on lesion recurrence. Because of the paucity of superfluous tissue and the cosmetic and functionally sensitive nature of these areas of embryologic fusion, specialist treatment of these lesions is recommended to ensure that adequacy of excision is not neglected at the cost of ease of closure and cosmesis.

  5. CT features of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eelkema, E.A.; Stephens, D.H.; Ward, E.M.; Sheedy, P.F. II

    1984-11-01

    To determine the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, the CT scans of 27 patients with that disease were reviewed. The pancreatic tumor was identified as a mass in 26 patients (96%) Of the 25 tumors evaluated with contrast enhancement, 20 became partially diffusely hyperdense relative to nearby normal pancreatic tissue. Hepatic metastases were identified in 15 patients (56%), regional lymphadenopathy in 10 (37%), atrophy of the gland proximal to the tumor in six (22%), dilatation of the biliary ducts in five (19%), and dilatation of the pancreatic duct in four (15%). The CT appearances of the nonfunctioning islet cell tumors were compared with those of 100 ordinary (ductal) pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Although the two types of tumors were sometimes indistinguishable, features found to be more characteristic of islet cell carcinoma included a pancreatic mass of unusually large size, calcification within the tumor, and contrast enhancement of either the primary tumor or hepatic metastases. Involvement of the celiac axis or proximal superior mesenteric artery was limited to ductal carcinoma.

  6. Intradural squamous cell carcinoma in the sacrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujisawa Kozo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in patients with cancer at the rate of approximately 5%; it develops particularly in patients with breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, leukemia, or malignant lymphoma. We describe a rare case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in which spinal intradural squamous cell carcinoma with no lesions in the cerebral meninges and leptomeninx, was the primary lesion. Methods A 64-year-old man complained of sacral pain. Although the patient was treated with analgesics, epidural block and nerve root block, sacral pain persisted. Since acute urinary retention occurred, he was operated on. The patient was diagnosed as having an intradural squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin. Results Since the patient presented with a slightly decreased level of consciousness 2 months after surgery, he was subjected to MRI scanning of the brain and spinal cord, which revealed disseminated lesions in the medulla oblongata. The patient died of pneumonia and sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 5 months after surgery. Conclusion We report the first case of a patient with intradural squamous cell carcinoma with unknown origin that developed independently in the sacrum.

  7. Role of chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Paiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a unique malignant head and neck cancer with clinical, demographic, and geographic features distinct from other head and neck epithelial malignancies. Non-keratinizing, poorly differentiated, and undifferentiated WHO types 2 and 3 is the most common subtypes of NPC. NPC is also characterized by its relatively high sensitivity to radiation, so that in the last decades radiotherapy (RT has been the cornerstone of treatment. However, in the majority of cases NPC is discovered at locally advanced stage. The results are disappointing when RT alone is offered. The 5-year survival rates have been reported to be about 34-52%. The poor prognosis for advanced NPC led to increasing interests in exploring the use of chemotherapy (CT. NPC has been considered to be not only radiosensitive but also chemo-sensitive and has shown high response rate to various chemotherapeutic agents. Certainly, the treatment strategies for NPC will continue to change and evolve as a better understanding is gained of the molecular and immune mechanisms that drive this disease. We reviewed the current literature focusing on the role of CT and new-targeted agents.

  8. Increased MiR-221 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and its role in enhancing cell growth and inhibiting apoptosis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Minhua; Chen, Gang; Dang, Yiwu

    2013-01-01

    MiR-221 is over-expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its clinical significance and function in HCC remains uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between miR-221 overexpression and clinicopathological parameters in HCC formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, and the effect of miR-221 inhibitor and mimic on different HCC cell lines in vitro. MiR-221 expression was detected using real time RT-qPCR in FFPE HCC and the adjacent noncancerous liver tissues. The relationship between miR-221 level and clinicopathological features was also analyzed. Furthermore, miR-221 inhibitor and mimic were transfected into HCC cell lines HepB3, HepG2 and SNU449. The effects of miR-221 on cell growth, cell cycle, caspase activity and apoptosis were also investigated by spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. The relative expression of miR-221 in clinical TNM stages III and IV was significantly higher than that in the stages I and II. The miR-221 level was also upregulated in the metastatic group compared to the nonmetastatic group. Furthermore, miR-221 over-expression was related to the status of tumor capsular infiltration in HCC clinical samples. Functionally, cell growth was inhibited, cell cycle was arrested in G1/S-phase and apoptosis was increased by miR-221 inhibitor in vitro. Likewise, miR-221 mimic accelerated the cell growth. Expression of miR-221 in FFPE tissues could provide predictive significance for prognosis of HCC patients. Moreover, miR-221 inhibitor could be useful to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in HCC cells. Thus miR-221 might be a critical targeted therapy strategy for HCC

  9. Cabozantinib (advanced renal cell carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer cells.Cabozantinib is also available as a capsule (Cometriq) to treat a certain type of thyroid ... vomiting material that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds menstrual bleeding that is heavier than usual ...

  10. An Anti-Oncogenic Role for Decorin in Mammary Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iozzo, Renato V

    2004-01-01

    .... In the preliminary data that support the basis of this proposal, we discovered that decorin causes a functional inactivation of the oncogenic ErbB2 protein in mammary carcinoma cells overexpressing ErbB2...

  11. Pomegranate Bioactive Constituents Suppress Cell Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in an Experimental Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Role of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and chemoprevention represents a viable approach in lowering the mortality of this disease. Pomegranate fruit, an abundant source of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, is gaining tremendous attention for its wide-spectrum health benefits. We previously reported that a characterized pomegranate emulsion (PE prevents diethylnitrosamine (DENA-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis though inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB. Since NF-κB concurrently induces Wnt/β-catenin signaling implicated in cell proliferation, cell survival, and apoptosis evasion, we examined antiproliferative, apoptosis-inducing and Wnt/β-catenin signaling-modulatory mechanisms of PE during DENA rat hepatocarcinogenesis. PE (1 or 10 g/kg was administered 4 weeks before and 18 weeks following DENA exposure. There was a significant increase in hepatic proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen and alteration in cell cycle progression (cyclin D1 due to DENA treatment, and PE dose dependently reversed these effects. PE substantially induced apoptosis by upregulating proapoptotic protein Bax and downregulating antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. PE dose dependently reduced hepatic β-catenin and augmented glycogen synthase kinase-3β expression. Our study provides evidence that pomegranate phytochemicals exert chemoprevention of hepatic cancer through antiproliferative and proapoptotic mechanisms by modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PE, thus, targets two interconnected molecular circuits (canonical NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin pathways to exert chemoprevention of HCC.

  12. Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svecova, D; Havrankova, M; Weismanova, E; Babal, P

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are arguably the second most common carcinoma of the skin and are responsible for the majority of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths. Gynecologist treated a Caucasian 56-years old female patient for genital wart with podophyllotoxin cream. She did not achieve complete response and therefore she has interrupted the therapy and the collaboration with the gynecologist. At the time of evaluation the lesion had a size of man's palm in anogenital region and showed characteristic features of neoplasm. The regional lymph nodes have produced infiltrated painful bubo. PCR analysis for HPV proved negative. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma from the tumor as well as from the regional lymph node packet. Staging computed tomography scans proved negative and pelvis scans disclosed regional lymphadenopathy underlying the tumor. Palliative radiation therapy (by linear accelerator) was administered for the oversized tumor to the total TD 50.0Gy. The patient died 6 months after diagnostic assessment from cardio-respiratory failure. Staging computed tomography before her death did not disclose distinct metastases in her inner organs. Well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma could be growing endophytically affecting the underlying adipose tissue and musculature, with spreading into the regional lymph nodes. The rate of metastases into inner organs seems to vary according to the aggressiveness and metastatic behavior of each SCC. The case report calls for attention to the importance of collaboration among various specialists assisting in the diagnosis and management of skin neoplasm (Fig. 5, Ref. 12). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  13. Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyun; Wu, Jingjing; Chen, Yitian; Ye, Dongxia; Lei, Hu; Xu, Hanzhang; Yang, Li; Wu, Yingli; Gu, Wenli

    2016-10-01

    Ubiquitin-specific protease 14, a deubiquitinating enzyme, has been implicated in the tumorigenesis and progression of several cancers, but its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the expression pattern and roles of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 in the occurrence and development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Interestingly, Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 was overexpressed in oral cancer tissues and cell lines at both mRNA and protein levels. b-AP15, a specific inhibitor of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14, significantly inhibited the growth of cancer cells and increased cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, knockdown of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 by shRNA significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of cancer cells in vitro. Finally, using a xenograft mouse model of oral squamous cell carcinoma, knockdown of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 markedly inhibited tumor growth and triggered the cancer cell apoptosis in vivo, supporting previous results. In conclusion, for the first time we have demonstrated the expression pattern of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and verified a relationship with tumor growth and metastasis. These results may highlight new therapeutic strategies for tumor treatment, application of Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 selective inhibitor, such as b-AP15, or knockdown by shRNA. Collectively, Ubiquitin-specific protease 14 could be a potential therapeutic target for oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of cytologic grading in prognostication of invasive breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of cytologic features is indispensable in the preoperative diagnosis and grading of infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma (CA in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC material and this method can also provide additional information regarding intrinsic features of the tumor as well as its prognosis. Aim: This study has been done to evaluate comparatively the cytologic and histomorphologic grading of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast with specific reference to lymph node metastasis and its role in prognostication. Materials and Methods: Forty three patients who underwent FNAC and mastectomy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma were cytologically and histologically graded (employing Robinson′s cytologic grading system and Elston′s modification of Bloom-Richardson system, respectively. Statistical analysis was done employing ′z′ test and c2 test to compare the two grading system and to examine the degree of correlation between the cytologic and histologic grades. Multiple regression analysis was done to assess the significance of every cytologic and histologic parameter. All 43 cases, graded cyto-histologically were also evaluated for presence or absence of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes employing c2 test. Results: With histologic grade taken as the standard, cytology was found to be fairly comparable, for grading breast carcinoma (overall sensitivity 89.1%, specificity 100%. Further comparison of the two grading systems by Z-test showed that difference between the cytologic and histologic grading was insignificant in all the three grade (p > 0.05. Of the six parameters studied, cell dissociation, nucleoli and chromatin pattern were the most influential features (p < 0.001. The statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 was found in incidences of axillary lymph node metastatic rate in three cytologic grades (15.4% in grade I vs. 83.3% in grade III as well. Conclusions: Apart from being simple and

  15. The multifaceted role of podoplanin expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Cioca

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of podoplanin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is not clear yet. The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of podoplanin in HCC and to determine its role in hepatocarcinogenesis. We performed immunohistochemistry with monoclonal D2-40 antibody, on paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 72 patients diagnosed with HCC. Lymphatic vessels density (LVD was increased in patients who had vascular invasion at the time of diagnosis (P=0.018 and in those with associated cirrhosis (P=0.006. Tumor cells showing podoplanin expression were correlated with histological grade (P=0.040. Podoplanin-expressing cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs were correlated with both LVD (P=0.019 and tumor cells (P=0.015. Our results sustain the dual role of podoplanin in HCC by its involvement in both HCC tumorigenesis, lymphatic neovascularization and tumor invasion invasiveness. A possible crosstalk between epithelial and stromal tumor cells in HCC tumor microenvironment may be mediated by podoplanin, but this hypothesis needs further studies to elucidate this interrelation.

  16. The multifaceted role of podoplanin expression in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioca, Andreea; Ceausu, Amalia R; Marin, Irina; Raica, Marius; Cimpean, Anca M

    2017-02-13

    The role of podoplanin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not clear yet. The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of podoplanin in HCC and to determine its role in hepatocarcinogenesis. We performed immunohistochemistry with monoclonal D2-40 antibody, on paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 72 patients diagnosed with HCC. Lymphatic vessels density (LVD) was increased in patients who had vascular invasion at the time of diagnosis (P=0.018) and in those with associated cirrhosis (P=0.006). Tumor cells showing podoplanin expression were correlated with histological grade (P=0.040). Podoplanin-expressing cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were correlated with both LVD (P=0.019) and tumor cells (P=0.015). Our results sustain the dual role of podoplanin in HCC by its involvement in both HCC tumorigenesis, lymphatic neovascularization and tumor invasion invasiveness. A possible crosstalk between epithelial and stromal tumor cells in HCC tumor microenvironment may be mediated by podoplanin, but this hypothesis needs further studies to elucidate this interrelation.

  17. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production on diallyl disulfide (DADS) induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human A549 lung carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xinjiang; Kassie, Fekadu; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), an oil soluble constituent of garlic (Allium sativum), has been reported to cause antimutagentic and anticarcinogenic effects in vitro and in vivo by modulating phases I and II enzyme activities. In recent years, several studies suggested that the chemopreventive effects of DADS can also be attributed to induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. In the present study, we reported that DADS-induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M and apoptosis in human A549 lung cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Additionally, a significant increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced in A549 cells less than 0.5 h after DADS treatment, indicating that ROS may be an early event in DADS-modulated apoptosis. Treatment of A549 cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) completely abrogated DADS-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The result indicated that oxidative stress modulates cell proliferation and cell death induced by DADS

  18. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production on diallyl disulfide (DADS) induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human A549 lung carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xinjiang [Institute of Indoor and Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Aulweg 123, D-35385 Giessen (Germany); Kassie, Fekadu [Institute of Indoor and Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Aulweg 123, D-35385 Giessen (Germany); Mersch-Sundermann, Volker [Institute of Indoor and Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Aulweg 123, D-35385 Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: Volker.mersch-sundermann@uniklinikum-giessen.de

    2005-11-11

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), an oil soluble constituent of garlic (Allium sativum), has been reported to cause antimutagentic and anticarcinogenic effects in vitro and in vivo by modulating phases I and II enzyme activities. In recent years, several studies suggested that the chemopreventive effects of DADS can also be attributed to induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. In the present study, we reported that DADS-induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M and apoptosis in human A549 lung cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Additionally, a significant increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced in A549 cells less than 0.5 h after DADS treatment, indicating that ROS may be an early event in DADS-modulated apoptosis. Treatment of A549 cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) completely abrogated DADS-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The result indicated that oxidative stress modulates cell proliferation and cell death induced by DADS.

  19. Protease-activated receptor 2 modulates proliferation and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Kamal; Cheng, Jun; Abé, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Babkair, Hamzah; Essa, Ahmed; Saku, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Based on our previous finding that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) regulates hemophagocytosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells, which induces their heme oxygenase 1-dependent keratinization, we have formulated a hypothesis that PAR-2 functions in wider activities of SCC cells. To confirm this hypothesis, we investigated immunohistochemical profiles of PAR-2 in oral SCC tissues and its functional roles in cell proliferation and invasion in SCC cells in culture. The PAR-2 expression modes were determined in 48 surgical tissue specimens of oral SCC. Using oral SCC-derived cell systems, we determined both gene and protein expression levels of PAR-2. SCC cell proliferation and invasive properties were also examined in conditions in which PAR-2 was activated by the synthetic peptide SLIGRL. PAR-2 was immunolocalized in oral SCC and carcinoma in situ cells, especially in those on the periphery of carcinoma cell foci (100% of cases), but not in normal oral epithelia. Its expression at both gene and protein levels was confirmed in 3 oral SCC cell lines including ZK-1. Activation of PAR-2 induced ZK-1 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. PAR-2-activated ZK-1 cells invaded faster than nonactivated ones. The expression of PAR-2 is specific to oral malignancies, and PAR-2 regulates the growth and invasion of oral SCC cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. RNA editing is induced by type I interferon in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinyao; Chen, Zhaoli; Tang, Zefang; Huang, Jianbing; Hu, Xueda; He, Jie

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, abnormal RNA editing has been shown to play an important role in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, as such abnormal editing is catalyzed by ADAR (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA). However, the regulatory mechanism of ADAR1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated ADAR1 expression and its association with RNA editing in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. RNA sequencing applied to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma clinical samples showed that ADAR1 expression was correlated with the expression of STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9. In vitro experiments showed that the abundance of ADAR1 protein was associated with the induced activation of the JAK/STAT pathway by type I interferon. RNA sequencing results showed that treatment with type I interferon caused an increase in the number and degree of RNA editing in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. In conclusion, the activation of the JAK/STAT pathway is a regulatory mechanism of ADAR1 expression and causes abnormal RNA editing profile in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. This mechanism may serve as a new target for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma therapy.

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeloev, B.; Kirkegaard, J.; Hansen, H.S.; Copenhagen Univ. Hospital

    1990-01-01

    Three hundred and four patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity were treated at the Finsen Institute in cooperation with the ENT-surgical departments between 1978 and 1982. The primary treatment consisted of radiotherapy alone in 74%, surgery alone in 4%, and a combination of radiotherapy and surgery in 15% of the patients. 2% received other treatment (cryotherapy), 5% did not complete the planned radiotherapy, and 1% were not treated at all. Of 203 patients with tumour remnant or first recurrence, 45% were operated, 2% received radiotherapy, and 2% combined treatment. This treatment strategy made 38% of the patients free of disease in the follow-up period (3 1/2 to 8 years) or until the patients died from other causes. Fifty-nine percent of the patients died from their oral carcinomas. Tumour size (T), lymph node status (N), and tumour stage were as expected important prognostic factors. (orig.)

  3. Prognostic role of metabolic parameters of {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT scan performed during radiation therapy in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Myo; Forstner, Dion [Liverpool Hospital, Cancer Therapy Centre, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Lin, Peter; Shon, Ivan Ho; Lin, Michael [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Lee, Mark T. [Liverpool Hospital, Cancer Therapy Centre, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Bray, Victoria; Fowler, Allan [Liverpool Hospital, Cancer Therapy Centre, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Chicco, Andrew [Liverpool Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Tieu, Minh Thi [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate the prognostic value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT performed in the third week (iPET) of definitive radiation therapy (RT) in patients with newly diagnosed locally advanced mucosal primary head and neck squamous-cell-carcinoma (MPHNSCC). Seventy-two patients with MPHNSCC treated with radical RT underwent staging PET-CT and iPET. The maximum standardised uptake value (SUV{sub max}), metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesional glycolysis (TLG) of primary tumour (PT) and index node (IN) [defined as lymph node(s) with highest TLG] were analysed, and results were correlated with loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), metastatic failure-free survival(MFFS) and overall survival (OS), using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Optimal cutoffs (OC) were derived from receiver operating characteristic curves: SUV{sub max-PT} = 4.25 g/mL, MTV{sub PT} = 3.3 cm{sup 3}, TLG{sub PT} = 9.4 g, for PT, and SUV{sub max-IN} = 4.05 g/mL, MTV{sub IN} = 1.85 cm{sup 3} and TLG{sub IN} = 7.95 g for IN. Low metabolic values in iPET for PT below OC were associated with statistically significant better LRFS and DFS. TLG was the best predictor of outcome with 2-year LRFS of 92.7 % vs. 71.1 % [p = 0.005, compared with SUV{sub max} (p = 0.03) and MTV (p = 0.022)], DFS of 85.9 % vs. 60.8 % [p = 0.005, compared with SUV{sub max} (p = 0.025) and MTV (p = 0.018)], MFFS of 85.9 % vs. 83.7 % [p = 0.488, compared with SUV{sub max} (p = 0.52) and MTV (p = 0.436)], and OS of 81.1 % vs. 75.0 % [p = 0.279, compared with SUV{sub max} (p = 0.345) and MTV (p = 0.512)]. There were no significant associations between the percentage reduction of primary tumour metabolic parameters and outcomes. In patients with nodal disease, metabolic parameters below OC (for both PT and IN) were significantly associated with all oncological outcomes, while TLG was again the best predictor: LRFS of 84.0 % vs. 55.3 % (p = 0.017), DFS of 79.4 % vs. 38.6 % (p = 0.001), MFFS 86.4 % vs. 68.2 % (p = 0

  4. Radioimmunoassay for tumor antigen of human cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Torigoe, T.

    1977-01-01

    A heterologous antiserum for human cervical squamous cell carcinoma was prepared and specificity determined by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion and immunofluorescence studies. With this antiserum, a tumor antigen was purified from human cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue. The specificities of the antigen and the antiserum were then re-examined by a radioimmunoassay method using 125 I-labeled purified antigen. Although normal cervical tissue extract showed a moderate cross-reactivity in the radioimmunoassay, the circulating antigen activity could not be detected in normal women or in several patients with other carcinomas, whereas 27 of 35 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma showed detectable serum antigen activity. All patients with advanced stages of cervical squamous cell carcinoma showed detectable antigen levels. These results indicate that there is a quantitative abnormality, at least, of this tumor antigen in patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma and that the radioimmunoassay for the antigen is a potentially useful tool in clinical care

  5. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  6. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B

    1997-01-01

    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore.......05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...... studies of vitamin D's effect on TCC cells in vitro are necessary before the efficacy of treatment with vitamin D analogues in TCC can be evaluated in patients....

  7. Carcinoma basocelular em localizações incomuns Basal cell carcinoma in unusual locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Beatriz Mautari Niwa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam cinco pacientes que desenvolveram carcinomas basocelulares em locais incomuns de ocorrência desse tumor. O objetivo é relatar a raridade topográfica da neoplasia cutânea e discutir o conceito de localização incomum para o carcinoma basocelular.The authors present five patients who develop basal cell carcinomas in sites this tumor rarely occurs. The aim is to report the rare location of this frequent cutaneous malignancy and to briefly discuss the concept of unusual location of basal cell carcinoma.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Hiroichi; Umeda, Takashi; Niijima, Tadao; Yashiro, Naobumi; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1987-07-01

    Eighteen patients with renal neoplasm underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 1.5 Tesla superconducting magnetic system and spin echo images were obtained by quick scan technique under holding breath. MR images were interpreted independently of the computerized tomography (CT) findings. The preoperative stagings of the 18 renal carcinomas, as judged by MRI, were compared with those obtained at laparotomy. The anatomic staging was correctly performed by MRI in 13 patients (72 %). In the patients who had intrarenal small tumor with normal renal contour, MRI demonstrated a solid mass clearly distinguishable from surrounding renal parenchyma using the paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium-DTPA). When compared with results of evaluation by CT in staging, MRI appeared to have several advantages in determination of whole mass; the detection of tumor thrombus into renal vein and inferior vena cava; and the evaluation of direct tumor invasion of adjacent organs. MRI should play an important role in the staging of renal cell carcinoma.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Hiroichi; Umeda, Takashi; Niijima, Tadao; Yashiro, Naobumi; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen patients with renal neoplasm underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 1.5 Tesla superconducting magnetic system and spin echo images were obtained by quick scan technique under holding breath. MR images were interpreted independently of the computerized tomography (CT) findings. The preoperative stagings of the 18 renal carcinomas, as judged by MRI, were compared with those obtained at laparotomy. The anatomic staging was correctly performed by MRI in 13 patients (72 %). In the patients who had intrarenal small tumor with normal renal contour, MRI demonstrated a solid mass clearly distinguishable from surrounding renal parenchyma using the paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium-DTPA). When compared with results of evaluation by CT in staging, MRI appeared to have several advantages in determination of whole mass; the detection of tumor thrombus into renal vein and inferior vena cava; and the evaluation of direct tumor invasion of adjacent organs. MRI should play an important role in the staging of renal cell carcinoma. (author)

  10. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Bin; Weng, Hong-Rui; Wang, Geng; Yang, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Ping; Li, Hua; Liu, Di-Tian; Chen, Yu-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) of the esophagus is a rare carcinoma with distinct characteristics. No standard treatment has been established. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of esophageal BSCC. Clinical data were retrospectively analyzed from 26 patients with pathologically confirmed esophageal BSCC who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with lymphadenectomy between January 1995 and June 2010 at the Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College. Clinicopathologic data between BSCC patients and different histologic grades of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients were statistically compared by means of the χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test. The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank methods were used to estimate and compare survival rates. Microscopically, BSCC was characterized by a nesting, lobular, or trabecular arrangement of small crowded cells with scant cytoplasm. None of the histologic specimens taken at preoperative esophagoscopy were diagnosed as BSCC. The median survival time (MST) of the 26 patients was 29.0 months (95% confidence interval, 9.0-49.0), and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 73.1, 42.7, and 36.6%, respectively. The MST for BSCC patients was significantly lower than that of well-differentiated SCC patients (P = 0.024), but there were no significant differences between the MST for BSCC patients and that of moderately or poorly differentiated SCC patients (P > 0.05). BSCC of the esophagus is a rare but distinctive disease and is prone to be misdiagnosed by endoscopic biopsy. The prognosis is poorer than well-differentiated SCC, but similar to moderately or poorly differentiated SCC.

  11. The association between human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal squamous cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walvik, Lena; Svensson, Amanda Björk; Friborg, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    carcinoma using the Bradford Hill criteria. The strength of the association is supported by, detection of human papillomavirus infection and antibodies prior to oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This is furthermore reinforced by the absence of human papillomavirus DNA in healthy tonsils...... incidence in human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is associated with sexual behaviour. These associations have been repeatedly observed and are in accordance with our current knowledge. The time relation between cause and effect remains the main challenge, due to the lack...... of well-defined premalignant lesions. However, a causal relationship between human papillomavirus infection and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma seems evident....

  12. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, M. H.; Sondak, V. K.; Sondak, V. K.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains the most common form of non melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  13. Fanconi anemia and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Paula Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi Anemia (FA is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by chromosome instability, cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, and increased predisposition to malignancies. We describe here a 28 year-old female with FA and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma treated by radiation therapy alone. The patient developed arm phlebitis, pulmonary fungal infection, and severe rectal bleeding, followed by hypocalcaemia, hypokalemia, vaginal bacterial and fungal infection, with subsequent leg and arm phlebitis, perineal abscess, and sepsis. The patient died 12 weeks later.

  14. Unilateral Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old, neutered male, American Cocker Spaniel weighing 8.3 kg was presented with a 1-month history of weight-loss, anorexia, intermittent vomiting and bloody-diarrhea. Abnormal blood tests results, a large mass on the kidney field in radiographic views and ultrasonography were presented. Nephroureterectomy was tried, but a large mass in the kidney and metastasis to the spleen caused to decline the surgery and treatment. The dog was euthanized, and necropsy and histological review revealed the renal cell carcinoma.

  15. Basal cell carcinoma after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimbo, Keisuke; Terashi, Hiroto; Ishida, Yasuhisa; Tahara, Shinya; Osaki, Takeo; Nomura, Tadashi; Ejiri, Hirotaka

    2008-01-01

    We reported two cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that developed after radiation therapy. A 50-year-old woman, who had received an unknown amount of radiation therapy for the treatment of intracranial germinoma at the age of 22, presented with several tumors around the radiation ulcer. All tumors showed BCC. A 33-year-old woman, who had received an unknown amount of radiation therapy on the head for the treatment of leukemia at the age of 2, presented with a black nodule within the area of irradiation. The tumor showed BCC. We discuss the occurrence of BCC after radiation therapy. (author)

  16. Postoperative radiotherapy for merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuya; Asakawa, Isao; Katayama, Emiko; Kajitani, Chikae; Tamamoto, Tetsuro; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Fukumoto, Takaya; Asada, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Seven patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) who visited our department of radiation oncology from February 2005 to July 2011 received postoperative radiotherapy (50-60 Gy). All patients were alive without recurrence (median follow-up period: 47.6 (14.7-88.4) months). All of them had grade 2 dermatitis, and one grade 2 oral mucositis and three grade 2 lymphedema were observed. No adverse event grade 3 (CTCAE v4.0) or over was observed. In our hospital, clinical results of postoperative radiotherapy for MCC were fairly good, and adverse events were acceptable during the follow-up period. (author)

  17. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beggs, Rachel E

    2012-09-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater are rare and confer a very poor prognosis despite aggressive therapy. There are few case reports of large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater in the literature and to date no studies have been done to establish optimal management. We describe a pooled case series from published reports of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater including a case which presented to our institution.

  18. Hürthle cell carcinoma: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sara Ahmadi,1 Michael Stang,2 Xiaoyin “Sara” Jiang,3 Julie Ann Sosa2,4,5 1Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, 2Section of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, 3Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, 4Duke Cancer Institute, 5Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC can present either as a minimally invasive or as a widely invasive tumor. HCC generally has a more aggressive clinical behavior compared with the other differentiated thyroid cancers, and it is associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. Minimally invasive HCC demonstrates much less aggressive behavior; lesions <4 cm can be treated with thyroid lobectomy alone, and without radioactive iodine (RAI. HCC has been observed to be less iodine-avid compared with other differentiated thyroid cancers; however, recent data have demonstrated improved survival with RAI use in patients with HCC >2 cm and those with nodal and distant metastases. Patients with localized iodine-resistant disease who are not candidates for a wait-and-watch approach can be treated with localized therapies. Systemic therapy is reserved for patients with progressive, widely metastatic HCC. Keywords: thyroid cancer, thyroid nodule, follicular cell carcinoma, Hurthle cell lesion, minimally invasive HCC

  19. Hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity in oral squamous cell carcinoma derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pratik Rajeev; Charles, Silvania Emlit; D'Souza, Zinia Charlotte; Vaidya, Milind Murlidhar

    2017-11-15

    BPAG1e and Plectin are hemidesmosomal linker proteins which anchor intermediate filament proteins to the cell surface through β4 integrin. Recent reports indicate that these proteins play a role in various cellular processes apart from their known anchoring function. However, the available literature is inconsistent. Further, the previous study from our laboratory suggested that Keratin8/18 pair promotes cell motility and tumor progression by deregulating β4 integrin signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) derived cells. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that linker proteins may have a role in neoplastic progression of OSCC. Downregulation of hemidesmosomal linker proteins in OSCC derived cells resulted in reduced cell migration accompanied by alterations in actin organization. Further, decreased MMP9 activity led to reduced cell invasion in linker proteins knockdown cells. Moreover, loss of these proteins resulted in reduced tumorigenic potential. SWATH analysis demonstrated upregulation of N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in linker proteins downregulated cells as compared to vector control cells. Further, the defects in phenotype upon linker proteins ablation were rescued upon loss of NDRG1 in linker proteins knockdown background. These data together indicate that hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity possibly through NDRG1 in OSCC derived cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Review of photodynamic therapy with 5-methyl aminolevulinate in actinic keratosis, epidermoid carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallas Moya, Said

    2013-01-01

    A bibliographic review was conduced on the use of 5-methyl aminolevulinate in dermatology, specifically in the treatment of actinic keratosis, epidermoid carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. The basic fundamentals of photodynamic therapy are described. The preparation and method of use of photodynamic therapy with 5-methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) are detailed. The clinical studies that were realized with photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic keratosis, epidermoid carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are mentioned. Different photo-inducible agents and other current therapeutic options of first-line are compared. The MAL-PDT has have the advantage of to present less side effects and the same have been more tolerable than liquid nitrogen and 5 fluorouracil. The MAL-PDT has been considered as an effective option for the treatment of Bowen's disease. Invasive epidermoid carcinoma has existed without evidence to support the routine use of this therapeutic. For superficial basal cell carcinoma, the MAL-PDT has presented a high cure rate and transient and manageable side effects in extensive and multiple lesions. The MAL-PDT has been an effective and safe treatment in patients with basal cell carcinoma, for those with less depth of 2mm. The MAL-PDT could play an important role in the field of prevention with immunosuppressed patients, particularly, those that have required transplant and its immunosuppression has been pharmacological. The use or not of the MAL-PDT, should be evaluated individually for each patient and to have suitable characteristics for each disease that was cited in this review. The photodynamic therapy with 5-methyl aminolevulinate has been a therapeutic modality of considerable economy, however, it should be evaluated in the context of number of inquiries and side effects that have offered other therapeutic modalities [es

  1. Merkel cell polyomavirus infection and Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; MacDonald, Margo; You, Jianxin

    2016-10-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus is the only polyomavirus discovered to date that is associated with a human cancer. MCPyV infection is highly prevalent in the general population. Nearly all healthy adults asymptomatically shed MCPyV from their skin. However, in elderly and immunosuppressed individuals, the infection can lead to a lethal form of skin cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma. In the last few years, new findings have established links between MCPyV infection, host immune response, and Merkel cell carcinoma development. This review discusses these recent discoveries on how MCPyV interacts with host cells to achieve persistent infection and, in the immunocompromised population, contributes to MCC development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Kaempferol inhibits cell proliferation and glycolysis in esophagus squamous cell carcinoma via targeting EGFR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shihua; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Chunguang; Zhao, Tiejun; Jin, Hai; Fang, Wentao

    2016-08-01

    Antitumor activity of kaempferol has been studied in various tumor types, but its potency in esophagus squamous cell carcinoma is rarely known. Here, we reported the activity of kaempferol against esophagus squamous cell carcinoma as well as its antitumor mechanisms. Results of cell proliferation and colony formation assay showed that kaempferol substantially inhibited tumor cell proliferation and clone formation in vitro. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that tumor cells were induced G0/G1 phase arrest after kaempferol treatment, and the expression of protein involved in cell cycle regulation was dramatically changed. Except the potency on cell proliferation, we also discovered that kaempferol had a significant inhibitory effect against tumor glycolysis. With the downregulation of hexokinase-2, glucose uptake and lactate production in tumor cells were dramatically declined. Mechanism studies revealed kaempferol had a direct effect on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity, and along with the inhibition of EGFR, its downstream signaling pathways were also markedly suppressed. Further investigations found that exogenous overexpression of EGFR in tumor cells substantially attenuated glycolysis suppression induced by kaempferol, which implied that EGFR also played an important role in kaempferol-mediated glycolysis inhibition. Finally, the antitumor activity of kaempferol was validated in xenograft model and kaempferol prominently restrained tumor growth in vivo. Meanwhile, dramatic decrease of EGFR activity and hexokinase-2 expression were observed in kaempferol-treated tumor tissue, which confirmed these findings in vitro. Briefly, these studies suggested that kaempferol, or its analogues, may serve as effective candidates for esophagus squamous cell carcinoma management.

  3. Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans control adhesion and invasion of breast carcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Hooi Ching; Multhaupt, Hinke A. B.; Couchman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    breast carcinoma. This may derive from their regulation of cell adhesion, but roles for specific syndecans are unresolved. Methods: The MDA-MB231 human breast carcinoma cell line was exposed to exogenous glycosaminoglycans and changes in cell behavior monitored by western blotting, immunocytochemistry......, invasion and collagen degradation assays. Selected receptors including PAR-1 and syndecans were depleted by siRNA treatments to assess cell morphology and behavior. Immunohistochemistry for syndecan-2 and its interacting partner, caveolin-2 was performed on human breast tumor tissue arrays. Two......-tailed paired t-test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey¿s post-hoc test were used in the analysis of data. Results: MDA-MB231 cells were shown to be highly sensitive to exogenous heparan sulfate or heparin, promoting increased spreading, focal adhesion and adherens junction formation with concomitantly reduced...

  4. Treatment of primary tracheal carcinoma. The role of external and endoluminal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, W.; Wannenmacher, M.; Becker, H.; Herth, F.; Gagel, B.

    2000-01-01

    Background and Purpose: In a retrospective study the role of radiation therapy for the treatment of primary tracheal carcinoma was investigated. Patients and Methods: Between 1984 and 1997, 25 patients with primary tracheal carcinoma were treated with external beam radiotherapy (17 squamous-cell carcinoma [SCC], 8 adenoid cystic carcinoma [ACC], median dose SCC 60 Gy, ACC 55 Gy). An additional brachytherapy boost was carried out in 10/25 patients (median dose SCC 18 Gy, ACC 15 Gy). Ten patients underwent operative treatment. Results: The median survival (Kaplan-Meier) for patients with SCC was 33 months (ACC 94.2). The 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rates (Kaplan-Meier) for patients with SCC were 64.7% (ACC 85.7%), 64.7% (ACC 85.7%), and 26% (ACC 85.7%). Patients with ACC and patients with a complete remission after treatment had a significantly better survival probability (log rank test, p [de

  5. The contemporary role of ablative treatment approaches in the management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC): focus on radiofrequency ablation (RFA), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and cryoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Tobias; Kroeger, Nils; Zimmermann, Uwe; Burchardt, Martin; Belldegrun, Arie S; Pantuck, Allan J

    2014-06-01

    Currently, most of renal tumors are small, low grade, with a slow growth rate, a low metastatic potential, and with up to 30 % of these tumors being benign on the final pathology. Moreover, they are often diagnosed in elderly patients with preexisting medical comorbidities in whom the underlying medical conditions may pose a greater risk of death than the small renal mass. Concerns regarding overdiagnosis and overtreatment of patients with indolent small renal tumors have led to an increasing interest in minimally invasive, ablative as an alternative to extirpative interventions for selected patients. To provide an overview about the state of the art in radiofrequency ablation (RFA), high-intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation in the clinical management of renal cell carcinoma. A PubMed wide the literature search of was conducted. International consensus panels recommend ablative techniques in patients who are unfit for surgery, who are not considered candidates for or elect against elective surveillance, and who have small renal masses. The most often used techniques are cryoablation and RFA. These ablative techniques offer potentially curative outcomes while conferring several advantages over extirpative surgery, including improved patient procedural tolerance, faster recovery, preservation of renal function, and reduction in the risk of intraoperative and postsurgical complications. While it is likely that outcomes associated with ablative modalities will improve with further advances in technology, their application will expand to more elective indications as longer-term efficacy data become available. Ablative techniques pose a valid treatment option in selected patients.

  6. The current role of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy within the continuum of actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim P; Peppelman, Malou; Hoogedoorn, Lisa; Van Erp, Piet E J; Gerritsen, Marie-Jeanne P

    2016-12-01

    Clinical differentiation between actinic keratosis (AK), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ, and invasive SCC and its variants may be difficult. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive technique for in vivo skin imaging. To explicate the diagnostic and monitoring use of RCM within the spectrum of AK and SCC, and evaluate the accuracy of RCM for these diagnoses relative to histopathology. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. The quality was assessed using the STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. Twenty-five eligible studies were included. Different diagnostic RCM features have been described for AK, actinic cheilitis (AC), erythroplasia of Queyrat, Bowen disease, invasive SCC, and keratoacanthoma (KA). The overall range of sensitivity and specificity of RCM for the diagnosis of SCC, AK, SCC in situ, and KA was 79-100% and 78-100%, respectively. The current literature describes the use of RCM for diagnosing AK, AC, erythroplasia of Queyrat, Bowen disease, invasive SCC, and KA, as well as for monitoring treatments of AK, with good accuracy. Unfortunately, studies with high methodological quality are lacking. Pre-treatment of hyperkeratotic lesions and uniform definitions of RCM features are required to simplify the differentiation between AKs, SCC in situ, and SCC and its variants in clinical practice.

  7. Merkel cell carcinoma: Outcome and role of radiotherapy; Carcinome a cellules de Merkel: prise en charge et place de la radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador Alonso, R.; Lahbabi, I.; Ben Hassel, M.; Boisselier, P.; Crevoisier, R. de [Centre Eugene-Marquis, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 35 - Rennes (France); Chaari, N. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 94 - Villejuif (France); Lesimple, T. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, Dept. d' Oncologie Medicale, 35 - Rennes (France); Chevrier, S. [Centre Hospitalier Prive de Saint-Gregoire, Dept. de Chirurgie Plastique, 35 - Saint-Gregoire (France)

    2008-09-15

    Merkel cell carcinoma (M.C.C.) are rare neuroendocrine malignant tumor of the skin, occurring in elderly patients. It affects primarily the sun-exposed areas of the skin, with approximately 50% of all tumors occurring in the face and neck and 40% in the extremities. Immunohistochemical markers (C.K.20+, C.K.7- and T.T.F.1-) are used to distinguish between M.C.C. and other tumors. M.C.C. have a tendency to rapid local progression, frequent spread to regional lymph nodes and distant metastases. Due to the rarity of the disease, the optimal treatment has not been fully defined. Localized stages (stages I and II) are treated by surgical excision of the primary tumor (with 2 to 3 cm margin) and lymphadenectomy in case of node-positive disease, followed by external beam radiotherapy (E.B.R.T.) to a total dose of 50 to 60 Gy in the tumor bed. Adjuvant E.B.R.T. has been shown to decrease markedly locoregional recurrences and to increase survival in recent studies. Treatment of lymph nodes area is more controversial. Chemotherapy is recommended only for metastatic disease. (authors)

  8. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Stomach: A Rare Entity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schmidt C, Schmid A, Lüttges JE, Kremer B, Henne-Bruns D. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach. Report of a case and review of literature. Hepatogastroenterology 2001;48:1033-6. 5. Muto M, Hasebe T, Muro K, Boku N, Ohtsu A, Fujii T, et al. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach: A case report with ...

  9. Amyloid in basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Westermark, Per

    1994-01-01

    The frequency of amyloid substance was studied in two different types of skin tumours: basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis. In 9 out of 49 cases of seborrheic keratosis amyloid substance was found. In the basal cell carcinomas, 194 out of 260 cases showed amyloid deposits, a rate...

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in Ilorin, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to determine the incidence of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma at UITH over an 11 – year period. Nineteen patients (11males and 8 females) had histological confirmation of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma out of 21 conjunctival specimens, representing 22.9% of all orbito-ocular tumours reviewed ...

  11. induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular basis of arsenite (As +3 )-induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells. ... Libyan Journal of Medicine ... Methods: After performing cytotoxic assays on a human epithelial carcinoma cell line, expression analysis was done by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and ...

  12. Primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma versus ovarian carcinoma versus malignant transformation of endometriosis: a vexing issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insabato, Luigi; Natella, Valentina; Somma, Anna; Persico, Marcello; Camera, Luigi; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Masone, Stefania

    2015-05-01

    Peritoneum is a site for both primary and secondary tumors. Primary peritoneal tumors are fairly rare. The most common primary tumors of the peritoneum are malignant mesothelioma and serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Clear cell carcinoma of the peritoneum is extremely rare and often misdiagnosed as mesothelioma, serous carcinoma, or metastatic adenocarcinoma, so it represents a diagnostic challenge for both clinicians and pathologists. Up to date, to the best of our knowledge, only 11 cases of primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma have been reported in the English literature. Distinguishing this tumor of the peritoneum versus ovarian carcinoma can be problematic. Herein, we report a rare case of primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma occurring in a 49-year-old woman, along with a review of the literature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to investi......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark......, and to investigate the incidence. We suggest guidelines for treatment. First we reviewed the medical records of 51 patients diagnosed with MCC from 1995 until 2006 in eastern Denmark. The nation-wide incidence of MCC was extracted from the Danish Cancer Registry for the calculations for the period 1986-2003. We...... reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  14. Treatment of early glottic squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikimaru, Fumihide; Matsuo, Mioko; Higaki, Yuichiro; Tomita, Kichinobu

    2011-01-01

    We treat early glottic squamous cell carcinoma with chemoradiation and evaluate the effects of the chemoradiation at the dose of 30-40 Gy as an intermediate evaluation. To investigate the need for this intermediate evaluation, we retrospectively analyzed 97 patients, 92 men and 5 women aged 36 to 86 years, with glottic squamous cell carcinoma at stage I and II treated at our institution from January 2000 to May 2007. The three-year survival rate was 98% in all cases, 100% in T1a, 93% in T1b and 94% in T2. The three-year preservation rate of the larynx was 92% in all cases, 98% in T1a, 93% in T1b and 83% in T2. In the intermediate evaluation, complete response was 78% in T1a, 85% in T1b and 53% in T2. In cases of larynx preservation, the recurrence rate of the primary site was significantly higher in cases without complete response in the intermediate evaluation than in cases with complete response (p<0.05). It seemed that the not complete response case in the intermediate evaluation paid attention to a primary tumor recurrence in particular and needed careful follow-up. (author)

  15. Airway Basal Cell Heterogeneity and Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynds, Robert E; Janes, Sam M

    2017-09-01

    Basal cells are stem/progenitor cells that maintain airway homeostasis, enact repair following epithelial injury, and are a candidate cell-of-origin for lung squamous cell carcinoma. Heterogeneity of basal cells is recognized in terms of gene expression and differentiation capacity. In this Issue, Pagano and colleagues isolate a subset of immortalized basal cells that are characterized by high motility, suggesting that they might also be heterogeneous in their biophysical properties. Motility-selected cells displayed an increased ability to colonize the lung in vivo The possible implications of these findings are discussed in terms of basal cell heterogeneity, epithelial cell migration, and modeling of metastasis that occurs early in cancer evolution. Cancer Prev Res; 10(9); 491-3. ©2017 AACR See related article by Pagano et al., p. 514 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Which Are the Cells of Origin in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilling, T.; Moll, I.

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive skin tumour with increasing incidence, is associated with the newly discovered Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCPyV). Studies on MCC and MCPyV as well as other risk factors have significantly increased our knowledge of MCC pathogenesis, but the cells of origin, which could be important targets in future therapies, are still unknown. Merkel cells (MCs), the neuroendocrine cells of the skin, were believed to be at the origin of MCC due to their phenotypic similarities. However, for several reasons, for example, heterogeneous differentiation of MCCs and post mitotic character of MCs, it is not very likely that MCC develops from differentiated MCs. Skin stem cells, probably from the epidermal lineage, are more likely to be cells of origin in MCC. Future studies will have to address these questions more directly in order to identify the physiological cells which are transformed to MCC cells.

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma following radiation therapy for the infiltrative thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Shinji; Kitao, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    This report represents one case of infiltrative thymoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs. A 69-year-old man suffered from infiltrative thymoma which reduced by the radiation therapy. Seven years later its replase and the onset of squamous cell carcinoma were found simultaneously. Infiltrative thymoma metastasized not only to the mediastinum but also to the liver and bronchus. Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the right upper lobe. In spite of chemotherapy against them, the patient died. There are many cases in which infiltrative thymoma is accompanied by squamous cell carcinoma of the lung simultaneously; however, secondary onset of squamous cell carcinoma after the radiation therapy of infiltrative thymoma is rare. Secondary carcinogenesis of this case was considered to be closely related with immunological abnormalities caused by thymoma, effects of radiation, smoking and so on. (author)

  18. CT staging of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spina, Juan C.; Garcia, Adriana T.; Rogondino, Jose; Spina, Juan C. h; Vidales, Valeria; Troiani, Guillermo; Iotti, Alejandro; Venditti, Julio

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of computerized tomography (CT) in the characterization of renal masses, in order to stage them, determine their prognosis and their appropriate clinical and/or surgical management. Material and Methods: Between 1988 and 2001, we selected 63 patients with renal tumors that had been examined by pathology. Patient's ages ranged from 16 to 88 years (25 women, 38 men). The studies were performed with a sequential helical CT, using 5 mm thickness sections every 5mm evaluating the cortico medullar and nephrographic phases. Renal tumors were characterized and staged without any knowledge about the pathological findings; subsequently the tomographic characteristics were compared to such findings. The following characteristics were evaluated: 1) mixed solid-cystic nature; 2) size; 3) borders; 4) enhancement; 5) necrosis; 6) hemorrhage; 7) central scar; 8) presence of fat; 9) collecting system; 10) capsular invasion; 11) perirenal fat invasion; 12) vessels; 13) Gerota's fascia; 14) lymph nodes; and 15) local and/or distant metastases. Results: Of the 63 tumors, 2 were complicated cysts; of the 61 remaining tumors, 10 were angiomyolipomas, 1 was a renal lymphoma, 1 was a focal xantogranulomatose pyelonephritis, 1 was a metanephric adenoma, 3 papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 4 transitional cell tumors, 4 oncocytomas, 37 clear cell renal carcinoma. The CT could correctly characterize the 2 cystic tumors as such, as well as the 9 angiomyolipomas and the 4 transitional cell tumors. The 48 other tumors (1 angiomyolipoma, 1 lymphoma, 1 focal xantogranulomatose pyelonephritis, 1 metanephric adenoma, 3 papillary RCC, 4 oncocytomas, and 37 cell renal carcinomas) remaining were characterized as renal adenocarcinomas and CT staged. Conclusion: CT is a useful method to characterize renal masses since it determines their solid-cystic or fatty structure; aiding in many cases to define a surgical treatment. For the CT staging of renal tumors, the

  19. Merkel cell carcinoma with an unusual immunohistochemical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pilloni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and morphological picture of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC may be rather challenging; therefore, the immunohistochemical profile plays a relevant role in confirming the microscopic diagnosis. A panel of antibodies including cytokeratins 20, 7 and epithelial membrane antigen, and neuronspecific enolase is used in confirming the morphological diagnosis of MCC. The majority of MCCs express CK20 and are CK7-negative. Herein, we present a case of primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma with an atypical immunohistochemical pattern. A 83-years old woman presented with a painless plaque, red to violaceous in colour, located in the leg. The skin tumor was excided, formalin-fixed and paraffinembedded. Tissue sections were immunostained with a panel of antibodies routinely utilized in complex primary skin tumors for evidencing epithelial and neuroendocrine differentiation of tumor cells. The neuroendocrine differentiation of tumor cells was evidenced by their immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, chromograninA and neuron-specific enolase. Tumor cells also showed diffuse cytoplasmic staining for CK7. No immunoreactivity was detected for CK20 and thyroid transcription factor-1. Our data, together with previous rare reports of CK20-/CK7+ MCCs, lay stress on the importance of routinely utilizing a panel of antibodies in the differential diagnosis of complex primary carcinomas of the skin and may have important implications in expanding the differential diagnosis of skin tumors. In particular, caution should be taken in excluding the diagnosis of MCC only on the basis of the absence of reactivity of tumor cells for CK20, favouring the wrong diagnosis of less aggressive skin tumors.

  20. Characterization of the Merkel Cell Carcinoma miRNome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Ning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been implicated in various skin cancers, including melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma; however, the expression of microRNAs and their role in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC have yet to be explored in depth. To identify microRNAs specific to MCC (MCC-miRs, next-generation sequencing (NGS of small RNA libraries was performed on different tissue samples including MCCs, other cutaneous tumors, and normal skin. Comparison of the profiles identified several microRNAs upregulated and downregulated in MCC. For validation, their expression was measured via qRT-PCR in a larger group of MCC and in a comparison group of non-MCC cutaneous tumors and normal skin. Eight microRNAs were upregulated in MCC: miR-502-3p, miR-9, miR-7, miR-340, miR-182, miR-190b, miR-873, and miR-183. Three microRNAs were downregulated: miR-3170, miR-125b, and miR-374c. Many of these MCC-miRs, the miR-183/182/96a cistron in particular, have connections to tumorigenic pathways implicated in MCC pathogenesis. In situ hybridization confirmed that the highly expressed MCC-miR, miR-182, is localized within tumor cells. Furthermore, NGS and qRT-PCR reveal that several of these MCC-miRs are highly expressed in the patient-derived MCC cell line, MS-1. These data indicate that we have identified a set of MCC-miRs with important implications for MCC research.

  1. Synchronous presentation of nasopharyngeal and renal cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Boruban

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of synchronous presentation of nasopharyngeal and renal cell carcinomas in a-50-year old male patient with long standing smoking history. The patient was initially presented with a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. During staging process, the abdominal computed tomography detected a right renal solid mass, 6.5 cm in diameter, originating from posterior portion of the right renal cortex. Right radical nephrectomy was performed and pathological examination revealed renal cell carcinoma. Smoking was thought to be a risk factor for both cancers. Systemic evaluation of kidney should not be discarded in patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma living in western countries with a smoking history.

  2. Merkel cell carcinoma: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosanta Kumar Bhattacharjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old man presented with a lump at the right side of chest wall of 4 months duration which started bleeding suddenly from an ulcer at its center. Examination revealed a globular ulcerated mass 2 cm in diameter, on the anterior axillary fold, with adherent clot at its center. No regional lymphadenopathy was noted. Wide local excision with 2 cm margin was done. Biopsy report revealed malignant small round-cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed it to be cytokeratin-20-positive and S100-negative, suggesting the diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma. The patient did not receive any other adjuvant therapy. He is being followed-up for the last 4 years and has shown no features of recurrence so far.

  3. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and clinical parameters in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, vocal fold nodule, and laryngeal atypical hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Cağdaş; Sayar, Hamide; Özdemir, Süleyman; Selçuk, Tahsin; Görgülü, Orhan; Akbaş, Yücel; Kemal Olgun, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The diagnostic role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in laryngeal atypical hyperplasia, vocal fold nodule, and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma was examined. Specimens obtained from patients diagnosed with vocal fold nodule (n = 35), atypical hyperplasia (n = 35), laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 35), and clinical parameters were evaluated retrospectively. Although no staining was observed in patients with vocal fold nodules, staining was noted in laryngeal atypical hyperplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. The percentage of COX-2 staining was the highest in the carcinoma group. It was determined that COX-2 staining was significantly associated with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. It should be noted that overexpression of COX-2, a potentially important factor in the evolution of carcinogenesis in precancerous lesions, might be an indicator of the development of carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Incidence of Mast Cells in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Short Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are regarded as complex and multifunctional cells, playing a significant role in immunopathology and a substantial role in tumor angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is a complex process that is tightly regulated by various growth factors in which mast cells act directly by releasing angiogenic factors and henceforth promoting tumor growth and metastasis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of mast cells in tissue sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in comparison with normal mucosa. A total of 40 cases (20 OSCC and 20 normal mucosa were stained with 1% toluidine blue and the quantitative analysis was done by using light microscope under 400x magnification. A significant increase in the mast cell count was observed in the sections of OSCC when compared to normal mucosa suggesting their contributing role in tumor growth and progression.

  5. Multiple squamous cell carcinomas within the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Katsuro; Hanazawa, Hideyuki; Sato, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Sugata

    2004-01-01

    Clinical features of multiple squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases within the head and neck that were treated in our department during the recent 10 years are discussed. Multiple SCCs arose in 6.6% of the cases with primary SCC; 67% of the cases had two carcinomas, and 33% had more than three carcinomas. The most common site of the multiple SCCs was the oral cavity (54%). The most frequent interval between treatment of previous carcinoma and diagnosis of subsequent carcinoma was simultaneous, but more than 5 years' interval was observed in 36% of the patients. The most common initial treatment of the carcinoma was irradiation, but the ratio of surgery increased for subsequent carcinomas. Prognosis of the patients with more than three carcinomas was not worse than that of patients with two carcinomas. Therefore, early diagnosis of the subsequent carcinomas based on careful long-term observation in the head and neck is necessary for follow-up of the patients with SCC of the head and neck. Treatment strategies considering the treatment of subsequent carcinomas are needed for the patients with primary head and neck SCC. (author)

  6. Inflammatory Cell Distribution in Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Rachel [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Roberts, Claudia [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Waterboer, Tim [Infection and Cancer Program, DKFZ (German Cancer Research Centre), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Steele, Jane [Human Biomaterials Resource Centre, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Marsden, Jerry [University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Steven, Neil M., E-mail: n.m.steven@bham.ac.uk [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Blackbourn, David J., E-mail: n.m.steven@bham.ac.uk [Department of Microbial and Cellular Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-06

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cutaneous carcinoma associated with older age, immunodeficiency and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integrated within malignant cells. The presence of intra-tumoural CD8+ lymphocytes reportedly predicts better MCC-specific survival. In this study, the distribution of inflammatory cells and properties of CD8+ T lymphocytes within 20 primary MCC specimens were characterised using immunohistochemistry and multicolour immunofluorescent staining coupled to confocal microscopy. CD8+ cells and CD68+ macrophages were identified in 19/20 primary MCC. CD20+ B cells were present in 5/10, CD4+ cells in 10/10 and FoxP3+ cells in 7/10 specimens. Only two specimens had almost no inflammatory cells. Within specimens, inflammatory cells followed the same patchy distribution, focused at the edge of sheets and nodules and, in some cases, more intense in trabecular areas. CD8+ cells were outside vessels on the edge of tumour. Those few within malignant sheets typically lined up in fine septa not contacting MCC cells expressing MCPyV large T antigen. The homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 was expressed outside malignant nodules whereas its receptor CXCR4 was identified within tumour but not on CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells lacked CXCR3 and granzyme B expression irrespective of location within stroma versus malignant nodules or of the intensity of the intra-tumoural infiltrate. In summary, diverse inflammatory cells were organised around the margin of malignant deposits suggesting response to aberrant signaling, but were unable to penetrate the tumour microenvironment itself to enable an immune response against malignant cells or their polyomavirus.

  7. Inflammatory Cell Distribution in Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat, Rachel; Roberts, Claudia; Waterboer, Tim; Steele, Jane; Marsden, Jerry; Steven, Neil M.; Blackbourn, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cutaneous carcinoma associated with older age, immunodeficiency and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integrated within malignant cells. The presence of intra-tumoural CD8+ lymphocytes reportedly predicts better MCC-specific survival. In this study, the distribution of inflammatory cells and properties of CD8+ T lymphocytes within 20 primary MCC specimens were characterised using immunohistochemistry and multicolour immunofluorescent staining coupled to confocal microscopy. CD8+ cells and CD68+ macrophages were identified in 19/20 primary MCC. CD20+ B cells were present in 5/10, CD4+ cells in 10/10 and FoxP3+ cells in 7/10 specimens. Only two specimens had almost no inflammatory cells. Within specimens, inflammatory cells followed the same patchy distribution, focused at the edge of sheets and nodules and, in some cases, more intense in trabecular areas. CD8+ cells were outside vessels on the edge of tumour. Those few within malignant sheets typically lined up in fine septa not contacting MCC cells expressing MCPyV large T antigen. The homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 was expressed outside malignant nodules whereas its receptor CXCR4 was identified within tumour but not on CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells lacked CXCR3 and granzyme B expression irrespective of location within stroma versus malignant nodules or of the intensity of the intra-tumoural infiltrate. In summary, diverse inflammatory cells were organised around the margin of malignant deposits suggesting response to aberrant signaling, but were unable to penetrate the tumour microenvironment itself to enable an immune response against malignant cells or their polyomavirus

  8. Fascin overexpression promotes neoplastic progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Hunain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fascin is a globular actin cross-linking protein, which plays a major role in forming parallel actin bundles in cell protrusions and is found to be associated with tumor cell invasion and metastasis in various type of cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Previously, we have demonstrated that fascin regulates actin polymerization and thereby promotes cell motility in K8-depleted OSCC cells. In the present study we have investigated the role of fascin in tumor progression of OSCC. Methods To understand the role of fascin in OSCC development and/or progression, fascin was overexpressed along with vector control in OSCC derived cells AW13516. The phenotype was studied using wound healing, Boyden chamber, cell adhesion, Hanging drop, soft agar and tumorigenicity assays. Further, fascin expression was examined in human OSCC samples (N = 131 using immunohistochemistry and level of its expression was correlated with clinico-pathological parameters of the patients. Results Fascin overexpression in OSCC derived cells led to significant increase in cell migration, cell invasion and MMP-2 activity. In addition these cells demonstrated increased levels of phosphorylated AKT, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Our in vitro results were consistent with correlative studies of fascin expression with the clinico-pathological parameters of the OSCC patients. Fascin expression in OSCC showed statistically significant correlation with increased tumor stage (P = 0.041, increased lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001, less differentiation (P = 0.005, increased recurrence (P = 0.038 and shorter survival (P = 0.004 of the patients. Conclusion In conclusion, our results indicate that fascin promotes tumor progression and activates AKT and MAPK pathways in OSCC-derived cells. Further, our correlative studies of fascin expression in OSCC with clinico-pathological parameters of the patients indicate that fascin may prove to be useful in prognostication and

  9. Fascin overexpression promotes neoplastic progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Hunain; Kannanl, Sadhna; Gude, Rajiv; Kane, Shubhada; Dalal, Sorab N; Vaidya, Milind M; Bhate, Amruta V; Gangadaran, Prakash; Sawant, Sharda S; Salot, Shimul; Sehgal, Lalit; Dange, Prerana P; Chaukar, Devendra A; D'cruz, Anil K

    2012-01-01

    Fascin is a globular actin cross-linking protein, which plays a major role in forming parallel actin bundles in cell protrusions and is found to be associated with tumor cell invasion and metastasis in various type of cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Previously, we have demonstrated that fascin regulates actin polymerization and thereby promotes cell motility in K8-depleted OSCC cells. In the present study we have investigated the role of fascin in tumor progression of OSCC. To understand the role of fascin in OSCC development and/or progression, fascin was overexpressed along with vector control in OSCC derived cells AW13516. The phenotype was studied using wound healing, Boyden chamber, cell adhesion, Hanging drop, soft agar and tumorigenicity assays. Further, fascin expression was examined in human OSCC samples (N = 131) using immunohistochemistry and level of its expression was correlated with clinico-pathological parameters of the patients. Fascin overexpression in OSCC derived cells led to significant increase in cell migration, cell invasion and MMP-2 activity. In addition these cells demonstrated increased levels of phosphorylated AKT, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Our in vitro results were consistent with correlative studies of fascin expression with the clinico-pathological parameters of the OSCC patients. Fascin expression in OSCC showed statistically significant correlation with increased tumor stage (P = 0.041), increased lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001), less differentiation (P = 0.005), increased recurrence (P = 0.038) and shorter survival (P = 0.004) of the patients. In conclusion, our results indicate that fascin promotes tumor progression and activates AKT and MAPK pathways in OSCC-derived cells. Further, our correlative studies of fascin expression in OSCC with clinico-pathological parameters of the patients indicate that fascin may prove to be useful in prognostication and treatment of OSCC

  10. Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Upper Urinary Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ka-Siong Kho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of primary extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma of the distal ureter, with a synchronous small cell carcinoma of the ipsilateral renal pelvis. These tumors, rarely reported in the urinary tract, are locally aggressive and have a poor prognosis. A 77-year-old male bedridden patient presented with fever and chills with left side-flank pain for 3 days. Following a diagnosis of ureteral urothelial carcinoma, hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision was carried out. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given after pathologic report of primary small cell carcinoma of the distal ureter and a synchronous small cell carcinoma of the ipsilateral renal pelvis. After 3 cycles of combination chemotherapy, the patient died 4 months postoperatively due to sepsis.

  11. Collision tumor of Small Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of maxillary sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Sugianto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of different malignant tumors occurring within the same organ is defined as collision tumor. Small Cell Carcinoma (SmCC is high-grade derived from neuroendocrine cell tumors, occurance in the head and neck is rare. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC is the most common malignancies encountered in head and neck area, but the occuranceof collision tumor is very rare. This report describe a 82 year-old woman patient with a SmCC and SCC that occurred in the maxillary sinus. CT was performed including with enhancement, MRI examination was T1WI, STIR and contrast enhancement. We also conducted analysis of Dynamic Contrast Enhancement (DCE. Histopathologic examination revealed small cell carcinoma. A distant metastasis was not detected. After patient received chemoradiotherapy (CCRT, most of  tumorwas reduced although a part of the tumor was remained. Pathological examination of surgery tumor specimen revealed that specimen consisted of SCC and SmCC was disappeared, and six months after surgery, the patient suffered tumor recurrence and multiple metastasis to the organs in the abdomen. This time we have to report that the experience one cases that are considered collision cancer of SmCC and SCC that occurred in the maxillary sinus.

  12. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-03-22

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  13. A case report of renal cell carcinoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-S. Paşca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mix renal carcinoma was noticed during the necropsic examination of a 14 year old mix breed female. Tumours were bilateral and metastasis was noticed in the spleen and myocard. Histological examination evidenced morphological aspects characteristic to the mixt renal carcinoma. Histological aspects described in this individual characterize renal cell carcinoma, also known as renal adenocarcinoma, hypernephroma or, in older literature, Grawitz tumour.

  14. Novel Midkine Inhibitor iMDK Inhibits Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, Masanori; Okui, Tatsuo; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Takabatake, Kiyofumi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Kurio, Naito; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Naomoto, Yoshio; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor highly expressed in various human malignant tumors. However, its role in the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma is not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the antitumor effect of a novel midkine inhibitor (iMDK) against oral squamous cell carcinoma. Administration of iMDK induced a robust antitumor response and suppressed cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 cells and SAS cells xenograft models. iMDK inhibited the proliferation of these cells dose-dependently, as well as the expression of midkine and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase in HSC-2 and SAS cells. Moreover, iMDK significantly inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor and induced tube growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that midkine is critically involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma and iMDK can be effectively used for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma of penis in patient with incipient neurosyphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Zaslavsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SSCC is one of the most common malignant skin tumors. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, with human beings as the only host. The combination of syphilis and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is not uncommon, particularly if the lesions are located on different parts of the body. However, simultaneous development of the chancre and squamous cell carcinoma of the glans penis seems exceptional. Considering rarity of the manifestation observed we feel the rare case of combined syphilis and squamous cell skin cancer is of interest.

  16. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Pleural Fluid: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Young Rhee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin that shows locoregional or distant metastasis. Metastasis of MCC to body cavity effusion is extremely rare; only three cases have been reported so far. Metastatic MCC in effusion cytology shows small blue round cells with fine stippled chromatin like other small blue round cell tumors such as small cell lung carcinoma or lymphoma. The diagnosis of metastatic MCC can grant patients good chances at recently advanced therapeutic options. Here, we present a case of metastatic MCC to pleural effusion with characteristic single file-like pattern.

  17. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Pleural Fluid: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Ye-Young; Kim, Soo Hee; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Se Hoon

    2018-05-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin that shows locoregional or distant metastasis. Metastasis of MCC to body cavity effusion is extremely rare; only three cases have been reported so far. Metastatic MCC in effusion cytology shows small blue round cells with fine stippled chromatin like other small blue round cell tumors such as small cell lung carcinoma or lymphoma. The diagnosis of metastatic MCC can grant patients good chances at recently advanced therapeutic options. Here, we present a case of metastatic MCC to pleural effusion with characteristic single file-like pattern.

  18. Rare Case of Duodenal Metastasis From Pulmonary Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Memon DO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common non–small cell malignancy of the lung. It commonly metastasizes to the adrenal glands, bone, liver, brain, and kidneys. Most occurrences of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma involving the gastrointestinal tract originate from primary lung tumors. Metastasis to the duodenum, however, is exceedingly rare, with very few cases of stomach or duodenal involvement described in the literature. We report the case of a patient with stage IV pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma metastasizing to the duodenum with an uncommon presentation to add to the paucity of literature available regarding this rare finding.

  19. Oncolytic vaccinia therapy of squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yong A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel therapies are necessary to improve outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC of the head and neck. Historically, vaccinia virus was administered widely to humans as a vaccine and led to the eradication of smallpox. We examined the therapeutic effects of an attenuated, replication-competent vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68 as an oncolytic agent against a panel of six human head and neck SCC cell lines. Results All six cell lines supported viral transgene expression (β-galactosidase, green fluorescent protein, and luciferase as early as 6 hours after viral exposure. Efficient transgene expression and viral replication (>150-fold titer increase over 72 hrs were observed in four of the cell lines. At a multiplicity of infection (MOI of 1, GLV-1h68 was highly cytotoxic to the four cell lines, resulting in ≥ 90% cytotoxicity over 6 days, and the remaining two cell lines exhibited >45% cytotoxicity. Even at a very low MOI of 0.01, three cell lines still demonstrated >60% cell death over 6 days. A single injection of GLV-1h68 (5 × 106 pfu intratumorally into MSKQLL2 xenografts in mice exhibited localized intratumoral luciferase activity peaking at days 2–4, with gradual resolution over 10 days and no evidence of spread to normal organs. Treated animals exhibited near-complete tumor regression over a 24-day period without any observed toxicity, while control animals demonstrated rapid tumor progression. Conclusion These results demonstrate significant oncolytic efficacy by an attenuated vaccinia virus for infecting and lysing head and neck SCC both in vitro and in vivo, and support its continued investigation in future clinical trials.

  20. Characterization of a Merkel Cell Polyomavirus-Positive Merkel Cell Carcinoma Cell Line CVG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Celestino; Amako, Yutaka; Harold, Alexis; Toptan, Tuna; Chang, Yuan; Shuda, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) plays a causal role in ∼80% of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC). MCV is clonally integrated into the MCC tumor genome, which results in persistent expression of large T (LT) and small T (sT) antigen oncoproteins encoded by the early locus. In MCV-positive MCC tumors, LT is truncated by premature stop codons or deletions that lead to loss of the C-terminal origin binding (OBD) and helicase domains important for replication. The N-terminal Rb binding domain remains intact. MCV-positive cell lines derived from MCC explants have been valuable tools to study the molecular mechanism of MCV-induced Merkel cell carcinogenesis. Although all cell lines have integrated MCV and express truncated LT antigens, the molecular sizes of the LT proteins differ between cell lines. The copy number of integrated viral genome also varies across cell lines, leading to significantly different levels of viral protein expression. Nevertheless, these cell lines share phenotypic similarities in cell morphology, growth characteristics, and neuroendocrine marker expression. Several low-passage MCV-positive MCC cell lines have been established since the identification of MCV. We describe a new MCV-positive MCV cell line, CVG-1, with features distinct from previously reported cell lines. CVG-1 tumor cells grow in more discohesive clusters in loose round cell suspension, and individual cells show dramatic size heterogeneity. It is the first cell line to encode an MCV sT polymorphism resulting in a unique leucine (L) to proline (P) substitution mutation at amino acid 144. CVG-1 possesses a LT truncation pattern near identical to that of MKL-1 cells differing by the last two C-terminal amino acids and also shows an LT protein expression level similar to MKL-1. Viral T antigen knockdown reveals that, like other MCV-positive MCC cell lines, CVG-1 requires T antigen expression for cell proliferation.

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Hand: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Rubin, Ashley G; Brian Jiang, Shang I

    2016-04-01

    Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the primary predisposing factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). However, surprisingly, BCCs occur very rarely on the dorsal hand, which is subject to intense sun exposure, and their infrequent presentation in this location suggests that other factors besides UVR may play a role in BCC pathogenesis. Because dorsal hand BCCs are uncommon, knowledge of their characteristics is limited, and more data are needed to describe their clinical presentation and treatment. To perform an updated review of the literature on the management of dorsal hand BCCs. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review by searching the PubMed database with the key phrases "basal cell carcinoma dorsal hand," "basal cell carcinoma hand," and "basal cell carcinoma finger," and "basal cell carcinoma thumb." The authors identified 176 cases of dorsal hand BCCs in the literature, 120 of which had sufficient data for analysis. Only 4 cases were treated with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). The authors present 14 additional cases of dorsal hand BCCs treated with MMS. Basal cell carcinomas on the dorsal hand occur infrequently, and potential risk factors include being a male of white descent and personal history of skin cancer. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be an effective treatment method.

  2. Origin of clear cell carcinoma: nature or nurture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolin, David L; Dinulescu, Daniela M; Crum, Christopher P

    2018-02-01

    A rare but serious complication of endometriosis is the development of carcinoma, and clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary are the two most common malignancies which arise from endometriosis. They are distinct diseases, characterized by unique morphologies, immunohistochemical profiles, and responses to treatment. However, both arise in endometriosis and can share common mutations. The overlapping mutational profiles of clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas suggest that their varied histologies may be due to a different cell of origin which gives rise to each type of cancer. Cochrane and colleagues address this question in a recent article in this journal. They show that a marker of ovarian clear cell carcinoma, cystathionine gamma lyase, is expressed in ciliated cells. Similarly, they show that markers of secretory cells (estrogen receptor and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1) are expressed in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. Taken together, they suggest that endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas arise from cells related to secretory and ciliated cells, respectively. We discuss Cochrane et al's work in the context of other efforts to determine the cell of origin of gynecological malignancies, with an emphasis on recent developments and challenges unique to the area. These limitations complicate our interpretation of tumor differentiation; does it reflect nature imposed by a specific cell of origin or nurture, by either mutation(s) or environment? Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Immunological disturbances and their role in treatment for cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinevich, Yu.A.; Dzyubko, N.Ya.; Kokhanevich, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    The study is concerned with immunologic status (cell-mediated and humoral immunity) as a factor influencing the choice of scheme of treatment for carcinoma of cervix uteri. The indexes of immunocompetence should be taken into account in planning the differential treatment of precancer and early forms of carcinoma of cervix uteri. Radiation treatment exerts an immunosuppressive effect. However, immunologic indexes are not affected considerably by laser destruction or surgery. Cryodestruction has a beneficial effect on cell-mediated immunity. Considering these effects as well as the long-term results of different orocedures of treatment, laser coagulation, cryogenic destruction or diathermoconization should be recommended for management of carcinoma in situ of cervix uteri, and extensive extirpation of the uterus, unattended by radiation, for Tla

  4. Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Charles, E-mail: Charles_Lin@health.qld.gov.au [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Poulsen, Michael [Mater Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Martin, Jarad [St. Andrews Hospital, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia); Jackson, James; Dickie, Graeme [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

  5. Merkel Cell Carcinoma: An Update and Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Uchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a rare but aggressive skin cancer with frequent metastasis and death. MCC has a mortality rate of 30%, making it more lethal than malignant melanoma, and incidence of MCC has increased almost fourfold over the past 20 years in the USA. MCC has long been considered to be an immunogenic cancer because it occurs more frequently in immunosuppressed patients from organ transplant and HIV infection than in those with immunocompetent. Chronic UV light exposure and clonal integration of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV are two major causative factors of MCC. Approximately 80% of MCC are associated with MCPyV, and T cells specific for MCPyV oncoproteins are present in the blood and tumors of patients. Several studies have shown that a subset of MCCs express PD-1 on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and express PD-L1 on tumor cells, which suggests an endogenous tumor-reactive immune response that might be unleashed by anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 drugs.

  6. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, Cory J., E-mail: coryjneill@gmail.com

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this case study is to describe a dosimetric delivery of radiation to a superficial disease process involving the skin and bone of the distal finger. A 76-year-old male patient presented with a subungual squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the left distal index finger with bony involvement. The patient refused conventional surgical treatment but agreed to external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). There is a gap in the current literature describing how to successfully immobilize fingers and which EBRT modality is dosimetrically advantageous in treating them. The construction of a simple immobilization method with the patient in a reproducible position is described. The use of photons and electrons were compared ultimately showing photons to be dosimetrically advantageous. Long-term efficacy of the treatment was not evaluated because of patient noncompliance.

  7. Sequential Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford R Hirsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC has changed dramatically in the past decade. As the number of available agents, and related volume of research, has grown, it is increasingly complex to know how to optimally treat patients. The authors are practicing medical oncologists at the US Oncology Network, the largest community-based network of oncology providers in the country, and represent the leadership of the Network's Genitourinary Research Committee. We outline our thought process in approaching sequential therapy of mRCC and the use of real-world data to inform our approach. We also highlight the evolving literature that will impact practicing oncologists in the near future.

  8. Imaging in Patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzenhofer, E.; Ubl, P.; Czerny, C.; Erovic, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin with a mortality rate of approximately 25% (Peloschek et al., 2010). Accurate assessment of nodal involvement in patients with MCC predicts significantly overall outcome (Smith et al., 2012 and Ortin-Perez et al., 2007). Due to the rarity of this highly aggressive disease, only a few imaging reports on MCC were published, and subsequently still to date no accepted imaging algorithm for MCC is available. For primary staging of MCC, general recommendations have included ultrasonography, chest X-ray CT, and MRI, but recent articles show that the use of sentinel node and FDG-PET/PET-CT is gaining more and more importance

  9. Merkel cell carcinoma with seborrheic keratosis: A unique association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Murthy S; Krishnamurthy, Shantha; Ravindranath, Suvarna; Ranganathan, Jyothi

    2018-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, clinically aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin; MCC is 40 times less common as compared to melanoma. The most frequently reported sites have been the head and neck, extremities, and trunk. Potential mimics include malignant melanoma, lymphoma, or metastatic small cell (neuroendocrine) carcinomas. Histopathology of MCC resembles small cell carcinoma both morphologically and on IHC. The possible cell of origin was proposed as the Merkel cell, which functions as a mechanoreceptor. It has a high chance of local recurrence, regional and distant spread. In recent times, Merkel cell polyomavirus has been implicated as the causative agent for this tumor. The same agent has a reported etiologic association with other skin lesions, including seborrheic keratosis.

  10. Watermelon stomach, hemorrhagic pericarditis, small cell carcinoma of the lung and synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Murinello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a case of gastric antral vascular ectasia (watermelon stomach that was associated with hemorrhagic pericarditis, small cell lung carcinoma with mediastinal lymph node metastases and a synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue, the authors made a review of the clinical, endoscopic and histopathological aspects of this type of gastropathy, and its association with other diseases, and of the results of its endoscopic therapy. The causes of hemorrhagic pericarditis are considered, emphasizing the necessity to know if the effusion has a malignant etiology. To the best of our knowledge the association of watermelon stomach to small cell lung carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue has not yet been described. Extensive metastases to mediastal lymph nodes are common to small cell lung carcinoma. Resumo: Baseados num caso de gastropatia antral com ectasia vascular (estômago em melancia associado a pericardite hemorrágica e a um carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão com metástases ganglionares ao longo do mediastino e a um carcinoma pavimentocelular síncrono da base da língua, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos clínicos, endoscópicos e histopatológicos deste tipo de gastropatia, da sua associação a outras doenças e das possibilidades terapêuticas actuais por via endoscópica. Referem-se igualmente as causas mais frequentes de pericardite hemorrágica, salientando-se a necessidade de esclarecer se o derrame é ou não de origem neoplásica. Não está referida na literatura a associação deste tipo de gastropatia ao carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão nem ao carcinoma pavimento-celular da base da língua. A invasão extensa dos gânglios mediastínicos pelo carcinoma de pequenas células do pulmão é ocorrência frequente. Key-words: Gastric antral vascular ectasia, watermelon stomach, small cell lung carcinoma, oat cell lung carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the base

  11. Targeting cancer stem cells in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He AR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiwu Ruth He,1 Daniel C Smith,1 Lopa Mishra2 1Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: The poor outcome of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is attributed to recurrence of the disease after curative treatment and the resistance of HCC cells to conventional chemotherapy, which may be explained partly by the function of liver cancer stem cells (CSCs. Liver CSCs have emerged as an important therapeutic target against HCC. Numerous surface markers for liver CSCs have been identified, and include CD133, CD90, CD44, CD13, and epithelial cell adhesion molecules. These surface markers serve not only as tools for identifying and isolating liver CSCs but also as therapeutic targets for eradicating these cells. In studies of animal models and large-scale genomic analyses of human HCC samples, many signaling pathways observed in normal stem cells have been found to be altered in liver CSCs, which accounts for the stemness and aggressive behavior of these cells. Antibodies and small molecule inhibitors targeting the signaling pathways have been evaluated at different levels of preclinical and clinical development. Another strategy is to promote the differentiation of liver CSCs to less aggressive HCC that is sensitive to conventional chemotherapy. Disruption of the tumor niche essential for liver CSC homeostasis has become a novel strategy in cancer treatment. To overcome the challenges in developing treatment for liver CSCs, more research into the genetic makeup of patient tumors that respond to treatment may lead to more effective therapy. Standardization of HCC CSC tumor markers would be helpful for measuring the CSC response to these agents. Herein, we review the current strategies for developing treatment to eradicate liver CSCs and to improve the outcome for patients with

  12. Ultrastructural proof of polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma tumour cells and its absence in small cell carcinoma of the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte T A H Wetzels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A new virus called the Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV has recently been found in Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC. MCC is a rare aggressive small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma primarily derived from the skin, morphologically indistinguishable from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC. So far the actual presence of the virus in MCC tumour cells on a morphological level has not been demonstrated, and the presence of MCPyV in other small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas has not been studied yet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated MCC tissue samples from five patients and SCLCs from ten patients for the presence of MCPyV-DNA by PCR and sequencing. Electron microscopy was used to search ultrastructurally for morphological presence of the virus in MCPyV-DNA positive samples. MCPyV was detected in two out of five primary MCCs. In one MCC patient MCPyV-DNA was detected in the primary tumour as well as in the metastasis, strongly suggesting integration of MCPyV in the cellular DNA of the tumour in this patient. In the primary MCC of another patient viral particles in tumour cell nuclei and cytoplasm were identified by electron microscopy, indicating active viral replication in the tumour cells. In none of the SCLCs MCPyV-DNA was detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results strongly suggest that MCPyV is an oncogenic polyomavirus in humans, and is potentially causally related to the development of MCC but not to the morphological similar SCLC.

  13. Transcriptomic dissection of tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Joel L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNOSCC is a diverse group of cancers, which develop from many different anatomic sites and are associated with different risk factors and genetic characteristics. The oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC is one of the most common types of HNOSCC. It is significantly more aggressive than other forms of HNOSCC, in terms of local invasion and spread. In this study, we aim to identify specific transcriptomic signatures that associated with OTSCC. Results Genome-wide transcriptomic profiles were obtained for 53 primary OTSCCs and 22 matching normal tissues. Genes that exhibit statistically significant differences in expression between OTSCCs and normal were identified. These include up-regulated genes (MMP1, MMP10, MMP3, MMP12, PTHLH, INHBA, LAMC2, IL8, KRT17, COL1A2, IFI6, ISG15, PLAU, GREM1, MMP9, IFI44, CXCL1, and down-regulated genes (KRT4, MAL, CRNN, SCEL, CRISP3, SPINK5, CLCA4, ADH1B, P11, TGM3, RHCG, PPP1R3C, CEACAM7, HPGD, CFD, ABCA8, CLU, CYP3A5. The expressional difference of IL8 and MMP9 were further validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The Gene Ontology analysis suggested a number of altered biological processes in OTSCCs, including enhancements in phosphate transport, collagen catabolism, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling cascade, extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis, chemotaxis, as well as suppressions of superoxide release, hydrogen peroxide metabolism, cellular response to hydrogen peroxide, keratinization, and keratinocyte differentiation in OTSCCs. Conclusion In summary, our study provided a transcriptomic signature for OTSCC that may lead to a diagnosis or screen tool and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OTSCC.

  14. Function of oval cells in hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chi-Hua; Gong, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Wei

    2004-09-01

    To study oval cells' pathological characteristics and relationship with the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); to observe the form and structural characteristics of oval cells; to explore the expression characteristics of C-kit, PCNA mRNA and c-myc gene during the occurrence and development of HCC and the effect of ulinastatin (UTI) on C-kit and PCNA expression. One hundred and twenty-five SD rats fed on 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) to construct HCC models were divided into control group, cancer-inducing group and UTI intervention group. In each group, rat liver samples were collected at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 respectively to study pathological distribution characteristics of oval cells in the process of carcinogenesis under optical microscope. Oval cells were separated by the methods of improved density gradient centrifugation and their structural characteristics were observed under optical microscope and electronic microscope respectively; the oval cells expressing C-kit and PCNA in the collected samples were observed by the methods of immunohistochemistry and image analysis and the expression of c-myc mRNA was also detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Oval cells proliferated firstly in the portal area then gradually migrated into hepatic parenchyma in the inducing group and intervention group. The oval cells distributed inside and outside the carcinoma nodes. The oval cells presented the characteristics of undifferentiated cells: a high ratio of nucleolus and cellular plasm and obvious nucleoli, rare organelle in plasm. Only a few mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and some villus-like apophysis on surface of cells could be seen. Cells stained with C-kit and PCNA antibody were mainly oval cells distributed in the portal area. The expression of c-myc mRNA increased with the progression of HCC. However, in the intervention group, UTI could retard its increase. Oval cells work throughout

  15. Five cases of squamous cell carcinoma induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, Kayo; Tani, Tasaburo; Nagata, Hiroyuki; Kohda, Mamoru; Ueki, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    Five cases of squamous cell carcinoma (skin) induced by irradiation are reported. Three cases had been given radiotherapy for benign skin disorders, tinea pedis, lichen Vidal, and dermatitis papillaris capillitis. The other two cases were medical doctors who had developed carcinoma as the result of advanced radiodermatitis. (author)

  16. Humeral Metastasis in a case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma with metastasis to distal acral skeleton – humerus within two months of diagnosis of the primary is being reported. The metastasis to the bones from carcinoma cervix is uncommon especially in the distal appendicular skeleton. A 47 years female came with spontaneous fracture of ...

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma of temporal bone: four case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Ha; Sung, Ki Joon; Sim, Young; Shim, Sue Yoen; Yoon, Byoung Moon

    2000-01-01

    We report the CT findings of four cases of squamous cell carcinoma, paying special attention to the epicenter of the lesion and the pattern of bony destruction. All four patients had a past history of chronic otitis media. Squamous cell carcinoma affected mainly the hypotympanum and inferior wall of the external auditory canal. and in all cases revealed an irregular pattern of bony destruction. Irregular destruction of the tegmen tympani occurred in two cases. In cases of squamous cell carcinoma, CT findings suggesting involvement of the promontory are usually noted. (author)

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma of temporal bone: four case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Ha; Sung, Ki Joon; Sim, Young; Shim, Sue Yoen; Yoon, Byoung Moon [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    We report the CT findings of four cases of squamous cell carcinoma, paying special attention to the epicenter of the lesion and the pattern of bony destruction. All four patients had a past history of chronic otitis media. Squamous cell carcinoma affected mainly the hypotympanum and inferior wall of the external auditory canal. and in all cases revealed an irregular pattern of bony destruction. Irregular destruction of the tegmen tympani occurred in two cases. In cases of squamous cell carcinoma, CT findings suggesting involvement of the promontory are usually noted. (author)

  19. Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Interdisciplinary Management of a Rare Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.; Thurnher, D.; Erovic, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to review contemporary multidisciplinary treatment with reference to Milkier cell carcinoma. Management of this rare but highly aggressive skin cancer is a complex undertaking that necessitates an understanding of its etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and the coordinated work of several clinical specializations. Recent Findings. The contemporary literature employs a multidisciplinary approach to achieve the best patient's treatment. Conclusion. This paper presents an algorithm for contemporary management for the rare and aggressive Merkel cell carcinoma. Multidisciplinary approach in a tumor center provides high-quality care for patients with Merkel cell carcinoma.

  20. treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma: a report of four cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yongwen; Liu Xinfan; Wang Xiaozhen; Li Yexiong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical characteristics and progress so as to establish a better therapeutic principle for Merkel cell carcinoma. Methods: Manifestations and results of 4 Merkel cell carcinoma patients treated, with review of relevant papers is presented. Results: Among these 4 patients, local recurrence developed in 2, regional lymphatic metastasis in 3 and distant metastasis in 2. One of them died of the disease. Conclusions: High risks of local recurrence and regional/distant metastasis feature Merkel cell carcinoma. We recommend postoperative radiotherapy for stage I disease and radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy for resected stage II and stage III disease

  1. The neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma of head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidauer, H.; Altmannsberger, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    The neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin has its histogenetic origin in Merkel cells and a preference in head and neck area in the seventh decade of life. The definitive diagnosis can be made with a combination of electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Merkel cell carcinoma is a primary cutaneous neoplasma and is rarely found on the lips or gingiva. Operation and radiation are the therapy of choice. The value of an additional antineoplastic chemotherapy in the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma is still controversial. Although long survival times had been described in literature the occurrence of local relapses and metastases demands for frequent controls. (orig.) [de

  2. Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Interdisciplinary Management of a Rare Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this paper is to review contemporary multidisciplinary treatment with reference to Merkel cell carcinoma. Management of this rare but highly aggressive skin cancer is a complex undertaking that necessitates an understanding of its etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and the coordinated work of several clinical specializations. Recent Findings. The contemporary literature employs a multidisciplinary approach to achieve the best patient's treatment. Conclusion. This paper presents an algorithm for contemporary management for the rare and aggressive Merkel cell carcinoma. Multidisciplinary approach in a tumor center provides high-quality care for patients with Merkel cell carcinoma.

  3. FGF2 mediates DNA repair in epidermoid carcinoma cells exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, Melanie; Hafner, Sophie; Moratille, Sandra; Vaigot, Pierre; Rigaud, Odile; Martin, Michele T.; Mine, Solene

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a well-known survival factor. However, its role in DNA repair is poorly documented. The present study was designed to investigate in epidermoid carcinoma cells the potential role of FGF2 in DNA repair. The side population (SP) with cancer stem cell-like properties and the main population (MP) were isolated from human A431 squamous carcinoma cells. Radiation-induced DNA damage and repair were assessed using the alkaline comet assay. FGF2 expression was quantified by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SP cells exhibited rapid repair of radiation induced DNA damage and a high constitutive level of nuclear FGF2. Blocking FGF2 signaling abrogated the rapid DNA repair. In contrast, in MP cells, a slower repair of damage was associated with low basal expression of FGF2. Moreover, the addition of exogenous FGF2 accelerated DNA repair in MP cells. When irradiated, SP cells secreted FGF2, whereas MP cells did not. FGF2 was found to mediate DNA repair in epidermoid carcinoma cells. We postulate that carcinoma stem cells would be intrinsically primed to rapidly repair DNA damage by a high constitutive level of nuclear FGF2. In contrast, the main population with a low FGF2 content exhibits a lower repair rate which can be increased by exogenous FGF2. (authors)

  4. Expression and Clinicopathological Significance of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Huaijun; Cao, Ming; Ren, Kunlun; Sun, Ningbo; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Qiang; Zang, Qi; Jiang, Zhongmin

    2017-01-01

    The Polycomb group genes are a general class of regulators that are responsible for maintaining homeotic gene expression throughout cell division. Polycomb group expression plays an important role in oncogenesis of several types of human cancer. Melanoma nuclear protein 18 and B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 are key Polycomb group proteins. Studies have shown that melanoma nuclear protein 18 is a potential tumor suppression, and B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 is overexpressed in several human malignancies. However, the roles of melanoma nuclear protein 18 and B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma are still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of melanoma nuclear protein 18 and B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 in 89 esophageal cancer tissues and paired normal mucosal tissues using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. We found that the expression of melanoma nuclear protein 18 in the carcinoma tissues was significantly lower than that in the noncancerous mucosal tissues ( P .05). B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 expression was strongly correlated with the degree of differentiation, clinical stage, and lymph node metastasis ( P .05). Moreover, there was a negative correlation between melanoma nuclear protein 18 and B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 expressions in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma ( P < .05). Our study suggests that melanoma nuclear protein 18 and B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 may play a crucial role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Melanoma nuclear protein 18 or B-cell-specific Moloney leukemia virus insert site 1 may be a potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Identification of Human Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Huw; Olivero, Carlotta; Patel, Girish K

    2018-04-20

    The cancer stem cell model states that a subset of tumor cells, called "cancer stem cells," can initiate and propagate tumor growth through self-renewal, high proliferative capacity, and their ability to recreate tumor heterogeneity. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we have shown that tumor cells that express the cell surface protein CD200 fulfill the cancer stem cell hypothesis. CD200+ CD45- BCC cells represent 0.05-3.96% of all BCC cells and reside in small clusters at the tumor periphery. Using a novel, reproducible in vivo xenograft growth assay, we determined that tumor-initiating cell (TIC) frequencies are approximately 1 per 1.5 million unsorted BCC cells. The CD200+ CD45- BCC subpopulation recreated BCC tumor growth in vivo with typical histological architecture and expression of sonic hedgehog-regulated genes. Reproducible in vivo BCC growth was achieved with as few as 10,000 CD200+ CD45- cells, representing ~1500-fold enrichment. The methods used to identify and purify CD200+ CD45- BCC cells, as well as characterize gene expression, are described herein.

  6. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hilar Bile Duct

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    Ippei Yamana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We herein report a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of the hilar bile duct. A 66-year-old Japanese male patient was admitted to our hospital because of appetite loss and jaundice. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an enhanced mass measuring 10 × 30 mm in the hilar bile duct region. After undergoing biliary drainage, the patient underwent extended right hepatic lobectomy with regional lymph nodes dissection. The tumor had invaded the right portal vein. Therefore, we also performed resection and reconstruction of the portal vein. Histopathologically, the carcinoma cells exhibited a solid structure with differentiation to squamous cell carcinoma with keratinization and intercellular bridges. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor cells revealed positive cytokeratin staining and negative CAM 5.2 staining. Based on these findings, a definitive diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the hilar bile duct was made.

  7. Radiation sensitivity of Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines

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    Leonard, J.H.; Ramsay, J.R.; Birrell, G.W. [Queensland Institute of Medical Research (Australia)] [and others

    1995-07-30

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a position to determine their sensitivity under controlled conditions. Some of the MCC lines grew as suspension cultures and could not be single cell cloned; therefore, it was not possible to use clonogenic survival for all cell lines. A tetrazolium based (MTT) assay was used for these lines, to estimate cell growth after {gamma} irradiation. Control experiments were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and the adherent MCC line, MCC13, to demonstrate that the two assays were comparable under the conditions used. We have examined cell lines from MCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), malignant melanomas, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphocytes (LCL), and skin fibroblasts for their sensitivity to {gamma} irradiation using both clonogenic cell survival and MTT assays. The results show that the tumor cell lines have a range of sensitivities, with melanoma being more resistant (surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) 0.57 and 0.56) than the small cell carcinoma lines, MCC (SF2 range 0.21-0.45, mean SF2 0.30, n = 8) and SCLC (SF2 0.31). Fibroblasts were the most sensitive (SF2 0.13-0.20, mean 0.16, n = 5). The MTT assay, when compared to clonogenic assay for the MCC13 adherent line and the LCL, gave comparable results under the conditions used. Both assays gave a range of SF2 values for the MCC cell lines, suggesting that these cancers would give a heterogeneous response in vivo. The results with the two derivative clones of MCC14 (SF2 for MCC14/1 0.38, MCC14/2 0.45) would further suggest that some of them may develop resistance during clonogenic evolution. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Radiation sensitivity of Merkell cell carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J. Helen; Ramsay, Jonathan R.; Kearsley, John H.; Birrell, Geoff W.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a position to determine their sensitivity under controlled conditions. Methods and Materials: Some of the MCC lines grew as suspension cultures and could not be single cell cloned; therefore, it was not possible to use clonogenic survival for all cell lines. A tetrazolium based (MTT) assay was used for these lines, to estimate cell growth after γ irradiation. Control experiments were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and the adherent MCC line, MCC13, to demonstrate that the two assays were comparable under the conditions used. Results: We have examined cell lines from MCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), malignant melanomas, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphocytes (LCL), and skin fibroblasts for their sensitivity to γ irradiation using both clonogenic cell survival and MTT assays. The results show that the tumor cell lines have a range of sensitivities, with melanoma being more resistant (surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) 0.57 and 0.56) than the small cell carcinoma lines, MCC (SF2 range 0.21-0.45, mean SF2 0.30, n = 8) and SCLC (SF2 0.31). Fibroblasts were the most sensitive (SF2 0.13-0.20, mean 0.16, n = 5). The MTT assay, when compared to clonogenic assay for the MCC13 adherent line and the LCL, gave comparable results under the conditions used. Conclusion: Both assays gave a range of SF2 values for the MCC cell lines, suggesting that these cancers would give a heterogeneous response in vivo. The results with the two derivative clones of MCC14 (SF2 for MCC14/1 0.38, MCC14/2 0.45) would further suggest that some of them may develop resistance during clonogenic evolution

  9. Avelumab and other recent advances in Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommareddy, Praveen K; Kaufman, Howard L

    2017-12-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive form of skin cancer that occurs in the elderly, is associated with UV radiation and immunosuppression. Initial treatment consists of wide excision with adjuvant radiation. Although the tumor is sensitive to chemotherapy, long-term survival is unusual and there had been no US FDA-approved drugs prior to 2017. The recognition that MCC is associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus occurs more commonly in immune-compromised patients and tumors express PD-L1 suggested testing immunotherapy. A study of an anti-PD-L1 antibody, avelumab, in chemotherapy-refractory MCC demonstrated a response rate of 31.8% resulting in FDA approval in March 2017 and EMA in September 2017. This review will discuss the disease, role of avelumab and other emerging treatment strategies for MCC.

  10. Merkel cell carcinoma: Do you know your guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Brett A; Goldenberg, David

    2016-05-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy that exhibits clinically aggressive features and is associated with a poor prognosis. The incidence of MCC seems to be increasing for reasons unknown, and is estimated to be 0.32/100,000 in the United States. This article will review the current literature and National Comprehensive Cancer Network practice guidelines in the treatment of MCC. Resection of MCC with negative margins remains the mainstay of therapy. Positive nodal disease should be treated with neck dissection and adjuvant radiotherapy. High-risk patients should undergo adjuvant radiotherapy, which improves oncologic outcomes. The role of chemotherapy is less clear and is currently reserved for advanced-stage MCC and palliative therapy. The pathogenesis of MCC has recently been impacted with the discovery of the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Research to establish targeted and immunologic therapeutic options are ongoing. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Renal cell carcinoma: evolving approaches to advanced non-clear cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y.C. Heng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies including sunitinib, sorafenib, and temsirolimus. Because patients with conventional clear cell histology account for 75- 80% of all patients with RCC, there has been little accumulated evidence on the treatment of patients with non-clear cell histologies. Most clinical trials have excluded them from enrolment, except for randomized studies investigating temsirolimus. Many retrospective studies on the use of all three of these targeted therapies in patients with non-clear cell histology have demonstrated response rates ranging from 3.7%–16%. Although response rates may not be as high compared to patients with clear cell histologies, targeted therapy does provide a clinically meaningful response.

  12. The Multifaceted Role of Podoplanin Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cioca, Andreea; Ceausu, Amalia R.; Marin, Irina; Raica, Marius; Cimpean, Anca Maria

    2017-01-01

    The role of podoplanin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not clear yet. The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of podoplanin in HCC and to determine its role in hepatocarcinogenesis. We performed immunohistochemistry with monoclonal D2-40 antibody, on paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 72 patients diagnosed with HCC. Lymphatic vessels density (LVD) was increased in patients who had vascular invasion at the time of diagnosis (P=0.018) and in those with associated cirrhosis (P...

  13. Revisiting the association between candidal infection and carcinoma, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mohd Bakri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco and alcohol are risk factors associated with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, but increasingly the role of infection and chronic inflammation is recognized as being significant in cancer development. Bacteria, particularly Helicobacter pylori, and viruses such as members of the human papilloma virus family and hepatitis B and C are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. There is less evidence for an association between fungi and cancer, although it has been recognized for many years that white patches on the oral mucosa, which are infected with Candida, have a greater likelihood of undergoing malignant transformation than those that are not infected. Objective: This article reviews the association between the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic candidal infection and describes mechanisms that may be involved in Candida-associated malignant transformation.

  14. Revisiting the association between candidal infection and carcinoma, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Bakri, Marina; Mohd Hussaini, Haizal; Rachel Holmes, Ann; David Cannon, Richard; Mary Rich, Alison

    2010-12-21

    Tobacco and alcohol are risk factors associated with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, but increasingly the role of infection and chronic inflammation is recognized as being significant in cancer development. Bacteria, particularly Helicobacter pylori, and viruses such as members of the human papilloma virus family and hepatitis B and C are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. There is less evidence for an association between fungi and cancer, although it has been recognized for many years that white patches on the oral mucosa, which are infected with Candida, have a greater likelihood of undergoing malignant transformation than those that are not infected. This article reviews the association between the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic candidal infection and describes mechanisms that may be involved in Candida-associated malignant transformation.

  15. Radiotherapy for Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathu, Rakesh M.; Mendenhall, William M.; Parsons, James T.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin with a predisposition for local-regional and distant spread. The addition of radiotherapy after wide local excision has improved local control, but distant spread continues to be a significant problem. This is an update of our experience in the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma at the University of Florida. Materials and Methods: Of 25 patients treated for Merkel cell carcinoma at the University of Florida between 1984 and 1996, minimum follow-up was 1 year; no patient was lost to follow-up. Nineteen patients were treated at the time of the initial diagnosis, and six were treated after local-regional recurrence. Of the 19 previously untreated patients, 14 had primary sites in the head and neck region, and five had primary sites elsewhere. Results: The 5-year absolute survival, cause-specific survival, and local-regional control rates for the entire group were 26%, 30%, and 79%, respectively. Patients treated with radiotherapy at the time of initial presentation had 5-year absolute survival, cause-specific survival, and local-regional control rates of 36%, 42%, and 74%, respectively. Most deaths were due to distant metastasis. Site of the primary tumor (in or out of the head and neck region) was not associated with any difference in the outcome. Of six patients treated at the time of local-regional recurrence, five died of distant metastasis at 8, 16, 27, 37, and 38 months from the time of treatment. One patient was alive and without evidence of disease 24 months after treatment. All patients treated at the time of local-regional recurrence had local-regional control after radiotherapy. Conclusion: This update confirms that radiotherapy and wide local excision is effective local-regional treatment for Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin, but distant metastasis remains a significant problem in this disease. The role and effectiveness of chemotherapy as part of the initial

  16. Clinicopathological evaluation of radiation induced basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibodi Naser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of skin neoplasms is one of the most important chronic complications of radiation therapy. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent carcinoma occurring at the region of the body to which radiotherapy was delivered. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological aspects of basal cell carcinoma in patients with a history of radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Medical records and microscopic slides of 80 patients with basal cell carcinoma who had received radiotherapy (1996-2006 were reviewed in pathology department of Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad, Iran. Collected data were analyzed statistically using descriptive test. Results: 60 men and 20 women were included, majority of them in their sixties. Plaque was the most common clinical pattern of basal cell carcinoma. Fifty one percent of the patients had pigmented and 42.5% had multiple lesions. Scalp was the most common site of involvement. Histologically, macronodular and pigmented carcinoma were the most predominant forms of basal cell carcinoma. Discussion: Majority of patients had scalp involvement and multiple lesions. Nodular and pigmented forms were the most common histological findings. We suggest the need for close supervision in patients with a history of radio therapy in the past.

  17. Downregulation of CCR1 inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaofeng; Fan Jia; Wang Xiaoying; Zhou Jian; Qiu Shuangjian; Yu Yao; Liu Yinkun; Tang Zhaoyou

    2007-01-01

    CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) has an important role in the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. The migration and metastasis of tumor cells shares many similarities with leukocyte trafficking, which is mainly regulated by chemokine receptor-ligand interactions. CCR1 is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and tissues with unknown functions. In this study, we silenced CCR1 expression in the human HCC cell line HCCLM3 using artificial microRNA (miRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) and examined the invasiveness and proliferation of CCR1-silenced HCCLM3 cells and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The miRNA-mediated knockdown expression of CCR1 significantly inhibited the invasive ability of HCCLM3 cells, but had only a minor effect on the cellular proliferation rate. Moreover, CCR1 knockdown significantly reduced the secretion of MMP-2. Together, these findings indicate that CCR1 has an important role in HCCLM3 invasion and that CCR1 might be a new target of HCC treatment

  18. Cationic Phosphorus Dendrimer Enhances Photodynamic Activity of Rose Bengal against Basal Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrzalska, Monika; Janaszewska, Anna; Zablocka, Maria; Mignani, Serge; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    In the last couple of decades, photodynamic therapy emerged as a useful tool in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. However, it still meets limitations due to unfavorable properties of photosensitizers such as poor solubility or lack of selectivity. Dendrimers, polymers widely studied in biomedical field, may play a role as photosensitizer carriers and improve the efficacy of photodynamic treatment. Here, we describe the evaluation of an electrostatic complex of cationic phosphorus dendrimer and rose bengal in such aspects as singlet oxygen production, cellular uptake, and phototoxicity against three basal cell carcinoma cell lines. Rose bengal-cationic dendrimer complex in molar ratio 5:1 was compared to free rose bengal. Obtained results showed that the singlet oxygen production in aqueous medium was significantly higher for the complex than for free rose bengal. The cellular uptake of the complex was 2-7-fold higher compared to a free photosensitizer. Importantly, rose bengal, rose bengal-dendrimer complex, and dendrimer itself showed no dark toxicity against all three cell lines. Moreover, we observed that phototoxicity of the complex was remarkably enhanced presumably due to high cellular uptake. On the basis of the obtained results, we conclude that rose bengal-cationic dendrimer complex has a potential in photodynamic treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  19. Genomic instability in human actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Luciana Sanches; Neto, Cyro Festa; Sanches, José A; Ruiz, Itamar R G

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the repetitive DNA patterns of human actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas to determine the genetic alterations that are associated with malignant transformation. INTRODUCTION: Cancer cells are prone to genomic instability, which is often due to DNA polymerase slippage during the replication of repetitive DNA and to mutations in the DNA repair genes. The progression of benign actinic keratoses to malignant squamous cell carcinomas has been proposed by several authors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight actinic keratoses and 24 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), which were pair-matched to adjacent skin tissues and/or leucocytes, were studied. The presence of microsatellite instability (MSI) and the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in chromosomes 6 and 9 were investigated using nine PCR primer pairs. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA patterns were also evaluated using eight primers. RESULTS: MSI was detected in two (D6S251, D9S50) of the eight actinic keratosis patients. Among the 8 patients who had squamous cell carcinoma-I and provided informative results, a single patient exhibited two LOH (D6S251, D9S287) and two instances of MSI (D9S180, D9S280). Two LOH and one example of MSI (D6S251) were detected in three out of the 10 patients with squamous cell carcinoma-II. Among the four patients with squamous cell carcinoma-III, one patient displayed three MSIs (D6S251, D6S252, and D9S180) and another patient exhibited an MSI (D9S280). The altered random amplified polymorphic DNA ranged from 70% actinic keratoses, 76% squamous cell carcinoma-I, and 90% squamous cell carcinoma-II, to 100% squamous cell carcinoma-III. DISCUSSION: The increased levels of alterations in the microsatellites, particularly in D6S251, and the random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints were statistically significant in squamous cell carcinomas, compared with actinic keratoses. CONCLUSION: The overall alterations that were observed in the repetitive DNA of actinic keratoses and

  20. Treatment of early glassy cell carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Bae; Kim, Jin Hee; Choi, Tae Jin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical findings, treatment, and outcome of patients with glassy cell carcinoma of cervix. We reviewed all cases of glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix confirmed and treated at the Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, between January 1993 and December 2005. There were 7 cases with histopathologically confirmed gassy cell carcinoma. A tumor was diagnosed as glassy cell carcinoma if over 50% of the tumor cell type displayed glassy cell features. Six patients with stage IB had radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic node dissection, and 2 of them received adjuvant external pelvic irradiation with concurrent chemotherapy. Remaining one patient with stage IIA had curative concurrent chemoradiotherapy with external pelvic irradiation and brachytherapy. There were 7 patients diagnosed as glassy cell carcinoma among the 3,745 (0.2%) patients of carcinoma of uterine cervix. The mean age of 7 patients was 44 years with range of 35 to 53 years of age. The most frequent symptom was vaginal bleeding (86%). By the punch biopsy undertaken before treatment of 7 cases, 2 only cases could diagnose as glassy cell carcinoma of uterine cervix, but remaining of them confirmed by surgical pathological examination. The mean follow up duration was 73 months with range of 13 to 150 months. All 7 patients were alive without disease after treatment. Glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that demonstrates an aggressive biologic behavior. However for early-stage disease, we may have more favorable clinical outcome with radical surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy

  1. Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, and risk factors for renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Paglino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite only accounting for approximately 2% of all new primary cancer cases, renal cell carcinoma (RCC incidence has dramatically increased over time. Incidence rates vary greatly according to geographic areas, so that it is extremely likely that exogenous risk factors could play an important role in the development of this cancer. Several risk factors have been linked with RCC, including cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension (and antihypertensive drugs, chronic kidney diseases (also dialysis and transplantation, as well as the use of certain analgesics. Furthermore, although RCC has not generally been considered an occupational cancer, several types of occupationally-derived exposures have been implicated in its pathogenesis. These include exposure to asbestos, chlorinated solvents, gasoline, diesel exhaust fumes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, printing inks and dyes, cadmium and lead. Finally, families with a predisposition to the development of renal neoplasms were identified and the genes involved discovered and characterized. Therefore, there are now four well-characterized, genetically determined syndromes associated with an increased incidence of kidney tumors, i.e., Von Hippel Lindau (VHL, Hereditary Papillary Renal Carcinoma (HPRC, Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHD, and Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC. This review will address present knowledge about the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and risk factors of RCC.

  2. Facial skin follllicular hyperkeratosis of patients with basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zhuchkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a clinical observation of paraneoplastic syndrome of a patient with basal cell carcinoma of skin. Authors present clinical features of the described for the first time, paraneoplastic retentional follicular hyperkeratosis of facial area.

  3. Leukemoid reaction associated with transitional cell carcinoma: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leukemoid reaction associated with transitional cell carcinoma: A case report ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ... At 3 months later, patient was admitted to our 21 22 hospital with the complaints of the left leg edema, diagnosed as pelvic

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary

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    Ranu Patni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare condition and usually arises in mature cystic teratoma (MCT or dermoid cyst of the ovary. The reported incidence of malignant transformation in MCT is approximately 2%. A case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary presenting at an early stage is presented here. A 53-year-old postmenopausal lady, presented with the complaint of pain in right lower abdomen since one month and a large complex abdomino-pelvic mass on examination and investigations. Final histopathology was reported as squamous cell carcinoma of left ovary arising from dermoid cyst and a benign dermoid cyst in the right ovary. The patient was assigned to squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary arising in a mature cystic teratoma, surgical stage Ic2. In view of the poor prognosis, adjuvant chemotherapy was started.

  5. Ovarian Small Cell Carcinoma Hypercalcemic Type: A Case Report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rahma, M B.

    2016-09-01

    A 31-year-old female was diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcaemic type (OSCCHT) post left oophorectomy. This is a rare aggressive ovarian tumour of which less than 300 cases were reported.

  6. A case of renal cell carcinoma and angiomyolipoma in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. We describe a case of renal cell carcinoma in the right kidney together with an angiomyolipoma in the left kidney, encountered in an adolescent girl at Potchefstroom Provincial Hospital, North West Province, South Africa.

  7. Wnt Signaling in Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Qi Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC accounts for 90% of all kidney cancers. Due to poor diagnosis, high resistance to the systemic therapies and the fact that most RCC cases occur sporadically, current research switched its focus on studying the molecular mechanisms underlying RCC. The aim is the discovery of new effective and less toxic anti-cancer drugs and novel diagnostic markers. Besides the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, HGF/Met and VHL/hypoxia cellular signaling pathways, the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RCC is commonly studied. Wnt signaling and its targeted genes are known to actively participate in different biological processes during embryonic development and renal cancer. Recently, studies have shown that targeting this pathway by alternating/inhibiting its intracellular signal transduction can reduce cancer cells viability and inhibit their growth. The targets and drugs identified show promising potential to serve as novel RCC therapeutics and prognostic markers. This review aims to summarize the current status quo regarding recent research on RCC focusing on the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and how its understanding could facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic targets, new drugs and diagnostic biomarkers.

  8. Mutational Analysis of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erstad, Derek J. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Cusack, James C. Jr., E-mail: jcusack@mgh.harvard.edu [Division of Surgical Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2014-10-17

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy that is associated with a poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of MCC is not well understood, and despite a recent plethora of mutational analyses, we have yet to find a set of signature mutations implicated in the majority of cases. Mutations, including TP53, Retinoblastoma and PIK3CA, have been documented in subsets of patients. Other mechanisms are also likely at play, including infection with the Merkel cell polyomavirus in a subset of patients, dysregulated immune surveillance, epigenetic alterations, aberrant protein expression, posttranslational modifications and microRNAs. In this review, we summarize what is known about MCC genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities, and their clinical significance. We also examine aberrant protein function and microRNA expression, and discuss the therapeutic and prognostic implications of these findings. Multiple clinical trials designed to selectively target overexpressed oncogenes in MCC are currently underway, though most are still in early phases. As we accumulate more molecular data on MCC, we will be better able to understand its pathogenic mechanisms, develop libraries of targeted therapies, and define molecular prognostic signatures to enhance our clinicopathologic knowledge.

  9. Mutational Analysis of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erstad, Derek J.; Cusack, James C. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy that is associated with a poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of MCC is not well understood, and despite a recent plethora of mutational analyses, we have yet to find a set of signature mutations implicated in the majority of cases. Mutations, including TP53, Retinoblastoma and PIK3CA, have been documented in subsets of patients. Other mechanisms are also likely at play, including infection with the Merkel cell polyomavirus in a subset of patients, dysregulated immune surveillance, epigenetic alterations, aberrant protein expression, posttranslational modifications and microRNAs. In this review, we summarize what is known about MCC genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities, and their clinical significance. We also examine aberrant protein function and microRNA expression, and discuss the therapeutic and prognostic implications of these findings. Multiple clinical trials designed to selectively target overexpressed oncogenes in MCC are currently underway, though most are still in early phases. As we accumulate more molecular data on MCC, we will be better able to understand its pathogenic mechanisms, develop libraries of targeted therapies, and define molecular prognostic signatures to enhance our clinicopathologic knowledge

  10. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine corpus following irradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaoki, Yasuhisa; Katsube, Yasuhiro; Nanba, Koji.

    1992-01-01

    A case of clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium following squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is reported. The patient had had a previous cervical biopsy which revealed squamous cell carcinoma (large cell non-keratinizing type), classified clinically as a stage IIb lesion. She was treated with external pelvic irradiation delivering an estimated tumor dose of approximately 7,000 rads and intracavital radium application delivering 4,995 mg.hr.radiation when she was 51 years old. She complained of post-menopausal bleeding at age 66 and was diagnosed by endometrial cytology as having clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy were performed. The clinical stage of the endometrial cancer was Ib. She is alive after 2 years with no evidence of disease. Endometrial cytology revealed several adenocarcinoma cells in small clusters. The shape of the nuclei was somewhat irregular, the chromatin pattern was fine granular, and single or multiple nucleoli were seen. The diameter of these nuclei ranged from 10 to 30 μm. The cytoplasm was pale green or vacuolated. The volume of the cytoplasm varied from scanty to abundant. These findings suggested clear cell carcinoma. Histopathologically, an irregular shaped polypoid tumor, 3 x 1.5 cm in size, was located on the lower anterior wall of the uterine corpus. The tumor was a clear cell carcinoma showing a solid and papillary pattern. A hobnail pattern was not observed. The cytoplasm was clear and abundant, and PAS-positive granules digestible by diastase were seen. These 2 cancers had different pathological features and their immunohistochemical reactivities for CEA and keratin were also different. The patient was regarded as having a rare heterochronous double cancer consisting of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. (author)

  11. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine corpus following irradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix; A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaoki, Yasuhisa; Katsube, Yasuhiro (Kure Kyosai Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)); Nanba, Koji

    1992-01-01

    A case of clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium following squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is reported. The patient had had a previous cervical biopsy which revealed squamous cell carcinoma (large cell non-keratinizing type), classified clinically as a stage IIb lesion. She was treated with external pelvic irradiation delivering an estimated tumor dose of approximately 7,000 rads and intracavital radium application delivering 4,995 mg.hr.radiation when she was 51 years old. She complained of post-menopausal bleeding at age 66 and was diagnosed by endometrial cytology as having clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy were performed. The clinical stage of the endometrial cancer was Ib. She is alive after 2 years with no evidence of disease. Endometrial cytology revealed several adenocarcinoma cells in small clusters. The shape of the nuclei was somewhat irregular, the chromatin pattern was fine granular, and single or multiple nucleoli were seen. The diameter of these nuclei ranged from 10 to 30 {mu}m. The cytoplasm was pale green or vacuolated. The volume of the cytoplasm varied from scanty to abundant. These findings suggested clear cell carcinoma. Histopathologically, an irregular shaped polypoid tumor, 3 x 1.5 cm in size, was located on the lower anterior wall of the uterine corpus. The tumor was a clear cell carcinoma showing a solid and papillary pattern. A hobnail pattern was not observed. The cytoplasm was clear and abundant, and PAS-positive granules digestible by diastase were seen. These 2 cancers had different pathological features and their immunohistochemical reactivities for CEA and keratin were also different. The patient was regarded as having a rare heterochronous double cancer consisting of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. (author).

  12. Breast carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum, L M; Lauridsen, M C; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2001-01-01

    Primary carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells is a very rare tumour of the female breast. The clinical course, histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of 61 cases of invasive duct carcinoma with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells (OMGCs) are reviewed and a new...... in the literature have shown that 86% of patients with these tumours are still alive after 5 years. Histologically, these tumours are invasive ductal carcinomas with OMGCs next to the neoplastic glands and within their lumen. Signs of recent and past haemorrhage are ubiquitously present in the highly vascularized...

  13. Spindle-cell carcinoma of esophagus: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Chang; Lee, Jae Mun; Jung, Seung Eun; Lee, Kyo Young; Hahn, Seong Tai; Kim, Man Deuk

    2001-01-01

    Spindle-cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare malignant tumor composed of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements, and has generated many terminology problems. It is characterized by a bulky polypoid intraluminal mass with a lobulated surface located in the middle third of the esophagus. Local expansion of this organ is observed. The lesion may be pedunculated but despite its bulk, causes little obstruction. We report the imaging findings of a case of spindle-cell carcinoma arising in the upper esophagus

  14. Staghorn calculi and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis associated with transitional cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Tseng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Untreated staghorn calculi can cause xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP, diminished renal function, and renal malignancy. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the upper urinary tract is associated with kidney stones and chronic infection, but their association with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC has not been proven and has rarely been reported in literature. We present a rare case of staghorn calculi and XGP associated with TCC.

  15. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Papillary Renal-Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, W Marston; Spellman, Paul T; Ricketts, Christopher J; Creighton, Chad J; Fei, Suzanne S; Davis, Caleb; Wheeler, David A; Murray, Bradley A; Schmidt, Laura; Vocke, Cathy D; Peto, Myron; Al Mamun, Abu Amar M; Shinbrot, Eve; Sethi, Anurag; Brooks, Samira; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Brooks, Angela N; Hoadley, Katherine A; Robertson, A Gordon; Brooks, Denise; Bowlby, Reanne; Sadeghi, Sara; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Bootwalla, Moiz; Baylin, Stephen B; Laird, Peter W; Cherniack, Andrew D; Saksena, Gordon; Haake, Scott; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B; Akbani, Rehan; Leiserson, Mark D M; Raphael, Benjamin J; Anur, Pavana; Bottaro, Donald; Albiges, Laurence; Barnabas, Nandita; Choueiri, Toni K; Czerniak, Bogdan; Godwin, Andrew K; Hakimi, A Ari; Ho, Thai H; Hsieh, James; Ittmann, Michael; Kim, William Y; Krishnan, Bhavani; Merino, Maria J; Mills Shaw, Kenna R; Reuter, Victor E; Reznik, Ed; Shelley, Carl S; Shuch, Brian; Signoretti, Sabina; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thomas, George; Tickoo, Satish; Burnett, Kenneth; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph D; Penny, Robert J; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, W Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Avedon, Melissa T; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M; Lichtenberg, Tara M; Ramirez, Nilsa C; Santos, Tracie; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Demchok, John A; Felau, Ina; Hutter, Carolyn M; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C; Zhang, Jiashan; Ayala, Brenda; Baboud, Julien; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bodenheimer, Tom; Buhay, Christian; Butterfield, Yaron S N; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L; Chao, Hsu; Chuah, Eric; Clarke, Amanda; Covington, Kyle R; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Dewal, Ninad; Dhalla, Noreen; Doddapaneni, Harsha V; Drummond, Jennifer A; Gabriel, Stacey B; Gibbs, Richard A; Guin, Ranabir; Hale, Walker; Hawes, Alicia; Hayes, D Neil; Holt, Robert A; Hoyle, Alan P; Jefferys, Stuart R; Jones, Steven J M; Jones, Corbin D; Kalra, Divya; Kovar, Christie; Lewis, Lora; Li, Jie; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A; Mayo, Michael; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Moore, Richard A; Morton, Donna; Mose, Lisle E; Mungall, Andrew J; Muzny, Donna; Parker, Joel S; Perou, Charles M; Roach, Jeffrey; Schein, Jacqueline E; Schumacher, Steven E; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V; Sipahimalani, Payal; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G; Sougnez, Carrie; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Thiessen, Nina; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Wang, Min; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Wong, Tina; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Zhou, Jane; Bedford, Jason; Chen, Fengju; Fu, Yao; Gerstein, Mark; Haussler, David; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lai, Phillip; Ling, Shiyun; Radenbaugh, Amie; Van Den Berg, David; Weinstein, John N; Zhu, Jingchun; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Andersen, Jeremiah J; Auman, J Todd; Bartlett, John; Bastacky, Sheldon; Bergsten, Julie; Blute, Michael L; Boice, Lori; Bollag, Roni J; Boyd, Jeff; Castle, Erik; Chen, Ying-Bei; Cheville, John C; Curley, Erin; Davies, Benjamin; DeVolk, April; Dhir, Rajiv; Dike, Laura; Eckman, John; Engel, Jay; Harr, Jodi; Hrebinko, Ronald; Huang, Mei; Huelsenbeck-Dill, Lori; Iacocca, Mary; Jacobs, Bruce; Lobis, Michael; Maranchie, Jodi K; McMeekin, Scott; Myers, Jerome; Nelson, Joel; Parfitt, Jeremy; Parwani, Anil; Petrelli, Nicholas; Rabeno, Brenda; Roy, Somak; Salner, Andrew L; Slaton, Joel; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R Houston; Thorne, Leigh; Tucker, Kelinda; Weinberger, Paul M; Winemiller, Cynthia; Zach, Leigh Anne; Zuna, Rosemary

    2016-01-14

    Papillary renal-cell carcinoma, which accounts for 15 to 20% of renal-cell carcinomas, is a heterogeneous disease that consists of various types of renal cancer, including tumors with indolent, multifocal presentation and solitary tumors with an aggressive, highly lethal phenotype. Little is known about the genetic basis of sporadic papillary renal-cell carcinoma, and no effective forms of therapy for advanced disease exist. We performed comprehensive molecular characterization of 161 primary papillary renal-cell carcinomas, using whole-exome sequencing, copy-number analysis, messenger RNA and microRNA sequencing, DNA-methylation analysis, and proteomic analysis. Type 1 and type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinomas were shown to be different types of renal cancer characterized by specific genetic alterations, with type 2 further classified into three individual subgroups on the basis of molecular differences associated with patient survival. Type 1 tumors were associated with MET alterations, whereas type 2 tumors were characterized by CDKN2A silencing, SETD2 mutations, TFE3 fusions, and increased expression of the NRF2-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway. A CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was observed in a distinct subgroup of type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinomas that was characterized by poor survival and mutation of the gene encoding fumarate hydratase (FH). Type 1 and type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinomas were shown to be clinically and biologically distinct. Alterations in the MET pathway were associated with type 1, and activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway was associated with type 2; CDKN2A loss and CIMP in type 2 conveyed a poor prognosis. Furthermore, type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinoma consisted of at least three subtypes based on molecular and phenotypic features. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).

  16. Breast Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Jeong; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Han, Se Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer from renal cell carcinoma is extremely rare and has non-specific findings that include a well circumscribed lesion without calcification on mammography and a well circumscribed hypoechoic lesion without posterior acoustic shadowing on sonography. We report a case of metastatic breast cancer from renal cell carcinoma and describe the radiologic findings in a 63-year-old woman who has no history of primary neoplasm

  17. Breast Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Jeong; Kim, Ji Young; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Jae Hyung; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Jun, Woo Sun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Han, Se Hwan [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Metastatic breast cancer from renal cell carcinoma is extremely rare and has non-specific findings that include a well circumscribed lesion without calcification on mammography and a well circumscribed hypoechoic lesion without posterior acoustic shadowing on sonography. We report a case of metastatic breast cancer from renal cell carcinoma and describe the radiologic findings in a 63-year-old woman who has no history of primary neoplasm.

  18. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, W. Marston; Spellman, Paul T.; Ricketts, Christopher J.; Creighton, Chad J.; Fei, Suzanne S.; Davis, Caleb; Wheeler, David A.; Murray, Bradley A.; Schmidt, Laura; Vocke, Cathy D.; Peto, Myron; Al Mamun, Abu Amar M.; Shinbrot, Eve; Sethi, Anurag; Brooks, Samira; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brooks, Angela N.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Brooks, Denise; Bowlby, Reanne; Sadeghi, Sara; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz; Baylin, Stephen B.; Laird, Peter W.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Saksena, Gordon; Haake, Scott; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Akbani, Rehan; Leiserson, Mark D.M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Anur, Pavana; Bottaro, Donald; Albiges, Laurence; Barnabas, Nandita; Choueiri, Toni K.; Czerniak, Bogdan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Ho, Thai; Hsieh, James; Ittmann, Michael; Kim, William Y.; Krishnan, Bhavani; Merino, Maria J.; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Reuter, Victor E.; Reznik, Ed; Shelley, Carl Simon; Shuch, Brian; Signoretti, Sabina; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thomas, George; Tickoo, Satish; Burnett, Kenneth; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph D.; Penny, Robert J.; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, W. Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Avedon, Melissa T.; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Santos, Tracie; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Ayala, Brenda; Baboud, Julien; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bodenheimer, Tom; Buhay, Christian; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Chao, Hsu; Chuah, Eric; Clarke, Amanda; Covington, Kyle R.; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Dewal, Ninad; Dhalla, Noreen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Drummond, Jennifer; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Guin, Ranabir; Hale, Walker; Hawes, Alicia; Hayes, D. Neil; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Jones, Corbin D.; Kalra, Divya; Kovar, Christie; Lewis, Lora; Li, Jie; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Moore, Richard A.; Morton, Donna; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Muzny, Donna; Parker, Joel S.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Sougnez, Carrie; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Thiessen, Nina; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Wang, Min; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wong, Tina; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Zhou, Jane; Bedford, Jason; Chen, Fengju; Fu, Yao; Gerstein, Mark; Haussler, David; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lai, Phillip; Ling, Shiyun; Radenbaugh, Amie; Van Den Berg, David; Weinstein, John N.; Zhu, Jingchun; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Andersen, Jeremiah J; Auman, J. Todd; Bartlett, John; Bastacky, Sheldon; Bergsten, Julie; Blute, Michael L.; Boice, Lori; Bollag, Roni J.; Boyd, Jeff; Castle, Erik; Chen, Ying-Bei; Cheville, John C.; Curley, Erin; Davies, Benjamin; DeVolk, April; Dhir, Rajiv; Dike, Laura; Eckman, John; Engel, Jay; Harr, Jodi; Hrebinko, Ronald; Huang, Mei; Huelsenbeck-Dill, Lori; Iacocca, Mary; Jacobs, Bruce; Lobis, Michael; Maranchie, Jodi K.; McMeekin, Scott; Myers, Jerome; Nelson, Joel; Parfitt, Jeremy; Parwani, Anil; Petrelli, Nicholas; Rabeno, Brenda; Roy, Somak; Salner, Andrew L.; Slaton, Joel; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Thorne, Leigh; Tucker, Kelinda; Weinberger, Paul M.; Winemiller, Cythnia; Zach, Leigh Anne; Zuna, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Background Papillary renal cell carcinoma, accounting for 15% of renal cell carcinoma, is a heterogeneous disease consisting of different types of renal cancer, including tumors with indolent, multifocal presentation and solitary tumors with an aggressive, highly lethal phenotype. Little is known about the genetic basis of sporadic papillary renal cell carcinoma; no effective forms of therapy for advanced disease exist. Methods We performed comprehensive molecular characterization utilizing whole-exome sequencing, copy number, mRNA, microRNA, methylation and proteomic analyses of 161 primary papillary renal cell carcinomas. Results Type 1 and Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas were found to be different types of renal cancer characterized by specific genetic alterations, with Type 2 further classified into three individual subgroups based on molecular differences that influenced patient survival. MET alterations were associated with Type 1 tumors, whereas Type 2 tumors were characterized by CDKN2A silencing, SETD2 mutations, TFE3 fusions, and increased expression of the NRF2-ARE pathway. A CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was found in a distinct subset of Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma characterized by poor survival and mutation of the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Conclusions Type 1 and Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas are clinically and biologically distinct. Alterations in the MET pathway are associated with Type 1 and activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway with Type 2; CDKN2A loss and CIMP in Type 2 convey a poor prognosis. Furthermore, Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma consists of at least 3 subtypes based upon molecular and phenotypic features. PMID:26536169

  19. Corneal squamous cell carcinoma in a Border Collie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Claudia; Sansom, Jane; Dubielzig, R R; Hayes, Alison

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year-old, female, spayed Border Collie was presented to the Unit of Comparative Ophthalmology at the Animal Health Trust with a 6-month history of a progressive nonpainful opacity of the left cornea. A keratectomy was performed and the tissue submitted for histopathology. The diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma. There has been no recurrence of the neoplasm to date (5 months). Canine corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not been reported previously in the UK.

  20. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-03-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (Pepithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  1. [Immunotherapy for renal cell carcinoma - current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Foller, Susan

    2018-04-01

    Systemic treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has substantially changed during the last 2 years due to approval of the immune-checkpoint inhibitor Nivolumab (Opdivo ® ) and new multikinase inhibitors (Cabozantinib, Lenvatinib, Tivozanib). The german kidney tumor guideline strongly recommends Nivolumab and Cabozantinib as 2nd line treatments after prior VEGF targeted therapy. CheckMate 025, the prospective randomized trial which led to approval of Nivolumab demonstrated improved overall survival (26 month vs. 19.7 month; hazard ratio 0.73; p = 0.0006) and response rate (26 % vs. 5 %) as well as a favorable toxicity profile compared with Everolimus. Currently, numerous combinations with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are compared to Sunitinib as first line treatment of mRCC. Out of these CheckMate 214, a randomized phase-3 trial is the first to demonstrate a significant higher objective response rate (42 % vs. 27 %, p < 0.0001) and overall survival (Sunitinib 26.0 month, median for Nivo + Ipi has been not yet reached (28.2 - NR); Hazard ratio 0.63) for the combination of Nivolumab and the CTLA-4 antibody Ipilimumab in IMDC intermediate and high risk patients. Furthermore, CheckMate 214 shows better side effect profile and quality of life in patients receiving Nivolumab and Ipilimumab compared with Sunitinib. However, a considerable increase of immune related adverse events is associated with the immune combination therapy. Another randomized trial demonstrates improved progression-free survival for the combination of the PD-L1 inhibitor Atezolizumab and the VEGF antibody Bevacizumab in patients with PD-L1 positive tumors; this was found in all IMDC risk groups. Further phase-3 trials with "new" VEGFR-TKIs (Axitinib, Cabozantinib, Lenvatinib) and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor combinations are ongoing.In conclusion, the PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor Nivolumab will remain a standard treatment for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

  2. Clinicopathological significance of c-MYC in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yu; Niu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Yang, Xiaojun; Ma, Haizhong; Ma, Shixun; Zhang, Yupeng; Chen, Yifeng

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors. The oncogene c-MYC is thought to be important in the initiation, promotion, and therapy resistance of cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathologic roles of c-MYC in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissue. This study is aimed at discovering and analyzing c-MYC expression in a series of human esophageal tissues. A total of 95 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples were analyzed by the western blotting and immunohistochemistry techniques. Then, correlation of c-MYC expression with clinicopathological features of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was statistically analyzed. In most esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases, the c-MYC expression was positive in tumor tissues. The positive rate of c-MYC expression in tumor tissues was 61.05%, obviously higher than the adjacent normal tissues (8.42%, 8/92) and atypical hyperplasia tissues (19.75%, 16/95). There was a statistical difference among adjacent normal tissues, atypical hyperplasia tissues, and tumor tissues. Overexpression of the c-MYC was detected in 61.05% (58/95) esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, which was significantly correlated with the degree of differentiation (p = 0.004). The positive rate of c-MYC expression was 40.0% in well-differentiated esophageal tissues, with a significantly statistical difference (p = 0.004). The positive rate of c-MYC was 41.5% in T1 + T2 esophageal tissues and 74.1% in T3 + T4 esophageal tissues, with a significantly statistical difference (p = 0.001). The positive rate of c-MYC was 45.0% in I + II esophageal tissues and 72.2% in III + IV esophageal tissues, with a significantly statistical difference (p = 0.011). The c-MYC expression strongly correlated with clinical staging (p = 0.011), differentiation degree (p = 0.004), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.003), and invasion depth (p = 0.001) of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The c-MYC was

  3. Induction of differentiation of murine embryonal carcinoma cells by ouabain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.T.

    1986-01-01

    Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells can be induced to differentiate by ouabain at concentrations which inhibit Na + , K + -ATPase activity as measured by inhibition of 86 Rb + uptake. Since the pharmacologic action of ouabain is thought to be specific, the authors investigated the role of Na + , K + -ATPase inhibition and specific metabolic consequences of this inhibition in the induction of EC differentiation, and explored whether this might be a common mode of action for a variety of structurally diverse inducers. The Na + , K + -ATPase maintains ionic gradients in cells. However, results of studies utilizing specific ionophores, channel blockers, and media deficient in specific components failed to demonstrate a consistent role for ion flux or concentration in the differentiation process. The Na + , K + -ATPase is a major consumer of ATP. They therefore examined the effect of Na + , K + -ATPase inhibition on the adenylate energy charge as measured by high performance liquid chromatography of adenylate nucleotides. Ouabain was found to significantly decrease the energy charge in sensitive cells suggesting a role for suppression of ATP turnover is triggering differentiation. However, direct inhibition of glycolysis also induced differentiation without decreasing the energy charge, suggesting that reduction of the energy charge is not a common mechanism for induction of differentiation of EC

  4. Cutaneous squamous and neuroendocrine carcinoma: genetically and immunohistochemically different from Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulitzer, Melissa P; Brannon, A Rose; Berger, Michael F; Louis, Peter; Scott, Sasinya N; Jungbluth, Achim A; Coit, Daniel G; Brownell, Isaac; Busam, Klaus J

    2015-08-01

    Cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma most often arises de novo in the background of a clonally integrated virus, the Merkel cell polyomavirus, and is notable for positive expression of retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) protein and low expression of p53 compared with the rare Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinomas. Combined squamous and Merkel cell tumors are consistently negative for Merkel cell polyomavirus. Little is known about their immunophenotypic or molecular profile. Herein, we studied 10 combined cutaneous squamous cell and neuroendocrine carcinomas for immunohistochemical expression of p53, retinoblastoma 1 protein, neurofilament, p63, and cytokeratin 20 (CK20). We compared mutation profiles of five combined Merkel cell carcinomas and seven 'pure' Merkel cell carcinomas using targeted next-generation sequencing. Combined tumors were from the head, trunk, and leg of Caucasian males and one female aged 52-89. All cases were highly p53- and p63-positive and neurofilament-negative in the squamous component, whereas RB1-negative in both components. Eight out of 10 were p53-positive, 3/10 p63-positive, and 3/10 focally neurofilament-positive in the neuroendocrine component. Six out of 10 were CK20-positive in any part. By next-generation sequencing, combined tumors were highly mutated, with an average of 48 mutations per megabase compared with pure tumors, which showed 1.25 mutations per megabase. RB1 and p53 mutations were identified in all five combined tumors. Combined tumors represent an immunophenotypically and genetically distinct variant of primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinomas, notable for a highly mutated genetic profile, significant p53 expression and/or mutation, absent RB1 expression in the context of increased RB1 mutation, and minimal neurofilament expression.

  5. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  6. Cytokeratin 20-negative Merkel cell carcinoma is infrequently associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Andrew G; Patel, Rajiv M; Wilson, Deborah A; Procop, Gary W; Minca, Eugen C; Fullen, Douglas R; Harms, Paul W; Billings, Steven D

    2015-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, highly aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma most commonly seen in sun-damaged skin. Histologically, the tumor consists of primitive round cells with fine chromatin and numerous mitoses. Immunohistochemical stains demonstrate expression of neuroendocrine markers. In addition, cytokeratin 20 (CK20) is expressed in ∼95% of cases. In 2008, Merkel cell carcinoma was shown to be associated with a virus now known as Merkel cell polyomavirus in ∼80% of cases. Prognostic and mechanistic differences between Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive and Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinoma may exist. There has been the suggestion that CK20-negative Merkel cell carcinomas less frequently harbor Merkel cell polyomavirus, but a systematic investigation for Merkel cell polyomavirus incidence in CK20-negative Merkel cell carcinoma has not been done. To test the hypothesis that Merkel cell polyomavirus is less frequently associated with CK20-negative Merkel cell carcinoma, we investigated 13 CK20-negative Merkel cell carcinomas from the files of the Cleveland Clinic and the University of Michigan for the virus. The presence or absence of Merkel cell polyomavirus was determined by quantitative PCR performed for Large T and small T antigens, with sequencing of PCR products to confirm the presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus. Ten of these (77%) were negative for Merkel cell polyomavirus and three (23%) were positive for Merkel cell polyomavirus. Merkel cell polyomavirus is less common in CK20-negative Merkel cell carcinoma. Larger series and clinical follow-up may help to determine whether CK20-negative Merkel cell carcinoma is mechanistically and prognostically unique.

  7. Cancer stem cell markers in patterning differentiation and in prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Simple; Siddappa, Gangotri; Valiyaveedan, Sindhu Govindan; Dodda Thimmasandra Ramanjanappa, Ravindra; Das, Debashish; Pandian, Ramanan; Khora, Samanta Sekhar; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Suresh, Amritha

    2017-06-01

    Differentiation is a major histological parameter determining tumor aggressiveness and prognosis of the patient; cancer stem cells with their slow dividing and undifferentiated nature might be one of the factors determining the same. This study aims to correlate cancer stem cell markers (CD44 and CD147) with tumor differentiation and evaluate their subsequent effect on prognosis. Immunohistochemical analysis in treatment naïve oral cancer patients (n = 53) indicated that the expression of CD147 was associated with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p squamous cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma patients were CD44 high /CD147 high as compared to only 10% of patients with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. A three-way analysis indicated that differentiation correlated with recurrence and survival (p oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines originating from different grades of oral cancer. Flowcytometry-based analysis indicated an increase in CD44 + /CD147 + cells in cell lines of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (94.35 ± 1.14%, p squamous cell carcinoma origin (93.49 ± 0.47%, p squamous cell carcinoma origin (23.12% ± 0.49%). Expression profiling indicated higher expression of cancer stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in SCC029B (poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma originated; p ≤ 0.001), which was further translated into increased spheroid formation, migration, and invasion (p squamous cell carcinoma origin. This study suggests that CD44 and CD147 together improve the prognostic efficacy of tumor differentiation; in vitro results further point out that these markers might be determinant of differentiation characteristics, imparting properties of increased self-renewal, migration, and invasion.

  8. Squamous cell dysplasia and carcinoma of the conjunctiva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramberg, Ingvild; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the epidemiology of squamous cell dysplasia and carcinoma of the conjunctiva in Denmark. Methods Review of the histopathological case reports at the Eye Pathology Institute (EPI), University of Copenhagen, and the National Danish Pathology Bank from 1980 to 2011. Information......%) had epithelial dysplasia, 19 (13%) had carcinoma in situ, and 29 (20%) had squamous cell carcinoma. A significantly higher proportion of men were found. The median age at diagnosis was 65 years. The risk of recurrence was 10.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.0–15.0] after 1 year and 17.2% (95% CI......: 10.8–23.7) after 5 years. The lesions were most often localized to the corneal limbus. In our records, one patient had a lymph node metastasis and the disease necessitated enucleation in two patients. No patients had died from squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Conclusion Overall, our data...

  9. Expression of Stem Cell Markers in Preinvasive Tubal Lesions of Ovarian Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chene, G; Ouellet, V; Rahimi, K; Barres, V; Meunier, L; De Ladurantaye, M; Provencher, D; Mes-Masson, A M

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the ovarian serous carcinogenic process with tubal origin, we investigated the expression of stem cell markers in premalignant tubal lesions (serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or STIC). We found an increased stem cell marker density in the normal fallopian tube followed by a high CD117 and a low ALDH and CD44 expression in STICs raising the question of the role of the stem cell markers in the serous carcinogenic process.

  10. Expression of Stem Cell Markers in Preinvasive Tubal Lesions of Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the ovarian serous carcinogenic process with tubal origin, we investigated the expression of stem cell markers in premalignant tubal lesions (serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or STIC. We found an increased stem cell marker density in the normal fallopian tube followed by a high CD117 and a low ALDH and CD44 expression in STICs raising the question of the role of the stem cell markers in the serous carcinogenic process.

  11. Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC) of Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, K; Hamaloğlu, E

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, agressive, neurocutaneous malignancy with a high potential to metastasize. We present a 59 year-old woman referred to general surgery department with a complaint of epigastric pain. The abdominal computed tomography (CT) performed and revealed amass of 3 cm in the head of the pancreas. The significant debate in the patient's medical history was that she had a MCC in size of 5 cm removed from the left gluteal region 7 months ago. Following preoperative preparation a pancreatic oduodenectomy with Whipple procedure was performed fort hepancreatic head mass. As the tumor showed morphologically similar properties with the patient's primary neoplasm, it was accepted as a metastatic MCC. Following the operation the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and at a 30 months follow-up it was observed that the patient is disease free and has no complications related to the disease progression or recurrence. Although MCC is an aggresive and poor prognostic tumor, good results can be obtained with correct diagnosis and proper surgical treatment. Celsius.

  12. Role of sex steroid receptors in pathobiology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamta Kalra; Jary Mayes; Senait Assefa; Anil K Kaul; Rashmi Kaul

    2008-01-01

    The striking gender disparity observed in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) suggests an important role of sex hormones in HCC pathogenesis. Though the studies began as early as in 1980s, the precise role of sex hormones and the significance of their receptors in HCC still remain poorly understood and perhaps contribute to current controversies about the potential use of hormonal therapy in HCC. A comprehensive review of the existing literature revealed several shortcomings associated with the studies on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) in normal liver and HCC. These shortcomings include the use of less sensitive receptor ligand binding assays and immunohistochemistry studies for ERα alone until 1996 when ERβ isoform was identified. The animal models of HCC utilized for studies were primarily based on chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis with less similarity to virus-induced HCC pathogenesis. However, recent in vitro studies in hepatoma cells provide newer insights for hormonal regulation of key cellular processes including interaction of ER and AR with viral proteins. In light of the above facts, there is an urgent need for a detailed investigation of sex hormones and their receptors in normal liver and HCC. In this review, we systematically present the information currently available on androgens, estrogens and their receptors in normal liver and HCC obtained from in vitro, in vivo experimental models and clinical studies. This information will direct future basic and clinical research to bridge the gap in knowledge to explore the therapeutic potential of hormonal therapy in HCC. 2008 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  13. Linc-POU3F3 is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and regulates cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yichun; Li, Yannan; Wang, Dan; Meng, Qingdong

    2018-06-12

    Linc-POU3F3 showed an up-regulated tendency and functioned as tumor promoter in glioma, esophageal cancer and colorectal cancer. There was no report about the expression pattern and clinical value of linc-POU3F3 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the purpose of our study is to explore the clinical significance and biological role of linc-POU3F3 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results suggested that levels of linc-POU3F3 were dramatically increased in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cell lines compared with paired normal hepatic tissues and normal hepatic cell line, respectively. Levels of linc-POU3F3 were positively correlated with clinical stage, tumor size, vascular invasion and metastasis. Moreover, high-expression of linc-POU3F3 was an independent prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma patients. The gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed that linc-POU3F3 expression significantly promoted tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, linc-POU3F3 expression was negatively correlated with POU3F3 mRNA and protein expressions in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, and negatively regulated POU3F3 mRNA and protein expressions in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In conclusion, our study supports the first evidence that linc-POU3F3 plays an oncogenic role in hepatocellular carcinoma, and represents a potential therapeutic strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation between HPV status at T and N sites of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, Michael Vallop; Charabi, Birgitte; Lajer, Christel Braemer

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Human papilloma virus (HPV) is known to be associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) and may potentially play a vital role in tumor metastasis. The purpose of this study was to correlate HPV status of cervical lymph node metastases with their respective primary...

  15. A role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the antiandrogenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, Ryoichi; Okamura, Kazumasa; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-0934 (Japan); Kakishima, Hiroshi [Research Planning Department, Eiken Chemical Co. Ltd., 5-26-20 Oji, Kita-ku, Tokyo 114-0002 (Japan); Mizokami, Atsushi [School of Medicine, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Burnstein, Kerry L. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33101, Miami (United States)

    2003-06-01

    The role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) on the antiandrogenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied in LNCaP cells. The PAHs used in this study were chrysene (Chr), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), anthracene (Ant) and pyrene (Pyr). Chr, BkF and BaP acted as AhR agonists in LNCaP cells, while Ant and Pyr did not. The antiandrogenic effects of the PAHs were evaluated on the basis of regulation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA and protein levels by 5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Chr, BkF and BaP exhibited an antiandrogenic effect, but Ant and Pyr did not. {alpha}-Naphthoflavone ({alpha}-NF), an AhR antagonist, reversed the antiandrogen action of Chr, BkF and BaP, suggesting a requirement for activated AhR. The antiandrogenic PAHs did not significantly decrease androgen receptor (AR) levels or cellular DHT concentrations. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that Chr, BkF and BaP inhibited the binding of AR in nuclear extracts to oligonucleotide probes containing the AR-responsive element (ARE), whereas Ant and Pyr had no effect. The antiandrogenic PAHs elevated mRNA levels of c-fos and c-jun. Since activator protein-1 (AP-1), a heterodimer of c-jun and c-fos proteins, is known to inhibit binding of AR to ARE by protein-protein interaction with AR, the findings in the present study suggest a possible involvement of AP-1 in the antiandrogenic effects of PAHs acting as AhR agonists. These results suggest that AhR can stimulate AP-1 expression resulting in inhibition of the binding of AR to ARE in the transcription regulatory region of target genes such as PSA. (orig.)

  16. Significance of myofibroblasts in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thode, Christenze; Jørgensen, Trine G.; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    -smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblast that often represent the majority of tumor stromal cells. Their production of growth factors chemokines and extracellular matrix facilitates tumor growth. Myofibroblast have been demonstrated in close to 50% of oral squamous cell carcinomas. In this review, we...... highlight the histological distribution of myofibroblast in oral squamous cell and the myofibroblast relation to tumor growth on prognosis....

  17. Collecting Duct Carcinoma of the Kidney Mimicking Invasive Transitional Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Joo Nam; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Lim, Sung Chul [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Approximately 100 cases of collecting duct carcinoma have been reported in the medical literature. We herein report on a case of collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney in a 75-year-old patient. The abdominal sonography depicted a relatively poorly defined 7x6 cm sized, isoechoic mass lesion, as compared to the normal parenchyma, at the left kidney lower pole and the affected kidney showed preservation of the reniform shape. CT revealed a heterogeneous poorly defined low-attenuation mass that was mainly located in the medulla with involvement of the cortex and the lower half of the renal pelvis. Retrograde ureter opyelography showed a filling defect at the lower renal pelvis and severe narrowing of the left proximal ureter. We initially thought this lesion was invasive transitional cell carcinoma. Subsequent surgery confirmed a collecting duct carcinoma

  18. Genetic Susceptibility to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacko, Martin [Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Braakhuis, Boudewijn J.M. [Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sturgis, Erich M. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Boedeker, Carsten C. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Freiburg, Germany and Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, HELIOS Hanseklinikum Stralsund, Stralsund (Germany); Suárez, Carlos [Department of Otolaryngology, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain); Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio [ENT Clinic, University of Udine, Udine (Italy); Takes, Robert P., E-mail: robert.takes@radboudumc.nl [Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-05-01

    Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and its incidence is growing. Although environmental carcinogens and carcinogenic viruses are the main etiologic factors, genetic predisposition obviously plays a risk-modulating role, given that not all individuals exposed to these carcinogens experience the disease. This review highlights some aspects of genetic susceptibility to HNSCC: among others, genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes, DNA repair pathway, apoptotic pathway, human papillomavirus-related pathways, mitochondrial polymorphisms, and polymorphism related to the bilirubin-metabolized pathway. Furthermore, epigenetic variations, familial forms of HNSCC, functional assays for HNSCC risk assessment, and the implications and perspectives of research on genetic susceptibility in HNSCC are discussed.

  19. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Jean Y.; So, P.-L.; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2007-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence

  20. The somatic genomic landscape of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caleb F; Ricketts, Christopher J; Wang, Min; Yang, Lixing; Cherniack, Andrew D; Shen, Hui; Buhay, Christian; Kang, Hyojin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Fahey, Catherine C; Hacker, Kathryn E; Bhanot, Gyan; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Chu, Andy; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Biehl, Michael; Seth, Sahil; Kaipparettu, Benny A; Bristow, Christopher A; Donehower, Lawrence A; Wallen, Eric M; Smith, Angela B; Tickoo, Satish K; Tamboli, Pheroze; Reuter, Victor; Schmidt, Laura S; Hsieh, James J; Choueiri, Toni K; Hakimi, A Ari; Chin, Lynda; Meyerson, Matthew; Kucherlapati, Raju; Park, Woong-Yang; Robertson, A Gordon; Laird, Peter W; Henske, Elizabeth P; Kwiatkowski, David J; Park, Peter J; Morgan, Margaret; Shuch, Brian; Muzny, Donna; Wheeler, David A; Linehan, W Marston; Gibbs, Richard A; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Creighton, Chad J

    2014-09-08

    We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) on the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mtDNA and whole-genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared with other kidney cancers with more proximal origins. Combined mtDNA and gene expression analysis implicates changes in mitochondrial function as a component of the disease biology, while suggesting alternative roles for mtDNA mutations in cancers relying on oxidative phosphorylation. Genomic rearrangements lead to recurrent structural breakpoints within TERT promoter region, which correlates with highly elevated TERT expression and manifestation of kataegis, representing a mechanism of TERT upregulation in cancer distinct from previously observed amplifications and point mutations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic Susceptibility to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacko, Martin; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J.M.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Boedeker, Carsten C.; Suárez, Carlos; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio; Takes, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and its incidence is growing. Although environmental carcinogens and carcinogenic viruses are the main etiologic factors, genetic predisposition obviously plays a risk-modulating role, given that not all individuals exposed to these carcinogens experience the disease. This review highlights some aspects of genetic susceptibility to HNSCC: among others, genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes, DNA repair pathway, apoptotic pathway, human papillomavirus-related pathways, mitochondrial polymorphisms, and polymorphism related to the bilirubin-metabolized pathway. Furthermore, epigenetic variations, familial forms of HNSCC, functional assays for HNSCC risk assessment, and the implications and perspectives of research on genetic susceptibility in HNSCC are discussed

  2. Vismodegib (ERIVEDGE°) In basal cell carcinoma: too many unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common skin cancers. They are usually localised and carry a good prognosis. There is no standard treatment for the rare patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma or very extensive basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery or radiotherapy is inappropriate. Vismodegib, a cytotoxic drug, is claimed to prevent tumour growth by inhibiting a pathway involved in tissue repair and embryogenesis. It has been authorised in the European Union for patients with metastatic or locally advanced and extensive basal cell carcinoma. Clinical evaluation of vismodegib is based on a non-comparative clinical trial involving 104 patients, providing only weak evidence. Twenty-one months after the start of the trial, 7 patients with metastases (21%) and 6 patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (10%) had died. Given the lack of a placebo group, there is no way of knowing whether vismodegib had any effect, positive or negative, on survival. There were no complete responses among patients with metastases, but about one-third of them had partial responses. Among the 63 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, there were 14 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The recurrence rate in patients with complete responses was not reported. Similar results were reported in two other uncontrolled trials available in mid-2014. Vismodegib has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects, including muscle spasms, fatigue and severe hyponatraemia. Cases of severe weight loss, alopecia, ocular disorders, other cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma) and anaemia have also been reported. More data are needed on possible hepatic and cardiovascular adverse effects. A potent teratogenic effect was seen in experimental animals. As vismodegib enters semen, contraception is mandatory for both men (condoms) and women. In practice, vismodegib has frequent and varied adverse effects, some of which are serious, while its benefits are poorly documented

  3. Expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Nicolas, E-mail: simplissimus@gmx.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Goeke, Friederike, E-mail: Friederike.goeke@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Pathology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Splittstoesser, Vera, E-mail: Veri.sp@web.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Lankat-Buttgereit, Brigitte, E-mail: Lankatbu@staff.uni-marburg.de [Department of Internal Medicine, Philipps-University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Mueller, Stefan C., E-mail: Stefan.mueller@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Ellinger, Joerg, E-mail: Joerg.ellinger@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tumor suppressor gene PDCD4 is down-regulated in many tumorous entities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the impact of PDCD4 and its regulating factor miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We confirm PDCD4 as a tumor suppressor gene and it could be a diagnostic marker for this tumor. -- Abstract: Background: We investigated the role of the programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor gene in specimens of transitional cell carcinoma and of healthy individuals. Methods: PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was investigated in 294 cases in histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma in different tumorous stages (28 controls, 122 non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma, stages Tis-T1, 119 invasive transitional cell carcinoma stages T2-T4 and 25 metastases). MiR-21 expression, an important PDCD4 regulator, was assessed with real-time PCR analysis and showed inverse correlation to tissue PDCD4 expression. Results: Nuclear and cytoplasmatic PDCD4 immunostaining decreased significantly with histopathological progression of the tumor (p < 0001). Controls showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical staining. MiR-21 up regulation in tissue corresponded to PDCD4 suppression. Conclusions: These data support a decisive role for PDCD4 down regulation in transitional cell carcinoma and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator for PDCD4. Additionally, PDCD4 immunohistochemical staining turns out to be a possible diagnostic marker for transitional cell carcinoma.

  4. Expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Nicolas; Göke, Friederike; Splittstößer, Vera; Lankat-Buttgereit, Brigitte; Müller, Stefan C.; Ellinger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The tumor suppressor gene PDCD4 is down-regulated in many tumorous entities. ► We investigate the impact of PDCD4 and its regulating factor miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma. ► We confirm PDCD4 as a tumor suppressor gene and it could be a diagnostic marker for this tumor. -- Abstract: Background: We investigated the role of the programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor gene in specimens of transitional cell carcinoma and of healthy individuals. Methods: PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was investigated in 294 cases in histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma in different tumorous stages (28 controls, 122 non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma, stages Tis-T1, 119 invasive transitional cell carcinoma stages T2–T4 and 25 metastases). MiR-21 expression, an important PDCD4 regulator, was assessed with real-time PCR analysis and showed inverse correlation to tissue PDCD4 expression. Results: Nuclear and cytoplasmatic PDCD4 immunostaining decreased significantly with histopathological progression of the tumor (p < 0001). Controls showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical staining. MiR-21 up regulation in tissue corresponded to PDCD4 suppression. Conclusions: These data support a decisive role for PDCD4 down regulation in transitional cell carcinoma and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator for PDCD4. Additionally, PDCD4 immunohistochemical staining turns out to be a possible diagnostic marker for transitional cell carcinoma.

  5. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Foot: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Rubin, Ashley G; Jiang, Shang I Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is a well-known risk factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Therefore, the high incidence of BCCs in sun-exposed areas such as the head and neck is unsurprising. However, unexpectedly, BCCs on the sun-protected dorsal foot have also been reported, and tumor occurrence here suggests that other factors besides ultraviolet radiation may play a role in BCC pathogenesis. Because only few dorsal foot BCCs have been reported, data on their clinical features and management are limited. To perform an updated review of the literature on clinical characteristics and treatment of dorsal foot BCCs. We conducted a comprehensive literature review by searching the PubMed database with the key phrases "basal cell carcinoma dorsal foot," "basal cell carcinoma foot," and "basal cell carcinoma toe." We identified 20 cases of dorsal foot BCCs in the literature, 17 of which had sufficient data for analysis. Only 1 case was treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. We present 8 additional cases of dorsal foot BCCs treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinomas on the dorsal foot are rare, and potential risk factors include Caucasian descent and personal history of skin cancer. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be an effective treatment option.

  6. Breast Carcinoma Cells in Primary Tumors and Effusions Have Different Gene Array Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophya Konstantinovsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of breast carcinoma cells in effusions is associated with rapidly fatal outcome, but these cells are poorly characterized at the molecular level. This study compared the gene array signatures of breast carcinoma cells in primary carcinomas and effusions. The genetic signature of 10 primary tumors and 10 effusions was analyzed using the Array-Ready Oligo set for the Human Genome platform. Results for selected genes were validated using PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Array analysis identified 255 significantly downregulated and 96 upregulated genes in the effusion samples. The majority of differentially expressed genes were part of pathways involved in focal adhesion, extracellular matrix-cell interaction, and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Genes that were upregulated in effusions included KRT8, BCAR1, CLDN4, VIL2, while DCN, CLDN19, ITGA7, and ITGA5 were downregulated at this anatomic site. PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the array findings for BCAR1, CLDN4, VIL2, and DCN. Our data show that breast carcinoma cells in primary carcinomas and effusions have different gene expression signatures, and differentially express a large number of molecules related to adhesion, motility, and metastasis. These differences may have a critical role in designing therapy and in prognostication for patients with metastatic disease localized to the serosal cavities.

  7. Expression of Cat Podoplanin in Feline Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Shunsuke; Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive tumor in cats; however, molecular-targeted therapies against this tumor, including antibody therapy, have not been developed. Sensitive and specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against highly expressed membrane proteins are needed to develop antibody therapies. Podoplanin, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is expressed in many human malignant tumors, including brain tumor, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, mesothelioma, and oral cancer. Podoplanin binds to C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) and activates platelet aggregation, which is involved in cancer metastasis. Until now, we have established several mAbs against podoplanin in humans, mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, cattle, and cats. We have reported podoplanin expression in canine melanoma and squamous cell carcinomas using an anti-dog podoplanin mAb PMab-38. In this study, we investigated podoplanin expression in 40 feline squamous cell carcinomas (14 cases of mouth floor, 13 of skin, 9 of ear, and 4 of tongue) by immunohistochemical analysis using an anti-cat podoplanin mAb PMab-52, which we recently developed by cell-based immunization and screening (CBIS) method. Of the total 40 cases, 38 (95%) showed positive staining for PMab-52. In particular, 12 cases (30%) showed a strong membrane-staining pattern of squamous cell carcinoma cells. PMab-52 can be useful for antibody therapy against feline podoplanin-expressing squamous cell carcinomas.

  8. NK-cell-dependent killing of colon carcinoma cells is mediated by natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) and stimulated by parvovirus infection of target cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Rauf; Rommelaere, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Investigating how the immune system functions during malignancies is crucial to developing novel therapeutic strategies. Natural killer (NK) cells, an important component of the innate immune system, play a vital role in immune defense against tumors and virus-infected cells. The poor survival rate in colon cancer makes it particularly important to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Oncolytic viruses, in addition to lysing tumor cells, may have the potential to augment antitumor immune responses. In the present study, we investigate the role of NK cells and how parvovirus H-1PV can modulate NK-cell mediated immune responses against colon carcinoma. Human NK cells were isolated from the blood of healthy donors. The cytotoxicity and antibody-mediated inhibition of NK cells were measured in chromium release assays. Phenotypic assessment of colon cancer and dendritic cells was done by FACS. The statistical significance of the results was calculated with Student’s t test (*p <0.05; **, p < 0.01; ***, p < 0.001). We show that IL-2-activated human NK cells can effectively kill colon carcinoma cells. Killing of colon carcinoma cells by NK cells was further enhanced upon infection of the former cells with parvovirus H-1PV. H-1PV has potent oncolytic activity against various tumors, yet its direct killing effect on colon carcinoma cells is limited. The cytotoxicity of NK cells towards colon carcinoma cells, both mock- and H-1PV-infected, was found to be mostly mediated by a combination of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), namely NKp30, 44, and 46. Colon carcinoma cells displayed low to moderate expression of NK cell ligands, and this expression was modulated upon H-1PV infection. Lysates of H-1PV-infected colon carcinoma cells were found to increase MHC class II expression on dendritic cells. Altogether, these data suggest that IL-2-activated NK cells actively kill colon carcinoma cells and that this killing is mediated by several natural cytotoxicity receptors

  9. ALDH/CD44 identifies uniquely tumorigenic cancer stem cells in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Pearson, Alexander T; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Kim, Hong Sun; Mochizuki, Daiki; Basura, Gregory; Helman, Joseph; Mantesso, Andrea; Castilho, Rogério M; Wicha, Max S; Nör, Jacques E

    2015-09-29

    A small sub-population of cells characterized by increased tumorigenic potential, ability to self-renew and to differentiate into cells that make up the tumor bulk, has been characterized in some (but not all) tumor types. These unique cells, namedcancer stem cells, are considered drivers of tumor progression in these tumors. The purpose of this work is to understand if cancer stem cells play a functional role in the tumorigenesis of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Here, we investigated the expression of putative cancer stem cell markers (ALDH, CD10, CD24, CD44) in primary human mucoepidermoid carcinomas by immunofluorescence, in vitro salisphere assays, and in vivo tumorigenicity assays in immunodeficient mice. Human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (UM-HMC-1, UM-HMC-3A, UM-HMC-3B) sorted for high levels of ALDH activity and CD44 expression (ALDHhighCD44high) consistently formed primary and secondary salispheres in vitro, and showed enhanced tumorigenic potential in vivo (defined as time to tumor palpability, tumor growth after palpability), when compared to ALDHlowCD44low cells. Cells sorted for CD10/CD24, and CD10/CD44 showed varying trends of salisphere formation, but consistently low in vivo tumorigenic potential. And finally, cells sorted for CD44/CD24 showed inconsistent results in salisphere formation and tumorigenic potential assays when different cell lines were evaluated. Collectively, these data demonstrate that salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas contain a small population of cancer stem cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and that are characterized by high ALDH activity and CD44 expression. These results suggest that patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma might benefit from therapies that ablate these highly tumorigenic cells.

  10. Risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma after treatment of basal cell carcinoma with vismodegib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutani, Tina; Abrouk, Michael; Sima, Camelia S; Sadetsky, Natalia; Hou, Jeannie; Caro, Ivor; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Arron, Sarah T

    2017-10-01

    Vismodegib is a first-in-class agent targeting the hedgehog signaling pathway for treatment of patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and metastatic BCC. There have been concerns about the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients treated with this drug. We sought to determine whether treatment with vismodegib is associated with an increase in the risk of cutaneous SCC. In this retrospective cohort study, patients treated with vismodegib as part of phase I and II clinical studies were compared with participants from the University of California, San Francisco, Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Cohort who received standard therapy for primary BCC. In total, 1675 patients were included in the analysis, and the development of SCC after vismodegib exposure was assessed. The use of vismodegib was not associated with an increased risk of subsequent development of SCC (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-1.16). Covariates including age, sex, history of previous nonmelanoma skin cancer, and number of visits per year were significantly associated with the development of SCC. A limitation of the study was that a historic control cohort was used as a comparator. Vismodegib was not associated with an increased risk of subsequent SCC when compared with standard surgical treatment of BCC. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Basal cell carcinoma vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: an immunohistochemical reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David V; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Verduin, Lindsey; Brill, Louis B; Wick, Mark R

    2015-04-01

    Typical cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are morphologically dissimilar. It is well known, however, that poorly differentiated SCC may assume a basaloid phenotype, complicating the histologic distinction between these 2 neoplasms. Selected immunohistochemical stains have been used in the past to aid in that differential diagnosis. In the current study, additional markers were evaluated to determine whether they would be helpful in that regard. Twenty-nine cases of metatypical (squamoid) BCC (MBCC) and 25 examples of basaloid SCC (BSCC) were studied using the antibodies Ber-EP4 and MOC-31 as well as a plant lectin preparation from Ulex europaeus I (UEA-1). The resulting immunostains were interpreted independently by 3 pathologists, and the results showed that MBCCs demonstrated strong and diffuse staining for Ber-EP4 (25/29) and MOC-31 (29/29). In contrast, BSCCs tended to be only sporadically reactive for both markers (4/25 and 1/25 cases, respectively). Labeling for UEA-1 was observed in almost all BSCCs (24/25), but only 6 of 29 cases of MBCC showed limited, focal staining with that lectin. These data suggest that MOC-31 is a useful marker in the specified differential diagnosis, especially when used together with UEA-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preferential radiosensitization of human prostatic carcinoma cells by mild hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Samuel; Brown, Stephen L.; Kim, Sang-Hie; Khil, Mark S.; Kim, Jae Ho

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Recent cell culture studies by us and others suggest that some human carcinoma cells are more sensitive to heat than are rodent cells following mild hyperthermia. In studying the cellular mechanism of enhanced thermosensitivity of human tumor cells to hyperthermia, prostatic carcinoma cells of human origin were found to be more sensitive to mild hyperthermia than other human cancer cells. The present study was designed to determine the magnitude of radiosensitization of human prostatic carcinoma cells by mild hyperthermia and to examine whether the thermal radiosensitization is related to the intrinsic thermosensitivity of cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Two human prostatic carcinoma cell lines (DU-145 and PC-3) and other carcinoma cells of human origin, in particular, colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7), lung (A-549), and brain (U-251) were exposed to temperatures of 40-41 deg. C. Single acute dose rate radiation and fractionated radiation were combined with mild hyperthermia to determine thermal radiosensitization. The end point of the study was the colony-forming ability of single-plated cells. Results: DU-145 and PC-3 cells were found to be exceedingly thermosensitive to 41 deg. C for 24 h, relative to other cancer cell lines. Ninety percent of the prostatic cancer cells were killed by a 24 h heat exposure. Prostatic carcinoma cells exposed to a short duration of heating at 41 deg. C for 2 h resulted in a substantial enhancement of radiation-induced cytotoxicity. The thermal enhancement ratios (TERs) of single acute dose radiation following heat treatment 41 deg. C for 2 h were 2.0 in DU-145 cells and 1.4 in PC-3 cells. The TERs of fractionated irradiation combined with continuous heating at 40 deg. C were similarly in the range of 2.1 to 1.4 in prostate carcinoma cells. No significant radiosensitization was observed in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells under the same conditions. Conclusion: The present data suggest that a significant radiosensitization of

  13. Nrf2 regulates cellular behaviors and Notch signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong; Paiboonrungruan, Chorlada; Zhang, Xinyan; Prigge, Justin R; Schmidt, Edward E; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2017-11-04

    Oxidative stress is known to play a pivotal role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We have demonstrated that activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway has chemopreventive effects against oxidative stress-associated OSCC. However, Nrf2 have dual roles in cancer development; while it prevents carcinogenesis of normal cells, hyperactive Nrf2 also promotes the survival of cancer cells. This study is aimed to understand the function of Nrf2 in regulating cellular behaviors of OSCC cells, and the potential mechanisms through which Nrf2 facilitates OSCC. We established the Nrf2-overexpressing and Nrf2-knockdown OSCC cell lines, and examined the function of Nrf2 in regulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cell cycle and colony formation. Our data showed that Nrf2 overexpression promoted cancer phenotypes in OSCC cells, whereas Nrf2 silencing inhibited these phenotypes. In addition, Nrf2 positively regulated Notch signaling pathway in OSCC cells in vitro. Consistent with this observation, Nrf2 activation in Keap1 -/- mice resulted in not only hyperproliferation of squamous epithelial cells in mouse tongue as evidenced by increased expression of PCNA, but also activation of Notch signaling in these cells as evidenced by increased expression of NICD1 and Hes1. In conclusion, Nrf2 regulates cancer behaviors and Notch signaling in OSCC cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Merkel Cell Carcinoma: The Past, the Present, and the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erovic, I.; Erovic, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Since the first description of the Merkel cell carcinoma by Cyril Toker in 1972, the number of studies has significantly increased over the last 4 decades. In this review, we will illustrate the historical background of the Merkel cell carcinoma beginning with the 19th century, the first description of the Merkel cell to the finding of the CK20 as a highly specific diagnostic marker and finally to the recently detected Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCPyV). Moreover, we will highlight the beginning of adjuvant therapeutic regimens with radiotherapy and chemotherapy and discuss the diagnostic work-up including imaging and histology of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. Another very rapidly growing and interesting field of research is the development of patients' specific and tailored targeted therapy, in particular in patients with distant metastatic disease.

  15. [Exenteration of the Orbit for Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdová, A; Horkovičová, K; Krčová, I; Krásnik, V

    2015-08-01

    Primary treatment of basal cell carcinoma of the lower eyelid and the inner corner is essentially surgical, but advanced lesions require extensive surgical interventions. In some cases it is necessary to continue with the mutilating surgery--exenteration of the orbit. In this work we evaluate the indications of radical solutions in patients with basal cell carcinoma invading the orbit and the subsequent possibility for individually made prosthesis to cover the defect of the cavity. Indications to exenteration of the orbit in patients with basal cell carcinoma findings in 2008-2013. Case report of 2 patients. In period 2008-20013 at the Dept. of Ophthalmology, Comenius University in Bratislava totally 221 patients with histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma of the eyelids and the inner corner were treated. In 5 cases (2.7 %) with infiltration of the orbit the radical surgical procedure, exenteration was necessary. In 3 patients exenteration was indicated as the first surgical procedure in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, since they had never visited ophthalmologist before only at in the stage of infiltration of the orbit (stage T4). In one case was indicated exenteration after previous surgical interventions and relapses. After healing the cavity patients got individually prepared epithesis. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma involves the radical removal of the neoplasm entire eyelid and stage T1 or T2 can effectively cure virtually all tumors with satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. In advanced stages (T4 stage) by infiltrating the orbit by basal cell carcinoma exenteration of the orbit is necessary. This surgery is a serious situation for the patient and also for his relatives. Individually made prosthesis helps the patient to be enrolled to the social environment.

  16. Lobaplatin arrests cell cycle progression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chang-Jie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC still is a big burden for China. In recent years, the third-generation platinum compounds have been proposed as potential active agents for HCC. However, more experimental and clinical data are warranted to support the proposal. In the present study, the effect of lobaplatin was assessed in five HCC cell lines and the underlying molecular mechanisms in terms of cell cycle kinetics were explored. Methods Cytotoxicity of lobaplatin to human HCC cell lines was examined using MTT cell proliferation assay. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. Expression of cell cycle-regulated genes was examined at both the mRNA (RT-PCR and protein (Western blot levels. The phosphorylation status of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs and retinoblastoma (Rb protein was also examined using Western blot analysis. Results Lobaplatin inhibited proliferation of human HCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. For the most sensitive SMMC-7721 cells, lobaplatin arrested cell cycle progression in G1 and G2/M phases time-dependently which might be associated with the down-regulation of cyclin B, CDK1, CDC25C, phosphorylated CDK1 (pCDK1, pCDK4, Rb, E2F, and pRb, and the up-regulation of p53, p21, and p27. Conclusion Cytotoxicity of lobaplatin in human HCC cells might be due to its ability to arrest cell cycle progression which would contribute to the potential use of lobaplatin for the management of HCC.

  17. Mitochondrial fission promotes cell migration by Ca2+ /CaMKII/ERK/FAK pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiacheng; Cao, Haiyan; Zhan, Lei; Yin, Chun; Wang, Gang; Liang, Ping; Li, Jibin; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Bingrong; Huang, Qichao; Xing, Jinliang

    2018-07-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics of fission and fusion plays critical roles in a diverse range of important cellular functions, and its deregulation has been increasingly implicated in human diseases. Previous studies have shown that increased mitochondrial fission significantly promoted the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, how they influence the migration of tumour cells remained largely unknown. In the present study, we further investigated the effect of mitochondrial fission on the migration and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms and therapeutic application were explored. Our data showed that dynamin-1-like protein expression was strongly increased in distant metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma when compared to primary hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 1 showed an opposite trend. Moreover, the expression of dynamin-1-like protein and mitofusin 1 was significantly associated with the disease-free survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. In addition, our data further showed that mitochondrial fission significantly promoted the reprogramming of focal-adhesion dynamics and lamellipodia formation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells mainly by activating typical Ca 2+ /CaMKII/ERK/FAK pathway. Importantly, treatment with mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 significantly decreased calcium signalling in hepatocellular carcinoma cells and had a potential treatment effect for hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis in vivo. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that mitochondrial fission plays a critical role in the regulation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration, which provides strong evidence for this process as a drug target in hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Overexpressed CacyBP/SIP leads to the suppression of growth in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shiren; Ning, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Jie; Liu, Lili; Chen, Yu; Han, Shuang; Zhang, Yanqi; Liang, Jie; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming

    2007-01-01

    Calcyclin-binding protein/Siah-1-interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP), a target protein of S100, has been identified as a component of a novel ubiquitinylation complex leading to β-catenin degradation, which was found to be related to the malignant phenotypes of gastric cancer. However, the roles of CacyBP/SIP in renal cell carcinoma still remain unclear. In the present study, we had analyzed the expression of the CacyBP/SIP protein in human renal cancer cells and clinical tissue samples. The possible roles of CacyBP/SIP in regulating the malignant phenotype of renal cancer cells were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the expression of CacyBP/SIP was markedly down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma tissues and cell lines. Ectopic overexpression of CacyBP/SIP in A498 cells inhibited the proliferation of this cell and delayed cell cycle progression significantly, which might be related to the down-regulation of Cyclin D1 through reducing β-catenin protein. CacyBP/SIP also suppressed colony formation in soft agar and its tumorigenicity in nude mice. Taken together, our work showed that CacyBP/SIP, as a novel down-regulated gene in renal cell carcinoma, suppressed proliferation and tumorigenesis of renal cancer cells

  19. Sarcomatoid carcinoma associated with small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a series of 28 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrea, Yuly Ramirez; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2017-09-01

    The association of sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) with small cell carcinoma (SCC) has not been systematically studied. We identified 39 consult cases between 2001 and 2016 with available slides for review in 28 cases. There were 19 men and 9 women (mean age: 78 years [51-89]). In 26 (92.8%) cases, the sarcomatoid component had nonspecific malignant spindle cells, 4 (14%) chondrosarcoma, 2 (7%) myxoid sarcomatous, 1 (3.5%) osteosarcoma, and 1 (3.5%) rhabdomyosarcoma. The predominant component was SCC in 11 (39%) cases, urothelial carcinoma in 6 (21%), sarcomatoid in 3 (10%), and equal sarcomatoid and SCC in 8 (29%). There were 3 morphological groups: group 1 (18/28 [64%]) showed a gradual transition from SCC to other components; group 2 (5/28 [18%]) had an abrupt transition from SCC to other components; and in group 3 (5/28 [18%]), the SCC was separate from other components. In group 1, 12 (66%) cases of SCC showed a gradual transition to sarcomatoid areas; 3 (17%) to urothelial carcinoma; and 3 (17%) to multiple components including squamous cell carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, and sarcomatoid. Mortality did not differ based on pathological groups. The 36-month actuarial risk of death was 64.3%. The multitude of different components in these tumors is further evidence of the remarkable ability of carcinoma of the bladder to show divergent differentiation with, in some cases, gradual transition between SCC and other elements including sarcomatoid. Greater recognition of this entity with chemotherapy targeted to the various histological elements may have important therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Retinopathy secondary to radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groomer, A.E.; Gutwein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses a case of radiotherapy-induced retinopathy following treatment of squamous cell carcinoma. Treatment of the carcinoma with external beam radiotherapy to the supraorbital region and base of the skull was followed by the onset of retinopathy. The sensory retina, as well as other central nervous system tissues, is highly resistant to radiation damage; however, the retinal vasculature is extremely sensitive to radiation damage, producing a retinopathy that is characteristic of other vascular occlusive diseases. Management is discussed

  1. Isolated Meningeal Recurrence of Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Butchart

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningeal carcinomatosis occurs in 1–18% of patients with solid tumours, most commonly carcinomas of the breast and lung or melanomas. There are relatively few reports of meningeal carcinomatosis in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Isolated meningeal recurrence is particularly uncommon, and we present an unusual case of this in a 58-year-old man. The case was further complicated by the somewhat atypical presentation with a confirmed ischaemic stroke. The patient died one month after presentation.

  2. Estramustine: A novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, S.; Gabel, M.; Khil, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Estramustine (EM), an antimicrotubule agent, binds microtubule-associated proteins, causes spindle disassembly, and arrests cells at the late G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle. Since cells in the G 2 /M phase are the most radiosensitive and some human cancer cells contain high level of EM-binding protein, experiments were carried out to determine whether radiation sensitization could be obtained in human carcinoma cells. Cells containing a high level of EM-binding protein such as prostate carcinoma (DU-145), breast carcinoma (MCF-7), and malignant glioma (U-251) were used to demonstrate radiosensitization. Cervical carcinoma (HeLa-S 3 ) and colon carcinoma (HT-29) cells which are not known to contain EM-binding protein were also employed. Cell survival was assayed by the colony forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. Pretreatment of DU-145, MCF-7, and U-251 cells to a nontoxic concentration (5 μM) of EM for more than one cell cycle time, substantially enhanced the radiation-induced cytotoxicity. The sensitizer enhancement ratio of these cells ranged from 1.35-1.52. The magnitude of the enhancement was dependent on the drug concentration and exposure time. The rate of cell accumulation in G 2 /M phase, as determined by flow cytometry, increased with longer treatment time in the cell lines which showed radiosensitization. Other antimicrotubule agents such as taxol and vinblastine caused minimal or no radiosensitization at nontoxic concentrations. The data provide a radiobiological basis for using EM as a novel radiation enhancer, with the property of tissue selectivity. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Depletion of cutaneous macrophages and dendritic cells promotes growth of basal cell carcinoma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Simone; Nitzki, Frauke; Uhmann, Anja; Dittmann, Kai; Theiss-Suennemann, Jennifer; Herrmann, Markus; Reichardt, Holger M; Schwendener, Reto; Pukrop, Tobias; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Hahn, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) belongs to the group of non-melanoma skin tumors and is the most common tumor in the western world. BCC arises due to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene Patched1 (Ptch). Analysis of the conditional Ptch knockout mouse model for BCC reveals that macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) of the skin play an important role in BCC growth restraining processes. This is based on the observation that a clodronate-liposome mediated depletion of these cells in the tumor-bearing skin results in significant BCC enlargement. The depletion of these cells does not modulate Ki67 or K10 expression, but is accompanied by a decrease in collagen-producing cells in the tumor stroma. Together, the data suggest that cutaneous macrophages and DC in the tumor microenvironment exert an antitumor effect on BCC.

  4. Comparative transcriptional profiling of human Merkel cells and Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Nicolas; Coquart, Nolwenn; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Mogha, Ariane; Fautrel, Alain; Boulais, Nicholas; Dréno, Brigitte; Martin, Ludovic; Hu, Weiguo; Galibert, Marie-Dominique; Misery, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is believed to be derived from Merkel cells after infection by Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and other poorly understood events. Transcriptional profiling using cDNA microarrays was performed on cells from MCPy-negative and MCPy-positive Merkel cell carcinomas and isolated normal Merkel cells. This microarray revealed numerous significantly upregulated genes and some downregulated genes. The extensive list of genes that were identified in these experiments provides a large body of potentially valuable information of Merkel cell carcinoma carcinogenesis and could represent a source of potential targets for cancer therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Radiation therapy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietkau, R.; Grabenbauer, G.G.; Sauer, R.

    1994-01-01

    The records of 52 patients with inoperable but localized squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus were reviewed to determine the influence of different treatment modalities on survival, dysphagia and sites of recurrence. 22 patients were treated by concurrent radio-chemotherapy with cis-platin/5-FU or carboplatin/5-FU; 19 patients by radiotherapy alone; six patients by chemotherapy followed by irradiation and five patients by concurrent radio-chemotherapy with various drugs. External beam radiotherapy consisted of treating the primary lesion (mean dose 53 Gy) and the lymphatic areas (mean dose 31±26 Gy) at the rate of 2 Gy/day for five days/week. Additional intraluminal high-dose-rate radiotherapy was performed in 13 patients with single fractions of 6 Gy as a boost. Minimum follow-up was twelve months, median follow-up 4.3 years. For the whole population a remission rate of 65% (34/52 patients) was achieved (complete remission 18/52 patients=35%; partial remission 16/52 patients=31%). Relief of dysphagia accompanied tumor regression. Median survival was eleven months; three-year survival rate 23%; five-year survival rate 7.6%. The analysis of recurrence revealed a high rate of local failures (26/52 patients=50%) and distant metastases (9/52 patients=18%). Comparing the different modalities the best results were achieved by concurrent radio-chemotherapy with cis-platin/5-FU or carboplatin/5-FU: Complete remission could be determined in 46% and median survival was 14.9 months. Additional intracavitary radiotherapy resulted in a slightly better local control rate (54% vs. 46%) and three-year-survival rate (30% vs. 20%) compared to external beam irradiation alone. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, Gary D.; Wang Lishu; Chen Tong

    2007-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is responsible for approximately one-sixth of all cancer-related mortality worldwide. This malignancy has a multifactorial etiology involving several environmental, dietary and genetic factors. Since esophageal cancer has often metastasized at the time of diagnosis, current treatment modalities offer poor survival and cure rates. Chemoprevention offers a viable alternative that could well be effective against the disease. Clinical investigations have shown that primary chemoprevention of this disease is feasible if potent inhibitory agents are identified. The Fischer 344 (F-344) rat model of esophageal SCC has been used extensively to investigate the biology of the disease, and to identify chemopreventive agents that could be useful in human trials. Multiple compounds that inhibit tumor initiation by esophageal carcinogens have been identified using this model. These include several isothiocyanates, diallyl sulfide and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds influence the metabolic activation of esophageal carcinogens resulting in reduced genetic (DNA) damage. Recently, a few agents have been shown to inhibit the progression of preneoplastic lesions in the rat esophagus into tumors. These agents include inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and c-Jun [a component of activator protein-1 (AP-1)]. Using a food-based approach to cancer prevention, we have shown that freeze-dried berry preparations inhibit both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of esophageal SCC in F-344 rats. These observations have led to a clinical trial in China to evaluate the ability of freeze-dried strawberries to influence the progression of esophageal dysplasia to SCC

  7. Novel Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Darrin V. Bann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system plays a key role in preventing tumor formation by recognizing and destroying malignant cells. For over a century, researchers have attempted to harness the immune response as a cancer treatment, although this approach has only recently achieved clinical success. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, betel nut use, and human papillomavirus infection. Unfortunately, worldwide mortality from HNSCC remains high, partially due to limits on therapy secondary to the significant morbidity associated with current treatments. Therefore, immunotherapeutic approaches to HNSCC treatment are attractive for their potential to reduce morbidity while improving survival. However, the application of immunotherapies to this disease has been challenging because HNSCC is profoundly immunosuppressive, resulting in decreased absolute lymphocyte counts, impaired natural killer cell function, reduced antigen-presenting cell function, and a tumor-permissive cytokine profile. Despite these challenges, numerous clinical trials testing the safety and efficacy of immunotherapeutic approaches to HNSCC treatment are currently underway, many of which have produced promising results. This review will summarize immunotherapeutic approaches to HNSCC that are currently undergoing clinical trials.

  8. [Expression of Ki-67 and P53 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Xiao, Yan; Chen, Wei-min

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the clinical and pathological features and its relationship with the expression of Ki-67 and p53 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical SP staining method was used to quantify the protein expression levels of Ki-67 and p53 protein in 10 cases of normal oral mucosa, 16 cases of oral leukoplakia (OLK) tissue, and 48 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The relationship of the expression of Ki-67 and p53 protein to clinical and pathological data was analyzed, and SPSS17.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The positive expression rate of Ki-67 protein in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma was 30%, 56.3% and 79.2%, respectively; The positive expression rate of p53 was 0%, 43.8%, and 70.8%, respectively; Ki-67 and p53 expression had significant difference among normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (Poral squamous cell carcinoma (Poral squamous cell carcinoma tissues may play an important role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  9. The role of apoptosis repressor with a CARD domain (ARC) in the therapeutic resistance of renal cell carcinoma (RCC): the crucial role of ARC in the inhibition of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Csaba; Funke, Sarah; Nitsche, Vanessa; Liverts, Anna; Zlachevska, Viktoriya; Gasis, Marcia; Wiek, Constanze; Hanenberg, Helmut; Mahotka, Csaba; Schirmacher, Peter; Heikaus, Sebastian

    2017-05-02

    Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) display broad resistance against conventional radio- and chemotherapies, which is due at least in part to impairments in both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. One important anti-apoptotic factor that is strongly overexpressed in RCCs and known to inhibit both apoptotic pathways is ARC (apoptosis repressor with a CARD domain). Expression and subcellular distribution of ARC in RCC tissue samples and RCC cell lines were determined by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent immunohistochemistry, respectively. Extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signalling were induced by TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), ABT-263 or topotecan. ARC knock-down was performed in clearCa-12 cells using lentiviral transduction of pGIPZ. shRNAmir constructs. Extrinsic respectively intrinsic apoptosis were induced by TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), ABT263 or topotecan. Potential synergistic effects were tested by pre-treatment with topotecan and subsequent treatment with ABT263. Activation of different caspases and mitochondrial depolarisation (JC-1 staining) were analysed by flow cytometry. Protein expression of Bcl-2 family members and ARC in RCC cell lines was measured by Western blotting. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t-test. Regarding the extrinsic pathway, ARC knockdown strongly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis by increasing the activation level of caspase-8. Regarding the intrinsic pathway, ARC, which was only weakly expressed in the nuclei of RCCs in vivo, exerted its anti-apoptotic effect by impairing mitochondrial activation rather than inhibiting p53. Topotecan- and ABT-263-induced apoptosis was strongly enhanced following ARC knockdown in RCC cell lines. In addition, topotecan pre-treatment enhanced ABT-263-induced apoptosis and this effect was amplified in ARC-knockdown cells. Taken together, our results are the first to demonstrate the importance of ARC protein in the inhibition of both the extrinsic

  10. The Role of 3 Tesla Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Differential Diagnosis of Benign versus Malignant Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Barchetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to validate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI at 3 Tesla in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant laterocervical lymph nodes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Materials and Methods. Before undergoing surgery, 80 patients, with biopsy proven HNSCC, underwent a magnetic resonance exam. Sensitivity (Se and specificity (Spe of conventional criteria and DWI in detecting laterocervical lymph node metastases were calculated. Histological results from neck dissection were used as standard of reference. Results. In the 239 histologically proven metastatic lymphadenopathies, the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC value was 0.903 × 10−3 mm2/sec. In the 412 pathologically confirmed benign lymph nodes, an average ADC value of 1.650 × 10−3 mm2/sec was found. For differentiating between benign versus metastatic lymph nodes, DWI showed Se of 97% and Spe of 93%, whereas morphological criteria displayed Se of 61% and Spe of 98%. DWI showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC of 0.964, while morphological criteria displayed an AUC of 0.715. Conclusions. In a DWI negative neck for malignant lymph nodes, the planned dissection could be converted to a wait-and-scan policy, whereas DWI positive neck would support the decision to perform a neck dissection.

  11. The role of hypoxia, p53, and apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Charlotte Y.; Tsai, Mitchell H.; Osmanian, Cynthia; Calkins, Dennise P.; Graeber, Thomas G.; Greenspan, David L.; Kennedy, Andrew S.; Rinker, Lillian H.; Varia, Mahesh A.; DiPaolo, Joseph A.; Peehl, Donna M.; Raleigh, James A.; Giaccia, Amato J.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Low oxygen tension in the tumor microenvironment may have an important role during tumor growth, and is of particular prognostic significance in human cervical carcinoma. Because some human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with cervical neoplasia, the relationship between hypoxia and apoptosis in primary cervical epithelial cells containing HPV16 E6 and E7, intact HPV 16 genome, and HPV positive cervical carcinoma cell lines, was examined. In addition, the relationship between hypoxia and apoptosis in spontaneous human cervical carcinomas was determined in situ. Materials and Methods: Primary normal human cervical epithelial cells were infected with retroviral vectors containing HPV16 E6 and E7 or transfected with a plasmid containing the whole HPV 16 genome. Clones were selected in neomycin containing medium. Exponentially growing cells were incubated under aerobic conditions (20% O 2 ), anaerobic conditions (0.02% O 2 ), or irradiated with 6 Gy. Analysis of apoptotic cells was performed by staining with Hoechst dye and propidium iodide and viewing with a fluorescent microscope. To determine the level of expression of the apoptotic modulators p53 and Bax, immunoblots were performed on whole cell extracts from treated cells. A clinical tumor hypoxia study was conducted at the University of North Carolina utilizing pimonidazole, a 2-nitroimidazole compound which binds irreversibly to cellular macromolecules under low oxygen conditions. Nine patients were enrolled with biopsy proven squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and no prior treatment. Biopsies of the gross tumor were obtained after pimonidazole infusion. Contiguous histological sections were analyzed for hypoxia using a immunohistochemical technique and for apoptosis using TUNEL. Results: In vitro, hypoxia uncoupled p53 from E6 mediated degradation, and stimulated both p53 induction and apoptosis in primary cervical epithelial cells infected with the HPV E6 and E7 genes. In contrast

  12. Radiotherapy induces cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma via the ATM and Smad pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Yi; Liu, Jin-Quan; Chen, Dong-Ping; Li, Zhou-Yu; Qi, Bin; He, Lu; Yu, Yi; Yin, Wen-Jin; Wang, Meng-Yao; Lin, Ling

    2017-09-02

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant neoplasm of the head and neck which is harmful to human's health. Radiotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of NPC and it induces immediate cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. However, the mechanism remains unknown. Evidences suggested the activation of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) pathway and Smad pathway are 2 of the important crucial mediators in the function of radiotherapy. In this study, we performed in vitro assays with human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cells and in vivo assays with nude mice to investigate the role of the ATM and Smad pathways in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radiotherapy. The results suggested that radiation induced activation of ATM pathway by inducing expression of p-ATM, p-CHK1, p-CHK2, p15 and inhibiting expression of p-Smad3. In addition, Caspase3 expression was increased while CDC25A was decreased, leading to cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, activation of Smad3 can inhibited the ATM pathway and attenuated the efficacy of radiation. In summary, we suggest that both ATM and Smad pathways contribute to the cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis during nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells treated with radiation.

  13. [Glandular squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovylina, M V; Pushkar', D Iu; Zaĭrat'iants, O V; Rasner, P I

    2006-01-01

    The paper gives a clinical observation of a 52 year-old male with a rare histological urinary bladder tumor primary grandular-squamous-cell carcinoma (pT3N IM0). The tumor is represented by two components large acinic-cell adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma with keratinization, which smoothly pass one into another; the tumor has grown through all layers of the urinary bladder wall but it has failed to grow into the peritoneum. A microscopic study has indicated that the urachus is intact. Metastases were found in 3 of 8 lymph nodes: one showed high-grade adenocarcinoma and two others displayed average-grade squamous-cell carcinoma.

  14. The effectiveness of radiotherapy for Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka, Masaki; Mori, Hiromu; Monzen, Yoshio; Aikawa, Hisayuki; Miyake, Hidetoshi; Ashizawa, Akira; Okamoto, Osamu; Yoshiyama, Masako; Takayasu, Susumu

    1992-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a high-grade malignant tumor of the skin that tends to extend locally and metastasize to regional lymph nodes. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice, and the effectiveness of radiotherapy for this disease has not yet been established. We report two cases of biopsy-proven Merkel cell carcinoma effectively treated with radiotherapy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimens after radiotherapy of 50 Gy and 38 Gy, respectively, using 6∼15 MeV electrons showed no malignant cells in either case. No evidence of recurrence or metastasis has been noted in 11 to 21 months after radiotherapy. To our knowledge, no case of Merkel cell carcinoma in which complete cure was obtained by radiotherapy alone has been reported previously. It is considered that preoperative radiotherapy would contribute to the management of this locally invasive but radiosensitive tumor. (author)

  15. Culture and Characterization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenyu; Sun, Wei; Guo, Changcheng; Yan, Yang; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-07-01

    Although emerging evidence demonstrates increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with solid tumors, to our knowledge it is still unknown whether such cells can be cultured from patients with highly angiogenic renal cell carcinoma. We cultured and characterized circulating endothelial progenitor cells from patients with renal cell carcinoma. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level (percent of CD45(-)CD34(+) VEGF-R2(+) cells in total peripheral blood mononuclear cells) was quantified in 47 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 40 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then isolated from 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 30 healthy controls to culture and characterize circulating endothelial progenitor cells. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level was significantly higher in patients with renal cell carcinoma than in healthy controls (0.276% vs 0.086%, p cells first emerged significantly earlier in patient than in control preparations (6.72 vs 14.67 days, p culture success rate (87.8% vs 40.0% of participants) and the number of colonies (10.06 vs 1.83) were significantly greater for patients than for controls (each p cell level correlated positively with the number of patient colonies (r = 0.762, p Cells cultured from patients and controls showed a similar growth pattern, immunophenotype, ability to uptake Ac-LDL and bind lectin, and form capillary tubes in vitro. However, significantly more VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitor cells were found in preparations from patients with renal cell carcinoma than from healthy controls (21.1% vs 13.4%, p cell colonies, a higher cell culture success rate and more colonies were found for patients with renal cell carcinoma than for healthy controls. Results indicate the important significance of VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitors in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research

  16. Characterizing the outcomes of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connor Wells, John; Donskov, Frede; Fraccon, Anna P

    2017-01-01

    Outcomes of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) patients are poorly characterized in the era of targeted therapy. A total of 5474 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) were retrospectively analyzed. Outcomes were...... compared between clear cell (ccRCC; n = 5008) and papillary patients (n = 466), and recorded type I and type II papillary patients (n = 30 and n = 165, respectively). Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall response rate (ORR) favored ccRCC over pRCC. OS was 8 months longer...

  17. Definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Steven J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Levenback, Charles; Eifel, Patricia J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome and describe clinical treatment guidelines for patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina treated with definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1970 and 2000, a total of 193 patients were treated with definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The patients' medical records were reviewed to obtain information about patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, as well as outcome and patterns of recurrence. Surviving patients were followed for a median of 137 months. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with differences assessed using log-rank tests. Results: Disease-specific survival (DSS) and pelvic disease control rates correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and tumor size. At 5 years, DSS rates were 85% for the 50 patients with Stage I, 78% for the 97 patients with Stage II, and 58% for the 46 patients with Stage III-IVA disease (p = 0.0013). Five-year DSS rates were 82% and 60% for patients with tumors ≤4 cm or >4 cm, respectively (p = 0.0001). At 5 years, pelvic disease control rates were 86% for Stage I, 84% for Stage II, and 71% for Stage III-IVA (p = 0.027). The predominant mode of relapse after definitive radiation therapy was local-regional (68% and 83%, respectively, for patients with stages I-II or III-IVA disease). The incidence of major complications was correlated with FIGO stage; at 5 years, the rates of major complications were 4% for Stage I, 9% for Stage II, and 21% for Stage III-IVA (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes can be achieved with definitive radiation therapy for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. However, to achieve these results, treatment must be individualized according to the site and size of the tumor at presentation and the response to initial external-beam radiation therapy. Brachytherapy

  18. Human papilloma virus prevalence in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, A; Cincik, H; Baloglu, H; Cekin, E; Dogru, S; Dursun, E

    2007-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and type of human papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We analysed the prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in archived paraffin block specimens taken from 99 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 1990 and 2005, using polymerase chain reaction techniques. Biopsy specimens from five proven verrucous skin lesions were used as positive controls, and peripheral blood samples from five healthy volunteers were used as negative controls. Four test samples were found to have inadequate deoxyribonucleic acid purity and were therefore excluded from the study. Human papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid was detected in seven of 95 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (7.36 per cent). Human papilloma virus genotyping revealed double human papilloma virus infection in three cases and single human papilloma virus infection in the remaining four cases. The human papilloma virus genotypes detected were 6, 11 and 16 (the latter detected in only one case). In our series, a very low human papilloma virus prevalence was found among laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases. The human papilloma virus genotypes detected were mostly 6 and/or 11, and 16 in only one case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of human papilloma virus prevalence in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, based on polymerase chain reaction genotyping in a Turkish population.

  19. [Merkel cell carcinoma experience in a reference medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Dietlen, Federico; Devezé-Bocardi, Raúl; Ruiz-Juárez, Isabel; Grube-Pagola, Peter; Romero-Sierra, Graciela; Remes-Troche, José María; Silva-Cañetas, Carmen Sofía; Lozoya-López Escalera, Hilda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that occurs on areas exposed to ultraviolet light. It is usually asymptomatic and it is diagnosed late often. The treatment is surgical, associated with adjuvant radiotherapy. The objective was to present the experience in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma in a reference medical center. Methods: all patients with Merkel cell carcinoma treated at the Instituto de Investigaciones Médico-Biológicas of the Universidad Veracruzana during the period 2008 to 2011 were studied. Sex, age, evolution time, tumor localization, size, metastases and treatment were analyzed. Results: of 3217 patients treated, three cases were Merkel cell carcinoma (0.09 %), their age was 52.1 ± 14.17, male predominance of 66.67 %; the evolution time was of 29.66 ± 35.36 months; the tumour localization was on inguinal region, anterior chest and left arm; the noodle size was of 6.0 ± 5.19 cm; two patients had lymph node metastases. In two cases, resection and lymphadenectomy were performed. They all received radiation therapy and chemotherapy in one case. Histologically the medium variant predominated; immunohistochemistry was positive in the three cases. One patient died ten months after the study was done. Conclusions: our experience is similar with others authors, Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumor, usually diagnosed late, and it has poor survival.

  20. A rare bladder cancer - small cell carcinoma: review and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaili Nabil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB is rare, highly aggressive and diagnosed mainly at advanced stages. Hematuria is the main symptom of this malignancy. The origin of the disease is unknown; however the multipotent stem cell theory applies best to this case. Histology and immunohistochemistry shows a tumour which is indistinguishable from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC. Coexistence of SCCB with other types of carcinoma is common. The staging system used is the TNM-staging of bladder transitional cell carcinoma. The treatment is extrapolated from that of SCLC. However, many patients with SCCB undergo radical resection which is rarely performed in SCLC. Patients with surgically resectable disease ( or = cT4bN+M+ should be managed with palliative chemotherapy based on neuroendocrine type regimens comprising a platinum drug (cisplatin in fit patients. The prognosis of the disease is poor mainly in the case of pure small cell carcinoma. Other research programs are needed to improve the outcome of SCCB.

  1. The ROCK isoforms differentially regulate the morphological characteristics of carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrell, Rachel J; Leih, Mitchell J; Parekh, Aron

    2017-06-26

    Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) activity drives cell migration via actomyosin contractility. During invasion, individual cancer cells can transition between 2 modes of migration, mesenchymal and amoeboid. Changes in ROCK activity can cause a switch between these migration phenotypes which are defined by distinct morphologies. However, recent studies have shown that the ROCK isoforms are not functionally redundant as previously thought. Therefore, it is unclear whether the ROCK isoforms play different roles in regulating migration phenotypes. Here, we found that ROCK1 and ROCK2 differentially regulate carcinoma cell morphology resulting in intermediate phenotypes that share some mesenchymal and amoeboid characteristics. These findings suggest that the ROCK isoforms play unique roles in the phenotypic plasticity of mesenchymal carcinoma cells which may have therapeutic implications.

  2. Natural killer cell dysfunction in hepatocellular carcinoma and NK cell-based immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Sun, Hao-yu; Xiao, Wei-hua; Zhang, Cai; Tian, Zhi-gang

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms linking hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain largely unknown. Natural killer (NK) cells account for 25%–50% of the total number of liver lymphocytes, suggesting that NK cells play an important role in liver immunity. The number of NK cells in the blood and tumor tissues of HCC patients is positively correlated with their survival and prognosis. Furthermore, a group of NK cell-associated genes in HCC tissues is positively associated with the prolonged survival. These facts suggest that NK cells and HCC progression are strongly associated. In this review, we describe the abnormal NK cells and their functional impairment in patients with chronic HBV and HCV infection, which contribute to the progression of HCC. Then, we summarize the association of NK cells with HCC based on the abnormalities in the numbers and phenotypes of blood and liver NK cells in HCC patients. In particular, the exhaustion of NK cells that represents lower cytotoxicity and impaired cytokine production may serve as a predictor for the occurrence of HCC. Finally, we present the current achievements in NK cell immunotherapy conducted in mouse models of liver cancer and in clinical trials, highlighting how chemoimmunotherapy, NK cell transfer, gene therapy, cytokine therapy and mAb therapy improve NK cell function in HCC treatment. It is conceivable that NK cell-based anti-HCC therapeutic strategies alone or in combination with other therapies will be great promise for HCC treatment. PMID:26073325

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flikweert, Elvira R.; Hofstee, Mans; Liem, Mike S. L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Squamous cells are normally not found inside the breast, so a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is an exceptional phenomenon. There is a possible explanation for these findings. Case presentation: A 72-year-old woman presented with a breast abnormality suspected for breast

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vishwanath

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC arising in a mature cystic teratoma (MCT are being discussed for their rarity and pattern of infiltration of tumor cells in the stroma (alpha mode, beta mode and gamma mode, which is a key factor in deciding the prognosis and patient survival.

  5. Basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) in children and teenagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbari, H.; Mehregan, A.H.

    1982-01-15

    Among over 390,000 routine dermatopathologic specimens there were 85 cases diagnosed as basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) (BCE) in persons 19 years old or younger. This number was refined to 40 cases de novo BCE in children and teenagers. Basal cell epithelioma unrelated to other conditions is rare in the young and it should be differentiated from similar fibroepithelial growths.

  6. Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig Castillejo, Anna; Membrive Conejo, Ismael; Foro Arnalot, Palmira; Rodríguez de Dios, Nuria; Algara López, Manuel

    2010-07-01

    Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCC) is a rare disease that mixes clinical and biological characteristics of both cervical neoplasms and neuroendocrine small cell cancer. The prognosis is poor and the optimal treatment has not yet been clarified. Multimodality treatment, with surgery and concurrent chemoradiation has recently been shown to improve local control and survival rates.

  7. Survivin is a therapeutic target in Merkel cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arora, Reety; Shuda, Masahiro; Guastafierro, Anna; Feng, Huichen; Toptan, Tuna; Tolstov, Yanis; Normolle, Daniel; Vollmer, Laura L; Vogt, Andreas; Dömling, Alexander; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick S

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) causes ~80% of primary and metastatic Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs). By comparing digital transcriptome subtraction deep-sequencing profiles, we found that transcripts of the cellular survivin oncoprotein [BIRC5a (baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing

  8. Tropomyosin Receptor Kinase A Expression on Merkel Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehkamp, Ulrike; Stern, Sophie; Krüger, Sandra; Hauschild, Axel; Röcken, Christoph; Egberts, Friederike

    2017-11-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a malignant neuroendocrine skin tumor frequently associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus. Immune checkpoint therapy showed remarkable results, although not all patients are responsive to this therapy. Anti-tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA)-targeted treatment has shown promising results in several tumor entities. To determine TrkA expression in MCC as a rationale for potential targeted therapy. This case series study investigated the MCC specimens of 55 patients treated at the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany, from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2015. Thirty-nine of the 55 samples were suitable for further histopathologic examination. Expression of TrkA was explored by immunohistochemical analysis. Diagnosis of MCC was confirmed by staining positive for cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and synaptophysin. Expression of TrkA on the tumor cells. Specimens of 39 patients (21 women and 18 men; mean [SD] age, 75.0 [7.8] years) underwent immunohistochemical investigation. Thirty-eight of 38 specimens expressed CK20 and synaptophysin on the MCC tumor cells (100% expression). Merkel cell polyomavirus was detected in 32 of 38 specimens (84%). Tropomyosin receptor kinase A was found in all 36 evaluable specimens on the tumor cells; 34 (94%) showed a weak and 2 (6%) showed a strong cytoplasmic expression. In addition, strongly positive perinuclear dots were observed in 30 of 36 specimens (83%). Tropomyosin receptor kinase A was expressed on MCC tumor cells in 100% of evaluable specimens. This result may lead to the exploration of new targeted treatment options in MCC, especially for patients who do not respond to anti-programmed cell death protein 1 treatment.

  9. CD47 is a Potential Target for the Treatment of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunPing Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study aims to investigate the effect of CD47 on the development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC and the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibody against CD47 and its ligand SIRPα in the treatment of LSCC. Methods: We firstly detected the expressions of CD47 mRNA and protein in LSCC and para-carcinoma tissues, introduced the most efficient CD47siRNA sequence into LSCC cells by lentiviral transfection and employed three monoclonal antibodies to evaluate their anti-LSCC effects in vitro and in vivo. Results: We observed that the mRNA and protein expressions of CD47 in LSCC tissue had significant increase in LSCC tissues compared with those in para-carcinoma tissue (p Conclusion: The results suggested a critical role of CD47 in LSCC development and the promising treatment of antiCD47/SIRPα and/or CD47siRNA in LSCC.

  10. Metastatic ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma: description of a case and search for actionable targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilien J. Rappaport

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC is an exceedingly rare malignant tumor on the spectrum of already uncommon odontogenic or dentinogenic tumors. We describe here the case of metastatic GCOC in a patient with a history of recurrent dentinogenic ghost cell tumor of the mandible, now presenting with bilateral pleural effusions. We will discuss typical histopathologic and histochemical features of GCOC, along with results of genomic testing and their role in directing therapy.

  11. High endothelin-converting enzyme-1 expression independently predicts poor survival of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Fang; Lee, Ching-Tai; Kuo, Yao-Hung; Chen, Tzu-Haw; Chang, Chi-Yang; Chang, I-Wei; Wang, Wen-Lun

    2017-09-01

    Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma have poor survival and high recurrence rate, thus an effective prognostic biomarker is needed. Endothelin-converting enzyme-1 is responsible for biosynthesis of endothelin-1, which promotes growth and invasion of human cancers. The role of endothelin-converting enzyme-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is still unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the significance of endothelin-converting enzyme-1 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma clinically. We enrolled patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who provided pretreated tumor tissues. Tumor endothelin-converting enzyme-1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and was defined as either low or high expression. Then we evaluated whether tumor endothelin-converting enzyme-1 expression had any association with clinicopathological findings or predicted survival of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Overall, 54 of 99 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma had high tumor endothelin-converting enzyme-1 expression, which was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis ( p = 0.04). In addition, tumor endothelin-converting enzyme-1 expression independently predicted survival of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and the 5-year survival was poorer in patients with high tumor endothelin-converting enzyme-1 expression ( p = 0.016). Among patients with locally advanced and potentially resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (stage II and III), 5-year survival was poorer with high tumor endothelin-converting enzyme-1 expression ( p = 0.003). High tumor endothelin-converting enzyme-1 expression also significantly predicted poorer survival of patients in this population. In patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, high tumor endothelin-converting enzyme-1 expression might indicate high tumor invasive property. Therefore, tumor endothelin-converting enzyme-1 expression

  12. Verrucoid Variant of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Clinicopathological Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Priya; Krithika, C; Ananthalakshmi, R; Singaram, Mamta; Jagdish, Praveena; Janardhanan, Sunitha; Jeevakarunyam, Sathiyajeeva

    2016-11-04

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is an exophytic, low-grade, well-differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is described as a lesion appearing in the sixth or seventh decade of life that has minimal aggressive potential and, in long-standing cases, has been shown to transform into squamous cell carcinoma. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder, and about one-third of the affected population develop oral squamous cell carcinoma. The histopathological diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma is challenging, and the interpretation of early squamous cell carcinoma requires immense experience. Here we present a rare case of a 24-year-old male with OSMF transforming to verrucous carcinoma with invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Even though the case had a straightforward clinical diagnosis, the serial sectioning done for pathological diagnosis disclosed the squamous cell carcinoma.

  13. GLI1 is involved in cell cycle regulation and proliferation of NT2 embryonal carcinoma stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Janni; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Pedersen, Mikkel W.

    2008-01-01

    of altered HH signaling are interpreted by specific cell types. We have investigated the role of the HH transcription factor glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) in the human Ntera2=D1 (NT2) embryonal carcinoma stem cell line. The study revealed that expression of GLI1 and its direct transcriptional......1 phase cyclins. In conclusion, our results suggest that GLI1 is involved in cell cycle and proliferation control in the embryonal carcinoma stem cell line NT2....... target Patched (PTCH) is downregulated in the early stages of retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation of NT2 cells. To identify transcriptional targets of the HH transcription factor GLI1 in NT2 cells, we performed global expression profiling following GLI1 RNA interference (RNAi). Of the similar...

  14. Identification of genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Ping; Zhang Zhiyuan; Zhou Xiaojian; Qiu Weiliu; Chen Fangan; Chen Wantao

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Cisplatin is widely used for chemotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, details of the molecular mechanism responsible for cisplatin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of genes related to cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Methods A cisplatin-resistant cell line, Tca/cisplatin, was established from a cisplatin-sensitive cell line, Tca8113, which was derived from moderately-differe...

  15. Functional significance of erythropoietin in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Christudas; Johnson, David W; Vesey, David A; Gobe, Glenda C

    2013-01-01

    One of the molecules regulated by the transcription factor, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), is the hypoxia-responsive hematopoietic factor, erythropoietin (EPO). This may have relevance to the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), where mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene are major risk factors for the development of familial and sporadic RCC. VHL mutations up-regulate and stabilize HIF, which in turn activates many downstream molecules, including EPO, that are known to promote angiogenesis, drug resistance, proliferation and progression of solid tumours. HIFs typically respond to hypoxic cellular environment. While the hypoxic microenvironment plays a critical role in the development and progression of tumours in general, it is of special significance in the case of RCC because of the link between VHL, HIF and EPO. EPO and its receptor, EPOR, are expressed in many cancers, including RCC. This limits the use of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) to treat anaemia in cancer patients, because the rhEPO may be stimulatory to the cancer. EPO may also stimulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in RCC, and pathological EMT has a key role in cancer progression. In this mini review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role of EPO in RCC. The available data, either for or against the use of EPO in RCC patients, are equivocal and insufficient to draw a definitive conclusion

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma complicating an hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mseddi, M.; Turki, H.; Marrekchi, S.; Abdelmaksoud, W.; Masmoudi, A.; Bouassida, S.; Zahaf, A.

    2004-01-01

    The dystrophic form of hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa is associated with an increased frequency of squamous cell carcinoma. We report a new case. An 18-year-old patient, carrying a Hallopeau Siemens hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa, presented a subcutaneous nodular lesion, for 1 year that ulcerated and budded with inguinal lymphadenopathy. The histological study ted to the conclusion of a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was treated surgically. Tumor and metastatic lymph nodes were excised. A radiotherapy was decided but the postoperative course was fatal due to an infection and to a deterioration of her general condition. Squamous cell carcinoma frequently occurs on the cicatricial lesion of hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa and usually affects males with recessive hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa. Metastases are frequent, precocious and multiple. The treatment may be surgical. The particularities of our observation are the young age of patient and the localization. (author)

  17. Radiographic findings of oat cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y. H.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, S. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Growth of oat cell carcinoma tends to be invasive and extends rapidly through the bronchial lymphatics to the hilus and mediastinum, where bulky mass of tumor develop. Authors have analysed roentgenologic manifestations of 22 cases of histologically proven oat cell carcinoma of the lung seen during the period of 3 years from Jan, 1980 to May. 1983. The results 18 males and 4 females. Incidence was the most common in 7th decade as 45%. 2. Chief complaints are cough, sputum and dyspnea. Metastatic symptoms are hoarseness, SVC syndrome and back pain. 3. The radiographic findings of oat cell carcinoma were as follows. 1) hilar and perihilar mass 73% 2) Mediastinal mass 64% 3) Bronchial obstruction sign 55% 4) Peripheral mass 18% 5) Pleural effusion 18%

  18. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (BCNS is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder. Multiple organ systems may be affected in this syndrome including abnormalities of the skin, skeletal system, genitourinary system and central nevus system. In this report, we present a case of Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome in a 26-year-old male patient. The patient had multiple odontogenic keratocyst in the posterior of mandible, syndactyly in both hand and bifid rib. After enucleation and curettage, he was followed for two years. A number of both clinical and radiological criteria are used to diagnose this syndrome. Basal cell carcinoma syndrome is diagnosed with two major criteria or one major and two minor criteria. We must suspect this disorder in young patients with multiple odontogenic keratocyst and dental abnormalities whether related or not with other clinical manifestations or familial history.

  19. Avelumab for the treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, L M; Gulley, J L

    2017-07-01

    Avelumab is a promising new therapeutic agent for patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare and aggressive type of neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. Until the recent approval of avelumab (Bavencio), no therapies were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. In a recent trial, avelumab, an anti-programmed death ligand-1 antibody, demonstrated an objective response in 28 of 88 patients (31.8% [95.9% CI, 21.9-43.1]) with advanced, chemotherapy-refractory Merkel cell carcinoma. Overall, avelumab was well tolerated at a dose of 10 mg/kg administered intravenously every 2 weeks. Serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in 5 patients (6%), but no grade 4 adverse events or treatment-related deaths were reported. Preliminary data evaluating avelumab in chemotherapy-naive patients is also encouraging. Copyright 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

  20. SPECT/CT in gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, R.; Hadzhiyska, V.; Petrov, T.

    2015-01-01

    Gingival squamous cell carcinoma have a relatively poor prognosis and large differential diagnosis (periodontitis, osteomyelitis, etc.), therefore, it is usually diagnosed at a late stage. Hematogenous dissemination occurs in only about 10% of cases, including lung (66%), bone (22%), liver (10%), skin, bone marrow and mediastinum. Bone metastases are very rare compared to other malignancies, most commonly affect the axial skeleton (spine, pelvis, ribs and lumbar spine). In our case, we presented a patient with gingival squamous cell carcinoma and bone metastasis in the forearm detected with Whole Body Bone Scintigraphy (WBS), combined with Single Photon Emission Tomography /Computed Tomography (SPECT /CT). The obtained data suggest that the single use of WBS was not informative enough for making the final diagnosis, but the result of combined functional-morphological approach was the most pathognomonic. Thus, with single study can be obtained a complex information, which leads to a fast therapeutic decision. Key words: SPECT/CT. GINGiVAL. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

  1. A Case of Nonhealing Leg Ulcer: Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old woman was admitted to our outpatient clinic with a three-year history of a painless, nonhealing ulcer located on the left lower leg. She had no response to previous therapy with local wound care. Skin examination revealed an ulcer 2.7 x 3.7 cm in size, and the surrounding skin showed minimal erythema. The surface of the ulcer demonstrated shiny granulation tissue. Biopsy of the ulcer edge and base showed basal cell carcinoma. Venous Doppler ultrasonography and dermatological examination did not reveal chronic venous insufficiency. Basal cell carcinomas rarely arise from previous long-term ulcers or developing de novo. We suggest that patients who develop non-healing leg ulcers, should be examined for basal cell carcinoma.

  2. Focus on Merkel cell carcinoma: diagnosis and staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandhaye, Marion; Teixeira, Pedro Gondim; Blum, Alain; Henrot, Philippe; Morel, Olivier; Sirveaux, Francois; Verhaeghe, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare lymphophilic skin tumor of neuroendocrine origin with the potential for rapid progression. Small, localized lesions are diagnosed and treated clinically, but advanced tumors often undergo imaging evaluation. Due to its rarity, radiologists are unaware of evocative imaging features and usually do not consider Merkel cell carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. Appropriate staging is important to determine appropriate treatment and has an impact on patient prognosis. Multimodality imaging is usually needed, and there is no consensus on the optimal imaging strategy. The purpose of this article is to review various aspects of Merkel cell carcinoma imaging and look in detail at how optimal multimodality staging should be carried out. (orig.)

  3. Focus on Merkel cell carcinoma: diagnosis and staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandhaye, Marion; Teixeira, Pedro Gondim; Blum, Alain [Imagerie Guilloz CHU de Nancy Hopital Central, Nancy (France); Henrot, Philippe [Service de Radiologie Institut de Cancerologie de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Morel, Olivier [Medecine Nucleaire CHU Nancy Hopital Brabois, Vancoeuvre les Nancy (France); Sirveaux, Francois [Service de Chirurgie Centre chirurgical Emile Galle, Nancy (France); Verhaeghe, Jean-Luc [Service de Chirurgie Institut de Cancerologie de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2015-06-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare lymphophilic skin tumor of neuroendocrine origin with the potential for rapid progression. Small, localized lesions are diagnosed and treated clinically, but advanced tumors often undergo imaging evaluation. Due to its rarity, radiologists are unaware of evocative imaging features and usually do not consider Merkel cell carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. Appropriate staging is important to determine appropriate treatment and has an impact on patient prognosis. Multimodality imaging is usually needed, and there is no consensus on the optimal imaging strategy. The purpose of this article is to review various aspects of Merkel cell carcinoma imaging and look in detail at how optimal multimodality staging should be carried out. (orig.)

  4. Correlation of hedgehog signal activation with chemoradiotherapy sensitivity and survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Weiguo; You Zhenbin; Li Tao; Yu Changhua; Tao Guangzhou; Hu Mingli; Chen Xiaofei

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of hedgehog signaling pathway in chemoradiotherapy sensitivity and its effect on the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In the present study, we used the method of immunohistochemistry to examine the expression status of two hedgehog components, PTCH1 and glioma-associated oncogene GLI-1, in 100 pre-treated biopsy specimens of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. We find that high levels of PTCH1 and GLI-1 were detected in 76.0 and 72.0% of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. Significant associations of high PTCH1 and GLI-1 expression with large tumor size (both P=0.01), locoregional progression (P=0.001 and 0.003, respectively) and the lack of complete response to chemoradiotherapy (P=0.008 and 0.01, respectively) were observed. Univariate analysis revealed that high PTCH1 and GLI-1 expression was associated with poor locoregional progression-free survival, distant progression-free survival and overall survival. Furthermore, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients with high PTCH1 and GLI-1 expression have the shorter survival time than the subgroups with negative and low PTCH1 and GLI-1 expression. In multivariate analysis, PTCH1 and GLI-1 expression status were both evaluated as independent prognostic factors for locoregional progression-free survival, distant progression-free survival and overall survival. These findings suggest an important role for the activation of hedgehog signaling in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma progression and that PTCH1 and GLI-1 expression may be significantly associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma resistance to chemoradiotherapy. (author)

  5. PDT-induced apoptosis in bladder carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachor, Ruediger; Reich, Ella D.; Kleinschmidt, Klaus; Repassy, Denes; Hautmann, Richard E.

    1999-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a highly efficient inducer of apoptosis in EY-28 bladder carcinoma cells, resulting in extensive DNA fragmentation. Bladder carcinoma cells EY-28 (Tumorbank Heidelberg, Germany) were incubated for 1 h with 1 (mu) g AamTPPn/ml or 2 (mu) g AamTPPn/ml. After incubation cells were refed with complete medium and irradiated with 0.75 J/cm2. To identify apoptotic cells, a in situ cell death detection kit POD (Boehringer Mannheim, Germany) was used. The chromatin condensation characteristic to apoptotic cells was detected by transmission electron microscopy. Using 1 (mu) g AamTPPn/ml and 2 (mu) g AamTPPn/ml (9-Acetamido-2,7,12,17- tetra-n-Porpylporphycene), respectively, and irradiation at 0.75 J/cm2, a percentage of 36.9% and 54.7%, respectively, of apoptotic cells was detected.

  6. Sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma: how much can we rely on dermatoscopy to differentiate from non-aggressive basal cell carcinomas? Analysis of 1256 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husein-ElAhmed, Husein

    2018-03-01

    The behaviour of each basal cell carcinoma is known to be different according to the histological growth pattern. Among these aggressive lesions, sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas are the most common type. This is a challenging-to-treat lesion due to its deep tissue invasion, rapid growth, risk of metastasis and overall poor prognosis if not diagnosed in early stages. To investigate if sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas are diagnosed later compared to non-sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma Method: All lesions excised from 2000 to 2010 were included. A pathologist classified the lesions in two cohorts: one with specimens of non-aggressive basal cell carcinoma (superficial, nodular and pigmented), and other with sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma. For each lesion, we collected patient's information from digital medical records regarding: gender, age when first attending the clinic and the tumor location. 1256 lesions were included, out of which 296 (23.6%) corresponded to sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma, whereas 960 (76.4%) were non-aggressive subtypes of basal cell carcinoma. The age of diagnosis was: 72.78±12.31 years for sclerodermiform basal cell and 69.26±13.87 years for non-aggressive basal cell carcinoma (Pbasal cell carcinomas are diagnosed on average 3.52 years later than non-aggressive basal cell carcinomas. Sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas were diagnosed 3.40 years and 2.34 years later than non-aggressive basal cell carcinomas in younger and older patients respectively (P=.002 and P=.03, respectively). retrospective design. The diagnostic accuracy and primary clinic conjecture of sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas is quite low compared to other forms of basal cell carcinoma such as nodular, superficial and pigmented. The dermoscopic vascular patterns, which is the basis for the diagnosis of non-melanocytic nonpigmented skin tumors, may not be particularly useful in identifying sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas in early stages

  7. Detection of the E7 transform gene of human papilloma virus type 16 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Li, J; Huang, H; Fu, Y

    1998-12-01

    To determine, with the use of polymerase chain reaction, the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 in 30 patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 30 healthy control patients. DNA was extracted from freshly frozen tumor tissues of 30 patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma and from the oral mucosa of 30 controls. A pair of specific primers of the E7 early gene of HPV 16 were designed. PCR products were run by 1.5% agarose gel and the results of electrophoresis were photographed. HPV 16 was detected in 36.7% (11/30) of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients and 11.1% (4/30) of controls. HPV 16 has a significant association with oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the role HPV 16 plays in the tumorigenesis of oral cancer and its clinical significance remain to be investigated.

  8. Surgical management for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Shelley, Mike; Coles, Bernadette; Biyani, Chandra S; El-Mokadem, Ismail; Nabi, Ghulam

    2011-04-13

    Upper tract transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) are uncommon and aggressive tumours. There are a number of surgical approaches to manage this condition including open radical nephroureterectomy and laparoscopic procedures. To determine the best surgical management option for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. A sensitive search strategy was developed to identify relevant studies for inclusion in this review. The following databases were searched for randomised trials evaluating surgical approaches to the management of upper tract TCC: Medline EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CINAHL, British Nursing Index, AMED, LILACS, Web of Science®, Scopus, Biosis, TRIP, Biomed Central, Dissertation Abstracts, and ISI Proceedings. The following criteria that were considered for this review.Types of studies - All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the various surgical methods and approaches for the management of localised upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. Types of participants - All adult patients with localised transitional cell carcinoma. Localised disease was defined as limited to the kidney or ureter with no gross regional lymph nodal enlargement on imaging. Types of interventions - Any surgical method or approach for managing localised upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. Types of outcome measures - Overall and cancer-specific survival were primary outcomes. Surgery-related morbidity. Quality of life and health economics outcomes were secondary outcomes. Two review authors examined the search results independently to identify trials for inclusion. We identified one randomised controlled trial that met our inclusion criteria. The trial showed that the laparoscopic approach had superior peri-operative outcomes compared to open approach. Laparoscopic was superior and statistically significant for blood loss (104 mL (millilitres) versus 430 mL, P management of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma

  9. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasal Vestibule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsmans, J D; Godballe, C; Jørgensen, K E

    1999-01-01

    From 1978 to 1992, 66 patients (32 women and 34 men) were treated for carcinoma of the nasal vestibule at Odense University Hospital. The treatment was radiotherapy (41 patients), surgery (13 patients) or a combination of the two modalities (12 patients). Twenty-one patients (32%) developed...

  10. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Boisen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin.

  11. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajanikanth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS or Gorlin - Goltz syndrome is an autosomal disorder principally characterized by cutaneous basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies. The major organ systems involved are skin, bones, central nervous system, eyes, gonads and endocrine. This particular syndrome is extensively described in the literature under different names. However, there are only few cases reported in the Indian literature. An unusual case of a 33-year old male with large odontogenic keratocyst involving impacted canine in the mandible, along with multiple cysts and impacted teeth in the maxilla; bifid rib and vertebral anomalies has been described.

  12. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to Jejunum: An Unusual Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Medic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The small intestine is a very uncommon and peculiar site for metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC. We present a clinical presentation of insidious and unusual development of a jejunal metastasis while having stable disease in a remainder of metastatic sites, in a patient undergoing immunotherapy with nivolumab. Due to the extreme rarity of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the lumen of the small bowel, it is easy to overlook and misdiagnose symptoms of this pathologic entity, particularly when the remainder of metastatic disease responds well to ongoing therapy.

  13. Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the tibia radiologically mimicking osteosarcoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cunningham, Laurence Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 73-year-old lady with transitional cell carcinoma and no evidence of metastatic disease presenting with gradual weight loss, pretibial swelling and painful weightbearing. Investigations revealed a lesion of the right tibial diaphysis. The radiological and clinical appearance was that of primary osteosarcoma. Biopsy results revealed metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the tibia. Intramedullary nailing was performed which relieved pain on weightbearing. The patient declined radiotherapy and was started on a palliative care regimen. This case illustrates the importance of histological diagnosis in the treatment of diaphyseal lesions.

  14. Isolated pancreatic metastases from a bronchogenic small cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walshe, T

    2012-01-31

    We describe the case of a 60 year old female smoker who presented with a three month history of weight loss (14 Kg), generalized abdominal discomfort and malaise. Chest radiography demonstrated a mass projected inferior to the hilum of the right lung. Computed Tomography of thorax confirmed a lobulated lesion in the right infrahilar region and subsequent staging abdominal CT demonstrated a low density lesion in the neck of the pancreas. Percutaneous Ultrasound guided pancreatic biopsy was performed, histology of which demonstrated pancreatic tissue containing a highly necrotic small cell undifferentiated carcinoma consistent with metastatic small cell carcinoma of the bronchus.

  15. Percutaneous and laparoscopic assisted cryoablation of small renal cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Østraat, Øyvind; Borre, Michael

    Aim: To evaluate the complication rate and short term oncological outcome of small renal cell carcinomas treated with cryoablation. Materials and methods: 91 biopsy verified renal cell carcinomas were cryoablated between 2006-11. Patients treated had primarily T1a tumors, but exceptions were made...... Medical® was used. Treatment was considered successful when tumors gradually shrunk and showed no sign of contrast enhancement, assessed by CT or MRI. Results: Mean patient age and tumor size was 65 yr [17 - 83] and 26 mm [10 - 62], respectively [min-max]. Treatment modalities consisted of percutaneous...

  16. Unexpected Anal Squamous Cells Carcinoma after Open Hemorrhoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarra Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of unexpected anal squamous cells carcinoma found in hemorrhoidectomy specimen. The patient had a 3-year history of prolapsing hemorrhoids. A prolapsing hemorrhoid was present at eleven o’clock in lithotomy. Milligan-Morgan was performed and gross examination of the specimen was unremarkable. Histopathologic evaluation showed noninvasive squamous cells carcinoma. The present case report evidences the opportunity of routine histopathologic analysis of hemorrhoidal specimens particularly in case of long-standing prolapse. Questions arise in the option of those techniques where no specimens are collected or tissue is excised far from deceased area.

  17. Renal cell carcinoma in patient with crossed fused renal ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Cakmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal cell carcinomas have rarely been reported in patients with crossed fused renal ectopia. We presented a patient with right to left crossed fused kidney harbouring renal tumor. The most frequent tumor encountered in crossed fused renal ectopia is renal cell carcinoma. In this case, partial nephrectomy was performed which pave way to preservation of the uninvolved both renal units. Due to unpredictable anatomy, careful preoperative planning and meticulous delineation of renal vasculature is essential for preservation of the uninvolved renal units.

  18. Review and analysis of management guidelines of basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Nunez, Hernan

    2013-01-01

    International guidelines for management of basal cell carcinoma are reviewed and analyzed for decision-making in the appropriate therapeutic behavior for patients. The different therapies for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma are described. Different therapies are evaluated according to the risk (low or high) of recurrence to determine the appropriate treatment. According to the evidence, low-risk tumors have responded to topical therapy, curettage and electrodesiccation, cryotherapy or simple resection, and high-risk tumors are managed with surgery, radiotherapy or Mohs' micrographic surgery [es

  19. EGCG-targeted p57/KIP2 reduces tumorigenicity of oral carcinoma cells: Role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Digumarthi, Hari; Aranbayeva, Zina; Wataha, John; Lewis, Jill; Messer, Regina; Qin, Haiyan; Dickinson, Douglas; Osaki, Tokio; Schuster, George S.; Hsu, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) regulates gene expression differentially in tumor and normal cells. In normal human primary epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), one of the key mediators of EGCG action is p57/KIP2, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor. EGCG potently induces p57 in NHEK, but not in epithelial cancer cells. In humans, reduced expression of p57 often is associated with advanced tumors, and tumor cells with inactivated p57 undergo apoptosis when exposed to EGCG. The mechanism of p57 induction by EGCG is not well understood. Here, we show that in NHEK, EGCG-induces p57 via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. In p57-negative tumor cells, JNK signaling mediates EGCG-induced apoptosis, and exogenous expression of p57 suppresses EGCG-induced apoptosis via inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). We also found that restoration of p57 expression in tumor cells significantly reduced tumorigenicity in athymic mice. These results suggest that p57 expression may be an useful indicator for the clinical course of cancers, and could be potentially useful as a target for cancer therapies

  20. Discoidin domain receptor 1: New star in cancer-targeted therapy and its complex role in breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Zheng, Junnian

    2018-03-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase activated by various types of collagens that performs a critical role in cell attachment, migration, survival and proliferation. The functions of DDR1 in various types of tumor have been studied extensively. However, in breast carcinoma, the roles of collagen-evoked DDR1 remain ill defined. Although a number of studies have reported that DDR1 promotes apoptosis and inhibits migration in breast carcinoma, it has also been reported to be associated with tumor cell survival, chemoresistance to genotoxic drugs and the facilitation of invasion. The present review summarizes current progress and the complex effects of DDR1 in the field of breast carcinoma, and presents DDR1 as a promising therapeutic target.

  1. Nuclear localization of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Sato, Yuko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ito, Hideki; Shimonohara, Nozomi; Tsuji, Takahiro; Nakajima, Noriko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Matsuo, Koma; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Katano, Harutaka

    2010-01-01

    To clarify whether mutations in the large T gene encoded by Merkel cell polyomavirus affect the expression and function of large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma cases, we investigated the expression of large T antigen in vitro and in vivo. Immun