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Sample records for carcinoma cells down-regulation

  1. Slug down-regulation by RNA interference inhibits invasion growth in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shaoyan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is one of the most aggressive carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. We assessed the relevance of Slug in measuring the invasive potential of ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo in immunodeficient mice. Methods We utilized RNA interference to knockdown Slug gene expression, and effects on survival and invasive carcinoma were evaluated using a Boyden chamber transwell assay in vitro. We evaluated the effect of Slug siRNA-transfection and Slug cDNA-transfection on E-cadherin and Bcl-2 expression in ESCC cells. A pseudometastatic model of ESCC in immunodeficient mice was used to assess the effects of Slug siRNA transfection on tumor metastasis development. Results The EC109 cell line was transfected with Slug-siRNA to knockdown Slug expression. The TE13 cell line was transfected with Slug-cDNA to increase Slug expression. EC109 and TE13 cell lines were tested for the expression of apoptosis-related genes bcl-2 and metastasis-related gene E-cadherin identified previously as Slug targets. Bcl-2 expression was increased and E-cadherin was decreased in Slug siRNA-transfected EC109 cells. Bcl-2 expression was increased and E-cadherin was decreased in Slug cDNA-transfected TE13 cells. Invasion of Slug siRNA-transfected EC109 cells was reduced and apoptosis was increased whereas invasion was greater in Slug cDNA-transfected cells. Animals injected with Slug siRNA-transfected EC109 cells exhihited fewer seeded nodes and demonstrated more apoptosis. Conclusions Slug down-regulation promotes cell apoptosis and decreases invasion capability in vitro and in vivo. Slug inhibition may represent a novel strategy for treatment of metastatic ESCC.

  2. Piperlongumine and its analogs down-regulate expression of c-Met in renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Golovine, Konstantin; Makhov, Peter; Naito, Sei; Raiyani, Henish; Tomaszewski, Jeffrey; Mehrazin, Reza; Tulin, Alexei; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert G.; Kolenko, Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    The c-Met protein, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is the product of a proto-oncogene. Its only known ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), regulates cell growth, motility, migration, invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis. The aberrant expression of c-Met is often associated with poor prognosis in multiple cancers, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Silencing or inactivation of c-Met leads to decreased viability of cancer cells, thereby making ablation of c-Met signaling an...

  3. Piperlongumine and its analogs down-regulate expression of c-Met in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovine, Konstantin; Makhov, Peter; Naito, Sei; Raiyani, Henish; Tomaszewski, Jeffrey; Mehrazin, Reza; Tulin, Alexei; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert G; Kolenko, Vladimir M

    2015-01-01

    The c-Met protein, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is the product of a proto-oncogene. Its only known ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), regulates cell growth, motility, migration, invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis. The aberrant expression of c-Met is often associated with poor prognosis in multiple cancers, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Silencing or inactivation of c-Met leads to decreased viability of cancer cells, thereby making ablation of c-Met signaling an attractive concept for developing novel strategies for the treatment of renal tumors. Naturally-occurring products or substances are the most consistent source of drug development. As such, we investigated the functional impact of piperlongumine (PL), a naturally occurring alkaloid present in the Long pepper (Piper longum) on c-Met expression in RCC cells and demonstrated that PL and its analogs rapidly reduce c-Met protein and RNA levels in RCC cells via ROS-dependent mechanism. PL-mediated c-Met depletion coincided with the inhibition of downstream c-Met signaling; namely Erk/MAPK, STAT3, NF-κB and Akt/mTOR. As such, PL and PL analogs hold promise as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of metastatic RCC and the prevention of postoperative RCC recurrence. PMID:25801713

  4. Melittin induces PTCH1 expression by down-regulating MeCP2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Bin; Cheng, Yahui; Yang, Yang; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Wu, Baoming; Zhang, Lei; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high mortality rate worldwide and still remains to be a noticeable public health problem. Therefore, new remedies are urgently needed. Melittin, a major component of bee venom, is known to suppress cell growth in various cancers including HCC. However, the mechanism of the anticancer effect of melittin on HCC has not been fully elucidated. It has been reported that Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) plays a key role in tumor proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. In the present study, we found the high expression of MeCP2 in human HCC tissues and in the SMMC-7721 cell line. MeCP2 silencing inhibited cell proliferation, while over-expression of MeCP2 promoted cell growth in SMMC-7721 cells. It indicates that MeCP2 may be an attractive target for human HCC. We further found that melittin could inhibit cell proliferation by reducing MeCP2 expression in vitro. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melittin on cell proliferation was due to a delay in G0/G1 cell cycle progression, without influencing cell apoptosis. Next, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms and found that MeCP2 could modulate Shh signaling in SMMC-7721 cells. Further study indicates that melittin may induce the demethylation of PTCH1 promoter, resulting in the increased expression of PTCH1. Furthermore, the expression of Shh and GLI1 was significantly lowered upon treatment of melittin. These results suggest that melittin can block Shh signaling in vitro. In short, these results indicate that melittin inhibits cell proliferation by down-regulating MeCP2 through Shh signaling in SMMC-7721 cells. PMID:26189965

  5. miR-24 functions as a tumor suppressor in Hep2 laryngeal carcinoma cells partly through down-regulation of the S100A8 protein

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    Guo, Yan; FU, WEINENG; Chen, Hong; Shang, Chao; Zhong, Ming

    2011-01-01

    microRNAs, a family of small non-coding RNAs, regulating approximately 30% of all human genes are deeply involved in the pathogenesis of several types of cancers, including laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Here, we demonstrate that miR-24 is down-regulated in human LSCC tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-24 in Hep2 cells significantly induced cell morphology changes and inhibited cell proliferation and invasion ability in vitro by targeting S100A8 at the translational level. Meanwhil...

  6. Long Non-Coding RNA HOTAIR Promotes Cell Migration and Invasion via Down-Regulation of RNA Binding Motif Protein 38 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

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    Chaofeng Ding

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR exerts regulatory functions in various biological processes in cancer cells, such as proliferation, apoptosis, mobility, and invasion. We previously found that HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR is a negative prognostic factor and exhibits oncogenic activity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role and molecular mechanism of HOTAIR in promoting HCC cell migration and invasion. Firstly, we profiled its gene expression pattern by microarray analysis of HOTAIR loss in Bel-7402 HCC cell line. The results showed that 129 genes were significantly down-regulated, while 167 genes were significantly up-regulated (fold change >2, p < 0.05. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that RNA binding proteins were involved in this biological process. HOTAIR suppression using RNAi strategy with HepG2 and Bel-7402 cells increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of RNA binding motif protein 38 (RBM38. Moreover, the expression levels of RBM38 in HCC specimens were significantly lower than paired adjacent noncancerous tissues. In addition, knockdown of HOTAIR resulted in a decrease of cell migration and invasion, which could be specifically rescued by down-regulation of RBM38. Taken together, HOTAIR could promote migration and invasion of HCC cells by inhibiting RBM38, which indicated critical roles of HOTAIR and RBM38 in HCC progression.

  7. Promoter hypermethylation-induced transcriptional down-regulation of the gene MYCT1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MYCT1, previously named MTLC, is a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene. MYCT1 was cloned from laryngeal squamous cell cancer (LSCC) and has been found to be down-regulated in LSCC; however, the regulatory details have not been fully elucidated. Here, we sought to investigate the methylation status of the CpG islands of MYCT1 and mRNA levels by bisulfite-specific PCR (BSP) based on sequencing restriction enzyme digestion, reverse transcription and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). The function of specific sites in the proximal promoter of MYCT1 in LSCC was measured by transient transfection, luciferase assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). The results suggested hypermethylation of 12 CpG sites of the promoter in both laryngeal cancer tissues and the laryngeal cancer line Hep-2 cell. The hypermethylation of the site CGCG (−695 to −692), which has been identified as the c-Myc binding site, was identified in laryngeal cancer tissues (59/73) compared to paired mucosa (13/73); in addition, statistical analysis revealed that the methylation status of this site significantly correlated with cancer cell differentiation(p < 0.01). The mRNA level of MYCT1 increased in Hep-2 cells treated with 5-aza-C (p < 0.01). The luciferase activity from mutant transfectants pGL3-MYCT1m (−852/+12, mut-695-C > A, mut-693-C > G) was significantly reduced compared with the wild type pGL3-MYCT1 (−852/+12), while the luciferase activity from wild transfectants pGL3-MYCT1 (−852/+12) rose after 5-aza treatment in Hep-2 cells. Finally, EMSA and ChIP confirmed that the methylation of the CGCG (−695 to −692) site prevented c-Myc from binding of the site and demethylation treatment of the 5′ flanking region of MYCT1 by 5-aza induced the increased occupation of the core promoter by c-Myc (p < 0.01). In summary, this study concluded that hypermethylation contributed to the transcriptional down-regulation

  8. Melittin Restores PTEN Expression by Down-Regulating HDAC2 in Human Hepatocelluar Carcinoma HepG2 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Zhang; Bin Zhao; Cheng Huang; Xiao-Ming Meng; Er-Bao Bian; Jun Li

    2014-01-01

    Melittin is a water-soluble toxic peptide derived from the venom of the bee. Although many studies show the anti-tumor activity of melittin in human cancer including glioma cells, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here the effect of melittin on human hepatocelluar carcinoma HepG2 cell proliferation in vitro and further mechanisms was investigated. We found melittin could inhibit cell proliferation in vitro using Flow cytometry and MTT method. Besides, we discovered that melittin signi...

  9. Down-regulation of the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α gene in cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical carcinoma is the second most common cancer and is an important cause of death in women worldwide. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate cellular differentiation and proliferation in a variety of tissues. However, the role of C/EBPα gene in cervical cancer is still not clear. We investigated the expression of C/EBPα gene in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. C/EBPα mRNA level was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in cervical cancer tissues and their adjacent normal tissues. C/EBPα protein level was measured by immunohistochemistry. Methylation in the promoter of C/EBPα gene was detected by MALDI TOF MassARRAY. We transfected HeLa cells with C/EBPα expression vector. C/EBPα expression in HeLa cells was examined and HeLa cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay and HeLa cells migration was analyzed by matrigel-coated transwell migration assays. There were significant difference in C/EBPα protein expression between chronic cervicitis and cervical carcinoma (P < 0.001). CEBPα mRNA level was significantly lower in cervical cancer tissues than in normal cervical tissues (P < 0.01). Methylation of the promoter of CEBPα gene in CpG 5, CpG-14.15, CpG-19.20 were significantly higher in cervical cancer than in normal cervical tissues (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). CEBPα pcDNA3.1 construct transfected into HeLa cells inhibited cell proliferation and decreased cell migration. Our results indicate that reduced C/EBPα gene expression may play a role in the development of cervical squamous cell carcinoma

  10. The candidate tumor suppressor CST6 alters the gene expression profile of human breast carcinoma cells: Down-regulation of the potent mitogenic, motogenic, and angiogenic factor autotaxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently coined CST6 as a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene for breast cancer. CST6 indeed is expressed in the normal human breast epithelium, but little or not at all in breast carcinomas and breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, ectopic expression of CST6 in human breast cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and orthotopic tumor growth. To obtain insights into the molecular mechanism by which CST6 exhibits its pleiotropic effects on tumor cells, we compared global gene expression profiles in mock- and CST6-transfected human MDA-MB-435S cells. Out of 12,625 transcript species, 61 showed altered expression. These included genes for extracellular matrix components, cytokines, kinases, and phosphatases, as well as several key transcription factors. TaqMan PCR assays were used to confirm the microarray data for 7 out of 11 genes. One down-regulated gene product, secreted autotaxin/lyso-phospholipase D, was of particular interest because its down-regulation by CST6 could explain most of CST6's effect on the breast cancer cells. This study thus provides First evidence that CST6 plays a role in the modulation of genes, particularly, genes that are highly relevant to breast cancer progression

  11. Down-regulation of SMT3A gene expression in association with DNA synthesis induction after X-ray irradiation in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroblast cells derived from nevoid basal carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) patients show increased levels of DNA synthesis after X-ray irradiation. Genes, whose expression is modulated in association with the DNA synthesis induction, were searched by using PCR-based mRNA differential display analysis in one of the NBCCS cell lines, NBCCS1 cells. Decreased levels of SMT3A gene expression were found in X-ray-irradiated NBCCS1 cells. This decrease was also shown by RT-PCR analysis in another cell line, NBCCS3 cells. In addition to NBCCS cells, normal fibroblast cells showed the DNA synthesis induction after X-ray irradiation when they were treated with antisense oligonucleotides (AO) for SMT3A. However, treatment of normal fibroblasts with the random oligonucleotides (RO) resulted in decreased levels of DNA synthesis after X-ray irradiation. Thus, down-regulation of SMT3A gene expression may be involved in the DNA synthesis induction after X-ray irradiation in the NBCCS cells at least tested

  12. Down-regulation of SMT3A gene expression in association with DNA synthesis induction after X-ray irradiation in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) cells

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    Sugaya, Shigeru [Department of Environmental Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nakanishi, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Tanzawa, Hideki [Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Sugita, Katsuo [Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Education, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kita, Kazuko [Department of Environmental Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Suzuki, Nobuo [Department of Environmental Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)]. E-mail: nobuo@faculty.chiba-u.jp

    2005-10-15

    Fibroblast cells derived from nevoid basal carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) patients show increased levels of DNA synthesis after X-ray irradiation. Genes, whose expression is modulated in association with the DNA synthesis induction, were searched by using PCR-based mRNA differential display analysis in one of the NBCCS cell lines, NBCCS1 cells. Decreased levels of SMT3A gene expression were found in X-ray-irradiated NBCCS1 cells. This decrease was also shown by RT-PCR analysis in another cell line, NBCCS3 cells. In addition to NBCCS cells, normal fibroblast cells showed the DNA synthesis induction after X-ray irradiation when they were treated with antisense oligonucleotides (AO) for SMT3A. However, treatment of normal fibroblasts with the random oligonucleotides (RO) resulted in decreased levels of DNA synthesis after X-ray irradiation. Thus, down-regulation of SMT3A gene expression may be involved in the DNA synthesis induction after X-ray irradiation in the NBCCS cells at least tested.

  13. mad—overexpression down regulates the malignant growth and p53 mediated apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL—7404 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANHUA; YONGHUAXU

    1999-01-01

    Mad protein has been shown as an antagonist of cMyc protein in some cell lines.The effect of Mad protein to the malignant phenotype of human hepatoma BEL-7404 cell line was investigated experimentally.An eukarryotic vector pCDNA Ⅲ containing full ORF fragment of mad cDNA was transfected into targeted cells.Under G418 selection,stable Mad-overexpressed cells were cloned.Studies on the effect of Mad over-expression in cell proliferation and cell cycle revealed that cell morphology of the Mad-overexpressed BEL-7404-M1 cells was significantly different from the parent and control vector transfected cells.DNA synthesis,cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in soft-agar of the madtransfected cells were partially inhibited in comparison to control cells.Flos cytometry analysis indicated that mad over-expression might block more transfectant cells at G0/G1 phase,resulting in the retardation of cell proliferation.RT-PCR detected a marked inhibition of the expression of cdc25A,an important regulator gene of G0/G1 to S phase in cell cycle.It was also found that Mad protein overexpression could greatly suppress p53-mediated apoptosis in BEL-74040M1 cells in the absence of serume.Thus,Mad proteins may function as a negative regulator antagonizing c-Myc activity in the control of cell growth and apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404 cells.

  14. Hepatitis C virus core protein enhances hepatocellular carcinoma cells to be susceptible to oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus through down-regulation of HDAC4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeong; Kaowinn, Sirichat; Cho, Il-Rae; Min, Do Sik; Myung, Heejoon; Oh, Sangtaek; Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Kraemer, Olive H; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2016-06-01

    Since hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is known to possess potential oncogenic activity, we explored whether oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) could efficiently induce cytolysis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells stably expressing HCV core protein (Hep3B-Core). We found that Hep3B-Core cells were more susceptible to VSV as compared to control (Hep3B-Vec) cells owing to core-mediated inactivation of STAT1 and STAT2 proteins. Core expression induced lower phosphorylation levels of type I IFN signaling proteins such as Tyk2 and Jak1, and a reduced response to exogenous IFN-α, which resulted in susceptibility to VSV. Furthermore, as STAT1 acetylation by switching phosphorylation regulated its activity, the role of STAT1 acetylation in susceptibility of Hep3B-Core cells to VSV was investigated. Treatment with trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC), increased STAT1 acetylation but blocked IFN-α-induced phosphorylation of STAT1, leading to increase of susceptibility to VSV. Interestingly, the core protein decreased HDCA4 transcript levels, leading to down-regulation of HDAC4 protein. However, ectopic expression of HDAC4 conversely enforced phosphorylation of STAT1 and hindered VSV replication, indicating that core-mediated reduction of HDAC4 provides a suitable intracellular circumstance for VSV replication. Collectively, we suggest that VSV treatment will be a useful therapeutic strategy for HCV-infected hepatocellular carcinoma cells because HCV core protein suppresses the anti-viral threshold by down-regulation of the STAT1-HDAC4 signaling axis. PMID:27150631

  15. Krüppel-like factor 9 was down-regulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and negatively regulated beta-catenin/TCF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Fan; Yao, Feng; Chen, Ling; Lu, Chengjun; Ni, Yiqian; Fang, Wentao; Jin, Hai

    2016-03-01

    Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) has been found to play suppressive roles in several types of tumor. However, the expression pattern and biological functions of KLF9 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are still unknown. In this study, it was found that the expression of KLF9 was significantly down-regulated in ESCC compared to their adjacent normal esophageal tissues. Meanwhile, the expression of KLF9 was inversely correlated with the clinical features of ESCC patients. Moreover, in the biological function study, KLF9 was further validated to inhibit the growth, migration, and metastasis of ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, KLF9 bind with TCF4 and suppressed the beta-catenin/TCF signaling as well as the expression of its target gene Cyr61. Collectively, our study clarified the function of KLF9 in both ESCC progression and the regulation of beta-catenin/TCF signaling. PMID:25641762

  16. Down-regulation of microRNAs controlling tumourigenic factors in follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Borup; Henao Giraldo, Ricardo;

    2012-01-01

    follicular carcinoma (FC). Comparison of carcinoma and adenoma with normal thyroid revealed 150 and 107 differentially expressed miRNAs. Most miRNAs were down-regulated and especially miR-199b-5p and miR-144 which were essentially lost in the carcinomas. Integration of the changed miRNAs with differentially...... expressed mRNAs demonstrated an enrichment of seed-sites among up-regulated transcripts encoding proteins implicated in thyroid tumourigenesis. This was substantiated by the demonstration that pre-miR-199b reduced proliferation when added to cultured follicular thyroid carcinoma cells. The down-regulated mi......RNAs in FC exhibited a substantial similarity with down-regulated miRNAs in anaplastic carcinoma and by gene set enrichment analysis, we observed a significant identity between target mRNAs in FC and transcripts up-regulated in anaplastic carcinoma. To examine the diagnostic potential of miRNA expression...

  17. Down-regulation of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase affects glycosaminoglycans synthesis and motility in HCT-8 colorectal carcinoma cells

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    Wang, Tsung-Pao; Pan, Yun-Ru; Fu, Chien-Yu; Chang, Hwan-You, E-mail: hychang@life.nthu.edu.tw

    2010-10-15

    UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) catalyzes oxidation of UDP-glucose to yield UDP-glucuronic acid, a precursor of hyaluronic acid (HA) and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in extracellular matrix. Although association of extracellular matrix with cell proliferation and migration has been well documented, the importance of UGDH in these behaviors is not clear. Using UGDH-specific small interference RNA to treat HCT-8 colorectal carcinoma cells, a decrease in both mRNA and protein levels of UGDH, as well as the cellular UDP-glucuronic acid and GAG production was observed. Treatment of HCT-8 cells with either UGDH-specific siRNA or HA synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone effectively delayed cell aggregation into multicellular spheroids and impaired cell motility in both three-dimensional collagen gel and transwell migration assays. The reduction in cell aggregation and migration rates could be restored by addition of exogenous HA. These results indicate that UGDH can regulate cell motility through the production of GAG. The enzyme may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention of colorectal cancers.

  18. Down-regulation of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase affects glycosaminoglycans synthesis and motility in HCT-8 colorectal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) catalyzes oxidation of UDP-glucose to yield UDP-glucuronic acid, a precursor of hyaluronic acid (HA) and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in extracellular matrix. Although association of extracellular matrix with cell proliferation and migration has been well documented, the importance of UGDH in these behaviors is not clear. Using UGDH-specific small interference RNA to treat HCT-8 colorectal carcinoma cells, a decrease in both mRNA and protein levels of UGDH, as well as the cellular UDP-glucuronic acid and GAG production was observed. Treatment of HCT-8 cells with either UGDH-specific siRNA or HA synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone effectively delayed cell aggregation into multicellular spheroids and impaired cell motility in both three-dimensional collagen gel and transwell migration assays. The reduction in cell aggregation and migration rates could be restored by addition of exogenous HA. These results indicate that UGDH can regulate cell motility through the production of GAG. The enzyme may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention of colorectal cancers.

  19. Tivantinib (ARQ-197) exhibits anti-tumor activity with down-regulation of FAK in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Wei-Hong [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Yang, Li-Yun [Department of Blood Transfusion, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Cao, Zhong-Yi, E-mail: m18070383032@163.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Qian, Yong, E-mail: yfykqkqy@163.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China)

    2015-02-20

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the 5 years survival rate of the patients is about 60% in the USA, due to acquired chemotherapeutic resistance and metastasis of the disease. In this study, we found that tivantinib, a selective MET inhibitor, suppresses OCSS cell proliferation and colony formation, however, anti-tumor activities induced by tivantinib are independent of the inhibition of MET signaling pathway. In addition, tivantinib cause G2/M cell cycle arrest and caspases-dependent apoptosis in OSCC cell lines. We also found that tivantinib dose-dependently suppressed the activation and expression of FAK. In all, these data suggested that tivantinib may be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including OSCC. - Highlights: • Tivantinib suppresses OSCC cell growth independent of the inhibition of HGF/MET signaling pathway. • Tivantinib blocks cell cycle and induces caspases-mediated apoptosis. • Tivantinib elicits its anti-tumor activity with the inhibition of FAK signaling pathway.

  20. Tivantinib (ARQ-197) exhibits anti-tumor activity with down-regulation of FAK in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the 5 years survival rate of the patients is about 60% in the USA, due to acquired chemotherapeutic resistance and metastasis of the disease. In this study, we found that tivantinib, a selective MET inhibitor, suppresses OCSS cell proliferation and colony formation, however, anti-tumor activities induced by tivantinib are independent of the inhibition of MET signaling pathway. In addition, tivantinib cause G2/M cell cycle arrest and caspases-dependent apoptosis in OSCC cell lines. We also found that tivantinib dose-dependently suppressed the activation and expression of FAK. In all, these data suggested that tivantinib may be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including OSCC. - Highlights: • Tivantinib suppresses OSCC cell growth independent of the inhibition of HGF/MET signaling pathway. • Tivantinib blocks cell cycle and induces caspases-mediated apoptosis. • Tivantinib elicits its anti-tumor activity with the inhibition of FAK signaling pathway

  1. Melittin restores PTEN expression by down-regulating HDAC2 in human hepatocelluar carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    Full Text Available Melittin is a water-soluble toxic peptide derived from the venom of the bee. Although many studies show the anti-tumor activity of melittin in human cancer including glioma cells, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here the effect of melittin on human hepatocelluar carcinoma HepG2 cell proliferation in vitro and further mechanisms was investigated. We found melittin could inhibit cell proliferation in vitro using Flow cytometry and MTT method. Besides, we discovered that melittin significantly downregulated the expressions of CyclinD1 and CDK4. Results of western Blot and Real-time PCR analysis indicated that melittin was capable to upregulate the expression of PTEN and attenuate histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2 expression. Further studies demonstrated that knockdown of HDAC2 completely mimicked the effects of melittin on PTEN gene expression. Conversely, it was that the potential utility of melittin on PTEN expression was reversed in cells treated with a recombinant pEGFP-C2-HDAC2 plasmid. In addition, treatment with melittin caused a downregulation of Akt phosphorylation, while overexpression of HDAC2 promoted Akt phosphorylation. These findings suggested that the inhibitory of cell growth by melittin might be led by HDAC2-mediated PTEN upregulation, Akt inactivation, and inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

  2. Prokineticin 2/Bv8 is expressed in Kupffer cells in liver and is down regulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the implication of prokineticin 1 (PK1/EG VEGF) and prokineticin 2 (PK2/Bv8) in hepatocellular carcinoma angiogenesis. METHODS: The gene induction of PK1/EG-VEGF and PK2/Bv8 was investigated in 10 normal, 28 fibrotic and 28 tumoral livers by using real time PCR. Their expression was compared to the expression of VEGF (an angiogenesis marker), vWF (an endothelial cell marker) and to CD68 (a monocyte/macrophage marker). Furthermore, the mRNA levels of PK1/EG-VEGF, PK2/Bv8, prokineticin receptor 1 and 2 were evaluated by real time PCR in isolated liver cell populations. Finally, PK2/Bv8protein was detected in normal liver paraffin sections and in isolated liver cells by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry.RESULTS:PK2/Bv8 mRNA but not PK1/EG-VEGF was expressed in all types of normal liver samples examined. In the context of liver tumor development, we reported that PK2/Bv8 correlates only with CD68 and showed a significant decrease in expression as the pathology evolves towards cancer. Whereas, VEGF and vWF mRNA were significantly upregulated in both fibrosis and HCC, as expected. In addition, out of all isolated liver cells examined, only Kupffer cells (liver resident macrophages) express significant levels of PK2/Bv8 and its receptors, prokineticin receptor 1 and 2.CONCLUSION:In normal liver PK2/Bv8 and its receptors were specifically expressed by Kupffer cells. PK2/Bv8 expression decreased as the liver evolves towards cancer and did not correlate with HCC angiogenesis.

  3. Proteomic Identification of LASP-1 Down-regulation After RNAi Urokinase Silencing in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

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    Alessandro Salvi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, the high expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA is an unfavorable prognostic factor and a therapeutic target. To identify the downstream effects of uPA silencing by RNA interference, we studied proteome modifications of uPA-inhibited SKHep1C3 cells, an HCC-derived cell line. The study with two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry showed Lim and SH3 protein 1 (LASP-1, cytokeratin 1 (CK-1, cytokeratin 10 (CK-10, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 down-modulation after uPA inhibition. LASP-1, CK-1, and CK-10 are involved in cytoskeleton dynamics as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 takes part in the mRNA processing and stability. We first confirmed the proteomic data by Western blot and immunoflorescence and then explored the link between uPA and LASP-1. The ectopic expression of uPA and LASP-1 supported the proteomic results and showed that uPA up-regulation increased LASP-1 expression and that both were implicated in SKHep1C3 motility. siRNA LASP-1 inhibition showed that LASP-1 was involved in actin microfilaments organization of SKHep1C3 cells. The disruption of the actin microfilaments after LASP-1 depletion increased uPA secretion and SKHep1C3 motility. Our results would suggest the hypothesis that uPA and LASP-1 expression may be coordinated in HCC-derived cells. In summary, the proteomic identification of a set of uPA downstream proteins provides new insight into the function of uPA in HCC cells.

  4. Down regulation of E-Cadherin (ECAD) - a predictor for occult metastatic disease in sentinel node biopsy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prognostic factors in predicting occult lymph node metastasis in patients with head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are necessary to improve the results of the sentinel lymph node procedure in this tumour type. The E-Cadherin glycoprotein is an intercellular adhesion molecule in epithelial cells, which plays an important role in establishing and maintaining intercellular connections. To determine the value of the molecular marker E-Cadherin in predicting regional metastatic disease. E-Cadherin expression in tumour tissue of 120 patients with HNSCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were evaluated using the tissue microarray technique. 110 tumours were located in the oral cavity (91.7%; mostly tongue), 10 tumours in the oropharynx (8.3%). Intensity of E-Cadherin expression was quantified by the Intensity Reactivity Score (IRS). These results were correlated with the lymph node status of biopsied sentinel lymph nodes. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to determine statistical significance. pT-stage, gender, tumour side and location did not correlate with lymph node metastasis. Differentiation grade (p = 0.018) and down regulation of E-Cadherin expression significantly correlate with positive lymph node status (p = 0.005) in univariate and multivariate analysis. These data suggest that loss of E-cadherin expression is associated with increased lymhogeneous metastasis of HNSCC. E-cadherin immunohistochemistry may be used as a predictor for lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Level of evidence: 2b

  5. Down regulation of E-Cadherin (ECAD - a predictor for occult metastatic disease in sentinel node biopsy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studer Gabriela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic factors in predicting occult lymph node metastasis in patients with head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC are necessary to improve the results of the sentinel lymph node procedure in this tumour type. The E-Cadherin glycoprotein is an intercellular adhesion molecule in epithelial cells, which plays an important role in establishing and maintaining intercellular connections. Objectives To determine the value of the molecular marker E-Cadherin in predicting regional metastatic disease. Methods E-Cadherin expression in tumour tissue of 120 patients with HNSCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were evaluated using the tissue microarray technique. 110 tumours were located in the oral cavity (91.7%; mostly tongue, 10 tumours in the oropharynx (8.3%. Intensity of E-Cadherin expression was quantified by the Intensity Reactivity Score (IRS. These results were correlated with the lymph node status of biopsied sentinel lymph nodes. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to determine statistical significance. Results pT-stage, gender, tumour side and location did not correlate with lymph node metastasis. Differentiation grade (p = 0.018 and down regulation of E-Cadherin expression significantly correlate with positive lymph node status (p = 0.005 in univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusion These data suggest that loss of E-cadherin expression is associated with increased lymhogeneous metastasis of HNSCC. E-cadherin immunohistochemistry may be used as a predictor for lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Level of evidence: 2b

  6. Curcumin Promoted the Apoptosis of Cisplain-resistant Human Lung Carcinoma Cells A549/DDP through Down-regulating miR-186*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian ZHANG

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Curcumin, a natural compound, is derived from the rthizom of Curcuma longa. In vitro and in vivo preclinical studies have shown its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer activities and so on. miR-186*, which was found by microarray technology, was highly expressed in lung carcinoma cells A549/DDP. The aim of this study is to illustrate whether Curcumin could promote the apoptosis of A549/DDP cells through regulating the expression of miR-186*. Methods An oligonucleotide microarray chip was used to profile microRNA (miRNA expressions in A549/DDP cells treated with and without Curcumin. The significantly differentially expressed miRNA, which was selected from microarray chip, validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Ultimately, the remarkably expressed miRNA modulated the apoptosis assaying by flow cytometry expriments and the survival rate was measured by MTT method. Results The microarray chip results demonstrated: Curcumin altered the expression level of miRNAs compared with untreated control in A549/DDP cell line, miR-186* was significantly down-regulated after Curcumin treatment, which confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Downregulation of miR-186* expression by curcumin elevated the apoptosis, and the survival rate of A549/DDP cells decreased; but up-regulation of miR-186* expression by transfection its mimics restrained the apoptosis, the survival rate of A549/DDP cells increased, which were assayed by flow cytometry expriments and MTT method. Conclusion Modulation of miRNAs expression may be an important mechanism underlying the biological roles of Curcumin.

  7. Down-regulation of BTG1 by miR-454-3p enhances cellular radiosensitivity in renal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    shifted the cell cycle arrest from G2/M phase to S phase. Our results indicate that BTG1 is a direct target of miR-454-3p. Down-regulation of BTG1 by miR-454-3p renders tumor cells sensitive to radiation. These results may shed light on the potential application in tumor radiotherapy. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1748-717X-9-179) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  8. MicroRNA-187, down-regulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and associated with lower survival, inhibits cell growth and migration though targeting B7-H3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •miR-187 is down-regulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). •Down-regulation of miR-187 is associated with poor outcomes in patients with ccRCC. •miR-187 inhibits cell growth and migration though targeting B7-H3 in ccRCC. -- Abstract: Aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently associated with the aggressive malignant behavior of human cancers, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Based on the preliminary deep sequencing data, we hypothesized that miR-187 may play an important role in ccRCC development. In this study, we found that miR-187 was down-regulated in both tumor tissue and plasma of ccRCC patients. Lower miR-187 expression levels were associated with higher tumor grade and stage. All patients with high miR-187 expression survived 5 years, while with low miR-187 expression, only 42% survived. Suppressed in vitro proliferation, inhibited in vivo tumor growth, and decreased motility were observed in cells treated with the miR-187 expression vector. Further studies showed that B7 homolog 3 (B7-H3) is a direct target of miR-187. Over-expression of miR-187 decreased B7-H3 mRNA level and repressed B7-H3-3′-UTR reporter activity. Knockdown of B7-H3 using siRNA resulted in similar phenotype changes as that observed for overexpression of miR-187. Our data suggest that miR-187 is emerging as a novel player in the disease state of ccRCC. miR-187 plays a tumor suppressor role in ccRCC

  9. MicroRNA-187, down-regulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and associated with lower survival, inhibits cell growth and migration though targeting B7-H3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jun [Foshan Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Foshan (China); Lei, Ting [Zhongshan People’s Hospital, Zhongshan (China); Xu, Congjie [Department of Urology, Pepole’s Hospital of Hainan Province, Haikou (China); Li, Huan; Ma, Wenmin; Yang, Yunxia; Fan, Shuming [Foshan Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Foshan (China); Liu, Yuchen, E-mail: s_ycliu1@stu.edu.cn [Anhui Medical University, Hefei (China)

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •miR-187 is down-regulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). •Down-regulation of miR-187 is associated with poor outcomes in patients with ccRCC. •miR-187 inhibits cell growth and migration though targeting B7-H3 in ccRCC. -- Abstract: Aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently associated with the aggressive malignant behavior of human cancers, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Based on the preliminary deep sequencing data, we hypothesized that miR-187 may play an important role in ccRCC development. In this study, we found that miR-187 was down-regulated in both tumor tissue and plasma of ccRCC patients. Lower miR-187 expression levels were associated with higher tumor grade and stage. All patients with high miR-187 expression survived 5 years, while with low miR-187 expression, only 42% survived. Suppressed in vitro proliferation, inhibited in vivo tumor growth, and decreased motility were observed in cells treated with the miR-187 expression vector. Further studies showed that B7 homolog 3 (B7-H3) is a direct target of miR-187. Over-expression of miR-187 decreased B7-H3 mRNA level and repressed B7-H3-3′-UTR reporter activity. Knockdown of B7-H3 using siRNA resulted in similar phenotype changes as that observed for overexpression of miR-187. Our data suggest that miR-187 is emerging as a novel player in the disease state of ccRCC. miR-187 plays a tumor suppressor role in ccRCC.

  10. Down-Regulation of EBV-LMP1 Radio-Sensitizes Nasal Pharyngeal Carcinoma Cells via NF-κB Regulated ATM Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoqian Ma; Lifang Yang; Lanbo Xiao; Min Tang; Liyu Liu; Zijian Li; Mengyao Deng; Lunquan Sun; Ya Cao

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) encoded by EBV is expressed in the majority of EBV-associated human malignancies and has been suggested to be one of the major oncogenic factors in EBV-mediated carcinogenesis. In previous studies we experimentally demonstrated that down-regulation of LMP1 expression by DNAzymes could increase radiosensitivity both in cells and in a xenograft NPC model in mice. RESULTS: In this study we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the radiosens...

  11. Expression of NDRG2 is down-regulated in high-risk adenomas and colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has recently been shown that NDRG2 mRNA is down-regulated or undetectable in several human cancers and cancer cell-lines. Although the function of NDRG2 is unknown, high NDRG2 expression correlates with improved prognosis in high-grade gliomas. The aim of this study has been to examine NDRG2 mRNA expression in colon cancer. By examining affected and normal tissue from individuals with colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, as well as in healthy individuals, we aim to determine whether and at which stages NDRG2 down-regulation occurs during colonic carcinogenesis. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for NDRG2 in low-risk (n = 15) and high-risk adenomas (n = 57), colorectal carcinomas (n = 50) and corresponding normal tissue, as well as control tissue from healthy individuals (n = 15). NDRG2 levels were normalised to β-actin. NDRG2 mRNA levels were lower in colorectal carcinomas compared to normal tissue from the control group (p < 0.001). When comparing adenomas/carcinomas with adjacent normal tissue from the same individual, NDRG2 expression levels were significantly reduced in both high-risk adenoma (p < 0.001) and in colorectal carcinoma (p < 0.001). There was a trend for NDRG2 levels to decrease with increasing Dukes' stage (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate that expression of NDRG2 is down-regulated at a late stage during colorectal carcinogensis. Future studies are needed to address whether NDRG2 down-regulation is a cause or consequence of the progression of colorectal adenomas to carcinoma

  12. MicroRNA-21 promotes cell proliferation and down-regulates the expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MicroRNAs are involved in cancer-related processes. The microRNA-21(miR-21) has been identified as the only miRNA over-expressed in a wide variety of cancers, including cervical cancer. However, the function of miR-21 is unknown in cervical carcinomas. In this study, we found that the inhibition of miR-21 in HeLa cervical cancer cells caused profound suppression of cell proliferation, and up-regulated the expression of the tumor suppressor gene PDCD4. We also provide direct evidence that PDCD4-3'UTR is a functional target of miR-21 and that the 18 bp putative target site can function as the sole regulatory element in HeLa cells. These results suggest that miR-21 may play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of cervical cancer and may serve as a target for effective therapies.

  13. Down-regulation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by 3C-like proteinase in transfected A549 human lung carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Hsien-Yu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS is a severe respiratory illness caused by a novel virus, the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV. 3C-like protease (3CLpro of SARS-CoV plays a role in processing viral polypeptide precursors and is responsible of viral maturation. However, the function of 3CLpro in host cells remains unknown. This study investigated how the 3CLpro affected the secretion of cytokines in the gene-transfected cells. Results From immunofluorescence microscopy, the localization of c-myc tagged 3CLpro was detected both in the cytoplasm and nucleus of transfected A549 cells. Expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF was significantly decreased in 3CLpro-transfected cells by both RT-PCR and ELISA, but without changes in other cytokines, i.e., IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL12p40, TNF-α, and TGF-β. Furthermore, the protein levels of NF-kB decreased in 3CLpro-transfected A549 cells when compared to EGFP transfected cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that the 3CLpro may suppress expression of GM-CSF in transfected A549 cells through down-regulation of NF-kB production.

  14. Up-Regulation of PAI-1 and Down-Regulation of uPA Are Involved in Suppression of Invasiveness and Motility of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by a Natural Compound Berberine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuanbin; Wang, Ning; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Ming; Cao, Fengjun; Yu, Xianjun; Zhang, Jingxuan; Tan, Yan; Xiang, Longchao; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death and its prognosis remains poor due to the high risk of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Berberine (BBR) is a natural compound derived from some medicinal plants, and accumulating evidence has shown its potent anti-tumor activity with diverse action on tumor cells, including inducing cancer cell death and blocking cell cycle and migration. Molecular targets of berberine involved in its inhibitory effect on the invasiveness remains not yet clear. In this study, we identified that berberine exhibits a potent inhibition on the invasion and migration of HCC cells. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent down-regulation of expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in berberine-treated HCC cells. Furthermore, berberine inactivated p38 and Erk1/2 signaling pathway in HCC cells. Primarily, this may be attributed to the up-regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a tumor suppressor that can antagonize uPA receptor and down-regulation of uPA. Blockade of uPA receptor-associated pathways leads to reduced invasiveness and motility of berberine-treated HCC cells. In conclusion, our findings identified for the first time that inactivation of uPA receptor by up-regulation of PAI-1 and down-regulation of uPA is involved in the inhibitory effect of berberine on HCC cell invasion and migration. PMID:27092498

  15. Down-Regulated MAC30 Expression Inhibits Proliferation and Mobility of Human Gastric Cancer Cells

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    Xiao-Yan Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. MAC30/Transmembrane protein 97 (TMEM97 is aberrantly up-regulated in many human carcinoma cells. However, the function of MAC30 in gastric carcinoma cells is not studied. Material and Methods: To investigate the function of MAC30 in gastric carcinoma, we used RNA silencing technology to knock down the expression of MAC30 in gastric cancer cells BGC-823 and AGS. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot were used to analyze the mRNA level and the related protein expression. The localization of MAC30 and lamellipodia was observed by immunofluorescence. The biological phenotypes of gastric cells were examined by cell proliferation assay, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis assay, cell migration and invasion assay. Results: We found that down-regulation of MAC30 expression efficiently inhibited the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, the mobility of gastric cancer cells was also inhibited by down-regulation of MAC30. Moreover, we found that MAC30 knockdown inhibited AKT phosphorylation and reduced the expression of cyclinB1 and WAVE2. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report investigating the effect of MAC30 on growth, cell cycle, migration, and invasion in gastric carcinoma cells via suppressing AKT signaling pathway. MAC30 may be a potential therapeutic target for treatment of gastric carcinoma.

  16. Induction of apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma by reactive oxygen species: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38delta/gamma, cyclooxygenase-2 down-regulation, and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ambrose, Monica

    2012-02-03

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy of the kidney. Unfortunately, RCCs are highly refractory to conventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and even immunotherapy. Thus, novel therapeutic targets need to be sought for the successful treatment of RCCs. We now report that 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinequinone (LY83583), an inhibitor of cyclic GMP production, induced growth arrest and apoptosis of the RCC cell line 786-0. It did not prove deleterious to normal renal epithelial cells, an important aspect of chemotherapy. To address the cellular mechanism(s), we used both genetic and pharmacological approaches. LY83583 induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in RCC apoptosis through dephosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1\\/2 and its downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and -2. In addition, we observed a decrease in Elk-1 phosphorylation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) down-regulation. We were surprised that we failed to observe an increase in either c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase or p38alpha and -beta mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. In contradiction, reintroduction of p38delta by stable transfection or overexpression of p38gamma dominant negative abrogated the apoptotic effect. Cell death was associated with a decrease and increase in Bcl-x(L) and Bax expression, respectively, as well as release of cytochrome c and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor. These events were associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species formation. The antioxidant N-acetyl l-cysteine, however, opposed LY83583-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, ERK1\\/2 inactivation, COX-2 down-regulation, and apoptosis. In conclusion, our results suggest that LY83583 may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of RCC, which remains highly refractory to antineoplastic agents. Our data provide a molecular basis for the anticancer activity of LY83583.

  17. Down-regulation of protein kinase Ceta by antisense oligonucleotides sensitises A549 lung cancer cells to vincristine and paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemann, Jürgen; Gekeler, Volker; Ahlbrecht, Katrin; Brischwein, Klaus; Liu, Chao; Bader, Peter; Müller, Cornelia; Niethammer, Dietrich; Beck, James F

    2004-06-25

    Previous studies point to protein kinase C (PKC) isozyme eta as a resistance factor in cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated whether down-regulation of PKCeta with second generation antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) would sensitise A549 human lung carcinoma cells to cytostatics. The effects were compared to the outcome of Bcl-xL down-regulation. Upon treatment with antisense ODNs, PKCeta and Bcl-xL were both significantly reduced on mRNA and protein level. Down-regulation of either PKCeta or Bcl-xL in combination with vincristine or paclitaxel resulted in a significant increase in caspase-3 activity compared to that in the control oligonucleotide treated cells. In addition, PKCeta down-regulation augmented vincristine-induced dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In conclusion, these results confirm that PKCeta might represent a considerable resistance factor and an interesting target to improve anticancer chemotherapy. PMID:15159020

  18. TCR down-regulation controls T cell homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boding, Lasse; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Nielsen, Bodil L;

    2009-01-01

    TCR and cytokine receptor signaling play key roles in the complex homeostatic mechanisms that maintain a relative stable number of T cells throughout life. Despite the homeostatic mechanisms, a slow decline in naive T cells is typically observed with age. The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif...... was caused by the combination of reduced thymic output, decreased T cell apoptosis, and increased transition of naive T cells to memory T cells. Experiments with bone marrow chimeric mice confirmed that the CD3gammaLLAA mutation exerted a T cell intrinsic effect on T cell homeostasis that resulted in...... controls TCR down-regulation and plays a central role in fine-tuning TCR expression and signaling in T cells. In this study, we show that the age-associated decline of naive T cells is strongly accelerated in CD3gammaLLAA knock-in mice homozygous for a double leucine to alanine mutation in the CD3gamma di...

  19. Expression of NDRG2 is down-regulated in high-risk adenomas and colorectal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anders; Vogel, Lotte K.; Lewinsky, Rikke H;

    2007-01-01

    examine NDRG2 mRNA expression in colon cancer. By examining affected and normal tissue from individuals with colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, as well as in healthy individuals, we aim to determine whether and at which stages NDRG2 down-regulation occurs during colonic carcinogenesis. METHODS: Using...... quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for NDRG2 in low-risk (n = 15) and high-risk adenomas (n = 57), colorectal carcinomas (n = 50) and corresponding normal tissue, as well as control tissue from healthy individuals (n = 15). NDRG2 levels were normalised to beta-actin. RESULTS: NDRG2 m......RNA levels were lower in colorectal carcinomas compared to normal tissue from the control group (p < 0.001). When comparing adenomas/carcinomas with adjacent normal tissue from the same individual, NDRG2 expression levels were significantly reduced in both high-risk adenoma (p < 0.001) and in colorectal...

  20. Down-regulation of p73 correlates with high histological grade in Japanese with breast carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Cai-wen; Izo Kimijima; Toru Otake; Rikiya Abe; Seiichi Takenoshita; ZHANG Guo-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background p73, a homologue of p53, has been located at chromosome 1 p36-33, a region of frequently observed loss of heterozygosity in breast cancers. The objective of the present study was to investigate the function of p73 in Japanese with breast cancers. Methods Sixty Japanese patients with breast cancer were assessed by polymerase chain reaction single strand confirmation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing to detect the p73 allele. p73 mRNA levels were also determined in 40 out of 60 patients by reverse-transcriptional polymerase chain reaction. Results We analyzed the entire open reading frame of the p73 gene by polymerase chain reaction single strand confirmation polymorphism and sequencing, and failed to identify any mutations of p73 in the encoding regions detected.Loss of heterozygosity of p73 was infrequent and only found in 9% of breast carcinomas. We revealed a few polymorphisms with a frequency of 13%-29%, which had been reported previously. Down-regulation of p73 mRNA expression was observed in tumor tissues in comparison to the normal breast tissues. A significant inverse correlation was found between p73 transcripts and high histological grade, suggesting that down-regulated p73 expression could be related to poor prognosis in those patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that p73 may serve as a tumor suppressor gene and its expression plays a role in tumorigenesis in Japanese patients with breast cancer.

  1. Down-regulation of SFRP1 as a putative tumor suppressor gene can contribute to human hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. SFRP1 (the secreted frizzled-related protein 1), a putative tumor suppressor gene mapped onto chromosome 8p12-p11.1, the frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) region in human HCC, encodes a Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling antagonist and is frequently inactivated by promoter methylation in many human cancers. However, whether the down-regulation of SFRP1 can contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis still remains unclear. We investigated the expression of SFRP1 through real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry staining. The cell growth and colony formation were observed as the overexpression and knockdown of SFRP1. The DNA methylation status within SFRP1 promoter was analyzed through methylation-specific PCR or bisulphate-treated DNA sequencing assays. Loss of heterozygosity was here detected with microsatellite markers. SFRP1 was significantly down-regulated in 76.1% (35/46) HCC specimens at mRNA level and in 30% (30/100) HCCs indicated by immunohistochemistry staining, as compared to adjacent non-cancerous livers. The overexpression of SFRP1 can significantly inhibit the cell growth and colony formation of YY-8103, SMMC7721, and Hep3B cells. The RNA interference against the constitutional SFRP1 in the offspring SMMC7721 cells, which were stably transfected by ectopic SFRP1, can markedly promote cell growth of these cells. LOH of both microsatellite markers D8S532 and D8SAC016868 flanking the gene locus was found in 13% (6 of 46 HCCs) and 6.5% (3 of 46 HCCs) of the informative cases, respectively, where 5 of 8 HCC specimens with LOH showed the down-regulation of SFRP1. DNA hypermethylation within SFRP1 promoter was identified in two of three HCC specimens without SFRP1 expression. Moreover, the DNA methylation of SFRP1 promoter was significantly reduced, along with the re-expression of the gene, in those HCC cell lines, Bel7404, QGY7701, and MHCC-H, as treated by DAC. Our data suggested that the

  2. KIAA0101 (OEACT-1), an expressionally down-regulated and growth-inhibitory gene in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our previous cDNA array results indicated KIAA0101 as one of the differentially expressed genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as compared with non-cancerous liver. However, it is necessary to study its expression at protein level in HCC and its biological function for HCC cell growth. Western blot and tissue array were performed to compare KIAA0101 protein expression level in paired human HCC and non-cancerous liver tissues from the same patients. Investigation of its subcellular localization was done by using dual fluorescence image examination and enriched mitochondrial protein Western blot analysis. The in vitro cell growth curve was used for examing the effect of over-expression of KIAA0101 in HCC cells. FACS was used to analyze the cell cycle pattern in KIAA0101 expression positive (+) and negative (-) cell populations isolated by the pMACSKKII system after KIAA0101 cDNA transfection. Western blot showed KIAA0101 protein expression was down-regulated in HCC tissues as compared with their counterpart non-cancerous liver tissues in 25 out of 30 cases. Tissue array also demonstrated the same pattern in 161 paired samples. KIAA0101 was predominantly localized in mitochondria and partially in nuclei. KIAA0101 cDNA transfection could inhibit the HCC cell growth in vitro. In cell cycle analysis, it could arrest cells at the G1 to S phase transition. KIAA0101 protein expression was down-regulated in HCC. This gene could inhibit the HCC cell growth in vitro and presumably by its blocking effect on cell cycle

  3. Curcumin significantly enhances dual PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235-induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells through down-regulation of p53-dependent Bcl-2 expression and inhibition of Mcl-1 protein stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ram Seo

    Full Text Available The PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling pathways are important for cell survival and growth, and they are highly activated in cancer cells compared with normal cells. Therefore, these signaling pathways are targets for inducing cancer cell death. The dual PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 completely inhibited both signaling pathways. However, NVP-BEZ235 had no effect on cell death in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We tested whether combined treatment with natural compounds and NVP-BEZ235 could induce cell death. Among several chemopreventive agents, curcumin, a natural biologically active compound that is extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma species, markedly induced apoptosis in NVP-BEZ235-treated cells. Co-treatment with curcumin and NVP-BEZ235 led to the down-regulation of Mcl-1 protein expression but not mRNA expression. Ectopic expression of Mcl-1 completely inhibited curcumin plus NVP-NEZ235-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Bcl-2 was involved in curcumin plus NVP-BEZ235-induced apoptosis. Curcumin or NVP-BEZ235 alone did not change Bcl-2 mRNA or protein expression, but co-treatment reduced Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression. Combined treatment with NVP-BEZ235 and curcumin reduced Bcl-2 expression in wild-type p53 HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells but not p53-null HCT116 cells. Moreover, Bcl-2 expression was completely reversed by treatment with pifithrin-α, a p53-specific inhibitor. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 also inhibited apoptosis in NVP-BE235 plus curcumin-treated cells. In contrast, NVP-BEZ235 combined with curcumin did not have a synergistic effect on normal human skin fibroblasts and normal human mesangial cells. Taken together, combined treatment with NVP-BEZ235 and curcumin induces apoptosis through p53-dependent Bcl-2 mRNA down-regulation at the transcriptional level and Mcl-1 protein down-regulation at the post-transcriptional level.

  4. Down-Regulation of Cell Surface Receptors Is Modulated by Polar Residues within the Transmembrane Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaliauskiene, Lolita; Kang, Sunghyun; Brouillette, Christie G.; Lebowitz, Jacob; Arani, Ramin B.; Collawn, James F.

    2000-01-01

    How recycling receptors are segregated from down-regulated receptors in the endosome is unknown. In previous studies, we demonstrated that substitutions in the transferrin receptor (TR) transmembrane domain (TM) convert the protein from an efficiently recycling receptor to one that is rapidly down regulated. In this study, we demonstrate that the “signal” within the TM necessary and sufficient for down-regulation is Thr11Gln17Thr19 (numbering in TM). Transplantation of these polar residues into the wild-type TR promotes receptor down-regulation that can be demonstrated by changes in protein half-life and in receptor recycling. Surprisingly, this modification dramatically increases the TR internalization rate as well (∼79% increase). Sucrose gradient centrifugation and cross-linking studies reveal that propensity of the receptors to self-associate correlates with down-regulation. Interestingly, a number of cell surface proteins that contain TM polar residues are known to be efficiently down-regulated, whereas recycling receptors for low-density lipoprotein and transferrin conspicuously lack these residues. Our data, therefore, suggest a simple model in which specific residues within the TM sequences dramatically influence the fate of membrane proteins after endocytosis, providing an alternative signal for down-regulation of receptor complexes to the well-characterized cytoplasmic tail targeting signals. PMID:10930460

  5. Up-Regulation of PAI-1 and Down-Regulation of uPA Are Involved in Suppression of Invasiveness and Motility of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by a Natural Compound Berberine

    OpenAIRE

    Xuanbin Wang; Ning Wang; Hongliang Li; Ming Liu; Fengjun Cao; Xianjun Yu; Jingxuan Zhang; Yan Tan; Longchao Xiang; Yibin Feng

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death and its prognosis remains poor due to the high risk of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Berberine (BBR) is a natural compound derived from some medicinal plants, and accumulating evidence has shown its potent anti-tumor activity with diverse action on tumor cells, including inducing cancer cell death and blocking cell cycle and migration. Molecular targets of berberine involved in its inhibitory effect on the i...

  6. Deletion and down-regulation of HRH4 gene in gastric carcinomas: a potential correlation with tumor progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histamine is an established growth factor for gastrointestinal malignancies. The effect of histamine is largely determined locally by the histamine receptor expression pattern. Histamine receptor H4 (HRH4, the newest member of the histamine receptor family, is positively expressed on the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract, and its function remains to be elucidated. Previously, we reported the decreased expression of HRH4 in colorectal cancers and revealed its correlation with tumor proliferation. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the abnormalities of HRH4 gene in gastric carcinomas (GCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed H4R expression in collected GC samples by quantitative PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunostaining. Our results showed that the protein and mRNA levels of HRH4 were reduced in some GC samples, especially in advanced GC samples. Copy number decrease of HRH4 gene was observed (17.6%, 23 out of 131, which was closely correlated with the attenuated expression of H4R. In vitro studies, using gastric cancer cell lines, showed that the alteration of HRH4 expression on gastric cancer cells influences tumor growth upon exposure to histamine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show for the first time that deletion of HRH4 gene is present in GC cases and is closely correlated with attenuated gene expression. Down-regulation of HRH4 in gastric carcinomas plays a role in histamine-mediated growth control of GC cells.

  7. TCR down-regulation boosts T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and protection against poxvirus infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ann K; Regner, Matthias; Bonefeld, Charlotte M;

    2011-01-01

    Cytotoxic T (Tc) cells play a key role in the defense against virus infections. Tc cells recognize infected cells via the T-cell receptor (TCR) and subsequently kill the target cells by one or more cytotoxic mechanisms. Induction of the cytotoxic mechanisms is finely tuned by the activation signals...... from the TCR. To determine whether TCR down-regulation affects the cytotoxicity of Tc cells, we studied TCR down-regulation-deficient CD3¿LLAA mice. We found that Tc cells from CD3¿LLAA mice have reduced cytotoxicity due to a specific deficiency in exocytosis of lytic granules. To determine whether....... Finally, we found that TCR signaling in CD3¿LLAA Tc cells caused highly increased tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase, and that the impaired exocytosis of lytic granules could be rescued by the knockdown of c-Cbl. Thus, our work demonstrates that TCR down-regulation...

  8. Down-regulation of sirtuin 3 is associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma after resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), one of the seven Sirtuins family members, plays critical roles in the progression of multiple cancer types. However, its role in the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been investigated systematically. The correlation of Sirtuins expression with prognosis of HCC was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a large HCC patient cohort (n = 342). Expression of Sirt3 in tumoral and peritumoral tissues of HCC patients were further determined by western blotting (WB). IHC and WB studies both showed a decreased expression of Sirt3 in tumoral tissues compared with peritumoral tissues (P = 0.003 for IHC, P = 0.0042 for WB). Decreased expression of Sirt3 in both tumoral and peritumoral tissues was associated with increased recurrence probability and decreased overall survival rate by univariate analyses (intratumoral Sirt3: P = 0.011 for TTR, P = 0.001 for OS; peritumoral Sirt3: P = 0.017 for TTR, P = 0.023 for OS), the prognostic value was strengthened by multivariate analyses (intratumoral Sirt3: P = 0.031 for TTR, P = 0.001 for OS; peritumoral Sirt3: P = 0.047 for TTR, P = 0.031 for OS). Intratumoral Sirt3 also showed a favorable prognostic value in patients with BCLC stage A (TTR, P = 0.011; OS, P < 0.001). In addition, we found that IHC studies of other sirtuin members showed a decreased expression of Sirt2, Sirt4 and Sirt5 and an increased expression of Sirt1, Sirt6 and Sirt7 in intratumoral tissues compared with peritumoral tissues. In contrast to Sirt3, other members did not showed a remarkable correlation with HCC prognosis. Down-regulation of intratumoral and peritumoral Sirt3 were both associated with poor outcome in HCC, moreover, intratumoral Sirt3 was a favorable prognostic predictor in early stage patients

  9. Serotonin-induced down-regulation of cell surface serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Christensen, Peter Møller; Gether, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic signaling and enables refilling of synaptic vesicles by mediating reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) released into the synaptic cleft. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT activity and surface expression are not fully understood....... Here we demonstrate that the substrate 5-HT itself causes acute down-regulation of SERT cell surface expression. To assess surface SERT expression by ELISA, we used a SERT variant (TacSERT) where the N-terminus of SERT was fused to the intracellular tail of the extracellularly FLAG-tagged single...... neurons, indicting that endogenous cell-surface resident SERT likewise is down-regulated in the presence of substrate....

  10. microRNA-143 down-regulates Hexokinase 2 in colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lea Haarup; Jacobsen, Anders; Frankel, Lisa;

    2012-01-01

    validated HK2 as a miR-143 target. Furthermore, our results indicate that miR-143 mediated down-regulation of HK2 affects glucose metabolism in colon cancer cells. We hypothesize that loss of miR-143-mediated repression of HK2 can promote glucose metabolism in cancer cells, contributing to the shift towards...

  11. Cell surface modulation of gene expression in brain cells by down regulation of glucocorticoid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, J.F.; de Vellis, J.

    1981-02-01

    The concentration of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH; sn-glycerol-3-phosphate:NAD/sup +/ 2-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.8) had previously been determined to be regulated by glucocorticoids in rat brain cells in vivo and in cell culture. We now demonstrate that concanavalin A (Con A) can inhibit the induction of GPDH in a dose-dependent manner in C6 rat glioma cells and in primary cultures of rat brain oligodendrocytes. The inhibition specifically prevents the appearance of new molecules of GPDH, although Con A does not significantly inhibit protein synthesis in these cells, nor does it affect the activity of another solube enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase. The ability to block enzyme induction is not limited to Con A, because other lectins also inhibit induction. The molecular mechanism by which Con A inhibits GPDH induction appears to be by the down regulation of the cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors, because exposure to Con A results in the loss of more than 90% of the receptor activity. Con A does not inhibit the receptor assay and no direct interaction between the receptor and Con A could be demonstrated. This down regulation is not tumor cell specific and appears to be a general phenomenon, because it occurs in normal oligodendrocytes and even in normal astrocytes (a cell type in which the gene for GPDH is not expressed). The down regulation of glucocorticoid receptors in normal brain cells suggests two important corollaries. First, it demonstrates the existence of a rate-limiting step controlling the glucocorticoid-dependent gene expression in brain cells and possibly represents a regulatory site common to all glucocorticoid target cells. Second, it suggests that the response to glucocorticoids of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes can be regulated in vivo by cell surface contact with endogenous lectins, neighboring cells, or both.

  12. G{sub 1} arrest and down-regulation of cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine are dependent on the retinoblastoma protein in the bladder carcinoma cell line 5637

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnier, J.B.; Nishi, K. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Goodrich, D.W. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-11

    The protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine has been shown to induce G{sub 1} phase arrest in normal cells but not in most transformed cells. Staurosporine did not induce G{sub 1} phase arrest in the bladder carcinoma cell line 5637 that lacks a functional retinoblastoma protein (pRB{sup {minus}}). However, when infected with a pRB-expressing retrovirus, these cells, now pRB{sup +} and pRB{sup {minus}} cells, cyclin D1-associated kinase activities were reduced on staurosporine treatment. In contrast, cylin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2 and cyclin E/CDK2 activities were inhibited only in pRB{sup +} cells. Staurosporine treatment did not cause reductions in the protein levels of CDK4, cyclin D1, CDK2, or cyclin E. The CDK inhibitor proteins p21{sup (Wafl/Cipl)} and p27{sup (Kipl}) levels increased in staurosporine-treated cells. Immunoprecipitation of CDK2, cyclin E, and p21 form staurosporine-treated pRB{sup +} cells revealed a 2.5- to 3-fold higher ratio of p21 bound to CDK2 compared with staurosporine-treated pRB cells. In pRB{sup +} cells, p21 was preferentially associated with Thr160 phosphorylated active CDK2. In pRB{sup {minus}} cells, however, p21 was bound preferentially to the unphosphorylated, inactive form of CDK2 even though the phosphorylated form was abundant. This is the first evidence suggesting that G{sub 1} arrest by 4 nM staurosporine is dependent on a functional pRB protein. Cell cycle arrest at the pRB-dependent checkpoint may prevent activation of cyclin E/CDK2 by stabilizing its interaction with inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. 47 refs.

  13. Down-regulated expression of atypical PKC-binding domain deleted asip isoforms in human hepatocellular carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Asip is a mammalian homologue of polarity protein Par-3 of Caenorhabditis elegans and Bazooka of Drosophila melanogaster. Asip/Par-3/Bazooka are PDZ-motif containing proteins that localize asymmetrically to the cell periphery and play a pivotal role in cell polarity and asymmetric cell division. In the present study, we have cloned human asip cDNA and its splicing variants by 5'-RACE and RT-PCR using candidate human EST clones which have a high homology to rat asip cDNA. The full-length cDNA of human asip encodes a 1,353 aa protein exhibiting 88% similarity to the rat one. Human asip is a single copy gene consisting of at least 26 exons and localizing in human chromosome 10, band p11.2, with some extraordinarily long introns. All exon/intron boundary nucleotides conform to the “gt-ag” rule. Three main transcripts were detected by Northern blot analysis, and at least five variants, from alternative splicing and polyadenylation, have been identified by RT-PCR and liver cDNA library screening. Exon 17b deleted asip mRNAs expressed ubiquitously in normal human tissues, including liver, on RT-PCR analysis. However, they were absent from most human liver cancer cell lines examined. More interestingly, the expression of exon 17b deleted variants was down regulated in 52.6% (10/19) clinic specimens of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), compared with the surrounding nontumorous liver tissues from the same patients. The presence of various splicing transcripts, the variation of their distribution among different tissues and cells, and their differential expressions in human HCCs suggest that human Asip isoforms may function in different context.

  14. SAMHD1 is down regulated in lung cancer by methylation and inhibits tumor cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • SAMHD1 expression level is down regulated in lung adenocarcinoma. • The promoter of SAMHD1 is methylated in lung adenocarcinoma. • Over expression of SAMHD1 inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells. - Abstract: The function of dNTP hydrolase SAMHD1 as a viral restriction factor to inhibit the replication of several viruses in human immune cells was well established. However, its regulation and function in lung cancer have been elusive. Here, we report that SAMHD1 is down regulated both on protein and mRNA levels in lung adenocarcinoma compared to adjacent normal tissue. We also found that SAMHD1 promoter is highly methylated in lung adenocarcinoma, which may inhibit its gene expression. Furthermore, over expression of the SAMHD1 reduces dNTP level and inhibits the proliferation of lung tumor cells. These results reveal the regulation and function of SAMHD1 in lung cancer, which is important for the proliferation of lung tumor cells

  15. SAMHD1 is down regulated in lung cancer by methylation and inhibits tumor cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia-lei [Department of Medical Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032 (China); Lu, Fan-zhen [Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Shen, Xiao-Yong, E-mail: shengxiaoyong_sh@163.com [Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Wu, Yun, E-mail: WuYun_hd@163.com [Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Zhao, Li-ting [Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SAMHD1 expression level is down regulated in lung adenocarcinoma. • The promoter of SAMHD1 is methylated in lung adenocarcinoma. • Over expression of SAMHD1 inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells. - Abstract: The function of dNTP hydrolase SAMHD1 as a viral restriction factor to inhibit the replication of several viruses in human immune cells was well established. However, its regulation and function in lung cancer have been elusive. Here, we report that SAMHD1 is down regulated both on protein and mRNA levels in lung adenocarcinoma compared to adjacent normal tissue. We also found that SAMHD1 promoter is highly methylated in lung adenocarcinoma, which may inhibit its gene expression. Furthermore, over expression of the SAMHD1 reduces dNTP level and inhibits the proliferation of lung tumor cells. These results reveal the regulation and function of SAMHD1 in lung cancer, which is important for the proliferation of lung tumor cells.

  16. TCR Down-Regulation Controls Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil;

    2008-01-01

    The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation. However, little is understood about the role of the CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif in physiological T cell responses. In this study, we show that the expansion in numbers of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is impaired...... in mice with a mutated CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif. The CD3gamma mutation did not impair early TCR signaling, nor did it compromise recruitment or proliferation of virus-specific T cells, but it increased the apoptosis rate of the activated T cells by increasing down-regulation of the...... antiapoptotic molecule Bcl-2. This resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during the acute phase of vesicular stomatitis virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. These results identify an important role of CD3gamma-mediated TCR down-regulation in...

  17. TCR down-regulation controls virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil;

    2008-01-01

    The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation. However, little is understood about the role of the CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif in physiological T cell responses. In this study, we show that the expansion in numbers of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is impaired...... in mice with a mutated CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif. The CD3gamma mutation did not impair early TCR signaling, nor did it compromise recruitment or proliferation of virus-specific T cells, but it increased the apoptosis rate of the activated T cells by increasing down-regulation of the...... antiapoptotic molecule Bcl-2. This resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during the acute phase of vesicular stomatitis virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. These results identify an important role of CD3gamma-mediated TCR down-regulation in...

  18. CHIP mediates down-regulation of nucleobindin-1 in preosteoblast cell line models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fuying; Wu, Yanping; Zhao, Xinghui; Zhao, Taoran; Meng, Ying; Zhao, Zhanzhong; Guo, Junwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Nucleobindin-1 (NUCB1), also known as Calnuc, is a highly conserved, multifunctional protein widely expressed in tissues and cells. It contains two EF-hand motifs which have been shown to play a crucial role in binding Ca(2+) ions. In this study, we applied comparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to characterize differentially expressed proteins in HA-CHIP over-expressed and endogenous CHIP depleted MC3T3-E1 stable cell lines, identifying NUCB1 as a novel CHIP/Stub1 targeted protein. NUCB1 interacts with and is down-regulated by CHIP by both proteasomal dependent and independent pathways, suggesting that CHIP-mediated down-regulation of nucleobindin-1 might play a role in osteoblast differentiation. The chaperone protein Hsp70 was found to be important for CHIP and NUCB1 interaction as well as CHIP-mediated NUCB1 down-regulation. Our findings provide new insights into understanding the stability regulation of NUCB1. PMID:27178152

  19. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor down-regulation limits the extent of inhibition of cell cycle progression in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Detjen, K.; Yang, J; Logsdon, C D

    1995-01-01

    Cellular desensitization is believed to be important for growth control but direct evidence is lacking. In the current study we compared effects of wild-type and down-regulation-resistant mutant m3 muscarinic receptors on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cell desensitization, proliferation, and transformation. We found that down-regulation of m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was the principal mechanism of desensitization of receptor-activated inositol phosphate phospholipid hydrolysis in t...

  20. Down-regulation of Wnt10a affects odontogenesis and proliferation in mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Down-regulation of Wnt10a in dental mesenchymal cells impairs odontogenesis of reassociated tooth germs. •Dspp is down- and up-regulated after Wnt10a-knockdown and overexpression in dental mesenchymal cells. •Down-regulation of Wnt10a inhibits proliferation of dental mesenchymal cells. -- Abstract: The WNT10a mutation has been found in patients with abnormal odontogenesis. In mice, Wnt10a expression is found in the tooth germ, but its role has not yet been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the role of Wnt10a in odontogenesis. Mesenchymal cells of the first mandibular molar germ at the bell stage were isolated, transfected with Wnt10a SiRNA or plasmid, and reassociated with epithelial part of the molar germ. Scrambled SiRNA or empty vector was used in the control group. The reassociated tooth germs were transplanted into mice subrenal capsules. After gene modification, dental mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro were checked for cell proliferation and the expression of Dspp was examined. All 12 reassociated tooth germs in the control group resumed odontogenesis, while only 5 of 12 in the Wnt10a knockdown group developed into teeth. After Wnt10a knockdown, the mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro presented repressed proliferation. Wnt10a knockdown and overexpression led to both down- and up-regulation of Dspp. We conclude that the down-regulation of Wnt10a impairs odontogensis and cell proliferation, and that Wnt10a regulates Dspp expression in mesenchymal cells. These findings help to elucidate the mechanism of abnormal tooth development in patients with the WNT10A mutation

  1. Down-regulation of Wnt10a affects odontogenesis and proliferation in mesenchymal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang, E-mail: Ly10160624@163.com; Han, Dong, E-mail: Donghan@bjmu.edu.cn; Wang, Lei, E-mail: wanglei_dentist@163.com; Feng, Hailan, E-mail: kqfenghl@bjmu.edu.cn

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •Down-regulation of Wnt10a in dental mesenchymal cells impairs odontogenesis of reassociated tooth germs. •Dspp is down- and up-regulated after Wnt10a-knockdown and overexpression in dental mesenchymal cells. •Down-regulation of Wnt10a inhibits proliferation of dental mesenchymal cells. -- Abstract: The WNT10a mutation has been found in patients with abnormal odontogenesis. In mice, Wnt10a expression is found in the tooth germ, but its role has not yet been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the role of Wnt10a in odontogenesis. Mesenchymal cells of the first mandibular molar germ at the bell stage were isolated, transfected with Wnt10a SiRNA or plasmid, and reassociated with epithelial part of the molar germ. Scrambled SiRNA or empty vector was used in the control group. The reassociated tooth germs were transplanted into mice subrenal capsules. After gene modification, dental mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro were checked for cell proliferation and the expression of Dspp was examined. All 12 reassociated tooth germs in the control group resumed odontogenesis, while only 5 of 12 in the Wnt10a knockdown group developed into teeth. After Wnt10a knockdown, the mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro presented repressed proliferation. Wnt10a knockdown and overexpression led to both down- and up-regulation of Dspp. We conclude that the down-regulation of Wnt10a impairs odontogensis and cell proliferation, and that Wnt10a regulates Dspp expression in mesenchymal cells. These findings help to elucidate the mechanism of abnormal tooth development in patients with the WNT10A mutation.

  2. Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases characteristics associated with maintenance of cell transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early endosomal protein Rab5 is highly expressed in tumor samples, although a causal relationship between Rab5 expression and cell transformation has not been established. Here, we report the functional effects of targeting endogenous Rab5 with specific shRNA sequences in different tumor cell lines. Rab5 down-regulation in B16-F10 cells decreased tumor formation by subcutaneous injection into C57/BL6 mice. Accordingly, Rab5 targeting in B16-F10 and A549, but not MDA-MB-231 cells was followed by decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and decreased anchorage-independent growth. These findings suggest that Rab5 expression is required to maintain characteristics associated with cell transformation. - Highlights: • Rab5 is important to the maintenance of cell transformation characteristics. • Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in different cancer cells. • Rab5 is required for anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in-vivo

  3. Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases characteristics associated with maintenance of cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricio; Soto, Nicolás [Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Díaz, Jorge [Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Center for Molecular Studies of the Cell, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBM), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Mendoza, Pablo [Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Díaz, Natalia [Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Center for Molecular Studies of the Cell, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBM), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Quest, Andrew F.G. [Center for Molecular Studies of the Cell, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBM), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Torres, Vicente A., E-mail: vatorres@med.uchile.cl [Institute for Research in Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-08-21

    The early endosomal protein Rab5 is highly expressed in tumor samples, although a causal relationship between Rab5 expression and cell transformation has not been established. Here, we report the functional effects of targeting endogenous Rab5 with specific shRNA sequences in different tumor cell lines. Rab5 down-regulation in B16-F10 cells decreased tumor formation by subcutaneous injection into C57/BL6 mice. Accordingly, Rab5 targeting in B16-F10 and A549, but not MDA-MB-231 cells was followed by decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and decreased anchorage-independent growth. These findings suggest that Rab5 expression is required to maintain characteristics associated with cell transformation. - Highlights: • Rab5 is important to the maintenance of cell transformation characteristics. • Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in different cancer cells. • Rab5 is required for anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in-vivo.

  4. Down regulation of Wnt signaling mitigates hypoxia-induced chemoresistance in human osteosarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J Scholten

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common type of solid bone cancer and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death for children and young adults. Hypoxia is an element intrinsic to most solid-tumor microenvironments, including that of OS, and is associated with resistance to therapy, poor survival, and a malignant phenotype. Cells respond to hypoxia through alterations in gene expression, mediated most notably through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF class of transcription factors. Here we investigate hypoxia-induced changes in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, a key signaling cascade involved in OS pathogenesis. We show that hypoxia results in increased expression and signaling activation of HIF proteins in human osteosarcoma cells. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is down-regulated by hypoxia in human OS cells, as demonstrated by decreased active β-catenin protein levels and axin2 mRNA expression (p<0.05. This down-regulation appears to rely on both HIF-independent and HIF-dependent mechanisms, with HIF-1α standing out as an important regulator. Finally, we show that hypoxia results in resistance of human OS cells to doxorubicin-mediated toxicity (6-13 fold increase, p<0.01. These hypoxic OS cells can be sensitized to doxorubicin treatment by further inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway (p<0.05. These data support the conclusion that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is down-regulated in human OS cells under hypoxia and that this signaling alteration may represent a viable target to combat chemoresistant OS subpopulations in a hypoxic niche.

  5. Curcumin and emodin down-regulate TGF-β signaling pathway in human cervical cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Chandrakant Thacker

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the major cause of cancer related deaths in women, especially in developing countries and Human Papilloma Virus infection in conjunction with multiple deregulated signaling pathways leads to cervical carcinogenesis. TGF-β signaling in later stages of cancer is known to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition promoting tumor growth. Phytochemicals, curcumin and emodin, are effective as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic compounds against several cancers including cervical cancer. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of curcumin and emodin on TGF-β signaling pathway and its functional relevance to growth, migration and invasion in two cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. Since TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways are known to cross talk having common downstream targets, we analyzed the effect of TGF-β on β-catenin (an important player in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and also studied whether curcumin and emodin modulate them. We observed that curcumin and emodin effectively down regulate TGF-β signaling pathway by decreasing the expression of TGF-β Receptor II, P-Smad3 and Smad4, and also counterbalance the tumorigenic effects of TGF-β by inhibiting the TGF-β-induced migration and invasion. Expression of downstream effectors of TGF-β signaling pathway, cyclinD1, p21 and Pin1, was inhibited along with the down regulation of key mesenchymal markers (Snail and Slug upon curcumin and emodin treatment. Curcumin and emodin were also found to synergistically inhibit cell population and migration in SiHa and HeLa cells. Moreover, we found that TGF-β activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HeLa cells, and curcumin and emodin down regulate the pathway by inhibiting β-catenin. Taken together our data provide a mechanistic basis for the use of curcumin and emodin in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  6. Curcumin down-regulates AR gene expression and activation in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keiichiro; Yasunaga, Yutaka; Segawa, Takehiko; Ko, Daejin; Moul, Judd W; Srivastava, Shiv; Rhim, Johng S

    2002-10-01

    Curcumin, traditionally used as a seasoning spice in Indian cuisine, has been reported to decrease the proliferation potential of prostate cancer cells, by a mechanism that is not fully understood. In the current study, we have evaluated the effects of curcumin in cell growth, activation of signal transduction, and transforming activities of both androgen-dependent and independent cell lines. Prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and PC-3, were treated with curcumin and its effects were further analyzed on signal transduction and expression of androgen receptor (AR) and AR-related cofactors using transient transfection assay and Western blotting. Our results show that curcumin down-regulates transactivation and expression of AR, activator protein-1 (AP-1), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein)-binding protein (CBP). Curcumin also inhibited the transforming activities of both cell lines as evidenced by the reduced colony forming ability in soft agar. The results obtained here demonstrate that curcumin has a potential therapeutic effect on prostate cancer cells through down-regulation of AR and AR-related cofactors (AP-1, NF-kappaB and CBP). PMID:12239622

  7. ATM down-regulation is associated with poor prognosis in sporadic breast carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bueno, R C; Canevari, R A; Villacis, R A R;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene downexpression has been reported in sporadic breast carcinomas (BC); however, the prognostic value and mechanisms of ATM deregulation remain unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ATM and miRNAs (miR-26a, miR-26b, miR-203, miR-421, miR-664, miR-576-5p...

  8. Down-regulation of SOSTDC1 promotes thyroid cancer cell proliferation via regulating cyclin A2 and cyclin E2

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Weiwei; Guan, Hongyu; He, Xiaoying; KE, WEIJIAN; Xu, Lijuan; Liu, Liehua; Xiao, Haipeng; Li, Yanbing

    2015-01-01

    Sclerostin domain containing protein 1 (SOSTDC1) is down-regulated and acts as a tumor suppressor in some kinds of cancers. However, the expression pattern and biological significance of SOSTDC1 in thyroid cancer are largely unknown. We demonstrated that SOSTDC1 was significantly down-regulated in thyroid cancer. Ectopic over-expression of SOSTDC1 inhibited proliferation and induced G1/S arrest in thyroid cancer cells. Moreover, SOSTDC1 over-expression suppressed the growth of tumor xenograft...

  9. Down-Regulation of Cell Surface Receptors Is Modulated by Polar Residues within the Transmembrane Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Zaliauskiene, Lolita; Kang, Sunghyun; Brouillette, Christie G; Lebowitz, Jacob; Arani, Ramin B; Collawn, James F.

    2000-01-01

    How recycling receptors are segregated from down-regulated receptors in the endosome is unknown. In previous studies, we demonstrated that substitutions in the transferrin receptor (TR) transmembrane domain (TM) convert the protein from an efficiently recycling receptor to one that is rapidly down regulated. In this study, we demonstrate that the “signal” within the TM necessary and sufficient for down-regulation is Thr11Gln17Thr19 (numbering in TM). Transplant...

  10. Nrf2-heme oxygenase-1 axis in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lung: Antitumoral effects associated with down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertil, Magdalena; Golda, Slawomir; Skrzypek, Klaudia; Florczyk, Urszula; Weglarczyk, Kazimierz; Kotlinowski, Jerzy; Maleszewska, Monika; Czauderna, Szymon; Pichon, Chantal; Kieda, Claudine; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    Lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a very poorly characterized rare subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) associated with more favorable prognoses than other forms of intrathoracic malignancies. We have previously identified that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by HMOX1) inhibits MEC tumor growth and modulates the transcriptome of microRNAs. Here we investigate the role of a major upstream regulator of HO-1 and a master regulator of cellular antioxidant responses, transcription factor Nrf2, in MEC biology. Nrf2 overexpression in the NCI-H292 MEC cell line mimicked the phenotype of HO-1 overexpressing cells, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and migration and down-regulation of oncogenic miR-378. HMOX1 silencing identified HO-1 as a major mediator of Nrf2 action. Nrf2- and HO-1 overexpressing cells exhibited strongly diminished expression of multiple matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β, which was confirmed in an NCI-HO-1 xenograft model. Overexpression of HO-1 altered not only human MMP levels in tumor cells but also murine MMP levels within tumor microenvironment and metastatic niche. This could possibly contribute to decreased metastasis to the lungs and inhibitory effects of HO-1 on MEC tumor growth. Our profound transcriptome analysis and molecular characterization of the mucoepidermoid lung carcinoma helps to understand the specific clinical presentations of these tumors, emphasizing a unique antitumoral role of the Nrf2-HO-1 axis. PMID:26393425

  11. Concerted down-regulation of immune-system related genes predicts metastasis in colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at the identification of prognostic gene expression markers in early primary colorectal carcinomas without metastasis at the time point of surgery by analyzing genome-wide gene expression profiles using oligonucleotide microarrays. Cryo-conserved tumor specimens from 45 patients with early colorectal cancers were examined, with the majority of them being UICC stage II or earlier and with a follow-up time of 41–115 months. Gene expression profiling was performed using Whole Human Genome 4x44K Oligonucleotide Microarrays. Validation of microarray data was performed on five of the genes in a smaller cohort. Using a novel algorithm based on the recursive application of support vector machines (SVMs), we selected a signature of 44 probes that discriminated between patients developing later metastasis and patients with a good prognosis. Interestingly, almost half of the genes was related to the patients’ immune response and showed reduced expression in the metastatic cases. Whereas up to now gene signatures containing genes with various biological functions have been described for prediction of metastasis in CRC, in this study metastasis could be well predicted by a set of gene expression markers consisting exclusively of genes related to the MHC class II complex involved in immune response. Thus, our data emphasize that the proper function of a comprehensive network of immune response genes is of vital importance for the survival of colorectal cancer patients

  12. Znhit1 causes cell cycle arrest and down-regulates CDK6 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) is the key element of the D-type cyclin holoenzymes which has been found to function in the regulation of G1-phase of the cell cycle and is presumed to play important roles in T cell function. In this study, Znhit1, a member of a new zinc finger protein family defined by a conserved Zf-HIT domain, induced arrest in the G1-phase of the cell cycle in NIH/3T3 cells. Of the G1 cell cycle factors examined, the expression of CDK6 was found to be strongly down-regulated by Znhit1 via transcriptional repression. This effect may have correlations with the decreased acetylation level of histone H4 in the CDK6 promoter region. In addition, considering that CDK6 expression predominates in T cells, the negative regulatory role of Znhit1 in TCR-induced T cell proliferation was validated using transgenic mice. These findings identified Znhit1 as a CDK6 regulator that plays an important role in cell proliferation.

  13. Down-Regulation of NDUFB9 Promotes Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation, Metastasis by Mediating Mitochondrial Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang-Dong; Sun, He-Fen; Liu, Xue-Xiao; Gao, Shui-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Lin; Hu, Xin; Jin, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in basic and clinical research, metastasis remains the leading cause of death in breast cancer patients. Genetic abnormalities in mitochondria, including mutations affecting complex I and oxidative phosphorylation, are found in breast cancers and might facilitate metastasis. Genes encoding complex I components have significant breast cancer prognostic value. In this study, we used quantitative proteomic analyses to compare a highly metastatic cancer cell line and a parental breast cancer cell line; and observed that NDUFB9, an accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (complex I), was down-regulated in highly metastatic breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that loss of NDUFB9 promotes MDA-MB-231 cells proliferation, migration, and invasion because of elevated levels of mtROS, disturbance of the NAD+/NADH balance, and depletion of mtDNA. We also showed that, the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway and EMT might be involved in this mechanism. Thus, our findings contribute novel data to support the hypothesis that misregulation of mitochondrial complex I NADH dehydrogenase activity can profoundly enhance the aggressiveness of human breast cancer cells, suggesting that complex I deficiency is a potential and important biomarker for further basic research or clinical application. PMID:26641458

  14. Role of calcium signaling in down-regulation of aggrecan induced by cyclic tensile strain in annulus fibrosus cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhi-liang; ZHOU Yue; LI Hua-zhuang; CAO Guo-yong; TENG Hai-jun

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To study the role of intracellular calcium signal pathway in the down-regulation of aggrecan induced by cyclic tensile strain in the annulus fibrosus cells. Methods :The expression of aggrecan mRNA and core protein were respectively detected with RT-PCR and western blot after the channels transmitting calcium ions were blocked with EGTA, gadolinium and verapamil. Results:EGTA, gadolinium and verapamil partially prevented the effects of cyclic tensile strain on the expression of aggrecan in annulus fibrosus cells. Conclusion:The calcium signaling is involved in the down-regulation of proteoglycan resulting from cyclic tensile strain in the annulus fibrosus cells.

  15. The effect of down-regulating the expression of mTOR on the thermosensitivity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721%下调mTOR基因表达对人肝癌细胞SMMC-7721热疗增敏效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆亮; 郭宇; 刘波; 杨培生; 华学锋; 叶小鸣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of hyperthermia on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 after down-regulating the expression of mTOR,and its possible mechanisms.Methods An antisense mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) gene eukaryotic expression vector was transfected into SMMC-7721 cells.The expression of mTOR mRNA and protein were detected using RT-PCR and Western blotting,respectively.Hyperthermia was applied after the transfection,and the vitality of cell proliferation was evaluated using CCK-8 assays and the clone formation rate was determined by colony-forming assays.The migration of SMMC-7721 cells was measured using scratch assays.Apoptosis and the cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry.Results The expression of mTOR mRNA and protein were significantly decreased after transfection,indicating that the antisense vector could down-regulate the mTOR gene effectively.The proliferation,clone formation and migration of SMMC-7721 cells all were decreased markedly by hyperthermia after transfection.Flow cytometry showed that the rate of apoptosis was significantly increased.The number of cells in the S phase was increased and the cell cycle was induced to arrest at the S phase.Conclusions Down-regulating the expression of mTOR can increase the thermosensitivity of SMMC-7721 cells.The mechanism involves increased apoptosis and S phase arrest.%目的 观察下调哺乳动物雷帕霉素靶蛋白(mTOR)基因表达对人肝癌细胞SMMC-7721热疗敏感性的影响并初步探讨其作用机制.方法 通过脂质体介导mTOR反义真核表达载体转染SMMC-7721细胞,分别采用RT-PCR和Western blot技术检测转染后mTOR基因mRNA及蛋白表达.SMMC-7721细胞经转染后给予热疗处理,采用CCK-8法检测细胞增殖活性,采用平板克隆实验检测克隆形成率,采用细胞划痕实验检测迁移能力,采用流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡及周期变化情况.结果 SMMC-7721细胞转染后其mTOR基因mRNA表达(0.23±0

  16. Growth differentiation factor 8 down-regulates pentraxin 3 in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Fang, Lanlan; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Klausen, Christian; Sun, Ying-Pu; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-03-15

    Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), also known as myostatin, is highly expressed in the mammalian musculoskeletal system and plays critical roles in the regulation of skeletal muscle growth. Though not exclusively expressed in the musculoskeletal system, the expression and biological function of GDF8 has never been examined in the human ovary. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) plays a key role in the assembly of extracellular matrix, which is essential for cumulus expansion, ovulation and in vivo fertilization. The aim of this study was to investigate GDF8 expression and function in human granulosa cells and to examine its underlying molecular determinants. An established immortalized human granulosa cell line (SVOG), granulosa cell tumor cell line (KGN) and primary granulosa-lutein cells were used as study models. We now demonstrate for the first time that GDF8 is expressed in human granulosa cells and follicular fluid. All 16 follicular fluid samples tested contained GDF8 protein at an average concentration of 3 ng/ml. In addition, GDF8 treatment significantly decreased PTX3 mRNA and protein levels. These suppressive effects, along with the induction of SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, were abolished by co-treatment with the ALK4/5/7 inhibitor SB431542. Knockdown of ALK5, ACVR2A/ACVR2B or SMAD4 reversed the effects of GDF8-induced PTX3 suppression. These results indicate that GDF8 down-regulates PTX3 expression via ACVR2A/ACVR2B-ALK5-mediated SMAD-dependent signaling in human granulosa cells. These novel findings support a potential role for GDF8 in the regulation of follicular function, likely via autocrine effects on human granulosa cells. PMID:25641196

  17. Nutlin-3 down-regulates retinoblastoma protein expression and inhibits muscle cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene plays a critical role in regulation of proliferation, cell death and differentiation. The MDM2 oncoprotein is a major negative regulator for p53 by binding to and targeting p53 for proteasome-mediated degradation. The small molecule inhibitor, nutlin-3, disrupts MDM2-p53 interaction resulting in stabilization and activation of p53 protein. We have previously shown that nutlin-3 activates p53, leading to MDM2 accumulation as concomitant of reduced retinoblastoma (Rb) protein stability. It is well known that Rb is important in muscle development and myoblast differentiation and that rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), or cancer of the skeletal muscle, typically harbors MDM2 amplification. In this study, we show that nutlin-3 inhibited myoblast proliferation and effectively prevented myoblast differentiation, as evidenced by lack of expression of muscle differentiation markers including myogenin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), as well as a failure to form multinucleated myotubes, which were associated with dramatic increases in MDM2 expression and decrease in Rb protein levels. These results indicate that nutlin-3 can effectively inhibit muscle cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Nutlin-3 inhibits myoblast proliferation and prevents differentiation into myotubes. • Nutlin-3 increases MDM2 expression and down-regulates Rb protein levels. • This study has implication in nutlin-3 treatment of rhabdomyosarcomas

  18. Nutlin-3 down-regulates retinoblastoma protein expression and inhibits muscle cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Erica M. [Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Niu, MengMeng; Bergholz, Johann [Center of Growth, Metabolism and Aging, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610014 China (China); Jim Xiao, Zhi-Xiong, E-mail: jxiao@bu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Center of Growth, Metabolism and Aging, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610014 China (China)

    2015-05-29

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene plays a critical role in regulation of proliferation, cell death and differentiation. The MDM2 oncoprotein is a major negative regulator for p53 by binding to and targeting p53 for proteasome-mediated degradation. The small molecule inhibitor, nutlin-3, disrupts MDM2-p53 interaction resulting in stabilization and activation of p53 protein. We have previously shown that nutlin-3 activates p53, leading to MDM2 accumulation as concomitant of reduced retinoblastoma (Rb) protein stability. It is well known that Rb is important in muscle development and myoblast differentiation and that rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), or cancer of the skeletal muscle, typically harbors MDM2 amplification. In this study, we show that nutlin-3 inhibited myoblast proliferation and effectively prevented myoblast differentiation, as evidenced by lack of expression of muscle differentiation markers including myogenin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), as well as a failure to form multinucleated myotubes, which were associated with dramatic increases in MDM2 expression and decrease in Rb protein levels. These results indicate that nutlin-3 can effectively inhibit muscle cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Nutlin-3 inhibits myoblast proliferation and prevents differentiation into myotubes. • Nutlin-3 increases MDM2 expression and down-regulates Rb protein levels. • This study has implication in nutlin-3 treatment of rhabdomyosarcomas.

  19. Eugenol triggers apoptosis in breast cancer cells through E2F1/survivin down-regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is a major health problem that threatens the lives of millions of women worldwide each year. Most of the chemotherapeutic agents that are currently used to treat this complex disease are highly toxic with long-term side effects. Therefore, novel generation of anti-cancer drugs with higher efficiency and specificity are urgently needed. Breast cancer cell lines were treated with eugenol and cytotoxicity was measured using the WST-1 reagent, while propidium iodide/annexinV associated with flow cytometry was utilized in order to determine the induced cell death pathway. The effect of eugenol on apoptotic and pro-carcinogenic proteins, both in vitro and in tumor xenografts was assessed by immunoblotting. While RT-PCR was used to determine eugenol effect on the E2F1 and survivin mRNA levels. In addition, we tested the effect of eugenol on cell proliferation using the real-time cell electronic sensing system. Eugenol at low dose (2 μM) has specific toxicity against different breast cancer cells. This killing effect was mediated mainly through inducing the internal apoptotic pathway and strong down-regulation of E2F1 and its downstream antiapoptosis target survivin, independently of the status of p53 and ERα. Eugenol inhibited also several other breast cancer related oncogenes, such as NF-κB and cyclin D1. Moreover, eugenol up-regulated the versatile cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 protein, and inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells in a p53-independent manner. Importantly, these anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects were also observed in vivo in xenografted human breast tumors. Eugenol exhibits anti-breast cancer properties both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that it could be used to consolidate the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer through targeting the E2F1/survivin pathway, especially for the less responsive triple-negative subtype of the disease

  20. Down-regulation of SOSTDC1 promotes thyroid cancer cell proliferation via regulating cyclin A2 and cyclin E2

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoying; Ke, Weijian; Xu, Lijuan; Liu, Liehua; Xiao, Haipeng; Li, Yanbing

    2015-01-01

    Sclerostin domain containing protein 1 (SOSTDC1) is down-regulated and acts as a tumor suppressor in some kinds of cancers. However, the expression pattern and biological significance of SOSTDC1 in thyroid cancer are largely unknown. We demonstrated that SOSTDC1 was significantly down-regulated in thyroid cancer. Ectopic over-expression of SOSTDC1 inhibited proliferation and induced G1/S arrest in thyroid cancer cells. Moreover, SOSTDC1 over-expression suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts in nude mice. We also found that elevated SOSTDC1 led to inhibition of cyclin A2 and cyclin E2. Together, our results demonstrate that SOSTDC1 is down-regulated in thyroid cancer and might be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:26378658

  1. Multinuclear giant cell formation is enhanced by down-regulation of Wnt signaling in gastric cancer cell line, AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AGS cells, which were derived from malignant gastric adenocarcinoma tissue, lack E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion but have a high level of nuclear β-catenin, which suggests altered Wnt signal. In addition, approximately 5% of AGS cells form multinuclear giant cells in the routine culture conditions, while taxol treatment causes most AGS cells to become giant cells. The observation of reduced nuclear β-catenin levels in giant cells induced by taxol treatment prompted us to investigate the relationship between Wnt signaling and giant cell formation. After overnight serum starvation, the shape of AGS cells became flattened, and this morphological change was accompanied by decrease in Myc expression and an increase in the giant cell population. Lithium chloride treatment, which inhibits GSK3β activity, reversed these serum starvation effects, which suggests an inverse relationship between Wnt signaling and giant cell formation. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Wnt signaling caused by the over-expression of ICAT, E-cadherin, and Axin enhanced giant cell formation. Therefore, down-regulation of Wnt signaling may be related to giant cell formation, which is considered to be a survival mechanism against induced cell death

  2. Endothelial progenitor cell down-regulation in a mouse model of Kawasaki disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun-feng; DU Zhong-dong; CHEN Zhi; LU Dun-xiang; LI Li; GUAN Yun-qian; WAN Sui-gui

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular complications of Kawasaki disease (KD) are a common cause of heart disease in pediatric populations.Previous studies have suggested a role for endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in coronary artery lesions associated with KD.However,long-term observations of EPCs during the natural progression of this disorder are lacking.Using an experimental model of KD,we aimed to determine whether the coronary artery lesions are associated with down-regulation of EPCs.Methods To induce KD,C57BL/6 mice were administered an intraperitoneal injection of Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE; phosphate buffered saline used as control vehicle).Study groups included:group A (14 days following LCWE injection),group B (56 days following LCWE injection) and group C (controls).Numbers of circulating EPCs (positively staining for both CD34 and FIk-1 while staining negative for CD45) were evaluated using flow cytometry.Bone marrow mononuclear cells were cultured in vitro to expand EPCs for functional analysis.In vitro EPC proliferation,adhesion and migration were assessed.Results The model was shown to exhibit similar coronary artery lesions to KD patients with coronary aneurysms.Numbers of circulating EPCs decreased significantly in the KD models (groups A and B) compared to controls ((0.017±0.008)% VS.(0.028±0.007)%,P<0.05 and (0.016±0.007)% vs.(0.028±0.007)%,P <0.05).Proliferative,adhesive and migratory properties of EPCs were markedly impaired in groups A and B.Conclusion Coronary artery lesions in KD occur as a consequence of impaired vascular injury repair,resulting from excess consumption of EPCs together with a functional impairment of bone marrow EPCs and their precursors.

  3. Down-regulated βIII-tubulin Expression Can Reverse Paclitaxel Resistance in A549/Taxol Cells Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinling ZHUO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Chemotherapy drug resistance is the primary causes of death in patients with pulmonary carcinoma which make tumor recurrence or metastasis. β-tubulin is the main cell targets of anti-microtubule drug. Increased expression of βIII-tubulin has been implicated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines. To explore the relationship among the expression level of βIII-tubulin and the sensitivity of A549/Taxolcell lines to Taxol and cell cycles and cell apoptosis by RNA interference-mediated inhibition of βIII-tubulin in A549/Taxol cells. Methods Three pairs of siRNA targetd βIII-tubulin were designed and prepared, which were transfected into A549/Taxol cells using LipofectamineTM 2000. We detected the expression of βIII-tubulin mRNA using Real-time fluorescence qRT-PCR. Tedhen we selected the most efficient siRNA by the expression of βIII-tubulin mRNA in transfected group. βIII-tubulin protein level were mesured by Western blot. The taxol sensitivity in transfected group were evaluated by MTT assay. And the cell apoptosis and cell cycles were determined by flow cytometry. Results βIII-tubulin mRNA levels in A549/Taxol cells were significantly decreased in transfected grop by Real-time qRT-PCR than control groups. And βIII-tubulin siRNA-1 sequence showed the highest transfection efficiency, which was (87.73±4.87% (P<0.01; Western blot results showed that the expressional level of BIII tublin protein was significantly down-reulated in the transfectant cells than thant in the control cells. By MTT assay, we showed that the inhibition ratio of Taxol to A549/Taxol cells transfeced was higher than that of control group (51.77±4.60% (P<0.01. The early apoptosis rate of A549/Taxol cells in transfected group were significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.01; G2-M content in taxol group obviously increased than untreated samples by the cell cycle (P<0.05. Conclusion βIII-tubulin down-regulated significantly

  4. Association of Notch pathway down-regulation with Triple Negative/Basal-like breast carcinomas and high tumor-infiltrating FOXP3+ Tregs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Martínez, Fernando; Gutiérrez-Aviñó, Francisco José; Sanmartín, Elena; Pomares-Navarro, Eloy; Villalba-Riquelme, Cristina; García-Martínez, Araceli; Lerma, Enrique; Peiró, Gloria

    2016-06-01

    T regulatory cells (Tregs) are a lineage of lymphocytes involved in immune response suppression that are characterized by the expression of the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor. Notch pathway regulates FOXP3 transcription in Tregs, but its role in breast cancer is unknown. We aimed at studying whether Notch pathway regulates FOXP3 expression and Tregs content in breast cancer, and its association with luminal breast carcinomas. We analyzed by quantitative Real-Time PCR the mRNA levels of FOXP3, Notch pathway genes (Notch1, Notch2, Notch4 and Jagged1) and STAT3 in a series of 152 breast carcinomas including hormone receptor-positive and -negative phenotypes (luminal and Triple Negative/Basal-like). We also studied the protein expression of Notch1, STAT3 and FOXP3 by immunohistochemistry. High FOXP3 mRNA levels correlated with larger tumor size (p=0.010), histological grade 3 (p=0.008) and positive lymph-node status (p=0.031). Also, low levels of Notch pathway genes mRNA correlated with poor prognostic factors such as larger tumor size, positive lymph-node status, tumor phenotype and infiltrating tumor Tregs. A survival analysis for the patients showed that large tumor size, histological grade 3, vascular invasion, infiltrating Tregs and low Notch1 mRNA expression were significantly associated with a decreased patients' overall survival (p≤0.05). On a multivariate analysis, high Tregs content (HR=3.00, 95% CI 1.04-8.90, p=0.042) and low Notch1 mRNA levels (HR=3.33, 95% CI 1.02-10.86, p=0.046) were independent markers for overall survival. Our results support that the Notch pathway up-regulation promotes luminal breast carcinomas, whereas down-regulation correlates with the expression of FOXP3, favors tumor Tregs infiltration and associates with Triple Negative/Basal-like tumors. PMID:27118257

  5. DMBT1 expression is down-regulated in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braidotti, P; Nuciforo, P G; Mollenhauer, J;

    2004-01-01

    expression was down-regulated in the cancerous lesions compared to the normal and/or hyperplastic epithelium adjacent to carcinomas (3/55 positive carcinomas versus 33/42 positive normal/hyperplastic epithelia; p = 0.0001). In 72% of cases RT-PCR confirmed immunohistochemical results. Most of normal and...... hyperplastic mammary cells positive with DMBTh12 were also MCM5-positive. CONCLUSIONS: The redistribution and up-regulation of DMBT1 in normal and hyperplastic tissues flanking malignant tumours and its down-regulation in carcinomas suggests a potential role in breast cancer. Moreover, the concomitant...

  6. Down-regulation of HSP27 sensitizes TRAIL-resistant tumor cell to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Hongqin; Jiang, Weiwei; Cheng, Wei;

    2010-01-01

    oxygen species or anticancer drugs. Their elevated expressions facilitate cells to survive in stress circumstances. The HSP27 expression is enhanced in many tumor cells, implying that it is involved in tumor progression and the development of treatment resistance in various tumors, including lung cancer...... HSP27 siRNA on drug sensitization of A549 cells to TRAIL treatment. The results showed that treatment of A549 cells with HSP27 siRNA down-regulated HSP27 expression but did not induce significant apoptosis. However, combination of HSP27 siRNA with TRAIL-induced significant apoptosis in TRAIL......-resistant A549 cells. In addition to inducing caspases activation and apoptosis, combined treatment with HSP27 siRNA and TRAIL also increased JNK and p53 expression and activity. Collectively, these findings provide a conclusion that siRNA targeting of the HSP27 gene specifically down-regulated HSP27...

  7. Nucleolin down-regulation is involved in ADP-induced cell cycle arrest in S phase and cell apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenmeng Wang

    Full Text Available High concentration of extracellular ADP has been reported to induce cell apoptosis, but the molecular mechanisms remain not fully elucidated. In this study, we found by serendipity that ADP treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC and human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC down-regulated the protein level of nucleolin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ADP treatment did not decrease the transcript level of nucloelin, suggesting that ADP might induce nucleolin protein degradation. HUVEC and HAEC expressed ADP receptor P2Y13 receptor, but did not express P2Y1 or P2Y12 receptors. However, P2Y1, 12, 13 receptor antagonists MRS2179, PSB0739, MRS2211 did not inhibit ADP-induced down-regulation of nucleolin. Moreover, MRS2211 itself down-regulated nucleolin protein level. In addition, 2-MeSADP, an agonist for P2Y1, 12 and 13 receptors, did not down-regulate nucleolin protein. These results suggested that ADP-induced nucleolin down-regulation was not due to the activation of P2Y1, 12, or 13 receptors. We also found that ADP treatment induced cell cycle arrest in S phase, cell apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition via nucleolin down-regulation. The over-expression of nucleolin by gene transfer partly reversed ADP-induced cell cycle arrest, cell apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition. Furthermore, ADP sensitized HUVEC to cisplatin-induced cell death by the down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression. Taken together, we found, for the first time to our knowledge, a novel mechanism by which ADP regulates cell proliferation by induction of cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis via targeting nucelolin.

  8. Down-regulated expression of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► PTP1B protein showed decreased expression in 67.79% of the HCC patients. ► Low PTP1B expression predicts poor prognosis of HCC. ► Low PTP1B expression is correlated with expansion of OV6+ tumor-initiating cells. ► Down-regulation of PTP1B is associated with activation of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling. -- Abstract: The protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a classical non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in metabolic signaling and can exert both tumor suppressing and tumor promoting effects in different cancers depending on the substrate involved and the cellular context. However, the expression level and function of PTP1B in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, PTP1B expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in normal liver tissue (n = 16) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 169). The correlations between PTP1B expression level and clinicopathologic features and patient survival were also analyzed. One hundred and eleven of 169 HCC patients (65.7%) had negative or low PTP1B expression in tumorous tissues, whereas normal tissues always expressed strong PTP1B. Decreased PTP1B expression was significantly associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry also showed that low PTP1B expression level was correlated with high percentage of OV6+ tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) and high frequency of nuclear β-Catenin expression in HCC specimens. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the loss of inhibitory effect of PTP1B may contribute to progression and invasion of HCC through activation of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling and expansion of liver T-ICs. PTP1B may serve as a valuable prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in HCC.

  9. Down-regulation of adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells by oscillating high-gradient magnetic fields and mechanical vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotskii, V.; Lunov, O.; Novotná, B.; Churpita, O.; Trošan, P.; HoláÅ, V.; Syková, E.; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Š.

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays, the focus in medicine on molecular genetics has resulted in a disregard for the physical basis of treatment even though many diseases originate from changes in cellular mechanics. Perturbations of the cellular nanomechanics promote pathologies, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Furthermore, whilst the biological and therapeutic effects of magnetic fields are a well-established fact, to date the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we show that oscillating high-gradient magnetic field (HGMF) and mechanical vibration affect adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by the transmission of mechanical stress to the cell cytoskeleton, resulting in F-actin remodelling and subsequent down-regulation of adipogenic genes adiponectin, PPARγ, and AP2. Our findings propose an insight into the regulation of cellular nanomechanics, and provide a basis for better controlled down-regulation of stem cell adipogenesis by HGMF, which may facilitate the development of challenging therapeutic strategies suitable for the remote control of biological systems.

  10. Sensitization of multidrug-resistant human cancer cells to Hsp90 inhibitors by down-regulation of SIRT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Bong; Lee, Su-Hoon; Um, Jee-Hyun; Oh, Won Keun; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kang, Chi-Dug; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Hsp90 inhibitors as anticancer agents was limited in multidrug-resistant (MDR) human cancer cells due to induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) such as Hsp70/Hsp27 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux. In the present study, we showed that resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors of MDR human cancer cells could be overcome with SIRT1 inhibition. SIRT1 knock-down or SIRT1 inhibitors (amurensin G and EX527) effectively suppressed the resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors (17-AAG and AUY922) in several MDR variants of human lymphoblastic leukemia and human breast cancer cell lines. SIRT1 inhibition down-regulated the expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and subsequently Hsps and facilitated Hsp90 multichaperone complex disruption via hyperacetylation of Hsp90/Hsp70. These findings were followed by acceleration of ubiquitin ligase CHIP-mediated mutant p53 (mut p53) degradation and subsequent down-regulation of P-gp in 17-AAG-treated MDR cancer cells expressing P-gp and mut p53 after inhibition of SIRT1. Therefore, combined treatment with Hsp90 inhibitor and SIRT1 inhibitor could be a more effective therapeutic approach for Hsp90 inhibitor-resistant MDR cells via down-regulation of HSF1/Hsps, mut p53 and P-gp. PMID:26416354

  11. Collagen I-induced dendritic cells activation is regulated by TNF- production through down-regulation of IRF4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barun Poudel; Hyeon-Hui Ki; Young-Mi Lee; Dae-Ki Kim

    2015-03-01

    Previously we have shown that collagen I enhances the maturation and function of dendritic cells (DCs). Inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, interleukin (IL)-1 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are also known to activate DCs. Here we investigated the involvement of TNF- on the collagen I-induced DCs activation. TNF-a neutralization inhibited collagen I-induced IL-12 secretions by DCs. Additionally, we observed suppression of collagen I-induced costimulatory molecules expression along with down-regulation of genes involved in DCs activation pathway. Furthermore, TNF- inhibition upon collagen Istimulation up-regulated the expression of interferon regulatory transcription factor IRF4, when compared to collagen I only treated cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that collagen I induce TNF- production, which is crucial for the activation and function of DCs, through down-regulation of IRF4, and implicates the importance in development of anti- TNF- therapeutics for several inflammatory diseases.

  12. Effects of down-regulation of clusterin by small interference RNA on human acute myeloid leukemia cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Ruidong; Wang, Yanxia; Cai, Hengjuan; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Aims and background: Up-regulation of clusterin is associated with the survival and progression of various malignancies, and down-regulation of clusterin promotes apoptosis and inhibits invasion. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of clusterin small interference RNA (siRNA) on the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of HL-60 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Methods: siRNA transfection was performed using Lipofectamine™2000 reagent. Relative protein expressions were quantifie...

  13. Down-Regulation of Notch-1 Is Associated With Akt and FoxM1 in Inducing Cell Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Yiwei; Ahmad, Aamir; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Azmi, Asfar S; Kong, Dejuan; Wojewoda, Christine; Miele, Lucio; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2011-01-01

    Although many studies have been done to uncover the mechanisms by which down-regulation of Notch-1 exerts its anti-tumor activity against a variety of human malignancies, the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the cellular consequence of Notch-1 down-regulation and also assessed the molecular consequence of Notch-1-mediated alterations of its downstream targets on cell viability and apoptosis in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. We found that the dow...

  14. KCNK5 is Functionally Down-Regulated Upon Long-Term Hypotonicity in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, S. S.; Wulff, Tune; Gammeltoft, S.;

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: Regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in response to acute cell swelling is well described and KCNK5 (also known as TASK-2 or K2P5.1) has been shown to be the volume sensitive K+ channel in Ehrlich cells. Very little is, on the other hand, known about the effects of long-term hypotoni...... physiological impairment of KCNK5 in Ehrlich cells after long-term hypotonic stimulation is predominantly due to down-regulation of the KCNK5 protein synthesis.© 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel...

  15. Down-Regulation of Notchl and NF-κB by Curcumin in Breast Cancer Cells MDA-MB-231

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Li; CAO You-de

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To test whether the down-regulation of Notch1 gene expression by curcumin could inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis,which may be associated mechanistically with the down-regulation of NF-κB in breast cancer cells. Methods:Breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 were cultured in vitro and treated with different dosages of curcumin(0,1.25,5.0,20.0μmol/L)for dose-dependent assay and different time(0,24,48,72 h)at the dosage of 5.0μmol/L for time course assay.The changes of the mRNA and protein expression of Notch1 and NF-κB were measured by RT-PCR and Western Blot,and MTT assay was used to measure the change of proliferation. Results:The mRNA and protein levels of Notch 1 and NF-κB were decreased significantly in human breast cancer cell line with the increase of dosage of curcumin(P<0.05),and with the extension of time course(P<0.05).These changes suggested a dose- and time-dependent manner.The proliferation rate of cells also was significantly inhibited(P<0.05). Conclusion:The current results show that the Notch-1 signaling pathway is associated mechanistically with NF-κB activity during curcumin-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis of breast cancer cells.These results suggest that the down-regulation of Notch signaling by curcumin may be a novel strategy for the treatment of patients with breast cancer.

  16. Down-regulation of survivin expression by small interfering RNA induces pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis and enhances its radiosensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao Guan; Xing-Huan Xue; Zhi-Jun Dai; Xi-Jing Wang; Ang Li; Zhao-Yin Qin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the expression of survivin in pancreatic cancer cell line PC-2 and the role of siRNA in inducing PC-2 cell apoptosis and enhancing its radiosensitivity.METHODS: A siRNA plasmid expression vector against survivin was constructed and transfected into PC-2 cells with LipofectamineTM 2000. The down regulation of survivin expression was detected by semi-quantitive RT-PCR and immunohistochemical SP method and the role of siRNA in inducing PC-2 cell apoptosis and enhancing its radiosensitivity was detected by flow cytometry.RESULTS: The sequence-specific siRNA efficiently and specifically down-regulated the expression of survivin at both mRNA and protein levels. The expression inhibition ratio was 81.25% at mRNA level detected by semiquantitive RT-PCR and 74.24% at protein level detected by immunohistochemical method. Forty-eight hours after transfection,apoptosis was induced in 7.03% cells by siRNA and in 14.58% cells by siRNA combined with radiation.CONCLUSION: The siRNA plasmid expression vector against survivin can inhibit the expression of survivin in PC-2 cells efficiently and specifically. Inhibiting the expression of survivin can induce apoptosis of PC-2 cells and enhance its radiosensitivity significantly. RNAi against survivin is of potential value in gene tnerapy of pancreatic cancer.

  17. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride, a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation via down-regulating AKT activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Guoli; Yao, Guangmin; Zhan, Guanqun; Hu, Yufeng [Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei PR China (China); Yue, Ming [Hubei Key Laboratory of Drug Target Research and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Cheng, Ling; Liu, Yaping; Ye, Qi [Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei PR China (China); Qing, Guoliang [Hubei Key Laboratory of Drug Target Research and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhang, Yonghui, E-mail: zhangyh@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei PR China (China); Liu, Hudan, E-mail: hudanliu@hust.edu.cn [Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei PR China (China)

    2014-11-01

    We previously reported the isolation of a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC), from Zephyranthes candida, which exhibits potent cytotoxicity in a spectrum of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Using multiple cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, one of the most mortal and refractory human malignancies, we further studied the NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity and found that it induced drastic cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells whereas an insignificant effect on a noncancerous cell line. The NMHC-mediated growth inhibition was more severe than the first-line chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased glycolysis. NMHC exerted its function through down-regulating AKT activation, and the ectopic expression of activated AKT rescued the growth inhibition. Consistently, NMHC injections in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model manifested the anti-tumor effect in vivo. Engrafted tumor cells underwent AKT attenuation and apoptotic death upon treatments. As such, we here demonstrate the AKT inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which NMHC decreases tumor cell survival rate in vitro and in vivo. Our data thereby suggest that NMHC holds great promise as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer and sheds new light on obtaining such agents from natural products toward therapeutic purposes. - Highlights: • N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC) is a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid. • NMHC exhibits potent anti-neoplastic activity. • NMHC leads to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased metabolism. • NMHC down-regulates the AKT signaling pathway.

  18. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride, a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation via down-regulating AKT activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported the isolation of a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC), from Zephyranthes candida, which exhibits potent cytotoxicity in a spectrum of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Using multiple cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, one of the most mortal and refractory human malignancies, we further studied the NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity and found that it induced drastic cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells whereas an insignificant effect on a noncancerous cell line. The NMHC-mediated growth inhibition was more severe than the first-line chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine, leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased glycolysis. NMHC exerted its function through down-regulating AKT activation, and the ectopic expression of activated AKT rescued the growth inhibition. Consistently, NMHC injections in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model manifested the anti-tumor effect in vivo. Engrafted tumor cells underwent AKT attenuation and apoptotic death upon treatments. As such, we here demonstrate the AKT inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which NMHC decreases tumor cell survival rate in vitro and in vivo. Our data thereby suggest that NMHC holds great promise as a potent chemotherapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer and sheds new light on obtaining such agents from natural products toward therapeutic purposes. - Highlights: • N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC) is a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid. • NMHC exhibits potent anti-neoplastic activity. • NMHC leads to cell cycle arrest, apoptotic death and decreased metabolism. • NMHC down-regulates the AKT signaling pathway

  19. Down-regulation of Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway activity is involved in 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis and motility inhibition in Hep3B cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiyu Wang; Shuhong Huang; Ling Yang; Ling Zhao; Yuxia Yin; Zhongzhen Liu; Zheyu Chen; Hongwei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The Sonic hedgehog (SHh) pathway plays a critical role in normal embryogenesis and carcinogenesis, but its function in cancer cells treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) remains unknown. We examined the expression of a subset of SHh signaling pathway genes, including SHh, SMO, PTC1, Su(Fu) and HIP in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines,Hep3B and HepG2, treated with 5-FU by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. Using trypan blue analysis,3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling assay, we also detected the apoptosis of Hep3B cells resulting from the transfection of pCS2-Gli1 expression vector combined with 5-FU treatment.The motility of the cells was detected by scratch wound closure assay. The expression and subcellular location of PTC1 protein in Hep3B cells treated by 5-FU were also investigated by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescent microscopy. The results indicated that the expression of SHh pathway target molecules at both messenger RNA and protein levels are evidently down-regulated in Hep3B cells treated with 5-FU. The overexpression of Gli1 restores cell viability and, to some extent, the migration abilities inhibited by 5-FU.Furthermore, 5-FU treatment affects the subcellular localization of PTC1 protein, a key member in SHh signaling pathway. Our data showed that the down-regulation of SHh signaling pathway activity was involved in 5-FU-induced apoptosis and the inhibition of motility in hedgehog-activated HCC cell lines. This implies that the combination of SHh signaling pathway inhibitor and 5-FU-based chemotherapy might represent a more promising strategy against HCC.

  20. Endotoxin-induced basal respiration alterations of renal HK-2 cells: A sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quoilin, C., E-mail: cquoilin@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory of Biomedical Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Mouithys-Mickalad, A. [Center of Oxygen Research and Development, Department of Chemistry, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Duranteau, J. [Department of Anaesthesia and Surgical ICU, CHU Bicetre, University Paris XI Sud, 94275 Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); Gallez, B. [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Hoebeke, M. [Laboratory of Biomedical Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A HK-2 cells model of inflammation-induced acute kidney injury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two oximetry methods: high resolution respirometry and ESR spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen consumption rates of renal cells decrease when treated with LPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells do not recover normal respiration when the LPS treatment is removed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This basal respiration alteration is a sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation. -- Abstract: To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells.

  1. Endotoxin-induced basal respiration alterations of renal HK-2 cells: A sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A HK-2 cells model of inflammation-induced acute kidney injury. ► Two oximetry methods: high resolution respirometry and ESR spectroscopy. ► Oxygen consumption rates of renal cells decrease when treated with LPS. ► Cells do not recover normal respiration when the LPS treatment is removed. ► This basal respiration alteration is a sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation. -- Abstract: To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells.

  2. Specific binding of phorbol esters to Friend erythroleukemia cells--general properties, down regulation and relationship to cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific and saturable binding sites for [20-3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate ([3H]PDBu) were demonstrated in tact Friend erythroleukemia cells (FELC), in which inducible erythroid differentiation is reversibly inhibited by phorbol esters. The binding of [3H]PDBu to intact cells was maximal within only 15 min of incubation at 37 degrees C, after which there was a gradual decrease; binding at 4 degrees C however, was alow process, requiring greater than 180 min for maximal binding. A Scatchard analysis showed that the dissociation constant for binding of [3H]PDBu is 8.3 nM; at saturation, approximately 1.75 x 10(5) molecules of [3H]PDBu are bound per cell. When FELC were induced to differentiate with 4mM hexameethylene bisacetamide (approximately 80% of cells were benzidine-positive), a slight decrease (10-20%) in the number of binding sites at saturation was seen, but the dissociation constant was not changed. When the cells were precultured with non-radioactive phorbol esters, a significant decrease in [3H]PDBu binding was observed, suggesting a homologous down regulation of phorbol ester receptors. Scatchard analysis indicated that the decrease in [3H]PDBu binding was due to a decrease in the number of binding sites and not to a change in affinity. Such specific phorbol ester binding sites might mediate a number of biochemical and biological effects of phorbol esters on FELC

  3. Pamidronate Down-regulates Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Induced Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression in Human Intervertebral Disc Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young-Mi; Hong, Seong-Hwan; Yang, Jae-Ho; Oh, Jin-Cheol; Park, Jin-Oh; Lee, Byung Ho; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Hak-Sun; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background N-containing bisphosphonates (BPs), such as pamidronate and risedronate, can inhibit osteoclastic function and reduce osteoclast number by inducing apoptotic cell death in osteoclasts. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effect of pamidronate, second generation nitrogen-containing BPs and to elucidate matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) mRNA expression under serum starvation and/or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulation on metabolism of intervertebral disc (IVD) cells in vitro. Methods Firstly, to test the effect of pamidronate on IVD cells in vitro, various concentrations (10-12, 10-10, 10-8, and 10-6 M) of pamidronate were administered to IVD cells. Then DNA and proteoglycan synthesis were measured and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of type I collagen, type II collagen, and aggrecan were analyzed. Secondly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in human IVD cells under the lower serum status, IVD cells were cultivated in full serum or 1% serum. Thirdly, to elucidate the expression of MMPs mRNA in IVD cells under the stimulation of 1% serum and TNF-α (10 ng/mL) In this study, IVD cells were cultivated in three dimensional alginate bead. Results Under the lower serum culture, IVD cells in alginate beads showed upregulation of MMP 2, 3, 9, 13 mRNA. The cells in lower serum and TNF-α also demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2, 3, 9, and 13 mRNA. The cells with various doses of pamidronate and lower serum and TNF-α were reveled partial down-regulation of MMPs. Conclusions Pamidronate, N-containing second generation BPs, was safe in metabolism of IVD in vitro maintaining chondrogenic phenotype and matrix synthesis, and down-regulated TNF-α induced MMPs expression.

  4. Neural cell adhesion molecule-180-mediated homophilic binding induces epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) down-regulation and uncouples the inhibitory function of EGFR in neurite outgrowth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays important roles in neuronal development, regeneration, and synaptic plasticity. NCAM homophilic binding mediates cell adhesion and induces intracellular signals, in which the fibroblast growth factor receptor plays a prominent role. Recent studies on...... this NCAM-180-induced EGFR down-regulation involves increased EGFR ubiquitination and lysosomal EGFR degradation. Furthermore, NCAM-180-mediated EGFR down-regulation requires NCAM homophilic binding and interactions of the cytoplasmic domain of NCAM-180 with intracellular interaction partners, but does...

  5. Quantitative cell signalling analysis reveals down-regulation of MAPK pathway activation in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gulmann, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are considered to play significant roles in colonic carcinogenesis and kinase inhibitor therapy has been proposed as a potential tool in the treatment of this disease. Reverse-phase microarray assays using phospho-specific antibodies can directly measure levels of phosphorylated protein isoforms. In the current study, samples from 35 cases of untreated colorectal cancer colectomies were laser capture-microdissected to isolate epithelium and stroma from cancer as well as normal (i.e. uninvolved) mucosa. Lysates generated from these four tissue types were spotted onto reverse-phase protein microarrays and probed with a panel of antibodies to ERK, p-ERK, p38, p-p38, p-JNK, MEK and p-MEK. Whereas total protein levels were unchanged, or slightly elevated (p38, p = 0.0025) in cancers, activated isoforms, including p-ERK, p-p38 and p-JNK, were decreased two- to four-fold in cancers compared with uninvolved mucosa (p < 0.0023 in all cases except for p-JNK in epithelium, where decrement was non-significant). This was backed up by western blotting. Dukes\\' stage B and C cancers displayed lower p-ERK and p-p38 expression than Dukes\\' stage A cancers, although this was not statistically significant. It is concluded that MAPK activity may be down-regulated in colorectal cancer and that further exploration of inhibitory therapy in this system should be carefully evaluated if this finding is confirmed in larger series.

  6. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is down-regulated by AP-1-like regulatory elements in human lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Recillas-Targa, Félix; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2004-02-01

    Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) is a template-independent DNA polymerase that catalyses the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into the 3'-hydroxyl end of DNA templates and is thought to increase junctional diversity of antigen receptor genes. TdT is expressed only on immature lymphocytes and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells and its transcriptional expression is tightly regulated. We had previously found that protein kinase C (PKC) activation down-regulates TdT expression. PKC-activation induces the synthesis of the Fos and Jun proteins, known as the major components of activation protein 1 (AP-1) transcriptional factor implicated in transcriptional control. Here we report the identification of several DNA-protein interactions within the TdT promoter region in non-TdT expressing human cells. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a putative AP-1-like DNA-binding site, suggesting that AP-1 may play a relevant role in TdT transcriptional regulation. Using a different source of nuclear extracts and the AP-1-TdT motif as a probe we identified several DNA-protein retarded complexes in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Super-band shifting analysis using an antibody against c-Jun protein confirmed that the main interaction is produced by a nuclear factor that belongs to the AP-1 family transcription factors. Our findings suggest that the TdT gene expression is down-regulated, at least in part, through AP-1-like transcription factors. PMID:15027905

  7. Triptolide inhibits the proliferation of prostate cancer cells and down-regulates SUMO-specific protease 1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Huang

    Full Text Available Recently, traditional Chinese medicine and medicinal herbs have attracted more attentions worldwide for its anti-tumor efficacy. Celastrol and Triptolide, two active components extracted from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (known as Lei Gong Teng or Thunder of God Vine, have shown anti-tumor effects. Celastrol was identified as a natural 26 s proteasome inhibitor which promotes cell apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth. The effect and mechanism of Triptolide on prostate cancer (PCa is not well studied. Here we demonstrated that Triptolide, more potent than Celastrol, inhibited cell growth and induced cell death in LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines. Triptolide also significantly inhibited the xenografted PC-3 tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, Triptolide induced PCa cell apoptosis through caspases activation and PARP cleavage. Unbalance between SUMOylation and deSUMOylation was reported to play an important role in PCa progression. SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1 was thought to be a potential marker and therapeutical target of PCa. Importantly, we observed that Triptolide down-regulated SENP1 expression in both mRNA and protein levels in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners, resulting in an enhanced cellular SUMOylation in PCa cells. Meanwhile, Triptolide decreased AR and c-Jun expression at similar manners, and suppressed AR and c-Jun transcription activity. Furthermore, knockdown or ectopic SENP1, c-Jun and AR expression in PCa cells inhibited the Triptolide anti-PCa effects. Taken together, our data suggest that Triptolide is a natural compound with potential therapeutic value for PCa. Its anti-tumor activity may be attributed to mechanisms involving down-regulation of SENP1 that restores SUMOylation and deSUMOyaltion balance and negative regulation of AR and c-Jun expression that inhibits the AR and c-Jun mediated transcription in PCa.

  8. Down-regulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB by lidamycin in association with inducing apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells and inhibiting xenograft growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Ouyang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Sheng-Hua; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2007-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is now one of the most common causes of cancer death worldwide. K-ras mutations are present in up to 90% of pancreatic cancer cases. The expression of mutant K-ras activates the Akt/protein kinase B pathway, resulting in the activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcriptional factor. Constitutive NF-kappaB activity plays a key role in pancreatic carcinoma. NF-kappaB has been shown to inhibit apoptosis in response to chemotherapeutic agents. In the present study, the effects of lidamycin (LDM), a member of the enediyne antibiotic family, were investigated on two established pancreatic cell lines, PANC-1 and SW1990. A dose-dependent inhibition of phospho-Akt and NF-kappaB activation was found in the cells treated with LDM as determined by Western blot analysis. Moreover, a down-regulation of K-ras mRNA and a protein expression by LDM were observed in both cell lines as determined by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis. By MTT assay, a remarkable difference in chemosensitivity to LDM, mitomycin, adriamycin, taxol, and gemcitabine was found in both cell lines. The IC50 values of LDM for the PANC-1 or SW1990 cells were 0.955+/-0.414 or 0.426+/-0.212 nM, respectively, lower than those of the other drugs. Growth inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest were observed in the LDM-treated cells. LDM decreased the invasive potential of pancreatic cancer cells by reducing matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity. Furthermore, LDM was found to suppress the growth of SW1990 xenografts in nude mice. Treatment with an i.v. injection of LDM at the dose of 0.02 and 0.04 mg/kg (once a week for two weeks) inhibited the growth of xenografts by 66 and 72%, respectively. By contrast, an i.p. injection of gemcitabine at the dose of 80 mg/kg inhibited the growth of xenografts by 38%. Our findings suggest that LDM is active in the down-regulation of NF-kappaB and could play a positive role in relevant targeted chemotherapy for

  9. Heat shock response down-regulates IL-18 expression in the murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Heat shock response is a self-defense mechanism for protection of cells and organisms from a wide range of harmful stressors. Recent studies revealed that it is involved in the regulation of cytokines expression. IL-18 is an important cytokine in mediating immune response. We studied LPS-induced IL-18 expression in heat shock treated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Our results show that the heat shock response significantly inhibited the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18. Further research on the down-regulation mechanism shows that this inhibitory effect is correlated to the great suppression of the binding activity of AP-1, which is a transcription factor binding to the promoter of IL-18 (-1120 to -1083) and regulates the transcription of IL-18. Meanwhile, we observed that the phosphorylation of JNK, which is AP-1 upstream kinase, was greatly decreased. These results confirmed that the down-regulation effect on IL-18 production in heat shock response is related to the suppression of the JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway.

  10. Sost down-regulation by mechanical strain in human osteoblastic cells involves PGE2 signaling via EP4

    OpenAIRE

    Galea, GL; Sunters, A; Meakin, LB; G. Zaman; Sugiyama, T; Lanyon, LE; Price, JS

    2011-01-01

    Sclerostin is a potent inhibitor of bone formation which is down-regulated by mechanical loading. To investigate the mechanisms involved we subjected Saos2 human osteoblastic cells to short periods of dynamic strain and used quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to compare their responses to unstrained controls. Strain-induced Sost down-regulation was recapitulated by cyclo-oxygenase-2-mediated PGE2, acting through the EP4 receptor, whereas strain-related up-regulation ...

  11. Curcumin Exerts its Anti-hypertensive Effect by Down-regulating the AT1 Receptor in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Wei; Li, Meixiang; Ren, Hongmei; Chen, Caiyu; Wang, Jialiang; Wang, Wei Eric; Yang, Jian; Zeng, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin exerts beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. However, its mechanisms are unknown. We propose that curcumin prevents the development of hypertension by regulating AT1 receptor (AT1R) expression in arteries. The present study examined how curcumin regulates AT1R expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and investigated the physiological significance of this regulation in angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertension. The results showed that curcumin decreased AT1R expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in vascular smooth muscle cells. Using luciferase reporters with an entire AT1 or a mutant AT1R in A10 cells, the AT1R promoter activity was inhibited by 10(-6 )M curcumin, and the proximal element (from -61 to +25 bp) of the AT1R promoter was crucial for curcumin-induced AT1R down-regulation. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that curcumin decreased specificity protein 1 (SP1) binding with the AT1R promoter in A10 cells. Curcumin treatment reduced Ang II-induced hypertension in C57Bl/6J mice, which was accompanied by lower AT1R expression in the arteries and decreased Ang II-mediated vasoconstriction in the mesenteric artery. These findings indicate that curcumin down-regulates AT1R expression in A10 cells by affecting SP1/AT1R DNA binding, thus reducing AT1R-mediated vasoconstriction and subsequently prevents the development of hypertension in an Ang II-induced hypertensive model. PMID:27146402

  12. Curcumin Exerts its Anti-hypertensive Effect by Down-regulating the AT1 Receptor in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Wei; Li, Meixiang; Ren, Hongmei; Chen, Caiyu; Wang, Jialiang; Wang, Wei Eric; Yang, Jian; Zeng, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin exerts beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. However, its mechanisms are unknown. We propose that curcumin prevents the development of hypertension by regulating AT1 receptor (AT1R) expression in arteries. The present study examined how curcumin regulates AT1R expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and investigated the physiological significance of this regulation in angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertension. The results showed that curcumin decreased AT1R expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in vascular smooth muscle cells. Using luciferase reporters with an entire AT1 or a mutant AT1R in A10 cells, the AT1R promoter activity was inhibited by 10−6 M curcumin, and the proximal element (from −61 to +25 bp) of the AT1R promoter was crucial for curcumin-induced AT1R down-regulation. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that curcumin decreased specificity protein 1 (SP1) binding with the AT1R promoter in A10 cells. Curcumin treatment reduced Ang II-induced hypertension in C57Bl/6J mice, which was accompanied by lower AT1R expression in the arteries and decreased Ang II-mediated vasoconstriction in the mesenteric artery. These findings indicate that curcumin down-regulates AT1R expression in A10 cells by affecting SP1/AT1R DNA binding, thus reducing AT1R-mediated vasoconstriction and subsequently prevents the development of hypertension in an Ang II-induced hypertensive model. PMID:27146402

  13. HPV16 E2 could act as down-regulator in cellular genes implicated in apoptosis, proliferation and cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia-Hernández Armando

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV E2 plays several important roles in the viral cycle, including the transcriptional regulation of the oncogenes E6 and E7, the regulation of the viral genome replication by its association with E1 helicase and participates in the viral genome segregation during mitosis by its association with the cellular protein Brd4. It has been shown that E2 protein can regulate negative or positively the activity of several cellular promoters, although the precise mechanism of this regulation is uncertain. In this work we constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector to overexpress HPV16 E2 and evaluated the global pattern of biological processes regulated by E2 using microarrays expression analysis. Results The gene expression profile was strongly modified in cells expressing HPV16 E2, finding 1048 down-regulated genes, and 581 up-regulated. The main cellular pathway modified was WNT since we found 28 genes down-regulated and 15 up-regulated. Interestingly, this pathway is a convergence point for regulating the expression of genes involved in several cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation and cell differentiation; MYCN, JAG1 and MAPK13 genes were selected to validate by RT-qPCR the microarray data as these genes in an altered level of expression, modify very important cellular processes. Additionally, we found that a large number of genes from pathways such as PDGF, angiogenesis and cytokines and chemokines mediated inflammation, were also modified in their expression. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that HPV16 E2 has regulatory effects on cellular gene expression in HPV negative cells, independent of the other HPV proteins, and the gene profile observed indicates that these effects could be mediated by interactions with cellular proteins. The cellular processes affected suggest that E2 expression leads to the cells in to a convenient environment for a replicative cycle of the virus.

  14. Berberine suppresses migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through down-regulation of chemokine receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Naghmeh Ahmadiankia; Hamid Kalalian Moghaddam; Mohammad Amir Mishan; Ahmad Reza Bahrami; Hojjat Naderi-Meshkin; Hamid Reza Bidkhori; Maryam Moghaddam; Seyed Jamal Aldin Mirfeyzi

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Berberine is one of the main alkaloids and it has been proven to have different pharmacological effects including inhibition of cell cycle and progression of apoptosis in various cancerous cells; however, its effects on cancer metastasis are not well known. Cancer cells obtain the ability to change their chemokine system and convert into metastatic cells. In this study, we examined the effect of berberine on breast cancer cell migration and its probable interaction with the chem...

  15. The Cell Surface Estrogen Receptor, G Protein- Coupled Receptor 30 (GPR30, is Markedly Down Regulated During Breast Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Poola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: GPR30 is a cell surface estrogen receptor that has been shown to mediate a number of non-genomic rapid effects of estrogen and appear to balance the signaling of estrogen and growth factors. In addition, progestins appear to use GPR30 for their actions. Therefore, GPR30 could play a critical role in hormonal regulation of breast epithelial cell integrity. Deregulation of the events mediated by GPR30 could contribute to tumorigenesis.Methods: To understand the role of GPR30 in the deregulation of estrogen signaling processes during breast carcinogenesis, we have undertaken this study to investigate its expression at mRNA levels in tumor tissues and their matched normal tissues. We compared its expression at mRNA levels by RT quantitative real-time PCR relative to GAPDH in ERα”—positive (n = 54 and ERα”—negative (n = 45 breast cancer tissues to their matched normal tissues.Results: We report here, for the first time, that GPR30 mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated in cancer tissues in comparison with their matched normal tissues (p 0.0001 by two sided paired t-test. The GPR30 expression levels were significantly lower in tumor tissues from patients (n = 29 who had lymph node metastasis in comparison with tumors from patients (n = 53 who were negative for lymph node metastasis (two sample t-test, p 0.02, but no association was found with ERα, PR and other tumor characteristics.Conclusions: Down-regulation of GPR30 could contribute to breast tumorigenesis and lymph node metastasis.

  16. Down-regulation of β-catenin Nuclear Localization by Aspirin Correlates with Growth Inhibition of Jurkat Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of aspirin on the growth rates, subcellar distribution of β-catenin protein, the expression of β-catenin/TCF signaling pathway target gene cyclinD1 mRNA,and cell cycle of Jurkat cell line (Human T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia). Our results showed that the treatment with aspirin inhibited the growth of Jurkat cell line. Jurkat cells treated with 3 mmol/L of aspirin could significantly decrease nuclear localization of β-catenin, and at 5 mmol/L of aspirin,the nuclear localization of β-catenin was undetectable. QRT-PCR showed that the target gene cyclinD1 mRNA expression was gradually decreased with the dosage of aspirin. Aspirin induced G0/G1cell cycle arrest in Jurkat cells. We are led to conclude that aspirin acts through β-catenin-independent mechanisms. The effects of aspirin include down-regulation of β-catenin nuclear localization and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, which might serve as a means of growth inhibition in aspirin-treated human Jurkat cell line.

  17. Estrogen-mediated down-regulation of E-cadherin in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    E-cadherin is an important mediator of cell-cell interactions, and has been shown to play a crucial role in breast tumor suppression. Its inactivation occurs through instability at its chromosomal locus and mutations, but also through epigenetic mechanisms such as promoter hypermethylation and trans...

  18. Simulated microgravity induce apoptosis and down-regulation of erythropoietin receptor of UT-7/EPO cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-xue; Cui, Shao-yan; Zhong, Jian; Yi, Zong-chun; Sun, Yan; Fan, Yu-bo; Zhuang, Feng-yuan

    2010-11-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation can be alternated on either spaceflight or under simulated microgravity experiments on the ground; however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we have demonstrated that exposure of human erythropoietin (EPO)-dependent leukemia cell line UT-7/EPO cells to conditions of simulated microgravity with a rotary culture instrument significantly inhibited the cellular proliferation rate. Adding higher concentrations of EPO to the culture medium failed to improve the inhibitory status. Cell apoptosis was detected by fluorescence staining of cell nuclei and a flow cytometry assay using Annexin V/PI double staining. This microgravity-induced apoptosis in UT-7/EPO cells could be blocked by a pancaspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Immunoblotting demonstrated that rotary culture resulted in a reduction of the expression of Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic protein, and the cleavage of caspase-3. Furthermore, rotary culture reduced surface localization and protein content, as well as the mRNA expression of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) of UT-7/EPO. Take together, the findings indicated that simulated microgravity may induce mitochondrial related apoptosis of UT-7/EPO cell through depressing the EPO-EPOR pathway.

  19. Oxidative Stress and Phthalate-Induced Down-Regulation of Steroidogenesis in MA-10 Leydig Cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Liang; Beattie, Matthew C.; Lin, Chieh-Yin; Liu, June; Traore, Kassim; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; ZIRKIN, BARRY R.; Chen, Haolin

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that phthalate exposure can suppress steroidogenesis. However, the affected components of the steroidogenic pathway, and the mechanisms involved, remain uncertain. We show that incubating MA-10 Leydig cells with mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) resulted in reductions in luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated cAMP and progesterone productions. cAMP did not decrease in response to MEHP when the cells were incubated with cholera toxin or forskolin. Incubation of MEHP...

  20. Impact of transient down-regulation of DREAM in human embryonic stem cell pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fontán-Lozano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the functions of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM in embryonic stem cells (ESCs. However, DREAM interacts with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB in a Ca2+-dependent manner, preventing CREB binding protein (CBP recruitment. Furthermore, CREB and CBP are involved in maintaining ESC self-renewal and pluripotency. However, a previous knockout study revealed the protective function of DREAM depletion in brain aging degeneration and that aging is accompanied by a progressive decline in stem cells (SCs function. Interestingly, we found that DREAM is expressed in different cell types, including human ESCs (hESCs, human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs, human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs, and human newborn foreskin fibroblasts (hFFs, and that transitory inhibition of DREAM in hESCs reduces their pluripotency, increasing differentiation. We stipulate that these changes are partly mediated by increased CREB transcriptional activity. Overall, our data indicates that DREAM acts in the regulation of hESC pluripotency and could be a target to promote or prevent differentiation in embryonic cells.

  1. Galectin-1 is expressed in early-type neural progenitor cells and down-regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaizumi Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs proliferate in the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and generate new neurons throughout life. A multimodal protein, Galectin-1, is expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPCs and implicated in the proliferation of the NPCs in the DG. However, little is known about its detailed expression profile in the NPCs and functions in adult neurogenesis in the DG. Results Our immunohistochemical and morphological analysis showed that Galectin-1 was expressed in the type 1 and 2a cells, which are putative NSCs, in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the adult mouse DG. To study Galectin-1's function in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, we made galectin-1 knock-out mice on the C57BL6 background and characterized the effects on neurogenesis. In the SGZ of the galectin-1 knock-out mice, increased numbers of type 1 cells, DCX-positive immature progenitors, and NeuN-positive newborn neurons were observed. Using triple-labeling immunohistochemistry and morphological analyses, we found that the proliferation of the type-1 cells was increased in the SGZ of the galectin-1 knock-out mice, and we propose that this proliferation is the mechanism for the net increase in the adult neurogenesis in these knock-out mice DG. Conclusions Galectin-1 is expressed in the neural stem cells and down-regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

  2. Chronic stress down-regulates growth hormone gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarkey, W B; Wu, H; Cacioppo, J T; Malarkey, K L; Poehlmann, K M; Glaser, R; Kiecolt-Glaser, J K

    1996-08-01

    "Pituitary" peptides are produced in both endocrine and immune cells. Acute and chronic stress can alter pituitary peptide secretion and might also influence neuroendocrine gene expression in human immune cells. We reasoned that, in Alzheimer caregivers, the chronic stress of caregiving would impact on the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary and hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal axis possibly leading to alterations in GH mRNA in their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Therefore, we evaluated 10 caregivers and 10 controls subjects using a math and speech stress protocol to determine their neuroendocrine profile and to evaluate any relationship with mononuclear cell GH mRNA levels simultaneously acquired and then evaluated by a quantitative competitive RT-PCR technique. We found a significant (pcaregivers. Plasma ACTH and norepinephrine levels were negatively correlated with GH mRNA levels, suggesting their possible role in the down-regulation of mononuclear cell GH gene expression. These observations support the hypothesis that experiences associated with caregiving alter the brain's autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine control of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. These and perhaps other influences may then produce altered GH gene expression in mononuclear cells of chronically stressed individuals. It is tempting to speculate that the decreased GH mRNA that we found in these chronically stressed caregivers was partially responsible for their poor response to influenza vaccine and their delayed wound healing. PMID:21153091

  3. Overexpressed ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 in breast cancer promotes cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongsheng [Department of Histology and Embryology, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Wu, Fenping [The 7th People’s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Wang, Yan [The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Yan, Chong [School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, Guangdong (China); Su, Wenmei, E-mail: wenmeisutg@126.com [Oncology of Affiliated Hospital Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524000, Guangdong (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Cullin7 is overexpressed in human breast cancer samples. • Cullin7 stimulated proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. • Inhibition of p53 contributes to Cullin7-induced proliferation and invasion. - Abstract: Ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 has been identified as an oncogene in some malignant diseases such as choriocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. However, the role of Cullin7 in breast cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we compared Cullin7 protein levels in breast cancer tissues with normal breast tissues and identified significantly higher expression of Cullin7 protein in breast cancer specimens. By overexpressing Cullin7 in breast cancer cells HCC1937, we found that Cullin7 could promote cell growth and invasion in vitro. In contrast, the cell growth and invasion was inhibited by silencing Cullin7 in breast cancer cell BT474. Moreover, we demonstrated that Cullin7 promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53 expression. Thus, our study provided evidence that Cullin7 functions as a novel oncogene in breast cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer management.

  4. Apoptosis by aloe-emodin is mediated through down-regulation of calpain-2 and ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Won; Jeon, Young Keul; Nam, Myeong Jin

    2012-02-01

    Natural flavonoids are associated with anti-proliferation of cancer growth. However, the antioxidant and anti-proliferation effects of AE (aloe-emodin) have not been well studied. We have investigated how AE affects the proliferation of hepatic hepatocellular carcinoma cells and exerts an anti-cancer effect. The cytotoxic effect of AE was demonstrated using an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay and Huh-7 cells were inhibited by AE treatment in both dose- and time-dependent manners. The IC(50) level of AE was ∼75 μM. AE also has anti-proliferative effects via induction of DNA damage and apoptosis. 2-DE (two-dimensional electrophoresis) revealed that several proteins were related to the anti-cancer effects of AE. CAPN2 (calpain-2) and UBE3A (ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A), which are associated with the apoptosis signalling pathway, were verified by Western blotting. AE exhibited potent anti-proliferative effects on Huh-7 cells via down-regulation of CAPN2 and UBE3A. The findings support the possibility of AE being a chemopreventative agent. PMID:21861846

  5. Intestinal commensal bacteria promote T cell hyporesponsiveness and down-regulate the serum antibody responses induced by dietary antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Masato; Hosono, Akira; Yanagibashi, Tsutomu; Kihara-Fujioka, Miran; Hachimura, Satoshi; Itoh, Kikuji; Hirayama, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Kyoko; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2010-08-16

    Colonization of the gut by commensal bacteria modulates the induction of oral tolerance and allergy. However, how these intestinal bacteria modulate antigen-specific T cell responses induced by oral antigens remains unclear. In order to investigate this, we used germ-free (GF) ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell receptor transgenic (OVA23-3) mice. Conventional (CV) or GF mice were administered an OVA-containing diet. Cytokine production by CD4(+) cells from spleen (SP), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's patches (PP) was evaluated by ELISA, as was the peripheral antibody titer. T cell phenotype was assessed by flow cytometry. CD4(+) cells from the SP and MLN of CV and GF mice fed an OVA diet for 3 weeks produced significantly less IL-2 than the corresponding cells from mice receiving a control diet, suggesting that oral tolerance could be induced at the T cell level in the systemic and intestinal immune systems of both bacterial condition of mice. However, we also observed that the T cell hyporesponsiveness induced by dietary antigen was delayed in the systemic immune tissues and was weaker in the intestinal immune tissues of the GF mice. Intestinal MLN and PP CD4(+) T cells from these animals also produced lower levels of IL-10, had less activated/memory type CD45RB(low) cells, and expressed lower levels of CTLA-4 but not Foxp3 compared to their CV counterparts. Furthermore, GF mice produced higher serum levels of OVA-specific antibodies than CV animals. CD40L expression by SP CD4(+) cells from GF mice fed OVA was higher than that of CV mice. These results suggest that intestinal commensal bacteria promote T cell hyporesponsiveness and down-regulate serum antibody responses induced by dietary antigens through modulation of the intestinal and systemic T cell phenotype. PMID:20621647

  6. Onset of quiescence following p53 mediated down-regulation of H2AX in normal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Atsumi

    Full Text Available Normal cells, both in vivo and in vitro, become quiescent after serial cell proliferation. During this process, cells can develop immortality with genomic instability, although the mechanisms by which this is regulated are unclear. Here, we show that a growth-arrested cellular status is produced by the down-regulation of histone H2AX in normal cells. Normal mouse embryonic fibroblast cells preserve an H2AX diminished quiescent status through p53 regulation and stable-diploidy maintenance. However, such quiescence is abrogated under continuous growth stimulation, inducing DNA replication stress. Because DNA replication stress-associated lesions are cryptogenic and capable of mediating chromosome-bridge formation and cytokinesis failure, this results in tetraploidization. Arf/p53 module-mutation is induced during tetraploidization with the resulting H2AX recovery and immortality acquisition. Thus, although cellular homeostasis is preserved under quiescence with stable diploidy, tetraploidization induced under growth stimulation disrupts the homeostasis and triggers immortality acquisition.

  7. Galectin-4 expression is down-regulated in response to autophagy during differentiation of rat trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Tomohiro; Liao, Shengjun; Shimada, Hiroki; Inoue, Tomoki; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Nakamura, Takanori; Hatta, Toshihisa; Shoji, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Placental development and trophoblast invasion of the maternal endometrium establish the maternal-fetal interface, which is critical for the developing embryo and fetus. Herein we show that overexpression of Galectin-4 (Gal-4) during trophoblast differentiation inhibited the enlargement of Rcho-1 cells (a model for rat trophoblast differentiation) and promoted cell-cell adhesion, whereas trophoblast specific markers and MMP-9 activity were not affected. In the rat placenta, microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3) protein, an autophagy marker, is highly expressed on the maternal side of the decidua where Gal-4 expression is weak. In vitro assays showed that the expression of trophoblast-specific differentiation markers was reduced by 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) and Bafilomycin A1, known as autophagy inhibitors, compared to control cells. Furthermore, Gal-4 expression in Rcho-1 cells, which is normally down-regulated during differentiation, was not attenuated in the presence of autophagy inhibitors, suggesting that autophagy is upstream of Gal-4 expression. We herein describe a possible mechanism by which autophagy regulates trophoblast differentiation via regulation of Gal-4 expression in order to establish the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:27572741

  8. Down Regulation of Wnt Signaling Mitigates Hypoxia-Induced Chemoresistance in Human Osteosarcoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, Donald J.; Christine M Timmer; Peacock, Jacqueline D; Dominic W Pelle; Williams, Bart O.; Matthew R Steensma

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of solid bone cancer and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death for children and young adults. Hypoxia is an element intrinsic to most solid-tumor microenvironments, including that of OS, and is associated with resistance to therapy, poor survival, and a malignant phenotype. Cells respond to hypoxia through alterations in gene expression, mediated most notably through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) class of transcription factors....

  9. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis

  10. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cekanova, Maria, E-mail: mcekanov@utk.edu [Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fernando, Romaine I. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Siriwardhana, Nalin [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sukhthankar, Mugdha [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Parra, Columba de la [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR (United States); Woraratphoka, Jirayus [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine, Medical Center, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Malone, Christine [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ström, Anders [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Baek, Seung J. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wade, Paul A. [Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Saxton, Arnold M. [Department of Animal Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Donnell, Robert M. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostics Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pestell, Richard G. [Department of Cancer Biology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis.

  11. Infant intestinal Enterococcus faecalis down-regulates inflammatory responses in human intestinal cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shugui Wang; Lydia Hui Mei Ng; Wai Ling Chow; Yuan Kun Lee

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the ability of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)to modulate inflammatory reaction in human intestinal celllines(Caco-2,HT-29 and HCT 116).Different strains of LAB isolatedfrom new born infants and fermented milk,together withthestrains obtained from culture collectionsweretested.METHODS:LABs were treated with human intestinal cell lines.ELISA was used to detect IL-8 and TGF-β protein secretion.Cytokines and Toll like receptors (TLRs) gene expression were assessed using RT-PCR.Conditional medium,sonicated bacteria and UV killed bacteria were used to find the effecter molecules on the bacteria.Carbohydrate oxidation and protein digestion were applied to figure out the molecules'residues.Adhesion assays were further carried out.RESULTS:It was found that Enterococcus faecalis is the main immune modulator among the LABs by downregulation of IL-8 secretion and upregulation of TGF-β.Strikingly,the effect was only observed in four strains of E.faecalis out of the 27 isolated and tested.This implies strain dependent immunomodulation in the host.In addition,E.faecalis may regulate inflammatory responses through TLR3,TLR4,TLR9 and TRAF6.Carbohydrates on the bacterial cell surface are involved in both its adhesion to intestinal cells and regulation of inflammatory responses in the host.CONCLUSION:These data provide a case for the modulation of intestinal mucosal immunity in which specific strains of E.faecalis have uniquely evolved to maintain colonic homeostasis and regulate inflammatoryresponses.

  12. Down-regulation of ATM Protein Sensitizes Human Prostate Cancer Cells to Radiation-induced Apoptosis*

    OpenAIRE

    Truman, Jean-Philip; Gueven, Nuri; Lavin, Martin; Leibel, Steven; Kolesnick, Richard; Fuks, Zvi; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana

    2005-01-01

    Treatment with the protein kinase C activator 12-O tetradecanoylphorbol 12-acetate (TPA) enables radiation-resistant LNCaP human prostate cancer cells to undergo radiation-induced apoptosis, mediated via activation of the enzyme ceramide synthase (CS) and de novo synthesis of the sphingolipid ceramide (Garzotto, M., Haimovitz-Friedman, A., Liao, W. C., White-Jones, M., Huryk, R., Heston, D. W. W., Cardon-Cardo, C., Kolesnick, R., and Fuks, Z. (1999) Cancer Res. 59, 5194-5201). Here, we show t...

  13. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cancer stem-like cells via down-regulation of Gli1 in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ke-Jie; Yang, Meng-Hang; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Li, Bing; Nie, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for the tumorigenesis and recurrence, so targeting CSCs is a potential effective method to cure cancers. Activated Hedgehog signaling pathway has been proved to be implicated in the maintenance of self-renewal of CSCs, and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been reported to inhibit Gli1, a key transcription factor of Hedgehog pathway. In this study, we evaluated whether As2O3 has inhibitory effects on cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) in lung cancer and further explored the possible mechanism. CCK8 assay and colony formation assay were performed to demonstrate the ability of As2O3 to inhibit the growth of NCI-H460 and NCI-H446 cells, which represented non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), respectively. Tumor sphere formation assay was carried out to evaluate the effects of As2O3 on stem cell-like subpopulations. The expression of stem cell biomarkers CD133 and stem cell transcription factors such as Sox2 and Oct4 were detected. Moreover, the effects of As2O3 on expression of Gli1 and its target genes were observed. We found that As2O3 inhibited the cell proliferation and reduced the colony formation ability. Importantly, As2O3 decreased the formation of tumor spheres. The expression of stem cell biomarker CD133 and stem cell transcription factors such as Sox2 and Oct4 were markedly reduced by As2O3 treatment. Furthermore, As2O3 decreased the expression of Gli1, N-myc and GAS1. Our results suggested that As2O3 is a promising agent to inhibit CSLCs in lung cancer. In addition, the mechanism of CSLCs inhibition might involve Gli1 down-regulation.

  14. VEGFR3 Inhibition Chemosensitizes Ovarian Cancer Stemlike Cells through Down-Regulation of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In ovarian cancer, loss of BRCA gene expression in tumors is associated with improved response to chemotherapy and increased survival. A means to pharmacologically downregulate BRCA gene expression could improve the outcomes of patients with BRCA wild-type tumors. We report that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3 inhibition in ovarian cancer cells is associated with decreased levels of both BRCA1 and BRCA2. Inhibition of VEGFR3 in ovarian tumor cells was associated with growth arrest. CD133+ ovarian cancer stemlike cells were preferentially susceptible to VEGFR3-mediated growth inhibition. VEGFR3 inhibition–mediated down-regulation of BRCA gene expression reversed chemotherapy resistance and restored chemosensitivity in resistant cell lines in which a BRCA2 mutation had reverted to wild type. Finally, we demonstrate that tumor-associated macrophages are a primary source of VEGF-C in the tumor microenvironment. Our studies suggest that VEGFR3 inhibition may be a pharmacologic means to downregulate BRCA genes and improve the outcomes of patients with BRCA wild-type tumors.

  15. VEGFR3 Inhibition Chemosensitizes Ovarian Cancer Stemlike Cells through Down-Regulation of BRCA1 and BRCA212

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jaeyoung; Yang, Kun; Taylor-Harding, Barbie; Wiedemeyer, W. Ruprecht; Buckanovich, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    In ovarian cancer, loss of BRCA gene expression in tumors is associated with improved response to chemotherapy and increased survival. A means to pharmacologically downregulate BRCA gene expression could improve the outcomes of patients with BRCA wild-type tumors. We report that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) inhibition in ovarian cancer cells is associated with decreased levels of both BRCA1 and BRCA2. Inhibition of VEGFR3 in ovarian tumor cells was associated with growth arrest. CD133+ ovarian cancer stemlike cells were preferentially susceptible to VEGFR3-mediated growth inhibition. VEGFR3 inhibition–mediated down-regulation of BRCA gene expression reversed chemotherapy resistance and restored chemosensitivity in resistant cell lines in which a BRCA2 mutation had reverted to wild type. Finally, we demonstrate that tumor-associated macrophages are a primary source of VEGF-C in the tumor microenvironment. Our studies suggest that VEGFR3 inhibition may be a pharmacologic means to downregulate BRCA genes and improve the outcomes of patients with BRCA wild-type tumors. PMID:24862760

  16. Methyl jasmonate abolishes the migration, invasion and angiogenesis of gastric cancer cells through down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent evidence indicates that methyl jasmonate (MJ), a plant stress hormone, exhibits anti-cancer activity on human cancer cells. The aim of this study is to determine whether sub-cytotoxic MJ can abolish the migration, invasion and angiogenesis gastric cancer cells. Human gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and MKN-45 were treated with diverse concentrations of MJ. Cell viability, proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis capabilities of cancer cells were measured by MTT colorimetry, EdU incorporation, scratch assay, matrigel invasion assay, and tube formation assay. Gene expression was detected by western blot and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Binding of transcription factor on gene promoter was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Sub-cytotoxic (0.05 to 0.2 mM) MJ attenuated the migration, invasion and angiogenesis, but not the cell viability or proliferation, of gastric cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP-14) and its downstream gene vascular endothelial growth factor. Restoration of MMP-14 expression rescued the SGC-7901 and MKN-45 cells from sub-cytotoxic MJ-inhibited migration, invasion and angiogenesis. In addition, sub-cytotoxic MJ decreased the specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression and binding on MMP-14 promoter, while restoration of Sp1 expression rescued the cancer cells from sub-cytotoxic MJ-mediated defects in MMP-14 expression, migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Sub-cytotoxic MJ attenuates the MMP-14 expression via decreasing the Sp1 expression and binding on MMP-14 promoter, thus inhibiting the migration, invasion and angiogenesis of gastric cancer cells

  17. Down-regulation of MTA1 protein leads to the inhibition of migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of non-small-cell lung cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuhai Li; Hui Tian; Weiming Yue; Lin Li; Cun Gao; Libo Si; Wenjun Li

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) high expression has been detected in a wide variety of human aggressive tumors and plays important roles in the malignant biological behaviors such as invasion,metastasis,and angiogenesis.However,the specific roles and mechanisms of MTA1 protein in regulating the malignant behaviors of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells still remain unclear.To elucidate the detailed functions of MTA1 protein,we down-regulated the MTA1 protein expression in NSCLC cell line by RNA interference (RNAi) in vitro,and found that down-regulation of MTA1 protein significantly inhibited the migration and invasion potentials of 95D cells.Further research revealed that down-reguiation of MTA1 protein significantly decreased the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9,which could be the mechanism responsible for the inhibition of 95D cells migration and invasion.In addition,the tube formation assay demonstrated that the number of complete tubes induced by the conditioned medium of MTA1-siRNA 95D cells was significantly smaller than that of 95D cells.These findings demonstrate that MTA1 protein plays important roles in regulating the migration,invasion,and angiogenesis potentials of 95D cells,suggesting that MTA1 protein down-regulation by RNAi might be a novel therapeutic approach to inhibit the progression of NSCLC.

  18. Pro-inflammatory endothelial cell dysfunction is associated with intersectin-1s down-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The response of lung microvascular endothelial cells (ECs to lipopolysaccharide (LPS is central to the pathogenesis of lung injury. It is dual in nature, with one facet that is pro-inflammatory and another that is cyto-protective. In previous work, overexpression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL rescued ECs from apoptosis triggered by siRNA knockdown of intersectin-1s (ITSN-1s, a pro-survival protein crucial for ECs function. Here we further characterized the cyto-protective EC response to LPS and pro-inflammatory dysfunction. Methods and Results Electron microscopy (EM analyses of LPS-exposed ECs revealed an activated/dysfunctional phenotype, while a biotin assay for caveolae internalization followed by biochemical quantification indicated that LPS causes a 40% inhibition in biotin uptake compared to controls. Quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression, respectively, for several regulatory proteins of intrinsic apoptosis, including ITSN-1s. The decrease in ITSN-1s mRNA and protein expression were countered by Bcl-XL and survivin upregulation, as well as Bim downregulation, events thought to protect ECs from impending apoptosis. Absence of apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL and lack of cytochrome c (cyt c efflux from mitochondria. Moreover, LPS exposure caused induction and activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and a mitochondrial variant (mtNOS, as well as augmented mitochondrial NO production as measured by an oxidation oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb assay applied on mitochondrial-enriched fractions prepared from LPS-exposed ECs. Interestingly, expression of myc-ITSN-1s rescued caveolae endocytosis and reversed induction of iNOS expression. Conclusion Our results suggest that ITSN-1s deficiency is relevant for the pro-inflammatory ECs dysfunction induced by LPS.

  19. Allele loss and down-regulation of heparanase gene are associated with the progression and poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The role of heparanase (HPSE gene in cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is currently controversial. This study was aimed at investigating the impact of genetic alteration and expression change of HPSE on the progression and prognosis of HCC. METHODS: The HPSE gene was studied in three different aspects: (1 loss of heterozygosity (LOH by a custom SNP microarray and DNA copy number by real-time PCR; (2 mRNA level by qRT-PCR; and (3 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. The clinical significances of allele loss and expression change of HPSE were analyzed. RESULTS: Microarray analysis showed that the average LOH frequency for 10 SNPs located within HPSE gene was 31.6%, three of which were significantly correlated with tumor grade, serum HBV-DNA level, and AFP concentration. In agreement with SNP LOH data, DNA copy number loss of HPSE was observed in 38.74% (43/111 of HCC cases. HPSE mRNA level was notably reduced in 74.1% (83/112 of tumor tissues compared with non-tumor liver tissues, which was significantly associated with DNA copy number loss, increased tumor size, and post-operative metastasis. HPSE protein level was also remarkably reduced in 66.3% (53/80 of tumor tissues, which was correlated with tumor grade. Patients with lower expression level of HPSE mRNA or protein had a significantly lower survival rate than those with higher expression. Cox regression analysis suggested that HPSE protein was an independent predictor of overall survival in HCC patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results in this study demonstrate that genetic alteration and reduction of HPSE expression are associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis of HCCs, suggesting that HPSE behaves like a tumor suppressor gene and is a potential prognostic marker for HCC patients.

  20. Quercetin Down-regulates IL-6/STAT-3 Signals to Induce Mitochondrial-mediated Apoptosis in a Non-small-cell Lung-cancer Cell Line, A549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinaba Mukherjee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Quercetin, a flavonoid compound, has been reported to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but its anti-inflammatory effects, which are also closely linked with apoptosis, if any, on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC have not so far been critically examined. In this study, we tried to determine if quercetin had any demonstrable anti-inflammatory potential, which also could significantly contribute to inducing apoptosis in a NSCLC cell line, A549. Methods: In this context, several assays, including cytotoxicity, flow cytometry and fluorimetry, were done. Gene expression was analyzed by using a western blot analysis. Results: Results revealed that quercetin could induce apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial depolarization by causing an imbalance in B-cell lymphoma 2/Bcl2 Antagonist X (Bcl2/Bax ratio and by down-regulating the interleukine-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. An analysis of the data revealed that quercetin could block nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB activity at early hours, which might cause a down-regulation of the IL-6 titer, and the IL-6 expression, in turn, could inhibit p-STAT3 expression. Down-regulation of both the STAT3 and the NF-κB expressions might, therefore, cause down-regulation of Bcl2 activity because both are major upstream effectors of Bcl2. Alteration in Bcl2 responses might result in an imbalance in the Bcl2/Bax ratio, which could ultimately bring about mitochondria mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. Conclusion: Overall, the finding of this study indicates that a quercetin induced anti-inflammatory pathway in A549 cells appeared to make a significant contribution towards induction of apoptosis in NSCLC and, thus, may have a therapeutic use such as a strong apoptosis inducer in cancer cells.

  1. Morphine-induced desensitization and down-regulation at mu-receptors in 7315C pituitary tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttfarcken, P.S.; Cox, B.M. (Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Pituitary 7315c tumor cells maintained in culture were treated with varying concentrations of morphine from 10 nM to 300 {mu}M, for periods of five or forty-eight hours. The ability of the mu-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase in washed membrane preparations from the treated cells was compared with its activity in membranes from cells incubated in the absence of added morphine. In the same membrane preparations, the number and affinity of mu-opioid receptors was estimated by measurements of ({sup 3}H)diprenorphine binding. After 5 hr of treatment with morphine concentrations of 100 nM or higher, a significant reduction in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by DAMGO was observed. Little further loss of agonist activity was observed when the incubations were extended to 48 hr. After 5 hr of morphine treatment, there was no change in either the number of receptors, or their affinity for ({sup 3}H)diprenorphine. However after 48 hr of morphine treatment, greater than 25% reductions in receptor number were apparent with morphine pretreatment concentrations of 10 {mu}M or higher. These results suggest that opioid tolerance in this system is primarily associated with a reduced ability of agonist-occupied receptor to activate the effector system. Receptor down-regulation was not necessary for loss of agonist response, although a reduction in receptor number occurred after exposure to high concentrations of morphine for periods longer than 5hr.

  2. Morphine-induced desensitization and down-regulation at mu-receptors in 7315C pituitary tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pituitary 7315c tumor cells maintained in culture were treated with varying concentrations of morphine from 10 nM to 300 μM, for periods of five or forty-eight hours. The ability of the mu-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase in washed membrane preparations from the treated cells was compared with its activity in membranes from cells incubated in the absence of added morphine. In the same membrane preparations, the number and affinity of mu-opioid receptors was estimated by measurements of [3H]diprenorphine binding. After 5 hr of treatment with morphine concentrations of 100 nM or higher, a significant reduction in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by DAMGO was observed. Little further loss of agonist activity was observed when the incubations were extended to 48 hr. After 5 hr of morphine treatment, there was no change in either the number of receptors, or their affinity for [3H]diprenorphine. However after 48 hr of morphine treatment, greater than 25% reductions in receptor number were apparent with morphine pretreatment concentrations of 10 μM or higher. These results suggest that opioid tolerance in this system is primarily associated with a reduced ability of agonist-occupied receptor to activate the effector system. Receptor down-regulation was not necessary for loss of agonist response, although a reduction in receptor number occurred after exposure to high concentrations of morphine for periods longer than 5hr

  3. eEF-2 Phosphorylation Down-Regulates P-Glycoprotein Over-Expression in Rat Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hua Tang

    Full Text Available We investigated whether glutamate, NMDA receptors, and eukaryote elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K/eEF-2 regulate P-glycoprotein expression, and the effects of the eEF-2K inhibitor NH125 on the expression of P-glycoprotein in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (RBMECs.Cortex was obtained from newborn Wistar rat brains. After surface vessels and meninges were removed, the pellet containing microvessels was resuspended and incubated at 37°C in culture medium. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay. RBMECs were identified by immunohistochemistry with anti-vWF. P-glycoprotein, phospho-eEF-2, and eEF-2 expression were determined by western blot analysis. Mdr1a gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR.Mdr1a mRNA, P-glycoprotein and phospho-eEF-2 expression increased in L-glutamate stimulated RBMECs. P-glycoprotein and phospho-eEF-2 expression were down-regulated after NH125 treatment in L-glutamate stimulated RBMECs.eEF-2K/eEF-2 should have played an important role in the regulation of P-glycoprotein expression in RBMECs. eEF-2K inhibitor NH125 could serve as an efficacious anti-multidrug resistant agent.

  4. Transcriptional down regulation of hTERT and senescence induction in HepG2 cells by chelidonine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sakineh Kazemi Noureini; Michael Wink

    2009-01-01

    aged with large volume and dark staining in the β-galactosidase assay. CONCLUSION: Chelidonine reduces telomerase activity through down-regulation of hTERT expression. Senescence induction might not be directly caused by reducing telomerase activity as it occurs after a few population doublings.

  5. Down-regulation of PAR1 activity with a pHLIP-based allosteric antagonist induces cancer cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kelly E; Thévenin, Damien

    2015-12-15

    Even though abnormal expression of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and of their ligands is observed in many cancer cells of various origins, only a few anti-cancer compounds directly act on their signalling. One promising approach to modulate their activity consists of targeting the receptor cytoplasmic surfaces interacting with the associated G-proteins using peptides mimicking the intracellular loops of the receptor. Thus, to be fully effective, the peptide mimics must be selectively targeted to the tumour while sparing healthy tissues, translocated across the cell membrane and stay anchored to the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. In the present study, we introduce a novel way to selectively target and inhibit the activity of a GPCR in cancer cells under acidic conditions, such as those found in solid tumours. We find that the conjugation of a peptide fragment derived from the third intracellular loop (i3) of the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) to a peptide that can selectively target tumours solely based on their acidity [pH(Low) Insertion Peptide (pHLIP)], produces a construct capable of effectively down-regulating PAR1 activity in a concentration- and pH-dependent manner and of inducing a potent cytotoxic effect in a panel of cancer cells that is proportional to the relative level of receptor expression at the cell surface. This strategy not only allows for a more selective targeting and specific intracellular delivery than current approaches, but also offers new possibilities for developing novel anti-cancer drugs targeting GPCRs. PMID:26424552

  6. Apigenin suppresses migration and invasion of transformed cells through down-regulation of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Kuang, Lisha; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Budhraja, Amit [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Institute of Oral Biosciences and BK21 Program, Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Pratheeshkumar, Poyil [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Chen, Gang [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Zhang, Zhuo [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Luo, Jia [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressed CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other types of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Apigenin has a potential in preventing environmental arsenic induced carcinogenesis. • Apigenin suppresses CXCR4 in malignant transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. • The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to inhibition of NF-κB activity.

  7. Down-regulation of the cyprinid herpesvirus-3 annotated genes in cultured cells maintained at restrictive high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

    2012-10-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, in the order Herpesvirales. It causes a fatal disease in carp and koi fish. The disease is seasonal and is active when water temperatures ranges from 18 to 28 °C. Little is known about how and where the virus is preserved between the permissive seasons. The hallmark of the herpesviruses is their ability to become latent, persisting in the host in an apparently inactive state for varying periods of time. Hence, it could be expected that CyHV-3 enter a latent period. CyHV-3 has so far been shown to persist in fish maintained under restrictive temperatures, while shifting the fish to permissive conditions reactivates the virus. Previously, we demonstrated that cultured cells infected with CyHV-3 at 22 °C and subsequently transferred to a restrictive temperature of 30 °C preserve the virus for 30 days. The present report shows that cultured carp cells maintained and exposed to CyHV-3 at 30 °C are abortively infected; that is, autonomous viral DNA synthesis is hampered and the viral genome is not multiplied. Under these conditions, 91 of the 156 viral annotated ORFs were initially transcribed. These transcripts were down-regulated and gradually shut off over 18 days post-infection, while two viral transcripts encoded by ORFs 114 and 115 were preserved in the infected cells for 18 days p.i. These experiments, carried out in cultured cells, suggest that fish could be infected at a high non-permissive temperature and harbor the viral genome without producing viral particles. PMID:22841492

  8. Resveratrol and clofarabine induces a preferential apoptosis-activating effect on malignant mesothelioma cells by Mcl-1 down-regulation and caspase-3 activation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lee, Yong-Jin; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that resveratrol and clofarabine elicited a marked cytotoxicity on malignant mesothelioma (MM) MSTO-211H cells but not on the corresponding normal mesothelial MeT-5A cells. Little is known of the possible molecules that could be used to predict preferential chemosensitivity on MSTO-211H cells. Resveratrol and clofarabine induced down-regulation of Mcl-1 protein level in MSTO-211H cells. Treatment of cells with cycloheximide in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG...

  9. Atherosclerosis-Associated Endothelial Cell Apoptosis by MiR-429-Mediated Down Regulation of Bcl-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2015-10-01

    -associated endothelial cell apoptosis may result from down regulation of Bcl-2, through increased miR-429 that binds and suppresses translation of Bcl-2 mRNA.

  10. CD3 gamma contains a phosphoserine-dependent di-leucine motif involved in down-regulation of the T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Hou, X; Wegener, A M;

    1994-01-01

    Several cell surface receptors including the T cell receptor (TCR) are phosphorylated and down-regulated following activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Among other substrates the activated PKC in T cells phosphorylates the CD3 gamma subunit of the TCR. To investigate the role of CD3 gamma...... phosphorylation in PKC-mediated TCR down-regulation, point mutated CD3 gamma cDNA was transfected into the CD3 gamma-negative T cell line JGN and CD3 gamma transfectants were analysed. Phosphorylation at S126 but not S123 in the cytoplasmic tail of CD3 gamma was required for PKC-mediated down-regulation of the...... TCR. Furthermore, analysis of a series of CD3 gamma truncation mutants indicated that in addition to S126 phosphorylation a motif C-terminal of S126 was required for TCR down-regulation. Point mutation analyses confirmed this observation and demonstrated that a membrane-proximal di-leucine motif (L131...

  11. Cadmium exposure down-regulates 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase expression in rat lung and alveolar epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study tested the hypothesis that the pulmonary carcinogenic potential of cadmium (Cd) is related to its ability to inhibit the expression (mRNA and protein) and activity of 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1), a base excision repair (BER) enzyme that functions to preferentially excise pre-mutagenic 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) from DNA. We demonstrate that a single Cd aerosol exposure of adult male Lewis rats causes time- and dose-dependent down-regulation in the pulmonary levels of rOGG1 mRNA and OGG1 protein, quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays and western analyses, respectively. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that Cd inhalation reduces the relative amount of OGG1 in lungs of exposed animals without altering its over-all distribution within the lung, which appears to be more prominent within the alveolar epithelium. In agreement with our in vivo studies, we show that OGG1 expression is also attenuated in alveolar epithelial cell cultures exposed to CdCl2 either acutely or by repeated passaging in Cd-containing medium. The effects caused by Cd were observed in cells that show no loss in viability, as assessed by colony forming ability, the MTT assay, and propidium iodide membrane permeability studies. Nuclear extracts prepared from Cd-treated cells also exhibit a reduction in the ability to nick a synthetic oligonucleotide containing 8-oxoG. We conclude from these studies that Cd causes suppression of OGG1 in the lung and that this mechanism may, in part, play a role in the Cd carcinogenic process

  12. Arthrophytum scoparium inhibits melanogenesis through the down-regulation of tyrosinase and melanogenic gene expressions in B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hui-Chia; Najjaa, Hanen; Villareal, Myra O; Ksouri, Riadh; Han, Junkyu; Neffati, Mohamed; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-02-01

    Melanin performs a crucial role in protecting the skin against harmful ultraviolet light. However, hyperpigmentation may lead to aesthetic problems and disorders such as solar lentigines (SL), melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and even melanoma. Arthrophytum scoparium grows in the desert in the North African region, and given this type of environment, A. scoparium exhibits adaptations for storing water and produces useful bioactive factors. In this study, the effect of A. scoparium ethanol extract (ASEE) on melanogenesis regulation in B16 murine melanoma cells was investigated. Cells treated with 0.017% (w/v) ASEE showed a significant inhibition of melanin biosynthesis in a time-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. To clarify the mechanism behind the ASEE-treated melanogenesis regulation, the expressions of tyrosinase enzyme and melanogenesis-related genes were determined. Results showed that the expression of tyrosinase enzyme was significantly decreased and Tyr, Trp-1, Mitf and Mc1R mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated. LC-ESI-TOF-MS analysis of the extract identified the presence of six phenolic compounds: coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, chrysoeriol, cyanidin, catechol and caffeoylquinic acid. The melanogenesis inhibitory effect of ASEE may therefore be attributed to its catechol and tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative content. We report here that ASEE can inhibit melanogenesis in a time-dependent manner by decreasing the tyrosinase protein and Tyr, Trp-1, Mitf and Mc1R mRNA expressions. This is the first report on the antimelanogenesis effect of A. scoparium and on its potential as a whitening agent. PMID:23362872

  13. Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Tran, Thi Thu Phuong; Khanal, Tilak; Choi, Jae Ho [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Chul [Department of Food Science and Culinary, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene regulation by metformin. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. • Metformin down-regulates the AhR signaling. • Metformin reduces Sp1 protein expression. • Metformin suppresses TDO expression.

  14. Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene regulation by metformin. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. • Metformin down-regulates the AhR signaling. • Metformin reduces Sp1 protein expression. • Metformin suppresses TDO expression

  15. MiR-128b is down-regulated in gastric cancer and negatively regulates tumour cell viability by targeting PDK1/Akt/NF-κB axis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ling Zhang; Jun Lei; Zi-Ling Fang; Jian-Ping Xiong

    2016-03-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most prevalent type of cancer worldwide, which is usually caused by the interaction between environmental and genetic factors, or epigenetic aspects. Referring to the non-coding RNAs, miR-128b has been reported to be associated with many tumour cases, and exerts distinct functions in different types of cancers. However, the function of miR-128b in GC onset and progression largely remains unknown. In the present study, we found that miR-128b expression was down-regulated in tissues from 18 GC patients and 3 carcinoma cell lines. In turn, over-expression of miR-128b suppressed GC cell proliferation, invasion and promoted apoptosis. Moreover, miR-128b was predicted to bind the 3'UTR of PDK1 gene using bioinformatic target-screening tools. Accordingly, ectopic expression of miR-128b inhibited the PDK1 expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and furthermore, the expression of gene tailed by the 3′UTR of PDK1 gene was significantly decreased in a dualluciferase reporter assay, suggesting that PDK1 was a direct target of miR-128b in GC cells. In the conditon of miR-128b over-expression, we also observed spontaneous inactivation of the Akt/NF-κB signalling, implying PDK1 was a potential regulator of this pathway. In conclusion, our study shed some novel light on miR-128b-PDK1/Akt/NF-κB axis on GC progression.

  16. Zeranol Down-Regulates p53 Expression in Primary Cultured Human Breast Cancer Epithelial Cells through Epigenetic Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young C. Lin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that there are many risk factors associated with breast cancer. Silencing tumor suppressor genes through epigenetic alterations play critical roles in breast cancer initiation, promotion and progression. As a growth promoter, Zeranol (Z has been approved by the FDA and is widely used to enhance the growth of beef cattle in the United States. However, the safety of Z use as a growth promoter is still under debate. In order to provide more evidence to clarify this critical health issue, the current study investigated the effect of Z on the proliferation of primary cultured human normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells (PCHNBECs and PCHBCECs, respectively isolated from the same patient using MTS assay, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. We also conducted an investigation regarding the mechanisms that might be involved. Our results show that Z is more potent to stimulate PCHBCEC growth than PCHNBEC growth. The stimulatory effects of Z on PCHBCECs and PCHBCECs may be mediated by its down-regulating expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53 at the mRNA and protein levels. Further investigation showed that the expression of DNA methylatransferase 1 mRNA and protein levels is up-regulated by treatment with Z in PCHBCECs as compared to PCHNBECs, which suggests a role of Z in epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of p53 gene expression in PCHBCECs. Our experimental results imply the potentially adverse health effect of Z in breast cancer development. Further study is continuing in our laboratory.

  17. DMSO Efficiently Down Regulates Pluripotency Genes in Human Embryonic Stem Cells during Definitive Endoderm Derivation and Increases the Proficiency of Hepatic Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Czysz, Katherine; Minger, Stephen; Thomas, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Background Definitive endoderm (DE) is one of the three germ layers which during in vivo vertebrate development gives rise to a variety of organs including liver, lungs, thyroid and pancreas; consequently efficient in vitro initiation of stem cell differentiation to DE cells is a prerequisite for successful cellular specification to subsequent DE-derived cell types [1, 2]. In this study we present a novel approach to rapidly and efficiently down regulate pluripotency genes during initiation o...

  18. Simultaneous down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes RBSP3/CTDSPL, NPRL2/G21 and RASSF1A in primary non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The short arm of human chromosome 3 is involved in the development of many cancers including lung cancer. Three bona fide lung cancer tumor suppressor genes namely RBSP3 (AP20 region),NPRL2 and RASSF1A (LUCA region) were identified in the 3p21.3 region. We have shown previously that homozygous deletions in AP20 and LUCA sub-regions often occurred in the same tumor (P < 10-6). We estimated the quantity of RBSP3, NPRL2, RASSF1A, GAPDH, RPN1 mRNA and RBSP3 DNA copy number in 59 primary non-small cell lung cancers, including 41 squamous cell and 18 adenocarcinomas by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction based on TaqMan technology and relative quantification. We evaluated the relationship between mRNA level and clinicopathologic characteristics in non-small cell lung cancer. A significant expression decrease (≥2) was found for all three genes early in tumor development: in 85% of cases for RBSP3; 73% for NPRL2 and 67% for RASSF1A (P < 0.001), more strongly pronounced in squamous cell than in adenocarcinomas. Strong suppression of both, NPRL2 and RBSP3 was seen in 100% of cases already at Stage I of squamous cell carcinomas. Deregulation of RASSF1A correlated with tumor progression of squamous cell (P = 0.196) and adenocarcinomas (P < 0.05). Most likely, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms might be responsible for transcriptional inactivation of RBSP3 in non-small cell lung cancers as promoter methylation of RBSP3 according to NotI microarrays data was detected in 80% of squamous cell and in 38% of adenocarcinomas. With NotI microarrays we tested how often LUCA (NPRL2, RASSF1A) and AP20 (RBSP3) regions were deleted or methylated in the same tumor sample and found that this occured in 39% of all studied samples (P < 0.05). Our data support the hypothesis that these TSG are involved in tumorigenesis of NSCLC. Both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms contribute to down-regulation of these three genes representing two tumor suppressor clusters in 3p21

  19. Warfarin and coumarin-like Murraya paniculata extract down-regulate EpCAM-mediated cell adhesion: individual components versus mixture for studying botanical metastatic chemopreventives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jingwei; Zhou, Suxia; Jiang, Zhou; Chi, Ting; Ma, Ji; Kuo, Minliang; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Jia, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We recently defined cancer metastatic chemoprevention as utilizing safe and effective molecules to comprehensively prevent the spark of activation-adhesion-extravasation-proliferation metastatic cascade caused by circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The strategy focuses on preventing the most important starting point of the cascade. We identified an extract from a well-known medical plant Murraya paniculata, which inhibited both embryonic implantation to human endometrium as traditionally-used for abortion and CTC adhesion to human endothelium. Here, we separated and characterized five coumarin-containing components (Z1-Z5) from the botanic extract. Flow cytometry revealed that within 1-100 μg/mL, Z3 and Z5 down-regulated EpCAM expression in human colon HCT116, whereas, Z1 and Z2 did oppositely. Warfarin and Z1-Z5 component mixture (CM) also down-regulated EpCAM expression. The down-regulation of EpCAM by Z3, Z5, CM and warfarin was confirmed by western blotting, and caused inhibition on adhesion of cancer cells to human endothelial cells. Rat coagulation study showed that warfarin prolonged prothrombin time, whereas, Z3 did not. The present studies revealed that, for the first time, warfarin and coumarin-like components Z3, Z5 and CM from Murraya paniculata could directly inhibit EpCAM-mediated cell-cell adhesion. PMID:27480614

  20. HCV core protein-induced down-regulation of microRNA-152 promoted aberrant proliferation by regulating Wnt1 in HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV has been reported to regulate cellular microRNAs (miRNAs. The HCV core protein is considered to be a potential oncoprotein in HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCV-HCC, but HCV core-regulated miRNAs are largely unknown. Our preliminary experiments revealed significant down-regulation of microRNA-152 (miR-152 by HCV core protein in HepG2 cells. Through target gene prediction softwares, Wnt1 was predicted to be a potential target of miR-152. The present study was initiated to investigate whether miR-152 is aberrantly regulated by the HCV core protein, and involved in the regulation of the aberrant proliferation of HCV-HCC cells. METHODS: MiR-152 levels were examined by stem-loop real-time RT-PCR (SLqRT-PCR. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT and colony formation assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. Luciferase reporter assay was conducted to confirm miRNA-target association. Wnt1 expression was determined by real-time qPCR and Western blotting. RESULTS: HCV core protein significantly suppressed miR-152 expression, and led to significant Wnt1 up-regulation with a concomitant aberrantly promoted proliferation. Moreover, we validated that miR-152 inhibition promoted, while miR-152 mimics inhibited cell proliferation. Using, qRT-PCR and western blot, Wnt1 was demonstrated to be regulated by miR-152. Luciferase activity assay showed that while miR-152 mimics significantly reduced the luciferase activity by 83.76% (P<0.0001, miR-152 inhibitor showed no effect on luciferase reporter. Most notably, salvage expression of miR-152 after Ad-HCV core infection for 24 h almost totally reversed the proliferation-promoting effect of the HCV core protein, and meanwhile, reduced the expression of both Wnt1 mRNA and protein to basal levels. CONCLUSION: These findings provide important evidence that the reduced miR-152 expression by HCV core protein can indirectly lose an inhibitory effect on Wnt1

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured under hypoxia escape from senescence via down-regulation of p16 and extracellular signal regulated kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxia has been considered to affect the properties of tissue stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Effects of long periods of exposure to hypoxia on human MSCs, however, have not been clearly demonstrated. MSCs cultured under normoxic conditions (20% pO2) ceased to proliferate after 15-25 population doublings, while MSCs cultured under hypoxic conditions (1% pO2) retained the ability to proliferate with an additional 8-20 population doublings. Most of the MSCs cultured under normoxic conditions were in a senescent state after 100 days, while few senescent cells were found in the hypoxic culture, which was associated with a down-regulation of p16 gene expression. MSCs cultured for 100 days under hypoxic conditions were superior to those cultured under normoxic conditions in the ability to differentiate into the chondro- and adipogenic, but not osteogenic, lineage. Among the molecules related to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) was significantly down-regulated by hypoxia, which helped to inhibit the up-regulation of p16 gene expression. Therefore, the hypoxic culture retained MSCs in an undifferentiated and senescence-free state through the down-regulation of p16 and ERK.

  2. SKP2 siRNA inhibits the degradation of P27kip1 and down-regulates the expression of MRP in HL-60/A cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Xiao; Songmei Yin; Yiqing Li; Shuangfeng Xie; Danian Nie; Liping Ma; Xiuju Wang; Yudan Wu; Jianhong Feng

    2009-01-01

    S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) gene is a tumor suppressor gene, and is involved in the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of P27kip1. SKP2 and P27kip1 affect the proceeding and prognosis of leukemia through regulating the proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of leukemia cells. In this study, we explored the mechan-ism of reversing of HL-60/A drug resistance through SKP2 down-regulation. HL-60/A cells were nucleofected by Amaxa Nucleofector System with SKP2 siRNA. The gene and protein expression levels of Skp2, P27kip1, and multi-drug resistance associated protein (MRP) were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The 50% inhibi-tory concentration value was calculated using cytotoxic analysis according to the death rate of these two kinds of cells under different concentrations of chemotherapeutics to compare the sensitivity of the cells. HL-60/A cells showed multi-drug resistance phenotype characteristic by cross-resistance to adriamycin, daunorubicin, and arabi-nosylcytosine, due to the expression of MRP. We found that the expression of SKP2 was higher in HL-60/A cells than in HL-60 cells, but the expression of P27kip1 was lower. The expression of SKP2 in HL-60/A cells nucleo-fected by SKP2 siRNA was down-regulated whereas the protein level of P27kip1 was up-regulated. Compared with the MRP expression level in the control group (nucleo-fected by control siRNA), the mRNA and protein expression levels of MRP in HL-60/A cells nucleofected by SKP2 siRNA were lower, and the latter cells were more sensitive to adriamycin, daunorubicin, and arabi-nosylcytosine. Down-regulating the SKP2 expression and arresting cells in the G0/G1 phase improve drug sensitivity of leukemia cells with down-regulated MRP expression.

  3. MicroRNA-26a is Strongly Down-regulated in Melanoma and Induces Cell Death through Repression of Silencer of Death Domains (SODD)

    OpenAIRE

    Reuland, Steven N.; Smith, Shilo; Bemis, Lynne; Goldstein, Nathaniel B.; Almeida, Adam; Katie A. Partyka; Marquez, Victor E.; Zhang, Qinghong; David A Norris; Yiqun G Shellman

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive cancer that metastasizes rapidly, and is refractory to conventional chemotherapies. Identifying miRNAs that are responsible for this pathogenesis is therefore a promising means of developing new therapies. We identified miR-26a through microarray and qRT-PCR experiments as an miRNA that is strongly down-regulated in melanoma cell lines as compared to primary melanocytes. Treatment of cell lines with miR-26a mimic caused significant and rapid cell death compared to a ...

  4. Molecular mechanisms of benzodiazepine-induced down-regulation of GABAA receptor alpha 1 subunit protein in rat cerebellar granule cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, M. J.; Bristow, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Chronic benzodiazepine treatment of rat cerebellar granule cells induced a transient down-regulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor alpha 1 subunit protein, that was dose-dependent (1 nM-1 microM) and prevented by the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (1 microM). After 2 days of treatment with 1 microM flunitrazepam the alpha 1 subunit protein was reduced by 41% compared to untreated cells, which returned to, and remained at, control cell levels from 4-12 days of treat...

  5. Down-regulation of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein does not improve hypothermic growth of Chinese hamster ovary cells producing erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jong Kwang; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Yoon, Sung Kwan; Lee, Gyun Min

    2007-03-01

    Discovery of the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) in mouse fibroblasts suggests that growth suppression at hypothermic conditions is due to an active response by the cell rather than due to passive thermal effects. To determine the effect of down-regulated CIRP expression on cell growth and erythropoietin (EPO) production in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells at low culture temperature, stable CHO cell clones with reduced CIRP expression level were established by transfecting (rCHO) cells with the CIRP siRNA vector with a target sequence of TCGTCCTTCCATGGCTGTA. For comparison of the degree of specific growth rate (micro) reduction at low culture temperature, three CIRP-reduced clones with different mu and three control clones transfected with null vector were cultivated at two different temperatures, 32 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Unlike mouse fibroblasts, alleviation of hypothermic growth arrest of rCHO cells by CIRP down-regulation was insignificant, as shown by statistical analysis using the t-test (P<0.18, n=3). The ratios of mu at 32 degrees C to micro at 37 degrees C of CIRP-reduced clones and control clones were 0.29+/-0.03 and 0.25+/-0.03 on an average, respectively. Furthermore, it was also found that overexpression of CIRP did not inhibit rCHO cell growth significantly at 37 degrees C. Taken together, the data obtained show that down-regulation of only CIRP in rCHO cells, unlike mouse fibroblasts, is not sufficient to recover growth arrest at low-temperature culture (32 degrees C). PMID:17239640

  6. CD133 promotes gallbladder carcinoma cell migration through activating Akt phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Jiaojiao; Ai, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is the fifth most common malignancy of gastrointestinal tract. The prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is extremely terrible partially due to metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying gallbladder carcinoma metastasis remain largely unknown. CD133 is a widely used cancer stem cell marker including in gallbladder carcinoma. Here, we found that CD133 was highly expressed in gallbladder carcinoma as compared to normal tissues. CD133 was located in the invasive areas in gallbladder carcinoma. Down-regulation expression of CD133 inhibited migration and invasion of gallbladder carcinoma cell without obviously reducing cell proliferation. Mechanism analysis revealed that down-regulation expression of CD133 inhibited Akt phosphorylation and increased PTEN protein level. The inhibitory effect of CD133 down-regulation on gallbladder carcinoma cell migration could be rescued by Akt activation. Consistent with this, addition of Akt inhibitor Wortmannin markedly inhibited the migration ability of CD133-overexpressing cells. Thus, down-regulation of CD133 inhibits migration of gallbladder carcinoma cells through reducing Akt phosphorylation. These findings explore the fundamental biological aspect of CD133 in gallbladder carcinoma progression, providing insights into gallbladder carcinoma cell migration. PMID:26910892

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epithelioma, is the most common form of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially ... other health issues. Infiltrating or morpheaform basal cell carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive ...

  8. Thrombomodulin reduces tumorigenic and metastatic potential of lung cancer cells by up-regulation of E-cadherin and down-regulation of N-cadherin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nana; Huo, Zihe; Zhang, Bin; Meng, Mei; Cao, Zhifei; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Quansheng

    2016-08-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial cell membrane protein and plays critical roles in anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammation, vascular endothelial protection, and is traditionally regarded as a "vascular protection god". In recent years, although TM has been reported to be down-regulated in a variety of malignant tumors including lung cancer, the role and mechanism of TM in lung cancer are enigmatic. In this study, we found that induction of TM overexpression by cholesterol-reducing drug atorvastatin significantly diminished the tumorigenic capability of the lung cancer cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that TM overexpression caused G0/G1 phase arrest and markedly reduced the colony forming capability of the cells. Furthermore, overexpression of TM inhibited cell migration and invasion. Consistently, depletion of TM promoted cell growth, reduced the cell population at the G0/G1 phase, and enhanced cell migratory ability. Mechanistic study revealed that TM up-regulated E-cadherin but down-regulated N-cadherin expression, resulting in reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the lung cancer cells. Moreover, silencing TM expression led to decreased E-cadherin and increased N-cadherin. Taken together, our study suggests that TM functions as a tumor suppressive protein, providing a conceptual framework for inducing TM overexpression as a sensible strategy and approach for novel anti-lung cancer drug discovery. PMID:27223053

  9. BAFF induces spleen CD4+ T cell proliferation by down-regulating phosphorylation of FOXO3A and activates cyclin D2 and D3 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Firstly analyze the mechanism of BAFF and anti-CD3 co-stimulation on purified mouse splenic CD4+ T cells. ► Carrying out siRNA technology to study FOXO3A protein function. ► Helpful to understand the T cell especially CD4+ T cell‘s role in immunological reaction. -- Abstract: The TNF ligand family member “B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family” (BAFF, also called BLyS, TALL-1, zTNF-4, and THANK) is an important survival factor for B and T cells. In this study, we show that BAFF is able to induce CD4+ spleen T cell proliferation when co-stimulated with anti-CD3. Expression of phosphorylated FOXO3A was notably down-regulated and cyclins D2 and D3 were up-regulated and higher in the CD4+ T cells when treated with BAFF and anti-CD3, as assessed by Western blotting. Furthermore, after FOXO3A was knocked down, expression of cyclin D1 was unchanged, compared with control group levels, but the expression of cyclins D2 and D3 increased, compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that BAFF induced CD4+ spleen T cell proliferation by down-regulating the phosphorylation of FOXO3A and then activating cyclin D2 and D3 expression, leading to CD4+ T cell proliferation.

  10. Circulating let-7g is down-regulated in Bernese Mountain dogs with disseminated histiocytic sarcoma and carcinomas - a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, B; Nielsen, L N; Jessen, L R; Kristensen, A T; Fredholm, M; Cirera Salicio, Susanna

    dogs. Twenty-four different miRNAs were profiled from RNA isolated from whole blood preserved in PAXgene(®) tubes using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The miRNA let-7g was significantly down-regulated in dogs with cancer (P = 0.002) and dogs with DHS (P = 0.011) compared with healthy controls. This...

  11. Down-regulation of phosphoglucomutase 3 mediates sulforaphane-induced cell death in LNCaP prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hyo-Jeong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulforaphane (SFN is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables that exerts anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and radio-sensitizing activities. Nonetheless, the mechanism responsible for SFN-induced cell death is not fully understood. In the present study, anti-cancer mechanism of SFN was elucidated in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Results SFN exerted cytotoxicity and increased TUNEL positive cells in a concentration-dependent manner in LNCaP cells. Proteomics study revealed that levels of nine proteins including tubulin β-2, phosphoglucomutase-3 (PGM3, melanoma-derived leucine zipper containing extra-nuclear factor, activin A type I receptor precursor, smoothelin-A, KIA0073, hypothetical protein LOC57691 and two unnamed proteins were changed over 8 folds in SFN treated LNCaP cells compared to untreated control. We have further confirmed that SFN reduced PGM3 expression with western blotting and showed that PGM3 siRNA enhanced cytotoxicity demonstrated by cell morphology and TUNEL assays in LNCaP cells. Conclusion Taken together, these findings suggest that PGM3 plays a role in mediating SFN-induced cell death in LNCaP cells, and is a potential molecular therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

  12. pH-responsive artemisinin derivatives and lipid nanoparticle formulations inhibit growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and induce down-regulation of HER family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitong J Zhang

    Full Text Available Artemisinin (ART dimers show potent anti-proliferative activities against breast cancer cells. To facilitate their clinical development, novel pH-responsive artemisinin dimers were synthesized for liposomal nanoparticle formulations. A new ART dimer was designed to become increasingly water-soluble as pH declines. The new artemisinin dimer piperazine derivatives (ADPs remained tightly associated with liposomal nanoparticles (NPs at neutral pH but were efficiently released at acidic pH's that are known to exist within solid tumors and organelles such as endosomes and lysosomes. ADPs incorporated into nanoparticles down regulated the anti-apoptotic protein, survivin, and cyclin D1 when incubated at low concentrations with breast cancer cell lines. We demonstrate for the first time, for any ART derivative, that ADP NPs can down regulate the oncogenic protein HER2, and its counterpart, HER3 in a HER2+ cell line. We also show that the wild type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or HER1 declines in a triple negative breast cancer (TNBC cell line in response to ADP NPs. The declines in these proteins are achieved at concentrations of NP109 at or below 1 µM. Furthermore, the new artemisinin derivatives showed improved cell-proliferation inhibition effects compared to known dimer derivatives.

  13. HACE1 is a putative tumor suppressor gene in B-cell lymphomagenesis and is down-regulated by both deletion and epigenetic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzelfen, Abdelilah; Alcantara, Marion; Kora, Hafid; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Bertrand, Philippe; Cornic, Marie; Mareschal, Sylvain; Bohers, Elodie; Maingonnat, Catherine; Ruminy, Philippe; Adriouch, Sahil; Boyer, Olivier; Dubois, Sydney; Bastard, Christian; Tilly, Hervé; Latouche, Jean-Baptiste; Jardin, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    HECT domain and ankyrin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1, HACE1, located on chromosome 6q, encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase and is downregulated in many human tumors. Here, we report HACE1 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene down-regulated by a combination of deletion and epigenetic mechanisms. HACE1 deletions were observed in 40% of B-cell lymphoma tumors. Hypermethylation of the HACE1 promoter CpG177 island was found in 60% (68/111) of cases and in all tested B-cell lymphoma lines. Using HDAC inhibitors, we observed predominantly inactive chromatin conformation (methylated H3 histones H3K9me2) in HACE1 gene promoter region. We demonstrated in Ramos and Raji cells that down-regulation of HACE1 expression was associated with a significant decrease in apoptosis and an accumulation of cells in the S and G2/M phases. Our experiments indicate that HACE1 can act as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene in most B-cell lymphomas and can be downregulated by deacetylation of its promoter region chromatin, which makes HACE1 a potential target for HDAC inhibitors. PMID:27107267

  14. Transmembrane neural cell-adhesion molecule (NCAM), but not glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored NCAM, down-regulates secretion of matrix metalloproteinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, K; Chen, W; Rucklidge, G;

    1993-01-01

    proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors all participate in the construction, maintenance, and remodeling of extracellular matrix by cells. The neural cell-adhesion molecule (NCAM)-negative rat glioma cell line BT4Cn secretes substantial amounts of metalloproteinases, as compared with its NCAM-positive mother......During embryogenesis interactions between cells and extracellular matrix play a central role in the modulation of cell motility, growth, and differentiation. Modulation of matrix structure is therefore crucial during development; extracellular matrix ligands, their receptors, extracellular...... cell line BT4C. We have transfected the BT4Cn cell line with cDNAs encoding the human NCAM-B and -C isoforms. We report here that the expression of transmembrane NCAM-B, but not of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked NCAM-C, induces a down-regulation of 92-kDa gelatinase (matrix metalloproteinase 9...

  15. Proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction of imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells via PPP2R5C down-regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Qi; Liu, Sichu; Chen, Yu; Yang, Lijian; CHEN, SHAOHUA; Wu, Xiuli; Li, Bo; Lu, Yuhong; Zhu, Kanger; Li, Yangqiu

    2013-01-01

    Despite the success of imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) remains largely incurable, and a number of CML patients die due to Abl mutation-related drug resistance and blast crisis. The aim of this study was to evaluate proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction by down-regulating PPP2R5C gene expression in the imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant CML cell lines K562, K562R (imatinib resistant without an Abl gene mutation), 32D-Bcr-Ab...

  16. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jyotsna Vijaykumar Wader; Sujata S Kumbhar; Huddedar AD; Wasim GM Khatib

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the kidney comprised of different histological variants. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) mainly diagnosed in the sixth decade of life. It is important to identify this entity because it has significantly better prognosis than the clear cell (conventional) and papillary renal cell carcinomas. The chromophobe renal cell carcinoma should be differentiated from oncocytoma and clear cell ca...

  17. IL-28B down-regulates regulatory T cells but does not improve the protective immunity following tuberculosis subunit vaccine immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanping; Ma, Xingming; Liu, Xun; Lu, Xiaoling; Niu, Hongxia; Yu, Hongjuan; Bai, Chunxiang; Peng, Jinxiu; Xian, Qiaoyang; Wang, Yong; Zhu, Bingdong

    2016-02-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs), which could be down-regulated by IL-28B, were reported to suppress T-cell-mediated immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-28B on the immune responses and protective efficacy of a tuberculosis (TB) subunit vaccine. First, a recombinant adenoviral vector expressing mouse IL-28B (rAd-mIL-28B) was constructed; then C57BL/6 mice were immunized with subunit vaccine ESAT6-Ag85B-Mpt64(190-198)-Mtb8.4-HspX (EAMMH) and rAd-mIL-28B together thrice or primed with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Gue'rin (BCG) and boosted by EAMMH and rAd-mIL-28B twice. At last the immune responses were evaluated, and the mice primed with BCG and boosted by subunit vaccines were challenged with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv to evaluate the protective efficacy. The results showed that rAd-mIL-28B treatment significantly down-regulated the frequency of Tregs at 4 weeks after the last immunization but did not increase the Th1-type immune responses. Moreover, in the regimen of BCG priming and EAMMH boosting, rAd-mIL-28B treatment did not increase the antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, and consequently did not reduce the bacteria load following H37Rv challenge. Instead, it induced more serious pathology reaction. In conclusion, IL-28B down-regulates Tregs following EAMMH vaccination but does not improve the protective immune responses. PMID:26521300

  18. Fucoidan induces G1 arrest of the cell cycle in EJ human bladder cancer cells through down-regulation of pRB phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Young Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide found in marine algae and brown seaweeds, has been shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of human cancer cells. This study was conducted in cultured human bladder cancer EJ cells to elucidate the possible mechanisms by which fucoidan exerts its anti-proliferative activity, which until now has remained poorly understood. Fucoidan treatment of EJ cells resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and induced apoptotic cell death. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that fucoidan led to G1 arrest in cell cycle progression. It was associated with down-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E, and cyclin-dependent-kinases (Cdks in a concentration-dependent manner, without any change in Cdk inhibitors, such as p21 and p27. Furthermore, dephosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB by this compound was associated with enhanced binding of pRB with the transcription factors E2F-1 and E2F-4. Overall, our results demonstrate that fucoidan possesses anticancer activity potential against bladder cancer cells by inhibiting pRB phosphorylation.

  19. Hypoxia Down-regulates Secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9 in Porcine Pulmonary Artery Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells and the Role of HIF-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hong; ZHENG Yanfang; MA Wanli; KE Dan; JIN Xianrong; LIU Shengyuan; WANG Dixun

    2005-01-01

    Primary cell culture, techniques of gene transfection, gelatin zymography, and Western blot were used to investigate the effect of hypoxia on the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) and smooth muscle cells (PASMC), and the role of HIF-1. Our results showed that (1) after exposure to hypoxia for 24 h, the protein content and activity of MMP-2 in the PAEC medium as well as these of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in PASMC medium (P<0.01) decreased significantly in contrast to those in normoxic group (P<0.05); (2) after transfection of wild type EPO3'-enhancer, a HIF-1 decoy, the content and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in hypoxic mediums became higher than those in normoxic group (P<0.01), while transfection of mutant EPO3'-enhancer didn't affect the hypoxia-induced down-regulation. It is concluded that hypoxia could inhibit the secretion and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in PAEC and PASMC, which could be mitigated by the transfection of EPO3'-enhancer and that HIF-1 pathway might contribute to hypoxia-induced down-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9.

  20. Prostaglandin EP2 receptor signaling protects human trabecular meshwork cells from apoptosis induced by ER stress through down-regulation of p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalouche, Georges; Boucher, Céline; Coste, Annick; Debussche, Laurent; Orsini, Cécile; Baudouin, Christophe; Debeir, Thomas; Vigé, Xavier; Rostène, William

    2016-09-01

    E-prostanoid receptor subtype 2 (EP2) agonists are currently under clinical development as hypotensive agents for the treatment of ocular hypertension. However, the effects of EP2 receptor agonists on trabecular meshwork (TM) alterations leading to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) are still unknown. Here, we evaluated whether EP2 receptor activation exhibits protective functions on TM cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We show that the EP2 receptor agonist butaprost protects TM cell death mediated by the ER stress inducer tunicamycin through a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent mechanism, but independent of the classical cAMP sensors, protein kinase A and exchange proteins activated by cAMP. The ER stress-induced intrinsic apoptosis inhibited by the EP2 receptor agonist was correlated with a decreased accumulation of the cellular stress sensor p53. In addition, p53 down-regulation was associated with inhibition of its transcriptional activity, which led to decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA). The stabilization of p53 by nutlin-3a abolished butaprost-mediated cell death protection. In conclusion, we showed that EP2 receptor activation protects against ER stress-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis through down-regulation of p53. The specific inhibition of this pathway could reduce TM alterations observed in POAG patients. PMID:27321910

  1. DMSO efficiently down regulates pluripotency genes in human embryonic stem cells during definitive endoderm derivation and increases the proficiency of hepatic differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Czysz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Definitive endoderm (DE is one of the three germ layers which during in vivo vertebrate development gives rise to a variety of organs including liver, lungs, thyroid and pancreas; consequently efficient in vitro initiation of stem cell differentiation to DE cells is a prerequisite for successful cellular specification to subsequent DE-derived cell types [1, 2]. In this study we present a novel approach to rapidly and efficiently down regulate pluripotency genes during initiation of differentiation to DE cells by addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO to Activin A-based culture medium and report its effects on the downstream differentiation to hepatocyte-like cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human embryonic stem cells (hESC were differentiated to DE using standard methods in medium supplemented with 100ng/ml of Activin A and compared to cultures where DE specification was additionally enhanced with different concentrations of DMSO. DE cells were subsequently primed to generate hepatic-like cells to investigate whether the addition of DMSO during formation of DE improved subsequent expression of hepatic markers. A combination of flow cytometry, real-time quantitative reverse PCR and immunofluorescence was applied throughout the differentiation process to monitor expression of pluripotency (POUF5/OCT4 & NANOG, definitive endoderm (SOX17, CXCR4 & GATA4 and hepatic (AFP & ALB genes to generate differentiation stage-specific signatures. RESULTS: Addition of DMSO to the Activin A-based medium during DE specification resulted in rapid down regulation of the pluripotency genes OCT4 and NANOG, accompanied by an increase expression of the DE genes SOX17, CXCR4 and GATA4. Importantly, the expression level of ALB in DMSO-treated cells was also higher than in cells which were differentiated to the DE stage via standard Activin A treatment.

  2. BAFF induces spleen CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation by down-regulating phosphorylation of FOXO3A and activates cyclin D2 and D3 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Fang; Chen, Rongjing [Department of Orthodontics, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China); Liu, Baojun [Laboratory of Lung, Inflammation and Cancers, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Xiaoping [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People' s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Han, Junli; Wang, Haining [Department of General Dentistry, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China); Shen, Gang [Department of Orthodontics, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China); Tao, Jiang, E-mail: taojiang2012@yahoo.cn [Department of General Dentistry, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Shanghai (China)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Firstly analyze the mechanism of BAFF and anti-CD3 co-stimulation on purified mouse splenic CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carrying out siRNA technology to study FOXO3A protein function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Helpful to understand the T cell especially CD4{sup +} T cell's role in immunological reaction. -- Abstract: The TNF ligand family member 'B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family' (BAFF, also called BLyS, TALL-1, zTNF-4, and THANK) is an important survival factor for B and T cells. In this study, we show that BAFF is able to induce CD4{sup +} spleen T cell proliferation when co-stimulated with anti-CD3. Expression of phosphorylated FOXO3A was notably down-regulated and cyclins D2 and D3 were up-regulated and higher in the CD4{sup +} T cells when treated with BAFF and anti-CD3, as assessed by Western blotting. Furthermore, after FOXO3A was knocked down, expression of cyclin D1 was unchanged, compared with control group levels, but the expression of cyclins D2 and D3 increased, compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that BAFF induced CD4{sup +} spleen T cell proliferation by down-regulating the phosphorylation of FOXO3A and then activating cyclin D2 and D3 expression, leading to CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation.

  3. Prostate tumor-derived exosomes down-regulate NKG2D expression on natural killer cells and CD8+ T cells: mechanism of immune evasion.

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    Marie Lundholm

    Full Text Available Tumor-derived exosomes, which are nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin, have emerged as promoters of tumor immune evasion but their role in prostate cancer (PC progression is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the ability of prostate tumor-derived exosomes to downregulate NKG2D expression on natural killer (NK and CD8+ T cells. NKG2D is an activating cytotoxicity receptor whose aberrant loss in cancer plays an important role in immune suppression. Using flow cytometry, we found that exosomes produced by human PC cells express ligands for NKG2D on their surface. The NKG2D ligand-expressing prostate tumor-derived exosomes selectively induced downregulation of NKG2D on NK and CD8+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner, leading to impaired cytotoxic function in vitro. Consistent with these findings, patients with castration-resistant PC (CRPC showed a significant decrease in surface NKG2D expression on circulating NK and CD8+ T cells compared to healthy individuals. Tumor-derived exosomes are likely involved in this NKG2D downregulation, since incubation of healthy lymphocytes with exosomes isolated from serum or plasma of CRPC patients triggered downregulation of NKG2D expression in effector lymphocytes. These data suggest prostate tumor-derived exosomes as down-regulators of the NKG2D-mediated cytotoxic response in PC patients, thus promoting immune suppression and tumor escape.

  4. Down-regulation of estrogen receptor-alpha and rearranged during transfection tyrosine kinase is associated with withaferin a-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

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    Samadi Abbas K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Withaferin A (WA, a naturally occurring withanolide, induces apoptosis in both estrogen-responsive MCF-7 and estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines with higher sensitivity in MCF-7 cells, but the underlying mechanisms are not well defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-cancer effects of WA in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and explore alterations in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα and its associated molecules in vitro as novel mechanisms of WA action. Methods The effects of WA on MCF-7 viability and proliferation were evaluated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTS assay and trypan blue exclusion assays. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC/propidium iodide (PI flow cytometry and Western blot analysis of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage. Cell cycle effects were analyzed by PI flow cytometry. Western blotting was also conducted to examine alterations in the expression of ERα and pathways that are associated with ERα function. Results WA resulted in growth inhibition and decreased viability in MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 576 nM for 72 h. It also caused a dose- and time-dependent apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest. WA-induced apoptosis was associated with down-regulation of ERα, REarranged during Transfection (RET tyrosine kinase, and heat shock factor-1 (HSF1, as well as up-regulation of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (phospho-p38 MAPK, p53 and p21 protein expression. Co-treatment with protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide or proteasome inhibitor MG132 revealed that depletion of ERα by WA is post-translational, due to proteasome-dependent ERα degradation. Conclusions Taken together, down-regulation of ERα, RET, HSF1 and up-regulation of phospho-p38 MAPK, p53, p21 are involved in the pro-apoptotic and growth-inhibitory effects of WA in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in

  5. Down regulation of the TCR complex CD3 ζ-chain on CD3+ T cells: a potential mechanism for helminth mediated immune modulation

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    Laura Jane Appleby

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The CD3ζ forms part of the T cell receptor (TCR where it plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways leading to T cell effector functions. Down regulation of CD3ζ leads to impairment of immune responses including reduced cell proliferation and cytokine production. In experimental models helminth parasites have been shown to modulate immune responses directed against them and unrelated antigens, so called bystander antigens, but there is a lack of studies validating these observations in humans. This study focused on investigated the relationship between expression levels of the TCR CD3ζ chain with lymphocyte cell proliferation during human infection with the helminth parasite, Schistosoma haematobium which causes uro-genital schistosomiasis. Using flow cytometry, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from individuals naturally exposed to S. haematobium in rural Zimbabwe were phenotyped, and expression levels of CD3ζ on T cells were related to intensity of infection. In this population, parasite infection intensity was inversely related to CD3ζ expression levels (p<0.05, consistent with down-regulation of CD3ζ expression during helminth infection. Furthermore, PBMC proliferation was positively related to expression levels of CD3ζ (p<0.05 after allowing for confounding variables (host age, sex, infection level. CD3ζ expression levels had a differing relationship between immune correlates of susceptibility and immunity, measured by antibody responses, indicating a complex relationship between immune activation status and immunity. The relationships between the CD3ζ chain of the TCR and schistosome infection, PBMC proliferation and schistosome-specific antibody responses have not previously been reported, and these results may indicate a mechanism for the impaired T cell proliferative responses observed during human schistosome infection.

  6. MicroRNA-187-5p suppresses cancer cell progression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) through down-regulation of CYP1B1.

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    Mao, Ming; Wu, Zhouqing; Chen, Jiakuan

    2016-09-16

    Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide and non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) is responsible for over 80% of lung cancer-related deaths. Identifying novel molecular biomarker that can inhibit the progression of lung cancer will facilitate the development of new treatment strategies. Herein, we demonstrated that miR-187-5p is a tumor-suppressor miRNA in NSCLC progression. We found that expression of miR-187-5p was decreased obviously in NSCLC tissues. Down-regulation of miR-187-5p was associated with TNM stage and postoperative survival. Overexpression of miR-187-5p inhibited the growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells. The CYP1B1 was a direct target of miR-187-5p and promoted the growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells. Further study showed that CYP1B1 could reverse the inhibitory effect of miR-187-5p on growth and metastasis of NSCLC cells. Taken together, our data highlight the pivotal role of miR-187-5p in the progression of NSCLC. Thus, miR-187-5p may be a potential prognostic marker and of treatment relevance for NSCLC progression intervention. PMID:27495872

  7. Down-regulation of transcobalamin receptor TCblR/CD320 by siRNA inhibits cobalamin uptake and proliferation of cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical phenotype of cobalamin (Cbl) deficiency is dictated by the essential role of this vitamin in two key enzymatic reactions. Multiple proteins and receptors participate in the absorption, transport and delivery of this vitamin to tissue cells. Cellular uptake of Cbl is mediated by transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein and a transmembrane receptor (TCblR) with high affinity for TC saturated with Cbl. Knockdown of TCblR with siRNA results in decreased TC-Cbl uptake. The ensuing Cbl deficiency leads to an increase in doubling time and decreased proliferation of these cells. The study confirms the seminal role of this receptor in the cellular uptake of Cbl and its down-regulation as a potential strategy to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells.

  8. ER stress upregulated PGE2/IFNγ-induced IL-6 expression and down-regulated iNOS expression in glial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Toru; Honda, Miya; Oba, Tatsuya; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2013-12-01

    The disruption of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function can lead to neurodegenerative disorders, in which inflammation has also been implicated. We investigated the possible correlation between ER stress and immune function using glial cells. We demonstrated that ER stress synergistically enhanced prostaglandin (PG) E2 + interferon (IFN) γ-induced interleukin (IL)-6 production. This effect was mediated through cAMP. Immune-activated glial cells produced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Interestingly, ER stress inhibited PGE2 + IFNγ-induced iNOS expression. Similar results were obtained when cells were treated with dbcAMP + IFNγ. Thus, cAMP has a dual effect on immune reactions; cAMP up-regulated IL-6 expression, but down-regulated iNOS expression under ER stress. Therefore, our results suggest a link between ER stress and immune reactions in neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Down-regulation of transcobalamin receptor TCblR/CD320 by siRNA inhibits cobalamin uptake and proliferation of cells in culture

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    Lai, Shao-Chiang [School of Graduate Studies, SUNY-Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203 (United States); Nakayama, Yasumi; Sequeira, Jeffrey M. [Department of Medicine, Cell Biology, SUNY-Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203 (United States); Quadros, Edward V., E-mail: Edward.Quadros@downstate.edu [Department of Medicine, Cell Biology, SUNY-Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203 (United States); School of Graduate Studies, SUNY-Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The clinical phenotype of cobalamin (Cbl) deficiency is dictated by the essential role of this vitamin in two key enzymatic reactions. Multiple proteins and receptors participate in the absorption, transport and delivery of this vitamin to tissue cells. Cellular uptake of Cbl is mediated by transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein and a transmembrane receptor (TCblR) with high affinity for TC saturated with Cbl. Knockdown of TCblR with siRNA results in decreased TC-Cbl uptake. The ensuing Cbl deficiency leads to an increase in doubling time and decreased proliferation of these cells. The study confirms the seminal role of this receptor in the cellular uptake of Cbl and its down-regulation as a potential strategy to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells.

  10. Osteoprotegerin inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cell via down regulation of the Notch1-RBP-Jκ/Msx2 signaling pathway.

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    Shaoqiong Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcification is a common pathobiological process which occurs among the elder population and in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Osteoprotegerin, a secreted glycoprotein that regulates bone mass, has recently emerged as an important regulator of the development of vascular calcification. However, the mechanism is not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to explore novel signaling mechanisms of osteoprotegerin in the osteoblastic differentiation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: VSMCs were isolated from thoracic aorta of Sprague Dawley rats. Osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs was induced by an osteogenic medium. We confirmed by Von Kossa staining and direct cellular calcium measurement that mineralization was significantly increased in VSMCs cultured in osteogenic medium; consistent with an enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity. This osteoblastic differentiation in VSMCs was significantly reduced by the addition of osteoprotegerin in a dose responsive manner. Moreover, we identified, by real-time qPCR and western blotting, that expression of Notch1 and RBP-Jκ were significantly up-regulated in VSMCs cultured in osteogenic medium at both the mRNA and protein levels, these effects were dose-dependently abolished by the treatment of osteoprotegerin. Furthermore, we identified that Msx2, a downstream target of the Notch1/RBP-Jκ signaling, was markedly down-regulated by the treatment of osteoprotegerin. CONCLUSION: Osteoprotegerin inhibits vascular calcification through the down regulation of the Notch1-RBP-Jκ signaling pathway.

  11. Budesonide suppresses pulmonary antibacterial host defense by down-regulating cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide in allergic inflammation mice and in lung epithelial cells

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    Wang Peng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoids are widely regarded as the most effective treatment for asthma. However, the direct impact of glucocorticoids on the innate immune system and antibacterial host defense during asthma remain unclear. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this process is critical to the clinical application of glucocorticoids for asthma therapy. After sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA, BALB/c mice were treated with inhaled budesonide and infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa. The number of viable bacteria in enflamed lungs was evaluated, and levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ in serum were measured. A lung epithelial cell line was pretreated with budesonide. Levels of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP were measured by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Intracellular bacteria were observed in lung epithelial cells. Results Inhaled budesonide enhanced lung infection in allergic mice exposed to P. aeruginosa and increased the number of viable bacteria in lung tissue. Higher levels of IL-4 and lower levels of IFN-γ were observed in the serum. Budesonide decreased the expression of CRAMP, increased the number of internalized P. aeruginosa in OVA-challenged mice and in lung epithelial cell lines. These data indicate that inhaled budesonide can suppress pulmonary antibacterial host defense by down-regulating CRAMP in allergic inflammation mice and in cells in vitro. Conclusions Inhaled budesonide suppressed pulmonary antibacterial host defense in an asthmatic mouse model and in lung epithelium cells in vitro. This effect was dependent on the down-regulation of CRAMP.

  12. Prolonged exposure of chromaffin cells to nitric oxide down-regulates the activity of soluble guanylyl cyclase and corresponding mRNA and protein levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Rut; Torres, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    Background Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the main receptor for nitric oxide (NO) when the latter is produced at low concentrations. This enzyme exists mainly as a heterodimer consisting of one α and one β subunit and converts GTP to the second intracellular messenger cGMP. In turn, cGMP plays a key role in regulating several physiological processes in the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of a NO donor on sGC activity and its protein and subunit mRNA levels in a neural cell model. Results Continuous exposure of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture to the nitric oxide donor, diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA/NO), resulted in a lower capacity of the cells to synthesize cGMP in response to a subsequent NO stimulus. This effect was not prevented by an increase of intracellular reduced glutathione level. DETA/NO treatment decreased sGC subunit mRNA and β1 subunit protein levels. Both sGC activity and β1 subunit levels decreased more rapidly in chromaffin cells exposed to NO than in cells exposed to the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that NO decreases β1 subunit stability. The presence of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors effectively prevented the DETA/NO-induced down regulation of sGC subunit mRNA and partially inhibited the reduction in β1 subunits. Conclusions These results suggest that activation of PKG mediates the drop in sGC subunit mRNA levels, and that NO down-regulates sGC activity by decreasing subunit mRNA levels through a cGMP-dependent mechanism, and by reducing β1 subunit stability. PMID:12350235

  13. IL-13 promotes collagen accumulation in Crohn's disease fibrosis by down-regulation of fibroblast MMP synthesis: a role for innate lymphoid cells?

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    Jennifer R Bailey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is a serious consequence of Crohn's disease (CD, often necessitating surgical resection. We examined the hypothesis that IL-13 may promote collagen accumulation within the CD muscle microenvironment. METHODS: Factors potentially modulating collagen deposition were examined in intestinal tissue samples from fibrotic (f CD and compared with cancer control (C, ulcerative colitis (UC and uninvolved (u CD. Mechanisms attributable to IL-13 were analysed using cell lines derived from uninvolved muscle tissue and tissue explants. RESULTS: In fCD muscle extracts, collagen synthesis was significantly increased compared to other groups, but MMP-2 was not co-ordinately increased. IL-13 transcripts were highest in fCD muscle compared to muscle from other groups. IL-13 receptor (R α1 was expressed by intestinal muscle smooth muscle, nerve and KIR(+ cells. Fibroblasts from intestinal muscle expressed Rα1, phosphorylated STAT6 in response to IL-13, and subsequently down-regulated MMP-2 and TNF-α-induced MMP-1 and MMP-9 synthesis. Cells with the phenotype KIR(+CD45(+CD56(+/-CD3(- were significantly increased in fCD muscle compared to all other groups, expressed Rα1 and membrane IL-13, and transcribed high levels of IL-13. In explanted CD muscle, these cells did not phosphorylate STAT6 in response to exogenous IL-13. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that in fibrotic intestinal muscle of Crohn's patients, the IL-13 pathway is stimulated, involving a novel population of infiltrating IL-13Rα1(+, KIR(+ innate lymphoid cells, producing IL-13 which inhibits fibroblast MMP synthesis. Consequently, matrix degradation is down-regulated and this leads to excessive collagen deposition.

  14. MiR-29b inhibits collagen maturation in hepatic stellate cells through down-regulating the expression of HSP47 and lysyl oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Enhanced HSP47 and LOX expression is associated with decreased miR-29b level in liver fibrosis. • miR-29b down-regulates HSP47 and LOX expression. • The suppression of HSP47 and LOX by miR-29b is mediated by putative sites at their 3′-UTRs. • miR-29b inhibits extracellular LOX activity and collagen maturation. - Abstract: Altered expression of miR-29b is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of liver fibrosis. We and others previously demonstrated that miR-29b down-regulates the expression of several extracellular-matrix (ECM) genes including Col 1A1, Col 3A1 and Elastin via directly targeting their 3′-UTRs. However, whether or not miR-29b plays a role in the post-translational regulation of ECM biosynthesis has not been reported. Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) and lysyl oxidase (LOX) are known to be essential for ECM maturation. In this study we have demonstrated that expression of HSP47 and LOX was significantly up-regulated in culture-activated primary rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), TGF-β stimulated LX-2 cells and liver tissue of CCl4-treated mice, which was accompanied by a decrease of miR-29b level. In addition, over-expression of miR-29b in LX-2 cells resulted in significant inhibition on HSP47 and LOX expression. Mechanistically, miR-29b inhibited the expression of a reporter gene that contains the respective full-length 3′-UTR from HSP47 and LOX gene, and this inhibitory effect was abolished by the deletion of a putative miR-29b targeting sequence from the 3′-UTRs. Transfection of LX-2 cells with miR-29b led to abnormal collagen structure as shown by electron-microscopy, presumably through down-regulation of the expression of molecules involved in ECM maturation including HSP47 and LOX. These results demonstrated that miR-29b is involved in regulating the post-translational processing of ECM and fibril formation

  15. MiR-29b inhibits collagen maturation in hepatic stellate cells through down-regulating the expression of HSP47 and lysyl oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yifei; Ghazwani, Mohammed; Li, Jiang [Center for Pharmacogenetics, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Sun, Ming; Stolz, Donna B. [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); He, Fengtian [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Fan, Jie [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Xie, Wen [Center for Pharmacogenetics, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Li, Song, E-mail: sol4@pitt.edu [Center for Pharmacogenetics, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Enhanced HSP47 and LOX expression is associated with decreased miR-29b level in liver fibrosis. • miR-29b down-regulates HSP47 and LOX expression. • The suppression of HSP47 and LOX by miR-29b is mediated by putative sites at their 3′-UTRs. • miR-29b inhibits extracellular LOX activity and collagen maturation. - Abstract: Altered expression of miR-29b is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of liver fibrosis. We and others previously demonstrated that miR-29b down-regulates the expression of several extracellular-matrix (ECM) genes including Col 1A1, Col 3A1 and Elastin via directly targeting their 3′-UTRs. However, whether or not miR-29b plays a role in the post-translational regulation of ECM biosynthesis has not been reported. Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) and lysyl oxidase (LOX) are known to be essential for ECM maturation. In this study we have demonstrated that expression of HSP47 and LOX was significantly up-regulated in culture-activated primary rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), TGF-β stimulated LX-2 cells and liver tissue of CCl{sub 4}-treated mice, which was accompanied by a decrease of miR-29b level. In addition, over-expression of miR-29b in LX-2 cells resulted in significant inhibition on HSP47 and LOX expression. Mechanistically, miR-29b inhibited the expression of a reporter gene that contains the respective full-length 3′-UTR from HSP47 and LOX gene, and this inhibitory effect was abolished by the deletion of a putative miR-29b targeting sequence from the 3′-UTRs. Transfection of LX-2 cells with miR-29b led to abnormal collagen structure as shown by electron-microscopy, presumably through down-regulation of the expression of molecules involved in ECM maturation including HSP47 and LOX. These results demonstrated that miR-29b is involved in regulating the post-translational processing of ECM and fibril formation.

  16. Enterococcus faecalis Infection and Reactive Oxygen Species Down-Regulates the miR-17-92 Cluster in Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cell Culture

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    Jesper A. B. Strickertsson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation due to bacterial overgrowth of the stomach predisposes to the development of gastric cancer and is also associated with high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In recent years increasing attention has been drawn to microRNAs (miRNAs due to their role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including gastric cancer. Here we studied the impact of infection by the gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis on global miRNA expression as well as the effect of ROS on selected miRNAs. Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line MKN74 was infected with living E. faecalis for 24 h or for 5 days or with E. faecalis lysate for 5 days. The miRNA expression was examined by microarray analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA Arrays. To test the effect of ROS, MKN74 cells were treated with 100 mM tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP. Following 5 days of E. faecalis infection we found 91 differentially expressed miRNAs in response to living bacteria and 2 miRNAs responded to E. faecalis lysate. We verified the down-regulation of the miR-17-92 and miR-106-363 clusters and of other miRNAs involved in the oxidative stress-response by qRT-PCR. We conclude that only infection by living E. faecalis bacteria caused a significant global response in miRNA expression in the MKN74 cell culture. E. faecalis infection as well as ROS stimulation down-regulated the expression of the miR-17-92 cluster. We believe that these changes could reflect a general response of gastric epithelial cells to bacterial infections.

  17. Down-regulation of the detoxifying enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 by vanadium in Hepa 1c1c7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2009-05-01

    Recent data suggest that vanadium (V5+) compounds exert protective effects against chemical-induced carcinogenesis, mainly through modifying various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. In fact, we have shown that V5+ down-regulates the expression of Cyp1a1 at the transcriptional level through an ATP-dependent mechanism. However, incongruously, there is increasing evidence that V5+ is found in higher amounts in cancer cells and tissues than in normal cells or tissues. Therefore, the current study aims to address the possible effect of this metal on the regulation of expression of an enzyme that helps maintain endogenous antioxidants used to protect tissues/cells from mutagens, carcinogens, and oxidative stress damage, NAD(P) H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1). In an attempt to examine these effects, Hepa 1c1c7 cells and its AhRdeficient version, c12, were treated with increasing concentrations of V5+ in the presence of two distinct Nqo1 inducers, the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SUL). Our results showed that V5+ inhibits the TCDD- and SUL-mediated induction of Nqo1 at mRNA, protein, and catalytic activity levels. At transcriptional level, V5+ was able to decrease the TCDD- and SUL-induced nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and the subsequent binding to antioxidant responsive element (ARE) without affecting Nrf2 protein levels. Looking at post-transcriptional level; we found that V5+ did not affect Nqo1 mRNA transcripts turn-over rates. However, at the post-translational level V5+ increased Nqo1 protein half-life. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that V5+ down-regulates Nqo1 at the transcriptional level, possibly through inhibiting the ATP-dependent activation of Nrf2. PMID:19367690

  18. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in A549 cells. HIF-1α plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1α was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1α, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1α and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1α inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGFβ1/PHD2/HIF-1α pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGFβ1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1α transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  19. The molecular pathway of low concentration of sodium arsenite in inducing differentiation of liver cancer stem cells by down-regulating promyelocytic leukemia protein expression

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    Shi-long JIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the molecular pathway of low concentration of sodium arsenite in inducing differentiation of liver cancer stem cells. Methods  Western blotting analysis, immunofluorescence assay and quantitative PCR were used to examine the gene and protein expression of promyelocytic leukemia (PML, Oct4 and Sox2 in HCC tissue and cell lines, and the molecule pathway of low concentration of sodium arsenite inducing differentiation of liver cancer stem cells was confirmed by comparing the changes in the gene and protein expression of PML,Oct4 and Sox2 in HCC cells and biological function of LCSCs after the treatment with low concentration of sodium arsenite. Results  0.5μg/ml of sodium arsenite was shown to alter the biological characteristics of LCSCs in HuH7 and primary HCC cells, including the ability to form tumor spheres, resistance to pirarubicin (P<0.01, and the capability of forming tumors after allogeneic transplantation (P<0.05. Both HCC cells and tissues expressed the gene and protein of PML,Oct4 and Sox2, and 0.5μg/ml of sodium arsenite not only downregulated the gene and protein expression of Oct4 (P<0.05 and Sox2 in HCC cells (P<0.05, but also downregulated the protein expression of PML (P<0.05. In contrast, sodium arsenite did not inhibit the gene expression of PML in Hep3B, HepG2, SMCC-7721, HuH7 and primary HCC cells. Furthermore, through down-regulated PML protein expression with arsenite, the biological characteristics of HuH7 and primary HCC cells containing LCSCs was simultaneously altered, and the expression of stem gene Oct4 and Sox2 was downregulated (P<0.05, while HCC cells proliferation was inhibited as well. Conclusions  Both HCC tissues and cells can express the PML gene and PML protein. Low concentrations of sodium arsenite would directly bind to PML protein in HCC cells, resulting in degradation of the PML protein, followed by collapse of PML-NBs, inhibition of transcription of the proliferation

  20. Proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction of imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells via PPP2R5C down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Liu, Sichu; Chen, Yu; Yang, Lijian; Chen, Shaohua; Wu, Xiuli; Li, Bo; Lu, Yuhong; Zhu, Kanger; Li, Yangqiu

    2013-01-01

    Despite the success of imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) remains largely incurable, and a number of CML patients die due to Abl mutation-related drug resistance and blast crisis. The aim of this study was to evaluate proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction by down-regulating PPP2R5C gene expression in the imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant CML cell lines K562, K562R (imatinib resistant without an Abl gene mutation), 32D-Bcr-Abl WT (imatinib-sensitive murine CML cell line with a wild type Abl gene) and 32D-Bcr-Abl T315I (imatinib resistant with a T315I Abl gene mutation) and primary cells from CML patients by RNA interference. PPP2R5C siRNAs numbered 799 and 991 were obtained by chemosynthesis. Non-silencing siRNA scrambled control (SC)-treated, mock-transfected, and untreated cells were used as controls. The PPP2R5C mRNA and protein expression levels in treated CML cells were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, and in vitro cell proliferation was assayed with the cell counting kit-8 method. The morphology and percentage of apoptosis were revealed by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry (FCM). The results demonstrated that both siRNAs had the best silencing results after nucleofection in all four cell lines and primary cells. A reduction in PPP2R5C mRNA and protein levels was observed in the treated cells. The proliferation rate of the PPP2R5C-siRNA-treated CML cell lines was significantly decreased at 72 h, and apoptosis was significantly increased. Significantly higher proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction were found in K562R cells treated with PPP2R5C-siRNA799 than K562 cells. In conclusion, the suppression of PPP2R5C by RNA interference could inhibit proliferation and effectively induce apoptosis in CML cells that were either imatinib sensitive or resistant. Down-regulating PPP2R5C gene expression might be considered as a new therapeutic target strategy

  1. Down-regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-regulated genes by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and lipopolysaccharide in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharavi, Negar; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2005-03-01

    Although much is known concerning the effects of inflammation and oxidative stress on the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), little is known about the modulation of other aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-regulated genes such as glutathione-S-transferase Ya (GST Ya) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (QOR) by inflammation. In the present study, the effect of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the constitutive and inducible expression of the AHR-regulated genes cyp1a1, GST Ya, and QOR was determined in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 (WT), AHR-deficient (C12), and AHR nuclear translocator protein (ARNT)-deficient (C4) cells. We found that both TNF-alpha and LPS strongly repressed the constitutive expression and the beta-naphthoflavone-mediated induction of cyp1a1, GST Ya, and QOR in WT but not in C12 and C4 cells. The induction of GST Ya and QOR activities and mRNA levels by phenolic antioxidant, tert-butylhydroquinone, through the antioxidant response element was not significantly affected by TNF-alpha or LPS. In addition, a significant increase in reactive oxygen species was observed in WT, C12, and C4 cells treated with TNF-alpha or LPS which was completely prevented by tert-butylhydroquinone. These results show that the down-regulation of AHR-regulated genes by TNF-alpha and LPS is dependent on the presence of both heterodimeric transcription factors, AHR and ARNT. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species may be involved in the down-regulation of AHR-regulated genes. PMID:15627257

  2. Labdane type diterpenes down-regulate the expression of c-Myc protein, but not of Bcl-2, in human leukemia T-cells undergoing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, K; Demetzos, C; Vaos, V; Ioannidis, P; Trangas, T

    2001-06-01

    Sclareol (1) and ent-3beta-hydroxy-13-epi-manoyl oxide (2) belong to the labdane type diterpenes. They were isolated from the leaves and from the fruits of Cistus creticus subsp. creticus, and were found to be active against human leukemic cell lines. Compound 2 was converted to its thiomidazolide derivative (3). Compounds 1 and 3 were found to induce apoptotic cell death in human T-cell leukemia lines and to interfere with their cell cycle, arresting cells at G(0/1) phase. Apoptosis can involve the activation and/or suppression of critical genes such as c-myc whose reduction or its inappropriate expression can be associated with induction of cell death and bcl-2 whose activation prevents apoptosis in the latter case. In order to detect any concomitant effect (1 and 3) upon c-myc and bcl-2 oncogene expression, we performed Western blot analysis to determine the levels of expression of these two genes upon treatment with the above compounds. Western blot analysis showed that of c-myc proto-oncogene levels were markedly reduced before massive apoptosis ensued in H33AJ-JA1 and MOLT3 cells, while bcl-2 expression remained unaffected. Thus, induction of apoptosis due to compounds 1 and 3 in these T-cell leukemic cell lines is preceded by c-myc down regulation and furthermore sustained bcl-2 expression does not rescue cells from apoptosis under the conditions used. PMID:11337016

  3. Lack of histamine synthesis and down-regulation of H1 and H2 receptor mRNA levels by dexamethasone in cerebral endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstedt, K; Sallmén, T; Eriksson, K S; Lintunen, M; Couraud, P O; Joó, F; Panula, P

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine whether cerebral endothelial cells have the capacity to synthesize histamine or to express mRNA of receptors that specifically respond to available free histamine. The histamine concentrations and the expression of L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and histamine H1 and H2 receptor mRNA, both in adult rat brain and in cultured immortalized RBE4 cerebral endothelial cells, were investigated. In this study endothelial cells were devoid of any kind of detectable histamine production, both in vivo and in the immortalized RBE4 cells in culture. Both the immunostainings for histamine and the in situ hybridizations for HDC were negative, as well as histamine determinations by HPLC, indicating that endothelial cells do not possess the capacity to produce histamine. Also, glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) treatment failed to induce histamine production in the cultured cells. Although the cerebral endothelial cells lack histamine production, a nonsaturable uptake in RBE4 cells is demonstrated. The internalized histamine is detected both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, which could indicate a role for histamine as an intracellular messenger. Histamine H1 and H2 receptor mRNA was expressed in RBE4 cells, and glucocorticoid treatment down-regulated the mRNA levels of both H1 and H2 receptors. This mechanism may be involved in glucocorticoid-mediated effects on cerebrovascular permeability and brain edema. PMID:10078884

  4. Cholangiocarcinoma-derived exosomes inhibit the antitumor activity of cytokine-induced killer cells by down-regulating the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α and perforin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiong-huang; Xiang, Jian-yang; Ding, Guo-ping; Cao, Li-ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study is to observe the impact of cholangiocarcinoma-derived exosomes on the antitumor activities of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells and then demonstrate the appropriate mechanism. Methods: Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs), which are derived from RBE cells (human cholangiocarcinoma line), were collected by ultracentrifugation. CIK cells induced from peripheral blood were stimulated by TEXs. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was performed to determine the phenotypes of TEX-CIK and N-CIK (normal CIK) cells. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and perforin in the culture medium supernatant were examined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. A CCK-8 kit was used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of the CIK cells to the RBE cell line. Results: The concentrations of TNF-α and perforin of the group TEX-CIK were 138.61 pg/ml and 2.41 ng/ml, respectively, lower than those of the group N-CIK 194.08 pg/ml (Pexosomes inhibit the antitumor activity of CIK cells by down-regulating the population of CD3+, CD8+, NK (CD56+), and CD3+CD56+ cells and the secretion of TNF-α and perforin. TEX may play an important role in cholangiocarcinoma immune escape. PMID:27381730

  5. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/2016 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is ...

  6. Down-regulation of G9a triggers DNA damage response and inhibits colorectal cancer cells proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; He, Pengxing; Xi, Yong; Geng, Meiyu; Chen, Yi; Ding, Jian

    2015-01-01

    G9a, a histone methyltransferase, is aberrantly expressed in some human tumor types. By comparing 182 paired colorectal cancer and peritumoral tissues, we found that G9a was highly expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC). Overexpression of G9a promoted CRC cells proliferation and colony formation, whereas knockdown of G9a inhibited CRC cells proliferation. Depletion of G9a increased the rate of chromosome aberration, induced DNA double strand breaks and CRC cells senescence. G9a inhibition syner...

  7. Cocaine Enhances HIV-1 Replication in CD4+ T Cells by Down-Regulating MiR-125b

    OpenAIRE

    Mantri, Chinmay K.; Jui Pandhare Dash; Jyoti Velamarti Mantri; Dash, Chandravanu C. V.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine effects of cocaine on HIV-1 replication in primary CD4+ T cells. Cocaine a commonly used drug among HIV-1 positive individuals serves as a cofactor for HIV-1 infection and progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Accumulating evidence suggest that cocaine increases HIV-1 replication in cell cultures, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and animal models. Intriguingly, there are no studies on cocaine-induced alterations in...

  8. Resveratrol and clofarabine induces a preferential apoptosis-activating effect on malignant mesothelioma cells by Mcl-1 down-regulation and caspase-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lee, Yong-Jin; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that resveratrol and clofarabine elicited a marked cytotoxicity on malignant mesothelioma (MM) MSTO-211H cells but not on the corresponding normal mesothelial MeT-5A cells. Little is known of the possible molecules that could be used to predict preferential chemosensitivity on MSTO-211H cells. Resveratrol and clofarabine induced down-regulation of Mcl-1 protein level in MSTO-211H cells. Treatment of cells with cycloheximide in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG132 suggested that Mcl-1 protein levels were regulated at the post-translational step. The siRNA-based knockdown of Mcl-1 in MSTO-211H cells triggered more growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing effects with the resultant cleavages of procaspase-3 and its substrate PARP, increased caspase-3/7 activity, and increased percentage of apoptotic propensities. However, the majority of the observed changes were not shown in MeT-5A cells. Collectively, these studies indicate that the preferential activation of caspase cascade in malignant cells might have important applications as a therapeutic target for MM. PMID:24924397

  9. Down-Regulation of CXCR4 Expression by siRNA Inhibits Invasive Ability of Breast Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficiency of gene silencing by CXCR4-siRNAs (small interfering RNA), and to examine the invasive ability and the expression of other metastatic-associated genes in siRNA-treated breast cancer cells.METHODS Three siRNAs were designed and cloned into the pSilenc TM 3.1-H1 neo vector. The reconstructed plasmids were purified and transfected into the T47D breast cancer cell line, which highly expressed CXCR4.The amount of CXCR4 expression in the transfected cells was measured by flow cytometry and Real-time PCR. Cell invasive ability was evaluated using 24-well Matrigel invasion chambers. In addition, the expression of other metastatic-associated genes, such as E-cad, IGFBP-5, FN and MMP-2, was assessed by Real-time PCR.RESULTS The suppression rates of CXCR4 mRNA expression reached 95.7%, 85.9% and 98.3%compared with control-siRNA cells in the 3 CXCR4-siRNA T47D cells respectively. FCM assays for CXCR4 protein expression showed a similar inhibitory effect. The invasion indexes of these CXCR4-siRNA cells were 0.037, 0.290 and 0.188 respectively compared with control-siRNA cells. After treatment of the cells with CXCR4-siRNA, the expression of E-cad showed an upward tendency and that of IGFBP-5 had a downward trend, while alteration in expression of FN and MMP2 varied without a consistant effect.CONCLUSION CXCR4 plays an important role in modulating migration of human breast cancer cells. Small interfering RNA can significantly silence the CXCR4 gene in the human T47D breast cancer cell line. The results of this study strengthen the need for further research on novel gene therapy against breast cancer metastasis.

  10. Gene expression down-regulation in CD90+ prostate tumor-associated stromal cells involves potential organ-specific genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prostate stroma is a key mediator of epithelial differentiation and development, and potentially plays a role in the initiation and progression of prostate cancer. The tumor-associated stroma is marked by increased expression of CD90/THY1. Isolation and characterization of these stromal cells could provide valuable insight into the biology of the tumor microenvironment. Prostate CD90+ stromal fibromuscular cells from tumor specimens were isolated by cell-sorting and analyzed by DNA microarray. Dataset analysis was used to compare gene expression between histologically normal and tumor-associated stromal cells. For comparison, stromal cells were also isolated and analyzed from the urinary bladder. The tumor-associated stromal cells were found to have decreased expression of genes involved in smooth muscle differentiation, and those detected in prostate but not bladder. Other differential expression between the stromal cell types included that of the CXC-chemokine genes. CD90+ prostate tumor-associated stromal cells differed from their normal counterpart in expression of multiple genes, some of which are potentially involved in organ development

  11. Down-regulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (Long Form contributes to apoptosis induced by Hsp90 inhibition in human lung cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qilin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular FLICE-Inhibitory Protein (long form, c-FLIPL is a critical negative regulator of death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Overexpression of c-FLIPL has been reported in many cancer cell lines and is associated with chemoresistance. In contrast, down-regulation of c-FLIP may drive cancer cells into cellular apoptosis. This study aims to demonstrate that inhibition of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 either by inhibitors geldanamycin/17-N-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (GA/17-AAG or siRNA technique in human lung cancer cells induces c-FLIPL degradation and cellular apoptosis through C-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP-mediated mechanisms. Methods Calu-1 and H157 cell lines (including H157-c-FLIPL overexpressing c-FLIPL and control cell H157-lacZ were treated with 17-AAG and the cell lysates were prepared to detect the given proteins by Western Blot and the cell survival was assayed by SRB assay. CHIP and Hsp90 α/β proteins were knocked down by siRNA technique. CHIP and c-FLIPL plasmids were transfected into cells and immunoprecipitation experiments were performed to testify the interactions between c-FLIPL, CHIP and Hsp90. Results c-FLIPL down-regulation induced by 17-AAG can be reversed with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, which suggested that c-FLIPL degradation is mediated by a ubiquitin-proteasome system. Inhibition of Hsp90α/β reduced c-FLIPL level, whereas knocking down CHIP expression with siRNA technique inhibited c-FLIPL degradation. Furthermore, c-FLIPL and CHIP were co-precipitated in the IP complexes. In addition, overexpression of c-FLIPL can rescue cancer cells from apoptosis. When 17-AAG was combined with an anti-cancer agent celecoxib(CCB, c-FLIPL level declined further and there was a higher degree of caspase activation. Conclusion We have elucidated c-FLIPL degradation contributes to apoptosis induced by Hsp90 inhibition, suggesting c-FLIP and Hsp90 may be the promising combined targets

  12. Down-regulation of miR-126 is associated with colorectal cancer cells proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting IRS-1 via the AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs play important roles in carcinogenesis. MiR-126 has been shown to be down-regulated in CRC. In this study, we identified the potential effects of miR-126 on some important biological properties of CRC cells and clarified the regulation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1 and its possible signaling pathway by miR-126. METHODS: The effect of miR-126 on IRS-1, AKT, and ERK1/2 expression was assessed in the CRC cell lines HT-29 and HCT-116 with a miR-126 mimic or inhibitor to increase or decrease miR-126 expression. Furthermore, the roles of miR-126 in regulation of the biological properties of CRC cells were analyzed with miR-126 mimic or inhibitor-transfected cells. The 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR of IRS-1 regulated by miR-126 was analyzed by using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: We found that IRS-1 is the functional downstream target of miR-126 by directly targeting the 3'-UTR of IRS-1. Endogenous miR-126 and exogenous miR-126 mimic inhibited IRS-1 expression. Furthermore, gain-of-function or loss-of-function studies showed that over-expression of miR-126 down-regulated IRS-1, suppressed AKT and ERK1/2 activation, CRC cells proliferation, migration, invasion, and caused cell cycle arrest, but had no effect on cell apoptosis. Knockdown of miR-126 promoted these processes in HCT-116 cells and promoted AKT and ERK1/2 activation by up-regulating the expression of the IRS-1 protein. CONCLUSIONS: MiR-126 may play roles in regulation of the biological behavior of CRC cells, at least in part, by targeting IRS-1 via AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

  13. Down-regulation of mTOR leads to up-regulation of osteoprotegerin in bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG)/osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor regulates bone mass by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. mTOR, which is the mammalian target of rapamycin, is a kinase and central regulator of cell growth, proliferation, and survival. By using Rapamycin, we studied whether mTOR pathway is associated with OPG protein production in the mouse bone marrow-derived stromal cell line ST2. Rapamycin markedly increased the level of soluble OPG in ST2 cells. This antibiotic treatment resulted in the suppression of phosphorylation of mTOR. Rapamycin had no effects on the proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis of the cells. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein-4, which can induce OPG protein in ST2 cells, also resulted in a decrease in the density of the phospho-mTOR-band, suggesting that the suppression of the phospho-mTOR pathway is necessary for OPG production in ST2 cells. Thus, suitable suppression of mTOR phosphorylation is a necessary requirement for OPG production in bone marrow stromal cells.

  14. Arsenic trioxide down-regulates antiapoptotic genes and induces cell death in mycosis fungoides tumors in a mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Tun-Kyi, A; Qin, J Z; Oberholzer, P A; Navarini, A A; Hassel, J C; Dummer, R.; Döbbeling, U

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most frequent cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) has recently been shown to be effective against leukemias, so we studied whether As(2)O(3) induces apoptosis of CTCL cells in vitro. We further investigated if As(2)O(3) is effective in a MF mouse model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Annexin V/7-amino-actinomycin-D stainings were carried out to investigate if As(2)O(3) induced apoptosis of CTCL cell lines. To study the underlying mec...

  15. Cocaine enhances HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells by down-regulating MiR-125b.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmay K Mantri

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine effects of cocaine on HIV-1 replication in primary CD4+ T cells. Cocaine a commonly used drug among HIV-1 positive individuals serves as a cofactor for HIV-1 infection and progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Accumulating evidence suggest that cocaine increases HIV-1 replication in cell cultures, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and animal models. Intriguingly, there are no studies on cocaine-induced alterations in HIV-1 replication in primary CD4+ T cells that serve as the main targets for HIV-1 replication in vivo. In this report, we demonstrate cocaine-induced enhancement of HIV-1 replication in primary CD4+ T cells isolated from human PBMCs. To decipher a potential mechanism, we examined whether cocaine targets the innate antiviral immunity of CD4+ T cells mediated by cellular microRNAs (miRNAs. This is because recently a network of anti-HIV miRNAs in CD4+ T cells is highlighted to suppress viral replication. Our genome wide miRNA expression analysis indicated downregulation of several anti-HIV miRNAs (miR-28, miR-125b, miR-150, miR-223, and miR-382 in cocaine treated CD4+ T cells. However, our real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed significant downregulation of miR-125b only. Our results illustrated that miR-125b knockdown enhances HIV-1 replication, whereas overexpression of miR-125b decreases HIV-1 replication in these cells. Therefore, we believe miR-125b is a key player for the cocaine induced enhancement of HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells. Since, miR-125b targets the 3' UTR regions of HIV-1 transcripts and inhibits viral protein translation, our data suggest modulation of post entry steps of HIV-1 by cocaine. Given that a plethora of studies suggest that cocaine regulates HIV entry, our results implicate a potentially novel mechanism by which cocaine can increase viral replication in CD4+ T cells.

  16. Tauopathy Differentially Affects Cell Adhesion Molecules in Mouse Brain: Early Down-Regulation of Nectin-3 in Stratum Lacunosum Moleculare

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Maurin; Claire Marie Seymour; Benoit Lechat; Peter Borghgraef; Herman Devijver; Tomasz Jaworski; Schmidt, Mathias V.; Sebastian Kuegler; Fred Van Leuven

    2013-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules are important structural substrates, required for synaptic plasticity and synaptogenesis. CAMs differ widely in their expression throughout different brain regions and their specific structural and functional roles in the brain remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated selected cell adhesion molecules for alterations in expression levels and neuronal localization in validated mouse models for Alzheimer's disease that mimic the age-related progression of amyloid ac...

  17. Lon Protease Activity Causes Down-Regulation of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 Invasion Gene Expression after Infection of Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Boddicker, Jennifer D.; Jones, Bradley D.

    2004-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes self-limiting gastroenteritis in humans and a typhoid-like disease in mice that serves as a model for typhoid infections in humans. A critical step in Salmonella pathogenesis is the invasion of enterocytes and M cells of the small intestine via expression of a type III secretion system, encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), that secretes effector proteins into host cells, leading to engulfment of the bacteria within large membrane...

  18. VEGFR3 Inhibition Chemosensitizes Ovarian Cancer Stemlike Cells through Down-Regulation of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeyoung Lim; Kun Yang; Barbie Taylor-Harding; W. Ruprecht Wiedemeyer; Buckanovich, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    In ovarian cancer, loss of BRCA gene expression in tumors is associated with improved response to chemotherapy and increased survival. A means to pharmacologically downregulate BRCA gene expression could improve the outcomes of patients with BRCA wild-type tumors. We report that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) inhibition in ovarian cancer cells is associated with decreased levels of both BRCA1 and BRCA2. Inhibition of VEGFR3 in ovarian tumor cells was associated with gr...

  19. Down-Regulation of miR-92 in Breast Epithelial Cells and in Normal but Not Tumour Fibroblasts Contributes to Breast Carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Smith

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miR expression is commonly dysregulated in many cancers, including breast. MiR-92 is one of six miRs encoded by the miR-17-92 cluster, one of the best-characterised oncogenic miR clusters. We examined expression of miR-92 in the breast epithelium and stroma during breast cancer progression. We also investigated the role of miR-92 in fibroblasts in vitro and showed that down-regulation in normal fibroblasts enhances the invasion of breast cancer epithelial cells.We used laser microdissection (LMD to isolate epithelial cells from matched normal, DCIS and invasive tissue from 9 breast cancer patients and analysed miR-92 expression by qRT-PCR. Expression of ERβ1, a direct miR-92 target, was concurrently analysed for each case by immunohistochemistry. LMD was also used to isolate matched normal (NFs and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs from 14 further cases. Effects of miR-92 inhibition in fibroblasts on epithelial cell invasion in vitro was examined using a Matrigel™ assay. miR-92 levels decreased in microdissected epithelial cells during breast cancer progression with highest levels in normal breast epithelium, decreasing in DCIS (p<0.01 and being lowest in invasive breast tissue (p<0.01. This was accompanied by a shift in cell localisation of ERβ1 from nuclear expression in normal breast epithelium to increased cytoplasmic expression during progression to DCIS (p = 0.0078 and invasive breast cancer (p = 0.031. ERβ1 immunoreactivity was also seen in stromal fibroblasts in tissues. Where miR-92 expression was low in microdissected NFs this increased in matched CAFs; a trend also seen in cultured primary fibroblasts. Down-regulation of miR-92 levels in NFs but not CAFs enhanced invasion of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer epithelial cells.miR-92 is gradually lost in breast epithelial cells during cancer progression correlating with a shift in ERβ1 immunoreactivity from nuclei to the cytoplasm. Our data support a functional

  20. Inhibition of Corydalis decumbens Alkaloids on Hydrogen Peroxideinduced Apoptosis of PC12 Cells through Down-regulating Caspase-3 Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ren-jie; YANG Yi-fang; LUO Yong-ming; WU Chun-zhen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To extract alkaloids from Corydalis decumbens (AsCD) by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SFE) and to evaluate protective effects of AsCD against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in rat PC12 cells.Methods AsCD were extracted by SFE and oxidative damage PC12 cells model was induced by H2O2.The survival rate of the cells was determined by MTT assay; Lactate dehydrogenase release was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry; Flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis; Caspase-3 mRNA and protein were determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting assay,respectively.Results AsCD remarkably reduced the cytotoxicity,prevented membrane damage,and inhibited cell apoptosis.AsCD inhibited Caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression induced by H2O2 in PC12 cells.Conclusion AsCD possess protective effects against H2O2-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells,and the mechanism of AsCD responsible to the inhibition of apoptosis is possibly attributed to thedown-regulating Caspase-3 expression.AsCD might be useful in the treatment of oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Down Regulation of CIAPIN1 Reverses Multidrug Resistance in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Inhibiting MDR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 (CIAPIN1, initially named anamorsin, a newly indentified antiapoptotic molecule is a downstream effector of the receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras signaling pathway. Current study has revealed that CIAPIN1 may have wide and important functions, especially due to its close correlations with malignant tumors. However whether or not it is involved in the multi-drug resistance (MDR process of breast cancer has not been elucidated. To explore the effect of CIAPIN1 on MDR, we examined the expression of P-gp and CIAPIN1 by immunohistochemistry and found there was positive correlation between them. Then we successfully interfered with RNA translation by the infection of siRNA of CIAPIN1 into MCF7/ADM breast cancer cell lines through a lentivirus, and the expression of the target gene was significantly inhibited. After RNAi the drug resistance was reduced significantly and the expression of MDR1mRNA and P-gp in MCF7/ADM cell lines showed a significant decrease. Also the expression of P53 protein increased in a statistically significant way (p ≤ 0.01 after RNAi exposure. In addition, flow cytometry analysis reveals that cell cycle and anti-apoptotic enhancing capability of cells changed after RNAi treatment. These results suggested CIAPIN1 may participate in breast cancer MDR by regulating MDR1 and P53 expression, changing cell cycle and enhancing the anti-apoptotic capability of cells.

  2. p38 MAPK-Mediated Bmi-1 down-regulation and defective proliferation in ATM-deficient neural stem cells can be restored by Akt activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeesun Kim

    Full Text Available A-T (ataxia telangiectasia is a genetic disease caused by a mutation in the Atm (A-T mutated gene that leads to neurodegeneration. Despite an increase in the numbers of studies in this area in recent years, the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in human A-T are still poorly understood. Previous studies demonstrated that neural stem cells (NSCs isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ of Atm(-/- mouse brains show defective self-renewal and proliferation, which is accompanied by activation of chronic p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and a lower level of the polycomb protein Bmi-1. However, the mechanism underlying Bmi-1 down-regulation and its relevance to defective proliferation in Atm(-/- NSCs remained unclear. Here, we show that over-expression of Bmi-1 increases self-renewal and proliferation of Atm(-/- NSCs to normal, indicating that defective proliferation in Atm(-/- NSCs is a consequence of down-regulation of Bmi-1. We also demonstrate that epidermal growth factor (EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation renders Bmi-1 resistant to the proteasomal degradation, leading to its stabilization and accumulation in the nucleus. However, inhibition of the Akt-dependent Bmi-1 stabilizing process by p38 MAPK signaling reduces the levels of Bmi-1. Treatment of the Atm(-/- NSCs with a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 extended Bmi-1 posttranscriptional turnover and H2A ubiquitination in Atm(-/- NSCs. Our observations demonstrate the molecular basis underlying the impairment of self-renewal and proliferation in Atm(-/- NSCs through the p38 MAPK-Akt-Bmi-1-p21 signaling pathway.

  3. Dietary fish oil and DHA down-regulate antigen-activated CD4+ T-cells while promoting the formation of liquid-ordered mesodomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooki; Barhoumi, Rola; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2014-01-28

    We have demonstrated previously that n-3 PUFA endogenously produced by fat-1 transgenic mice regulate CD4+ T-cell function by affecting the formation of lipid rafts, liquid-ordered mesodomains in the plasma membrane. In the present study, we tested the effects of dietary sources of n-3 PUFA, i.e. fish oil (FO) or purified DHA, when compared with an n-6 PUFA-enriched maize oil control diet in DO11.10 T-cell receptor transgenic mice. Dietary n-3 PUFA were enriched in CD4+ T-cells, resulting in the increase of the n-3:n-6 ratio. Following antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell activation by B-lymphoma cells pulsed with the ovalbumin 323-339 peptide, the formation of liquid-ordered mesodomains at the immunological synapse relative to the whole CD4+ T-cell, as assessed by Laurdan labelling, was increased (P< 0·05) in the FO-fed group. The FO diet also suppressed (P< 0·05) the co-localisation of PKCθ with ganglioside GM1 (monosialotetrahexosylganglioside), a marker for lipid rafts, which is consistent with previous observations. In contrast, the DHA diet down-regulated (P< 0·05) PKCθ signalling by moderately affecting the membrane liquid order at the immunological synapse, suggesting the potential contribution of the other major n-3 PUFA components of FO, including EPA. PMID:23962659

  4. Dioscin strengthens the efficiency of adriamycin in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells through autophagy induction: More than just down-regulation of MDR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changyuan; Huo, Xiaokui; Wang, Lijuan; Meng, Qiang; Liu, Zhihao; Liu, Qi; Sun, Huijun; Sun, Pengyuan; Peng, Jinyong; Liu, Kexin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of dioscin on activity of adriamycin (ADR) in ADR-sensitive (MCF-7) and ADR-resistant (MCF-7/ADR) human breast cancer cells and to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved. Antiproliferation effect of ADR was enhanced by dioscin in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells. Dioscin significantly inhibited MDR1 mRNA and protein expression and MDR1 promoter and nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κB) activity in MCF-7/ADR cells. Additionally, inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) degradation was inhibited by dioscin. Moreover, dioscin induced the formation of vacuoles in the cytoplasm and protein level of LC3-II in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells. Autophagy inhibitor 3-MA abolished the effect of dioscin on ADR cytotoxicity. Dioscin inhibited phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt, resulting in upregulation of LC3-II expression. In conclusion, dioscin increased ADR chemosensitivity by down-regulating MDR1 expression through NF-κB signaling inhibition in MCF-7/ADR cells. Autophagy was induced by dioscin to ameliorate the cytotoxicity of ADR via inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathways in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells. These findings provide evidence in support of further investigation into the clinical application of dioscin as a chemotherapy adjuvant. PMID:27329817

  5. Curcumin inhibits cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells by down-regulation of NPC1L1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Rui-Dong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin is a polyphenol and the one of the principle curcuminoids of the spice turmeric. Its antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects have been intensively studied. Previous in vivo studies showed that administration of curcumin also decreased cholesterol levels in the blood, and the effects were considered to be related to upregulation of LDL receptor. However, since plasma cholesterol levels are also influenced by the uptake of cholesterol in the gut, which is mediated by a specific transporter Niemann-Pick Cl-like 1 (NPC1L1 protein, the present study is to investigate whether curcumin affects cholesterol uptake in the intestinal Caco-2 cells. Methods Caco-2 cells were cultured to confluence. The micelles composed of bile salt, monoolein, and 14C-cholesterol were prepared. We first incubated the cells with the micelles in the presence and absence of ezetimibe, the specific inhibitor of NPC1L1, to see whether the uptake of the cholesterol in the cells was mediated by NPC1L1. We then pretreated the cells with curcumin at different concentrations for 24 h followed by examination of the changes of cholesterol uptake in these curcumin-treated cells. Finally we determined whether curcumin affects the expression of NPC1L1 by both Western blot analysis and qPCR quantification. Results We found that the uptake of radioactive cholesterol in Caco-2 cells was inhibited by ezetimibe in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicate that the uptake of cholesterol in this study was mediated by NPC1L1. We then pretreated the cells with 25-100 μM curcumin for 24 h and found that such a treatment dose-dependently inhibited cholesterol uptake with 40% inhibition obtained by 100 μM curcumin. In addition, we found that the curcumin-induced inhibition of cholesterol uptake was associated with significant decrease in the levels of NPC1L1 protein and NPC1L1 mRNA, as analyzed by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Conclusion

  6. miR-10b*, a master inhibitor of the cell cycle, is down-regulated in human breast tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Francesca; Bossel Ben-Moshe, Noa; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Canu, Valeria; Mori, Federica; Antoniani, Barbara; Di Benedetto, Anna; Santoro, Raffaela; Germoni, Sabrina; De Angelis, Fernanda; Cambria, Anna; Avraham, Roi; Grasso, Giuseppe; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Yarden, Yosef; Domany, Eytan; Blandino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Deregulated proliferation is a hallmark of cancer cells. Here, we show that microRNA-10b* is a master regulator of breast cancer cell proliferation and is downregulated in tumoural samples versus matched peritumoural counterparts. Two canonical CpG islands (5 kb) upstream from the precursor sequence are hypermethylated in the analysed breast cancer tissues. Ectopic delivery of synthetic microRNA-10b* in breast cancer cell lines or into xenograft mouse breast tumours inhibits cell proliferation and impairs tumour growth in vivo, respectively. We identified and validated in vitro and in vivo three novel target mRNAs of miR-10b* (BUB1, PLK1 and CCNA2), which play a remarkable role in cell cycle regulation and whose high expression in breast cancer patients is associated with reduced disease-free survival, relapse-free survival and metastasis-free survival when compared to patients with low expression. This also suggests that restoration of microRNA-10b* expression might have therapeutic promise. PMID:23125021

  7. Ganodermanontriol (GDNT) exerts its effect on growth and invasiveness of breast cancer cells through the down-regulation of CDC20 and uPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ganodermanontriol (GDNT), a Ganoderma mushroom alcohol, inhibits growth of breast cancer cells. ► CDC20 is over-expressed in tumors but not in the tumor surrounding tissue in breast cancer patients. ► GDNT inhibits expression of CDC20 in breast cancer cells. ► GDNT inhibits cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion of breast cancer cells. ► GDNT inhibits secretion of uPA and down-regulates expression of uPAR in breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom that has been recognized by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Although some of the direct anticancer activities are attributed to the presence of triterpenes—ganoderic and lucidenic acids—the activity of other compounds remains elusive. Here we show that ganodermanontriol (GDNT), a Ganoderma alcohol, specifically suppressed proliferation (anchorage-dependent growth) and colony formation (anchorage-independent growth) of highly invasive human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. GDNT suppressed expression of the cell cycle regulatory protein CDC20, which is over-expressed in precancerous and breast cancer cells compared to normal mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, we found that CDC20 is over-expressed in tumors when compared to the tissue surrounding the tumor in specimens from breast cancer patients. GDNT also inhibited invasive behavior (cell adhesion, cell migration, and cell invasion) through the suppression of secretion of urokinase-plasminogen activator (uPA) and inhibited expression of uPA receptor. In conclusion, mushroom GDNT is a natural agent that has potential as a therapy for invasive breast cancers.

  8. Ganodermanontriol (GDNT) exerts its effect on growth and invasiveness of breast cancer cells through the down-regulation of CDC20 and uPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jiahua; Jedinak, Andrej [Cancer Research Laboratory, Methodist Research Institute, Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Sliva, Daniel, E-mail: dsliva@iuhealth.org [Cancer Research Laboratory, Methodist Research Institute, Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Indiana University Simon Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ganodermanontriol (GDNT), a Ganoderma mushroom alcohol, inhibits growth of breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDC20 is over-expressed in tumors but not in the tumor surrounding tissue in breast cancer patients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GDNT inhibits expression of CDC20 in breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GDNT inhibits cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion of breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GDNT inhibits secretion of uPA and down-regulates expression of uPAR in breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom that has been recognized by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Although some of the direct anticancer activities are attributed to the presence of triterpenes-ganoderic and lucidenic acids-the activity of other compounds remains elusive. Here we show that ganodermanontriol (GDNT), a Ganoderma alcohol, specifically suppressed proliferation (anchorage-dependent growth) and colony formation (anchorage-independent growth) of highly invasive human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. GDNT suppressed expression of the cell cycle regulatory protein CDC20, which is over-expressed in precancerous and breast cancer cells compared to normal mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, we found that CDC20 is over-expressed in tumors when compared to the tissue surrounding the tumor in specimens from breast cancer patients. GDNT also inhibited invasive behavior (cell adhesion, cell migration, and cell invasion) through the suppression of secretion of urokinase-plasminogen activator (uPA) and inhibited expression of uPA receptor. In conclusion, mushroom GDNT is a natural agent that has potential as a therapy for invasive breast cancers.

  9. Down-regulation of adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells by oscillating high-gradient magnetic fields and mechanical vibration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Lunov, Oleg; Novotná, Božena; Churpita, Olexandr; Trošan, Peter; Holáň, Vladimír; Syková, Eva; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 10 (2014), "103702-1"-"103702-4". ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/11/0653; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1370; GA MŠk LO1309 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) M100101219 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : stem cells * cytoskeleton * magnetic field * cell growth Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; FH - Neurology (UEM-P) Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  10. Topotecan inhibits cancer cell migration by down-regulation of chemokine CC motif receptor 7 and matrix metalloproteinases

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Sen-sen; Sun, Li; Zhang, Yan-Kai; Zhao, Ren-ping; Liang, Wen-lu; Yuan, Sheng-Tao; Zhang, Lu-yong

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of topotecan (TPT) on cancer cell migration. Methods: Growth inhibition of TPT was analyzed by MTT assay, and cancer cell migration was measured by transwell double chamber assay. To verify the effect of TPT on the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7, quantitative PCR, semi-quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis were performed. The secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gelatin zymo...

  11. A polysaccharide from Huaier induced apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells via down-regulation of MTDH protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhiyong; Hu, Xiaopeng; Xiong, Hua; Qiu, Hong; Yuan, Xianglin; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Yihua; Zou, Yanmei

    2016-10-20

    In this study, one homogeneous polysaccharide (SP1), with a molecular weight of 56kDa, was isolated from the Huaier fruiting bodies. It had a backbone consisting of 1,4-linked-β-d-Galp and 1,3,6-linked-β-d-Galp residues, which was terminated with 1-linked-α-d-Glcp and 1-linked-α-l-Araf terminal at O-3 position of 1,3,6-linked-β-d-Galp unit along the main chain in the ratio of 1.1:2.0:1.1:1.1. MTT assay showed that shMTDH or SP1 (100, 200 and 400μg/ml) was able to suppress the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, due to a significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that SP1 or shMTDH treatment led to a rise of ratio between proapoptotic Bax and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in MCF-7 cells. In addition, carcinogene MTDH protein expression in MCF-7 cells received SP1 (100, 200 and 400μg/mL) or shMTDH treatment was also repressed after 48h incubation. Taken together, these findings indicated that SP1 has anticancer potential in the treatment of human breast cancer. PMID:27474651

  12. Nicotine-induced human breast cancer cell proliferation attenuated by garcinol through down-regulation of the nicotinic receptor and cyclin D3 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Shyang; Lee, Chia-Hwa; Hsieh, Chang-Da; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Huang, Ching-Shui; Tu, Shih-Hsin; Wang, Ying-Jan; Chen, Li-Ching; Chang, Yu-Jia; Wei, Po-Li; Yang, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Ho, Yuan-Soon

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the persistent exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to nicotine (Nic) through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors increases cyclin D1 promoter activity and protein expression. The main purpose of this study is to elucidate the carcinogenic role of cyclin D3, which is involved in breast tumorigenesis when induced by Nic. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that cyclin D3 is highly expressed at the mRNA level in surgically dissected breast tumor tissue, compared to the surrounding normal tissue (tumor/normal fold ratio = 17.93, n = 74). To test whether Nic/nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding could affect cyclin D3 expression in human breast cancer cells, the transformed cell line MCF-10A-Nic (DOX) was generated from normal breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) with inducible α9-nAChR gene expression, using the adenovirus tetracycline-regulated Tet-off system. Tet-regulated overexpression of α9-nAChR in MCF-10A-Nic (DOX) xenografted BALB/c-nu/nu mice resulted in a significant induction of cyclin D3. In contrast, cyclin D3 expression was down-regulated in α9-nAChR knock-down (siRNA) MDA-MB-231-xenografted tumors in NOD.CB17-PRKDC(SCID)/J(NOD-SCID) mice. Furthermore, we found that Nic-induced human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell proliferation was inhibited by 1 μM of garcinol (Gar), isolated from the edible fruit Garcinia indica, through down-regulation of α9-nAChR and cyclin D3 expression. These results suggest that α9-nAChR-mediated cyclin D3 overexpression is important for nicotine-induced transformation of normal human breast epithelial cells. The homeostatic regulation of cyclin D3 has the potential to be a molecular target for antitumor chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive purposes in clinical breast cancer patients. PMID:20229177

  13. Cordycepin Down-Regulates Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR/HIF-1α through Regulating AMPK/mTORC1 Signaling in GBC-SD Gallbladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ding Wu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the bile duct, with low 5-year survival rate and poor prognosis. Novel effective treatments are urgently needed for the therapy of this disease. Here, we showed that cordycepin, the bioactive compound in genus Cordyceps, induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in cultured gallbladder cancer cells (Mz-ChA-1, QBC939 and GBC-SD lines. We found that cordycepin inhibited mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1 activation and down-regulated multiple drug resistant (MDR/hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α expression through activating of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling in gallbladder cancer GBC-SD cells. Contrarily, AMPKα1-shRNA depletion dramatically inhibited cordycepin-induced molecular changes as well as GBC-SD cell apoptosis. Further, our results showed that co-treatment with a low concentration cordycepin could remarkably enhance the chemosensitivity of GBC-SD cells to gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, and the mechanism may be attributed to AMPK activation and MDR degradation. In summary, cordycepin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in gallbladder cancer cells via activating AMPK signaling. Cordycepin could be a promising new drug or chemo-adjuvant for gallbladder cancer.

  14. Regulated Production of Mature Insulin in Rat Hepatoma Cells:Insulin Production is Up-regulated by Dexamethasone and Down-regulated by Insulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Yu QIN; Kun-Tang SHEN; Lu-Jun SONG; Xin ZHANG; Ze-Guang HAN

    2006-01-01

    We engineered an artificial β cell line that produces an up-regulation of insulin in response to dexamethasone, and a down-regulation in response to insulin. A regulatory secretion system was devised by placing proinsulin cDNA containing genetically engineered furin endoprotease cleavage sites and a regulatory promoter for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and an insulin expressing retrovirus vector (pN-PEPCK-mINS) was constructed and transfected into Hepa1-6 cells. The levels of insulin in culture medium and expression of insulin gene was estimated by radioimmunoassay and reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The clone (Hepa1-6/INS21), which secreted the highest level of insulin (10.79 μIU/106 cells per day), was selected for the regulation experiment. Compared with the non-treated Hepa1-6/INS21 cells, insulin production was augmented 3.6-fold by the addition of 10-7 M of dexamethasone. Addition of exogenous insulin to the culture medium decreased insulin mRNA expression remarkably on RT-PCR results, while dexamethasone increased insulin gene expression at the transcriptional level. The data indicated that genetically engineered Hepa1-6 cells could synthesize process and secrete insulin in a physiological manner.

  15. Wnt Signaling Regulates the Lineage Differentiation Potential of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells through Tcf3 Down-Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yaser Atlasi; Rubina Noori; Claudia Gaspar; Patrick Franken; Andrea Sacchetti; Haleh Rafati; Tokameh Mahmoudi; Charles Decraene; Calin, George A; Merrill, Bradley J.; Riccardo Fodde

    2013-01-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling plays a rate-limiting role in regulating self-renewal and differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We have previously shown that mutation in the Apc (adenomatous polyposis coli) tumor suppressor gene constitutively activates Wnt signaling in ESCs and inhibits their capacity to differentiate towards ecto-, meso-, and endodermal lineages. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms through which Wnt regulates lineage differentiation in mouse ES...

  16. Down-regulation of mechanisms involved in cell transport and maintenance of mucosal integrity in pigs infected with Lawsonia intracellularis

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Sionagh H; Wilson, Alison D.; Van Ettinger, Imke; MacIntyre, Neil; Archibald, Alan L.; Ait-Ali, Tahar

    2014-01-01

    International audience Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterium, responsible for the disease complex known as proliferative enteropathy (PE). L. intracellularis is associated with intestinal crypt epithelial cell proliferation but the mechanisms responsible are yet to be defined. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the host-pathogen interaction in experimentally infected pigs to identify pathways that may be involved. Ileal samples originating from twenty-eig...

  17. Antisense epidermal growth factor receptor RNA transfection in human glioblastoma cells down-regulates telomerase activity and telomere length

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, X-X; Pang, JC-S; J. Zheng; Chen, J; To, S S T; Ng, H-K

    2002-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor is overexpressed and/or amplified in up to 50% of glioblastomas, suggesting an important role of this gene in glial tumorigenesis and progression. In the present study we demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in regulation of telomerase activity in glioblastoma. Antisense-epidermal growth factor receptor approach was used to inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor expression of glioblastoma U87MG cells. Telomerase activity in antisens...

  18. Study on the down-regulation of PKCα by tamoxifen combined with 60Co γ-irradiation in glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of radio-sensitizing effect of tamoxifen on the influence of PKCα expression has been explored by tamoxifen combined with 60Co γ-irradiation in human glioma cells. The protein expression of PKCα and CyclinD1 were detected by using Western-Blot. The level of DNA strand breaks was detected by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. The results demonstrated that the combination of tamoxifen and 60Co γ-irradiation could reduce expression of PKCα and CyclinD1. And it also enhanced the radiation-induced DNA damage and attenuated the repair of damaged DNA. The above results reveal that the combination of tamoxifen and 60Co γ-irradiation can enhance the downregulation of the expression of PKCα and the induction in the low expression of CyclinD1 as well at the delay of DNA repair. All these may be related to the impairment of the radioresistance of SHG-44 cells by tamoxifen. (authors)

  19. Chronic Hyperinsulinism Induced Down-regulation of Insulin Post-Recentor Signaling Transduction in Hep G2 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To study the regulatory effect of acute and chronic insulin treatment on insulin post-re-ceptor signaling transduction pathway in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2), Hep G2 cells wereincubated in the presence or absence of insulin with different concentrations in serum free mediafor 16 h and then stimulated with 100 nmol/L insulin for 1 min. Protein levels of insulin receptorβ-subunit (IRβ), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) were determined in total cell lysates by Western-immunoblot. Phosphorylat-ed proteins IRβ, IRS-1 and interaction of PI 3-kinase with IRS-1 were determined by immunopre-cipitation. Results showed that 1-min insulin stimulation rapidly induced tyrosine phosphorylationof IRβ and IRS-l, which in turn, resulting in association of PI 3-kinase with IRS-1. 1-100 nmol/L chronic insulin treatment induced a dose-dependent decrease in the protein level of IRβ and aslight decrease in the protein level of IRS-1. There wass more marked reduction in the phospho-rylation of IRβ, IRS-1, reaching a nadir of 22 % (P<0. 01) and 15 % (P<0. 01) of control lev-els, respectively, after 16 h treatment with 100 nmol/L insulin. The association between IRS-1and PI 3-kinase was decreased by 66 % (P<0. 01). There was no significant change in PI 3-ki-nase protein levels. These data suggest that chronic insulin treatment can induce alterations ofIRβ, IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase three early steps in insulin action, which contributes significantly toinsulin resistance, and may account for desensitization of insulin action.

  20. Lithocholic acid down-regulation of NF-κB activity through vitamin D receptor in colonic cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jun; Mustafi, Reba; Cerda, Sonia; Chumsangsri, Anusara; Xia, Yinglin Rick; Li, Yan Chun; Bissonnette, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Lithocholic acid (LCA), a secondary bile acid, is a vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligand. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the hormonal form of vitamin D, is involved in the anti-inflammatory action through VDR. Therefore, we hypothesize that LCA acts like 1,25(OH)2D3 to drive anti-inflammatory signals. In present study, we used human colonic cancer cells to assess the role of LCA in regulation of the pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway. We found that LCA treatment increased VDR levels, mimickin...

  1. Characterization of high affinity neurotensin receptor NTR1 in HL-60 cells and its down regulation during granulocytic differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Se-Young; Chae, Hee-Don; Park, Tae-Ju; Ha, Hyunjung; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    1999-01-01

    We investigated responses to neurotensin in human promyelocytic leukaemia HL-60 cells.Neurotensin increased the cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a concentration-dependent manner and also produced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3).Among the tested neurotensin analogues, neurotensin 8-13, neuromedin-N, and xenopsin also increased [Ca2+]i, whereas neurotensin 1–11 and neurotensin 1–8 did not elicit detectable responses.SR48692, an antagonist of NTR1 neurotensin receptors, blocked ...

  2. D-Glucosamine down-regulates HIF-1{alpha} through inhibition of protein translation in DU145 prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jee-Young; Park, Jong-Wook; Suh, Seong-Il [Chronic Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 194 Dongsan-Dong, Jung-Gu, Daegu 700-712 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Won-Ki, E-mail: wonki@dsmc.or.kr [Chronic Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 194 Dongsan-Dong, Jung-Gu, Daegu 700-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-24

    D-Glucosamine has been reported to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in culture and in vivo. In this study we report a novel response to D-glucosamine involving the translation regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1{alpha} expression. D-Glucosamine caused a decreased expression of HIF-1{alpha} under normoxic and hypoxic conditions without affecting HIF-1{alpha} mRNA expression in DU145 prostate cancer cells. D-Glucosamine inhibited HIF-1{alpha} accumulation induced by proteasome inhibitor MG132 and prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor DMOG suggesting D-glucosamine reduces HIF-1{alpha} protein expression through proteasome-independent pathway. Metabolic labeling assays indicated that D-glucosamine inhibits translation of HIF-1{alpha} protein. In addition, D-glucosamine inhibited HIF-1{alpha} expression induced by serum stimulation in parallel with inhibition of p70S6K suggesting D-glucosamine inhibits growth factor-induced HIF-1{alpha} expression, at least in part, through p70S6K inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that D-glucosamine inhibits HIF-1{alpha} expression through inhibiting protein translation and provide new insight into a potential mechanism of the anticancer properties of D-glucosamine.

  3. D-Glucosamine down-regulates HIF-1α through inhibition of protein translation in DU145 prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D-Glucosamine has been reported to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in culture and in vivo. In this study we report a novel response to D-glucosamine involving the translation regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression. D-Glucosamine caused a decreased expression of HIF-1α under normoxic and hypoxic conditions without affecting HIF-1α mRNA expression in DU145 prostate cancer cells. D-Glucosamine inhibited HIF-1α accumulation induced by proteasome inhibitor MG132 and prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor DMOG suggesting D-glucosamine reduces HIF-1α protein expression through proteasome-independent pathway. Metabolic labeling assays indicated that D-glucosamine inhibits translation of HIF-1α protein. In addition, D-glucosamine inhibited HIF-1α expression induced by serum stimulation in parallel with inhibition of p70S6K suggesting D-glucosamine inhibits growth factor-induced HIF-1α expression, at least in part, through p70S6K inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that D-glucosamine inhibits HIF-1α expression through inhibiting protein translation and provide new insight into a potential mechanism of the anticancer properties of D-glucosamine.

  4. Targeted DNA Methylation by a DNA Methyltransferase Coupled to a Triple Helix Forming Oligonucleotide To Down-Regulate the Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gun, Bernardina T. F.; Maluszynska-Hoffman, Maria; Kiss, Antal; Arendzen, Alice J.; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; McLaughlin, Pamela M. J.; Weinhold, Elmar; Rots, Marianne G.

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a membrane glycoprotein that has been identified as a marker of cancer-initiating cells. EpCAM is highly expressed on most carcinomas, and transient silencing of EpCAM expression leads to reduced oncogenic potential. To silence (he EpCAM gene in a per

  5. Down-regulation of IL-8 expression in human airway epithelial cells through helper-dependent adenoviral-mediated RNA interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huibi CAO; Anan WANG; Bernard MARTIN; David R.KOEHLER; Pamela L.ZEITLIN; A.Keith TANAWELL; Jim HU

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-8 is a potent neutrophil chemotactic factor and a crucial mediator in neutrophil-dependent inflammation.Various cell types produce IL-8, either in response to external stimuli such as cytokines or bacterial infection, or after malignant transformation. Anti-IL-8 strategies have been considered for anti-inflammatory therapy. In this paper we demonstrate that the RNA interference technique can be used to efficiently down-regulate IL-8 protein expression in airway epithelial cells. We used a helper-dependent adenoviral vector to express a small hairpin (sh)RNA targeting human IL-8 in cultured airway epithelial cells (IB3-1, Cftr-/-; C38, Cftr-corrected) stimulated with TNF-α, IL-1 β or heat-inactivated Burkholderia cenocepacia. Stimulated IL-8 expression in IB3-1 and C38 cells was significantly reduced by shRNA expression. The shRNA targeting IL-8 had no effect on the activation of NF-κB, or on the protein levels of Iκ B or IL-6, suggesting that this anti-IL-8 strategy was highly specific, and therefore may offer potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  6. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase sensitizes tumor cells to flavonoid-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of JunD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduction of susceptibility to apoptosis signals is a crucial step in carcinogenesis. Therefore, sensitization of tumor cells to apoptosis is a promising therapeutic strategy. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) has been implicated in stress-induced apoptosis. However, many studies also emphasize the role of JNK on cell survival, although its mechanisms are not completely understood. Previously, we found that inhibition of JNK activity promotes flavonoid-mediated apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells. We thus determined whether inhibition of JNK sensitizes tumor cells to a bioflavonoid-induced apoptosis, and whether this effect of JNK is a general effect. As the results, quercetin and genistein as well as a flavonoid fraction induced apoptosis of tumor cells, which was further accelerated by specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125 or by small interfering RNA specific to JNK1/2. This effect was specific to types of cells because it was further apparent in tumorigenic cell lines. Inhibition of JNK by SP600125 also reduced flavonoid-stimulated nuclear induction of JunD which was known to have protective role in apoptosis, whereas JNK inhibition alone had little effect on apoptosis. The flavonoid-induced apoptosis of tumor cells was significantly enhanced by transfecting them with antisense JunD oligonucleotides. These results suggest that inhibition of JNK facilitates flavonoid-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of JunD, which is further sensitive to tumor cells. Therefore, combination with a specific JNK inhibitor further enhances the anti-cancer and chemopreventive potential of bio-flavonoids

  7. Inhibition of p70S6K2 down-regulates Hedgehog/GLI pathway in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotani Hidehito

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hedgehog (HH pathway promotes tumorigenesis in a diversity of cancers. Activation of the HH signaling pathway is caused by overexpression of HH ligands or mutations in the components of the HH/GLI1 cascade, which lead to increased transactivation of GLI transcription factors. Although negative kinase regulators that antagonize the activity of GLI transcription factors have been reported, including GSK3β, PKA and CK1s, little is known regarding positive kinase regulators that are suitable for use on cancer therapeutic targets. The present study attempted to identify kinases whose silencing inhibits HH/GLI signalling in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Results To find positive kinase regulators in the HH pathway, kinome-wide siRNA screening was performed in a NSCLC cell line, A549, harboring the GLI regulatory reporter gene. This showed that p70S6K2-silencing remarkably reduced GLI reporter gene activity. The decrease in the activity of the HH pathway caused by p70S6K2-inhibition was accompanied by significant reduction in cell viability. We next investigated the mechanism for p70S6K2-mediated inhibition of GLI1 transcription by hypothesizing that GSK3β, a negative regulator of the HH pathway, is activated upon p70S6K2-silencing. We found that phosphorylated-GSK3β (Ser9 was reduced by p70S6K2-silencing, causing a decreased level of GLI1 protein. Finally, to further confirm the involvement of p70S6K2 in GLI1 signaling, down-regulation in GLI-mediated transcription by PI3KCA-inhibition was confirmed, establishing the pivotal role of the PI3K/p70S6K2 pathway in GLI1 cascade regulation. Conclusion We report herein that inhibition of p70S6K2, known as a downstream effector of the PI3K pathway, remarkably decreases GLI-mediated transactivation in NSCLC by reducing phosphorylated-GSK3β followed by GLI1 degradation. These results infer that p70S6K2 is a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC with hyperactivated HH/GLI pathway.

  8. TGF-β1 treated murine dendritic cells are maturation resistant and down-regulate Toll-like receptor 4 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟海波; 林茂芳; 岑洪; 俞静; 孟筱坚

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore theeffects of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) on dendritic cells (DC). Methods:Murine bone marrow cells were cultured with GM-CSF and TGF-β1 to develop TGF-β1-treated DC (TGFβ-DC). Then they were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Their phenotypes were assessed by flow cytometry (FCM). The allogeneic stimulating capacity of DC was measured by mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) using BrdU ELISA method and IL-12p70protein was detected by ELISA. The expression of Toil-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was analyzed by semi quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and FCM. Results: Compared to immature DC (imDC) cultured by GM-CSF alone, the TGFβ-DC express lower CD80, CD86, I-Ab and CD40. The TGFβ-DC were resistant to maturation with LPS. Maturation resistance was evident from a failure to up-regulate co-stimulatory molecules (CMs), to stimulate larger T cells proliferation and to enhance secretion of IL-12p70. We also found that TGF-β 1 could down-regulate TLR4 expression on TGFβ-DC. Conclusion: TGFβ-DC are resistant to maturation stimulus (LPS) and might have some correlation with the down-modulation of TLR4 expression.

  9. Long-term Smoking Mediated Down-regulation of Smad3 Induces Resistance to Carboplatin in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debangshu Samanta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available While numerous cell signaling pathways are known to play decisive roles in chemotherapeutic response, relatively little is known about the impact of the Smad-dependent transforming growth factor β pathway on the therapeutic outcome. Previous reports suggested that patients with lung cancer who continue to smoke while receiving chemotherapy have a poorer outcome than their nonsmoking counterparts do. In our previous study, we showed that long-term cigarette smoke condensate (CSC-mediated down-regulation of Smad3 induces tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism of function of Smad3 in chemoresistance induced by CSC in human lung cell lines, namely, A549 and HPL1A. Long-term CSC treatment increases the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of carboplatin and makes cells resistant to carboplatin. The increase in IC50 of long-term CSC-treated cells is due to the reduced induction in apoptosis by carboplatin. The increase in IC50 and decrease in apoptosis in long-term CSC-treated cells is correlated with the expression of Bcl2. We have determined that Bcl2 is both necessary and sufficient to make the cells resistant to carboplatin. We have also shown that Smad3 acts upstream to regulate the expression of Bcl2 specifically and, thus, sensitivity of the cells to carboplatin. This is supported by the inverse correlation between the expressions of Smad3 and Bcl2 in human lung tumors. Collectively, these data suggest that loss of Smad3 expression in CSC-treated cells induces resistance to carboplatin by upregulating the expression of Bcl2. This study explains, at least in part, the higher chemoresistance rate observed in smokers.

  10. Nicotine-induced survival signaling in lung cancer cells is dependent on their p53 status while its down-regulation by curcumin is independent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puliyappadamba Vineshkumar T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the most lethal cancer and almost 90% of lung cancer is due to cigarette smoking. Even though nicotine, one of the major ingredients of cigarette smoke and the causative agent for addiction, is not a carcinogen by itself, several investigators have shown that nicotine can induce cell proliferation and angiogenesis. We observed that the proliferative index of nicotine is different in the lung cancer cell lines H1299 (p53-/- and A549 (p53+/+ which indicates that the mode of up-regulation of survival signals by nicotine might be different in cells with and without p53. Results While low concentrations of nicotine induced activation of NF-κB, Akt, Bcl2, MAPKs, AP1 and IAPs in H1299, it failed to induce NF-κB in A549, and compared to H1299, almost 100 times higher concentration of nicotine was required to induce all other survival signals in A549. Transfection of WT-p53 and DN-p53 in H1299 and A549 respectively, reversed the mode of activation of survival signals. Curcumin down-regulated all the survival signals induced by nicotine in both the cells, irrespective of their p53 status. The hypothesis was confirmed when lower concentrations of nicotine induced NF-κB in two more lung cancer cells, Hop-92 and NCI-H522 with mutant p53 status. Silencing of p53 in A549 using siRNA made the cells susceptible to nicotine-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation as in A549 DN-p53 cells. Conclusions The present study reveals a detrimental role of nicotine especially in lung cancer patients with impaired p53 status and identifies curcumin as a potential chemopreventive.

  11. Deactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 reverses chemotherapeutics resistance of leukemia cells via down-regulating P-gp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xulong Zhang

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR caused by overexpression of p-glycoprotein is a major obstacle in chemotherapy of malignant cancer, which usually is characterized by constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, but their relation between MDR and STAT3 remains unclear. Here, we showed that STAT3 was overexpressed and highly activated in adriamycin-resistant K562/A02 cells compared with its parental K562 cells. Blockade of activation of STAT3 by STAT3 decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN promoted the accumulation and increased their sensitivity to adriamycin by down-regulating transcription of mdr1 and expression of P-gp, which were further confirmed by using STAT3-specific inhibitor JSI-124. Inhibition of STAT3 could also decrease mdr1 promoter mediated luciferase expression by using mdr1 promoter luciferase reporter construct. Otherwise, activation of STAT3 by STAT3C improved mdr1 transcription and P-gp expression. The ChIP results demonstrated that STAT3 could bind to the potential promoter region of mdr1, and STAT3 decoy depressed the binding. Further mutation assay show +64∼+72 region could be the STAT3 binding site. Our data demonstrate a role of STAT3 in regulation of mdr1 gene expression in myeloid leukemia and suggest that STAT3 may be a promising therapeutic target for overcoming MDR resistance in myeloid leukemia.

  12. Down-regulation of the pro-apoptotic XIAP associated factor-1 (XAF1) during progression of clear-cell renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreased expression of the interferon-stimulated, putative tumour suppressor gene XAF1 has been shown to play a role during the onset, progression and treatment failure in various malignancies. However, little is yet known about its potential implication in the tumour biology of clear-cell renal cell cancer (ccRCC). This study assessed the expression of XAF1 protein in tumour tissue obtained from 291 ccRCC patients and 68 normal renal tissue samples, utilizing immunohistochemistry on a tissue-micro-array. XAF1 expression was correlated to clinico-pathological tumour features and prognosis. Nuclear XAF1 expression was commonly detected in normal renal- (94.1%) and ccRCC (91.8%) samples, without significant differences of expression levels. Low XAF1 expression in ccRCC tissue, however, was associated with progression of tumour stage (p = 0.040) and grade (p < 0.001). Low XAF1 tumour levels were also prognostic of significantly shortened overall survival times in univariate analysis (p = 0.018), but did not provide independent prognostic information. These data suggest down-regulation of XAF1 expression to be implicated in ccRCC progression and implies that its re-induction may provide a therapeutic approach. Although the prognostic value of XAF1 in ccRCC appears to be limited, its predictive value remains to be determined, especially in patients with metastatic disease undergoing novel combination therapies of targeted agents with Interferon-alpha

  13. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  14. Interferon-inducible IFI16, a negative regulator of cell growth, down-regulates expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Li Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased levels of interferon (IFN-inducible IFI16 protein (encoded by the IFI16 gene located at 1q22 in human normal prostate epithelial cells and diploid fibroblasts (HDFs are associated with the onset of cellular senescence. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the IFI16 protein contributes to cellular senescence-associated cell growth arrest remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that increased levels of IFI16 protein in normal HDFs and in HeLa cells negatively regulate the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We optimized conditions for real-time PCR, immunoblotting, and telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP assays to detect relatively low levels of hTERT mRNA, protein, and telomerase activity that are found in HDFs. Using the optimized conditions, we report that treatment of HDFs with inhibitors of cell cycle progression, such as aphidicolin or CGK1026, which resulted in reduced steady-state levels of IFI16 mRNA and protein, was associated with increases in hTERT mRNA and protein levels and telomerase activity. In contrast, knockdown of IFI16 expression in cells increased the expression of c-Myc, a positive regulator of hTERT expression. Additionally, over-expression of IFI16 protein in cells inhibited the c-Myc-mediated stimulation of the activity of hTERT-luc-reporter and reduced the steady-state levels of c-Myc and hTERT. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrated that increased levels of IFI16 protein in HDFs down-regulate the expression of hTERT gene. Our observations will serve basis to understand how increased cellular levels of the IFI16 protein may contribute to certain aging-dependent diseases.

  15. Co-stimulation with TLR7/8 and TLR9 agonists induce down-regulation of innate immune responses in sheep blood mononuclear and B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Jayaum S; Buza, Joram J; Potter, Andrew; Babiuk, Lorne A; Mutwiri, George K

    2010-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Stimulation with multiple TLR agonists may result in synergistic, complimentary or inhibitory effects on innate immune responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of co-stimulation of sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and B cells with agonists for TLR3, 4, 7/8 and 9. Sheep PBMC stimulated with either CpG (TLR9 agonist) or RNA oligoribonucleotides ([ORNs], TLR7/8 agonist) exhibited significant IL-12 production, but only CpG induced IFNalpha, IgM and proliferative responses. In contrast, poly(I:C) (TLR3 agonist) and LPS (TLR4 agonist) did not induce any of these responses. Interestingly, we observed that co-stimulation of PBMC with CpG+ORN or CpG+imiquimod (another TLR7/8 agonist) resulted in significant reduction in CpG-induced IFNalpha production, B cell proliferation and IgM responses. Pre-incubation of cells with CpG prior to exposure of the cells to imiquimod resulted in similar inhibitory responses indicating that the down-regulatory mechanisms are not associated with competition for cellular uptake or for receptors of the two agonists. Sheep B cells constitutively expressed TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 mRNA transcripts, suggesting a possible role of TLR cross-talk in the down-regulatory mechanisms. Down-regulation of responses by co-stimulation with closely related TLRs may be a regulatory mechanism by which the host prevents overstimulation of innate immune responses. PMID:20051250

  16. DZNep, inhibitor of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, down-regulates expression of SETDB1 H3K9me3 HMTase in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Kyung; Kim, Keun-Cheol

    2013-09-01

    3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), an epigenetic anticancer drug, leads to the indirect suppression of S-adenosyl methionine-dependent cellular methylations by inhibiting S-adenosyl homocystein (AdoHcy) hydrolase. Although it is well known that DZNep targets the degradation of EZH2 protein, H3K27me3 HMTase, there are still uncertainties about the regulation of other types of HMTases during cell death. In this study, we describe that SETDB1 gene expression was regulated by DZNep treatment in human lung cancer cells. We confirm that DZNep induced growth inhibition and increased the dead cell population of lung cancer cells. DZNep treatment affected histone methylations, including H3K27me3 and H3K9me3, but not H3K4me3. Reduced levels of H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 were related with the decreased EZH2 and SETDB1 proteins. Real time PCR analysis showed that SETDB1 gene expression was decreased by DZNep treatment, but no effect was observed for EZH2 gene expression. We cloned the promoter region of SETDB1 and SUV39H1 genes, and performed luciferase assays. The promoter activity of SETDB1 gene was down regulated by DZNep treatment, whereas no effect on SUV39H1 promoter activity was observed. In conclusion, we suggest that DZNep regulates not only on H3K27me3 HMTase EZH2, but also H3K9 HMTase SETDB1 gene expression at the transcription level, implicating that the mechanism of action of DZNep targets multiple HMTases during the death of lung cancer cells. PMID:23933322

  17. Induced and down-regulated proteins in the human cultured hairy cell leukemia line JOK-1 and the Burkitt's lymphoma cell line Daudi during incubation with interferon-alpha: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P S; Nielsen, B; Jensen, A W;

    1992-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of action of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), the effect on cell proliferation and protein synthesis in the human hairy cell leukemia line JOK-1 and the Burkitt's lymphoma cell line Daudi were investigated. While Daudi cells were inhibited in proliferation and in total...... protein synthesis, no effect was seen on JOK-1 cells. However, high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that four polypeptides were induced in JOK-1 cells after IFN-alpha incubation, while an additional 11 were induced and two down-regulated in Daudi cells. Kinetic studies revealed that...

  18. The low-toxicity 9-cis UAB30 novel retinoid down-regulates the DNA methyltransferases and has anti-telomerase activity in human breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    HANSEN, NATHAN J.; WYLIE, REBECCA C.; Phipps, Sharla M. O.; Love, William K.; Andrews, Lucy G.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2007-01-01

    Retinoic acids and their derivatives potentiate anti-cancer effects in breast cancer cells. The aberrant expression of telomerase is critical to the continued proliferation of most cancer cells. Thus, telomerase is an attractive target for chemo-prevention and treatment of breast cancer. 9cUAB30 is a novel synthetic retinoid X receptor-selective retinoic acid (RA) that effectively reduces the tumorigenic phenotype in mouse breast carcinoma with lower toxic effects than natural retinoid treatm...

  19. Suppressive Effects of Plumbagin on Invasion and Migration of Breast Cancer Cells via the Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling and Down-regulation of Inflammatory Cytokine Expressions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yan; Bing Tu; Yun-yun Liu; Ting-yu Wang; Han Qiao; Zan-jing Zhai; Hao-wei Li; Ting-ting Tang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plumbagin (PL), a naphthoquinone derived from the medicinal plant plumbago zeylanica, on the invasion and migration of human breast cancer cells. Methods:Human breast cancer MDA-MB-231SArfp cells were treated with different concentrations of plum-bagin for 24 h. The effects of plumbagin on the migration and invasion were observed by a transwell method. The expressions of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β, TNFα, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA in M DA-MB-231SArfp cells were detected using Real-Time PCR. MDA-MB-231SArfp cells were treated with plumbagin at different concentrations for 45 minutes. The activation of STAT3 was detected by western blot. Following this analysis, STAT3 in MDA-MB-231SArfp cells was knocked out using specific siRNA. mRNA levels of IL-1α, TGF-β, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were then detected. Consequently, MDA-MB-231SArfp cells were injected intracardially into BALB/c nude mice to construct a breast cancer bone metastatic model. The mice were injected intra-peritoneally with plumbagin. Non-invasive in vivo monitoring, X-ray imaging and histological staining were performed to investigate the effects of plumbagin on the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells in vivo. Results: The in vitro results showed that plumbagin could suppress the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and down-regulate mRNA expressions of IL-1α, TGF-β, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Western blotting demonstrated that plumbagin inhibited the activation of STAT3 signaling in MDA-MB-231SArfp cells. The inactivation of STAT3 was found to have an inhibitory effect on the expressions of IL-1α, TGF-β, MMP-2 and MMP-9. In vivo studies showed that plumbagin inhibited the metastasis of breast cancer cells and decreased osteolytic bone metastases, as well as the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by tumor cells at metastatic lesions. Conclusions:Plumbagin can suppress the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells via the inhibition

  20. Astaxanthin down-regulates Rad51 expression via inactivation of AKT kinase to enhance mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jen-Chung; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Wang, Tai-Jing; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chen, Wen-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Rad51 plays a central role in homologous recombination, and studies show that chemo-resistant carcinomas exhibit high levels of Rad51 expression. In this study, astaxanthin treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation of two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Astaxanthin treatment (2.5-20μM) decreased Rad51 expression and phospho-AKT(Ser473) protein level in a time and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vector rescued the decreased Rad51 mRNA and protein levels in astaxanthin-treated NSCLC cells. Combined treatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) further decreased the Rad51 expression in astaxanthin-exposed A549 and H1703 cells. Knockdown of Rad51 expression by transfection with si-Rad51 RNA or cotreatment with LY294002 further enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of astaxanthin. Additionally, mitomycin C (MMC) as an anti-tumor antibiotic is widely used in clinical NSCLC chemotherapy. Combination of MMC and astaxanthin synergistically resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced phospho-AKT(Ser473) level and Rad51 expression. Overexpression of AKT-CA or Flag-tagged Rad51 reversed the astaxanthin and MMC-induced synergistic cytotoxicity. In contrast, pretreatment with LY294002 further decreased the cell viability in astaxanthin and MMC co-treated cells. In conclusion, astaxanthin enhances MMC-induced cytotoxicity by decreasing Rad51 expression and AKT activation. These findings may provide rationale to combine astaxanthin with MMC for the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:26921637

  1. Intratumoral application of standardized mistletoe extracts down regulates tumor weight via decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and necrosis in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuth, J; Ko, H L; Schneider, H; Tawadros, S; Kasper, H U; Zimst, H; Schierholz, J M

    2006-01-01

    The cytotoxic in vitro activity of standardized mistletoe extracts (ME) was examined by established assays towards the human ductal breast carcinoma cell line BT474. A dose-dependent (optimum 25 mg/mL medium) and significantly (p control mice with intratumoral phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) injections, tumors of the ME-A and ME-M treated groups showed a decreased cell proliferation rate, as well as an increased cell necrosis and apoptosis rate. Standardized mistletoe extracts, interfering with defined tumor cell functions, e.g., proliferation, necrosis and apoptosis, may have an impact on local cancer treatment. PMID:17201168

  2. Thalidomide and the immune system. 3. Simultaneous up- and down-regulation of different integrin receptors on human white blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A C; Neubert, R; Helge, H; Neubert, D

    1994-01-01

    reduction of the number of receptors was also noticeable on L-selectin (Leu8) bearing cells. On CD4 positive lymphocytes, the majority of the described effects on the integrin and adhesion receptors was seen on cells bearing the CD45R0 maturational epitope. This functional receptor is strongly down-regulated and the pathway of CD45RA to CD45R0 maturation is apparently altered by Thd-treatment. These multiple changes we observed may explain the large variety of therapeutic effects experienced in the treatment with Thd. PMID:7516993

  3. Down-regulation of NKD1 increases the invasive potential of non-small-cell lung cancer and correlates with a poor prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a negative modulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, Naked1 (NKD1) is widely expressed in many normal tissues. However, the expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of NKD1 in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still unclear. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on 35 cases of normal lung tissues and 100 cases of NSCLC, including 66 cases with complete follow-up records. The NKD1 protein and mRNA expressions were detected by western blot and Real-time PCR, respectively. To examine the effect of NKD1 on the invasiveness of lung cancer cells, NKD1 was down-regulated by siRNA in lung cancer cell lines and the invasive ability was then evaluated by the Matrigel invasion assay. In addition, the expressions of Dishevelled-1 and β-catenin proteins, as well as MMP mRNA were also examined in NKD1 knockdown cells. In 35 fresh lung cancer tissues examined, 27(79%) of them exhibited lower levels of NKD1 protein in comparison with their corresponding normal tissue (P = 0.009). However, the NKD1 mRNA level was significantly higher in cancerous lung tissues, compared with the adjacent normal tissues. In 100 NSCLC tissues, NKD1 was significantly lower in 78 cases (78%) than in the normal specimens, determined by immunohistochemical staining. The reduced NKD1 expression was correlated with histological type (P = 0.003), poor differentiation (P = 0.004), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.013), TNM stage (P = 0.002) and poor survival (62.88 ± 3.23 versus 23.61 ± 2.18 months, P = 0.03). In addition, NKD1 knockdown could up-regulate Dishevelled-1 and β-catenin protein levels, as well as increased MMP-7 transcription and the invasive ability of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, when the NKD1-knockdown cells were treated with Dishevelled-1 antibody, their invasive potential was significantly reduced. NKD1 protein is reduced but NKD1 mRNA is elevated in NSCLC. Reduced NKD1 protein expression correlates with a poor prognosis in NSCLC. NKD1

  4. Down-Regulation of TLR and JAK/STAT Pathway Genes Is Associated with Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Gene Expression Analysis in NK Cells from Patients Infected with Leishmania mexicana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Fernández, Juan E.; Miranda-Ortíz, Haydee; Fernández-López, Juan C.; Becker, Ingeborg; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    An important NK-cell inhibition with reduced TNF-α, IFN-γ and TLR2 expression had previously been identified in patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) infected with Leishmania mexicana. In an attempt to pinpoint alterations in the signaling pathways responsible for the NK-cell dysfunction in patients with DCL, this study aimed at identifying differences in the NK-cell response towards Leishmania mexicana lipophosphoglycan (LPG) between patients with localized and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis through gene expression profiling. Our results indicate that important genes involved in the innate immune response to Leishmania are down-regulated in NK cells from DCL patients, particularly TLR and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. This down-regulation showed to be independent of LPG stimulation. The study sheds new light for understanding the mechanisms that undermine the correct effector functions of NK cells in patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis contributing to a better understanding of the pathobiology of leishmaniasis. PMID:27031998

  5. Genes encoding Pir51,Beclin 1,RbAp48 and aldolase b are up or down-regulated in human primary hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Song; Shuang-Luo Xia; Cheng Liao; Yi-Liang Li; Yi-Fei Wang; Tsai-Ping Li; Mu-Jun Zhao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To reveal new tumor markers and target genes from differentially expressed genes of primary tumor samples using cDNA microarray.METHODS: The 33p labeled cDNAs were synthesized by reverse transcription of message RNA from the liver cancerous tissue and adjacent non-cancerous liver tissue from the same patient and used to hybridize to LifeGrid 1.0cDNA microarray blot containing 8400 known and unique human cDNA gene targets, and an expression profile of genes was produced in one paired human liver tumor tissue.After a global analysis of gene expression of 8400 genes,we selected some genes to confirm the differential expression using Northern blot and RT-PCR.RESULTS: Parallel analysis of the hybridized signals enabled us to get an expression profile of genes in which about 500genes were differentially expressed in the paired liver tumor tissues. We identified 4 genes, the expression of three(Beclin 1, RbAp48 and Pir51) were increased and one (aldolase b)was decreased in liver tumor tissues. In addition, the expression of these genes in 6 hepatoma cell lines was also showed by RT-PCR analysis.CONCLUSION: cDNA microarray permits a high throughput identification of changes in gene expression. The genes encoding Beclin 1, RbAp48, Pir51 and aldolase b are first reported that may be related with hepatocarcinoma.

  6. Targeted DNA Methylation by a DNA Methyltransferase Coupled to a Triple Helix Forming Oligonucleotide To Down-Regulate the Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule

    OpenAIRE

    van der Gun, Bernardina T. F.; Maluszynska-Hoffman, Maria; Kiss, Antal; Arendzen, Alice J.; Ruiters, Marcel H.J.; McLaughlin, Pamela M. J.; Weinhold, Elmar; Rots, Marianne G.

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a membrane glycoprotein that has been identified as a marker of cancer-initiating cells. EpCAM is highly expressed on most carcinomas, and transient silencing of EpCAM expression leads to reduced oncogenic potential. To silence the EpCAM gene in a persistent manner via targeted DNA methylation, a low activity mutant (C141S) of the CpG-specific DNA methyltransferase M.SssI was coupled to a triple-helix-forming oligonucleotide (TFO−C141S) specifi...

  7. Induction of the liver cancer-down-regulated long noncoding RNA uc002mbe.2 mediates trichostatin-induced apoptosis of liver cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hui; Zhong, Yun; Xie, Hui; Lai, Xiaobo; Xu, Miqing; Nie, Yuqiang; Liu, Shiming; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Differential expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) plays critical roles in hepatocarcinogenesis. Considerable attention has focused on the antitumor effect of histone deacetylase inhibitor (Trichostatin A, TSA) as well as the coding gene expression-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. However, it is not known whether lncRNA has a role in TSA-induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The global expression of lncRNAs and coding genes was analyzed with the Human LncRN...

  8. Urinary Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinogenesis Is Associated with Down-Regulation of NF1 Tumor Suppressor Gene in Vivo and in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltonen, Vesa; Boström, Peter J.; Söderström, Karl-Ove; Hirvonen, Outi; Tuukkanen, Juha; Nurmi, Martti; Laato, Matti; Peltonen, Juha

    1999-01-01

    The NF1 gene product (neurofibromin) is known to act as a tumor suppressor protein by inactivating ras. The best documented factors involved in urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) are ras proto-oncogene activation and p53 suppressor gene mutations. This is the first study reporting alterations in NF1 gene expression in TCC. We examined NF1 gene expression in a total of 29 surgical urinary bladder TCC specimens representing grades 1 to 3 and in three cell lines, RT4, 5637, and T2...

  9. Down-regulation of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors inhibits proliferation, clonogenicity and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Gurbuz

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is characterized by extensive local tumor invasion, metastasis and early systemic dissemination. The vast majority of pancreatic cancer (PaCa patients already have metastatic complications at the time of diagnosis, and the death rate of this lethal type of cancer has increased over the past decades. Thus, efforts at identifying novel molecularly targeted therapies are priorities. Recent studies have suggested that serotonin (5-HT contributes to the tumor growth in a variety of cancers including prostate, colon, bladder and liver cancer. However, there is lack of evidence about the impact of 5-HT receptors on promoting pancreatic cancer. Having considered the role of 5-HT-1 receptors, especially 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D subtypes in different types of malignancies, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors in PaCa growth and progression and analyze their potential as cytotoxic targets. We found that knockdown of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors expression, using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA, induced significant inhibition of proliferation and clonogenicity of PaCa cells. Also, it significantly suppressed PaCa cells invasion and reduced the activity of uPAR/MMP-2 signaling and Integrin/Src/Fak-mediated signaling, as integral tumor cell pathways associated with invasion, migration, adhesion, and proliferation. Moreover, targeting 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors down-regulates zinc finger ZEB1 and Snail proteins, the hallmarks transcription factors regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, concomitantly with up-regulating of claudin-1 and E-Cadherin. In conclusion, our data suggests that 5-HT1B- and 5-HT1D- mediated signaling play an important role in the regulation of the proliferative and invasive phenotype of PaCa. It also highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting of 5-HT1B/1D receptors in the treatment of PaCa, and opens a new avenue for biomarkers identification

  10. Down-regulation of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors inhibits proliferation, clonogenicity and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Gurbuz

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is characterized by extensive local tumor invasion, metastasis and early systemic dissemination. The vast majority of pancreatic cancer (PaCa patients already have metastatic complications at the time of diagnosis, and the death rate of this lethal type of cancer has increased over the past decades. Thus, efforts at identifying novel molecularly targeted therapies are priorities. Recent studies have suggested that serotonin (5-HT contributes to the tumor growth in a variety of cancers including prostate, colon, bladder and liver cancer. However, there is lack of evidence about the impact of 5-HT receptors on promoting pancreatic cancer. Having considered the role of 5-HT-1 receptors, especially 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D subtypes in different types of malignancies, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors in PaCa growth and progression and analyze their potential as cytotoxic targets. We found that knockdown of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors expression, using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA, induced significant inhibition of proliferation and clonogenicity of PaCa cells. Also, it significantly suppressed PaCa cells invasion and reduced the activity of uPAR/MMP-2 signaling and Integrin/Src/Fak-mediated signaling, as integral tumor cell pathways associated with invasion, migration, adhesion, and proliferation. Moreover, targeting 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors down-regulates zinc finger ZEB1 and Snail proteins, the hallmarks transcription factors regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, concomitantly with up-regulating of claudin-1 and E-Cadherin. In conclusion, our data suggests that 5-HT1B- and 5-HT1D-mediated signaling play an important role in the regulation of the proliferative and invasive phenotype of PaCa. It also highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting of 5-HT1B/1D receptors in the treatment of PaCa, and opens a new avenue for biomarkers identification

  11. Down-regulation of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors inhibits proliferation, clonogenicity and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Nilgun; Ashour, Ahmed A; Alpay, S Neslihan; Ozpolat, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is characterized by extensive local tumor invasion, metastasis and early systemic dissemination. The vast majority of pancreatic cancer (PaCa) patients already have metastatic complications at the time of diagnosis, and the death rate of this lethal type of cancer has increased over the past decades. Thus, efforts at identifying novel molecularly targeted therapies are priorities. Recent studies have suggested that serotonin (5-HT) contributes to the tumor growth in a variety of cancers including prostate, colon, bladder and liver cancer. However, there is lack of evidence about the impact of 5-HT receptors on promoting pancreatic cancer. Having considered the role of 5-HT-1 receptors, especially 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D subtypes in different types of malignancies, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors in PaCa growth and progression and analyze their potential as cytotoxic targets. We found that knockdown of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors expression, using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), induced significant inhibition of proliferation and clonogenicity of PaCa cells. Also, it significantly suppressed PaCa cells invasion and reduced the activity of uPAR/MMP-2 signaling and Integrin/Src/Fak-mediated signaling, as integral tumor cell pathways associated with invasion, migration, adhesion, and proliferation. Moreover, targeting 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors down-regulates zinc finger ZEB1 and Snail proteins, the hallmarks transcription factors regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), concomitantly with up-regulating of claudin-1 and E-Cadherin. In conclusion, our data suggests that 5-HT1B- and 5-HT1D- mediated signaling play an important role in the regulation of the proliferative and invasive phenotype of PaCa. It also highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting of 5-HT1B/1D receptors in the treatment of PaCa, and opens a new avenue for biomarkers identification, and valuable new

  12. Renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. ... cancer; Kidney cancer; Hypernephroma; Adenocarcinoma of renal cells; Cancer - kidney

  13. Quinacrine induces apoptosis in human leukemia K562 cells via p38 MAPK-elicited BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changchien, Jung-Jung; Chen, Ying-Jung; Huang, Chia-Hui [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tian-Lu [Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shinne-Ren [Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, Long-Sen, E-mail: lschang@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-01

    Although previous studies have revealed the anti-cancer activity of quinacrine, its effect on leukemia is not clearly resolved. We sought to explore the cytotoxic effect and mechanism of quinacrine action in human leukemia K562 cells. Quinacrine induced K562 cell apoptosis accompanied with ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, and down-regulation of BCL2L1 and BCL2. Upon exposure to quinacrine, ROS-mediated p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation were observed in K562 cells. Quinacrine-induced cell death and mitochondrial depolarization were suppressed by the p38MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and constitutively active MEK1 over-expression. Activation of p38 MAPK was shown to promote BCL2 degradation. Further, ERK inactivation suppressed c-Jun-mediated transcriptional expression of BCL2L1. Over-expression of BCL2L1 and BCL2 attenuated quinacrine-evoked mitochondrial depolarization and rescued the viability of quinacrine-treated cells. Taken together, our data indicate that quinacrine-induced K562 cell apoptosis is mediated through mitochondrial alterations triggered by p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression. - Highlights: • Quinacrine induces K562 cell apoptosis via down-regulation of BCL2 and BCL2L1. • Quinacrine induces p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation in K562 cells. • Quinacrine elicits p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation. • Quinacrine suppresses ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression.

  14. Quinacrine induces apoptosis in human leukemia K562 cells via p38 MAPK-elicited BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although previous studies have revealed the anti-cancer activity of quinacrine, its effect on leukemia is not clearly resolved. We sought to explore the cytotoxic effect and mechanism of quinacrine action in human leukemia K562 cells. Quinacrine induced K562 cell apoptosis accompanied with ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, and down-regulation of BCL2L1 and BCL2. Upon exposure to quinacrine, ROS-mediated p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation were observed in K562 cells. Quinacrine-induced cell death and mitochondrial depolarization were suppressed by the p38MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and constitutively active MEK1 over-expression. Activation of p38 MAPK was shown to promote BCL2 degradation. Further, ERK inactivation suppressed c-Jun-mediated transcriptional expression of BCL2L1. Over-expression of BCL2L1 and BCL2 attenuated quinacrine-evoked mitochondrial depolarization and rescued the viability of quinacrine-treated cells. Taken together, our data indicate that quinacrine-induced K562 cell apoptosis is mediated through mitochondrial alterations triggered by p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression. - Highlights: • Quinacrine induces K562 cell apoptosis via down-regulation of BCL2 and BCL2L1. • Quinacrine induces p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation in K562 cells. • Quinacrine elicits p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation. • Quinacrine suppresses ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression

  15. Advanced glycation end products promote human aortic smooth muscle cell calcification in vitro via activating NF-κB and down-regulating IGF1R expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi WANG; Zhen-yu ZHANG; Xiao-qing CHEN; Xiang WANG; Heng CAO; Shao-wen LIU

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on calcification in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) in vitro and the underlying mechanisms.Methods:AGEs were artificially prepared.Calcification of HASMCs was induced by adding inorganic phosphate (Pi,2 mmol/L) in the media,and observed with Alizarin red staining.The calcium content in the supernatant was measured using QuantiChrome Calcium Assay Kit.Expression of the related mRNAs and proteins was analyzed using real-time PCR and Western blot,respectively.Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to detect the binding of NF-κB to the putative IGF1R promoter.Results:AGEs (100 μg/mL) significantly enhanced Pi-induced calcification and the levels of osteocalcin and Cbfα1 in HASMCs.Furthermore,the treatment decreased the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R).Over-expression of IGF1R in HASMCs suppressed the AGEs-induced increase in calcium deposition.When IGF1R expression was knocked down in HASMCs,AGEs did not enhance the calcium deposition.Meanwhile,AGEs time-dependently decreased the amounts of IκBα and Flag-tagged p65 in the cytoplasmic extracts,and increased the amount of nuclear p65 in HASMCs.In the presence of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC (50 μmol/L),the AGEs-induced increase in calcium deposition was blocked.Over-expression of p65 significantly enhanced Pi-induced mineralization,but suppressed IGF1R mRNA level.Knockdown of p65 suppressed the AGEs-induced increase in calcium deposition,and rescued the IGF1R expression.The ChIP analysis revealed that NF-κB bound the putative IGF1R promoter at position-230 to-219 bp.The inhibition of IGF1R by NF-κB was abolished when IGF1R reporter plasmid contained mutated binding sequence for NF-κB or an NF-κB reporter vector.Conclusion:The results demonstrate that AGEs promote calcification of human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro via activation of NF-κB and down-regulation of IGF1R expression.

  16. Protein kinase C-alpha but not protein kinase C-epsilon is differentially down-regulated by bryostatin 1 and tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, A; Lintunen, M; Heikkilä, J

    1993-03-15

    SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells can be induced to differentiate by phorbol esters but not by bryostatins although both agents increase protein kinase C (PKC) activity in these cells to a similar extent. We examined whether this difference could be explained by differences in the responses of specific PKC isoenzymes. Both TPA and bryostatin 1 at 10 nM induced a rapid increase in membrane-associated PKC-alpha immunoreactivity which was sustained for 72 hours in TPA-treated cells, but was down-regulated within 24 hours in bryostatin-treated cells. TPA likewise induced a sustained phosphorylation of an 80 kDa PKC substrate whereas in bryostatin-treated cells the 80 kDa substrate was rapidly phosphorylated reaching a maximum at 6 hours followed by a decline to basal level within 48 hours. A higher concentration of TPA (300 nM), which results in a less differentiated phenotype, induced down-regulation of PKC-alpha within 24 hours. In contrast, both TPA and bryostatin 1 stimulated translocation and a partial down-regulation of PKC-epsilon with similar kinetics. These results suggest that the divergent actions of bryostatin 1 and TPA in SH-SY5Y cells are at least partially due to differential modulation of PKC-alpha but not PKC-epsilon by these two agents. PMID:8461005

  17. Hypoxia in Tumor Angiogenesis and Metastasis: Evaluation of VEGF and MMP Over-expression and Down-Regulation of HIF-1alpha with RNAi in Hypoxic Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shruti

    Background: As tumor mass grows beyond a few millimeters in diameter, the angiogenic "switch" is turned on leading to recruitment of blood vessels from surrounding artery and veins. However, the tumor mass is poorly perfused and there are pockets of hypoxia or lower oxygen concentrations relative to normal tissue. Hypoxia-inducing factor-1a (HIF-1a), a transcription factor, is activated when the oxygen concentration is low. Upon activation of HIF-1a, a number of other genes also turn on that allows the tumor to become more aggressive and resistant to therapy. Purpose: The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of hypoxia-induced HIF-1a followed by over-expression of angiogenic and metastatic markers in tumor cells and down-regulation of HIF-1a using nanoparticle-delivered RNA interference therapy. Methods: Human ovarian (SKOV3) and breast (MDA-MB-231) adenocarcinoma cells were incubated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Following hypoxia treatment of the cells, HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 expression was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. For intracellular delivery of HIF-1a gene silencing small interfering RNA (siRNA), type B gelatin nanoparticles were fabricated using the solvent displacement method and the surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mol. wt. 2kDa). Cellular uptake and distribution of the nanoparticles was observed with Cy3-siRNA loaded, FITC-conjugated gelatin nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle formulations was evaluated in both the cell lines. siRNA was transfected in the gelatin nanoparticles under hypoxic conditions. Total cellular protein and RNA were extracted for analysis of HIF1a, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Results: MDA-MB-231 and SKOV3 cells show increased expression of HIF1a under hypoxic conditions compared to baseline levels at normoxic conditions. ELISA and western blots of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 appear to

  18. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kafil Akhtar; Ahmad Shamshad; Zaheer Sufian; Mansoor Tariq

    2011-01-01

    Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (SRCC) is an aggressive tumor variant thought to arise predominantly from differentiation of clear cell carcinoma. A few reports of SRCC asso-ciated with non-clear cell tumors led to the presumption that SRCC may arise from any renal cell carcinoma, although direct evidence of this is lacking. We report a case of a 70-year-old male patient, who presented with acute left upper quadrant abdominal pain and was diagnosed to have SRCC after pathological examination...

  19. Wnt-activation down-regulates Olfactomedin-1 (Olfm-1) in Fallopian tubal Epithelial cells: A Microenvironment Predisposed to Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kodithuwakku, Suranga P; Pang, Ronald T. K.; Ernest H Y Ng; Cheung, Annie N. Y.; Horne, Andrew W.; Ho, Pak-Chung; Yeung, William S. B.; Lee, Kai-Fai

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy occurs when the embryo failed to transits to the uterus and attached to the luminal epithelium of Fallopian tube. Tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a common gynecological emergency and more than 95% of EP occurs in the ampullary region of the Fallopian tube (FT). In humans, Wnt-activation and down-regulation of Olfactomedin-1 (Olfm-1) occur in the receptive endometrium and coincided with embryo implantation in vivo. Whether similar molecular changes happen in the Fallopian tub...

  20. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Nasser; Nilton Nasser Filho; Bruno Trauczynski Neto; Lissandra Melati da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no s...

  1. [The expression and significance of hnRNPD in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yangyang; Zhang, Lulu; Xu, Miaomiao; Sheng, Wenjiong; Dong, Aijing; Cao, Jinming; Cao, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D (hnRNPD) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and the relationship between hnRNPD expression and the clinicopathological features of ESCC, and to study the effect of down-regulated hnRNPD on the proliferation of ESCC cells and explore its potential mechanism. Methods The expression of hnRNPD protein in ESCC tissues and the normal paracancerous tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. The siRNA-hnRNPD was transfected into ESCC cells and the silence effect was verified by Western blotting. MTT assay and clone formation assay were used to evaluate the proliferation of ESCC cells after down-regulation of hnRNPD genes. Cell apoptosis was examined by annexin V-phycoerythrin/7-aminoactinomycin D (annexin V-PE/7-AAD) staining and flow cytometry. Results The expression of hnRNPD protein in ESCC tissues was significantly higher than that of the normal paracancerous tissues, and the expression was closely related with neoplasm staging. Down-regulation of hnRNPD inhibited the proliferation and clonality of ESCC cells. Compared with the control group, siRNA targeting hnRNPD significantly promoted cell apoptosis. Conclusion Down-regulation of hnRNPD inhibits the proliferation of ESCC cells by promoting cell apoptosis. PMID:26648300

  2. Propofol attenuates LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and nitric oxide expression in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells possibly through down-regulation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Zengyang; WANG, Jinqiu

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of mortality in intensive care medicine. Propofol, an intravenous general anesthetic, has been suggested to have anti-inflammatory properties and able to prevent sepsis induced by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by down-regulating the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, propofol’s anti-inflammatory effects upon canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have not yet been clarified. Here, we isolate canine PBMCs and investigate the ef...

  3. Control of insulin receptor level in 3T3 cells: effect of insulin-induced down-regulation and dexamethasone-induced up-regulation on rate of receptor inactivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Knutson, V P; Ronnett, G V; Lane, M D

    1982-01-01

    Chronic exposure of 3T3 mouse fibroblasts to insulin or to the glucocorticoid dexamethasone induces down-regulation and up-regulation, respectively, of cell-surface and total cellular insulin binding capacity. Both processes are reversed upon withdrawal of the inducer. Scatchard analysis of insulin binding for receptors in the down- and up-regulated states indicates that the changes in binding capacity result primarily from alterations in insulin receptor level. That these alterations in tota...

  4. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Year Award Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in Medicine Award Diversity Mentorship Program Eugene Van ... 300 PUVA treatments. What causes Merkel cell carcinoma? Scientists are still studying what causes this skin cancer. ...

  5. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  6. Inhibition of H3K9me2 Reduces Hair Cell Regeneration after Hair Cell Loss in the Zebrafish Lateral Line by Down-Regulating the Wnt and Fgf Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei eTang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The activation of neuromast supporting cell (SC proliferation leads to hair cell (HC regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. Epigenetic mechanisms have been reported that regulate HC regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line, but the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration after HC loss remains poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration following neomycin-induced HC loss. To investigate the effects of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration, we took advantage of the G9a/GLP-specific inhibitor BIX01294 that significantly reduces the dimethylation of H3K9. We found that BIX01294 significantly reduced HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss in the zebrafish lateral line. BIX01294 also significantly reduced the proliferation of neuromast cells and led to fewer SCs in the lateral line. In situ hybridization showed that BIX01294 significantly down-regulated the Wnt and Fgf signaling pathways, which resulted in reduced SC proliferation and HC regeneration in the neuromasts of the lateral line. Altogether, our results suggest that down-regulation of H3K9me2 significantly decreases HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss through inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf signaling pathways. Thus H3K9me2 plays a critical role in HC regeneration.

  7. A novel neuron-enriched protein SDIM1 is down regulated in Alzheimer's brains and attenuates cell death induced by DNAJB4 over-expression in neuro-progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Joy X

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular changes in multiple biological processes contribute to the development of chronic neurodegeneration such as late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD. To discover how these changes are reflected at the level of gene expression, we used a subtractive transcription-based amplification of mRNA procedure to identify novel genes that have altered expression levels in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD patients. Among the genes altered in expression level in AD brains was a transcript encoding a novel protein, SDIM1, that contains 146 amino acids, including a typical signal peptide and two transmembrane domains. Here we examined its biochemical properties and putative roles in neuroprotection/neurodegeneration. Results QRT-PCR analysis of additional AD and control post-mortem human brains showed that the SDIM1 transcript was indeed significantly down regulated in all AD brains. SDIM1 is more abundant in NT2 neurons than astrocytes and present throughout the cytoplasm and neural processes, but not in the nuclei. In NT2 neurons, it is highly responsive to stress conditions mimicking insults that may cause neurodegeneration in AD brains. For example, SDIM1 was significantly down regulated 2 h after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, though had recovered 16 h later, and also appeared significantly up regulated compared to untreated NT2 neurons. Overexpression of SDIM1 in neuro-progenitor cells improved cells' ability to survive after injurious insults and its downregulation accelerated cell death induced by OGD. Yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation approaches revealed, both in vitro and in vivo, an interaction between SDIM1 and DNAJB4, a heat shock protein hsp40 homolog, recently known as an enhancer of apoptosis that also interacts with the mu opioid receptor in human brain. Overexpression of DNAJB4 alone significantly reduced cell viability and SDIM1 co-overexpression was capable of attenuating the cell death

  8. TRAIL sensitize MDR cells to MDR-related drugs by down-regulation of P-glycoprotein through inhibition of DNA-PKcs/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and activation of caspases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong-Wan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of new modulator possessing high efficacy, low toxicity and high selectivity is a pivotal approach to overcome P-glycoprotein (P-gp mediated multidrug resistance (MDR in cancer treatment. In this study, we suggest a new molecular mechanism that TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand down-regulates P-glycoprotein (P-gp through inhibition of DNA-PKcs/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and activation of caspases and thereby sensitize MDR cells to MDR-related drugs. Results MDR variants, CEM/VLB10-2, CEM/VLB55-8 and CEM/VLB100 cells, with gradually increased levels of P-gp derived from human lymphoblastic leukemia CEM cells, were gradually more susceptible to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity than parental CEM cells. The P-gp level of MDR variants was positively correlated with the levels of DNA-PKcs, pAkt, pGSK-3β and c-Myc as well as DR5 and negatively correlated with the level of c-FLIPs. Hypersensitivity of CEM/VLB100 cells to TRAIL was accompanied by the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway as well as the activation of initiator caspases. In addition, TRAIL-induced down-regulation of DNA-PKcs/Akt/GSK-3β pathway and c-FLIP and up-regulation of cell surface expression of death receptors were associated with the increased susceptibility to TRAIL of MDR cells. Moreover, TRAIL inhibited P-gp efflux function via caspase-3-dependent degradation of P-gp as well as DNA-PKcs and subsequently sensitized MDR cells to MDR-related drugs such as vinblastine and doxorubicin. We also found that suppression of DNA-PKcs by siRNA enhanced the susceptibility of MDR cells to vincristine as well as TRAIL via down-regulation of c-FLIP and P-gp expression and up-regulation of DR5. Conclusion This study showed for the first time that the MDR variant of CEM cells was hypersensitive to TRAIL due to up-regulation of DR5 and concomitant down-regulation of c-FLIP, and degradation of P-gp and DNA-PKcs by

  9. Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaf Extract Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion via Down-Regulation of Akt/NF-κB/MMP-9 Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Tang; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Chou, Fen-Pi; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf has been previously shown to possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects, and induce tumor cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anticancer activity of H. sabdariffa leaf extract (HLE) are poorly understood. The object of the study was to examine the anti-invasive potential of HLE. First, HLE was demonstrated to be rich in polyphenols. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that HLE dose-dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of human prostate cancer LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate) cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Our results further showed that HLE exerted an inhibitory effect on the activity and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The HLE-inhibited MMP-9 expression appeared to be a consequence of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) inactivation because its DNA-binding activity was suppressed by HLE. Molecular data showed all these influences of HLE might be mediated via inhibition of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt)/NF-κB/MMP-9 cascade pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of Akt1 overexpression vector. Finally, the inhibitory effect of HLE was proven by its inhibition on the growth of LNCaP cells and the expressions of metastasis-related molecular proteins in vivo. These findings suggested that the inhibition of MMP-9 expression by HLE may act through the suppression of the Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway, which in turn led to the reduced invasiveness of the cancer cells. PMID:26115086

  10. Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaf Extract Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion via Down-Regulation of Akt/NF-kB/MMP-9 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Tang; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Chou, Fen-Pi; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

    2015-07-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf has been previously shown to possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects, and induce tumor cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anticancer activity of H. sabdariffa leaf extract (HLE) are poorly understood. The object of the study was to examine the anti-invasive potential of HLE. First, HLE was demonstrated to be rich in polyphenols. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that HLE dose-dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of human prostate cancer LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate) cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Our results further showed that HLE exerted an inhibitory effect on the activity and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The HLE-inhibited MMP-9 expression appeared to be a consequence of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) inactivation because its DNA-binding activity was suppressed by HLE. Molecular data showed all these influences of HLE might be mediated via inhibition of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt)/NF-kB/MMP-9 cascade pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of Akt1 overexpression vector. Finally, the inhibitory effect of HLE was proven by its inhibition on the growth of LNCaP cells and the expressions of metastasis-related molecular proteins in vivo. These findings suggested that the inhibition of MMP-9 expression by HLE may act through the suppression of the Akt/NF-kB signaling pathway, which in turn led to the reduced invasiveness of the cancer cells. PMID:26115086

  11. Retraction: "Down-regulation of Notch-1 is associated with Akt and FoxM1 in inducing cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells" by Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The above article, published online on July 23, 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the first author and the corresponding author that found Figures 1B and 3A to be inappropriately manipulated. REFERENCE Wang Z, Li Y, Ahmad A, Banerjee S, Azmi AS, Kong D, Wojewoda C, Miele L, Sarkar FH. 2011. Down-regulation of Notch-1 is associated with Akt and FoxM1 in inducing cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. J Cell Biochem 112:78-88; doi: 10.1002/jcb.22770. PMID:27301889

  12. Retraction: "Down-regulation of uPA and uPAR by 3,3'-diindolylmethane contributes to the inhibition of cell growth and migration of breast cancer cells" by Ahmad et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The above article, published online on August 19, 2009 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the third author and the corresponding author that found Figure 5C to be inappropriately re-used and re-labeled. REFERENCE Ahmad A, Kong D, Wang Z, Sarkar SH, Banerjee S, Sarkar FH. 2009. Down-regulation of uPA and uPAR by 3,3'-diindolylmethane contributes to the inhibition of cell growth and migration of breast cancer cells. J Cell Biochem 108:916-925; doi: 10.1002/jcb.22323. PMID:27301886

  13. Anti-CD40 Ab- or 8-oxo-dG-enhanced Treg cells reduce development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via down-regulating migration and activation of mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gwan Ui; Kim, Nam Goo; Jeoung, Dooil; Ro, Jai Youl

    2013-07-15

    This study investigated whether anti-CD40 Ab and 8-oxo-dG attenuate mast cell migration and EAE development. Anti-CD40 Ab and 8-oxo-dG reduced EAE scores, mast cell numbers, expression of adhesion molecules, OX40L and Act1, levels of TNF-α, LTs, expression of cytokines, and co-localization of Treg cells and mast cells, all of which are increased in EAE-brain tissues. Each treatment enhanced Treg cells, expression of OX40, and cytokines related to suppressive function of Treg cells in EAE brain tissues. Act-BMMCs with Treg cells reduced expression of OX40L and CCL2/CCR2, VCAM-1, PECAM-1, [Ca²⁺]i levels, release of mediators, various signaling molecules, Act1 related to IL-17a signals versus those in act-BMMCs without Treg cells. The data suggest that IL-10- and IL-35-producing Foxp3⁺-Treg cells, enhanced by anti-CD40 Ab or 8-oxo-dG, suppress migration of mast cells through down-regulating the expression of adhesion molecules, and suppress mast cell activation through cell-to-cell cross-talk via OX40/OX40L in EAE development. PMID:23622820

  14. Down-regulation of the Fetal Stem Cell Factor SOX17 by H33342: A MECHANISM RESPONSIBLE FOR DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION IN BREAST CANCER SIDE POPULATION CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Christgen, Matthias; Geffers, Robert; Ballmaier, Matthias; Christgen, Henriette; Poczkaj, Janette; Krech, Till; Kreipe, Hans; Lehmann, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Human solid tumors contain rare cancer side population (SP) cells, which expel the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342 (H33342) and display cancer stem cell characteristics. Transcriptional profiling of cancer SP cells isolated by H33342 fluorescence analysis is a newly emerging approach to discover cancer stem cell markers and aberrant differentiation pathways. Using Affymetrix expression microarrays and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we investigated differential gene expression between S...

  15. Antigen-specific down-regulation of myelin basic protein-reactive T cells during spontaneous recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: further evidence of apoptotic deletion of autoreactive T cells in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabi, Z; McCombe, P A; Pender, M P

    1995-06-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in Lewis rats by the i.v. injection of 10(7) cloned V beta 8.2+ T cells specific for the 72-89 peptide of guinea pig myelin basic protein (MBP). Some animals were injected simultaneously with 10(7) cloned T cells specific for ovalbumin (OVA). Lymphocytes were isolated from the spinal cord and from the peripheral lymphoid organs of these rats and the frequencies of MBP-peptide-specific or OVA-specific proliferating cells were estimated by limiting dilution analysis at different times after cell transfer. The frequencies of cells specific for MBP72-89 or OVA in the spinal cord were highest 5 days after cell transfer (MBP72-89, 1 in 1149; OVA, 1 in 1116). On day 7, when the rats were recovering, the frequency of cells specific for MBP72-89 in the spinal cord fell dramatically to < 1 in 10(5), while that of OVA-specific cells decreased to a much lesser extent (1 in 7001). The frequencies of MBP72-89-specific cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs during and after recovery were also much lower than those of OVA-specific cells. A similar pattern of down-regulation of the MBP-peptide-specific, but not the OVA-specific, T cell response was observed in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of rats 38 days after the active induction of EAE by immunization with equal amounts of MBP and OVA in adjuvants. In the passively transferred model, cells isolated from the spinal cord and MLN on day 7 did not regain responsiveness to MBP72-89 after incubation with high levels of IL-2, indicating that the unresponsiveness was not due to T cell anergy. Thus this study demonstrates that there is a specific down-regulation of the MBP72-89-specific T cell response during spontaneous recovery from EAE.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7577805

  16. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Down-Regulate L-Selectin Expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells1

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Erica M.; Clements, Virginia K.; Sinha, Pratima; Ilkovitch, Dan; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Effective cell-mediated antitumor immunity requires the activation of tumor-reactive T cells and the trafficking of activated T cells to tumor sites. These processes involve the extravasation of lymphocytes from the blood and lymphatics, and their homing to lymph nodes and tumors. L-selectin (CD62L) is an important molecule in these processes. It directs naive lymphocytes to peripheral lymph nodes where they become activated and it traffics naive lymphocytes to inflammatory environments, such...

  17. MicroRNA-155 Modulates the Pathogen Binding Ability of Dendritic Cells (DCs) by Down-regulation of DC-specific Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-3 Grabbing Non-integrin (DC-SIGN)*

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Nunez, Rocio T.; Louafi, Fethi; Friedmann, Peter S.; Sanchez-Elsner, Tilman

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) has been involved in the response to inflammation in macrophages and lymphocytes. Here we show how miR-155 participates in the maturation of human dendritic cells (DC) and modulates pathogen binding by down-regulating DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), after directly targeting the transcription factor PU.1. During the maturation of DCs, miR-155 increases up to 130-fold, whereas PU.1 protein levels decrease accordingly. We esta...

  18. CD4+ T-cell activation is differentially modulated by bacteria-primed dendritic cells, but is generally down-regulated by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Lund, Pia; Kjær, Tanja;

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate activation of CD4+ T cells is fundamental for efficient initiation and progression of acquired immune responses. Here, we showed that CD4+ T-cell activation is dependent on changes in membrane n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and is dynamically regulated by the type of signals ...

  19. Overexpressed CacyBP/SIP leads to the suppression of growth in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcyclin-binding protein/Siah-1-interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP), a target protein of S100, has been identified as a component of a novel ubiquitinylation complex leading to β-catenin degradation, which was found to be related to the malignant phenotypes of gastric cancer. However, the roles of CacyBP/SIP in renal cell carcinoma still remain unclear. In the present study, we had analyzed the expression of the CacyBP/SIP protein in human renal cancer cells and clinical tissue samples. The possible roles of CacyBP/SIP in regulating the malignant phenotype of renal cancer cells were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the expression of CacyBP/SIP was markedly down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma tissues and cell lines. Ectopic overexpression of CacyBP/SIP in A498 cells inhibited the proliferation of this cell and delayed cell cycle progression significantly, which might be related to the down-regulation of Cyclin D1 through reducing β-catenin protein. CacyBP/SIP also suppressed colony formation in soft agar and its tumorigenicity in nude mice. Taken together, our work showed that CacyBP/SIP, as a novel down-regulated gene in renal cell carcinoma, suppressed proliferation and tumorigenesis of renal cancer cells

  20. Suppression of c-Myc is involved in multi-walled carbon nanotubes' down-regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters in human colon adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a large family of integral membrane proteins that decrease cellular drug uptake and accumulation by active extrusion, is one of the major causes of cancer multi-drug resistance (MDR) that frequently leads to failure of chemotherapy. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based drug delivery devices hold great promise in enhancing the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. However, CNTs' effects on the ABC transporters remain under-investigated. In this study, we found that multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reduced transport activity and expression of ABC transporters including ABCB1/Pgp and ABCC4/MRP4 in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Proto-oncogene c-Myc, which directly regulates ABC gene expression, was concurrently decreased in MWCNT-treated cells and forced over-expression of c-Myc reversed MWCNTs' inhibitory effects on ABCB1 and ABCC4 expression. MWCNT-cell membrane interaction and cell membrane oxidative damage were observed. However, antioxidants such as vitamin C, β-mecaptoethanol and dimethylthiourea failed to antagonize MWCNTs' down-regulation of ABC transporters. These data suggest that MWCNTs may act on c-Myc, but not through oxidative stress, to down-regulate ABC transporter expression. Our findings thus shed light on CNTs' novel cellular effects that may be utilized to develop CNTs-based drug delivery devices to overcome ABC transporter-mediated cancer chemoresistance

  1. Suppression of c-Myc is involved in multi-walled carbon nanotubes' down-regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters in human colon adenocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaojing [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan (China); Xu, Yonghong [Institute of Ophthalmological Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 430060 Wuhan (China); Meng, Xiangning [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Watari, Fumio [Department of Biomedical, Dental Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Liu, Hudan, E-mail: hudanliu@hust.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan (China); Chen, Xiao, E-mail: mornsmile@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan (China)

    2015-01-01

    Over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a large family of integral membrane proteins that decrease cellular drug uptake and accumulation by active extrusion, is one of the major causes of cancer multi-drug resistance (MDR) that frequently leads to failure of chemotherapy. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based drug delivery devices hold great promise in enhancing the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. However, CNTs' effects on the ABC transporters remain under-investigated. In this study, we found that multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reduced transport activity and expression of ABC transporters including ABCB1/Pgp and ABCC4/MRP4 in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Proto-oncogene c-Myc, which directly regulates ABC gene expression, was concurrently decreased in MWCNT-treated cells and forced over-expression of c-Myc reversed MWCNTs' inhibitory effects on ABCB1 and ABCC4 expression. MWCNT-cell membrane interaction and cell membrane oxidative damage were observed. However, antioxidants such as vitamin C, β-mecaptoethanol and dimethylthiourea failed to antagonize MWCNTs' down-regulation of ABC transporters. These data suggest that MWCNTs may act on c-Myc, but not through oxidative stress, to down-regulate ABC transporter expression. Our findings thus shed light on CNTs' novel cellular effects that may be utilized to develop CNTs-based drug delivery devices to overcome ABC transporter-mediated cancer chemoresistance.

  2. REGγ is a strong candidate for the regulation of cell cycle, proliferation and the invasion by poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, M; Gan, L.; G.S. Ren

    2012-01-01

    REGγ is a proteasome activator that facilitates the degradation of small peptides. Abnormally high expression of REGγ has been observed in thyroid carcinomas. The purpose of the present study was to explore the role of REGγ in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). For this purpose, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was introduced to down-regulate the level of REGγ in the PDTC cell line SW579. Down-regulation of REGγ at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed b...

  3. Human TM9SF4 Is a New Gene Down-Regulated by Hypoxia and Involved in Cell Adhesion of Leukemic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Paolillo

    Full Text Available The transmembrane 9 superfamily protein member 4, TM9SF4, belongs to the TM9SF family of proteins highly conserved through evolution. TM9SF4 homologs, previously identified in many different species, were mainly involved in cellular adhesion, innate immunity and phagocytosis. In human, the function and biological significance of TM9SF4 are currently under investigation. However, TM9SF4 was found overexpressed in human metastatic melanoma and in a small subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AMLs and myelodysplastic syndromes, consistent with an oncogenic function of this gene.In this study, we first analyzed the expression and regulation of TM9SF4 in normal and leukemic cells and identified TM9SF4 as a gene highly expressed in human quiescent CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs, regulated during monocytic and granulocytic differentiation of HPCs, both lineages giving rise to mature myeloid cells involved in adhesion, phagocytosis and immunity. Then, we found that TM9SF4 is markedly overexpressed in leukemic cells and in AMLs, particularly in M2, M3 and M4 AMLs (i.e., in AMLs characterized by the presence of a more or less differentiated granulocytic progeny, as compared to normal CD34+ HPCs. Proliferation and differentiation of HPCs occurs in hypoxia, a physiological condition in bone marrow, but also a crucial component of cancer microenvironment. Here, we investigated the impact of hypoxia on TM9SF4 expression in leukemic cells and identified TM9SF4 as a direct target of HIF-1α, downregulated in these cells by hypoxia. Then, we found that the hypoxia-mediated downregulation of TM9SF4 expression is associated with a decrease of cell adhesion of leukemic cells to fibronectin, thus demonstrating that human TM9SF4 is a new molecule involved in leukemic cell adhesion.Altogether, our study reports for the first time the expression of TM9SF4 at the level of normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells and its marked expression at the level of AMLs

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... cell carcinoma public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  5. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... cell carcinoma public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  6. Reduction in cholesterol absorption in Caco-2 cells through the down-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 by the putative probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 from fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong-Sup; Ju, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Han-Nah; Park, Hyun-Joon; Ji, Yosep; Lee, Ji-Eun; Shin, Hyeun-Kil; Do, Myoung-Sool; Holzapfel, Wilhelm

    2013-02-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is a major risk factor related to atherosclerosis, and it may be influenced by our diet. This study addresses the impact of Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 (isolated from Maasai fermented milk) and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 (from Korean kimchi) on the control of cholesterol absorption through down-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) expression. Caco-2 enterocytes were treated with the live, heat-killed (HK) bacteria, bacterial cell wall extracts and metabolites; mRNA level and protein expression were measured. Caco-2 cells showed lower NPC1L1 expression in the presence of the live test strains than the control, elucidating down-regulation of cholesterol uptake, and were compared well with the positive control, L. rhamnosus GG. This effect was also observed with HK bacteria and cell wall fractions but not with their metabolites. The potential of some Lactobacillus strains associated with traditional fermented foods to suppress cholesterol uptake and promote its efflux in enterocytes has been suggested from these data. PMID:22816655

  7. Oncogenic micro-RNAs and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eGrange

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tumor formation is a complex process that occurs in different steps and involves many cell types, including tumor cells, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells, which interact to promote growth of the tumor mass and metastasization. Epigenetic alterations occurring in transformed cells result in de-regulation of miRNA expression (a class of small non-coding RNA that regulates multiple functions which contributes to tumorigenesis. The specific miRNAs, which have an aberrant expression in tumors, are defined as oncomiRNAs, and may be either over- or under-expressed, but down-regulation is most commonly observed.Renal cell carcinoma is a frequent form of urologic tumor, associated with an alteration of multiple signaling pathways. Many molecules involved in the progression of renal cell carcinomas, such as HIF, VEGF or mTOR, are possible targets of deregulated miRNAs. Within tumor mass, the cancer stem cell population is a fundamental component that promotes tumor growth. The cancer stem cell hypothesis postulates that cancer stem cells have the unique ability to self-renew and to maintain tumor growth and metastasis. Cancer stem cells present in renal cell carcinoma were shown to express the mesenchymal stem cell marker CD105 and to exhibit self-renewal and clonogenic properties, as well as the ability to generate serially transplantable tumors. The phenotype of cancer stem cell has been related to the potential to undergo the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which has been linked to the expression pattern of tumorigenic miRNAs or down-regulation of anti-tumor miRNAs. In addition, the pattern of circulating miRNAs may allow discrimination between healthy and tumor patients. Therefore, a miRNA signature may be used as a tumor biomarker for cancer diagnosis, as well as to classify the risk of relapse and metastasis, and for a guide for therapy.

  8. Human cytomegalovirus-encoded miR-US4-1 promotes cell apoptosis and benefits discharge of infectious virus particles via down-regulation of glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, QARS in HCMV-infected HELF cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yaozhong Shao; Ying Qi; Yujing Huang; Zhongyang Liu; Yanping Ma; Xin Guo; Shujuan Jiang; Zhengrong Sun; Qiang Ruan

    2016-06-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause congenital diseases and opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals. Its functional proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) facilitate efficient viral propagation by altering host cell behaviour. Identification of functional target genes of miRNAs is an important step in studies on HCMV pathogenesis. In this study, Glutaminyl-tRNA Synthetase (QARS), which could regulate signal transduction pathways for cellular apoptosis, was identified as a direct target of hcmv-miR-US4-1. Apoptosis assay revealed that as silence of QARS by ectopic expression of hcmv-miR-US4-1 and specific small interference RNA of QARS can promote cell apoptosis in HCMV-infected HELF cells. Moreover, viral growth curve assays showed that hcmv-miR-US4-1 benefits the discharge of infectious virus particles. However, silence of hcmv-miR-US4-1 by its specific inhibitor overturned these effects. These results imply that hcmv-miR-US4-1 might have the same effects during HCMV nature infection. In general, hcmv-miR-US4-1 may involve in promoting cell apoptosis and benefiting discharge of infectious virus particles via down-regulation of QARS in HCMV-infected HELF cells.

  9. The GATA1s isoform is normally down-regulated during terminal haematopoietic differentiation and over-expression leads to failure to repress MYB, CCND2 and SKI during erythroid differentiation of K562 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halsey Christina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although GATA1 is one of the most extensively studied haematopoietic transcription factors little is currently known about the physiological functions of its naturally occurring isoforms GATA1s and GATA1FL in humans—particularly whether the isoforms have distinct roles in different lineages and whether they have non-redundant roles in haematopoietic differentiation. As well as being of general interest to understanding of haematopoiesis, GATA1 isoform biology is important for children with Down syndrome associated acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia (DS-AMKL where GATA1FL mutations are an essential driver for disease pathogenesis. Methods Human primary cells and cell lines were analyzed using GATA1 isoform specific PCR. K562 cells expressing GATA1s or GATA1FL transgenes were used to model the effects of the two isoforms on in vitro haematopoietic differentiation. Results We found no evidence for lineage specific use of GATA1 isoforms; however GATA1s transcripts, but not GATA1FL transcripts, are down-regulated during in vitro induction of terminal megakaryocytic and erythroid differentiation in the cell line K562. In addition, transgenic K562-GATA1s and K562-GATA1FL cells have distinct gene expression profiles both in steady state and during terminal erythroid differentiation, with GATA1s expression characterised by lack of repression of MYB, CCND2 and SKI. Conclusions These findings support the theory that the GATA1s isoform plays a role in the maintenance of proliferative multipotent megakaryocyte-erythroid precursor cells and must be down-regulated prior to terminal differentiation. In addition our data suggest that SKI may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of children with DS-AMKL.

  10. Papillary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1976 and 1987, 395 patients with kidney tumors were studied with radiological techniques and sonography. In 37 cases (9.4%) histopathology diagnosed pure papillary renal cell carcinoma. Analyzing the radiographic patterns of these neoplasms, the authors observed constantly diminished vascularity (100%) frequent calcifications (35.1%) and necrotic areas (51.3%). Such X-ray features are not specific: nevertheless, their coexistence is strongly suggestive of papillary renal cell cancer. No consistent US pattern was found; however, necrotic areas were easily demonstrated in most cases. It must be stressed how patients with papillary carcinoma experienced a longer post-operative survival; it has not yet been established whether such favorable behavior is due to low biological aggressiveness or to earlier diagnosis

  11. Ipsilateral synchronous renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. W.; Kim, M. J.; Song, J H; Kim, J H; Kim, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The simultaneous occurrence of renal cell carcinoma(RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma(TCC) in the same kidney is unusual. We report a 53-year-old man with ipsilateral synchronous renal adenocarcinoma and renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma with severe hypercalcemia and a huge staghorn calculus in the opposite kidney. The patient was admitted to the hospital because of left flank pain and intermittent fever which he had had for 2 months. Computerized tomography revealed a huge stone in...

  12. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor Hernández Piñero; José Luis Rodríguez López; María de Lourdes Menéndez Villa

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagn...

  13. Clear Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Wang; Tracey Harbert; Jennifer Olivella; Daniel Olson; Sarma, Deba P; Stephanie Ortman

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Clear cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an uncommon and unusual variant of BCC, which is characterized by a variable component of clear cells. The pathogenesis of this histological variant and its clinical significance has not been clarified. Differentiation of this uncommon variant of BCC from other clear cell tumors is important for the treatment. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male presented with a 0.9 cm dome-shaped lesion on his upper chest. A shave biopsy revealed a der...

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis on radioresistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discover radioresistance-associated proteins by performing comparative proteomic analysis on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines. Methods: The total proteins were extracted from radioresistant human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R and its parental cell line CNE-2, respectively. These proteins were separated by high quality two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and then the 2-DE profiles were screened for differentially expressed protein spots by the Image Master 5.0 software. Those spots were identified by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Results: 32 significantly differentially expressed protein spots were screened in two different radiosensitivity cell lines and 11 proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry, among which 3 proteins were up-regulated in radioresistant human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R and the other 8 proteins were down-regulated. Conclusions: The differentially expressed proteins of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells with different radiosensitivity were mainly involved in apoptosis regulation, DNA damage and repair, cell cycle regulation, RNA transcription, cell signaling, cytoskeleton formation and radiation stress responses. (authors)

  15. Retraction: "Down-regulation of Notch-1 and Jagged-1 inhibits prostate cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, and induces apoptosis via inactivation of Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways" by Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The above article, published online on January 5, 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the first author and the corresponding author that found Figure 5A to be inappropriately manipulated. REFERENCE Wang Z, Li Y, Banerjee S, Kong D, Ahmad A, Nogueira V, Hay N, Sarkar FH. 2010. Down-regulation of Notch-1 and Jagged-1 inhibits prostate cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, and induces apoptosis via inactivation of Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways. J Cell Biochem 109:726-736; doi: 10.1002/jcb.22451. PMID:27301887

  16. Down-regulation of triose phosphate isomerase in Vineristine-resistant gastric cancer SGC7901 cell line identified by immobilized pH gradient two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mierosequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To exkplore new multidrug-resistance-related proteins in gastric SC7901 cells and clarify their mechanisms.Methods:Two-dimensional(2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradients(IPG) was applied to compare the differential expression of multidrug-resistance-related proteins in gastric cancer SGC7901 cells and Vineristine-resistant SGC7901 cells (SGC7901/VCR) induced by vincristine sulfate.The 2-D gels were silver-stained.Then,preparative 2-D PAGE was performed.The differential proteins of PVDF membranes were cxcised and identified by N-terminal microsequencing.The mRNA expressions of differential proteins were detected in SGC 7901 cells and SGC7901/VCR cells by RT-PCR.Results:Approximatedly 680 protein sports were resolved on each 2-D gel by silver staining.Most protein spots showed no difference in composition,shape or density.25 proteins differed in abundance (6 higher in SGC7901/VCR cells;19 higher in 7901 cells);5 proteins were unique to one kind of cell or the othe(3 in SGC7901/VRC cells,2 in 7901 cells).One drug-resistance-related protein,which was down-regulated in SGC7901/VCR cells,was identified as trisephosphate isomerase(TPI),a glycolytic pathway enzyme.Conclusions:the results suggest that these differential proteins including TPI may be related to the Vincristine-resistant mechanism in human gastric cancer SGC7901/VCR cell line.

  17. Is telomerase reactivation associated with the down-regulation of TGF β receptor-II expression in human breast cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Valene

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that synthesizes telomeres and plays an important role in chromosomal stability and cellular immortalisation. Telomerase activity is detectable in most human cancers but not in normal somatic cells. TGF beta (transforming growth factor beta is a member of a family of cytokines that are essential for cell survival and seems to be down-regulated in human cancer. Recent in vitro work using human breast cancer cell lines has suggested that TGF beta down-regulates the expression of hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase : the catalytic subunit of telomerase. We have therefore hypothesised that telomerase reactivation is associated with reduced immunohisto-chemical expression of TGF beta type II receptor (RII in human breast cancer. Methods TGF beta RII immunohistochemical expression was determined in 24 infiltrating breast carcinomas with known telomerase activity (17 telomerase-positive and 7 telomerase-negative. Immunohistochemical expression of TGF beta RII was determined by a breast pathologist who was blinded to telomerase data. Results TGF beta RII was detected in all lesions. The percentage of stained cells ranged from 1–100%. The difference in TGF beta RII expression between telomerase positive and negative tumours was not statistically significant (p = 1.0. Conclusion The results of this pilot study suggest that there is no significant association between telomerase reactivation and TGF-beta RII down-regulation in human breast cancer.

  18. MicroRNA-155 modulates the pathogen binding ability of dendritic cells (DCs) by down-regulation of DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Nunez, Rocio T; Louafi, Fethi; Friedmann, Peter S; Sanchez-Elsner, Tilman

    2009-06-12

    MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) has been involved in the response to inflammation in macrophages and lymphocytes. Here we show how miR-155 participates in the maturation of human dendritic cells (DC) and modulates pathogen binding by down-regulating DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), after directly targeting the transcription factor PU.1. During the maturation of DCs, miR-155 increases up to 130-fold, whereas PU.1 protein levels decrease accordingly. We establish that human PU.1 is a direct target for miR-155 and localize the target sequence for miR-155 in the 3'-untranslated region of PU.1. Also, overexpression of miR-155 in the THP1 monocytic cell line decreases PU.1 protein levels and DC-SIGN at both the mRNA and protein levels. We prove a link between the down-regulation of PU.1 and reduced transcriptional activity of the DC-SIGN promoter, which is likely to be the basis for its reduced mRNA expression, after miR-155 overexpression. Finally, we show that, by reducing DC-SIGN in the cellular membrane, miR-155 is involved in regulating pathogen binding as dendritic cells exhibited the lower binding capacity for fungi and HIV protein gp-120 when the levels of miR-155 were higher. Thus, our results suggest a mechanism by which miR-155 regulates proteins involved in the cellular immune response against pathogens that could have clinical implications in the way pathogens enter the human organism. PMID:19386588

  19. [Effect of down-regulating mll-af9 gene expression on proliferation of acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Liu, Ling-Bo; Bi, Lan; Wang, Li; Zhao, Ya-Jie; Zou, Ping

    2008-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the expression of mll-af9 oncogene and the proliferation of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. One group of siRNA was designed targeting mll-af9 mRNA and finally obtained by chemosynthesis. Then the obtained siRNA was transfected into cultured human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 by lipofectamine. Flow cytometry was used to detect siRNA transfection efficiency. The level of mll-af9 mRNA expression was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cell proliferation rate was assayed by MTT. The change of cell cycles and apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry. The results showed that the siRNA transfection efficiency was 69.1%+/-1.8%. The level of mll-af9 mRNA expression was significantly inhibited in siRNA-transfected cells as compared with the controls. mll-af9-targeted siRNA inhibited the proliferation of THP-1 cells and induced cell apoptosis effectively after transfection. The percentage of G0/G1 phase cells significantly increased in siRNA-transfected cells in comparion with the control cells, but the percentage of S phase cells significantly decreased. It is concluded that the mll-af9-targeted siRNA can effectively inhibit the proliferation of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. PMID:18426643

  20. Synergistic Effect of Subtoxic-dose Cisplatin and TRAIL to Mediate Apoptosis by Down-regulating Decoy Receptor 2 and Up-regulating Caspase-8, Caspase-9 and Bax Expression on NCI-H460 and A549 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL can selectively induce apoptosis in tumor cells, more than half of tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC exhibit TRAIL-resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether subtoxic-dose cisplatin and TRAIL could synergistically enhance apoptosis on NSCLC cells and investigate its underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods:NCI-H460 and A549 cells were treated with TRAIL alone, cisplatin alone or combination treatment in this study. The cytotoxicity was evaluated according to Sulforhodamine B assay, and apoptosis was examined using Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein levels of TRAIL receptors and apoptotic proteins including caspase-8, caspase-9, Bcl-2 and Bax were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results:Our results showed that NCI-H460 cells were sensitive to TRAIL, whereas A549 cells were resistant. However, subtoxic-dose cisplatin could enhance the both cells to TRAIL-mediated cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. The underlying mechanisms might be associated with the down-regulation of DcR2 and up-regulation of Caspase-8, Caspase-9 and Bax. Conclusion:Subtoxic-dose cisplatin could enhance both TRAIL- sensitive and TRAIL- resistant NSCLC cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. These findings motivated further studies to evaluate such a combinatory therapeutic strategy against NSCLC in the animal models.

  1. Pantethine Alters Lipid Composition and Cholesterol Content of Membrane Rafts, With Down-Regulation of CXCL12-Induced T Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijsel-Bonnello, Manuel; Acar, Niyazi; Molino, Yves; Bretillon, Lionel; Khrestchatisky, Michel; de Reggi, Max; Gharib, Bouchra

    2015-10-01

    Pantethine, a natural low-molecular-weight thiol, shows a broad activity in a large range of essential cellular pathways. It has been long known as a hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic agent. We have recently shown that it exerts a neuroprotective action in mouse models of cerebral malaria and Parkinson's disease through multiple mechanisms. In the present study, we looked at its effects on membrane lipid rafts that serve as platforms for molecules engaged in cell activity, therefore providing a target against inappropriate cell response leading to a chronic inflammation. We found that pantethine-treated cells showed a significant change in raft fatty acid composition and cholesterol content, with ultimate downregulation of cell adhesion, CXCL12-driven chemotaxis, and transendothelial migration of various T cell types, including human Jurkat cell line and circulating effector T cells. The mechanisms involved include the alteration of the following: (i) CXCL12 binding to its target cells; (ii) membrane dynamics of CXCR4 and CXCR7, the two CXCL12 receptors; and (iii) cell redox status, a crucial determinant in the regulation of the chemokine system. In addition, we considered the linker for activation of T cells molecule to show that pantethine effects were associated with the displacement from the rafts of the acylated signaling molecules which had their palmitoylation level reduced.. In conclusion, the results presented here, together with previously published findings, indicate that due to its pleiotropic action, pantethine can downregulate the multifaceted process leading to pathogenic T cell activation and migration. PMID:25728249

  2. Bipotential mouse embryonic liver (BMEL cells spontaneously express Pdx1 and Ngn3 but do not undergo further pancreatic differentiation upon Hes1 down-regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martignat Lionel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver-to-pancreas conversion offers new possibilities for β-cell engineering for type 1 diabetes therapy. Among conceivable sources of liver cells, we focused on BMEL cells. These untransformed mouse embryonic liver cells have been reproducibly isolated from different inbred mice strains and have the potential to differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes in vitro and in vivo. Findings Strikingly, we find here that adherent BMEL cells display functional similarities with multipotent pancreatic precursor cells, namely Pdx1 and Ngn3 expression, and further express Hnf6 in floating aggregate culture. Hes1, a direct repressor of Ngn3 and pancreatic endocrine commitment, is expressed in adherent BMEL cells and decreases with time in aggregate culture. However, Hes1 decrease fails to initiate activation of late-stage pancreatic endocrine transcription factors. Conclusion Here we report that BMEL cells present features of pancreatic endocrine progenitor cells. In the field of diabetes research, BMEL cells are of potential interest for the study of inductive signals critical for in vitro β-cell maturation in-liver-to-pancreas conversion.

  3. Down-regulation of Thanatos-associated protein 11 by BCR-ABL promotes CML cell proliferation through c-Myc expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Satoki; Yokota, Daisuke; Tan, Lin; Nagata, Yasuyuki; Takemura, Tomonari; Hirano, Isao; Shigeno, Kazuyuki; Shibata, Kiyoshi; Fujisawa, Shinya; Ohnishi, Kazunori

    2012-03-01

    Bcr-Abl activates various signaling pathways in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells. The proliferation of Bcr-Abl transformed cells is promoted by c-Myc through the activation of Akt, JAK2 and NF-κB. However, the mechanism by which c-Myc regulates CML cell proliferation is unclear. In our study, we investigated the role of Thanatos-associated protein 11 (THAP11), which inhibits c-Myc transcription, in CML cell lines and in hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from CML patients. The induction of THAP11 expression by Abl kinase inhibitors in CML cell lines and in CML-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells resulted in the suppression of c-Myc. In addition, over-expression of THAP11 inhibited CML cell proliferation. In colony forming cells derived from CML-aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)(hi) /CD34(+) cells, treatment with Abl kinase inhibitors and siRNA depletion of Bcr-Abl induced THAP11 expression and reduced c-Myc expression, resulting in inhibited colony formation. Moreover, overexpression of THAP11 significantly decreased the colony numbers, and also inhibited the expression of c-myc target genes such as Cyclin D1, ODC and induced the expression of p21(Cip1) . The depletion of THAP11 inhibited JAK2 or STAT5 inactivation-mediated c-Myc reduction in ALDH(hi) /CD34(+) CML cells. Thus, the induced THAP11 might be one of transcriptional regulators of c-Myc expression in CML cell. Therefore, the induction of THAP11 has a potential possibility as a target for the inhibition of CML cell proliferation. PMID:21400515

  4. Two distinct pathways exist for down-regulation of the TCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, J P; Christensen, M D; Dietrich, J;

    1998-01-01

    -induced TCR down-regulation is mediated by two distinct, independent mechanisms. Ligand-induced TCR down-regulation is dependent on the protein tyrosine kinases p56(lck) and p59(fyn) but independent of PKC and the CD3gamma leucine-based (L-based) internalization motif. In contrast, PKC-induced TCR down-regulation......TCR down-regulation plays an important role in modulating T cell responses both during T cell development and in mature T cells. Down-regulation of the TCR is induced by engagement of the TCR by specific ligands and/or by activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We report here that ligand- and PKC...

  5. DHA and EPA Down-regulate COX-2 Expression through Suppression of NF-κB Activity in LPS-treated Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soon Ae; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl; Baek, Jong Chul; Park, Ji Kwon; Shin, Jeong Kyu; Choi, Won Jun; Lee, Jong Hak; Paik, Won Young

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory processes of vascular endothelial cells play a key role in the development ofatherosclerosis. We determined the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on LPS-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to evaluate their cardioprotective potential. Cells were pretreated with DHA, EPA, or troglitazone prior to activation with LPS. Expression of COX-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-6 production, and NF-κB a...

  6. PI3K/Akt inhibition and down-regulation of BCRP re-sensitize MCF7 breast cancer cell line to mitoxantrone chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeili-Movahhed, Tahereh; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Barzegar, Elmira; Atashpour, Shekoufeh; Hossein Ghahremani, Mohammad; Nasser Ostad, Seyed; Madjd, Zahra; Azizi, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells is a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy. Overexpression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is one of the major causes of MDR. In addition, it has been shown that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway involves in drug resistance. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of novel approaches including siRNA directed against BCRP and targeted therapy against PI3K/Akt signaling pathway using LY294002 (LY) to re-sensitize breast cancer MCF7 cell line to mitoxantrone (MTX) chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Anticancer effects of MTX, siRNA, and LY alone and in combination were evaluated in MCF7 cells using MTT cytotoxicity assay and flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction. Results: MTT and apoptosis assays showed that both MTX and LY inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells. Results indicated that inhibition of BCRP by siRNA or PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by LY significantly increased sensitivity of MCF7 cells to antiproliferation and apoptosis induction of MTX. Furthermore, MTX showed G2/M arrest, whereas LY induced G0/G1 arrest in cell cycle distribution of MCF7 cells. Combination of siRNA or LY with MTX chemotherapy significantly increased accumulation of MCF7 cells in the G2/M phase of cell cycle. Conclusion: Combination of MTX chemotherapy with BCRP siRNA and PI3K/Akt inhibition can overcome MDR in breast cancer cells. This study furthermore suggests that novel therapeutic approaches are needed to enhance anticancer effects of available drugs in breast cancer. PMID:26124933

  7. Interferon-β induced microRNA-129-5p down-regulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 viral gene expression by targeting SP1 in cervical cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Zhang

    Full Text Available Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV can cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cancer. Down-regulation of E6 and E7 expression may be responsible for the positive clinical outcomes observed with IFN treatment, but the molecular basis has not been well determined. As miRNAs play an important role in HPV induced cervical carcinogenesis, we hypothesize that IFN-β can regulate the expressions of specific miRNAs in cervical cancer cells, and that these miRNAs can mediate E6 and E7 expression, thus modulate their oncogenic potential. In this study, we found that miR-129-5p to be a candidate IFN-β inducible miRNA. MiR-129-5p levels gradually decrease with the development of cervical intraepithelial lesions. Manipulation of miR-129-5p expression in Hela cells modulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 viral gene expression. Exogenous miR-129-5p inhibits cell proliferation in Hela cells, promotes apoptosis and blocks cell cycle progression in Hela cells. SP1 is a direct target of miR-129-5p in Hela cells. This study is the first report of a cellular miRNA with anti-HPV activity and provides new insights into regulatory mechanisms between the HPV and the IFN system in host cells at the miRNA level.

  8. Fenofibrate down-regulates the expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and AR target genes and induces oxidative stress in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hu; Zhu, Chen; Qin, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Tao, Tao [Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Li, Jie; Cheng, Gong; Li, Pu; Cao, Qiang; Meng, Xiaoxin; Ju, Xiaobing; Shao, Pengfei; Hua, Lixin [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Gu, Min, E-mail: medzhao1980@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Yin, Changjun, E-mail: drcjyin@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► Fenofibrate induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and apoptosis in LNCaP cells. ► Fenofibrate reduces the expressions of androgen receptor in LNCaP cells. ► Fenofibrate induces oxidative stress in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-androgen receptor-alpha agonist, is widely used in treating different forms of hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia. Recent reports have indicated that fenofibrate exerts anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. This study aims to investigate the effects of fenofibrate on the prostate cancer (PCa) cell line LNCaP. The effects of fenofibrate on LNCaP cells were evaluated by flow cytometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blot analysis, and dual-luciferase reporter assay. Fenofibrate induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and apoptosis in LNCaP cells, reduces the expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and AR target genes (prostate-specific antigen and TMPRSS2), and inhibits Akt phosphorylation. Fenofibrate can induce the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and decrease the activities of total anti-oxidant and superoxide dismutase in LNCaP cells. Fenofibrate exerts an anti-proliferative property by inhibiting the expression of AR and induces apoptosis by causing oxidative stress. Therefore, our data suggest fenofibrate may have beneficial effects in fenofibrate users by preventing prostate cancer growth through inhibition of androgen activation and expression.

  9. Fenofibrate down-regulates the expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and AR target genes and induces oxidative stress in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fenofibrate induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and apoptosis in LNCaP cells. ► Fenofibrate reduces the expressions of androgen receptor in LNCaP cells. ► Fenofibrate induces oxidative stress in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-androgen receptor-alpha agonist, is widely used in treating different forms of hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia. Recent reports have indicated that fenofibrate exerts anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. This study aims to investigate the effects of fenofibrate on the prostate cancer (PCa) cell line LNCaP. The effects of fenofibrate on LNCaP cells were evaluated by flow cytometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blot analysis, and dual-luciferase reporter assay. Fenofibrate induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and apoptosis in LNCaP cells, reduces the expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and AR target genes (prostate-specific antigen and TMPRSS2), and inhibits Akt phosphorylation. Fenofibrate can induce the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and decrease the activities of total anti-oxidant and superoxide dismutase in LNCaP cells. Fenofibrate exerts an anti-proliferative property by inhibiting the expression of AR and induces apoptosis by causing oxidative stress. Therefore, our data suggest fenofibrate may have beneficial effects in fenofibrate users by preventing prostate cancer growth through inhibition of androgen activation and expression

  10. CpG methyltransferase induced down-regulation of claudin-7,-8 and its effects on proliferation and apoptosis of human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the regulatory effect of CpG methyltransferase (M.SssI) on expression of claudin-7and claudin-8,promoting apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation of human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells.Methods HT-29 cells were treated with M.SssI (50 U/ml) for

  11. GRP78 knockdown enhances apoptosis via the down-regulation of oxidative stress and Akt pathway after epirubicin treatment in colon cancer DLD-1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Chang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78 is induced in the cancer microenvironment and can be considered as a novel predictor of responsiveness to chemotherapy in many cancers. In this study, we found that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 nuclear translocation were higher in GRP78 knockdown DLD-1 colon cancer cells compared with scrambled control cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Treatment with epirubicin in GRP78 knockdown DLD-1 cells enhanced apoptosis and was associated with decreased production of intracellular ROS. In addition, apoptosis was increased by the antioxidants propyl gallate (PG and dithiothreitol (DTT in epirubicin-treated scrambled control cells. Epirubicin-treated GRP78 knockdown cells resulted in more inactivated Akt pathway members, such as phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3β, as well as downstream targets of β-catenin expression. Knockdown of Nrf2 with small interfering RNA (siRNA increased apoptosis in epirubicin-treated GRP78 knockdown cells, which suggested that Nrf2 may be a primary defense mechanism in GRP78 knockdown cells. We also demonstrated that epirubicin-treated GRP78 knockdown cells could decrease survival pathway signaling through the redox activation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, which is a serine/threonine phosphatase that negatively regulates the Akt pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that epirubicin decreased the intracellular ROS in GRP78 knockdown cells, which decreased survival signaling through both the Akt pathway and the activation of PP2A. Together, these mechanisms contributed to the enhanced level of epirubicin-induced apoptosis that was observed in the GRP78 knockdown cells.

  12. Ganodermanontriol (GDNT) exerts its effect on growth and invasiveness of breast cancer cells through the down-regulation of CDC20 and uPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiahua; Jedinak, Andrej; Sliva, Daniel

    2011-11-18

    Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom that has been recognized by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Although some of the direct anticancer activities are attributed to the presence of triterpenes-ganoderic and lucidenic acids-the activity of other compounds remains elusive. Here we show that ganodermanontriol (GDNT), a Ganoderma alcohol, specifically suppressed proliferation (anchorage-dependent growth) and colony formation (anchorage-independent growth) of highly invasive human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. GDNT suppressed expression of the cell cycle regulatory protein CDC20, which is over-expressed in precancerous and breast cancer cells compared to normal mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, we found that CDC20 is over-expressed in tumors when compared to the tissue surrounding the tumor in specimens from breast cancer patients. GDNT also inhibited invasive behavior (cell adhesion, cell migration, and cell invasion) through the suppression of secretion of urokinase-plasminogen activator (uPA) and inhibited expression of uPA receptor. In conclusion, mushroom GDNT is a natural agent that has potential as a therapy for invasive breast cancers. PMID:22033405

  13. Nuclear factor kappaB-mediated down-regulation of adhesion molecules: possible mechanism for inhibitory activity of bigelovin against inflammatory monocytes adhesion to endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kung-Woo; Oh, Goo Taeg; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Koo, Uk; Lee, Sung-Jin; Mar, Woongchon

    2009-06-22

    The flowers of Inula britannica L. var. chinensis (Rupr.) Reg. (Compositae) are used in traditional medicine to treat asthma, chronic bronchitis, and acute pleurisy in China and Korea. However, the pharmacological actions of Inula britannica L. var. chinensis on endothelial cells and inflammatory monocytes are not clear. In this study, we investigated whether bigelovin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the flowers of Inula britannica L. var. chinensis, inhibits monocyte adhesion and adhesion molecule expression in brain endothelial cells. We measured tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-enhanced Raw264.7 monocyte binding to brain endothelial cells and the levels of cell adhesion molecules, including vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and endothelial-selectin (E-selectin) on the surface of brain endothelial cells. Bigelovin significantly inhibited these in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, bigelovin suppressed the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) promoter-driven luciferase activity, NF-kappaB activation, and degradation of NF-kappaB inhibitor protein alpha (IkappaBalpha). These results indicate that bigelovin inhibits inflammatory monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and the expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin by blocking IkappaBalpha degradation and NF-kappaB activation. PMID:19429369

  14. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Hernández Piñero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagnosed belatedly. Partial amputation of the penis was considered to be performed, but there was no consent on behalf of his family. The patient’s general condition was getting worse until he died.

  15. Perfluorooctanoate suppresses spheroid attachment on endometrial epithelial cells through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and down-regulation of Wnt signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, CK; Tsang, H.; Cheung, TY; Kodithuwakku, SPK; Chai, J.; Yeung, WSB; Lee, CKF

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of animals to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a surfactant used in emulsion polymerization processes causes early pregnancy loss, delayed growth and development of fetuses. The mechanisms of action are largely unknown. We studied the effect of PFOA on implantation using an in vitro spheroid-endometrial cell co-culture model. PFOA (10-100μM) significantly reduced Jeg-3 spheroid attachment on RL95-2 endometrial cells. PFOA also suppressed β-catenin expression in Jeg-3 cells. The Wnt ago...

  16. Plumbagin shows anticancer activity in human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells via the inhibition of S-Phase checkpoints and down-regulation of c-myc

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Chao-Hua; Li, Feng; Ma, Yuan-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Plumbagin, a naphthoquinone constituent of Plumbago zeylanica L. (Plumbaginaceae), has been extensively studied for its pharmacological activities and reported to show a good anti-cancer activity in different human cancer cell lines. It is known to exhibit proapoptotic, antiangiogenic and antimetastatic effects in cancer cells. Plumbagin is also known to inhibit NF-κB, JNK (Hsu), PKCε, and STAT-3. However, the anti-proliferatory activity and their core molecular mechanisms have bee...

  17. GRP78 Knockdown Enhances Apoptosis via the Down-Regulation of Oxidative Stress and Akt Pathway after Epirubicin Treatment in Colon Cancer DLD-1 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yu-Jia; HUANG, YI-PING; Li, Zih-Ling; Chen, Ching-Hsein

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) is induced in the cancer microenvironment and can be considered as a novel predictor of responsiveness to chemotherapy in many cancers. In this study, we found that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation were higher in GRP78 knockdown DLD-1 colon cancer cells compared with scrambled control cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Treatment with epirubicin i...

  18. Nicotine-induced survival signaling in lung cancer cells is dependent on their p53 status while its down-regulation by curcumin is independent

    OpenAIRE

    Puliyappadamba Vineshkumar T; Cheriyan Vino T; Thulasidasan Arun Kumar T; Bava Smitha V; Vinod Balachandran S; Prabhu Priya R; Varghese Ranji; Bevin Arathy; Venugopal Shalini; Anto Ruby

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Lung cancer is the most lethal cancer and almost 90% of lung cancer is due to cigarette smoking. Even though nicotine, one of the major ingredients of cigarette smoke and the causative agent for addiction, is not a carcinogen by itself, several investigators have shown that nicotine can induce cell proliferation and angiogenesis. We observed that the proliferative index of nicotine is different in the lung cancer cell lines H1299 (p53-/-) and A549 (p53+/+) which indicates ...

  19. Down-regulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 by bortezomib sensitizes Jurkat leukemia T cells against glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tao

    Full Text Available 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases type 2 (11β-HSD2, a key regulator for pre-receptor metabolism of glucocorticoids (GCs by converting active GC, cortisol, to inactive cortisone, has been shown to be present in a variety of tumors. But its expression and roles have rarely been discussed in hematological malignancies. Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has been shown to not only possess antitumor effects but also potentiate the activity of other chemotherapeutics. In this study, we demonstrated that 11β-HSD2 was highly expressed in two GC-resistant T-cell leukemic cell lines Jurkat and Molt4. In contrast, no 11β-HSD2 expression was found in two GC-sensitive non-hodgkin lymphoma cell lines Daudi and Raji as well as normal peripheral blood T cells. Inhibition of 11β-HSD2 by 11β-HSD inhibitor 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid or 11β-HSD2 shRNA significantly increased cortisol-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. Additionally, pretreatment of Jurkat cells with low-dose bortezomib resulted in increased cellular sensitivity to GC as shown by elevated induction of apoptosis, more cells arrested at G1 stage and up-regulation of GC-induced leucine zipper which is an important mediator of GC action. Furthermore, we clarified that bortezomib could dose-dependently inhibit 11β-HSD2 messenger RNA and protein levels as well as activity (cortisol-cortisone conversion through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Therefore, we suggest 11β-HSD2 is, at least partially if not all, responsible for impaired GC suppression in Jurkat cells and also indicate a novel mechanism by which proteasome inhibitor bortezomib may influence GC action.

  20. Down-regulation of protein kinase Ceta potentiates the cytotoxic effects of exogenous tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in PC-3 prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemann, Jürgen; Gekeler, Volker; Sagrauske, Antje; Müller, Cornelia; Hofmann, Hans-Peter; Beck, James F

    2004-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a highly promising candidate for the treatment of cancer because it elicits cell death in the majority of tumor cells while sparing most normal cells. Some cancers, however, display resistance to TRAIL, suggesting that treatment with TRAIL alone may be insufficient for cancer therapy. In the present study, we explored whether the apoptotic responsiveness of PC-3 prostate cancer cells to TRAIL could be enhanced by targeting the novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoform eta. Transfection of PC-3 cells with second-generation chimeric antisense oligonucleotides against PKCeta caused a time- and dose-dependent knockdown of PKCeta, as revealed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Knockdown of PKCeta resulted in a marked amplification of TRAIL's cytotoxic activity. Cell killing could be substantially prevented by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. In addition, PKCeta knockdown and administration of TRAIL significantly synergized in activation of caspase-3 and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Knockdown of PKCeta augmented TRAIL-induced dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, indicating that PKCeta acts upstream of mitochondria. We conclude that PKCeta represents a considerable resistance factor with respect to TRAIL and a promising target to exploit the therapeutic potential of TRAIL. PMID:15252138

  1. Squamosamide derivative FLZ inhibits TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression via down-regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in ARPE-19 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ting-Ting; Liang, Ze-Yu; Chen, Song

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) resulting from chronic inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It has been reported that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) could induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in RPE cells. FLZ, a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative from a Chinese herb, Annona glabra, has displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity. However, the effects of FLZ on TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression in RPE cells remain unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of FLZ on TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression in RPE cells. We found that FLZ prevented TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression and the ability of monocytes to adhere to ARPE-19 cells induced by TNF-α. Furthermore, FLZ inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB p65 expression, as well as phosphorylation of IκBα in ARPE-19 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that FLZ inhibited TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression through blocking NF-κB signaling pathway in ARPE-19 cells. Thus, FLZ could be used for designing novel therapeutic agents against AMD. PMID:26464656

  2. Curcumin down regulates smokeless tobacco-induced NF-κB activation and COX-2 expression in human oral premalignant and cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption is a major cause of oral cancer in South East Asia including India. Recently, we showed that exposure to smokeless tobacco extract (STE) (khaini) results in increased expression and activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its downstream target cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in human oral cell systems in vitro. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that curcumin may inhibit the activation of NF-κB in ST exposed oral premalignant and cancer cells. Exposure of oral premalignant and cancer cells to curcumin resulted in significant decrease in cell viability and induced apoptosis. STE-induced nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB were inhibited in curcumin pretreated oral premalignant and cancer cells in vitro. Curcumin treatment led to decreased expression of NF-κB and COX-2. The tobacco specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino-)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), is one of the carcinogenic components of STE (khaini). We demonstrate that curcumin pretreatment abrogated NNK-induced activation of NF-κB and COX-2 expression, suggesting that NNK is one of the factors in STE (khaini) modulated by curcumin. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate for the first time that curcumin downregulates STE (khaini) or NNK-induced NF-κB and COX-2 in oral premalignant and cancer cells in vitro

  3. Down regulation of BCL11B expression inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in malignant T cells by BCL11B-935-siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Si; Shen, Qi; Chen, Shaohua; Yang, Lijian; Grabarczyk, Piotr; Przybylski, Grzegorz K; Schmidt, Christian A; Li, Yangqiu

    2011-07-01

    To screen the highly efficient and specific B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 11B (BCL11B) small interfering RNA (siRNA) which are able to downregulate the BCL11B gene expression in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, thereby inhibiting the leukemic T-cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis, four BCL11B-siRNAs and the scrambled non-silencing siRNA control (sc) were designed and obtained by chemosynthesis. After nucleofection, BCL11B expression in the mRNA and the protein levels were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. The biological consequences based on the highly efficient and specific BCL11B-siRNA were demonstrated by CCK-8 kit, morphological changes (Hoechst 33258 staining), high-resolution imaging, and flow cytometry. Reduction in the BCL11B mRNA level was observed at 24 or 48 hours in molt-4 T cells with BCL11B-935-siRNA, BCL11B-434-siRNA, or BCL11B-748-siRNA, respectively. BCL11B protein expression levels were reduced by 34·77% and 41·73% in the BCL11B-935-siRNA- and BCL11B-434-siRNA-treated cells, compared with the control level at 72 hours. In comparison with BCL11B-434-siRNA treatment group, the Molt-4 cells transfected with the BCL11B-935-siRNA showed significantly inhibited proliferation and effectively induced apoptosis (P<0·05). When highly efficient and specific BCL11B-935-siRNA was used to analyze the inhibition of BCL11B mRNA level in primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells, similar result was obtained. In conclusion, siRNAs targeting the different exon domains resulted in different silencing effects and biological consequences. Suppression of BCL11B by RNA interference could inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis effectively in leukemic T cells, which might be considered as a new target therapeutic strategy in T-cell malignancies. PMID:21756541

  4. Hedgehog-interacting protein is highly expressed in endothelial cells but down-regulated during angiogenesis and in several human tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway regulates a variety of developmental processes, including vasculogenesis, and can also induce the expression of pro-angiogenic factors in fibroblasts postnatally. Misregulation of the Hh pathway has been implicated in a variety of different types of cancer, including pancreatic and small-cell lung cancer. Recently a putative antagonist of the pathway, Hedgehog-interacting protein (HIP), was identified as a Hh binding protein that is also a target of Hh signaling. We sought to clarify possible roles for HIP in angiogenesis and cancer. Inhibition of Hh signaling by HIP was assayed by measuring the induction of Ptc-1 mRNA in TM3 cells treated with conditioned medium containing Sonic hedgehog (Shh). Angiogenesis was assayed in vitro by EC tube formation on Matrigel. Expression of HIP mRNA was assayed in cells and tissues by Q-RT-PCR and Western blot. HIP expression in human tumors or mouse xenograft tumors compared to normal tissues was assayed by Q-RT-PCR or hybridization of RNA probes to a cancer profiling array. We show that Hedgehog-interacting protein (HIP) is abundantly expressed in vascular endothelial cells (EC) but at low or undetectable levels in other cell types. Expression of HIP in mouse epithelial cells attenuated their response to Shh, demonstrating that HIP can antagonize Hh signaling when expressed in the responding cell, and supporting the hypothesis that HIP blocks Hh signaling in EC. HIP expression was significantly reduced in tissues undergoing angiogenesis, including PC3 human prostate cancer and A549 human lung cancer xenograft tumors, as well as in EC undergoing tube formation on Matrigel. HIP expression was also decreased in several human tumors of the liver, lung, stomach, colon and rectum when compared to the corresponding normal tissue. These results suggest that reduced expression of HIP, a naturally occurring Hh pathway antagonist, in tumor neo-vasculature may contribute to increased Hh signaling within

  5. Lentiviral vector-mediated down-regulation of Notch1 in endometrial stem cells results in proliferation and migration in endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Liu, Rong; Xiong, Wei; Pu, Demin; Wang, Shixuan; Li, Tian

    2016-10-15

    The recent characterization of stem/progenitor cells in the endometrium has shed new light for pathogenesis of endometriosis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of Notch1, known as a cell fate regulator, in the mechanism of endometriosis. Influence of Notch1 on endometrial stem cells proliferation and migration was evaluated by knocking down Notch1 expression using shRNA. Furthermore, human endometrial stromal and epithelial stem cells with or without LV-Notch1-shRNA were injected into the peritoneal cavity of nude mice, to assess the in vivo effects of a specific antagonist of Notch1 on the progression of endometriosis. The results showed that LV-Notch1-shRNA led to a significant decline of clonogenicity and migration in human endometrial stem cells in vitro, as well as the size of endometriotic lesions in murine models. These data provide evidence that specific inhibition of Notch1 alters endometriotic tissue growth and progression, and may represent a promising potential therapeutic avenue. PMID:27389878

  6. Down-regulation of eIF4GII by miR-520c-3p represses diffuse large B cell lymphoma development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Mazan-Mamczarz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of the translational machinery is emerging as a critical contributor to cancer development. The contribution of microRNAs in translational gene control has been established however; the role of microRNAs in disrupting the cap-dependent translation regulation complex has not been previously described. Here, we established that elevated miR-520c-3p represses global translation, cell proliferation and initiates premature senescence in HeLa and DLBCL cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that miR-520c-3p directly targets translation initiation factor, eIF4GII mRNA and negatively regulates eIF4GII protein synthesis. miR-520c-3p overexpression diminishes cells colony formation and reduces tumor growth in a human xenograft mouse model. Consequently, downregulation of eIF4GII by siRNA decreases translation, cell proliferation and ability to form colonies, as well as induces cellular senescence. In vitro and in vivo findings were further validated in patient samples; DLBCL primary cells demonstrated low miR-520c-3p levels with reciprocally up-regulated eIF4GII protein expression. Our results provide evidence that the tumor suppressor effect of miR-520c-3p is mediated through repression of translation while inducing senescence and that eIF4GII is a key effector of this anti-tumor activity.

  7. Bi-phasic effect of interferon (IFN)-alpha: IFN-alpha up- and down-regulates interleukin-4 signaling in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Karsten Wessel; Sommer, Viveca Horst; Woetmann, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta is produced by virally infected cells and is believed to play an important role in early phases of the innate immune response. In addition, IFN-alpha/beta inhibits interleukin (IL)-4 signaling in B cells and monocytes, suggesting that IFN-alpha/beta (like IFN-gamma) is......Interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta is produced by virally infected cells and is believed to play an important role in early phases of the innate immune response. In addition, IFN-alpha/beta inhibits interleukin (IL)-4 signaling in B cells and monocytes, suggesting that IFN-alpha/beta (like IFN......-4-mediated STAT6 activation in both CD4+ and CD8+ human T cells. The effect is specific because (i) another interferon, IFN-gamma, does not enhance IL-4-mediated STAT6 activation, (ii) IFN-alpha-mediated STAT1 and STAT2 activation is not modulated by IL-4, and (iii) activation of Janus kinases...

  8. Oral administration of a dual analog of two myasthenogenic T cell epitopes down-regulates experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Paas-Rozner, Miri; Dayan, Molly; Paas, Yoav; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Wirguin, Itzhak; Sela, Michael; Mozes, Edna

    2000-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) and experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG) are T cell-regulated, antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases. The major autoantigen in MG is the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Two peptides, representing sequences of the human AChR α-subunit, p195–212 and p259–271, were previously shown to be immunodominant T cell epitopes in MG patients as well as, respectively, in SJL and BALB/c mice. A dual analog (termed Lys-262–Ala-207) composed of the tandemly arranged two single am...

  9. DEXAMETHASONE DIFFERENTIALLY DOWN-REGULATES L-SELECTIN (CD62L) EXPRESSION BY BOVINE LYMPHOCYTE SUBSETS IN VIVO AND DEPLETES THE INTESTINAL MUCOSA OF INTRAEPITHELIAL GAMMA DELTA CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hallmark of immune modulation by dexamethasone (DEX) is the suppression of lymphocyte proliferation. DEX also alters the expression of adhesion molecules on bovine lymphocytes. Although intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) mainly are non-proliferating cells, we hypothesized that DEX treatment of ca...

  10. NK cell activity during human cytomegalovirus ingection is dominated by US2-11mediated HLA class I down-regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Falk, C. S.; Mach, M.; Schendel, D. J.; Weiss, E. H.; Hilgert, Ivan; Hahn, G.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 169, č. 6 (2002), s. 3257-3266. ISSN 0022-1767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : NK cell * cytomegalovirus * HLA-E Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.014, year: 2002

  11. LY294002 may overcome 5-FU resistance via down-regulation of activated p-AKT in Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As EBV-associated gastric cancer has unique features that are different from EBV (-) gastric cancer, EBV is considered to have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. It has been reported that viral latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) in EBV-transformed tumor cells activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, which provides a survival signal and chemo-resistance to cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs. This study was to evaluate anti-proliferative effect and cell cycle change when 5-FU and LY294002 (LY), a selective inhibitor of PI3K, were treated separately or combined with different schedules in EBV positive gastric cancer cell line, SNU-719. After single treatment and sequential combination of 5-FU and LY, cytotoxic activity was measured by MTS assay. When 5-FU and LY were treated in single and sequential combinations, the expression of p-AKT, p-NFkB, p-p53 and bcl-2 was observed on different concentrations by Western blot analysis. We also investigated the effect on apoptosis and cell cycle distribution using flow cytometry. The LMP2A siRNA inhibition was done to confirm the reversal of decreased 5-FU activity and p-AKT. When 5-FU was sequentially combined with LY, the combination index (CI) value indicated synergistic anti-proliferative effect. The expression of p-AKT and p-NFκB was upregulated by 5-FU alone but sequential treatment of 5-FU and LY decreased the expression of both p-AKT and p-NFκB. When 5-FU was combined with LY, G0/G1 and sub G1 cell population (%) increased. When 5-FU was added to the cells transfected with LMP2A siRNA, its anti-proliferative effect increased and the expression of p-AKT decreased. In sequential combination of 5-FU and LY, the expression of p-p53 was increased and bcl-2 expression was diminished compared to 5-FU alone. These data suggest that sequential combination of 5-FU and LY induce synergistic cytotoxicity and overcome intrinsic and acquired resistance of 5-FU via downregulation of activated p-AKT and

  12. Iron deficiency down-regulates the Akt/TSC1-TSC2/mammalian Target of Rapamycin signaling pathway in rats and in COS-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Moussa; Kazami, Machiko; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Inoue, Hirohumi; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichi; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2009-09-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is one of the most commonly known forms of nutritional deficiencies. Low body iron is thought to induce neurologic defects but may also play a protective role against cancer development by cell growth arrest. Thus, ID may affect cellular pathways controlling cell growth and proliferation, the mechanism of which is still not fully understood. The serine/threonine protein kinase Akt and its downstream target, the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), is known to play a crucial role in the regulation of cell growth and survival. Therefore, we hypothesized that Akt/mTOR pathway could be influenced by ID. Three-week-old male Wistar-strain rats were divided into 3 groups and the 2 groups had free access to a control diet (C group) or an iron-deficient diet (D group). The third group (PF group) were pair-fed the control diet to the mean intake of the D group. After 4 weeks, rats were killed and their brains were sampled. In separate experiments, COS-1 cells were cultured with or without the iron chelator deferoxamine. Western blots of brain samples and COS-1 lysates were used to analyze the expression and phosphorylation state of Akt, TSC2, mTOR, and S6 kinase proteins implicated in the Akt/mTOR pathway. Using 2 different ID models, we show for the first time that iron deficiency depresses Akt activity in rats and in COS-1 cells, leading to a decrease in mTOR activity. PMID:19854379

  13. Diallyl trisulfide inhibits angiogenic features of human umbilical vein endothelial cells by causing Akt inactivation and down-regulation of VEGF and VEGF-R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Li, Mengfeng; Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej; Xiao, Hui; Lew, Karen L; Zeng, Yan; Marynowski, Stanley W; Singh, Shivendra V

    2006-01-01

    We have shown recently that diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a cancer-chemopreventive constituent of garlic, inactivates Akt to trigger mitochondrial translocation of proapoptotic protein BAD in human prostate cancer cells. Because Akt activation is implicated in the promotion of endothelial cell survival and angiogenesis, we hypothesized that DATS may inhibit angiogenesis. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model. Survival of HUVECs was reduced significantly in the presence of DATS in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 of approximately 4 microM. The DATS-mediated suppression of HUVEC survival was associated with apoptosis induction characterized by accumulation of subdiploid cells, cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation, and cleavage of caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase. The DATS-induced DNA fragmentation was significantly attenuated in the presence of pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk and specific inhibitors of caspase-9 (zLEHD-fmk) and caspase-8 (zIETD-fmk). DATS treatment inhibited the formation of capillary-like tube structure and migration by HUVECs in association with suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and VEGF receptor-2 protein level and inactivation of Akt kinase. DATS treatment also caused activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) but not c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK).DATS-mediatedapoptosis induction and inhibition of HUVEC tube formation was partially but statistically significantly attenuated by pharmacologic inhibition of ERK1/2 but not JNK or p38MAPK. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that DATS has the ability to inhibit angiogenic features of human endothelial cells. PMID:16965246

  14. Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porta, Claudine; Xu, Xiaodong; Loureiro, Silvia;

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of Artiodactyla. Current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release...... precursor P1-2A by the action of the virus-encoded 3C protease. To date recombinant empty capsid assembly has been limited by poor expression levels, restricting the development of empty capsids as a viable vaccine. Here expression of the FMDV structural protein precursor P1-2A in insect cells is shown...... assembled into empty capsids. Expression was independent of the insect host cell background and leads to capsids that are recognised as authentic by a range of anti-FMDV bovine sera suggesting their feasibility as an alternate vaccine....

  15. Farnesoid X Receptor inhibits tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth through down-regulation of HER2 expression

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano, Cinzia; Catalano, Stefania; Panza, Salvatore; Vizza, Donatella; Barone, Ines; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Gelsomino, Luca; Rizza, Pietro; Fuqua, Suzanne A. W; Andò, Sebastiano

    2011-01-01

    Tamoxifen (Tam) treatment is a first-line endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, resistance frequently occurs and is often related with overexpression of the membrane tyrosine kinase receptor HER2. This is the rationale behind combined treatments with endocrine therapy and novel inhibitors that reduce HER2 expression and signaling and thus inhibit Tam-resistant breast cancer cell growth. In this study we show that activation of Farnesoi...

  16. Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaf Extract Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion via Down-Regulation of Akt/NF-κB/MMP-9 Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Tang Chiu; Jing-Hsien Chen; Fen-Pi Chou; Hui-Hsuan Lin

    2015-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf has been previously shown to possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects, and induce tumor cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anticancer activity of H. sabdariffa leaf extract (HLE) are poorly understood. The object of the study was to examine the anti-invasive potential of HLE. First, HLE was demonstrated to be rich in polyphenols. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that HLE dose-de...

  17. Hypoxic HepG2 cell adaptation decreases ATP synthase dimers and ATP production in inflated cristae by mitofilin down-regulation concomitant to MICOS clustering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plecitá-Hlavatá, Lydie; Engstová, Hana; Alán, Lukáš; Špaček, Tomáš; Dlasková, Andrea; Smolková, Katarína; Špačková, Jitka; Tauber, Jan; Strádalová, Vendula; Malínský, Jan; Lessard, M.; Bewersdorf, J.; Ježek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2016), s. 1941-1957. ISSN 0892-6638 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02033S; GA ČR GJ15-02022Y Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : Mitofilin * Mic60 * OPA1 * dSTORM * 3D immunocytochemistry * electron microscopy * mitochondrial cristae morphology Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 5.043, year: 2014

  18. SOX2 expression is associated with a cancer stem cell state and down-regulation of CDX2 in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Ida V.; Edin, Sofia; Eklöf, Vincy; Öberg, Åke; Palmqvist, Richard; Wikberg, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    Background To improve current treatment strategies for patients with aggressive colorectal cancer (CRC), the molecular understanding of subgroups of CRC with poor prognosis is of vast importance. SOX2 positive tumors have been associated with a poor patient outcome, but the functional role of SOX2 in CRC patient prognosis is still unclear. Methods An in vitro cell culture model expressing SOX2 was used to investigate the functional role of SOX2 in CRC. In vitro findings were verified using RN...

  19. MicroRNA-135b suppresses extravillous trophoblast-derived HTR-8/SVneo cell invasion by directly down regulating CXCL12 under low oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaru, Shunsuke; Mizuno, Yosuke; Tochigi, Hideno; Kajihara, Takeshi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Okagaki, Ryugo; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Ishihara, Osamu; Itakura, Atsuo

    2015-05-29

    The expression of numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) in the trophoblasts changes under low oxygen conditions. However, little is known regarding the regulation of the trophoblast invasion by miRNAs under low oxygen conditions. The aim of this study was to identify those miRNAs and their target genes associated with the trophoblast invasion under low oxygen conditions. Culturing the extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, at 2% oxygen as compared to 20% oxygen suppressed trophoblast invasion that correlated with increased expression of microRNA-135b (miR-135b) and decreased expression of the its predicted target gene CXCL12. Overexpression of miR-135b suppressed CXCL12 mRNA expression and invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells. Adding a neutralizing antibody against CXCL12 to the culture medium suppressed HTR-8/SVneo cell invasion. Reporter assays showed that the 3'UTR sequence of CXCL12 was directly targeted by miR-135b. Our results suggest that miR-135b and CXCL12 play important roles in modulating the EVT invasion under low oxygen conditions. PMID:25896762

  20. Down-regulation of OsSAG12-1 results in enhanced senescence and pathogen-induced cell death in transgenic rice plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subaran Singh; Mrunmay Kumar Giri; Praveen Kumar Singh; Adnan Siddiqui; Ashis Kumar Nandi

    2013-09-01

    Senescence is a highly regulated process accompanied by changes in gene expression. While the mRNA levels of most genes decline, the mRNA levels of specific genes (senescence associated genes, SAGs) increase during senescence. Arabidopsis SAG12 (AtSAG12) gene codes for papain-like cysteine protease. The promoter of AtSAG12 is SA-responsive and reported to be useful to delay senescence by expressing cytokinin biosynthesis gene isopentenyltransferase specifically during senescence in several plants including Arabidopsis, lettuce and rice. The physiological role of AtSAG12 is not known; the homozygous atsag12 mutant neither fails to develop senescence-associated vacuoles nor shows any morphological phenotype. Through BLAST search using AtSAG12 amino acid sequences as query, we identified a few putative homologues from rice genome (OsSAGs; Oryza sativa SAGs). OsSAG12-1 is the closest homologue of AtSAG12 with 64% similar amino acid composition. Expression of OsSAG12-1 is induced during senescence and pathogen-induced cell death. To evaluate the possible role of OsSAG12-1 we generated RNAi transgenic lines in Japonica rice cultivar TP309. The transgenic lines developed early senescence at varying levels and showed enhanced cell death when inoculated with bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae. Our results suggest that OsSAG12-1 is a negative regulator of cell death in rice.

  1. Drosha, DGCR8, and Dicer mRNAs are down-regulated in human cells infected with dengue virus 4, and play a role in viral pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casseb, S M M; Simith, D B; Melo, K F L; Mendonça, M H; Santos, A C M; Carvalho, V L; Cruz, A C R; Vasconcelos, P F C

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and its four serotypes (DENV1-4) belong to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. DENV infection is a life-threatening disease, which results in up to 20,000 deaths each year. Viruses have been shown to encode trans-regulatory small RNAs, or microRNAs (miRNAs), which bind to messenger RNA and negatively regulate host or viral gene expression. During DENV infections, miRNAs interact with proteins in the RNAi pathway, and are processed by ribonucleases such as Dicer and Drosha. This study aims to investigate Drosha, DGCR8, and Dicer expression levels in human A-549 cells following DENV4 infection. DENV4 infected A-549 cells were collected daily for 5 days, and RNA was extracted to quantify viral load. Gene expression of Drosha, Dicer, and DGCR8 was determined using quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). We found that DENV4 infection exhibited the highest viral load 3 days post-infection. Dicer, Drosha, and DGCR8 showed reduced expression following DENV4 infection as compared with negative controls. In addition, we hypothesize that reduced expression of DGCR8 may not only be related to miRNA biogenesis, but also other small RNAs. This study may change our understanding regarding the relationship between host cells and the dengue virus. PMID:27173348

  2. A temperature-sensitive allele of a putative mRNA splicing helicase down-regulates many cell wall genes and causes radial swelling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howles, Paul A; Gebbie, Leigh K; Collings, David A; Varsani, Arvind; Broad, Ronan C; Ohms, Stephen; Birch, Rosemary J; Cork, Ann H; Arioli, Tony; Williamson, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    The putative RNA helicase encoded by the Arabidopsis gene At1g32490 is a homolog of the yeast splicing RNA helicases Prp2 and Prp22. We isolated a temperature-sensitive allele (rsw12) of the gene in a screen for root radial swelling mutants. Plants containing this allele grown at the restrictive temperature showed weak radial swelling, were stunted with reduced root elongation, and contained reduced levels of cellulose. The role of the protein was further explored by microarray analysis. By using both fold change cutoffs and a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to investigate coexpression of genes, we found that the radial swelling phenotype was not linked to genes usually associated with primary cell wall biosynthesis. Instead, the mutation has strong effects on expression of secondary cell wall related genes. Many genes potentially associated with secondary walls were present in the most significant WGCNA module, as were genes coding for arabinogalactans and proteins with GPI anchors. The proportion of up-regulated genes that possess introns in rsw12 was above that expected if splicing was unrelated to the activity of the RNA helicase, suggesting that the helicase does indeed play a role in splicing in Arabidopsis. The phenotype may be due to a change in the expression of one or more genes coding for cell wall proteins. PMID:27008640

  3. MicroRNA-Mediated Down-Regulation of M-CSF Receptor Contributes to Maturation of Mouse Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Riepsaame, Joey; van Oudenaren, Adri; den Broeder, Berlinda J. H.; Van Ijcken, Wilfred F J; Pothof, Joris; Pieter J.M. Leenen

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is a tightly regulated process that requires coordinated and timed developmental cues. Here we investigate whether microRNAs are involved in this process. We identify microRNAs in mouse GM-CSF-generated, monocyte-related DC (GM-DC) that are differentially expressed during both spontaneous and LPS-induced maturation and characterize M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR), encoded by the Csf1r gene, as a key target for microRNA-mediated regulation in the final step toward mature...

  4. Dasatinib inhibits proliferation and activation of CD8+ T-lymphocytes by down-regulation of the T-cell receptor signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Fei

    2007-01-01

    The novel Src/Abl inhibitor dasatinib (BMS-354825) is a promising therapeutic agent with imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL mutations in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, little is known about its effects on T-cell function, especially for patients undergoing allogeneic transplantation for leukemia. Here, we demonstrate that dasatinib at a concentration of 5 nM to 250 nM inhibits the proliferation and activation of CD8+ T-lymp...

  5. Enterococcus faecalis Infection and Reactive Oxygen Species Down-Regulates the miR-17-92 Cluster in Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cell Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A B; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Friis-Hansen, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation due to bacterial overgrowth of the stomach predisposes to the development of gastric cancer and is also associated with high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In recent years increasing attention has been drawn to microRNAs (miRNAs) due to their role in the pathogenesis...... of many human diseases including gastric cancer. Here we studied the impact of infection by the gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) on global miRNA expression as well as the effect of ROS on selected miRNAs. Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line MKN74 was infected with living...

  6. TIMP1 overexpression mediates resistance of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells to fulvestrant and down-regulates progesterone receptor expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Christina; Vinther, Lena; Belling, Kirstine C.; Würtz, Sidse Ø.; Yadav, Rachita; Lademan, Ulrik; Rigina, Olga; Nguyen Do, Khoa; Ditzel, Henrik Jørn; Lykkesfeldt, Anne Elisabeth; Wang, Jun; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Brünner, Nils; Gupta, Ramneek; Schrohl, Anne-Sofie; Stenvang, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract High levels of Tissue Inhibitor ofMetalloproteinases-1 (TIMP1) are associated with poor prognosis, reduced response to chemotherapy, and, potentially, also poor response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer patients. Our objective was to further investigate the hypothesis that TIMP1 is......, and cell cycle. Gene and protein expression analyses showed no general defects in estrogen receptor signaling except from lack of progesterone receptor expression and estrogen inducibility in clones with high TIMP1. The present study suggests a relation between high expression level of TIMP1 and loss...

  7. GFRα2 prompts cell growth and chemoresistance through down-regulating tumor suppressor gene PTEN via Mir-17-5p in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiangning; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jiaqiang; Zhu, Yi; Li, Ying; Chen, Hao; Shi, Minmin; Wang, Xuelong; Shen, Baiyong; Deng, Xiaxing; Zhan, Qian; Wei, Gang; Peng, Chenghong

    2016-10-01

    Nerve growth factors and their receptors have received an increasing attention in certain cancers since they play an important role in regulating tumorigenesis, biological process and metastasis. Here we aimed at characterizing a new function of one of the subtypes of growth factor receptors (GFR), GFRα2, in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we showed that GFRα2 was up-regulated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and was positively correlated with tumor size and perineural invasion, which indicated that it may be associated with cell growth and apoptosis. Mechanically, we discovered that high GFRα2 expression level leads to PTEN inactivation via enhancing Mir-17-5p level. PMID:27400681

  8. Cisplatin Restores TRAIL apoptotic pathway in Glioblastoma-Derived Stem Cells through Up-regulation of DR5 and Down-regulation of c-FLIP

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lijuan; Yuan, Changji; Wei, Feng; Wang, Guangyi; Zhang, Jing; Bellail, Anita C.; Zhang, Zhaobin; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Hao, Chunhai

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma-derived stem cells (GSCs) are responsible for the cancer resistance to therapies. We show here that GSC-enriched neurospheres are resistant to the treatment of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) due to the insufficient expression of the death receptor DR4 and DR5 and the overexpression of cellular Fas-associated death domain-like interleukin-1β-converting enzyme-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). However, treatment with cisplatin leads to the upregulation o...

  9. Down-regulation of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 protein (XRCC1) expression by Hsp90 inhibition enhances the gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, Chun-Liang [Department of Pathology, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Jian, Yi-Jun [Department of Pathology, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Chiayi University, 300 Syuefu Road, Chiayi 600, Taiwan (China); Syu, Jhan-Jhang; Wang, Tai-Jing; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Yu; Jian, Yun-Ting [Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Chiayi University, 300 Syuefu Road, Chiayi 600, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yun-Wei, E-mail: linyw@mail.ncyu.edu.tw [Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Chiayi University, 300 Syuefu Road, Chiayi 600, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-15

    Gefitinib (Iressa{sup R}, ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT signaling activation. It has been shown that inhibition of Hsp90 function can enhance antitumor activity of EGFR-TKI. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein in base excision repair, which could be regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. However, the role of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated XRCC1 expression in gefitinib alone or combination with an Hsp90 inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. In this study, gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through ERK1/2 and AKT inactivation in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Knocking down XRCC1 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of XRCC1 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of gefitinib. Combining treatment of gefitinib with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in enhancing the reduction of XRCC1 protein and mRNA levels in gefitinib-exposed A549 and H1975 cells. Compared to a single agent alone, gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK1 or AKT vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level as well as the cell survival suppressed by an Hsp90 inhibitor and gefitinib. These findings suggested that down-regulation of XRCC1 can enhance the sensitivity of gefitinib for NSCLC cells. - Highlights: • Gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression in NSCLC cells. • Knocking down XRCC1 expression enhanced the cytotoxic effect of gefitinib. • Gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in synergistically cytotoxicity.

  10. Down-regulation of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated X-ray repair cross-complement group 1 protein (XRCC1) expression by Hsp90 inhibition enhances the gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gefitinib (IressaR, ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT signaling activation. It has been shown that inhibition of Hsp90 function can enhance antitumor activity of EGFR-TKI. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein in base excision repair, which could be regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. However, the role of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated XRCC1 expression in gefitinib alone or combination with an Hsp90 inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. In this study, gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through ERK1/2 and AKT inactivation in two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1975. Knocking down XRCC1 expression by transfection with small interfering RNA of XRCC1 enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of gefitinib. Combining treatment of gefitinib with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in enhancing the reduction of XRCC1 protein and mRNA levels in gefitinib-exposed A549 and H1975 cells. Compared to a single agent alone, gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition synergistically in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK1 or AKT vectors rescued the XRCC1 protein level as well as the cell survival suppressed by an Hsp90 inhibitor and gefitinib. These findings suggested that down-regulation of XRCC1 can enhance the sensitivity of gefitinib for NSCLC cells. - Highlights: • Gefitinib treatment decreased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression in NSCLC cells. • Knocking down XRCC1 expression enhanced the cytotoxic effect of gefitinib. • Gefitinib combined with an Hsp90 inhibitor resulted in synergistically cytotoxicity

  11. Resveratrol Inhibits the Invasion of Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells via Down-Regulation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Jiao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasion and metastasis of glioblastoma-initiating cells (GICs are thought to be responsible for the progression and recurrence of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. A safe drug that can be applied during the rest period of temozolomide (TMZ maintenance cycles would greatly improve the prognosis of GBM patients by inhibiting GIC invasion. Resveratrol (RES is a natural compound that exhibits anti-invasion properties in multiple tumor cell lines. The current study aimed to evaluate whether RES can inhibit GIC invasion in vitro and in vivo. GICs were identified using CD133 and Nestin immunofluorescence staining and tumorigenesis in non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID mice. Invasive behaviors, including the adhesion, invasion and migration of GICs, were determined by tumor invasive assays in vitro and in vivo. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs was measured by the gelatin zymography assay. Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescence staining were used to determine the expression of signaling effectors in GICs. We demonstrated that RES suppressed the adhesion, invasion and migration of GICs in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we proved that RES inhibited the invasion of GICs via the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signal transduction and the subsequent suppression of MMP-2 expression.

  12. Transcriptomic dissection of tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Joel L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNOSCC is a diverse group of cancers, which develop from many different anatomic sites and are associated with different risk factors and genetic characteristics. The oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC is one of the most common types of HNOSCC. It is significantly more aggressive than other forms of HNOSCC, in terms of local invasion and spread. In this study, we aim to identify specific transcriptomic signatures that associated with OTSCC. Results Genome-wide transcriptomic profiles were obtained for 53 primary OTSCCs and 22 matching normal tissues. Genes that exhibit statistically significant differences in expression between OTSCCs and normal were identified. These include up-regulated genes (MMP1, MMP10, MMP3, MMP12, PTHLH, INHBA, LAMC2, IL8, KRT17, COL1A2, IFI6, ISG15, PLAU, GREM1, MMP9, IFI44, CXCL1, and down-regulated genes (KRT4, MAL, CRNN, SCEL, CRISP3, SPINK5, CLCA4, ADH1B, P11, TGM3, RHCG, PPP1R3C, CEACAM7, HPGD, CFD, ABCA8, CLU, CYP3A5. The expressional difference of IL8 and MMP9 were further validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The Gene Ontology analysis suggested a number of altered biological processes in OTSCCs, including enhancements in phosphate transport, collagen catabolism, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling cascade, extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis, chemotaxis, as well as suppressions of superoxide release, hydrogen peroxide metabolism, cellular response to hydrogen peroxide, keratinization, and keratinocyte differentiation in OTSCCs. Conclusion In summary, our study provided a transcriptomic signature for OTSCC that may lead to a diagnosis or screen tool and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OTSCC.

  13. Dioscin restores the activity of the anticancer agent adriamycin in multidrug-resistant human leukemia K562/adriamycin cells by down-regulating MDR1 via a mechanism involving NF-κB signaling inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Meng, Qiang; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Qi; Peng, Jinyong; Huo, Xiaokui; Sun, Huijun; Ma, Xiaochi; Liu, Kexin

    2013-05-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ameliorating effect of dioscin (1) on multidrug resistance (MDR) in adriamycin (ADR)-resistant erythroleukemic cells (K562/adriamycin, K562/ADR) and to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved. High levels of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) mRNA and protein and reduced ADR retention were found in K562/ADR cells compared with parental cells (K562). Dioscin (1), a constituent of plants in the genus Discorea, significantly inhibited MDR1 mRNA and protein expression and MDR1 promoter and nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κB) activity in K562/ADR cells. MDR1 mRNA and protein suppression resulted in the subsequent recovery of intracellular drug accumulation. Additionally, inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) degradation was inhibited by 1. Dioscin (1) reversed ADR-induced MDR by down-regulating MDR1 expression by a mechanism that involves the inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings provide evidence to support the further investigation of the clinical application of dioscin (1) as a chemotherapy adjuvant. PMID:23621869

  14. miR-206 is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell proliferation through the up-regulation of cyclinD2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jing, E-mail: zhougjing9888@163.com [Department of Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Tian, Ye, E-mail: tianye2010077@163.com [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Affiliated Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, Anhui (China); Li, Juan, E-mail: 402310848@163.com [Department of Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Lu, Binbin, E-mail: lubin1976@163.com [Department of Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Sun, Ming, E-mail: 422825636@qq.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Zou, Yanfen, E-mail: 569111165@qq.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Kong, Rong, E-mail: 31815857@qq.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Luo, Yanhong, E-mail: 252376737@qq.com [School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Shi, Yongguo, E-mail: 12071018@qq.com [Department of Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Keming, E-mail: Tianyr1@163.com [Department of Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Ji, Guozhong, E-mail: 252376737@qq.com [Department of Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-04-05

    Highlights: ► miR-206 was downexpressed in tumor samples compared with matched normal samples. ► Enhanced expression of miR-206 could inhibit breast cancer growth in vitro. ► Luciferase confirmed miR-206 functions as an anti-oncogene by targeting cyclinD2. ► A reverse correlation between miR-206 and cyclinD2 in breast cancer was found. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs act as important gene regulators in human genomes, and their aberrant expression is linked to many malignancies. Aberrant expression of miR-206 has been frequently reported in cancer studies; however, the role and mechanism of its function in breast cancer remains unclear. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect the relative expression levels of miR-206 in breast cancer and normal breast tissues. Lower expression of miR-206 in breast cancer tissues was associated with larger tumour size and a more advanced clinical stage. Further in vitro observations showed that the enforced expression of miR-206 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells inhibited cell growth by blocking the G1/S transition and suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation, implying that miR-206 functions as a tumour suppressor in the progression of breast cancer. Interestingly, Luciferase assays first revealed that miR-206 inhibited cyclinD2 expression by targeting two binding sites in the 3′-untranslated region of cyclinD2 mRNA. qRT-PCR and Western blot assays verified that miR-206 reduced cyclinD2 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. A reverse correlation between miR-206 and cyclinD2 expression was noted in breast cancer tissues. Altogether, our results identify a crucial tumour suppressive role of miR-206 in the progression of breast cancer, at least partly via up-regulation of the expression of cyclinD2, and suggest that miR-206 might be a candidate prognostic predictor or an anticancer therapeutic target for breast cancer patients.

  15. Down-regulated NOD2 by immunosuppressants in peripheral blood cells in patients with SLE reduces the muramyl dipeptide-induced IL-10 production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Lian Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs such as Toll-like receptors are aberrantly expressed of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients, for playing immunopathological roles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the expression and function of the PRR nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD2 in SLE. NOD2 expression in T, B lymphocytes, monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs was assessed in SLE patients and healthy controls (HCs using flow cytometric analysis. Ex vivo production of cytokines from PBMCs upon NOD2 agonist muramyl dipeptide (MDP stimulation was assessed using Cytometric Bead Array. Over-expression of NOD2 in monocytes was observed in immunosuppressant naïve SLE patients, and was positively associated with longer disease duration. Immunosuppressive therapy was an independent explanatory variable for downregulating NOD2 expression in CD8+ T, monocytes, mDCs and pDCs. Ex vivo basal productions of cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were significantly increased in immunosuppressant naïve patients and patients with active disease despite immunosuppressants compared with HCs. Upon MDP stimulaiton, relative induction (% of cytokines (IL-1β from PBMC was significantly increased in immunosuppressant naïve patients with inactive disease, and patients with active disease despite immunosuppressant treatment compared with HCs. Immunosuppressant usage was associated with a decreased basal production and MDP induced relative induction (% of IL-10 in patients with inactive disease compared with immunosuppressant naïve patients and HCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Bacterial exposure may increase the NOD2 expression in monocytes in immunosuppressant naïve SLE patients which can subsequently lead to aberrant activation of PBMCs to produce proinflammatory cytokines, implicating the innate immune response for extracellular pathogens in the

  16. Down-regulation of CTLA-4 by HIV-1 Nef protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed El-Far; Catherine Isabelle; Nicolas Chomont; Martin Bourbonnière; Simone Fonseca; Petronela Ancuta; Yoav Peretz; Younes Chouikh; Rabih Halwani; Olivier Schwartz; Joaquín Madrenas; Freeman, Gordon J.; Jean-Pierre Routy; Haddad, Elias K.; Rafick-Pierre Sékaly

    2013-01-01

    International audience HIV-1 Nef protein down-regulates several cell surface receptors through its interference with the cell sorting and trafficking machinery. Here we demonstrate for the first time the ability of Nef to down-regulate cell surface expression of the negative immune modulator CTLA-4. Down-regulation of CTLA-4 required the Nef motifs DD175, EE155 and LL165, all known to be involved in vesicle trafficking. Disruption of the lysosomal functions by pH-neutralizing agents preven...

  17. Grape seed procyanidin reversal of p-glycoprotein associated multi-drug resistance via down-regulation of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activity in A2780/T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-xin Zhao

    Full Text Available The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp is associated with the phenotype of multi-drug resistance (MDR, leading chemotherapy failure of patients suffered with cancer. Grape seed procyanidin(GSP is a natural polyphenol supplement with anti-inflammatory effect. Present study assessed a new use of GSP on the MDR reversal activity and its possible molecular mechanisms in MDR1-overpressing paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed GSP significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and adriamycin in paclitaxel resistant A2780/T cells but its parental A2780 cells. Furthermore, GSP strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription, as well as, increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate rhodamine-123 in A2780/T cells. Nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB activity, IκB degradation level and NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL were markedly inhibited by pre-treatment with GSP. Meanwhile, GSP inhibited MAPK/ERK pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, resulting in reduced the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1 activation with blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, the up-regulation of P-gp expression, the activation of AKT/NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathway induced by LPS was attenuated by GSP administration. Compared with PDTC and U1026, inhibitor of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK respectively, GSP showed the same tendency of down-regulating NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activities. Thus, GSP reverses P-gp associated MDR by inhibiting the function and expression of P-gp through down-regulation of NF-κB activity and MAPK/ERK pathway mediated YB-1 nuclear translocation, offering insight into the mechanism of reversing MDR by natural polyphenol supplement compounds. GSP could be a new potential MDR reversal agent used for combination therapy with chemotherapeutics in clinic.

  18. Expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The tumor suppressor gene PDCD4 is down-regulated in many tumorous entities. ► We investigate the impact of PDCD4 and its regulating factor miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma. ► We confirm PDCD4 as a tumor suppressor gene and it could be a diagnostic marker for this tumor. -- Abstract: Background: We investigated the role of the programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor gene in specimens of transitional cell carcinoma and of healthy individuals. Methods: PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was investigated in 294 cases in histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma in different tumorous stages (28 controls, 122 non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma, stages Tis-T1, 119 invasive transitional cell carcinoma stages T2–T4 and 25 metastases). MiR-21 expression, an important PDCD4 regulator, was assessed with real-time PCR analysis and showed inverse correlation to tissue PDCD4 expression. Results: Nuclear and cytoplasmatic PDCD4 immunostaining decreased significantly with histopathological progression of the tumor (p < 0001). Controls showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical staining. MiR-21 up regulation in tissue corresponded to PDCD4 suppression. Conclusions: These data support a decisive role for PDCD4 down regulation in transitional cell carcinoma and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator for PDCD4. Additionally, PDCD4 immunohistochemical staining turns out to be a possible diagnostic marker for transitional cell carcinoma.

  19. Expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Nicolas, E-mail: simplissimus@gmx.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Goeke, Friederike, E-mail: Friederike.goeke@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Pathology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Splittstoesser, Vera, E-mail: Veri.sp@web.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Lankat-Buttgereit, Brigitte, E-mail: Lankatbu@staff.uni-marburg.de [Department of Internal Medicine, Philipps-University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Mueller, Stefan C., E-mail: Stefan.mueller@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Ellinger, Joerg, E-mail: Joerg.ellinger@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tumor suppressor gene PDCD4 is down-regulated in many tumorous entities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the impact of PDCD4 and its regulating factor miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We confirm PDCD4 as a tumor suppressor gene and it could be a diagnostic marker for this tumor. -- Abstract: Background: We investigated the role of the programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor gene in specimens of transitional cell carcinoma and of healthy individuals. Methods: PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was investigated in 294 cases in histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma in different tumorous stages (28 controls, 122 non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma, stages Tis-T1, 119 invasive transitional cell carcinoma stages T2-T4 and 25 metastases). MiR-21 expression, an important PDCD4 regulator, was assessed with real-time PCR analysis and showed inverse correlation to tissue PDCD4 expression. Results: Nuclear and cytoplasmatic PDCD4 immunostaining decreased significantly with histopathological progression of the tumor (p < 0001). Controls showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical staining. MiR-21 up regulation in tissue corresponded to PDCD4 suppression. Conclusions: These data support a decisive role for PDCD4 down regulation in transitional cell carcinoma and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator for PDCD4. Additionally, PDCD4 immunohistochemical staining turns out to be a possible diagnostic marker for transitional cell carcinoma.

  20. Thrombospondin-1 Silencing Down-Regulates Integrin Expression Levels in Human Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Cells with BRAFV600E: New Insights in the Host Tissue Adaptation and Homeostasis of Tumor Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Mark; Sadow, Peter M.; Lawler, Jack; Nucera, Carmelo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is characterized by pleomorphic cells, has a poor prognosis, is highly devastating disease, and is not curable. No reliable biomarkers of metastatic potential, helpful for early diagnosis of ATC and therapeutic response have been found yet. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) plays a fundamental role in cancer progression by regulating cell stromal cross-talk in the tumor microenvironment. Goals: Our goal was to understand whether TSP-1 could affect protein levels of its integrin receptors (e.g., ITGα3, α6, and β1) and cell morphology in BRAFV600E-ATC cells in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Design: Anaplastic thyroid cancer-derived cell cultures and western blotting were used to assess integrin protein expression upon TSP-1 silencing. Immunohistochemistry was performed on orthotopic primary human ATC and metastatic ATC in lung tissue to compare TSP-1 and integrin protein expression levels. Results: TSP-1 knock-down down-regulates ITGα3, α6, and β1 in BRAFV600E-human ATC cells. BRAFV600E-ATC cells with TSP-1 knock-down were rounded compared to control cells, which displayed a spread morphology. TSP-1 knock-down also reduced TSP-1, ITGα3, α6, and β1 protein expression levels in vivo in the ATC microenvironment, which is enriched in stromal and inflammatory cells. Conclusion: TSP-1 silencing causes changes in ITG levels and ATC cell morphology. The assessment of TSP-1 and ITG levels might contribute to earlier metastatic potential of BRAFV600E-positive aggressive thyroid cancers, and allow improved patient selection for clinical trials. PMID:24348463

  1. MiR-138 promotes smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration in db/db mice through down-regulation of SIRT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Juan [Department of Gynecology, Changzhou Maternity and Children Health Hospital, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213003 (China); Li, Li; Yun, Hui-fang [Department of Anesthesiology, Changzhou No. 2 People' s Hospital, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213003 (China); Han, Ye-shan, E-mail: yeshanhan123@163.com [Department of Anesthesiology, Changzhou No. 2 People' s Hospital, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213003 (China)

    2015-08-07

    Background: Diabetic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exhibit significantly increased rates of proliferation and migration, which was the most common pathological change in atherosclerosis. In addition, the study about the role for miRNAs in the regulation of VSMC proliferation is just beginning to emerge and additional miRNAs involved in VSMC proliferation modulation should be identified. Methods: The expression of miR-138 and SIRT1 were examined in SMCs separated from db/db mice and in SMC lines C-12511 exposed to high glucose with qRT-PCR and western blot. The regulation of miR-138 on the expression of SMCs was detected with luciferase report assay. VSMCs proliferation and migration assays were performed to examine the effect of miR-138 inhibitor on VSMCs proliferation and migration. Results: We discovered that higher mRNA level of miR-138 and reduced expression of SIRT1 were observed in SMCs separated from db/db mice and in SMC lines C-12511. Moreover, luciferase report assay showed that the activity of SIRT1 3′-UTR was highly increased by miR-138 inhibitor and reduced by miR-138 mimic. In addition, we examined that the up-regulation of NF-κB induced by high glucose in SMCs was reversed by resveratrol and miR-138 inhibitor. MTT and migration assays showed that miR-138 inhibitor attenuated the proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells. Conclusion: In this study, we revealed that miR-138 might promote proliferation and migration of SMC in db/db mice through suppressing the expression of SIRT1. - Highlights: • Higher mRNA level of miR-138 was observed in SMCs from db/db mice. • The mRNA and protein level of SIRT1 in SMCs from db/db mice were greatly reduced. • miR-138 could regulate the expression of SIRT1 in SMCs. • SIRT1 overexpression reversed the up-regulation of acetylized p65 and NF-κB induced by high glucose. • MiR-138 inhibitor reversed VSMCs proliferation and migration induced by high glucose.

  2. MiR-138 promotes smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration in db/db mice through down-regulation of SIRT1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Diabetic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exhibit significantly increased rates of proliferation and migration, which was the most common pathological change in atherosclerosis. In addition, the study about the role for miRNAs in the regulation of VSMC proliferation is just beginning to emerge and additional miRNAs involved in VSMC proliferation modulation should be identified. Methods: The expression of miR-138 and SIRT1 were examined in SMCs separated from db/db mice and in SMC lines C-12511 exposed to high glucose with qRT-PCR and western blot. The regulation of miR-138 on the expression of SMCs was detected with luciferase report assay. VSMCs proliferation and migration assays were performed to examine the effect of miR-138 inhibitor on VSMCs proliferation and migration. Results: We discovered that higher mRNA level of miR-138 and reduced expression of SIRT1 were observed in SMCs separated from db/db mice and in SMC lines C-12511. Moreover, luciferase report assay showed that the activity of SIRT1 3′-UTR was highly increased by miR-138 inhibitor and reduced by miR-138 mimic. In addition, we examined that the up-regulation of NF-κB induced by high glucose in SMCs was reversed by resveratrol and miR-138 inhibitor. MTT and migration assays showed that miR-138 inhibitor attenuated the proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells. Conclusion: In this study, we revealed that miR-138 might promote proliferation and migration of SMC in db/db mice through suppressing the expression of SIRT1. - Highlights: • Higher mRNA level of miR-138 was observed in SMCs from db/db mice. • The mRNA and protein level of SIRT1 in SMCs from db/db mice were greatly reduced. • miR-138 could regulate the expression of SIRT1 in SMCs. • SIRT1 overexpression reversed the up-regulation of acetylized p65 and NF-κB induced by high glucose. • MiR-138 inhibitor reversed VSMCs proliferation and migration induced by high glucose

  3. Beta-elemene blocks epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through Smad3-mediated down-regulation of nuclear transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Li, Yinghua; Zhang, Yang; Song, Jincheng; Wang, Qimin; Zheng, Luping; Liu, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the first step required for breast cancer to initiate metastasis. However, the potential of drugs to block and reverse the EMT process are not well explored. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of beta-elemene (ELE), an active component of a natural plant-derived anti-neoplastic agent in an established EMT model mediated by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1). We found that ELE (40 µg/ml ) blocked the TGF-β1-induced phenotypic transition in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. ELE was able to inhibit TGF-β1-mediated upregulation of mRNA and protein expression of nuclear transcription factors (SNAI1, SNAI2, TWIST and SIP1), potentially through decreasing the expression and phosphorylation of Smad3, a central protein mediating the TGF-β1 signalling pathway. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic benefit of ELE in treating basal-like breast cancer. PMID:23516540

  4. Ascorbic acid supplementation down-regulates the alcohol induced oxidative stress, hepatic stellate cell activation, cytotoxicity and mRNA levels of selected fibrotic genes in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, P A; Harikrishnan, R; Indira, M

    2012-02-01

    Both oxidative stress and endotoxins mediated immunological reactions play a major role in the progression of alcoholic hepatic fibrosis. Ascorbic acid has been reported to reduce alcohol-induced toxicity and ascorbic acid levels are reduced in alcoholics. Hence, we investigated the hepatoprotective action of ascorbic acid in the reversal of alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis in male guinea pigs (n = 36), and it was compared with the animals abstenting from alcohol treatment. In comparison with the alcohol abstention group, there was a reduction in the activities of toxicity markers and levels of lipid and protein peroxidation products, expression of α-SMA, caspase-3 activity and mRNA levels of CYP2E1, TGF-β(1), TNF-α and α(1)(I) collagen in liver of the ascorbic acid-supplemented group. The ascorbic acid content in liver was significantly reduced in the alcohol-treated guinea pigs. But it was reversed to normal level in the ascorbic acid-supplemented group. The anti-fibrotic action of ascorbic acid in the rapid regression of alcoholic liver fibrosis may be attributed to decrease in the oxidative stress, hepatic stellate cells activation, cytotoxicity and mRNA expression of fibrotic genes CYP2E1, TGF-β(1), TNF-α and α(1) (I) collagen in hepatic tissues. PMID:22149461

  5. Phorbol ester promotes a sustained down-regulation of endothelin receptors and cellular responses to endothelin in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resink, T J; Scott-Burden, T; Weber, E; Bühler, F R

    1990-02-14

    The effect of phorbol ester pretreatment of human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMC) was studied with respect to regulation of endothelin (ET)-receptor binding and cellular responses to ET. The capacity of hVSMC to bind ET was decreased (by approximately 50% at maximum) after phorbol exposure, and this reductive effect was both rapid (t 1/2 approximately 10 min.) and sustained (for up to 24 hrs. of chronic phorbol exposure). Phorbol pretreatment inhibited both inositol phosphate and diacylclycerol production responses of hVSMC to ET in a manner that was time-dependent and sustained. Phorbol pretreatment also produced a persistent reduction in the ability of ET to release isotopically-labelled arachidonic and/or its metabolites from hVSMC, but importantly ionomycin-stimulated release was similarly negatively affected. Furthermore, ET-induced accumulation of the phospholipase A2/phospholipase B-derived inositol phospholipid metabolite, glycerophosphoinositol, was not different between control and phorbol-treated hVMSC. The mechanism whereby phorbol exerts differential, but notably sustained inhibitory effects on ET-promoted signal transduction pathways are thus complex and illustrative of the selectivity of protein kinase C in regulating cellular responses. PMID:2154974

  6. Beta-elemene blocks epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through Smad3-mediated down-regulation of nuclear transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhang

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is the first step required for breast cancer to initiate metastasis. However, the potential of drugs to block and reverse the EMT process are not well explored. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of beta-elemene (ELE, an active component of a natural plant-derived anti-neoplastic agent in an established EMT model mediated by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1. We found that ELE (40 µg/ml blocked the TGF-β1-induced phenotypic transition in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. ELE was able to inhibit TGF-β1-mediated upregulation of mRNA and protein expression of nuclear transcription factors (SNAI1, SNAI2, TWIST and SIP1, potentially through decreasing the expression and phosphorylation of Smad3, a central protein mediating the TGF-β1 signalling pathway. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic benefit of ELE in treating basal-like breast cancer.

  7. The effect of down-regulation of Smad3 by RNAi on hepatic stellate cells and a carbon tetrachloride-induced rat model of hepatic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.R. Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Searching for effective Smad3 gene-based gene therapies for hepatic fibrosis, we constructed siRNA expression plasmids targeting the rat Smad3 gene and then delivered these plasmids into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs. The effect of siRNAs on the mRNA levels of Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and collagens I-α1, III-α1 and IV-α1 (Colα1, Col3α1, Col4α1, respectively was determined by RT-PCR. Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Twice a week for 8 weeks, the untreated hepatic fibrosis model (N = 30 and the treated group (N = 20 were injected subcutaneously with 40% (v/v carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-olive oil (3 mL/kg, and the normal control group (N = 30 was injected with olive oil (3 mL/kg. In the 4th week, the treated rats were injected subcutaneously with liposome-encapsulated plasmids (150 µg/kg into the right liver lobe under general anesthesia once every 2 weeks, and the untreated rats were injected with the same volume of buffer. At the end of the 6th and 8th weeks, liver tissue and sera were collected. Pathological changes were assessed by a semi-quantitative scoring system (SSS, and a radioimmunoassay was used to establish a serum liver fibrosis index (type III procollagen, type IV collagen, laminin, and hyaluronic acid. The mRNA expression levels of the above cited genes were reduced in the HSCs transfected with the siRNA expression plasmids. Moreover, in the treated group, fibrosis evaluated by the SSS was significantly reduced (P < 0.05 and the serum indices were greatly improved (P < 0.01. These results suggest that Smad3 siRNA expression plasmids have an anti-fibrotic effect.

  8. RT-40THE DOWN-REGULATION OF H-FERRITIN AS AN ADJUVANT THERAPY IN HUMAN GLIOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Min; Liu, Xiaoli; MadhanKumar, A.B.; Slagle-Webb, Becky; Connor, James

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells generally exhibit increased iron requirements and heightened iron metabolism. As the major iron storage protein, ferritin expression is elevated in many types of cancer. In this study, we report that the sensitization of H-ferritin down-regulation in glioma cells against radiation and suggest the potential of H-ferritin down-regulation as an adjuvant therapy in human glioma. In human glioma cells, down-regulation of H-ferritin performed through a nanotechnology-based transfection...

  9. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β exerts anti-cancer effects through inducing ER stress in human glioma U87 cells: Involvement of CHOP–Wnt pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Lei; Lei, Hui; Chang, Ming-Ze; Liu, Zhi-Qin [Department of Neurological Disease, Xi' an Central Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710000 (China); Bie, Xiao-Hua, E-mail: biexiaohua_xjtu@126.com [Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Xi' an Red Cross Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China)

    2015-07-10

    We previously identified 14-3-3β as a tumor-specific isoform of 14-3-3 protein in astrocytoma, but its functional role in glioma cells and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 14-3-3β inhibition in human glioma U87 cells using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results showed that 14-3-3β is highly expressed in U87 cells but not in normal astrocyte SVGp12 cells. Knockdown of 14-3-3β by Si-14-3-3β transfection significantly decreased the cell viability but increased the LDH release in a time-dependent fashion in U87 cells, and these effects were accompanied with G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, 14-3-3β knockdown induced ER stress in U87 cells, as evidenced by ER calcium release, increased expression of XBP1S mRNA and induction of ER related pro-apoptotic factors. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β significantly decreased the nuclear localization of β-catenin and inhibited Topflash activity, which was shown to be reversely correlated with CHOP. Furthermore, Si-CHOP and sFRP were used to inhibit CHOP and Wnt, respectively. The results showed that the anti-cancer effects of 14-3-3β knockdown in U87 cells were mediated by increased expression of CHOP and followed inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In summary, the remarkable efficiency of 14-3-3β knockdown to induce apoptotic cell death in U87 cells may find therapeutic application for the treatment of glioma patients. - Highlights: • Knockdown of 14-3-3β leads to cytotoxicity in human glioma U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β results in ER stress in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β inhibits Wnt/β-catenin pathway via CHOP activation.

  10. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β exerts anti-cancer effects through inducing ER stress in human glioma U87 cells: Involvement of CHOP–Wnt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously identified 14-3-3β as a tumor-specific isoform of 14-3-3 protein in astrocytoma, but its functional role in glioma cells and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 14-3-3β inhibition in human glioma U87 cells using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results showed that 14-3-3β is highly expressed in U87 cells but not in normal astrocyte SVGp12 cells. Knockdown of 14-3-3β by Si-14-3-3β transfection significantly decreased the cell viability but increased the LDH release in a time-dependent fashion in U87 cells, and these effects were accompanied with G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, 14-3-3β knockdown induced ER stress in U87 cells, as evidenced by ER calcium release, increased expression of XBP1S mRNA and induction of ER related pro-apoptotic factors. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β significantly decreased the nuclear localization of β-catenin and inhibited Topflash activity, which was shown to be reversely correlated with CHOP. Furthermore, Si-CHOP and sFRP were used to inhibit CHOP and Wnt, respectively. The results showed that the anti-cancer effects of 14-3-3β knockdown in U87 cells were mediated by increased expression of CHOP and followed inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In summary, the remarkable efficiency of 14-3-3β knockdown to induce apoptotic cell death in U87 cells may find therapeutic application for the treatment of glioma patients. - Highlights: • Knockdown of 14-3-3β leads to cytotoxicity in human glioma U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β results in ER stress in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β inhibits Wnt/β-catenin pathway via CHOP activation

  11. Renal cell carcinoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present five cases of renal cell carcinoma in children, describing its aspects on excretory urography, ultra-sonography and computerized tomography. The clinical, pathological and radiological features are compared with those of the literature. (author)

  12. Exposure of E. coli to DNA-methylating agents impairs biofilm formation and invasion of eukaryotic cells via down regulation of the N-acetylneuraminate lyase NanA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eDi Pasquale

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation damage can be induced by endogenous and exogenous chemical agents, which has led every living organism to develop suitable response strategies. We investigated protein expression profiles of Escherichia coli upon exposure to the alkylating agent methyl-methane sulfonate (MMS by differential proteomics. Quantitative proteomic data showed a massive downregulation of enzymes belonging to the glycolytic pathway and fatty acids degradation, strongly suggesting a decrease of energy production. A strong reduction in the expression of the N-acetylneuraminate lyases (NanA involved in the sialic acid metabolism was also observed. Using a null NanA mutant and DANA, a substrate analogue acting as competitive inhibitor, we demonstrated that down regulation of NanA affects biofilm formation and adhesion properties of E. coli MV1161. Exposure to alkylating agents also decreased biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion to Caco-2 eukaryotic cell line by the adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC strain LF82. Our data showed that methylation stress impairs E. coli adhesion properties and suggest a possible role of NanA in biofilm formation and bacteria host interactions.

  13. Expression of cell wall related genes in basal and ear internodes of silking brown-midrib-3, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT down-regulated, and normal maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinant Jean-Pierre

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silage maize is a major forage and energy resource for cattle feeding, and several studies have shown that lignin content and structure are the determining factors in forage maize feeding value. In maize, four natural brown-midrib mutants have modified lignin content, lignin structure and cell wall digestibility. The greatest lignin reduction and the highest cell wall digestibility were observed in the brown-midrib-3 (bm3 mutant, which is disrupted in the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT gene. Results Expression of cell wall related genes was investigated in basal and ear internodes of normal, COMT antisens (AS225, and bm3 maize plants of the INRA F2 line. A cell wall macro-array was developed with 651 gene specific tags of genes specifically involved in cell wall biogenesis. When comparing basal (older lignifying and ear (younger lignifying internodes of the normal line, all genes known to be involved in constitutive monolignol biosynthesis had a higher expression in younger ear internodes. The expression of the COMT gene was heavily reduced, especially in the younger lignifying tissues of the ear internode. Despite the fact that AS225 transgene expression was driven only in sclerenchyma tissues, COMT expression was also heavily reduced in AS225 ear and basal internodes. COMT disruption or down-regulation led to differential expressions of a few lignin pathway genes, which were all over-expressed, except for a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene. More unexpectedly, several transcription factor genes, cell signaling genes, transport and detoxification genes, genes involved in cell wall carbohydrate metabolism and genes encoding cell wall proteins, were differentially expressed, and mostly over-expressed, in COMT-deficient plants. Conclusion Differential gene expressions in COMT-deficient plants highlighted a probable disturbance in cell wall assembly. In addition, the gene expressions suggested modified chronology of the

  14. Pulmonary Metastasis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Shim, Woo-Haing; SHIN, DONG-HOON; Kim, Yun-Seong; Sung, Hyun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, it rarely metastasizes. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma may, therefore, initially elude diagnosis and management. We describe the case of a patient with a metastatic basal cell carcinoma present in the lungs. The differential diagnosis of suspected metastatic lesions should include metastases from a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, in addition to those from more commonly metastasizing carcinomas, especially in patients with a histor...

  15. CMTM5 exhibits tumor suppressor activity through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Heyu [Central Laboratory, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Nan, Xu [Center for Human Disease Genomics, Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Ministry of Health, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Li, Xuefen [Central Laboratory, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jianyun [Department of Oral Pathology, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Sun, Lisha [Central Laboratory, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Han, Wenlin [Center for Human Disease Genomics, Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Ministry of Health, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Li, Tiejun, E-mail: litiejun22@vip.sina.com [Department of Oral Pathology, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Down-regulation of CMTM5 expression in OSCC tissues was found. • The promoter methylation status of CMTM5 was measured. • CMTM5-v1 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. • CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene in OSCC. - Abstract: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common types of malignancies in the head and neck region. CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing member 5 (CMTM5) has been recently implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in several cancer types. Herein, we examined the expression and function of CMTM5 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CMTM5 was down-regulated in oral squamous cell lines and tumor samples from patients with promoter methylation. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored CMTM5 expression. In the OSCC cell lines CAL27 and GNM, the ectopic expression of CMTM5-v1 strongly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. In addition, CMTM5-v1 inhibited tumor formation in vivo. Therefore, CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. CMTM5 exhibits tumor suppressor activity through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Down-regulation of CMTM5 expression in OSCC tissues was found. • The promoter methylation status of CMTM5 was measured. • CMTM5-v1 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. • CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene in OSCC. - Abstract: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common types of malignancies in the head and neck region. CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing member 5 (CMTM5) has been recently implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in several cancer types. Herein, we examined the expression and function of CMTM5 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CMTM5 was down-regulated in oral squamous cell lines and tumor samples from patients with promoter methylation. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored CMTM5 expression. In the OSCC cell lines CAL27 and GNM, the ectopic expression of CMTM5-v1 strongly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. In addition, CMTM5-v1 inhibited tumor formation in vivo. Therefore, CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma

  17. Metformin Causes G1-Phase Arrest via Down-Regulation of MiR-221 and Enhances TRAIL Sensitivity through DR5 Up-Regulation in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryoichi; Tomosugi, Mitsuhiro; Horinaka, Mano; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Although many chemotherapeutic strategies against cancer have been developed, pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive and intractable types of malignancies. Therefore, new strategies and anti-cancer agents are necessary to treat this disease. Metformin is a widely used drug for type-2 diabetes, and is also known as a promising candidate anti-cancer agent from recent studies in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanisms of metformin's anti-cancer effects have not been elucidated. We demonstrated that metformin suppressed the expression of miR-221, one of the most well-known oncogenic microRNAs, in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells. Moreover, we showed that the down-regulation of miR-221 by metformin caused G1-phase arrest via the up-regulation of p27, one of the direct targets of miR-221. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is also a promising agent for cancer treatment. While recent studies showed that treatment with only TRAIL was not effective against pancreatic cancer cells, the present data showed that metformin sensitized p53-mutated pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL. Metformin induced the expressions of death receptor 5 (DR5), a receptor for TRAIL, and Bim with a pro-apoptotic function in the downstream of TRAIL-DR5 pathway. We suggest that the up-regulation of these proteins may contribute to sensitization of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The combination therapy of metformin and TRAIL could therefore be effective in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:25955843

  18. Par-4 Down-regulation Promotes Breast Cancer Recurrence by Preventing Multinucleation following Targeted Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, James V.; Pan, Tien-chi; Ruth, Jason; Feng, Yi; Zhou, Alice; Pant, Dhruv; Grimley, Joshua S.; Wandless, Thomas J.; DeMichele, Angela; Chodosh, Lewis A.

    2013-01-01

    Most deaths from breast cancer result from tumor recurrence, but the mechanisms underlying tumor relapse are largely unknown. We now report that Par-4 is down-regulated during tumor recurrence and that Par-4 down-regulation is necessary and sufficient to promote recurrence. Tumor cells with low Par-4 expression survive therapy by evading a program of Par-4-dependent multinucleation and apoptosis that is otherwise engaged following treatment. Low Par-4 expression is associated with poor respon...

  19. Simultaneous Development of Renal Cell Carcinoma and Multifocal Urothelial Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Keng Chuang; Heng-Chang Chuang; Kwai-Fong Ng

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of multifocal urothelial carcinoma (UC) and ipsilateral renalcell carcinoma (RCC) is rare. We report a 67-year-old woman with multifocal, infiltratingurothelial carcinoma and unilateral renal cell carcinoma. She was referred to our departmentbecause of painless gross hematuria. Cystoscopy, computed tomography and retrogradepyelography studies revealed bladder, bilateral renal and ureter UC. She was treated withtransurethral resection of the bladder tumor followed by bi...

  20. Simultaneous Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bighan Khademi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The association of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx with thyroid papillary carcinoma is an unusual finding. From 2004 to 2011, approximately 250 patients underwent laryngectomies due to squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx at the Otolaryngology Department of Khalili Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In three patients, synchronous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma was found. Histopathologic study of the lymph nodes revealed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. We report three cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma incidentally found on histological examinations of resected thyroid lobes, as a procedure required for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In comparison, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma needs more aggressive treatment than well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The prevalence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, as an incidental finding in our study was 0.01%. Therefore, preoperative evaluation of the thyroid gland by ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspicious lesions is recommended in patients who are candidates for open laryngectomy.

  1. Degradation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mediates Dasatinib-Induced Apoptosis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chin Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is an important oncoprotein that promotes cell growth and proliferation. Dasatinib, a bcr-abl inhibitor, has been approved clinically for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia and demonstrated to be effective against solid tumors in vitro through Src inhibition. Here, we disclose that EGFR degradation mediated dasatinib-induced apoptosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC cells. HNSCC cells, including Ca9-22, FaDu, HSC3, SAS, SCC-25, and UMSCC1, were treated with dasatinib, and cell viability, apoptosis, and underlying signal transduction were evaluated. Dasatinib exhibited differential sensitivities against HNSCC cells. Growth inhibition and apoptosis were correlated with its inhibition on Akt, Erk, and Bcl-2, irrespective of Src inhibition. Accordingly, we found that down-regulation of EGFR was a determinant of dasatinib sensitivity. Lysosome inhibitor reversed dasatinib-induced EGFR down-regulation, and c-cbl activity was increased by dasatinib, indicating that dasatinib-induced EGFR down-regulation might be through c-cbl-mediated lysosome degradation. Increased EGFR activation by ligand administration rescued cells from dasatinib-induced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of EGFR enhanced its apoptotic effect. Estrogen receptor α (ERα was demonstrated to play a role in Bcl-2 expression, and dasatinib inhibited ERα at the pretranslational level. ERα was associated with EGFR in dasatinib-treated HNSCC cells. Furthermore, the xenograft model showed that dasatinib inhibited HSC3 tumor growth through in vivo down-regulation of EGFR and ERα. In conclusion, degradation of EGFR is a novel mechanism responsible for dasatinib-induced apoptosis in HNSCC cells.

  2. Proteasome involvement in agonist-induced down-regulation of mu and delta opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, K; Bandari, P; Chinen, N; Howells, R D

    2001-04-13

    This study investigated the mechanism of agonist-induced opioid receptor down-regulation. Incubation of HEK 293 cells expressing FLAG-tagged delta and mu receptors with agonists caused a time-dependent decrease in opioid receptor levels assayed by immunoblotting. Pulse-chase experiments using [(35)S]methionine metabolic labeling indicated that the turnover rate of delta receptors was accelerated 5-fold following agonist stimulation. Inactivation of functional G(i) and G(o) proteins by pertussis toxin-attenuated down-regulation of the mu opioid receptor, while down-regulation of the delta opioid receptor was unaffected. Pretreatment of cells with inhibitors of lysosomal proteases, calpain, and caspases had little effect on mu and delta opioid receptor down-regulation. In marked contrast, pretreatment with proteasome inhibitors attenuated agonist-induced mu and delta receptor down-regulation. In addition, incubation of cells with proteasome inhibitors in the absence of agonists increased steady-state mu and delta opioid receptor levels. Immunoprecipitation of mu and delta opioid receptors followed by immunoblotting with ubiquitin antibodies suggested that preincubation with proteasome inhibitors promoted accumulation of polyubiquitinated receptors. These data provide evidence that the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway plays a role in agonist-induced down-regulation and basal turnover of opioid receptors. PMID:11152677

  3. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differentiation is practically very rare.

  4. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Divvya; Rehana; Viswanathan; Krishnaswamy; Anvar Ali

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differen...

  5. REGγ is a strong candidate for the regulation of cell cycle, proliferation and the invasion by poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REGγ is a proteasome activator that facilitates the degradation of small peptides. Abnormally high expression of REGγ has been observed in thyroid carcinomas. The purpose of the present study was to explore the role of REGγ in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). For this purpose, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was introduced to down-regulate the level of REGγ in the PDTC cell line SW579. Down-regulation of REGγ at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. FACS analysis revealed cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition, the MTT assay showed inhibition of cell proliferation, and the Transwell assay showed restricted cell invasion. Furthermore, the expression of the p21 protein was increased, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein decreased, and the expression of the p27 protein was unchanged as shown by Western blot analyses. REGγ plays a critical role in the cell cycle, proliferation and invasion of SW579 cells. The alteration of p21 and PCNA proteins related to the down-regulation of REGγ suggests that p21 and PCNA participate in the process of REGγ regulation of cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Thus, targeting REGγ has a therapeutic potential in the management of PDTC patients

  6. Down-regulation of osteopontin attenuates breast tumour progression in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Goutam; Jain, Shalini; Patil, Tushar V; Kundu, Gopal C

    2008-12-01

    Development of breast tumour malignancies results in enhanced expression of various oncogenic molecules. Elevated expression of osteopontin (OPN) in higher grades of breast carcinoma correlates with enhanced expressions of several oncogenic molecules (urokinase-type plasminogen activator [uPA], matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 [MMP-2 and -9]) and increased angiogenic potential of breast carcinoma. In this study, using in vitro and multiple in vivo models, we have demonstrated that silencing of OPN by its specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) down-regulates the expressions of oncogenic molecules such as uPA, MMP-2 and -9 resulting in inhibition of in vitro cell motility and in vivo tumourigenicity in mice. Moreover our results demonstrated that OPN-/- mice showed slower progression of tumour growth in breast cancer model as compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, the data showed that injection of carcinogenic compound, pristane (2, 6,10,14-tetramethylpen-tadecane) induces breast tumour progression leading to enhanced expression of OPN and other oncogenic molecules in mammary fat pad of nude- and wild-type mice but not in OPN-/- mice. However, intratumoural injection of OPN siRNA to pristane-induced tumour significantly suppressed these effects. Our data revealed that knocking down of OPN effectively curb breast cancer progression and further suggested that developing of OPN-based therapeutics might be an emerging approach for the next generation of breast cancer management. PMID:18266970

  7. Basal cell carcinoma of penis: case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, M Z; Polacarz, S V; Partington, P E

    1988-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is rare. A patient who presented with a penile and scrotal ulcer due to basal cell carcinoma is reported. Wide local excision and split skin grafting were performed to excise the lesion completely.

  8. Antibody-induced down-regulation of a mutated insulin receptor lacking an intact cytoplasmic domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insulin receptor down-regulation was studied in various Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines expressing transfected human insulin receptor cDNAs. In addition to a cell line expressing the normal receptor (CHO.T line), three lines expressing mutated receptors were studied: the CHO.T-t line, which expresses a receptor with a degraded cytoplasmic domain due to the removal of the C-terminal 112 amino acids, and the CHO.YF1 and CHO.YF3 lines, in which important autophosphorylation sites of the receptor kinase (tyrosines-1162 and -1163) have been replaced by phenylalanine. A monoclonal anti-receptor antibody, but not insulin itself, was found to down-regulate cell surface receptor levels in all four cell lines by 60-80% after 18-h treatment at 370C. Down-regulation of the CHO.T and CHO.T-t receptors occurred at similar antibody concentrations and with a similar time course, although the maximum level of CHO.T-t down-regulation (60%) was generally lower than the level of CHO.T down-regulation (80%). Pulse-chase labeling of these two cell types with [35S]methionine revealed that antibody treatment of both CHO.T and CHO.T-t cells resulted in a similar increase in the rate of degradation of mature receptor subunits. These results indicate that antibody-induced down-regulation of the insulin receptor in these cells can occur in the absence of various autophosphorylation sites of the receptor and that the mechanism of antibody-induced down-regulation is different from that for insulin

  9. EMP INDUCES APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN LUNG CARCINOMA CELL LINE GLC-82

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓哲; 赵梅兰; 王德文; 董波

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on apoptosis of human lung carcinoma cell line GLC-82. Methods: The injury changes in GLC-82 cells after irradiated by EMP (electric field intensity was 60 kV/m with 5 pulses/2 min) were analyzed by cytometry, MTT chronometry and flow cytometry. The immuno- histochemical SP staining was used to determine the expressions of bcl-2 protein and p53 protein. The stained positive cells were analyzed by CMIAS-II image analysis system at a magnification 400. All data were analyzed by SPSS8.0 software. Results: EMP could obviously inhibited lung carcinoma cell line GLC-82 proliferation and increased the number of non-adherent cells. The absorbance value (A570) of MTT decreased immediately, at 0 h, 1 h and 6 h after the GLC-82 cells irradiated by EMP as compared with control group. The highest apoptosis rate was found to reach 13.38% by flow cytometry at 6 h after EMP irradiation. Down-regulation of bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of bax expression were induced by EMP. Conclusion: EMP promoted apoptosis of GLC-82 cells. At same time, EMP can down-regulate bcl-2 expression and up-regulate p53 expression in GLC-82 cells. The bcl-2 and the p53 protein may involve the apoptotic process.

  10. Down-regulation of gut-enriched Krüppel-like factor expression in esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Wang; Zhi-Hua Liu; Fang Ding; Xiu-Qin Wang; Chuan-Nong Zhou; Min Wu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Esophageal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. But the molecular mechanisms of esophageal carcinoma remains unclear. Gut-enriched factor which is expressed abandantly in the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract and deregulation of GKLF was linked to several types of cancer. It is of interest to study the expression and role of GKLF in esophageal carcinoma.METHODS: Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to compare GKLF expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma to normal mucosa of the same patients. The serum deprivation inducibility of GKLF was observed in an esophageal squamous cancer cell line by comparison to the primary culture of human fibroblast. The effect of antisense GKLF transfection on the proliferation and adhesion of esophageal squamous cancer cell line was also observed.RESULTS: The level of GKLF transcript is lower in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma compared to paired normal-appearing mucosa in 14 of 17 of the tumors analyzed.The serum deprivation inducibility of GKLF was greatly decreased in an esophageal squamous cancer cell line compared to the primary culture of human fibroblast.Decreased expression of GKLF in the esophageal cancer cell by antisense GKLF transfection increased its proliferation rate compared with that of vector transfected cell control (P<0.05). Transfection of antisense GKLF decreased its adhesion ability (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The findings of this study demonstrate the down-regulation of GKLF in esophageal squamous cancer,and suggest that deregulation of GKLF may play a role in initiation and/or progression as well as the metastasis of esophageal squamous cancer.

  11. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  12. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur S; Thami G; Kanwar A

    2003-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  13. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  14. Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells Modulate Chemokine Expression and Hyaluronan Synthesis in Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Inga; Freudenberger, Till; Twarock, Sören; Yamaguchi, Yu; Grandoch, Maria; Fischer, Jens W

    2016-02-19

    The aim of this study was to characterize the interaction of KYSE-410, an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line, and fibroblasts with respect to the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA) and chemokine expression. KYSE-410 cells induced the mRNA expression of HA synthase 2 (Has2) in normal skin fibroblasts (SF) only in direct co-cultures. Parallel to Has2 mRNA, Has2 antisense RNA (Has2os2) was up-regulated in co-cultures. Knockdown of LEF1, a downstream target of Wnt signaling, abrogated Has2 and Has2os2 induction. After knockdown of Has2 in SF, significantly less α-smooth muscle actin expression was detected in co-cultures. Moreover, it was investigated whether the phenotype of KYSE-410 was affected in co-culture with SF and whether Has2 knockdown in SF had an impact on KYSE-410 cells in co-culture. However, no effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers, proliferation, and migration were detected. In addition to Has2 mRNA, the chemokine CCL5 was up-regulated and CCL11 was down-regulated in SF in co-culture. Furthermore, co-cultures of KYSE-410 cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) were investigated. Similar to SF, Has2 and Ccl5 were up-regulated and Ccl11 was down-regulated in CAF in co-culture. Importantly and in contrast to SF, inhibiting HA synthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone abrogated the effect of co-culture on Ccl5 in CAF. Moreover, HA was found to promote adhesion of CD4(+) but not CD8(+) cells to xenogaft tumor tissues. In conclusion, direct co-culture of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and fibroblasts induced stromal HA synthesis via Wnt/LEF1 and altered the chemokine profile of stromal fibroblasts, which in turn may affect the tumor immune response. PMID:26699196

  15. Cryotherapy in basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra A; Balachandran C; Shenoi S; Sabitha L; Pai Satish; Ravikumar B; Roy Alfred

    1999-01-01

    Cryotherapy has proved to be an effective tool in the management of various dermatoses. We report 6 patients with histopathologically proven basal cell carcinoma of variable sizes treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy by the open spray technique. Lesions tended to heal with depigmentation and scar formation. However depigmented areas often repigmented over a period of time.

  16. MRI analysis of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze MRI manifestation and enhancement of renal cell carcinoma, and to improve the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Methods: 48 cases of renal cell carcinoma proven by surgery and pathology were reviewed. MRI scans including T1WI, T2WI, TRUFI and contrast enhancement were carried out in all cases and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was performed in 15. Results: Of the 48 cases, there were clear cell carcinoma in 41, chromophobe cell carcinoma in 4 and papillary cell carcinoma in 3. The tumors were homogeneously T1 iso- or hypointense in 33 and heterogeneous in 15; homogeneously T2 hyperintense in 14, isointense in 6 and heterogeneous in 28 patients. Pseudocapsule was found in 10 cases. Contrast enhancement was homogeneous in 6, heterogeneous in 34, irregularly peripheral within the wall in 5, and homogeneously circular in 3. Conclusion: MRI can accurately diagnose renal cell carcinoma and help to determine the cell subsets. (authors)

  17. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the current treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, focusing on medical treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The most important recent publications have been selected after a literature search employing PubMed using the search terms: advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma, anti-angiogenesis drugs and systemic therapy; also significant meeting abstracts were consulted. RESULTS: Progress in understanding the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma, especially related to genetics and angiogenesis, has been achieved mainly through of the study of von Hippel-Lindau disease. A great variety of active agents have been developed and tested in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. New specific molecular therapies in metastatic disease are discussed. Sunitinib, Sorafenib and Bevacizumab increase the progression-free survival when compared to therapy with cytokines. Temsirolimus increases overall survival in high-risk patients. Growth factors and regulatory enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase IX may be targets for future therapies. CONCLUSIONS: A broader knowledge of clear cell carcinoma molecular biology has permitted the beginning of a new era in mRCC therapy. Benefits of these novel agents in terms of progression-free and overall survival have been observed in patients with mRCC, and, in many cases, have become the standard of care. Sunitinib is now considered the new reference first-line treatment for mRCC. Despite all the progress in recent years, complete responses are still very rare. Currently, many important issues regarding the use of these agents in the management of metastatic renal cancer still need to be properly addressed.

  18. Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma in the epididymis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-wei; YUAN Lin; Hu Hong-hui

    2005-01-01

    @@ Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma is a special type of tumor which is usually found in the lungs. However, it is very rare in extra pulmonary tissues, especially in epididymis. One case of small cell undifferentiated carcinoma in the right epididymis, with partial differentiation to adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma is reported as follows.

  19. Inhibitory effects of Arhgap6 on cervical carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junping; Liu, Yang; Yin, Yihua

    2016-02-01

    Ras homology GTPase activation protein 6 (Arhgap6), as a member of the rhoGAP family of proteins, performs vital functions on the regulation of actin polymerization at the plasma membrane during several cellular processes. The role of Arhgap6 in the progression and development of cancer remains nearly unknown. This study aimed at exploring the effects of Arhgap6 on cervical carcinoma. Human cervical cancer cells HeLa and SiHa were transduced with a lentivirus targeting Arhgap6 (Arhgap6+), while CaSki and C4-1 cells were transfected with miRNA. Cell proliferation was identified by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis were identified by flow cytometry. The capacity of cell migration, invasion, and adhesion were detected by Transwell assay. Further, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were used to analyze the expression levels of Arhgap6 and several tumor-related genes. Co-immunoprecipitation assay was performed to validate the interaction between Arhgap6 and Rac3 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3). Results showed that Arhgap6 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and adhesion of cervical carcinoma, induced cell apoptosis, and caused cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase (n = 3, p < 0.05). Expression of the tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes were up- and down-regulated respectively by Arhgap6, and Rac3 was proved to be the target of Arhgap6. Besides, in in vivo assays, tumor size and weight were destructed in Arhgap6+ athymic nude mouse. This study indicated that Arhgap6 may play a role in the treatment of cervical cancer as a tumor supressor. PMID:26628301

  20. The many faces of basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most easily cured carcinoma, but because of the many forms it can take, and because it grows so slowly, it can be misdiagnosed or neglected. The author discusses its more common forms and etiologic considerations.

  1. Bax Inhibitor-1 down-regulation in the progression of chronic liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burra Patrizia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1 is an evolutionary conserved endoplasmic reticulum protein that, when overexpressed in mammalian cells, suppresses the apoptosis induced by Bax, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. The aims of this study were: (1 to clarify the role of intrinsic anti- and pro-apoptotic mediators, evaluating Bax and BI-1 mRNA and protein expressions in liver tissues from patients with different degrees of liver damage; (2 to determine whether HCV and HBV infections modulate said expression. Methods We examined 62 patients: 39 with chronic hepatitis (CH (31 HCV-related and 8 HBV-related; 7 with cirrhosis (6 HCV-related and 1 HBV-related; 13 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC [7 in viral cirrhosis (6 HCV- and 1 HBV-related, 6 in non-viral cirrhosis]; and 3 controls. Bax and BI-1 mRNAs were quantified by real-time PCR, and BI-1 protein expression by Western blot. Results CH tissues expressed significantly higher BI-1 mRNA levels than cirrhotic tissues surrounding HCC (P Conclusions BI-1 expression is down-regulated as liver damage progresses. The high BI-1 mRNAs levels observed in early liver disease may protect virus-infected cells against apoptosis, while their progressive downregulation may facilitate hepatocellular carcinogenesis. HCV genotype seems to have a relevant role in Bax transcript expression.

  2. Immunotherapy in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, R M

    1999-06-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma continue to present a therapeutic challenge. Current therapeutic approaches involve surgery and various types of immunotherapy. The rationale for this latter form of therapy include the observations of spontaneous tumor regression, the presence of a T-cell-mediated immune response, and the tumor responses observed in patients receiving cytokine therapy. Analysis of prognostic factors in these patients demonstrates that clinical responses occur most frequently in individuals with good performance status. The cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2, aldesleukin [Proleukin], interferon-alfa (Intron A, Roferon-A), or the combination produce responses in 15% to 20% of patients. Randomized trials suggest that administration of interferon-alfa may result in a modest improvement in median survival. Investigation of the molecular genetics of renal cell carcinoma and the presence of T-lymphocyte immune dysregulation have suggested new therapeutic strategies. Further preclinical and clinical studies investigating inhibitors of angiogenesis or pharmacologic methods to reverse immune dysregulation are ongoing. Therapeutic results in patients with renal cell carcinoma remain limited, and investigational approaches are warranted. PMID:10378218

  3. Down-regulation of Runx1 Expression by TCR Signal Involves an Autoregulatory Mechanism and Contributes to IL-2 Production*

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Won Fen; Kurokawa, Mineo; Satake, Masanobu; Kohu, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Runx1 transcription factor plays multiple roles in T cell development, differentiation, and function. However, the regulatory mechanisms and functional significance of high Runx1 protein expression in resting peripheral CD4+ T cells is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that T-cell receptor (TCR) activation down-regulates distal Runx1 transcription, resulting in a significant reduction of Runx1 protein. Interestingly, this down-regulation of distal Runx1 transcription appears to be med...

  4. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H;

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  5. Protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and PKC theta are the major PKC isotypes involved in TCR down-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina; Nielsen, Martin W; Bonefeld, Charlotte M; Boding, Lasse; Larsen, Jeppe M; Leitges, Michael; Baier, Gottfried; Odum, Niels; Geisler, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    study was to identify the PKC isotype(s) involved in TCR down-regulation and to elucidate the mechanism by which they induce TCR down-regulation. To accomplish this, we studied TCR down-regulation in the human T cell line Jurkat, in primary human T cells, or in the mouse T cell line DO11.10 in which we......It is well known that protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in regulation of TCR cell surface expression levels. However, eight different PKC isotypes are present in T cells, and to date the particular isotype(s) involved in TCR down-regulation remains to be identified. The aim of this...

  6. Scalp squamous cell carcinoma in xeroderma pigmentosum

    OpenAIRE

    Awan, Basim A; Hanadi Alzanbagi; Osama A Samargandi; Hossam Ammar

    2014-01-01

    Context: Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that appears in early childhood. Squamous cell carcinoma is not uncommon in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and mostly involving the face, head, neck, and scalp. However, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp may exhibit an aggressive course. Case Report: Here, we present a huge squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp in a three-years-old child with xeroderma pigmentosum. In addition, we illustrate the challenges of a child...

  7. Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma and Tonsil Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dario Marcotullio; Giannicola Iannella; Gian Franco Macri; Caterina Marinelli; Melissa Zelli; Giuseppe Magliulo

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common renal tumor in adults. Clear cell carcinoma represents 85% of all histological subtypes. In February 2012 a 72-year-old woman came to our department due to the appearance of massive hemoptysis and pharyngodinia. Previously, this patient was diagnosed with a renal cell carcinoma treated with left nephrectomy. We observed an exophytic, grayish, and ulcerated mass in the left tonsillar lodge and decided to subject the patient to an immediate tonsillectomy....

  8. Clear cell carcinoma of the lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, C; Carlile, A

    1985-01-01

    Six tumours of the lung initially classified as clear cell carcinoma, were studied. Examination of further material by light and electron microscopy showed adenocarcinomatous differentiation in three cases and squamous differentiation in two. One case showed the features of a large cell anaplastic carcinoma. The clear appearance of the cytoplasm in paraffin sections was due to accumulations of glycogen that were partially removed during processing. It is concluded that clear cell carcinoma is...

  9. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Çiçek, Tufan; Coşkunoğlu, Esra Zeynep; Duran, Berkan; Çiftci, Egemen

    2015-01-01

    Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder a...

  10. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Tufan Cicek; Esra Zeynep Coskunoglu; Berkan Duran; Egemen Ciftci

    2015-01-01

    Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder ...

  11. Synchronous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Multiple Digits

    OpenAIRE

    Abner, Sabra; Redstone, Jeremiah; Chowdhry, Saeed; Kasdan, Morton L.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2011-01-01

    Cancers of the perionychium are relatively rare occurrences and are often related to chronic inflammation associated with trauma, infection, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, or other carcinogens. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common tumor reported of the nail bed. Synchronous squamous cell carcinomas of the perionychium have been rarely reported. We present a case of a 46-year-old woman with synchronous squamous cell carcinomas involving both hands and multiple digits. Treatment modal...

  12. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Concurrent with Bowen's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyun Chul; Kang, Ho Song; Park, Kyoung Tae; Oh, Young Ha; Yu, Hee Joon; Kim, Joung Soo

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive cutaneous malignancy of the elderly and immunocompromised patients. It is occasionally found coexisting with other diseases, such as squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, miscellaneous adnexal tumors, and rarely Bowen disease. A 75-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of an irregularly shaped erythematous patch on the left mandibular angle. Three months later, a 1.5×1.0 cm sized painless and rapidly growi...

  13. Case of hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Sadaf; Jadidi, Nima; Faraj, Sheila F.; Rodriquez, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of renal malignancy and it originates from the renal tubular epithelium. Due to the diversity in the histopathological and molecular characteristics, it is typically subclassified into five different categories. Papillary renal cell carcinoma is one subclassification and it includes two variants: sporadic and hereditary. Although the hereditary form comprises a smaller number of cases of papillary renal cell carcinoma, an understanding of the molec...

  14. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD; Waseem-Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi, MD; Julie Gehl, MD, PhD; Christen Krag, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstruct...

  15. MicroRNA-193b enhances tumor progression via down regulation of neurofibromin 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lenarduzzi

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in therapeutic approaches for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC, clinical outcome has remained disappointing, with 5-year overall survival rates hovering around 40-50%, underscoring an urgent need to better understand the biological bases of this disease. We chose to address this challenge by studying the role of micro-RNAs (miRNAs in HNSCC. MiR-193b was identified as an over-expressed miRNA from global miRNA profiling studies previously conducted in our lab, and confirmed in HNSCC cell lines. In vitro knockdown of miR-193b in FaDu cancer cells substantially reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion, along with suppressed tumour formation in vivo. By integrating in silico prediction algorithms with in vitro experimental mRNA profilings, plus mRNA expression data of clinical specimens, neurofibromin 1 (NF1 was identified to be a target of miR-193b. Concordantly, miR-193b knockdown decreased NF1 transcript and protein levels significantly. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed the direct interaction of miR-193b with NF1. Moreover, p-ERK, a downstream target of NF1 was also suppressed after miR-193b knockdown. FaDu cells treated with a p-ERK inhibitor (U0126 phenocopied the reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion observed with miR-193b knockdown. Finally, HNSCC patients whose tumours expressed high levels of miR-193b experienced a lower disease-free survival compared to patients with low miR-193b expression. Our findings identified miR-193b as a potentially novel prognostic marker in HNSCC that drives tumour progression via down-regulating NF1, in turn leading to activation of ERK, resulting in proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumour formation.

  16. Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting as Dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Sharad; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma presenting with dysphagia is rare. We report a case who presented with dysphagia as the only manifestations of renal malignancy. Biopsy from the pyriform fossa nodules revealed a clear cell neoplasm. Immuno-histochemical analysis of tissue confirmed metastasis of renal cell carcinoma.

  17. EMX2 Is a Predictive Marker for Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Yue

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC account for approximately 30% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Current staging methods do not adequately predict outcome for this disease. EMX2 is a homeo-domain containing transcription factor known to regulate a key developmental pathway. This study assessed the significance of EMX2 as a prognostic and predictive marker for resectable lung SCC.Two independent cohorts of patients with lung SCC undergoing surgical resection were studied. EMX2 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, or immunofluorescence. EMX2 expression levels in tissue specimens were scored and correlated with patient outcomes. Chemo-sensitivity of lung SCC cell lines stably transfected with EMX2 shRNAs to cisplatin, carboplatin, and docetaxel was examined in vitro.EMX2 expression was down-regulated in lung SCC tissue samples compared to their matched adjacent normal tissues. Positive EMX2 expression was significantly associated with improved overall survival in stage I lung SCC patients, and in stage II/IIIA lung SCC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. EMX2 expression was also associated with expression of EMT markers in both lung SCC cell lines and tissue samples. Knock-down of EMX2 expression in lung SCC cells promoted chemo-resistance and cell migration.EMX2 expression is down-regulated in lung SCC and its down-regulation is associated with chemo-resistance in lung SCC cells, possibly through regulation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT. EMX2 may serve as a novel prognostic marker for stage I lung SCC patients and a prediction marker for stage II/IIIA lung SCC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.

  18. EMX2 Is a Predictive Marker for Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tolani, Bhairavi; Mo, Minli; Zhang, Hua; Zheng, Qingfeng; Yang, Yue; Cheng, Runfen; Jin, Joy Q.; Luh, Thomas W.; Yang, Cathryn; Tseng, Hsin-Hui K.; Giroux-Leprieur, Etienne; Woodard, Gavitt A.; Hao, Xishan; Wang, Changli; Jablons, David M.; He, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) account for approximately 30% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Current staging methods do not adequately predict outcome for this disease. EMX2 is a homeo-domain containing transcription factor known to regulate a key developmental pathway. This study assessed the significance of EMX2 as a prognostic and predictive marker for resectable lung SCC. Methods Two independent cohorts of patients with lung SCC undergoing surgical resection were studied. EMX2 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, or immunofluorescence. EMX2 expression levels in tissue specimens were scored and correlated with patient outcomes. Chemo-sensitivity of lung SCC cell lines stably transfected with EMX2 shRNAs to cisplatin, carboplatin, and docetaxel was examined in vitro. Results EMX2 expression was down-regulated in lung SCC tissue samples compared to their matched adjacent normal tissues. Positive EMX2 expression was significantly associated with improved overall survival in stage I lung SCC patients, and in stage II/IIIA lung SCC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. EMX2 expression was also associated with expression of EMT markers in both lung SCC cell lines and tissue samples. Knock-down of EMX2 expression in lung SCC cells promoted chemo-resistance and cell migration. Conclusions EMX2 expression is down-regulated in lung SCC and its down-regulation is associated with chemo-resistance in lung SCC cells, possibly through regulation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). EMX2 may serve as a novel prognostic marker for stage I lung SCC patients and a prediction marker for stage II/IIIA lung SCC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26132438

  19. Tryptanthrin ameliorates atopic dermatitis through down-regulation of TSLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na-Ra; Moon, Phil-Dong; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2014-01-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease that greatly worsens quality of life. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays a decisive role in the development of AD. The purpose of this study is to examine whether tryptanthrin (TR) would suppress AD through the regulation of TSLP. We analyzed the effect of TR on the level of TSLP from phorbol myristate acetate/calcium ionophore A23187-activated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells, in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced AD-like skin lesions of NC/Nga mice, and in anti-CD3/anti-CD28-stimulated splenocytes. TR significantly suppressed the level of intracellular calcium and the production and mRNA expression of TSLP through the blockade of receptor-interacting protein 2/caspase-1/nuclear factor-κB pathway in the activated HMC-1 cells. TR also significantly suppressed the levels of histidine decarboxylase and IL-1β. Furthermore, TR ameliorated clinical symptoms in the AD model. TR significantly reduced the levels of TSLP, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and caspase-1 in AD skin lesions. Also, TR significantly reduced the serum levels of histamine and IL-4 in the AD model. Finally, TR significantly inhibited the production of IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α from the stimulated splenocytes. Taken together, TR exhibits the potential to be a therapeutic agent for AD through down-regulation of TSLP. PMID:24295961

  20. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis. PMID:27398205

  1. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne – case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P.

    2016-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment‐resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.

  2. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-12-16

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  3. Calmidazolium chloride inhibits growth of murine embryonal carcinoma cells, a model of cancer stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jina; Kim, Min Seong; Kim, Min Aeh; Jang, Yeun Kyu

    2016-09-01

    Calmidazolium chloride (CMZ) is widely used as a calmodulin (CaM) antagonist, but is also known to induce apoptosis in certain cancer cell lines. However, in spite of the importance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in cancer therapy, the effects of CMZ on CSCs are not yet well understood. We investigated the effects of CMZ on the F9 embryonal carcinoma cell (ECC) line as a surrogate model of CSCs. To avoid bias due to culture conditions, F9 ECCs and E14 embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were grown in the same culture medium. Results obtained using a cell-counting kit showed that CMZ significantly inhibited growth in F9 ECCs compared with growth in E14 ESCs. CMZ also induced apoptosis of F9 ECCs, but not of E14 ESCs, which was associated with caspase-3 activation and an increased fraction of the sub-G1 cell population. In addition, our data revealed that the expression of stemness-related genes including c-Myc was selectively down regulated in CMZ-treated F9 ECCs. Our results suggest that CMZ can inhibit the growth of ECCs by inducing apoptosis and down regulating stemness-related genes, without causing any harm to normal stem cells. These findings indicate a potential application of CMZ in the development of anti-CSC therapeutics. PMID:27247146

  4. Effects of Dexamethasone on glucocorticoid receptor expression in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line 3AO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明娟; 宋亮年; 王昭梅

    2003-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of Dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic glucocorticoid, on glucocorticoid receptor expression in the human ovarian carcinoma cell line 3AO. The molecular mechanism of glucocorticoid (GC) on 3AO cells was also studied.Methods The expression and regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in 3AO cells was studied by utilizing radioligand binding assay and quantitative RT-PCR. Results High affinity and low capacity GR existed in 3AO cells, in addition, GR binding activity was down-regulated by Dex in a time-dependent manner, to a level about 28.34% of control following 24 hours treatment, with a concomitant decrease in GR mRNA. The induction of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity by Dex was reversed by RU486, a potent glucocorticoid antagonist.Conclusion In 3AO cells, functional GR which can be down-regulated by Dex at the protein and mRNA level, exists suggesting that the regulating effects of Dex on GR occur at least partially at the GR mRNA level, and that the cellular effects of Dex on 3AO cells might be mediated by GR.

  5. MicroRNA-21-3p, a berberine-induced miRNA, directly down-regulates human methionine adenosyltransferases 2A and 2B and inhibits hepatoma cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Fang Lo

    Full Text Available Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT is the cellular enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM, the principal biological methyl donor and a key regulator of hepatocyte proliferation, death and differentiation. Two genes, MAT1A and MAT2A, encode 2 distinct catalytic MAT isoforms. A third gene, MAT2B, encodes a MAT2A regulatory subunit. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, MAT1A downregulation and MAT2A upregulation occur, known as the MAT1A:MAT2A switch. The switch is accompanied with an increasing expression of MAT2B, which results in decreased SAM levels and facilitates cancer cell growth. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from many medicinal herbs such as Coptis chinensis, has a wide range of pharmacological effects including anti-cancer effects. Because drug-induced microRNAs have recently emerged as key regulators in guiding their pharmacological effects, we examined whether microRNA expression is differentially altered by berberine treatment in HCC. In this study, we used microRNA microarrays to find that the expression level of miR-21-3p (previously named miR-21* increased after berberine treatment in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line. To predict the putative targets of miR-21-3p, we integrated the gene expression profiles of HepG2 cells after berberine treatment by comparing with a gene list generated from sequence-based microRNA target prediction software. We then confirmed these predictions through transfection of microRNA mimics and a 3' UTR reporter assay. Our findings provide the first evidence that miR-21-3p directly reduces the expression of MAT2A and MAT2B by targeting their 3' UTRs. In addition, an overexpression of miR-21-3p increased intracellular SAM contents, which have been proven to be a growth disadvantage for hepatoma cells. The overexpression of miR-21-3p suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Overall, our results demonstrate that miR-21-3p functions as a tumor suppressor

  6. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Luiz De Souza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We previously published our and Johns Hopkins data titled: "Platinum-based therapy in adenosquamous pancreatic cancer: experience at two institutions” [1]. We will here like to submit a related case report as a letter to the editor to JOP in reference to the above paper. Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas has various reported incidence rates, ranging from 0.5% to as high as 5% of pancreatic ductal carcinomas [2, 3]. Of the 1300 cases of pancreatic cancers observed at autopsy in a survey in Japan in 1992, 0.7% were squamous cell carcinoma [4]. A Mayo clinic review of very rare exocrine tumors showed an even rarer incidence of squamous cell carcinoma when compared to acinar and small cell carcinoma of the pancreas [5]. This discrepancy in the reported incidence rates related to the fact that some of the cases represent adenosquamous carcinoma rather than pure squamous cell carcinoma of pancreas. In an analysis of 25 patients, mean age at diagnosis of pancreatic squamous cell carcinoma was 62 years (range: 33–80 years and there was no gender difference [6]. There is no study about the molecular profile of squamous carcinoma of the pancreas. There are no retrospective or prospective studies about the best therapy for these tumors

  7. Monocarboxylate transporter 4 facilitates cell proliferation and migration and is associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zhu

    Full Text Available Monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4 is a cell membrane transporter of lactate. Recent studies have shown that MCT4 is over-expressed in various cancers; however, its role in cancer maintenance and aggressiveness has not been fully demonstrated. This study investigated the role of MCT4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and found that it is highly expressed in OSCC patients by using immunohistochemistry. Moreover, this over-expression of MCT4 was closely associated with tumor size, TNM classification, lymphatic metastasis, distant metastasis and tumor recurrence, and also poor prognosis. To further study mechanisms of MCT4 in vitro, we used small-interfering RNA to silence its expression in OSCC cell lines. The results showed that knock-down of MCT4 decreased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The inhibition of proliferation was associated with down-regulation of p-AKT and p-ERK1/2, while decreased cell migration and invasion may be caused by down-regulation of integrin β4-SRC-FAK and MEK-ERK signaling. Together, these findings provide new insight into the critical role of MCT4 in cell proliferation and metastasis in OSCC.

  8. The Expression of p53 and Cox-2 in Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Actinic Keratosis Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Ülker KARAGECE YALÇIN; Selda SEÇKİN

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate p53 and COX-2 expressions in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratoses, and to determine a possible relationship.Material and Method: 50 basal cell carcinoma, 45 squamous cell carcinoma and 45 actinic keratosis cases were evaluated. The type of tumor in basal cell carcinoma and tumor differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma were noted and the paraffin block that best represented the tumor was chosen. Immunostainin...

  9. Spiclomazine induces apoptosis associated with the suppression of cell viability, migration and invasion in pancreatic carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhao

    Full Text Available The effective treatment for pancreatic carcinoma remains critically needed. Herein, this current study showed that spiclomazine treatment caused a reduction in viability in pancreatic carcinoma cell lines CFPAC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 in vitro. It was notable in this regard that, compared with pancreatic carcinoma cells, normal human embryonic kidney (HEK-293 and liver (HL-7702 cells were more resistant to the antigrowth effect of spiclomazine. Biochemically, spiclomazine treatment regulated the expression of protein levels in the apoptosis related pathways. Consistent with this effect, spiclomazine reduced the mitochondria membrane potential, elevated reactive oxygen species, and activated caspase-3/9. In addition, a key finding from this study was that spiclomazine suppressed migration and invasion of cancer cells through down-regulation of MMP-2/9. Collectively, the proposed studies did shed light on the antiproliferation effect of spiclomazine on pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, and further clarified the mechanisms that spiclomazine induced apoptosis associated with the suppression of migration and invasion.

  10. Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis.

  11. Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Li; Qiang Li

    2008-01-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare tumor which is defined as a carcinoma that exhibits pancreatic enzyme production by neoplastic cells. This review includes re-cent developments in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of ACC, imaging and pathological diagnosis and ap-proaches to treatment with reference to the literature.

  12. Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, Helen; Walsh, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), also known as kidney cancer, renal adenocarcinoma or hypernephroma, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma is a global burden. This article aims to provide a brief overview of RCC. It outlines epidemiology and presentation; invesitgation and staging; treatments and prognosis. The article also includes a focus on currently available drug treatments, and serves as an introduction to the topic.

  13. Renal cell carcinoma presenting with malignant ascites

    OpenAIRE

    Jennison, Erica; Wathuge, Gayathri W; Gorard, David A

    2015-01-01

    Lesson It is rare for renal cell carcinoma to involve the peritoneum and cause malignant ascites. Furthermore, it is uncommon for malignant ascites to be a presenting feature of this cancer. An unusual case of renal cell carcinoma presenting with malignant ascites is reported, and its response to sunitinib described.

  14. Renal Cell Carcinoma in Transplanted Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    M. Naroienejad; Salouti, R

    2005-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are prescribed routinely to kidney transplant recipients to prevent rejection. These medications are associated wi th an increased risk of secondary malignancies,including renal cell carcinoma in the transplanted kidney itself. We present a case of renal cell carcinoma in a transplanted kidney.

  15. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  16. Clear Cell Carcinoma and Clear Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma: a Comparative Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bilodeau, Elizabeth A.; Hoschar, Aaron P.; Barnes, E. Leon; Hunt, Jennifer L.; Seethala, Raja R.

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma or hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (CCC) and clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) are rare, low-grade and typically indolent malignancies that can be diagnostically challenging. In this study the clinicopathologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of 17 CCCs and 12 CCOCs are examined. The differential diagnosis of clear cell malignancies in the head and neck is discussed. The relationship of CCCs and CCOCs to other clear cell tumors on the basis of their i...

  17. Synchronous Renal Cell Carcinoma and Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Dafashy, Tamer J.; Cameron K. Ghaffary; Keyes, Kyle T.; Joseph Sonstein

    2016-01-01

    While renal cell carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm of the kidney, its simultaneous diagnosis with a gastrointestinal malignancy is a rare, but well reported phenomenon. This discussion focuses on three independent cases in which each patient was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma and a unique synchronous gastrointestinal malignancy. Case 1 explores the diagnosis and surgical intervention of a 66-year-old male patient synchronously diagnosed with clear cell renal cell carcinom...

  18. Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Potential Mimic of Conventional Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma on Core Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Heath Liddell; Anton Mare; Sean Heywood; Genevieve Bennett; Hin Fan Chan

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCP-RCC) is a recently described, relatively uncommon variant of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with a reported incidence of 4.1%. Thought to only arise in those with end stage renal disease, CCP-RCC is increasingly identified in those without renal impairment. CCP-RCCs have unique morphologic, genetic, and immunohistochemical features distinguishing them from both conventional clear cell renal cell carcinomas and papillary renal cell carcinomas. Immunoh...

  19. Identification of genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ping

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin is widely used for chemotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, details of the molecular mechanism responsible for cisplatin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of genes related to cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Methods A cisplatin-resistant cell line, Tca/cisplatin, was established from a cisplatin-sensitive cell line, Tca8113, which was derived from moderately-differentiated tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Global gene expression in this resistant cell line and its sensitive parent cell line was analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 microarrays. Candidate genes involved in DNA repair, the MAP pathway and cell cycle regulation were chosen to validate the microarray analysis results. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis following cisplatin exposure were also investigated. Results Cisplatin resistance in Tca/cisplatin cells was stable for two years in cisplatin-free culture medium. The IC50 for cisplatin in Tca/cisplatin was 6.5-fold higher than that in Tca8113. Microarray analysis identified 38 genes that were up-regulated and 25 that were down-regulated in this cell line. Some were novel candidates, while others are involved in well-characterized mechanisms that could be relevant to cisplatin resistance, such as RECQL for DNA repair and MAP2K6 in the MAP pathway; all the genes were further validated by Real-time PCR. The cell cycle-regulated genes CCND1 and CCND3 were involved in cisplatin resistance; 24-hour exposure to 10 μM cisplatin induced a marked S phase block in Tca/cisplatin cells but not in Tca8113 cells. Conclusion The Tca8113 cell line and its stable drug-resistant variant Tca/cisplatin provided a useful model for identifying candidate genes responsible for the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our data provide a useful basis for screening candidate targets for early diagnosis

  20. Identification of genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisplatin is widely used for chemotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, details of the molecular mechanism responsible for cisplatin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of genes related to cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. A cisplatin-resistant cell line, Tca/cisplatin, was established from a cisplatin-sensitive cell line, Tca8113, which was derived from moderately-differentiated tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Global gene expression in this resistant cell line and its sensitive parent cell line was analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 microarrays. Candidate genes involved in DNA repair, the MAP pathway and cell cycle regulation were chosen to validate the microarray analysis results. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis following cisplatin exposure were also investigated. Cisplatin resistance in Tca/cisplatin cells was stable for two years in cisplatin-free culture medium. The IC50 for cisplatin in Tca/cisplatin was 6.5-fold higher than that in Tca8113. Microarray analysis identified 38 genes that were up-regulated and 25 that were down-regulated in this cell line. Some were novel candidates, while others are involved in well-characterized mechanisms that could be relevant to cisplatin resistance, such as RECQL for DNA repair and MAP2K6 in the MAP pathway; all the genes were further validated by Real-time PCR. The cell cycle-regulated genes CCND1 and CCND3 were involved in cisplatin resistance; 24-hour exposure to 10 μM cisplatin induced a marked S phase block in Tca/cisplatin cells but not in Tca8113 cells. The Tca8113 cell line and its stable drug-resistant variant Tca/cisplatin provided a useful model for identifying candidate genes responsible for the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our data provide a useful basis for screening candidate targets for early diagnosis and further intervention in cisplatin resistance

  1. 2-Methoxyestradiol induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning-ning ZHOU; Xiao-feng ZHU; Jun-ming ZHOU; Man-zhi LI; Xiao-shi ZHANG; Peng HUANG; Wen-qi JIANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate 2-methoxyestradiol induced apoptosis and its mechanism of action in CNE2 cell lines.METHODS: CNE2 cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium and treated with 2-methoxyestradiol in different concentrations. MTT assay was used to detect growth inhibition. Flow cytometry and DNA ladders were used to detect apoptosis. Western blotting was used to observe the expression of p53, p21WAF1, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein.RESULTS: 2-methoxyestradiol inhibited proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells with IC50 value of2.82 μrnol/L. The results of flow cytometry showed an accumulation of CNE2 cells in G2/M phase in response to2-methoxyestradiol. Treatment of CNE2 cells with 2-methoxyestradiol resulted in DNA fragmentation. The expression levels of protein p53 and Bcl-2 decreased following 2-methoxyestradiol treatment in CNE2 cells, whereas Bax and p21WAF1 protein expression were unaffected after treatment with 2-methoxyestradiol. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that 2-methoxyestradiol induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis of CNE2 cells which was associated to Bcl-2 down-regulation.

  2. Molecular targeting of prostate cancer cells by a triple drug combination down-regulates integrin driven adhesion processes, delays cell cycle progression and interferes with the cdk-cyclin axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single drug use has not achieved satisfactory results in the treatment of prostate cancer, despite application of increasingly widespread targeted therapeutics. In the present study, the combined impact of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-inhibitor RAD001, the dual EGFr and VGEFr tyrosine kinase inhibitor AEE788 and the histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on prostate cancer growth and adhesion in vitro was investigated. PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP cells were treated with RAD001, AEE788 or VPA or with a RAD-AEE-VPA combination. Tumor cell growth, cell cycle progression and cell cycle regulating proteins were then investigated by MTT-assay, flow cytometry and western blotting, respectively. Furthermore, tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium or to immobilized extracellular matrix proteins as well as migratory properties of the cells was evaluated, and integrin α and β subtypes were analyzed. Finally, effects of drug treatment on cell signaling pathways were determined. All drugs, separately applied, reduced tumor cell adhesion, migration and growth. A much stronger anti-cancer effect was evoked by the triple drug combination. Particularly, cdk1, 2 and 4 and cyclin B were reduced, whereas p27 was elevated. In addition, simultaneous application of RAD001, AEE788 and VPA altered the membranous, cytoplasmic and gene expression pattern of various integrin α and β subtypes, reduced integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and deactivated focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Signaling analysis revealed that EGFr and the downstream target Akt, as well as p70S6k was distinctly modified in the presence of the drug combination. Simultaneous targeting of several key proteins in prostate cancer cells provides an advantage over targeting a single pathway. Since strong anti-tumor properties became evident with respect to cell growth and adhesion dynamics, the triple drug combination might provide progress in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer

  3. Uptake of donor lymphocytes treated with 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet A light by recipient dendritic cells induces CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells and down-regulates cardiac allograft rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, De-Hua [Organ Transplant Center, Chinese PLA 309th Hospital, No. 17A Hei-Shan-Hu Road, Beijing 100091 (China); Dou, Li-Ping [Department of Hematology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, No. 28 Fu-Xing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Wei, Yu-Xiang; Du, Guo-Sheng; Zou, Yi-Ping; Song, Ji-Yong; Zhu, Zhi-Dong; Cai, Ming; Qian, Ye-Yong [Organ Transplant Center, Chinese PLA 309th Hospital, No. 17A Hei-Shan-Hu Road, Beijing 100091 (China); Shi, Bing-Yi, E-mail: shibingyi@medmail.com.cn [Organ Transplant Center, Chinese PLA 309th Hospital, No. 17A Hei-Shan-Hu Road, Beijing 100091 (China)

    2010-05-14

    Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is an effective immunomodulatory therapy and has been demonstrated to be beneficial for graft-vs-host disease and solid-organ allograft rejection. ECP involves reinfusion of a patient's autologous peripheral blood leukocytes treated ex vivo with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA light radiation (PUVA). Previous studies focused only on ECP treatment of recipient immune cells. Our study is the first to extend the target of ECP treatment to donor immune cells. The results of in vitro co-culture experiments demonstrate uptake of donor PUVA-treated splenic lymphocytes (PUVA-SPs) by recipient immature dendritic cells (DCs). Phagocytosis of donor PUVA-SPs does not stimulate phenotype maturation of recipient DCs. In the same co-culture system, donor PUVA-SPs enhanced production of interleukin-10 and interferon-{gamma} by recipient DCs and impaired the subsequent capability of recipient DCs to stimulate recipient naive T cells. Phagocytosis of donor PUVA-SP (PUVA-SP DCs) by recipient DCs shifted T-cell responses in favor of T helper 2 cells. Infusion of PUVA-SP DCs inhibited cardiac allograft rejection in an antigen-specific manner and induced CD4{sup +}CD25{sup high}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells. In conclusion, PUVA-SP DCs simultaneously deliver the donor antigen and the regulatory signal to the transplant recipient, and thus can be used to develop a novel DC vaccine for negative immune regulation and immune tolerance induction.

  4. Uptake of donor lymphocytes treated with 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet A light by recipient dendritic cells induces CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and down-regulates cardiac allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is an effective immunomodulatory therapy and has been demonstrated to be beneficial for graft-vs-host disease and solid-organ allograft rejection. ECP involves reinfusion of a patient's autologous peripheral blood leukocytes treated ex vivo with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA light radiation (PUVA). Previous studies focused only on ECP treatment of recipient immune cells. Our study is the first to extend the target of ECP treatment to donor immune cells. The results of in vitro co-culture experiments demonstrate uptake of donor PUVA-treated splenic lymphocytes (PUVA-SPs) by recipient immature dendritic cells (DCs). Phagocytosis of donor PUVA-SPs does not stimulate phenotype maturation of recipient DCs. In the same co-culture system, donor PUVA-SPs enhanced production of interleukin-10 and interferon-γ by recipient DCs and impaired the subsequent capability of recipient DCs to stimulate recipient naive T cells. Phagocytosis of donor PUVA-SP (PUVA-SP DCs) by recipient DCs shifted T-cell responses in favor of T helper 2 cells. Infusion of PUVA-SP DCs inhibited cardiac allograft rejection in an antigen-specific manner and induced CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells. In conclusion, PUVA-SP DCs simultaneously deliver the donor antigen and the regulatory signal to the transplant recipient, and thus can be used to develop a novel DC vaccine for negative immune regulation and immune tolerance induction.

  5. Methanol extract of wheatgrass induces G1 cell cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner and down regulates the expression of cyclin D1 in human laryngeal cancer cells-an in vitro and in silico approach

    OpenAIRE

    Garima Shakya; Sangeetha Balasubramanian; Rukkumani Rajagopalan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deregulation of cell cycle has been implicated in the malignancy of cancer. Since many years investigation on the traditional herbs has been the focus to develop novel and effective drug for cancer remedies. Wheatgrass is a medicinal plant, used in folk medicine to cure various diseases. The present study was undertaken to gain insights into antiproliferative effect of methanol extract of wheatgrass. Materials and Methods: Cell viability was assessed via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y...

  6. Methanol extract of wheatgrass induces G1 cell cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner and down regulates the expression of cyclin D1 in human laryngeal cancer cells-an in vitro and in silico approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Shakya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deregulation of cell cycle has been implicated in the malignancy of cancer. Since many years investigation on the traditional herbs has been the focus to develop novel and effective drug for cancer remedies. Wheatgrass is a medicinal plant, used in folk medicine to cure various diseases. The present study was undertaken to gain insights into antiproliferative effect of methanol extract of wheatgrass. Materials and Methods: Cell viability was assessed via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Lactate Dehydrogenase assays. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blot was performed to determine the p53 and cyclin D1 levels. In silico docking interaction of the 14 active components (identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy of the methanol extract was tested with cyclin D1 (Protein Data Bank ID: 2W96 and compared with the reference cyclin D1/Cdk4 inhibitor. Results: Methanol extract of wheatgrass effectively reduced the cell viability. The cell cycle analysis showed that the extract treatment caused G 1 arrest. The level of cyclin D1 was decreased, whereas p53 level was increased. Molecular docking studies revealed interaction of seven active compounds of the extract with the vital residues (Lys112/Glu141 of cyclin D1. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the methanol extract of wheatgrass inhibits human laryngeal cancer cell proliferation via cell cycle G 1 arrest and p53 induction. The seven active compounds of the extract were also found to be directly involved in the inhibition of cyclin D1/Cdk4 binding, thus inhibiting the cell proliferation.

  7. Down-regulation of the desmosomal cadherin desmocollin 3 in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klus, G T; Rokaeus, N; Bittner, M L; Chen, Y; Korz, D M; Sukumar, S; Schick, A; Szallasi, Z

    2001-07-01

    In previous studies using cDNA microarray analysis, we have identified an expressed sequence tag which is consistently down-regulated in six human breast tumor cell lines. In the current study, we have determined this tag to be part of the mRNA sequence of human desmocollin 3, a member of the cadherin superfamily of proteins and an integral component of desmosomes. Desmosomes are sites of adhesion between adjacent cells in layers of epithelia, as well as in some non-epithelial tissues, and play an important role in the maintenance of tissue structure. Northern analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and Western blot analysis showed that desmocollin 3 is present in normal and immortalized human mammary epithelial cells, but consistently exhibits a significant, and often complete, down-regulation in breast cancer cell lines and primary breast tumors, both at the mRNA and protein levels. PMID:11408939

  8. Breast metastasis from clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Botticelli, A.; De Francesco, G. P.; D. Di Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In Western countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, whereas metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies are extremely rare. We present the case of a 60-year-old woman, who underwent surgery in 2007 for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and who 4 years later presented with a breast metastasis from clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  9. MicroRNA-302b suppresses cell proliferation by targeting EGFR in human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MicroRNAs are regulators that can play an essential role in tumorigenesis. Although miR-302 families have been suggested to be tumor repressors in human cancer, the mechanism by which they suppress tumor development remains to be defined. In this study, we discover that miR302b suppresses tumor proliferation may due to directly targeting EGFR in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). QRT-PCR was used to assess miR-302b and EGFR expression in 27 pairs of clinical hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and their corresponding adjacent nontumorous liver tissues. MTT, colony formation, immunofluorescence staining, and cell cycle assays were used to examine the tumor suppressor role of miR302b in cell proliferation. Luciferase assays were performed to assess the EGFR was a novel target of miR-302b. Western blot assay was used to validate the protein expression level. We demonstrated that miR-302b was frequently down-regulated, whereas EGFR was up-regulated in 27 pairs of clinical HCC and non-tumorous counterparts. The dual-luciferase reporter assays revealed that EGFR was a novel target of miR-302b. Re-expression of miR-302b resulted in the inhibition of proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells. The silencing of EGFR by miR-302b or siEGFR led to down-regulation of proliferation-related proteins, such as AKT2, CCND1, and CDK2. miR-302b suppresses HCC growth may due to targeting the EGFR/AKT2/CCND1 pathway

  10. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma: A rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    P Venkat Baghirath; J Vijay Kumar; B Hari Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is an uncommon malignant salivary gland tumor accounting for about 1% of all intra-oral salivary gland tumors. Microscopic diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma may be challenging because of the spectrum of features which frequently overlaps with the other salivary gland tumors that contain clear cells, and thus it may be a diagnosis of exclusion. Here we, report a case of HCCC in a 36 years old female with detailed histological, histochemical and immunohis...

  11. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare; only several studies have been reported in the English literature. A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Bladder endoscopy revealed a large polypoid tumor at the bladder base. Transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. Many TUR-BT specimens were obtained. Histologically, the bladder tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positi...

  12. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliz Bilir; Erkan Gokce; Banu Ozturk; Faik Alev Deresoy; Ruken Yuksekkaya; Emel Yaman

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity...

  13. ACANTHOLYTIC SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF PREPUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An uncircumcised 65 year male, with history of phimosis presented with retention of urine and ulceration and bleeding in the prepuce. Circumcision was done under local anesthesia which revealed an ulcero-proliferative growth involving the prepuce and glans. The prepucial skin was sent for histopathological examination. The diagnosis was histopathologically confirmed as Acantholytic Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is a highly malignant, unusual variant of squamous cell carcinoma invading deeper anatomic structures and is associated with a higher incidence of regional metastasis and mortality.

  14. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Cicek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder accounts for less than 1% of all bladder tumors. Small Cell Carcinoma of the bladder has an aggressive behaviour and is usually metastatic at diagnosis. Due to its infrequent occurence, the literature on this entity is limited; which unsurprisingly leads to an uncertanity in defining an ideal therapeutic approach. This report, overviews the literature while describing a 70- year- old female patient who is diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the bladder arising in an unusual localization. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 604-608

  15. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  16. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  17. Atrial natriuretic peptide down-regulates LPS/ATP-mediated IL-1β release by inhibiting NF-kB, NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1 activation in THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasoma, Letizia; Antognelli, Cinzia; Talesa, Vincenzo Nicola

    2016-02-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is an hormone/paracrine/autocrine factor regulating cardiovascular homeostasis by guanylyl cyclase natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-1). ANP plays an important role also in regulating inflammatory and immune systems by altering macrophages functions and cytokines secretion. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in a wide range of biological responses, including the immunological one. Unlike other cytokines, IL-1β production is rigorously controlled. Primarily, NF-kB activation is required to produce pro-IL-1β; subsequently, NALP3 inflammasome/caspase-1 activation is required to cleave pro-IL-1β into the active secreted protein. NALP3 is a molecular platform capable of sensing a large variety of signals and a major player in innate immune defense. Due to their pleiotropism, IL-1β and NALP3 dysregulation is a common feature of a wide range of diseases. Therefore, identifying molecules regulating IL-1β/NALP3/caspase-1 expression is an important step in the development of new potential therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of ANP on IL-1β/NALP3/caspase-1 expression in LPS/ATP-stimulated human THP1 monocytes. We provided new evidence of the direct involvement of ANP/NPR-1/cGMP axis on NF-kB/NALP3/caspase-1-mediated IL-1β release and NF-kB-mediated pro-IL-1β production. In particular, ANP inhibited both NF-kB and NALP3/caspase-1 activation leading to pro- and mature IL-1β down-regulation. Our data, pointing out a modulatory role of this endogenous peptide on IL-1β release and on NF-kB/NALP3/caspase-1 activation, indicate an important anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect of ANP via these mechanisms. We suggest a possible employment of ANP for the treatment of inflammatory/immune-related diseases and IL-1β/NALP3-associated disorders, affecting millions of people worldwide. PMID:26616294

  18. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Ashish Chauhan; Subhash Kashyap

    2016-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition ...

  19. Role of the Endosomal ESCRT Machinery in HIV-1 Vpu-Induced Down-Regulation of BST2/Tetherin. : HRS and BST-2/Tetherin Down-Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Janvier, Katy; Pelchen-Matthews, Annegret; Jean-Baptiste, Renaud; Caillet, Marina; Marsh, Mark; Berlioz-Torrent, Clarisse

    2012-01-01

    International audience The cellular protein "Bone marrow stromal antigen 2" (BST2 also called Tetherin, CD317, HM1.24) was identified as a major mediator of the innate immune defense against the dissemination of enveloped viruses. BST2 was shown to physically trap the de novo formed viral particles at the surface of infected cells, thereby reducing viral release. Lentiviruses have evolved specific strategies to down-regulate the expression level of BST2 from the surface of the cells and as...

  20. Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 promotes cell invasion and angiogenesis in pancreatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaochun; Han, Ye; Xue, Xiaofeng; Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaobo; Li, Pu; Wang, Yunliang; Li, Dechun; Zhou, Jin; Zhi, Qiaoming

    2016-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (EGFL7), also known as vascular endothelial stain, was firstly identified as a modulator of smooth muscle cell migration. Though the expression of EGFL7 was reported to be up-regulated during tumorigenesis, the clinical and biological functions of EGFL7 in pancreatic carcinoma (PC) were still not fully elucidated. In this study, we found that the serum EGFL7 level in PC tissues was statistically higher than that in normal subjects (p0.05), whereas inhibition of EGFL7 expression could decrease PaCa-2 cell invasion (p<0.05). More interestingly, by tubular formation, Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and ELISA assays, our results revealed that silencing EGFL7 expression represented a strong inhibiting effect on tubular formation of micro-vessels through down-regulating the protein levels of VEGF and Ang-2 (p<0.05). Our results raised the possibility of using EGFL7as a potential prognostic biomarker and therapy target of PC, and down-regulation of EGFL7 might be considered to be a potentially important molecular treatment strategy for patients with PC. PMID:26796281

  1. Primary clear cell carcinoma of the larynx.

    OpenAIRE

    G.Pesavento; Ferlito, A; Recher, G.

    1980-01-01

    The clinical and pathological findings in three patients with clear cell carcinoma of the larynx are described. This type of neoplasm in the larynx is extremely rare. The aggressiveness of the tumour and its high biological malignancy are stressed.

  2. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is an extremely rare tumor that exhibits aggressive behavior and accounts for approximately less than 1% of all primary bladder tumors. Small cell carcinoma generally occurs in the lung, accounting for 25% of all pulmonary malignancies. SCCUB exhibits a similar microscopic and immunohistochemical appearance to that of small cell carcinoma of the lung. There is no consensus about the standard therapy, owing to its rarity. Surgical resection seems to be the mainstay of treatment for patients with limited stage, together with neoadjuvant or adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Radiation therapy has same small effect for palliative purposes, as well as being an alternative to radical cystectomy. Patients with advanced stage, although given platinum-based chemotherapy, have a poor prognosis. We herein review epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, pathological features, and current management of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. (author)

  3. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jae Jung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong Hee [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst is uncommon. The diagnosis of carcinoma arising in a cyst requires that there must be an area of microscopic transition from the benign epithelial cyst lining to the invasive squamous cell carcinoma. We report a histopathologically proven case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a residual mandibular cyst in a 54-year-old woman.

  5. Contribution of autophagy inhibitor to radiation sensitization in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the role of autophagy in radiation-induced death response of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Methods: MTT method was used to detect cell viability of CNE-2 cells in different time after irradiation. Clonogenic survival assay was used to evaluate the effect of autophagy inhibitor (chloroquine phosphate) and autophagy inductor (rapamycin) on radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The expressions of LC3 and P62 were measured with Western blot. Cell ultrastructural analysis was performed under an electron microscope.Results Irradiation with 10 Gy induced a massive accumulation of autophagosomes accompanied with up-regulation of LC3-Ⅱ expression in CNE-2 cells. Compared with radiation alone, chloroquine phosphate (CDP) enhanced radiosensitivity significantly by decreasing cell viability (F=25.88, P<0.05), autophagic ratio (F=105.15, P<0.05), and LC3-Ⅱ protein level (F=231.68, P<0.05), while up-regulating the expression of P62 (F=117.52, P<0.05). Inhibition of autophagy increased radiation-induced apoptosis (F=143.72, P<0.05). Rapamycin (RAPA) also significantly decreased cell viability, but increased autophagic ratio and LC3-Ⅱ protein level while down-regulated the expression of P62. Induction of autophagy increased radiation-induced apoptosis (F=167.32, P<0.05). Conclusions: Blockage of autophagy with CDP could enhance radiosensitivity in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy could be used as an adjuvant treatment to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (authors)

  6. Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval, Mark Anthony S; Paz-Pacheco, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A 63-year-old man consulted for a non-toxic thyroid nodule of 2 years’ duration. Fine needle aspiration revealed cell findings consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma. He eventually underwent total thyroidectomy. Microscopic examination revealed histologic features of Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid. He received radioactive iodine therapy and suppressive levothyroxine treatment. Post-therapy whole body iodine-131 scan revealed thyroid tissue remnants limited to the anterior neck. Fo...

  7. ACANTHOLYTIC SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF PREPUCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mamina; Sarvesh; Viswanathan; Rehana

    2014-01-01

    An uncircumcised 65 year male, with history of phimosis presented with retention of urine and ulceration and bleeding in the prepuce. Circumcision was done under local anesthesia which revealed an ulcero-p