WorldWideScience

Sample records for carcinogenic risk assessment

  1. Carcinogen risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelwoold, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the methods by which risk factors for carcinogenic hazards are determined and the limitations inherent in the process. From statistical and epidemiological studies, the major identifiable factors related to cancer in the United States were determined to be cigarette smoking, diet, reproductive and sexual behavior, infections, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and alcohol consumption. The incidence of lung cancer due to air pollutants was estimated to be less than 2%. Research needs were discussed

  2. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, Susan; Schlatter, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a 'margin of exposure' approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  3. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Susan; Schlatter, Josef

    2010-03-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a "margin of exposure" approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  4. Risk Assessment Approaches for Carcinogenic Food Contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Zoe; Pulido, Olga; Vavasour, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Health Canada has identified the need for a standardized department-wide approach for the risk assessment of carcinogens in foods (e.g., pesticides, food chemical contaminants, veterinary therapeutics). A standardized approach would better facilitate and inform risk management strategies for the control of human exposure to food sources of carcinogens. Within the post- market regulatory context, directly DNA-reactive carcinogens are of most concern because any exposure is theoretically assume...

  5. Recent developments in carcinogenic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewski, D.; Murdoch, D.; Withey, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, recent developments in the quantitative assessment of carcinogenic risks based on toxicological and epidemiological data are reviewed. In particular, model-free approaches to low-dose risk assessment which involve only the assumption of low-dose linearity are considered. Measures of carcinogenic potency which avoid the need to extrapolate to low doses are also described. The allometric bases for converting risk estimates between species are then discussed. Pharmacokinetic models for determining the dose delivered to the target tissue are examined, and the implications of using such models in extrapolating between doses, of exposure, and species are examined. The application of these concepts in chemical and radiation carcinogenesis is illustrated by means of brief case studies of methylene chloride and Rn. Biologically motivated cancer models based on the initiation-promotion-progression theory of carcinogenesis are discussed and compared with the classical multistage model. The estimation of risks with time-dependent exposure patterns is considered, and conditions under which the use of a time-weighted average dose is appropriate are identified. Finally, the estimation of carcinogenic risks posed by exposure to complex mixtures is explored. 92 references

  6. [Risk assessment of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects in the use of food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, O A; Karpova, M V

    2012-01-01

    Application of methodology for assessing the risk of diseases associated with consumption of contaminated foods, is aimed at predicting possible changes in the future and helps to create a framework for the prevention of negative effects on public health. The purpose of the study is assessment of health risks formed under the influence of chemical contaminants that pollute the food. Exponential average daily dose of receipt of chemicals in the body, non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were calculated.

  7. Environmental carcinogenic agents and cancer prevention. Risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Many agents in our environment have been established as being carcinogenic, and in most cases, the carcinogenic properties of these agents were identified because of high-dose occupational or accidental exposure. Risk characterization, taking into account the dose-response relationship, and exposure assessment are essential for risk assessment and subsequent cancer prevention. Based on scientific risk assessment, risk management should be conducted practically by considering the economic, social, political, and other technical issues and by balancing the risks and benefits. Asbestos and environmental tobacco smoke are typical examples of established carcinogenic agents in the general environment, contributing to low-dose exposure. Further epidemiological studies are required to investigate the carcinogenicity of low-dose exposure to known carcinogenic agents such as arsenic and cadmium through dietary intake, radiation via medical and natural exposure, and air pollution due to diesel exhaust. In contrast, occupational chemical exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane, whose carcinogenicity had not been established, was suggested to cause cholangiocarcinoma among workers involved in offset color proof-printing only after a rare situation of high-dose exposure was unveiled. Continuous monitoring of unusual cancer occurrences in target populations such as workers in occupational and regional settings as well as exposure reduction to suspected carcinogenic agents to levels as low as reasonably achievable is essential for reducing the risk of cancer due to environmental carcinogens. (author)

  8. Developments in assessing carcinogenic risks from radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The papers in this volume have ranged widely over theoretical, experimental, and epidemiologic topics relating to radiation carcinogenesis. The multistage character of carcinogenesis, emphasis on the ease with which the initial event occurs in contrast to the infrequency of carcinogenic expression, the role of cell repair, and factors that may influence expression were major themes of the theoretical and experimental papers. The elegance of the cell transformation tool was illustrated in reviews of experimental work dealing with the exposure and environmental variables that influence radiation-induced transformation, among them the intracellular environment. Arguments were advanced for the view that more than one cell must be affected by radiation if a critical event is to occur. The relative congruence of carcinogens and clastogens was noted, and the suggestion made that the rules governing the induction of chromosomal aberrations by ionizing may apply to radiation carcinogenesis as well

  9. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is als...

  10. Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, A M; Williams, G M

    2005-09-01

    Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food requires knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in the target organ which results from the competition between DNA adduct formation and repair. Estimates of DNA adduct levels can be made by direct measurement or indirectly as a consequence of their presence, for example, by tumor formation in animal models or exposed populations epidemiologically. Food-borne DNA-reactive carcinogens are present from a variety of sources. They are generally not intrinsically DNA-reactive but require bioactivation to DNA-reactive metabolites a process which may be modulated by the compound itself or the presence of other xenobiotics. A single DNA reactant may form several distinct DNA adducts each undergoing different rates of repair. Some DNA reactants may be photochemically activated or produce reactive oxygen species and thus indirect oxidative DNA damage. The levels of DNA adducts arising from exposures influenced by variations in the doses, the frequency with which an individual is exposed, and rates of DNA repair for specific adducts. Each adduct has a characteristic efficiency with which it induces mutations. Based on experience with the well-studied DNA-reactive food carcinogen aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), a limit of 20 ppb or approximately 30 microg/day has been set and is considered a tolerable daily intake (TDI). Since AFB(1) is considered a potent carcinogen, doses of carcinogens is made.

  11. Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, A.M.; Williams, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food requires knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in the target organ which results from the competition between DNA adduct formation and repair. Estimates of DNA adduct levels can be made by direct measurement or indirectly as a consequence of their presence, for example, by tumor formation in animal models or exposed populations epidemiologically. Food-borne DNA-reactive carcinogens are present from a variety of sources. They are generally not intrinsically DNA-reactive but require bioactivation to DNA-reactive metabolites a process which may be modulated by the compound itself or the presence of other xenobiotics. A single DNA reactant may form several distinct DNA adducts each undergoing different rates of repair. Some DNA reactants may be photochemically activated or produce reactive oxygen species and thus indirect oxidative DNA damage. The levels of DNA adducts arising from exposures influenced by variations in the doses, the frequency with which an individual is exposed, and rates of DNA repair for specific adducts. Each adduct has a characteristic efficiency with which it induces mutations. Based on experience with the well-studied DNA-reactive food carcinogen aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ), a limit of 20 ppb or ∼30 μg/day has been set and is considered a tolerable daily intake (TDI). Since AFB 1 is considered a potent carcinogen, doses of 32 P-postlabeling or the use of surrogates such as hemoglobin adducts, together with approaches to evaluate the results. A discussion of approaches to estimating possible threshold effects for DNA-reactive carcinogens is made

  12. Methodology in use for the assessment of carcinogenic risk. II. Radiation. Oncology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Assessment of carcinogenic risk from environmental and occupational exposures to ionizing radiation; Assessment of carcinogenic risk from exposure to ionizing radiation used for medical diagnosis or treatment; Assessment of carcinogenic risk from exposure to ionizing radiation following nuclear bomb explosions; Comparison of risk from radiation sources with risk from nonradiation sources; Experimental studies to assess risk of carcinogenesis following exposure to ionizing radiation; Theoretical aspects of dose-response relationships in the assessment of carcinogenic risk from exposure to ionizing radiation; Public policy and standards for acceptable risk from exposure to ionizing radiation; General reviews on the assessment of risk from exposure to ionizing radiation

  13. Approaches to the risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in food: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J; Renwick, A G; Constable, A; Dybing, E; Müller, D J G; Schlatter, J; Slob, W; Tueting, W; van Benthem, J; Williams, G M; Wolfreys, A

    2006-10-01

    The present paper examines the particular difficulties presented by low levels of food-borne DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens, some of which may be difficult to eliminate completely from the diet, and proposes a structured approach for the evaluation of such compounds. While the ALARA approach is widely applicable to all substances in food that are both carcinogenic and genotoxic, it does not take carcinogenic potency into account and, therefore, does not permit prioritisation based on potential risk or concern. In the absence of carcinogenicity dose-response data, an assessment based on comparison with an appropriate threshold of toxicological concern may be possible. When carcinogenicity data from animal bioassays are available, a useful analysis is achieved by the calculation of margins of exposure (MOEs), which can be used to compare animal potency data with human exposure scenarios. Two reference points on the dose-response relationship that can be used for MOE calculation were examined; the T25 value, which is derived from linear extrapolation, and the BMDL10, which is derived from mathematical modelling of the dose-response data. The above approaches were applied to selected food-borne genotoxic carcinogens. The proposed approach is applicable to all substances in food that are DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens and enables the formulation of appropriate semi-quantitative advice to risk managers.

  14. Quantitative assessment of exposure and risk for three carcinogenics in long-standing pollution sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, H.E.; Wuppertal Univ.; Ihme, W.; Mekel, O.C.L.; Wuppertal Univ.

    1993-01-01

    The project attempts a quantitative assessment of risks for three carcinogenics that are common in sites of long-standing pollution. Benzo(a)pyrene stands for the group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cadmium for heavy metals, and benzene for volatile aromatic compounds. The report discusses the general fundamentals of exposure and risk assessment. The exposure model is described in detail and applied to the three test substances. (orig./MG) [de

  15. The influence of thresholds on the risk assessment of carcinogens in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Iona; Barlow, Susan; Kleiner, Juliane; Larsen, John Christian

    2009-08-01

    The risks from exposure to chemical contaminants in food must be scientifically assessed, in order to safeguard the health of consumers. Risk assessment of chemical contaminants that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic presents particular difficulties, since the effects of such substances are normally regarded as being without a threshold. No safe level can therefore be defined, and this has implications for both risk management and risk communication. Risk management of these substances in food has traditionally involved application of the ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle, however ALARA does not enable risk managers to assess the urgency and extent of the risk reduction measures needed. A more refined approach is needed, and several such approaches have been developed. Low-dose linear extrapolation from animal carcinogenicity studies or epidemiological studies to estimate risks for humans at low exposure levels has been applied by a number of regulatory bodies, while more recently the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach has been applied by both the European Food Safety Authority and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. A further approach is the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), which establishes exposure thresholds for chemicals present in food, dependent on structure. Recent experimental evidence that genotoxic responses may be thresholded has significant implications for the risk assessment of chemicals that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic. In relation to existing approaches such as linear extrapolation, MOE and TTC, the existence of a threshold reduces the uncertainties inherent in such methodology and improves confidence in the risk assessment. However, for the foreseeable future, regulatory decisions based on the concept of thresholds for genotoxic carcinogens are likely to be taken case-by-case, based on convincing data on the Mode of Action indicating that the rate limiting variable for the development of cancer

  16. Probabilistic health risk assessment of carcinogenic emissions from a MSW gasification plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonati, Giovanni; Zanoni, Francesca

    2012-09-01

    Health risk assessment due to the atmospheric emissions of carcinogenic pollutants (PCDD/Fs and Cd) from a waste gasification plant is performed by means of a probabilistic approach based on probability density functions for the description of the input data of the model parameters involved in the assessment. These functions incorporate both the epistemic and stochastic uncertainty of the input data (namely, the emission rate of the pollutants) and of all the parameters used for individual exposure assessment through the pathways of inhalation, soil ingestion and dermal contact, and diet. The uncertainty is propagated throughout the evaluation by Monte Carlo technique, resulting in the probability distribution of the individual risk. The median risk levels nearby the plant are in the 10(-8)-10(-10) range, ten-fold lower than the deterministic estimate based on precautionary values for the input data; however, the very upper percentiles (>95th) of the risk distribution can exceed the conventional 10(-6) reference value. The estimated risk is almost entirely determined by the Cd exposure through the diet; the pathways arising from PCDD/Fs exposure are without any practical significance, suggesting that the emission control should focus on Cd in order to reduce the carcinogenic risk. Risk variance decomposition shows the prevailing influence on the estimated risk of the Cd concentration at the emission stack: thus, for a more accurate risk assessment the efforts should focus primarily on the definition of its probability density function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Przybylski, Maria C; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-09-15

    Alcoholic beverages have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As alcoholic beverages are multicomponent mixtures containing several carcinogenic compounds, a quantitative approach is necessary to compare the risks. Fifteen known and suspected human carcinogens (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, lead, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, ochratoxin A and safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages were identified based on monograph reviews by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for comparative risk assessment. MOE compares a toxicological threshold with the exposure. MOEs above 10,000 are judged as low priority for risk management action. MOEs were calculated for different drinking scenarios (low risk and heavy drinking) and different levels of contamination for four beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The lowest MOEs were found for ethanol (3.1 for low risk and 0.8 for heavy drinking). Inorganic lead and arsenic have average MOEs between 10 and 300, followed by acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate between 1,000 and 10,000. All other compounds had average MOEs above 10,000 independent of beverage type. Ethanol was identified as the most important carcinogen in alcoholic beverages, with clear dose response. Some other compounds (lead, arsenic, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde) may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants, but from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the focus should be on reducing alcohol consumption in general rather than on mitigative measures for some contaminants that contribute only to a limited extent (if at all) to the total health risk. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  18. Ecological risk assessment and carcinogen health risk assessment of arsenic in soils from part area of the Daye City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Wang, T.; Xiao, M. S.; Cai, Y.; Zhuang, Z. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Soils in four sampling sites from part area of the Daye City were collected. Concentrations of arsenic (As) in soils in sampling sites were detected by Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry, ecological risk was calculated by potential ecological risk index (RI) and human health risk was measured by human health risk assessment model established by USEPA. The results showed that, the total content of As in soils in Daye was decreased in the order of S4 (66.58 mg/kg)>S2 (44.73 mg/kg)>S3 (34.86 mg/kg) >S1 (21.84 mg/kg), concentrations in all sampling sites were higher than background values of Hubei Province. The potential risk and human health risk were decreased in the order of S4>S2>S3>S1 and S4>S3>S2>S1, respectively. Specially, S1, S2 and S3 were at low potential ecological risk while S4 was at moderate ecological risk. But there was no carcinogenic risk for human exposure to As in soil in Daye.

  19. An overview of the report: Correlation between carcinogenic potency and the maximum tolerated dose: Implications for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewski, D.; Gaylor, D.W.; Soms, A.P.; Szyszkowicz, M.

    1993-01-01

    Current practice in carcinogen bioassay calls for exposure of experimental animals at doses up to and including the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Such studies have been used to compute measures of carcinogenic potency such as the TD 50 as well as unit risk factors such as q 1 for predicting low-dose risks. Recent studies have indicated that these measures of carcinogenic potency are highly correlated with the MTD. Carcinogenic potency has also been shown to be correlated with indicators of mutagenicity and toxicity. Correlation of the MTDs for rats and mice implies a corresponding correlation in TD 50 values for these two species. The implications of these results for cancer risk assessment are examined in light of the large variation in potency among chemicals known to induce tumors in rodents. 119 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Carcinogenic risk assessment and management of ionising radiation, asbestos and nickel: a comparative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Oudiz, A.; Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.

    2000-01-01

    assessment of individual exposures and their measurements are difficult to achieve. In this context, the ALARA approach refers mainly to the adoption of good practices. In this study, a quantitative comparison of risks in the various sectors is less important than a qualitative comparison of the risk-assessment and management approaches. It is felt that identifying similarities and differences is an objective in its own right in that it provides a basis on which to challenge, where necessary, some commonly-held beliefs regarding the advances that some sectors are assumed to have over others. The collected data reveal some significant similarities in the principles on which the assessment and management of risks of low-level exposure are based. At the same time, the procedures which are actually used in practice, despite being based on relatively distinct 'instruments', ultimately produce results that are not dissimilar and that in general reflect the shared concern to devise reasonable' solutions with regard to the prevention of carcinogenic risks. (author)

  1. Relationship between dose and risk, and assessment of carcinogenic risks associated with low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Aurengo, A.

    2005-01-01

    This report raises doubts on the validity of using LNT (linear no-threshold) relationship for evaluating the carcinogenic risk of low doses (< 100 mSv) and even more for very low doses (< 10 mSv). The LNT concept can be a useful pragmatic tool for assessing rules in radioprotection for doses above 10 mSv; however since it is not based on biological concepts of our current knowledge, it should not be used without precaution for assessing by extrapolation the risks associated with low and even more so, with very low doses (< 10 mSv), especially for benefit-risk assessments imposed on radiologists by the European directive 97-43. The biological mechanisms are different for doses lower than a few dozen mSv and for higher doses. The eventual risks in the dose range of radiological examinations (0.1 to 5 mSv, up to 20 mSv for some examinations) must be estimated taking into account radiobiological and experimental data. An empirical relationship which has been just validated for doses higher than 200 mSv may lead to an overestimation of risks (associated with doses one hundred fold lower), and this overestimation could discourage patients from undergoing useful examinations and introduce a bias in radioprotection measures against very low doses (< 10 mSv). Decision makers confronted with problems of radioactive waste or risk of contamination, should re-examine the methodology used for the evaluation of risks associated with very low doses and with doses delivered at a very low dose rate. This report confirms the inappropriateness of the collective dose concept to evaluate population irradiation risks

  2. Synthetic risks, risk potency, and carcinogen regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscusi, W K; Hakes, J K

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes a comprehensive sample of over 350 chemicals tested for carcinogenicity to assess the determinants of the probability of regulation. Controlling for differences in the risk potency and noncancer risks, synthetic chemicals have a significantly higher probability of regulation overall: this is due to the greater likelihood of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation. Measures of risk potency increase the probability of regulation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have a somewhat weaker positive effect on regulation by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and decrease the likelihood of regulation by the FDA. The overall regulatory pattern is one in which the FDA targets synthetic chemicals and chemicals that pose relatively minor cancer risk. The EPA particularly performed more sensibly than many critics have suggested.

  3. [Assessment of non-carcinogenic risk for the health of the child population under the consumption of drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, N V; Valeeva, E R; Fomina, S F; Ziyatdinova, A I

    In the article there are given results of the evaluation of non-carcinogenic risks for the health of the child population residing in different areas (districts) of the city of Kazan with the aim of the subsequent comprehensive assessment of the pollutants in drinking water. Assessment of the risk for the human health was performed correspondingly to with the P 2.1.10.1920-04 for oral route of exposure in accordance to the chemical composition of drinking water with account for the standard and regional factors of the exposure. The results of the risk assessment under the consumption of drinking tap water by the child population with localized place of residence permit to reveal areas with a high level of health risk in the city. The screening assessment of carcinogenic risk due to the consumption of chemicals with drinking water revealed differences in regional and standard values of the exposure factors. This affects both on the value of the chronic average daily intake of chemical contaminants in drinking water and the level of risk under the consumption of drinking water by the child population.

  4. Assessing carcinogenic risks associated with ingesting arsenic in farmed smeltfish (Ayu, Plecoglossus altirelis) in aseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-J.; Jang, C.-S.; Liang, C.-P.; Liu, C.-W.

    2008-01-01

    This study spatially analyzed potential carcinogenic risks associated with ingesting arsenic (As) contents in aquacultural smeltfish (Plecoglossus altirelis) from the Lanyang Plain of northeastern Taiwan. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) was adopted to reproduce As exposure distributions in groundwater based on their three-dimensional variability. A target cancer risk (TR) associated with ingesting As in aquacultural smeltfish was employed to evaluate the potential risk to human health. The probabilistic risk assessment determined by Monte Carlo simulation and SIS is used to propagate properly the uncertainty of parameters. Safe and hazardous aquacultural regions were mapped to elucidate the safety of groundwater use. The TRs determined from the risks at the 95th percentiles exceed one millionth, indicating that ingesting smeltfish that are farmed in the highly As-affected regions represents a potential cancer threat to human health. The 95th percentile of TRs is considered in formulating a strategy for the aquacultural use of groundwater in the preliminary stage

  5. Evaluation of a chemical risk assessment method of South Korea for chemicals classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic or reprotoxic (CMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Uk; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2017-12-12

    Chemicals were used in various fields by the development of industry and science and technology. The Chemical Hazard Risk Management (CHARM) was developed to assess the risk of chemicals in South Korea. In this study, we were to evaluate the CHARM model developed for the effective management of workplace chemicals. We used 59 carcinogenic, mutagenic or reprotoxic (CMR) materials, which are both the work environment measurement result and the usage information among the manufacturer data. The CHARM model determines the risk to human health using the exposure level (based on working environment measurements or a combination of the quantity used and chemical physical properties (e.g., fugacity and volatility)), hazard (using occupational exposure limit (OEL) or Risk phrases (R-phrases)/Hazard statements (H-statements) from the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)). The risk level was lower when using the results of the work environment measurement than when applying the chemical quantity and physical properties in the exposure level evaluation method. It was evaluated as grade 4 for the CMR material in the hazard class determination. The risk assessment method by R-phrases was evaluated more conservatively than the risk assessment method by OEL. And the risk assessment method by H-statements was evaluated more conservatively than the risk assessment method by R-phrases. The CHARM model was gradually conservatively assessed as it proceeded in the next step without quantitative information for individual workplaces. The CHARM is expected to help identify the risk if the hazards and exposure levels of chemicals were identified in individual workplaces. For CMR substances, although CHARM is highly evaluated for hazards, the risk is assessed to be low if exposure levels are assessed low. When evaluating the risk of highly hazardous chemicals such as CMR substances, we believe the model should be adapted to be more conservative and classify these as higher risk. This work is

  6. RADON AND CARCINOGENIC RISK IN MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Golovanev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative evaluation of carcinogenic risk inMoscowfrom radon in indoor and atmospheric pollutants.Materials and methods: the lung cancer incidence in Moscow; radiation-hygienic passport of the territory; .U.S. EPA estimated average age at all and radon induced deaths, years of life lost; Report of UNSCEAR 2006 and WHO handbook on indoor radon, 2009. Trend analysis of incidence; evaluation of the excess relative risk; assessment of ratio radon-induced population risk and published values оf total population carcinogenic risk from chemical carcinogens.Results: it is shown that the 304 cases of lung cancer per year (1. 85 10-3 on average from 2006 to 2011 (21280diseases for 70 years in addition to background level induced by radon; the differences in average trends of all lungcancer incidence in the districts can exceed 25%.Conclusion. The potential of risk reduction by measures of mitigation radon concentration exceeds 5 times the cost efficiency to reduce emissions from vehicles and can reduce cancer incidence, on average 236 cases per year; population risk 16520 cases over 70 years or save not less than 2832 person-years of life per year. The annual effect of reducing losses from not-survival of 12 years as a result of radon-induced lung cancer deaths exceeds 14160000 dollars. The evaluating of the carcinogenic risk from radon in accordance with the definition of population risk increases the predictive evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive measures more than twice.

  7. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-10-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided.

  8. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-01-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear...

  9. Approaches to the risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in food: a critical appraisal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Brien, J; Renwick, A G; Constable, A; Dybing, Erik; Müller, D J G; Schlatter, J; Slob, Wout; Tueting, W; Benthem, Jan van; Williams, G M; Wolfreys, A

    2006-01-01

    The present paper examines the particular difficulties presented by low levels of food-borne DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens, some of which may be difficult to eliminate completely from the diet, and proposes a structured approach for the evaluation of such compounds. While the ALARA approach is

  10. Carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde in alcoholic beverages: risk assessment outside ethanol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kanteres, Fotis; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-04-01

    In addition to being produced in ethanol metabolism, acetaldehyde occurs naturally in alcoholic beverages. Limited epidemiological evidence points to acetaldehyde as an independent risk factor for cancer during alcohol consumption, in addition to the effects of ethanol. This study aims to estimate human exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages and provide a quantitative risk assessment. The human dietary intake of acetaldehyde via alcoholic beverages was estimated based on World Health Organization (WHO) consumption data and literature on the acetaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the European Food Safety Authority's margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments. Life-time cancer risk was calculated using the T25 dose descriptor. The average exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 0.112 mg/kg body weight/day. The MOE was calculated to be 498, and the life-time cancer risk at 7.6 in 10,000. Higher risk may exist for people exposed to high acetaldehyde contaminations, as we have found in certain unrecorded alcohol beverages in Guatemala and Russia, for which we have demonstrated possible exposure scenarios, with risks in the range of 1 in 1000. The life-time cancer risks for acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages greatly exceed the usual limits for cancer risks from the environment set between 1 : 10,000 and 1 : 1,000,000. Alcohol consumption has thus been identified as a direct source of acetaldehyde exposure, which in conjunction with other sources (food flavourings, tobacco) results in a magnitude of risk requiring intervention. An initial public health measure could be to reduce the acetaldehyde content in alcoholic beverages as low as technologically possible, and to restrict its use as a food flavour additive.

  11. Risk assessment of genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in botanical containing products present on the Chinese market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ning, Jia; Cui, Xin Yue; Kong, Xiang Nan; Tang, Yi Fei; Wulandari, Riana; Chen, Lu; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, a risk assessment of plant food supplements (PFS), traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and herbal teas containing alkenylbenzenes was performed using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach. The levels of alkenylbenzenes in botanical preparations collected on the Chinese market

  12. Risk assessment of genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in botanical containing products present on the Chinese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jia; Cui, XinYue; Kong, XiangNan; Tang, YiFei; Wulandari, Riana; Chen, Lu; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2018-03-15

    In the present study, a risk assessment of plant food supplements (PFS), traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and herbal teas containing alkenylbenzenes was performed using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach. The levels of alkenylbenzenes in botanical preparations collected on the Chinese market were quantified and the combined estimated daily intake (EDI) was determined using dose additivity. The combined EDI values obtained assuming equal potency of all alkenylbenzenes detected in the PFS, TCM and herbal teas were 0.3 to 14.3, 0.05 to 539.4 and 0.04 to 42.5 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. Calculating combined EDI values taking into account the toxic equivalency (TEQ) approach, the values for PFS, TCM and herbal teas were 0.3 to 7.7, 0.05 to 278.0 and 0.02 to 16.5 μg estragole equivalents/kg bw/day, respectively. The MOE values resulting from consumption of these PFS, TCM and one cup of herbal tea per day during life-time were generally lower than 10 000, suggesting a potential priority for risk management. For short-term exposure such as two weeks consumption, applying Haber's rule, only one TCM 6 () still had an MOE value below 10 000. It is concluded that selected consumption of Chinese botanical preparations raise a concern because of exposure to alkenylbenzenes, especially when exposure is for longer periods of time. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular bio-dosimetry for carcinogenic risk assessment in survivors of Bhopal gas tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradyumna Kumar Mishra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available December 2014 marked the 30th year anniversary of Bhopal gas tragedy. This sudden and accidental leakage of deadly poisonous methyl isocyanate (MIC gas instigated research efforts to understand the nature, severity of health damage and sufferings of 570 000 ailing survivors of this tragedy. In a decade-long period, our systematic laboratory investigations coupled with long-term molecular surveillance studies have comprehensively demonstrated that the risk of developing an environmental associated aberrant disease phenotype, including cancer, involves complex interplay of genomic and epigenetic reprogramming. These findings poised us to translate this knowledge into an investigative framework of “molecular biodosimetry” in a strictly selected cohort of MIC exposed individuals. A pragmatic cancer risk-assessment strategy pursued in concert with a large-scale epidemiological study might unfold molecular underpinnings of host-susceptibility and exposureresponse relationship. The challenges are enormous, but we postulate that the study will be necessary to establish a direct initiation-promotion paradigm of environmental carcinogenesis. Given that mitochondrial retrograde signaling-induced epigenetic reprogramming is apparently linked to neoplasticity, a cutting-edge tailored approach by an expert pool of biomedical researchers will be fundamental to drive these strategies from planning to execution. Validating the epigenomic signatures will hopefully result in the development of biomarkers to better protect human lives in an overburdened ecosystem, such as India, which is continuously challenged to meet population demands. Besides, delineating the mechanistic links between MIC exposure and cancer morbidity, our investigative strategy might help to formulate suitable regulatory policies and measures to reduce the overall burden of occupational and environmental carcinogenesis.

  14. Case study on the utility of hepatic global gene expression profiling in the risk assessment of the carcinogen furan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Anna Francina, E-mail: Francina.Jackson@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.Williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa K1A 0K9 (Canada); Recio, Leslie, E-mail: lrecio@ils-inc.com [ILS, Inc., P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Waters, Michael D., E-mail: mwaters@ils-inc.com [ILS, Inc., P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Lambert, Iain B., E-mail: Iain.Lambert@carleton.ca [Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: Carole.Yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Furan is a chemical hepatocarcinogen in mice and rats. Its previously postulated cancer mode of action (MOA) is chronic cytotoxicity followed by sustained regenerative proliferation; however, its molecular basis is unknown. To this end, we conducted toxicogenomic analysis of B3C6F1 mouse livers following three week exposures to non-carcinogenic (0, 1, 2 mg/kg bw) or carcinogenic (4 and 8 mg/kg bw) doses of furan. We saw enrichment for pathways responsible for cytotoxicity: stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and death receptor (DR5 and TNF-alpha) signaling, and proliferation: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and TNF-alpha. We also noted the involvement of NF-kappaB and c-Jun in response to furan, which are genes that are known to be required for liver regeneration. Furan metabolism by CYP2E1 produces cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), which is required for ensuing cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. NRF2 is a master regulator of gene expression during oxidative stress and we suggest that chronic NFR2 activity and chronic inflammation may represent critical transition events between the adaptive (regeneration) and adverse (cancer) outcomes. Another objective of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of toxicogenomics data in quantitative risk assessment. We modeled benchmark doses for our transcriptional data and previously published cancer data, and observed consistency between the two. Margin of exposure values for both transcriptional and cancer endpoints were also similar. In conclusion, using furan as a case study we have demonstrated the value of toxicogenomics data in elucidating dose-dependent MOA transitions and in quantitative risk assessment. - Highlights: • Global gene expression changes in furan-exposed mouse livers were analyzed. • A molecular mode of action for furan-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is proposed. • Key pathways include NRF2, SAPK, ERK and death receptor signaling. • Important roles for TNF-alpha, c-Jun, and NF

  15. Case study on the utility of hepatic global gene expression profiling in the risk assessment of the carcinogen furan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Anna Francina; Williams, Andrew; Recio, Leslie; Waters, Michael D.; Lambert, Iain B.; Yauk, Carole L.

    2014-01-01

    Furan is a chemical hepatocarcinogen in mice and rats. Its previously postulated cancer mode of action (MOA) is chronic cytotoxicity followed by sustained regenerative proliferation; however, its molecular basis is unknown. To this end, we conducted toxicogenomic analysis of B3C6F1 mouse livers following three week exposures to non-carcinogenic (0, 1, 2 mg/kg bw) or carcinogenic (4 and 8 mg/kg bw) doses of furan. We saw enrichment for pathways responsible for cytotoxicity: stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and death receptor (DR5 and TNF-alpha) signaling, and proliferation: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and TNF-alpha. We also noted the involvement of NF-kappaB and c-Jun in response to furan, which are genes that are known to be required for liver regeneration. Furan metabolism by CYP2E1 produces cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), which is required for ensuing cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. NRF2 is a master regulator of gene expression during oxidative stress and we suggest that chronic NFR2 activity and chronic inflammation may represent critical transition events between the adaptive (regeneration) and adverse (cancer) outcomes. Another objective of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of toxicogenomics data in quantitative risk assessment. We modeled benchmark doses for our transcriptional data and previously published cancer data, and observed consistency between the two. Margin of exposure values for both transcriptional and cancer endpoints were also similar. In conclusion, using furan as a case study we have demonstrated the value of toxicogenomics data in elucidating dose-dependent MOA transitions and in quantitative risk assessment. - Highlights: • Global gene expression changes in furan-exposed mouse livers were analyzed. • A molecular mode of action for furan-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is proposed. • Key pathways include NRF2, SAPK, ERK and death receptor signaling. • Important roles for TNF-alpha, c-Jun, and NF

  16. The use of dose-response data in a margin of exposure approach to carcinogenic risk assessment for genotoxic chemicals in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Diane J

    2016-05-01

    Genotoxic substances are generally not permitted for deliberate use in food production. However, an appreciable number of known or suspected genotoxic substances occur unavoidably in food, e.g. from natural occurrence, environmental contamination and generation during cooking and processing. Over the past decade a margin of exposure (MOE) approach has increasingly been used in assessing the exposure to substances in food that are genotoxic and carcinogenic. The MOE is defined as a reference point on the dose-response curve (e.g. a benchmark dose lower confidences limit derived from a rodent carcinogenicity study) divided by the estimated human intake. A small MOE indicates a higher concern than a very large MOE. Whilst the MOE cannot be directly equated to risk, it supports prioritisation of substances for further research or for possible regulatory action, and provides a basis for communicating to the public. So far, the MOE approach has been confined to substances for which carcinogenicity data are available. In the absence of carcinogenicity data, evidence of genotoxicity is used only in hazard identification. The challenge to the genetic toxicology community is to develop approaches for characterising risk to human health based on data from genotoxicity studies. In order to achieve wide acceptance, it would be important to further address the issues that have been discussed in the context of dose-response modelling of carcinogenicity data in order to assign levels of concern to particular MOE values, and also whether it is possible to make generic conclusions on how potency in genotoxicity assays relates to carcinogenic potency. © Crown copyright 2015.

  17. Derivation of endogenous equivalent values to support risk assessment and risk management decisions for an endogenous carcinogen: Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Hays, S M

    2017-12-01

    An approach is presented for ethylene oxide (EO) to derive endogenous equivalent (EE) values, which are endogenous levels normally found within the body expressed in terms of exogenous exposures. EE values can be used to support risk assessment and risk management decisions for chemicals such as EO that have both endogenous and exogenous exposure pathways. EE values were derived using a meta-analysis of data from the published literature characterizing the distribution for an EO biomarker of exposure, hemoglobin N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-valine (HEV), in unexposed populations. These levels are compared to the those reported in exposed populations (smokers, workers). Correlation between the biomarker of exposure and external exposures of EO were applied to this distribution to determine corresponding EE values, which range from 0.13 to 6.9 ppb for EO in air. These values are orders of magnitude higher than risk-based concentration values derived for EO using default methods, and are provided as a pragmatic, data-driven alternative approach to managing the potential risks from exogenous exposures to EO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An estimation of the carcinogenic risk associated with the intake of multiple relevant carcinogens found in meat and charcuterie products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Almeida-González, Maira; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valeron, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between excessive meat consumption and the incidence of various cancers, especially colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that environmental carcinogens present in meat might be related to the increased risk of cancer associated with this food. However, there are no studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of meat in relation to its content of carcinogens. Our purpose was to emphasize the relevance of environmental carcinogens existing in meat as a determinant of the association between cancer and meat consumption. Because within Europe, Spain shows high consumption of meat and charcuterie, we performed this study focusing on Spanish population. Based on the preferences of consumers we acquired 100 samples of meat and charcuterie that reflect the variety available in the European market. We quantified in these samples the concentration of 33 chemicals with calculated carcinogenic potential (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCBs). The carcinogenic risk of these contaminants was assessed for each food using a risk ratio based on the current consumption of meat and charcuterie and the maximum tolerable intake of these foods depending on the level of contamination by the carcinogens they contain. Our results indicate that the current consumption of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and "chorizo", represents a relevant carcinogenic risk for consumers (carcinogenic risk quotient between 1.33 and 13.98). In order to reduce carcinogenic risk, the study population should halve the monthly consumption of these foods, and also not to surpass the number of 5 servings of beef/pork/chicken (considered together). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk-based indicators of Canadians' exposures to environmental carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setton, Eleanor; Hystad, Perry; Poplawski, Karla; Cheasley, Roslyn; Cervantes-Larios, Alejandro; Keller, C Peter; Demers, Paul A

    2013-02-12

    Tools for estimating population exposures to environmental carcinogens are required to support evidence-based policies to reduce chronic exposures and associated cancers. Our objective was to develop indicators of population exposure to selected environmental carcinogens that can be easily updated over time, and allow comparisons and prioritization between different carcinogens and exposure pathways. We employed a risk assessment-based approach to produce screening-level estimates of lifetime excess cancer risk for selected substances listed as known carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Estimates of lifetime average daily intake were calculated using population characteristics combined with concentrations (circa 2006) in outdoor air, indoor air, dust, drinking water, and food and beverages from existing monitoring databases or comprehensive literature reviews. Intake estimates were then multiplied by cancer potency factors from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment to estimate lifetime excess cancer risks associated with each substance and exposure pathway. Lifetime excess cancer risks in excess of 1 per million people are identified as potential priorities for further attention. Based on data representing average conditions circa 2006, a total of 18 carcinogen-exposure pathways had potential lifetime excess cancer risks greater than 1 per million, based on varying data quality. Carcinogens with moderate to high data quality and lifetime excess cancer risk greater than 1 per million included benzene, 1,3-butadiene and radon in outdoor air; benzene and radon in indoor air; and arsenic and hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Important data gaps were identified for asbestos, hexavalent chromium and diesel exhaust in outdoor and indoor air, while little data were available to assess risk for substances in dust, food and beverages. The ability to

  20. Concentrations of arsenic and lead in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Iran: A systematic review and carcinogenic risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Bjørklund, Geir; Bandpei, Anoushiravan Mohseni; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Keramati, Hassan; Hosseini Pouya, Rokhsane; Asadi, Anvar; Amanidaz, Nazak; Sarafraz, Mansour; Sheikhmohammad, Amir; Alipour, Mohamadreza; Baninameh, Zahra; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Ghasemi, Seyed Mehdi

    2018-03-01

    Exposure to heavy metals such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in either the short or the long term can cause cancers in humans. Dietary intake and consumption of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is increasing in Iran, and several studies on the concentration of heavy metals in rice have been carried out in this country in recent years. In this perspective, the main objective of the present study was to investigate, even via a meta-analysis of the existing literature, the presence of As and Pb in rice from many geographical areas in Iran, as well as to estimate the carcinogenic risk of these heavy metals in rice consumers. The results of the present ten years-spanning systematic review indicate that 21 reports, collecting a total of 2088 samples, were performed between 2008 and October 2017. The minimum and maximum concentration of As was observed in the Golestan area (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg d.w) and the Gillan region (3 mg/kg d.w); and Pb in the Shahrekord (0.07 ± 0.02 mg/kg d.w) and Mazandaran (35 mg/kg d.w). The meta-analysis of data showed that pooled concentration of As in the rice was 0.04 (95%CI: 0.02-0.06 mg/kg d.w), which resulted lower than the National Standard (NS) limits. However, the pooled concentration of Pb in the rice was 0.38 (95%CI: 0.25-0.5 mg/kg d.w), i.e., higher than NS limits. The heterogeneity was significant between As (I 2  = 63%, P value = .003) and Pb (I 2  = 96%, P value rice content of As and Pb are at considerable carcinogenesis risk (ILCR > 10 -3 ). Therefore a decreased level of heavy metals in rice cultivation should be encouraged and performed in next planning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination and risk assessment of naturally occurring genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in basil-containing sauce of pesto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Malahmeh, Amer J.; Al-Ajlouni, Abdalmajeed M.; Wesseling, Sebas; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    A risk assessment of basil-based pesto sauces containing methyleugenol and related alkenylbenzenes was performed based on their levels detected in a series of pesto sauces available on the Dutch market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) values of alkenylbenzenes as a result of consumption of the

  2. Determination and risk assessment of naturally occurring genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in nutmeg-based plant food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Malahmeh, Amer J.; Alajlouni, Abdul; Ning, Jia; Wesseling, Sebas; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    A risk assessment of nutmeg-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing different alkenylbenzenes was performed based on the alkenylbenzene levels quantified in a series of PFS collected via the online market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the alkenylbenzenes amounted to 0.3 to 312μg kg-1

  3. The assessment of the carcinogenic effects of low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Lafuma, J.; Masse, R.; Latarjet, R.

    1991-01-01

    It is concluded that the exclusion of patients for the purposes of risk estimation, the choice of a particular relative risk projection model and of a dose reduction factor equal to 2 are all decisions which result in an overestimation of the actual risk. These choices can be understood when the aim is radiation protection and when it is safer to overestimate the risk; however, they are open to criticism if the aim is a realistic assessment of the risk. For low doses, below 50 mSv/year, and when all causes of uncertainty are added, the actual risk might be markedly lower than the risk estimated with the ICRP (1991) carcinogenic risk coefficient and the DRF estimated by ICRP. Future studies should aim at providing direct and more precise assessments of risk coefficients in the low dose region. (Author)

  4. Determination and risk assessment of naturally occurring genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in nutmeg-based plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malahmeh, Amer J; Alajlouni, Abdalmajeed M; Ning, Jia; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-10-01

    A risk assessment of nutmeg-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing different alkenylbenzenes was performed based on the alkenylbenzene levels quantified in a series of PFS collected via the online market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the alkenylbenzenes amounted to 0.3 to 312 μg kg -1 body weight (bw) for individual alkenylbenzenes, to 1.5 to 631 μg kg -1 bw when adding up the alkenylbenzene levels assuming equal potency, and to 0.4 to 295 μg kg -1 bw when expressed in safrole equivalents using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). The margin of exposure approach (MOE) was used to evaluate the potential risks. Independent of the method used for the intake estimate, the MOE values obtained were generally lower than 10000 indicating a priority for risk management. When taking into account that PFS may be used for shorter periods of time and using Haber's rule to correct for shorter than lifetime exposure it was shown that limiting exposure to only 1 or 2 weeks would result in MOE values that would be, with the presently determined levels of alkenylbenzenes and proposed uses of the PFS, of low priority for risk management (MOE > 10000). It is concluded that the results of the present paper reveal that nutmeg-based PFS consumption following recommendations for daily intake especially for longer periods of time raise a concern. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Science, politics, and health in the brave new world of pharmaceutical carcinogenic risk assessment: technical progress or cycle of regulatory capture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John; Ballinger, Rachel

    2012-10-01

    The carcinogenicity (cancer-inducing potential) of pharmaceuticals is an important risk factor for health when considering whether thousands of patients on drug trials or millions/billions of consumers in the marketplace should be exposed to a new drug. Drawing on fieldwork involving over 50 interviews and documentary research spanning 2002-2010 in Europe and the US, and on regulatory capture theory, this article investigates how the techno-regulatory standards for carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals have altered since 1998. It focuses on the replacement of long-term carcinogenicity tests in rodents (especially mice) with shorter-term tests involving genetically-engineered mice (GEM). Based on evidence regarding financial/organizational control, methodological design, and interpretation of the validation and application of these new GEM tests, it is argued that regulatory agencies permitted the drug industry to shape such validation and application in ways that prioritized commercial interests over the need to protect public health. Boundary-work enabling industry scientists to define some standards of public-health policy facilitated such capture. However, as the scientific credibility of GEM tests as tools to protect public health by screening out carcinogens became inescapably problematic, a regulatory resurgence, impelled by reputational concerns, exercised more control over industry's construction and use of the tests, The extensive problems with GEM tests as public-health protective regulatory science raises the spectre that alterations to pharmaceutical carcinogenicity-testing standards since the 1990s may have been boundary-work in which the political project of decreasing the chance that companies' products are defined as carcinogenic has masqueraded as techno-science. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of the carcinogenic risks at the influence of POPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazhmetdinova, Aiman; Kassymbayev, Adlet; Chalginbayeva, Altinay

    2017-12-20

    Kazakhstan is included in the list of environmentally vulnerable countries and Kyzylorda oblast in particular. This is due to its geographical, spatial and temporal and socioeconomic features. As part of the program "Integrated approaches in the management of public health in the Aral region", we have carried out an expertise on many samples of natural environments and products. Samples were selected in accordance with sampling procedures according to regulatory documents by specialists of the Pesticide Toxicology Laboratory. It is accredited by the State Standard of the Republic of Kazakhstan, for compliance with ST RK ISO/IEC 17025-2007 "General requirements for the competence of test and calibration laboratories". Gas chromatograph was used for the determination of residues of organochlorine pesticides. For the determination of dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyl was conducted on the gas chromatomass spectrometer with quadruple detector produce by Agilent Company, USA. To assess the risk, we carried out the mathematical calculations according to the risk of chemicals polluting (No P 2.1.10.1920-04, Russia). Calculation of the carcinogenic risk was carried out with the use of data on the size of the exposure and meanings of carcinogenic potential factors (slope factor and unit risk). The evaluation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), based on the previous results of the research concerning water, soil and food products, was held in five population settlements in Kyzylorda oblast villages: Ayteke bi, Zhalagash, Zhosaly, Shieli and Aralsk town. Pollution with the POPs in the environmental objects by means of exposition and evaluation of the carcinogenic risk to human health is confirmed by the data of the statistical reporting about some morbidity in Kyzylorda oblast, such as skin diseases and subcutaneous tissue, endocrine system diseases, pregnancy complications etc. The received levels of carcinogenic risks, which were first carried out in the Republic of

  7. Carcinogenicity assessments of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals: a review of approved molecules and best practice recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahle, John L; Finch, Gregory L; Heidel, Shawn M; Hovland, David N; Ivens, Inge; Parker, Suezanne; Ponce, Rafael A; Sachs, Clifford; Steigerwalt, Ronald; Short, Brian; Todd, Marque D

    2010-06-01

    An important safety consideration for developing new therapeutics is assessing the potential that the therapy will increase the risk of cancer. For biotherapeutics, traditional two-year rodent bioassays are often not scientifically applicable or feasible. This paper is a collaborative effort of industry toxicologists to review past and current practice regarding carcinogenicity assessments of biotherapeutics and to provide recommendations. Publicly available information on eighty marketed protein biotherapeutics was reviewed. In this review, no assessments related to carcinogenicity or tumor growth promotion were identified for fifty-one of the eighty molecules. For the twenty-nine biotherapeutics in which assessments related to carcinogenicity were identified, various experimental approaches were employed. This review also discusses several key principles to aid in the assessment of carcinogenic potential, including (1) careful consideration of mechanism of action to identify theoretical risks, (2) careful investigation of existing data for indications of proliferative or immunosuppressive potential, and (3) characterization of any proliferative or immunosuppressive signals detected. Traditional two-year carcinogenicity assays should not be considered as the default method for assessing the carcinogenicity potential of biotherapeutics. If experimentation is considered warranted, it should be hypothesis driven and may include a variety of experimental models. Ultimately, it is important that preclinical data provide useful guidance in product labeling.

  8. Indoor air - assessment: Methods of analysis for environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.R.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1990-06-01

    The monograph describes, in a general way, published sampling procedures and analytical approaches for known and suspected carcinogens. The primary focus is upon carcinogens found in indoor air, although the methods described are applicable to other media or environments. In cases where there are no published methods for a particular pollutant in indoor air, methods developed for the workplace and for ambient air are included since they should be adaptable to indoor air. Known and suspected carcinogens have been grouped into six categories for the purposes of this and related work. The categories are radon, asbestos, organic compounds, inorganic species, particles, and non-ionizing radiation. Some methods of assessing exposure that are not specific to any particular pollutant category are covered in a separate section. The report is the fifth in a series of EPA/Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office Monographs

  9. A Novel Approach: Chemical Relational Databases, and the Role of the ISSCAN Database on Assessing Chemical Carcinogenity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did no...

  10. Carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Dodge, David G; Thakali, Sagar

    2009-01-01

    IARC is reassessing the human carcinogenicity of nickel compounds in 2009. To address the inconsistencies among results from studies of water-soluble nickel compounds, we conducted a weight-of-evidence analysis of the relevant epidemiological, toxicological, and carcinogenic mode-of-action data. We found the epidemiological evidence to be limited, in that some, but not all, data suggest that exposure to soluble nickel compounds leads to increased cancer risk in the presence of certain forms of insoluble nickel. Although there is no evidence that soluble nickel acts as a complete carcinogen in animals, there is limited evidence that suggests it may act as a tumor promoter. The mode-of-action data suggest that soluble nickel compounds will not be able to cause genotoxic effects in vivo because they cannot deliver sufficient nickel ions to nuclear sites of target cells. Although the mode-of-action data suggest several possible non-genotoxic effects of the nickel ion, it is unclear whether soluble nickel compounds can elicit these effects in vivo or whether these effects, if elicited, would result in tumor promotion. The mode-of-action data equally support soluble nickel as a promoter or as not being a causal factor in carcinogenesis at all. The weight of evidence does not indicate that soluble nickel compounds are complete carcinogens, and there is only limited evidence that they could act as tumor promoters.

  11. Chemical characteristic of PM2.5 emission and inhalational carcinogenic risk of domestic Chinese cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nan; Han, Bin; He, Fei; Xu, Jia; Zhao, Ruojie; Zhang, Yujuan; Bai, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    To illustrate chemical characteristic of PM 2.5 emission and assess inhalational carcinogenic risk of domestic Chinese cooking, 5 sets of duplicate cooking samples were collected, using the most used 5 types of oil. The mass abundance of 14 elements, 5 water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were calculated; the signature and diagnostic ratio of cooking in the domestic kitchen were analyzed; and carcinogenic risks of heavy metals and PAHs via inhalation were assessed in two scenarios. The analysis showed that OC was the primary composition in the chemical profile; Na was the most abundant element that might be due to the usage of salt; Cr and Pb, NO 3 − and SO 4 2- , Phe, FL and Pyr were the main heavy metals/water-soluble ions/PAHs, respectively. Phe and FL could be used to separate cooking and stationary sources, while diagnostic ratios of BaA/(BaA + CHR), BaA/CHR, BaP/BghiP and BaP/BeP should be applied with caution, as they were influenced by various cooking conditions. Carcinogenic risks of heavy metals and PAHs were evaluated in two scenarios, simulating the condition of cooking with no ventilation and with the range hood on, respectively. The integrated risk of heavy metals and PAHs was 2.7 × 10 −3 and 5.8 × 10 −6 , respectively, during cooking with no ventilation. While with the usage of range hood, only Cr(VI), As and Ni might induce potential carcinogenic risk. The difference in the chemical abundance in cooking sources found between this and other studies underlined the necessity of constructing locally representative source profiles under real conditions. The comparison of carcinogenic risk suggested that the potentially adverse health effects induced by inorganic compositions from cooking sources should not be ignored. Meanwhile, intervention methods, such as the operation of range hood, should be applied during cooking for health protection. - Highlights: • PM 2

  12. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun; Jia, Xudong; Ba, Qian; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. - Highlights: • A cadmium-influenced network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges was established. • The cadmium-rewired gene network was scale-free and highly connected. • Nine modules were identified, and 60 key signaling pathways related to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis were found. • Key mediators in the network were validated in multiple cellular models.

  13. Systematic network assessment of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Peizhan; Duan, Xiaohua; Li, Mian; Huang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Ying, Hao; Song, Haiyun [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Jia, Xudong [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Ba, Qian, E-mail: qba@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium has been defined as type I carcinogen for humans, but the underlying mechanisms of its carcinogenic activity and its influence on protein-protein interactions in cells are not fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, systematically, the carcinogenic activity of cadmium with systems biology approaches. From a literature search of 209 studies that performed with cellular models, 208 proteins influenced by cadmium exposure were identified. All of these were assessed by Western blotting and were recognized as key nodes in network analyses. The protein-protein functional interaction networks were constructed with NetBox software and visualized with Cytoscape software. These cadmium-rewired genes were used to construct a scale-free, highly connected biological protein interaction network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges. Of the network, nine key modules were identified and 60 key signaling pathways, including the estrogen, RAS, PI3K-Akt, NF-κB, HIF-1α, Jak-STAT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, were significantly enriched. With breast cancer, colorectal and prostate cancer cellular models, we validated the key node genes in the network that had been previously reported or inferred form the network by Western blotting methods, including STAT3, JNK, p38, SMAD2/3, P65, AKT1, and HIF-1α. These results suggested the established network was robust and provided a systematic view of the carcinogenic activities of cadmium in human. - Highlights: • A cadmium-influenced network with 850 nodes and 8770 edges was established. • The cadmium-rewired gene network was scale-free and highly connected. • Nine modules were identified, and 60 key signaling pathways related to cadmium-induced carcinogenesis were found. • Key mediators in the network were validated in multiple cellular models.

  14. Assessment of predictivity of volatile organic compounds carcinogenicity and mutagenicity by freeware in silico models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Lília Ribeiro; de Souza, Alessandra Mendonça Teles; Côrtes, Juliana Alves; Lione, Viviane de Oliveira Freitas; Castro, Helena Carla; Alves, Gutemberg Gomes

    2017-12-01

    The application of in silico methods is increasing on toxicological risk prediction for human and environmental health. This work aimed to evaluate the performance of three in silico freeware models (OSIRIS v.2.0, LAZAR, and Toxtree) on the prediction of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of thirty-eight volatile organic compounds (VOC) related to chemical risk assessment for occupational exposure. Theoretical data were compared with assessments available in international databases. Confusion matrices and ROC curves were used to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each model. All three models (OSIRIS, LAZAR and Toxtree) were able to identify VOC with a potential carcinogenicity or mutagenicity risk for humans, however presenting differences concerning the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy. The best predictive performances were found for OSIRIS and LAZAR for carcinogenicity and OSIRIS for mutagenicity, as these softwares presented a combination of negative predictive power and lower risk of false positives (high specificity) for those endpoints. The heterogeneity of results found with different softwares reinforce the importance of using a combination of in silico models to occupational toxicological risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical characteristic of PM2.5 emission and inhalational carcinogenic risk of domestic Chinese cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Han, Bin; He, Fei; Xu, Jia; Zhao, Ruojie; Zhang, Yujuan; Bai, Zhipeng

    2017-08-01

    To illustrate chemical characteristic of PM 2.5 emission and assess inhalational carcinogenic risk of domestic Chinese cooking, 5 sets of duplicate cooking samples were collected, using the most used 5 types of oil. The mass abundance of 14 elements, 5 water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were calculated; the signature and diagnostic ratio of cooking in the domestic kitchen were analyzed; and carcinogenic risks of heavy metals and PAHs via inhalation were assessed in two scenarios. The analysis showed that OC was the primary composition in the chemical profile; Na was the most abundant element that might be due to the usage of salt; Cr and Pb, NO 3 - and SO 4 2- , Phe, FL and Pyr were the main heavy metals/water-soluble ions/PAHs, respectively. Phe and FL could be used to separate cooking and stationary sources, while diagnostic ratios of BaA/(BaA + CHR), BaA/CHR, BaP/BghiP and BaP/BeP should be applied with caution, as they were influenced by various cooking conditions. Carcinogenic risks of heavy metals and PAHs were evaluated in two scenarios, simulating the condition of cooking with no ventilation and with the range hood on, respectively. The integrated risk of heavy metals and PAHs was 2.7 × 10 -3 and 5.8 × 10 -6 , respectively, during cooking with no ventilation. While with the usage of range hood, only Cr(VI), As and Ni might induce potential carcinogenic risk. The difference in the chemical abundance in cooking sources found between this and other studies underlined the necessity of constructing locally representative source profiles under real conditions. The comparison of carcinogenic risk suggested that the potentially adverse health effects induced by inorganic compositions from cooking sources should not be ignored. Meanwhile, intervention methods, such as the operation of range hood, should be applied during cooking for health protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  16. Indoor air-assessment: Indoor concentrations of environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, K.W.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    In the report, indoor concentration data are presented for the following general categories of air pollutants: radon-222, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), asbestos, gas phase organic compounds, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides, and inorganic compounds. These pollutants are either known or suspect carcinogens (i.e., radon-222, asbestos) or more complex mixtures or classes of compounds which contain known or suspect carcinogens. Concentration data for individual carcinogenic compounds in complex mixtures are usually far from complete. The data presented for complex mixtures often include compounds which are not carcinogenic or for which data are insufficient to evaluate carcinogenicity. Their inclusion is justified, however, by the possibility that further work may show them to be carcinogens, cocarcinogens, initiators or promotors, or that they may be employed as markers (e.g., nicotine, acrolein) for the estimation of exposure to complex mixtures

  17. Analysis of mutagenic and carcinogenic risks: nitrates, nitrites, N-Nitroso compounds. Comparison with radioactive risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.

    1987-07-01

    This report comes within the scope of the general studies on mutagenic and carcinogenic agents other than ionizing radiations. Through feeding, way of life and working activities, man is exposed to genotoxic risks of N-nitroso compounds (NNC). In spite of differences in the molecular modes of action, there exists some analogy between the effects of radiation exposures and those of NNC: DNA is the target in either instance. Unlike radiations, NNC are alkylating agents. The whole activation process of carcinogens arises from mechanisms leading to DNA repair [fr

  18. The carcinogenic risks of low-LET and high-LET ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1989-08-01

    New information is available concerning the carcinogenic effects of radiation and the implications for risk assessment and risk management. This information comes from further follow-up of the epidemiological studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, patients irradiated medically for cancer and allied conditions, and workers exposed in various occupations. In the Japanese atomic bomb survivors the carcinogenic risks are estimated to be somewhat higher than previously, due to the reassessment of the atomic-bomb dosimetry, further follow-up with increase in the number of excess cancer deaths, particularly in survivors irradiated early in life, and changes in the methods of analysis to compute the age-specific risks of cancer. Because of the characteristics of the atomic bomb survivor series as regards sample size, age and sex distribution, duration for follow-up, person-years at risk, and type of dosimetry, the mortality experience of the atomic bomb survivors was selected by the UNSCEAR Committee and the BEIR V Committee as the more appropriate basis for projecting risk estimates for the general population. In the atomic bomb survivors, the dose-effect relationship for overall cancer mortality other than leukemia is consistent with linearity below 3 Gy, while the dose-effect relationship for leukemia, excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia, conforms best to a linear-quadratic function. The shape of the dose-incidence curve at low doses still remains uncertain, and the data do not rule out the possible existence of a threshold for an neoplasm. The excess relative risk of mortality from all cancers combined is estimated to be 1.39 per Gy (shielded kerma), which corresponds to an absolute risk of 10.0 excess cancer deaths per 10,000 PYGy; the relative risks is 1.41 at 1 Gy (organ-absorbed dose), and an absolute risk of 13.07 excess cancer deaths per 10,000 PYGy. 19 refs

  19. Glyphosate toxicity and carcinogenicity: a review of the scientific basis of the European Union assessment and its differences with IARC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, Jose V; Court-Marques, Daniele; Tiramani, Manuela; Reich, Hermine; Pfeil, Rudolf; Istace, Frederique; Crivellente, Federica

    2017-08-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide worldwide. It is a broad spectrum herbicide and its agricultural uses increased considerably after the development of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified (GM) varieties. Since glyphosate was introduced in 1974, all regulatory assessments have established that glyphosate has low hazard potential to mammals, however, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded in March 2015 that it is probably carcinogenic. The IARC conclusion was not confirmed by the EU assessment or the recent joint WHO/FAO evaluation, both using additional evidence. Glyphosate is not the first topic of disagreement between IARC and regulatory evaluations, but has received greater attention. This review presents the scientific basis of the glyphosate health assessment conducted within the European Union (EU) renewal process, and explains the differences in the carcinogenicity assessment with IARC. Use of different data sets, particularly on long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity in rodents, could partially explain the divergent views; but methodological differences in the evaluation of the available evidence have been identified. The EU assessment did not identify a carcinogenicity hazard, revised the toxicological profile proposing new toxicological reference values, and conducted a risk assessment for some representatives uses. Two complementary exposure assessments, human-biomonitoring and food-residues-monitoring, suggests that actual exposure levels are below these reference values and do not represent a public concern.

  20. The in vivo rodent test systems for assessment of carcinogenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Jan-Willem; Spindler, Per

    2002-01-01

    A Drug Information Association (DIA) workshop was held in May 2001 to discuss the outcome of the International Life Sciences Institute-Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (ILSI-HESI) project on alternative models for carcinogenicity assessment such as the P53(+/-) and XPA(+/-) knockout...... mouse models, the RasH2 and Tg.AC transgenic mouse models, and the neonatal mouse model. The "ICH Guideline S1B on Testing for Carcinogenicity of Pharmaceuticals" advocates that carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals, when needed, might be carried out choosing one 2-year rodent carcinogenicity study...... (rat) plus one other study that supplements the 2-year study and providing additional information that is not readily available from the 2-year study: either (1) a short- or medium-term in vivo rodent test system or (2) a 2-year carcinogenicity study in a second rodent species (mouse). Another topic...

  1. Inter-laboratory comparison of turkey in ovo carcinogenicity assessment (IOCA) of hepatocarcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, H; Brunnemann, K; Iatropoulos, M; Shpyleva, S; Lukyanova, N; Todor, I; Moore, M; Spicher, K; Chekhun, V; Tsuda, H; Williams, G

    2013-09-01

    In three independent laboratories carcinogens (diethylnitrosamine, DEN, 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, NNK) and non-carcinogens (N-nitrosoproline, nicotine) were evaluated in turkey eggs for in ovo carcinogenicity assessment (IOCA). Compounds were injected into aseptic fertilized eggs. After incubation for 24 days, foci of altered hepatocytes (FAH), some with a pseudoglandular structure and/or signs of compression of the surrounding tissue were observed in the fetal liver. All laboratories were able to distinguish unequivocally the hepatocarcinogen-exposed groups from those exposed to non-carcinogens or the vehicle controls, based on the pre-specified evaluation parameters: tumor-like lesions, pseudoglandular areas and FAH. In addition to focal changes, only the carcinogens induced hepatocellular karyomegaly. Lower doses of the carcinogens, which did not induce FAH, were sufficient to induce hepatocellular karyomegaly. After exposure to 4 mg DEN, gall bladder agenesis was observed in all fetuses. The IOCA may be a valuable tool for early investigative studies on carcinogenicity and since it does not use rodents may complement chronic rat or mouse bioassays. Test substances that are positive in both rodents and fertilized turkey eggs are most probably trans-species carcinogens with particular significance for humans. The good concordance observed among the three laboratories demonstrates that the IOCA is a reliable and robust method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. [Cardiovascular risk, occupation and exposure to occupational carcinogens in a group of workers in Salamanca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Identify the cardiovascular risk factors in a group of workers in the province of Salamanca, protected by external prevention services, as regards exposure to occupational carcinogens, by sector of activity and gender. An observational descriptive epidemiological study was conducted. The sample selection was by stratified random sampling in each entity. The variables collected by questionnaire were, sociodemographic characteristics, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), using the clinical-work histories as a source of information. Statistically significant differences were observed in cardiovascular risk according to the exposure to occupational carcinogens (p cardiovascular risk in the work place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative comparison of genotoxic (mutagenic and carcinogenic) risks and the choice of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latarjet, R.

    1983-01-01

    For 25 years, pollution for radiation has been governed by restrictive rules enacted and periodically revised by an international commission, and adopted by all countries. Nothing similar exists for mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. Since these substances affect the genetic material in the cells with reactions often similar to those caused by radiation, quantitative comparisons are possible, in particular for some of those compounds produced by the combustion of coal, oil and gaz. This paper describes the main results obtained at the Institut Curie, since 1975, with ethylene, ethylene oxide and vinyl chloride monomer. The consequences are discussed for: a) the establishement of control rules for the main genotoxic chemical pollutions; b) the assessment of long term risks in the cases of nuclear energy and of the energies obtained by combustion [fr

  4. Participation of IPEN in the international program of information about occupational exposure to carcinogen risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osores, Jose; Gonzales, Susana

    2014-01-01

    During 2014, the Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute participated in the mapping of risks to carcinogens due to occupational exposure for our country through CAREX program because all radioactive substances are considered by the International Agency for Research Cancer as type 1 carcinogens (high risk) and the presence of these substances in the work environment are unknown to professionals from other institutions. This occasion allowed the incorporation of Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) as indicators in all work activities that were not considered by the Energy and Mining Sector. (authors).

  5. 78 FR 44117 - Notice of a Public Comment Period on the Draft IRIS Carcinogenicity Assessment for Ethylene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Public Comment Period on the Draft IRIS Carcinogenicity Assessment for Ethylene Oxide AGENCY... Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide'' (EPA/635/R-13/128a) and on the draft peer review charge questions. The draft... on the draft Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide and on the draft peer...

  6. Policy issues in setting de minimis standards for latent cancer risks of radiation and chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the fuel cycles for the development and utilization of alternative energy resources, the risk of latent cancer arises from a number of sources. Included are ionizing radiation and the carcinogenic potential of polluting chemicals present in certain fuels or in materials associated with the construction, operation, maintenance or waste treatment processes of nuclear power, fossil fuels, synfuels, biomass, and other sources of energy. One aspect of developing a carcinogen guideline policy for a consistent and effective regulatory regime to use in dealing with these assorted carcinogenic risks is the setting of de minimis quantitative standards. In this report, 11 policy issues related to the setting of such regulatory standards are identified and a brief commentary is provided. 15 references, 1 table

  7. A review of the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate by four independent expert panels and comparison to the IARC assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary M; Aardema, Marilyn; Acquavella, John; Berry, Sir Colin; Brusick, David; Burns, Michele M; de Camargo, Joao Lauro Viana; Garabrant, David; Greim, Helmut A; Kier, Larry D; Kirkland, David J; Marsh, Gary; Solomon, Keith R; Sorahan, Tom; Roberts, Ashley; Weed, Douglas L

    2016-09-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published a monograph in 2015 concluding that glyphosate is "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) based on limited evidence in humans and sufficient evidence in experimental animals. It was also concluded that there was strong evidence of genotoxicity and oxidative stress. Four Expert Panels have been convened for the purpose of conducting a detailed critique of the evidence in light of IARC's assessment and to review all relevant information pertaining to glyphosate exposure, animal carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, and epidemiologic studies. Two of the Panels (animal bioassay and genetic toxicology) also provided a critique of the IARC position with respect to conclusions made in these areas. The incidences of neoplasms in the animal bioassays were found not to be associated with glyphosate exposure on the basis that they lacked statistical strength, were inconsistent across studies, lacked dose-response relationships, were not associated with preneoplasia, and/or were not plausible from a mechanistic perspective. The overall weight of evidence from the genetic toxicology data supports a conclusion that glyphosate (including GBFs and AMPA) does not pose a genotoxic hazard and therefore, should not be considered support for the classification of glyphosate as a genotoxic carcinogen. The assessment of the epidemiological data found that the data do not support a causal relationship between glyphosate exposure and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while the data were judged to be too sparse to assess a potential relationship between glyphosate exposure and multiple myeloma. As a result, following the review of the totality of the evidence, the Panels concluded that the data do not support IARC's conclusion that glyphosate is a "probable human carcinogen" and, consistent with previous regulatory assessments, further concluded that glyphosate is unlikely to pose a carcinogenic risk to humans.

  8. Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    How the EPA conducts risk assessment to protect human health and the environment. Several assessments are included with the guidelines, models, databases, state-based RSL Tables, local contacts and framework documents used to perform these assessments.

  9. Carcinogenic risk in diagnostic nuclear medicine: biological and epidemiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overbeek, F.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Broerse, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    During the last decade new data have become available on the mechanism of carcinogenesis and on cancer induction by ionizing radiation. This review concentrates on these two items in relation to the use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine. On the basis of reports of expert committees, the concept of radiation risk is elucidated for high and low doses. Mortality risk factors due to ionizing radiation are put in perspective to other risks. The extra risk for patients who undergo a scintigraphic examination for fatal cancer is very small and is of the order of 1.4 x 10 -4 . It is most unlikely that this figure can even be verified by actual measurement since the majority of nuclear medicine patients will die of other causes before the radiogenic cancer manifests itself. (orig.)

  10. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; García-Lavandeira, José Antonio; Torres-Durán, María; Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Mejuto-Martí, María José

    2014-01-01

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years

  11. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.ruano@usc.es [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); García-Lavandeira, José Antonio [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Department of Preventive Medicine, A Coruña University Hospital Complex, Coruña (Spain); Torres-Durán, María [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Parente-Lamelas, Isaura [Service of Neumology, Ourense Hospital Complex, Ourense (Spain); Leiro-Fernández, Virginia [Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Montero-Martínez, Carmen [Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of A Coruña, Coruña (Spain); González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio [Service of Neumology, Santiago de Compostela University Clinic Hospital, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Martínez, Cristina [National Institute of Silicosis, University Hospital of Asturias, Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Castro-Añón, Olalla [Service of Neumology, Hospital Lucus Augusti, Lugo (Spain); Mejuto-Martí, María José [Service of Neumology, Hospital Arquitecto Marcide, Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-07-15

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years.

  12. Transplacental exposure to environmental carcinogens: Association with childhood cancer risks and the role of modulating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucic, A; Guszak, V; Mantovani, A

    2017-09-01

    Biological responses to carcinogens from environmental exposure during adulthood are modulated over years or decades. Conversely, during transplacental exposure, the effects on the human foetus change within weeks, intertwining with developmental mechanisms: even short periods of transplacental exposure may be imprinted in the organism for a lifetime. The pathways leading to childhood and juvenile cancers, such as leukaemias, neuroblastoma/brain tumours, hepatoblastoma, and Willm's tumour involve prenatally-induced genomic, epigenomic and/or non-genomic effects caused by xenobiotics. Pregnant women most often live in complex environmental settings that cause transplacental exposure of the foetus to xenobiotic mixtures. Mother-child biomonitoring should integrate the analysis of chemicals/radiation present in the living and workplace environment with relevant risk modulators related to life style. The interdisciplinary approach for transplacental cancer risk assessment in high-pressure areas should be based on an integrated model for mother-child exposure estimation via profiling the exposure level by water quality analysis, usage of emission grids, and land use maps. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A novel approach: chemical relational databases, and the role of the ISSCAN database on assessing chemical carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Richard, Ann M; Yang, Chihae

    2008-01-01

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did not contain chemical structures. Concepts and technologies originated from the structure-activity relationships science have provided powerful tools to create new types of databases, where the effective linkage of chemical toxicity with chemical structure can facilitate and greatly enhance data gathering and hypothesis generation, by permitting: a) exploration across both chemical and biological domains; and b) structure-searchability through the data. This paper reviews the main public databases, together with the progress in the field of chemical relational databases, and presents the ISSCAN database on experimental chemical carcinogens.

  14. Evaluating the mechanistic evidence and key data gaps in assessing the potential carcinogenicity of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuempel, Eileen D.; Jaurand, Marie-Claude; Møller, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In an evaluation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the IARC Monograph 111, the Mechanisms Subgroup was tasked with assessing the strength of evidence on the potential carcinogenicity of CNTs in humans. The mechanistic evidence was considered to be not strong enough to alter the evaluations based...... on the animal data. In this paper, we provide an extended, in-depth examination of the in vivo and in vitro experimental studies according to current hypotheses on the carcinogenicity of inhaled particles and fibers. We cite additional studies of CNTs that were not available at the time of the IARC meeting...... in October 2014, and extend our evaluation to include carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Finally, we identify key data gaps and suggest research needs to reduce uncertainty. The focus of this review is on the cancer risk to workers exposed to airborne CNT or CNF during the production and use of these materials...

  15. Carcinogenic risk associated with radon-enriched well water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison has been made between radon in drinking water and the incidence of cancer using a set of home occupants in Virginia and Maryland. In a subset of people who drink radon-free but chlorinated drinking water from a reservoir, about 3% develop some type of cancer. In a subset of people who drink low-radon water from private water wells, about 3% develop cancer. In a subset who drink high-radon well water, about 6% develop cancer. A comparison with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates of cancer related to airborne radon indicates that for the general population, the incidence of radon-related cancer from drinking water is similar to the incidence of cancer from inhaled radon. For the 10% of the population that consumes well water and, in particular, for the 5% of the population that consumes high-radon well water, the drinking water carries a considerably higher cancer risk than inhaling airborne radon

  16. Carcinogenic and neurotoxic risks of acrylamide consumed through caffeinated beverages among the lebanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zakhem Naous, Ghada; Merhi, Areej; Abboud, Martine I; Mroueh, Mohamad; Taleb, Robin I

    2018-06-06

    The present study aims to quantify acrylamide in caffeinated beverages including American coffee, Lebanese coffee, espresso, instant coffee and hot chocolate, and to determine their carcinogenic and neurotoxic risks. A survey was carried for this purpose whereby 78% of the Lebanese population was found to consume at least one type of caffeinated beverages. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed that the average acrylamide level in caffeinated beverages is 29,176 μg/kg sample. The daily consumption of acrylamide from Lebanese coffee (10.9 μg/kg-bw/day), hot chocolate (1.2 μg/kg-bw/day) and Espresso (7.4 μg/kg-bw/day) was found to be higher than the risk intake for carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity as set by World Health Organization (WHO; 0.3-2 μg/kg-bw/day) at both the mean (average consumers) and high (high consumers) dietary exposures. On the other hand, American coffee (0.37 μg/kg-bw/day) was shown to pose no carcinogenic or neurotoxic risks among the Lebanese community for consumers with a mean dietary exposure. The study shows alarming results that call for regulating the caffeinated product industry by setting legislations and standard protocols for product preparation in order to limit the acrylamide content and protect consumers. In order to avoid carcinogenic and neurotoxic risks, we propose that WHO/FAO set acrylamide levels in caffeinated beverages to 7000 μg acrylamide/kg sample, a value which is 4-folds lower than the average acrylamide levels of 29,176 μg/kg sample found in caffeinated beverages sold in the Lebanese market. Alternatively, consumers of caffeinated products, especially Lebanese coffee and espresso, would have to lower their daily consumption to 0.3-0.4 cups/day. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Moving forward in carcinogenicity assessment : Report of an EURL ECVAM/ESTIV workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corvi, Raffaella; Madia, Federica; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Kasper, Peter; Rudel, Ruthann; Colacci, Annamaria; Kleinjans, Jos; Jennings, Paul

    2017-01-01

    There is an increased need to develop novel alternative approaches to the two-year rodent bioassay for the carcinogenicity assessment of substances where the rodent bioassay is still a basic requirement, as well as for those substances where animal use is banned or limited or where information gaps

  18. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinchin, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    After defining risk and introducing the concept of individual and societal risk, the author considers each of these, restricting considerations to risk of death. Some probabilities of death arising from various causes are quoted, and attention drawn to the care necessary in making comparisons between sets of data and to the distinction between voluntary and involuntary categories and between early and delayed deaths. The presentation of information on societal risk is discussed and examples given. The history of quantified risk assessment is outlined, particularly related to the nuclear industry, the process of assessing risk discussed: identification of hazard causes, the development of accident chains and the use of event trees, the evaluation of probability through the collection of data and their use with fault trees, and the assessment of consequences of hazards in terms of fatalities. Reference is made to the human element and common-made failures, and to studies supporting the development of reliability assessment techniques. Acceptance criteria are discussed for individual and societal risk in the nuclear field, and it is shown that proposed criteria lead to risks conservative by comparison with risks from day-to-day accidents and other potentially hazardous industries. (U.K.)

  19. Information needs for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, C.T.; Choudhury, H.; Schoeny, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    Risk assessment can be thought of as a conceptual approach to bridge the gap between the available data and the ultimate goal of characterizing the risk or hazard associated with a particular environmental problem. To lend consistency to and to promote quality in the process, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity, Germ Cell Mutagenicity and Exposure Assessment, and Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures. The guidelines provide a framework for organizing the information, evaluating data, and for carrying out the risk assessment in a scientifically plausible manner. In the absence of sufficient scientific information or when abundant data are available, the guidelines provide alternative methodologies that can be employed in the risk assessment. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The carcinogenic risks of low-LET and high-LET ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1991-08-01

    This report presents a discussion on risk from ionizing radiations to human populations. Important new information on human beings has come mainly from further follow-up of existing epidemiological studies, notably the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and the ankylosing spondylitis patients; from new epidemiological surveys, such as the patients treated for cancer of the uterine cervix; and from combined surveys, including workers exposed in underground mines. Since the numerous and complex differences among the different study populations introduce factors that influence the risk estimates derived in ways that are not completely understood, it is not clear how to combine the different risk estimates obtained. These factors involve complex biological and physical variables distributed over time. Because such carcinogenic effects occur too infrequently to be demonstrated at low doses, the risks of low-dose radiation can be estimated only by interpolation from observations at high doses on the basis of theoretical concepts, mathematical models and available empirical evidence, primarily the epidemiological surveys of large populations exposed to ionizing radiation. In spite of a considerable amount of research, only recently has there has been efforts to apply the extensive laboratory data in animals to define the dose-incidence relationship in the low dose region. There simply are insufficient data in the epidemiological studies of large human populations to estimate risk coefficients directly from exposure to low doses. The risk estimates for the carcinogenic effects of radiation have been, in the past, somewhat low and reassessment of the numerical values is now necessary

  1. Radiobiology in clinical radiation therapy: Long term risks - Carcinogenic, hereditary, and teratogenetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The long-term risks induced by radiation are of much concern to patients and clinicians alike. As an example, perceived radiation risks are frequently cited in a woman's decision to choose a radical mastectomy over lumpectomy + radiation. In consequence, the actual radiation risks are often considerably overstated, or unreasonably downplayed. In this lecture we will discuss just what is known about the long term risks following radiotherapy, both from the human experience and from the laboratory. We will discuss risks both to the patient and to radiotherapy personnel. A good deal is known about the carcinogenic effects of high and low doses of radiation, in large part thanks to the careful study of the survivors of the atomic bombing in Japan, as well as studies of individuals exposed to medical x rays. It is possible to make an estimate, which is probably good to within a factor of, perhaps, three to five, of the cancer risks faced by a patient of a particular age and sex who is going to undergo a particular radiotherapeutic regimen. It is also possible to make an estimate of the risks faced by radiotherapy and nursing staff exposed to low doses. Brachytherapy related risk estimates are likely to be somewhat more uncertain, due to the poorly known sparing effects of the low dose rates used; for the radiotherapy personnel in brachytherapy, because of the doses which can be received, the risks can be quite significant. A recent complication in external-beam radiotherapy is the advent of high-energy linacs, which can produce a significant fast neutron dose which, dose for dose, may be ten to fifty times more carcinogenic than gamma rays. Data relating to the risks of hereditary effects of radiation come almost entirely from laboratory experiments in animals. Studies involving several million mice form the basis of most of our current understanding of hereditary effects. The results of these studies indicate that radiation is a relatively inefficient mutagen. The

  2. Radiobiology in clinical radiation therapy - Part IV: Long term risks - Carcinogenic, hereditary, and teratogenetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, David J.

    1996-01-01

    The long-term risks induced by radiation are of much concern to patients and clinicians alike. As an example, perceived radiation risks are frequently cited in a woman's decision to choose a radical mastectomy over lumpectomy + radiation. In consequence, the actual radiation risks are often considerably overstated, or unreasonably downplayed. In this lecture we will discuss just what is known about the long term risks following radiotherapy, both from the human experience and from the laboratory. We will discuss risks both to the patient and to radiotherapy personnel. A good deal is known about the carcinogenic effects of high and low doses of radiation, in large part thanks to the careful study of the survivors of the atomic bombing in Japan, as well as studies of individuals exposed to medical x rays. It is possible to make an estimate, which is probably good to within a factor of, perhaps, three to five, of the cancer risks faced by a patient of a particular age and sex who is going to undergo a particular radiotherapeutic regimen. It is also possible to make an estimate of the risks faced by radiotherapy and nursing staff exposed to low doses. Brachytherapy related risk estimates are likely to be somewhat more uncertain, due to the poorly known sparing effects of the low dose rates used; for the radiotherapy personnel in brachytherapy, because of the doses which can be received, the risks can be quite significant. A recent complication in external-beam radiotherapy is the advent of high-energy linacs, which can produce a significant fast neutron dose which, dose for dose, may be ten to fifty times more carcinogenic than gamma rays. Data relating to the risks of hereditary effects of radiation come almost entirely from laboratory experiments in animals. Studies involving several million mice form the basis of most of our current understanding of hereditary effects. The results of these studies indicate that radiation is a relatively inefficient mutagen. The

  3. Natural carcinogenic fiber and pleural plaques assessment in a general population: A cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledda, Caterina, E-mail: cledda@unict.it [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Hygiene and Public Health, Department Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Pomara, Cristoforo [Legal Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia (Italy); Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Bracci, Massimo [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Mangano, Dario [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Ricceri, Vincenzo [Division of Radiology - Hospital of Biancavilla “Maria SS. Addolorata”, ASP Catania, Biancavilla (Italy); Musumeci, Andrea [Division of Radiology – University Hospital “Policlinico – Vittorio Emanuele”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Ferrante, Margherita [Hygiene and Public Health, Department Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Musumeci, Giuseppe; Loreto, Carla [Human Anatomy and Histology, Department of Biomedical and Biotechnology Sciences, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Fenga, Concettina [Occupational Medicine, Department of the Environment, Safety, Territory, Food and Health Sciences, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); Santarelli, Lory [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Rapisarda, Venerando [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Natural carcinogenic fibers are asbestos and asbestiform fibers present as a natural component of soils or rocks. These fibers are released into the environment resulting in exposure of the general population. Environmental contamination by fibers are those cases occurred in: rural regions of Turkey, in Mediterranean countries and in other sites of the world, including northern Europe, USA and China. Fluoro-edenite(FE) is a natural mineral species first isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. The fibers are similar in size and morphology to some amphibolic asbestos fibers, whose inhalation can cause chronic inflammation and cancer. The aim of the current study is to assess the presence and features of pleural plaques (PPs) in Biancavilla's general population exposed to FE through a retrospective cross-sectional study. All High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) chest scans carried out between June 2009 and June 2015 in Biancavilla municipality hospital site (exposed subjects) were reviewed. The exposed groups were 1:1 subjects, matched according to age and sex distributions, with unexposed subjects (n.1.240) randomly selected among HRCT chest scans carried out in a Hospital 30 km away from Biancavilla. Subjects from Biancavilla with PPs were significantly more numerous than the control group ones (218 vs 38). Average age of either group was >60 years; the age of exposed subjects was significantly (p=0.0312) lesser than the unexposed group. In exposed subjects, in most PPs thickness ranged between 2 and 4.9 cm(38%, n=83); while in unexposed ones PPs thickness was less than 2 cm (55%, n=21). As to the size of PPs in exposed subjects, in most cases it ranged between 1 cm and 24% of chest wall (53%, n=116); while in unexposed ones the size of PPs was lesser than 1 cm (23%, n=58). Among exposed subjects, 36 cases (17%) PPs were detected with calcification, whereas in unexposed ones only three (8%) presented calcification. 137 lung parenchymal abnormalities were

  4. Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hrdová, Edita

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focused on companies risk evaluation before endorsement of Loan deriving from business relationships. The aim of this thesis is not only to describe individual steps of risk assessment, but also perfom analysis of particular companies based on available data, i.e. Balance sheet, Profit and Loss statement and external rating and after that propose solution for each company. My analysis will be based on theoretical knowledge, further on experience related to my job role a...

  5. Risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Elsass, Peter

    2010-01-01

    International research suggests that using formalized risk assessment methods may improve the predictive validity of professionals' predictions of risk of future violence. This study presents data on forensic psychiatric patients discharged from a forensic unit in Denmark in year 2001-2002 (n=107...... and the individual dynamic items strengthen the use of this scheme in clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)...

  6. [Carcinogens exposure risk control: balance and strategies of action within the most emblematic industrial divisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    In Italy during the last three decades important changes in employment have occurred. During the '70s, thanks to a variety of factors, the hygiene conditions of work have undergone a process of slow, but gradual improvement, which has not been arrested during the following decades. New legislation, partly deriving from European directives, has been introduced, and processes of outsourcing have moved the most burdensome and pollutants industrial productions to developing countries. Nevertheless, the estimates of the number of exposed (or even potentially so) workers, to carcinogens remain quite high. Currently, in absence of the planned National Information System on Prevention, it is impossible to estimate in how many and which workplaces primary prevention plans and facilities have been already installed. This paper aims to describe the situation related to most occupationally diffused carcinogenic agents: asbestos, wood and crystalline silica dusts, each one for its specificity. It also describes the innovations introduced by the most recent legislation, in particular with regard to the asbestos risk control. Finally, it stresses the need for a reform of the insurance premiums in order to introduce a mechanism for rewarding those employers who implement primary prevention facilities and penalizing those who don't. The economic advantages should gradually cover the cost of risk control technology.

  7. Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the dietary consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Singh, Madhulika; George, Jasmine; Bhui, Kulpreet; Murari Saxena, Anand; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2010-11-01

    Repeated heating of vegetable oils at high temperatures during cooking is a very common cooking practice. Repeated heating of edible oils can generate a number of compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which have been reported to have carcinogenic potential. Consumption of these repeatedly heated oils can pose a serious health hazard. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil (RCO), which is one of the commonly consumed cooking and frying medium. The PAH were analysed using HPLC in fresh CO, single-heated CO (SCO) and RCO. Results revealed the presence of certain PAH, known to possess carcinogenic potential, in RCO when compared with SCO. Oral intake of RCO in Wistar rats resulted in a significant induction of aberrant cells (P<0·05) and micronuclei (P<0·05) in a dose-dependent manner. Oxidative stress analysis showed a significant (P<0·05) decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase with a concurrent increase in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in the liver. In addition, RCO given alone and along with diethylnitrosamine for 12 weeks induced altered hepatic foci as noticed by alteration in positive (γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and negative (adenosine triphosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase) hepatospecific biomarkers. A significant decrease in the relative and absolute hepatic weight of RCO-supplemented rats was recorded (P<0·05). In conclusion, dietary consumption of RCO can cause a genotoxic and preneoplastic change in the liver.

  8. Towards health impact assessment of drinking-water privatization--the example of waterborne carcinogens in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Rainer; Mekel, Odile; Lacombe, Martin; Wolf, Ulrike

    2003-01-01

    Worldwide there is a tendency towards deregulation in many policy sectors - this, for example, includes liberalization and privatization of drinking-water management. However, concerns about the negative impacts this might have on human health call for prospective health impact assessment (HIA) on the management of drinking-water. On the basis of an established generic 10-step HIA procedure and on risk assessment methodology, this paper aims to produce quantitative estimates concerning health effects from increased exposure to carcinogens in drinking-water. Using data from North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, probabilistic estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk, as well as estimates of additional cases of cancer from increased carcinogen exposure levels are presented. The results show how exposure to contaminants that are strictly within current limits could increase cancer risks and case-loads substantially. On the basis of the current analysis, we suggest that with uniform increases in pollutant levels, a single chemical (arsenic) is responsible for a large fraction of expected additional risk. The study also illustrates the uncertainty involved in predicting the health impacts of changes in water quality. Future analysis should include additional carcinogens, non-cancer risks including those due to microbial contamination, and the impacts of system failures and of illegal action, which may be increasingly likely to occur under changed management arrangements. If, in spite of concerns, water is privatized, it is particularly important to provide adequate surveillance of water quality.

  9. Towards health impact assessment of drinking-water privatization--the example of waterborne carcinogens in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Rainer; Mekel, Odile; Lacombe, Martin; Wolf, Ulrike

    2003-01-01

    Worldwide there is a tendency towards deregulation in many policy sectors - this, for example, includes liberalization and privatization of drinking-water management. However, concerns about the negative impacts this might have on human health call for prospective health impact assessment (HIA) on the management of drinking-water. On the basis of an established generic 10-step HIA procedure and on risk assessment methodology, this paper aims to produce quantitative estimates concerning health effects from increased exposure to carcinogens in drinking-water. Using data from North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, probabilistic estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk, as well as estimates of additional cases of cancer from increased carcinogen exposure levels are presented. The results show how exposure to contaminants that are strictly within current limits could increase cancer risks and case-loads substantially. On the basis of the current analysis, we suggest that with uniform increases in pollutant levels, a single chemical (arsenic) is responsible for a large fraction of expected additional risk. The study also illustrates the uncertainty involved in predicting the health impacts of changes in water quality. Future analysis should include additional carcinogens, non-cancer risks including those due to microbial contamination, and the impacts of system failures and of illegal action, which may be increasingly likely to occur under changed management arrangements. If, in spite of concerns, water is privatized, it is particularly important to provide adequate surveillance of water quality. PMID:12894324

  10. Chromium carcinogenicity: California strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeff, G V; Satin, K; Painter, P; Zeise, L; Popejoy, C; Murchison, G

    1989-10-01

    Hexavalent chromium was identified by California as a toxic air contaminant (TAC) in January 1986. The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) concurred with the findings of the International Agency for Research on Cancer that there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate the carcinogenicity of chromium in both animals and humans. CDHS did not find any compelling evidence demonstrating the existence of a threshold with respect to chromium carcinogenesis. Experimental data was judged inadequate to assess potential human reproductive risks from ambient exposures. Other health effects were not expected to occur at ambient levels. The theoretically increased lifetime carcinogenic risk from a continuous lifetime exposure to hexavalent chromium fell within the range 12-146 cancer cases per nanogram hexavalent chromium per cubic meter of air per million people exposed, depending on the potency estimate used. The primary sources found to contribute significantly to the risk of exposure were chrome platers, chromic acid anodizing facilities and cooling towers utilizing hexavalent chromium as a corrosion inhibitor. Evaluation of genotoxicity data, animal studies and epidemiological studies indicates that further consideration should be given to the potential carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium via the oral route.

  11. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The report is in sections, entitled: preface; summary and conclusions; introduction (historical and organizational); estimating engineering risks (techniques of risk estimation and forms of expression of risk); laboratory experiments for estimation of biological risks; estimation of risk from observations on man (travel, medical procedures; occupations; sport); the perception of risks; (as an example of attitudes towards a single hazard, studies of nuclear power are considered among other topics in this section); risk management (estimation; perception; acceptability, analysis of risk, costs and benefits; safety standards; decision-making process; possible guidelines). (U.K.)

  12. FTIR analysis and evaluation of carcinogenic and mutagenic risks of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM1.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ismael Luís; Teixeira, Elba Calesso; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana Milena; Silva E Silva, Gabriel; Balzaretti, Naira; Braga, Marcel Ferreira; Oliveira, Luís Felipe Silva

    2016-01-15

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) represent a group of organic compounds of significant interest due to their presence in airborne particulates of urban centers, wide distribution in the environment, and mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. These compounds, associated with atmospheric particles of size PM1.0) using infrared spectrometry. Carcinogenic and mutagenic risks of the studied NPAHs associated with PM1.0 samples were also determined for two sampling sites: Canoas and Sapucaia do Sul. The results showed that NPAH standard spectra can effectively identify NPAHs in PM1.0 samples. The transmittance and emissivity sample spectra showed broader bands and lower relative intensity than the standard NPAH spectra. The carcinogenic risk and the total mutagenic risk were calculated using the toxic equivalent factors and mutagenic potency factors, respectively. Canoas showed the highest total carcinogenic risk, while Sapucaia do Sul had the highest mutagenic risk. The seasonal analysis suggested that in the study area the ambient air is more toxic during the cold periods. These findings might of significant importance for the decision and policy making authorities.

  13. Moving forward in carcinogenicity assessment: Report of an EURL ECVAM/ESTIV workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvi, Raffaella; Madia, Federica; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Kasper, Peter; Rudel, Ruthann; Colacci, Annamaria; Kleinjans, Jos; Jennings, Paul

    2017-12-01

    There is an increased need to develop novel alternative approaches to the two-year rodent bioassay for the carcinogenicity assessment of substances where the rodent bioassay is still a basic requirement, as well as for those substances where animal use is banned or limited or where information gaps are identified within legislation. The current progress in this area was addressed in a EURL ECVAM- ESTIV workshop held in October 2016, in Juan les Pins. A number of initiatives were presented and discussed, including data-driven, technology-driven and pathway-driven approaches. Despite a seemingly diverse range of strategic developments, commonalities are emerging. For example, providing insight into carcinogenicity mechanisms is becoming an increasingly appreciated aspect of hazard assessment and is suggested to be the best strategy to drive new developments. Thus, now more than ever, there is a need to combine and focus efforts towards the integration of available information between sectors. Such cross-sectorial harmonisation will aid in building confidence in new approach methods leading to increased implementation and thus a decreased necessity for the two-year rodent bioassay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Carcinogenic risk of chromium, copper and arsenic in CCA-treated wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgami, Nobutaka; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Nakano, Chihiro; Wenting, Wu; Ohnuma, Shoko

    2015-01-01

    We showed that 2.1% of 233 pieces of lumber debris after the Great East Japan Earthquake was chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. Since hexavalent chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and pentavalent arsenic (As) in the debris may be diffused in the air via incineration, we exposed human lung normal (BEAS-2B) and carcinoma (A549) cells to Cr, Cu and As at the molar ratio in a representative CCA-treated wood. Co-exposure to 0.10 μM Cr and 0.06 μM As, which solely had no effect on colony formation, synergistically promoted colony formation in BEAS-2B cells, but not A549 cells, with activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Sole exposure and co-exposure to Cu showed limited effects. Since previous reports showed Cr and As concentrations to which human lungs might be exposed, our results suggest the importance to avoid diffusion of Cr and As in the air via incineration of debris including CCA-treated wood after the disaster. - Highlights: • CCA-treated wood was found in debris after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. • Carcinogenic risk of CCA-treated woods was evaluated with human lung cell lines. • Co-exposure to Cr and As synergistically promoted colony formation. • Co-exposure to Cr and As synergistically activated the PI3/AKT pathway. • Effects of sole exposure and co-exposure to Cu on colony formation were limited. - Co-exposure to Cr and As, but not Cu, in CCA-treated wood debris from the Great East Japan Earthquake showed carcinogenicity in vitro.

  15. OVERVIEW OF DRINKING WATER MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY AND RISK FOR BLADDER CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroacetic acid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of 2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxici...

  16. Impact of occupational carcinogens on lung cancer risk in a general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Matteis, S.; Consonni, D.; Lubin, J.H.; Tucker, M.; Peters, S.; Vermeulen, R.; Kromhout, H.; Bertazzi, P.A.; Caporaso, N.E.; Pesatori, A.C.; Wacholder, S.; Landi, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to occupational carcinogens is an important preventable cause of lung cancer. Most of the previous studies were in highly exposed industrial cohorts. Our aim was to quantify lung cancer burden attributable to occupational carcinogens in a general population. METHODS: We applied

  17. Computation of thyroid doses and carcinogenic radiation risks to patients undergoing neck CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, W.; Spampinato, M. V.; Tipnis, S. V.; Magill, D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how differences in patient anatomy and CT technical factors in neck CT impact on thyroid doses and the corresponding carcinogenic risks. The CTDI vol and dose-length product used in 11 consecutive neck CT studies, as well as data on automatic exposure control (AEC) tube current variation(s) from the image DICOM header, were recorded. For each CT image that included the thyroid, the mass equivalent water cylinder was estimated based on the patient cross-sectional area and average relative attenuation coefficient (Hounsfield unit, HU). Patient thyroid doses were estimated by accounting for radiation intensity at the location of the patient's thyroid, patient size and the scan length. Thyroid doses were used to estimate thyroid cancer risks as a function of patient demographics using risk factors in BEIR VII. The length of the thyroid glands ranged from 21 to 54 mm with an average length of 42±12 mm. Water cylinder diameters corresponding to the central slice through the patient thyroid ranged from 18 to 32 cm with a mean of 25±5 cm. The average CTDI vol (32-cm phantom) used to perform these scans was 26±6 mGy, but the use of an AEC increased the tube current by an average of 44 % at the thyroid mid-point. Thyroid doses ranged from 29 to 80 mGy, with an average of 55±19 mGy. A 20-y-old female receiving the highest thyroid dose of 80 mGy would have a thyroid cancer risk of nearly 0.1 %, but radiation risks decreased very rapidly with increasing patient age. The key factors that affect thyroid doses in neck CT examinations are the radiation intensity at the thyroid location and the size of the patient. The corresponding patient thyroid cancer risk is markedly influenced by patient sex and age. (authors)

  18. Introduction to risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to risk assessment. It discusses the basic concepts of risk assessment, nuclear risk assessment process and products, the role of risk assessment products in nuclear safety assurance, the relationship between risk assessment and other safety analysis and risk assessment and safe operating envelope

  19. Evaluation of carcinogenic risk to public health of the republic of Khakassia associated with consumption of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Pivovarov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During the observation period for 2011–2015 in the Republic of Khakassia it has been revealed that 63.2 % of samples of drinking water contain the excess of А α due to natural radionuclides 234 U, 238 U. Within the limits of MPC the carcinogenic hazardous substances: cadmium, lead, arsenic, beryllium, chromium have been detected. Individual risks of occurrence of stochastic effects in the form of malignant tumors, caused by natural radionuclides in drinking water in different administrative territories of the Republic, vary in the range of 3.14–7.81•10 –6 cases/year; collective risks 0.013–0.288 cases/year on the corresponding amount of population. Individual cancer risks are determined by the content of carcinogenic chemicals in drinking water, in different administrative territories of the Republic it varies in the range between 5.29•10 –5 – 1.04•10 –4 cases/year; collective risks of 0.88–2.704 event/year on the corresponding amount of population. The total population carcinogenic risks caused by content of carcinogenic chemicals and PRN in drinking water, for the period of observation were as follows: Altaisky (2.903 at 26.000 of population, Beysky (1.123 at 18.500 of population, Bogradsky (0,98 at 15,000 of population, Shirinsky (2.63 at 27100 of population, Ordzhonikidzevsky (1.178 at 11900 of population, and Ust-Abakansky (2.79 at 41100 of population. The contribution of drinking water into primary ontological morbidity of population in administrative territories of the Republic was equaled to 0.5–1 %. Therefore, currently, the events aimed at reducing the carcinogenic risks caused by drinking water are not required. At the same time, due to the high seismic activity in the Republic for the last five years, the laboratory monitoring of drinking water on indicators of radiation safety and the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks continues in the prescribed amount.

  20. Pesticides and public health: an analysis of the regulatory approach to assessing the carcinogenicity of glyphosate in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausing, Peter; Robinson, Claire; Burtscher-Schaden, Helmut

    2018-03-13

    The present paper scrutinises the European authorities' assessment of the carcinogenic hazard posed by glyphosate based on Regulation (EC) 1272/2008. We use the authorities' own criteria as a benchmark to analyse their weight of evidence (WoE) approach. Therefore, our analysis goes beyond the comparison of the assessments made by the European Food Safety Authority and the International Agency for Research on Cancer published by others. We show that not classifying glyphosate as a carcinogen by the European authorities, including the European Chemicals Agency, appears to be not consistent with, and in some instances, a direct violation of the applicable guidance and guideline documents. In particular, we criticise an arbitrary attenuation by the authorities of the power of statistical analyses; their disregard of existing dose-response relationships; their unjustified claim that the doses used in the mouse carcinogenicity studies were too high and their contention that the carcinogenic effects were not reproducible by focusing on quantitative and neglecting qualitative reproducibility. Further aspects incorrectly used were historical control data, multisite responses and progression of lesions to malignancy. Contrary to the authorities' evaluations, proper application of statistical methods and WoE criteria inevitably leads to the conclusion that glyphosate is 'probably carcinogenic' (corresponding to category 1B in the European Union). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Cooking temperature, heat-generated carcinogens, and the risk of stomach and colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoan, Le Tran; Thu, Nguyen Thi; Lua, Nguyen Thi; Hang, Lai Thi Minh; Bich, Nguyen Ngoc; Hieu, Nguyen Van; Quyet, Ha Van; Tai, Le Thi; Van, Do Duc; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Mai, Le Bach; Tokudome, Shinkan; Yoshimura, Takesumi

    2009-01-01

    Food change due to cooking temperature and unrecognized heat-formed chemical carcinogens may impact on the risk of stomach and colo-rectal cancers. To test this hypothesis a case-control study was performed. A total of 670 cases of stomach and colo-rectal cancers matched with 672 hospital controls for sex and -/+5 years age admitted to three hospitals in Hanoi city in the North Viet Nam from October 2006 to September 2007 were the subjects. Five levels of food change due to cooking temperature were based on food color; white, pale yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and burnt. We asked study subjects to themselves report which of these five colors was their preferable intake before the onset of disease. The present study included; fried fishes-meats-eggs-potato-tofu; grilled foods; roasted foods; sugar, bread, heated wheat, and biscuits. These were cooked at temperatures as high as from 165 to 240 degrees C, based on the literature. Adjusted estimation of odds ratio was conducted controlling for possible confounding factors using STATA 8.0. A high intake of roasted meats, bread and biscuit significantly increased the risk of cancer as much as OR= 1.63, 95%CI= 1.04-2.54; OR= 1.40, 95%CI= 1.03-1.90; OR= 1.60, 95%CI= 1.03-2.46 with probabilities for trend = 0.029, 0.035, and 0.037, respectively. For exposure among controls: 529 (79%) were not exposed at all to roasted meats; 449 (67%) were not exposed at all to bread; and 494 (74%) were not exposed at all to biscuit. Observation of food change due to cooking temperature based on color is practically feasible for detecting associations with risk of developing cancer.

  2. The potential carcinogenic risk of tanning beds: clinical guidelines and patient safety advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Mogensen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mette Mogensen1, Gregor BE Jemec21Department of Dermatology, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark; 2Department of Dermatology, Roskilde Hospital, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Copenhagen, Roskilde, DenmarkIntroduction: In 2009, the WHO listed ultraviolet (UV radiation as a group 1 carcinogen. In spite of this, each year, millions of people tan indoor in Western countries. The aim of this review is to summarize evidence of tanning bed carcinogenesis and to present guidelines for use of tanning beds and patient safety advice.Methods: A narrative review of the literature was conducted based on both PubMed and Medline searches and on literature review of the retrieved papers.Results: Use of indoor tanning beds represents a significant and avoidable risk factor for the development of both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Frequent tanners are more often adolescent females. Tanning beds have additional potential adverse effects such as burns, solar skin damage, infection, and possibly also addictive behavior.Discussion: The effort in preventing UV light-induced carcinogenesis should currently be aimed at developing new strategies for public health information. Tanning beds are one preventable source of UV radiation. In the majority of people solar UV radiation continues to be the major factor and therefore anti-tanning campaigns must always include sunbathers.Keywords: tanning beds, skin cancers, melanoma, nonmelanoma

  3. The potential carcinogenic risk of tanning beds: clinical guidelines and patient safety advice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jemec, Gregor BE

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the WHO listed ultraviolet (UV) radiation as a group 1 carcinogen. In spite of this, each year, millions of people tan indoor in Western countries. The aim of this review is to summarize evidence of tanning bed carcinogenesis and to present guidelines for use of tanning beds and patient safety advice. A narrative review of the literature was conducted based on both PubMed and Medline searches and on literature review of the retrieved papers. Use of indoor tanning beds represents a significant and avoidable risk factor for the development of both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Frequent tanners are more often adolescent females. Tanning beds have additional potential adverse effects such as burns, solar skin damage, infection, and possibly also addictive behavior. The effort in preventing UV light-induced carcinogenesis should currently be aimed at developing new strategies for public health information. Tanning beds are one preventable source of UV radiation. In the majority of people solar UV radiation continues to be the major factor and therefore anti-tanning campaigns must always include sunbathers

  4. Challenges in Risk Assessment: Quantitative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The process of risk analysis consists out of three components, risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. These components are internationally well spread by Codex Alimentarius Commission as being the basis for setting science based standards, criteria on food safety hazards, e.g. setting maximum limits of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. However, the technical component risk assessment is hard to elaborate and to understand. Key in a risk assessment is the translation of biological or...

  5. Human health risk due to consumption of vegetables contaminated with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sardar [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Inst. of Urban Environment; Peshawar Univ. (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Science; Cao, Qing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environemntal Sciences

    2012-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent, toxic, and carcinogenic contaminants present in soil ecosystem globally. These pollutants are gradually accumulating in wastewater-irrigated soils and lead to the contamination of vegetables. Food chain contamination with PAH is considered as one of the major pathways for human exposure. This study was aimed to investigate the concentrations of PAH in soils and vegetables collected from wastewater-irrigated fields from metropolitan areas of Beijing, China. Origin of PAH, daily intake, and health risks of PAH through consumption of contaminated vegetables were studied. Soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-20 cm) of both wastewater-irrigated and reference sites and sieved (<2 mm mesh) and then followed by freeze-drying at -50 C and 123 {+-} 2 Pa. Standing vegetables were also collected from the same sites used for soil sampling and divided into roots and shoots, thoroughly washed with deionized water, and freeze-dried. PAH were extracted using the Soxhlet method with 200 mL DCM for 24 h, and the extracts were cleaned with silica adsorption chromatography prepared with silica gel, alumina, and capped with anhydrous sodium. The final concentrated extracts (soil and vegetable) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Agilent 6890). Bioaccumulation factors, daily intake of PAH, and carcinogenicity of PAH were calculated by different statistical equations. Results indicate that the soils and grown vegetables were contaminated with all possible carcinogenic PAH (declared by USEPA 2002) except indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. The highest concentration (242.9 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) was found for benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), while lowest (79.12 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The emission sources of PAH were both pyrogenic and petrogenic in nature. However, the total concentrations of PAH were lower than the permissible limits set by different countries like Canada, Denmark and Germany

  6. Cancer risk assessments and environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scroggin, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Governmental regulation of toxic substances, such as carcinogens and radiation, prompts both legal and scientific controversies. Industry, environmental activist groups, government regulators, and the general public are all concerned with the question of how environmental risk to public health is to be measured and what level of risk warrants government action under the environmental laws. Several recent events shed light on the fundamental scientific and legal problems inherent in such regulation, and these events may affect the direction of future developments. These events include implementation of generic Risk Assessment Guidelines by the US EPA, litigation challenging EPA's regulation of carcinogenic substances, new scientific understanding of the relative risks from human exposure to natural and man-made sources, and the continuing growth of toxic tort litigation in which victims of cancer seek large damages from industrial emitters of pollution

  7. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  8. Variability in DNA repair capacity in the human population and its relationship to carcinogenic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuzzo, F.; Stefanini, M.; Giulotto, E.; Falaschi, A.

    1980-01-01

    Several inherited diseases, all characterized by a high incidence of tumours in the homozygous patients, show pronounced defects in DNA repair mechanisms, thus confirming the relationship between the repair process and mutation induction, and indicating clearly that a fraction of the population is certainly much more exposed to cancer that the bulk of the human population. The basic molecular defects in such diseases are summarized. The estimated heterozygote frequency in tumour predisposing syndromes is considered and possible identification of heterozygotes discussed. A procedure to reveal DNA repair capacity at the cellular level would perhaps identify the cancer-prone fraction of the population. A simple assay for measuring repair synthesis is outlined which can be used to determine whether a given substance or treatment elicits repair synthesis and is hence harmful to DNA and potentially mutagenic and/or carcinogenic. It can also be used to assess the capacity of an individual to respond to a known DNA damaging agent. (Auth./C.F.)

  9. Moesin Is a Biomarker for the Assessment of Genotoxic Carcinogens in Mouse Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoen Jung; Choi, In-Kwon; Sheen, Yhun Yhong; Park, Sue Nie; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2012-01-01

    1,2-Dibromoethane and glycidol are well known genotoxic carcinogens, which have been widely used in industry. To identify a specific biomarker for these carcinogens in cells, the cellular proteome of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells treated with these compounds was analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Of 50 protein spots showing a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in intensity compared to control cells on a 2-D gel, we focused on the candidate biomarker moesin. Western analysis using monoclonal rabbit anti-moesin confirmed the identity of the protein and its increased level of expression upon exposure to the carcinogenic compounds. Moesin expression also increased in cells treated with six additional genotoxic carcinogens, verifying that moesin could serve as a biomarker to monitor phenotypic change upon exposure to genotoxic carcinogens in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. PMID:22358511

  10. Evaluating the mechanistic evidence and key data gaps in assessing the potential carcinogenicity of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuempel, Eileen D; Jaurand, Marie-Claude; Møller, Peter; Morimoto, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Pinkerton, Kent E; Sargent, Linda M; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Fubini, Bice; Kane, Agnes B

    2017-01-01

    In an evaluation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the IARC Monograph 111, the Mechanisms Subgroup was tasked with assessing the strength of evidence on the potential carcinogenicity of CNTs in humans. The mechanistic evidence was considered to be not strong enough to alter the evaluations based on the

  11. Approaches to cancer assessment in EPA's Integrated Risk Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlhaus, Martin W; Gift, Jeffrey S; Hogan, Karen A; Kopylev, Leonid; Schlosser, Paul M; Kadry, Abdel-Razak

    2011-07-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Program develops assessments of health effects that may result from chronic exposure to chemicals in the environment. The IRIS database contains more than 540 assessments. When supported by available data, IRIS assessments provide quantitative analyses of carcinogenic effects. Since publication of EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, IRIS cancer assessments have implemented new approaches recommended in these guidelines and expanded the use of complex scientific methods to perform quantitative dose-response assessments. Two case studies of the application of the mode of action framework from the 2005 Cancer Guidelines are presented in this paper. The first is a case study of 1,2,3-trichloropropane, as an example of a chemical with a mutagenic mode of carcinogenic action thus warranting the application of age-dependent adjustment factors for early-life exposure; the second is a case study of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, as an example of a chemical with a carcinogenic action consistent with a nonlinear extrapolation approach. The use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to quantify interindividual variability and account for human parameter uncertainty as part of a quantitative cancer assessment is illustrated using a case study involving probabilistic PBPK modeling for dichloromethane. We also discuss statistical issues in assessing trends and model fit for tumor dose-response data, analysis of the combined risk from multiple types of tumors, and application of life-table methods for using human data to derive cancer risk estimates. These issues reflect the complexity and challenges faced in assessing the carcinogenic risks from exposure to environmental chemicals, and provide a view of the current trends in IRIS carcinogenicity risk assessment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Approaches to cancer assessment in EPA's Integrated Risk Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlhaus, Martin W.; Gift, Jeffrey S.; Hogan, Karen A.; Kopylev, Leonid; Schlosser, Paul M.; Kadry, Abdel-Razak

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Program develops assessments of health effects that may result from chronic exposure to chemicals in the environment. The IRIS database contains more than 540 assessments. When supported by available data, IRIS assessments provide quantitative analyses of carcinogenic effects. Since publication of EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, IRIS cancer assessments have implemented new approaches recommended in these guidelines and expanded the use of complex scientific methods to perform quantitative dose-response assessments. Two case studies of the application of the mode of action framework from the 2005 Cancer Guidelines are presented in this paper. The first is a case study of 1,2,3-trichloropropane, as an example of a chemical with a mutagenic mode of carcinogenic action thus warranting the application of age-dependent adjustment factors for early-life exposure; the second is a case study of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, as an example of a chemical with a carcinogenic action consistent with a nonlinear extrapolation approach. The use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to quantify interindividual variability and account for human parameter uncertainty as part of a quantitative cancer assessment is illustrated using a case study involving probabilistic PBPK modeling for dichloromethane. We also discuss statistical issues in assessing trends and model fit for tumor dose-response data, analysis of the combined risk from multiple types of tumors, and application of life-table methods for using human data to derive cancer risk estimates. These issues reflect the complexity and challenges faced in assessing the carcinogenic risks from exposure to environmental chemicals, and provide a view of the current trends in IRIS carcinogenicity risk assessment.

  13. The carcinogenic risk of high dose total body irradiation in non-human primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Bartstra, R.W.; Bekkum, D.W. van; Hage, M.H. van der; Zurcher, C.; Zwieten, M.J. van; Hollander, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    High dose total body irradiation (TBI) in combination with chemotherapy, followed by rescue with bone marrow transplantation (BMT), is increasingly used for the treatment of haematological malignancies. With the increasing success of this treatment and its current introduction for treating refractory autoimmune diseases the risk of radiation carcinogenesis is of growing concern. Studies on turnout induction in non-human primates are of relevance in this context since the response of this species to radiation does not differ much from that in man. Since the early sixties, studies have been performed on acute effects in Rhesus monkeys and the protective action of bone marrow transplantation after irradiation with X-rays (average total body dose 6.8 Gy) and fission neutrons (average dose 3.4 Gy). Of those monkeys, which were irradiated and reconstituted with autologous bone marrow, 20 animals in the X-irradiated group and nine animals in the neutron group survived more than 3 years. A group of 21 non-irradiated Rhesus monkeys of a comparable age distribution served as controls. All animals were regularly screened for the occurrence of neoplasms. Complete necropsies were performed after natural death or euthanasia. At post-irradiation intervals of 4-21 years an appreciable number of tumours was observed. In the neutron irradiated group eight out of nine animals died with one or more malignant tumours. In the X-irradiated group this fraction was 10 out of 20. The tumours in the control group, in seven out of the 21 animals, appeared at much older a-e compared with those in the irradiated cohorts. The histogenesis of the tumours was diverse with a preponderance of renal carcinoma, sarcomas among which osteosarcormas, and malignant glomus tumours in the irradiated groups. When corrected for competing risks, the carcinogenic risk of TBI in the Rhesus monkeys is similar to that derived from the studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The increase of the risk by a

  14. Exposure to dust-bound PAHs and associated carcinogenic risk in primitive and traditional cooking practices in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Atif; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Martellini, Tania; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the abundance and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dust samples collected from the selected professional cooking workplaces (WCs) and residential household cooking areas (WRs), where traditional and primitive cooking practices are still prevelent. Another aim of this study was to investigate the carcinogenic risk for Pakistani human exposure to dust-bound PAHs via the routes of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. Generally, the concentration of individual congeners of PAHs in surface dust samples of WC sites was higher than those measured in WR sites (p < 0.05). The benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), a very high carcinogenic compound, was present in the dust samples from WC sites in the highest mean concentration (630 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.)). The BaP mean concentration in WC workplaces was almost eight times higher than the mean value found in WR exposure sites. Moreover, the average concentration of ∑PAHs, combustion origin PAHs (∑COMB) and sum total of 7-carcinogenic PAHs (∑7-carcinogens) were also significantly higher in WC dusts samples than that in WR workplaces. Principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratios suggested coal/wood combustion as major PAH emission sources in both exposure sites. The average incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) suggested a moderate to potential high cancer risk for adults and children exposed to dust-bound PAHs in both exposure sites, in particular via both dermal and ingestion contact pathways.

  15. Relevance of urinary 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene to assess exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures in metallurgy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Damien; Persoons, Renaud; Marques, Marie; Hervé, Claire; Laffitte-Rigaud, Gilbert; Maitre, Anne

    2014-06-01

    In metallurgy, workers are exposed to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in which some compounds are carcinogenic. Biomonitoring of PAH exposure has been performed by measuring urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a metabolite of pyrene which is not carcinogenic. This study investigated the use of 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP), a metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) which is the main carcinogenic component in PAHs, to improve carcinogen exposure assessment. We included 129 metallurgy workers routinely exposed to PAHs during working hours. Urinary samples were collected at three sampling times at the beginning and at the end of the working week for 1-OHP and 3-OHBaP analyses. Workers in anode production showed greater exposure to both biomarkers than those in cathode or silicon production, with respectively, 71, 40, and 30% of 3-OHBaP concentrations exceeding the value of 0.4 nmol mol(-1) creatinine. No difference was observed between the 3-OHBaP levels found at the end of the penultimate workday shift and those at the beginning of the last workday shift. Within these plants, the 1-OHP/3-OHBaP ratios varied greatly according to the workers' activity and emission sources. Using linear regression between these two metabolites, the 1-OHP level corresponding to the guidance value for 3-OHBaP ranged from 0.7 to 2.4 µmol mol(-1) creatinine, depending on the industrial sector. This study emphasizes the interest of monitoring urinary 3-OHBaP at the end of the last workday shift when working week exposure is relatively steady, and the irrelevance of a single guideline value for 1-OHP when assessing occupational health risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  16. Prioritising action on occupational carcinogens in Europe: a socioeconomic and health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrie, J W; Hutchings, S; Gorman Ng, M; Mistry, R; Corden, C; Lamb, J; Sánchez Jiménez, A; Shafrir, A; Sobey, M; van Tongeren, M; Rushton, L

    2017-07-11

    Work-related cancer is an important public health issue with a large financial impact on society. The key European legislative instrument is the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive (2004/37/EC). In preparation for updating the Directive, the European Commission commissioned a study to provide a socioeconomic, health and environmental impact assessment. The evaluation was undertaken for 25 preselected hazardous substances or mixtures. Estimates were made of the number of cases of cancer attributable to workplace exposure, both currently and in the future, with and without any regulatory interventions, and these data were used to estimate the financial health costs and benefits. It was estimated that if no action is taken there will be >700 000 attributable cancer deaths over the next 60 years for the substances assessed. However, there are only seven substances where the data suggest a clear benefit in terms of avoided cancer cases from introducing a binding limit at the levels considered. Overall, the costs of the proposed interventions were very high (up to [euro ]34 000 million) and the associated monetised health benefits were mostly less than the compliance costs. The strongest cases for the introduction of a limit value are for: respirable crystalline silica, hexavalent chromium, and hardwood dust.

  17. [Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Tianjin Based on GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gang; Zeng, Qiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Yue; Feng, Bao-jia; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Hou, Chang-chun

    2015-12-01

    This study intends to assess the potential health hazards of drinking water quality and explore the application of geographic information system( GIS) in drinking water safety in Tianjin. Eight hundred and fifty water samples from 401 sampling points in Tianjin were measured according to the national drinking water standards. The risk assessment was conducted using the environmental health risk assessment model recommended by US EAP, and GIS was combined to explore the information visualization and risk factors simultaneously. The results showed that the health risks of carcinogens, non-carcinogens were 3.83 x 10⁻⁵, 5.62 x 10⁻⁹ and 3.83 x 10⁻⁵ for total health risk respectively. The rank of health risk was carcinogen > non-carcinogen. The rank of carcinogens health risk was urban > new area > rural area, chromium (VI) > cadmium > arsenic > trichlormethane > carbon tetrachloride. The rank of non-carcinogens health risk was rural area > new area > urban, fluoride > cyanide > lead > nitrate. The total health risk level of drinking water in Tianjin was lower than that of ICRP recommended level (5.0 x 10⁻⁵), while was between US EPA recommended level (1.0 x 10⁻⁴-1.0 x 10⁻⁶). It was at an acceptable level and would not cause obvious health hazards. The main health risks of drinking water came from carcinogens. More attentions should be paid to chromium (VI) for carcinogens and fluoride for non-carcinogens. GIS can accomplish information visualization of drinking water risk assessment and further explore of risk factors.

  18. [The implementation of polymerase chain reaction technique: the real time to reveal and differentiate the viruses of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andosova, L D; Kontorshchikova, K N; Blatova, O L; Kudel'kina, S Iu; Kuznetsova, I A; Belov, A V; Baĭkova, R A

    2011-07-01

    The polymerase chain reaction technique was applied in "real time" format to evaluate the occurrence rate and infection ratio of various genotypes of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk in virus-positive women and contact persons. The examination sampling consisted of 738 women aged of 17-50 years. The examination results permitted to establish high percentage of infection of 546 patients (74%) by carcinogenic papilloma viruses. The analysis of detection rate of various genotypes of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk established that the 56th and 16th types of high carcinogenic risk are revealed more often than others--in 33% and 15.4% correspondingly. In males, first place in occurrence rate is for those types of virus of human papilloma: the 56th n = 10 (33.3%), 16th n = 3 (10%), 45th n = 3 (10%), 51th n = 3 (10%). The rest of genotypes are detected in 3-7% cases.

  19. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brophy James T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. Methods 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case–control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration. Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82; bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53; automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88, food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53, and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92. Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4 and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5. Conclusions These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and

  20. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. Methods 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case–control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration). Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82); bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53); automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88), food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53), and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92). Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4) and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5). Conclusions These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, and

  1. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, James T; Keith, Margaret M; Watterson, Andrew; Park, Robert; Gilbertson, Michael; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Beck, Matthias; Abu-Zahra, Hakam; Schneider, Kenneth; Reinhartz, Abraham; Dematteo, Robert; Luginaah, Isaac

    2012-11-19

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case-control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration). Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82); bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53); automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88), food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53), and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92). Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4) and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5). These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, and demonstrate the value of detailed work

  2. New perspectives in toxicological information management, and the role of ISSTOX databases in assessing chemical mutagenicity and carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Romualdo; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Bossa, Cecilia; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Crettaz, Pierre

    2013-07-01

    Currently, the public has access to a variety of databases containing mutagenicity and carcinogenicity data. These resources are crucial for the toxicologists and regulators involved in the risk assessment of chemicals, which necessitates access to all the relevant literature, and the capability to search across toxicity databases using both biological and chemical criteria. Towards the larger goal of screening chemicals for a wide range of toxicity end points of potential interest, publicly available resources across a large spectrum of biological and chemical data space must be effectively harnessed with current and evolving information technologies (i.e. systematised, integrated and mined), if long-term screening and prediction objectives are to be achieved. A key to rapid progress in the field of chemical toxicity databases is that of combining information technology with the chemical structure as identifier of the molecules. This permits an enormous range of operations (e.g. retrieving chemicals or chemical classes, describing the content of databases, finding similar chemicals, crossing biological and chemical interrogations, etc.) that other more classical databases cannot allow. This article describes the progress in the technology of toxicity databases, including the concepts of Chemical Relational Database and Toxicological Standardized Controlled Vocabularies (Ontology). Then it describes the ISSTOX cluster of toxicological databases at the Istituto Superiore di Sanitá. It consists of freely available databases characterised by the use of modern information technologies and by curation of the quality of the biological data. Finally, this article provides examples of analyses and results made possible by ISSTOX.

  3. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  4. A proposed framework for consistent regulation of public exposures to radionuclides and other carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for consistent regulation of carcinogenic risks to the public based on establishing de manifestis (i.e., unacceptable) and de minimis (i.e., trivial) lifetime risks from exposure to any carcinogens at levels of about 10 -1 --10 -3 and 10 -4 --10 -6 , respectively, and reduction of risks above de minimis levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). We then discuss certain differences in the way risks from exposure to radionuclides and other carcinogens currently are regulated or assessed which would need to be considered in implementing the proposed regulatory framework for all carcinogens

  5. Glyphosate toxicity and carcinogenicity: a review of the scientific basis of the European Union assessment and its differences with IARC

    OpenAIRE

    Tarazona, Jose V.; Court-Marques, Daniele; Tiramani, Manuela; Reich, Hermine; Pfeil, Rudolf; Istace, Frederique; Crivellente, Federica

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide worldwide. It is a broad spectrum herbicide and its agricultural uses increased considerably after the development of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified (GM) varieties. Since glyphosate was introduced in 1974, all regulatory assessments have established that glyphosate has low hazard potential to mammals, however, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded in March 2015 that it is probably carcinogenic. The IARC conclus...

  6. Dutch Risk Assessment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, A.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Risico- Inventarisatie- en Evaluatie-instrumenten’ is the name for the Dutch risk assessment (RA) tools. A RA tool can be used to perform a risk assessment including an evaluation of the identified risks. These tools were among the first online risk assessment tools developed in Europe. The

  7. Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Rivera Maria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s. In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an

  8. Introduction to Toxicity and Risk Assessment for Project Chemists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    Toxicity of Hexavalent Chromium  External review complete  EPA will wait until studies underway on carcinogenic mode of action are complete to...finalize the assessment  NJ and Cal values for hex chrome 16 Risk-Based Screening Levels Resident Soil (mg/kg) Resident Water Use (µg/L) DRAFT 0.04

  9. Carcinogenicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes: challenging issue on hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Shoji; Kasai, Tatsuya; Umeda, Yumi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Sasaki, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Michiharu

    2018-01-25

    This report reviews the carcinogenicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in experimental animals, concentrating on MWNT-7, a straight fibrous MWCNT. MWCNTs were administered to mice and rats by intraperitoneal injection, intrascrotal injection, subcutaneous injection, intratracheal instillation and inhalation. Intraperitoneal injection of MWNT-7 induced peritoneal mesothelioma in mice and rats. Intrascrotal injection induced peritoneal mesothelioma in rats. Intratracheal instillation of MWCNT-N (another straight fibrous MWCNT) induced both lung carcinoma and pleural mesothelioma in rats. In the whole body inhalation studies, in mice MWNT-7 promoted methylcholanthrene-initiated lung carcinogenesis. In rats, inhalation of MWNT-7 induced lung carcinoma and lung burdens of MWNT-7 increased with increasing concentration of airborne MWNT-7 and increasing duration of exposure. Straight, fibrous MWCNTs exerted carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Phagocytosis of MWCNT fibers by macrophages was very likely to be a principle factor in MWCNT lung carcinogenesis. Using no-observed-adverse-effect level-based approach, we calculated that the occupational exposure limit (OEL) of MWNT-7 for cancer protection is 0.15 μg/m 3 for a human worker. Further studies on the effects of the shape and size of MWCNT fibers and mode of action on the carcinogenicity are required.

  10. Assessment of respiratory carcinogenicity associated with exposure to metallic nickel: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivulka, Donna J

    2005-11-01

    Human studies prior to 1990 have shown an association between respiratory cancer and exposure to some nickel compounds, but not to metallic nickel. Numerous reviews have examined the nature of the association between nickel compounds and respiratory cancer, but little has been published on metallic nickel. This paper reviews the animal and human cancer-related data on metallic nickel to determine whether the conclusions regarding metallic nickel reached a decade ago still apply. Based upon past and current human studies, metallic nickel appears to show little evidence of carcinogenicity when present at the same or higher concentrations than those seen in current workplace environments. By comparison, animal studies currently available have shown mixed results. A number of studies have shown evidence of carcinogenicity in animals exposed to nickel powders via injection, but other studies have shown no or inconsistent results in animals exposed via inhalation or intratracheal instillation. Further studies in animals via inhalation and humans would be helpful in elucidating the respiratory carcinogenic potential of metallic nickel.

  11. Performance assessment - risk assessment vive la differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    In the sister worlds of radioactive waste management disposal and environmental restoration, there are two similar processes and computational approaches for determining the acceptability of the proposed activities. While similar, these two techniques can lead to confusion and misunderstanding if the differences are not recognized and appreciated. In the case of radioactive waste management, the performance assessment process is used to determine compliance with certain prescribed 'performance objectives'. These objectives are designed to ensure that the disposal of radioactive (high-level, low-level, and/or transuranic) waste will be protective of human health and the environment. The environmental link is primarily through assuring protection of the groundwater as a resource. In the case of environmental restoration, the risk assessment process is used to determine the proper remedial action response, if any, for a past hazardous waste release. The process compares the 'no action' or 'leave as is' option with both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic values for human health to determine the need for any action and to help to help determine just what the appropriate action would need to be. The impacts to the ecological system are evaluated in a slightly, different but similar fashion. Now the common objectives between these two processes notwithstanding. There are some key and fundamental differences that need to be answered that make direct comparisons or a common approach inappropriate. Failure to recognize this can lead to confusion and misunderstanding. This can be particularly problematic when one is faced with an active disposal facility located within the boundaries of an environmental restoration site as is the case at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Through a critical evaluation of the performance assessment and risk assessment processes, highlighting both similarities and differences, it is hoped that greater understanding and appreciation

  12. Site remediation guided by risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBean, E.A.; Gowing, A.; Pieczonka, G.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' Risk assessment (RA) provides an effective tool for identifying hazards with respect to human health and ecological receptors, hazards that arise from contaminants in the environment. Risk assessment relies upon: hazard identification/problem formulation; toxicity assessment; exposure assessment; and risk characterization. Hence, risk assessment provides an effective guide for site remediation through the identification of the associated risks arising from pre- and potential post-remediation activities. As a demonstration of this decision-making process, a site-specific risk assessment (SSRA) was performed on a chemical producing facility. Historical waste practices during the production of DDT compounds resulted in impacted site soils and sediment and soils of the creek passing through the facility. The purpose of the SSRA was to derive site-specific cleanup values for the impacted on-site soils, creek sediments, and embankment soils, incorporating human and ecological receptors associated with the environmental media. The human exposure pathways considered were dermal contact, incidental ingestion, and inhalation of the various soils. The potential human receptors were industrial workers, construction workers, trespassers, and off-site residents. Ingestion of fish from the creek by residents was also evaluated in the human health risk assessment (HHRA). Food web analyses were used to evaluate the impact of exposure to chemical compounds in aquatic sediments and related soils by ecological receptors such as the great blue heron, raccoon, and mink. The SSRA involved modelling the daily chemical intake by receptors and the transfer of chemicals to identified secondary media (e.g., ambient air or animal tissues) that are also potential exposure media. These models, while using the site-specific chemical data in the source media, possess uncertainties associated with default parameters that are only approximations and not site-specific (e.g., soil

  13. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  14. GM Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Penny A. C.

    GM risk assessments play an important role in the decision-making process surrounding the regulation, notification and permission to handle Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Ultimately the role of a GM risk assessment will be to ensure the safe handling and containment of the GMO; and to assess any potential impacts on the environment and human health. A risk assessment should answer all ‘what if’ scenarios, based on scientific evidence.

  15. An abuse of risk assessment: how regulatory agencies improperly adopted LNT for cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2015-04-01

    The Genetics Panel of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation (BEAR) recommended the adoption of the linear dose-response model in 1956, abandoning the threshold dose-response for genetic risk assessments. This recommendation was quickly generalized to include somatic cells for cancer risk assessment and later was instrumental in the adoption of linearity for carcinogen risk assessment by the Environmental Protection Agency. The Genetics Panel failed to provide any scientific assessment to support this recommendation and refused to do so when later challenged by other leading scientists. Thus, the linearity model used in cancer risk assessment was based on ideology rather than science and originated with the recommendation of the NAS BEAR Committee Genetics Panel. Historical documentation in support of these conclusions is provided in the transcripts of the Panel meetings and in previously unexamined correspondence among Panel members.

  16. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  17. Strategic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derleth, Jason; Lobia, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the attempt to develop and demonstrate a methodology for the comparative assessment of risks across the entire portfolio of NASA projects and assets. It includes information about strategic risk identification, normalizing strategic risks, calculation of relative risk score, and implementation options.

  18. Meat intake, cooking methods, dietary carcinogens, and colorectal cancer risk: findings from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Cotterchio, Michelle; Le Marchand, Loic; Stern, Mariana C

    2015-01-01

    Diets high in red meat and processed meats are established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors. However, it is still not well understood what explains this association. We conducted comprehensive analyses of CRC risk and red meat and poultry intakes, taking into account cooking methods, level of doneness, estimated intakes of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that accumulate during meat cooking, tumor location, and tumor mismatch repair proficiency (MMR) status. We analyzed food frequency and portion size data including a meat cooking module for 3364 CRC cases, 1806 unaffected siblings, 136 unaffected spouses, and 1620 unaffected population-based controls, recruited into the CRC Family Registry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for nutrient density variables were estimated using generalized estimating equations. We found no evidence of an association between total nonprocessed red meat or total processed meat and CRC risk. Our main finding was a positive association with CRC for pan-fried beefsteak (P trend < 0.001), which was stronger among MMR deficient cases (heterogeneity P = 0.059). Other worth noting associations, of borderline statistical significance after multiple testing correction, were a positive association between diets high in oven-broiled short ribs or spareribs and CRC risk (P trend = 0.002), which was also stronger among MMR-deficient cases, and an inverse association with grilled hamburgers (P trend = 0.002). Our results support the role of specific meat types and cooking practices as possible sources of human carcinogens relevant for CRC risk

  19. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric PM1.0 of urban environments: Carcinogenic and mutagenic respiratory health risk by age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana M; Teixeira, Elba C; Schneider, Ismael L; Lara, Sheila Rincón; Silva, Luis F O

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the carcinogenic and mutagenic respiratory health risks related to the exposure to atmospheric PAHs in an urban area. Our study focused in the association of these pollutants and their possible effect in human health, principally respiratory and circulatory diseases. Also, we determined a relationship between the inhalation risk of PAHs and meteorological conditions. We validated the hypothesis that in winter PAHs with high molecular weight associated to submicron particles (PM 1 ) may increase exposure risk, especially for respiratory diseases, bronchitis and pneumonia diseases. Moreover, in our study we verified the relationship between diseases and several carcinogenic PAHs (Ind, BbkF, DahA, BaP, and BghiP). These individual PAHs contributed the most to the potential risk of exposure for inhalation of PM 1.0 . Even at lower ambient concentrations of BaP and DahA in comparison with individual concentrations of other PAHs associated to PM 1.0 . Mainly, research suggests to include carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs in future studies of environmental health risk due to their capacity to associate to PM 10 . Such carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs are likely to provide the majority of the human exposure, since they originate from dense traffic urban areas were humans congregate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecological risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suter, Glenn W; Barnthouse, L. W. (Lawrence W)

    2007-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment is commonly applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the monitoring of importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds...

  1. Risk Assessment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassinos, Peter G.; Lyver, John W., IV; Bui, Chinh T.

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is used in many industries to identify and manage risks. Initially developed for use on aeronautical and nuclear systems, risk assessment has been applied to transportation, chemical, computer, financial, and security systems among others. It is used to gain an understanding of the weaknesses or vulnerabilities in a system so modification can be made to increase operability, efficiency, and safety and to reduce failure and down-time. Risk assessment results are primary inputs to risk-informed decision making; where risk information including uncertainty is used along with other pertinent information to assist management in the decision-making process. Therefore, to be useful, a risk assessment must be directed at specific objectives. As the world embraces the globalization of trade and manufacturing, understanding the associated risk become important to decision making. Applying risk assessment techniques to a global system of development, manufacturing, and transportation can provide insight into how the system can fail, the likelihood of system failure and the consequences of system failure. The risk assessment can identify those elements that contribute most to risk and identify measures to prevent and mitigate failures, disruptions, and damaging outcomes. In addition, risk associated with public and environment impact can be identified. The risk insights gained can be applied to making decisions concerning suitable development and manufacturing locations, supply chains, and transportation strategies. While risk assessment has been mostly applied to mechanical and electrical systems, the concepts and techniques can be applied across other systems and activities. This paper provides a basic overview of the development of a risk assessment.

  2. Meat intake, cooking methods, dietary carcinogens, and colorectal cancer risk: findings from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Cotterchio, Michelle; Le Marchand, Loic; Stern, Mariana C

    2015-06-01

    Diets high in red meat and processed meats are established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors. However, it is still not well understood what explains this association. We conducted comprehensive analyses of CRC risk and red meat and poultry intakes, taking into account cooking methods, level of doneness, estimated intakes of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that accumulate during meat cooking, tumor location, and tumor mismatch repair proficiency (MMR) status. We analyzed food frequency and portion size data including a meat cooking module for 3364 CRC cases, 1806 unaffected siblings, 136 unaffected spouses, and 1620 unaffected population-based controls, recruited into the CRC Family Registry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for nutrient density variables were estimated using generalized estimating equations. We found no evidence of an association between total nonprocessed red meat or total processed meat and CRC risk. Our main finding was a positive association with CRC for pan-fried beefsteak (P(trend) carcinogens relevant for CRC risk. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Biosafety Risk Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Wagner, Stefan M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH); Shigematsu, Mika [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo (Japan); Risi, George [Infectious Disease Specialists, P.C, Missoula, MT (United States); Kozlovac, Joe [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Beltsville, MD (United States); Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke [Statens Serum Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Prat, Esmeralda [Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  4. Offshore risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

      Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions.   This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology,  subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems.   Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...

  5. Natural occurrence of genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in Indonesian jamu and evaluation of consumer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparmi, Suparmi; Widiastuti, Diana; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2018-05-01

    The consumer risks of jamu, Indonesian traditional herbal medicines, was assessed focussing on the presence of alkenylbenzene containing botanical ingredients. Twenty-three out of 25 samples contained alkenylbenzenes at levels ranging from 3.8 to 440 μg/kg, with methyleugenol being the most frequently encountered alkenylbenzene. The estimated daily intake (EDI) resulting from jamu consumption was estimated to amount to 0.2-171 μg/kg bw/day for individual alkenylbenzenes, to 0.9-203 μg/kg bw/day when adding up all alkenylbenzenes detected, and to 0.9-551 μg/kg bw/day when expressed in methyleugenol equivalents using interim relative potency (REP) factors. The margin of exposure (MOE) values obtained were generally 10,000). However, when considering use for two weeks every year during a lifetime, 5 samples still raise a concern. It is concluded that the consumption of alkenylbenzene containing jamu can be of concern especially when consumed on a daily basis for longer periods of time on a regular basis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Method of risk estimates for genetic, leukemogenic and carcinogenic effects from medical and occupational exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Maruyama, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1980-12-01

    For the risk estimate of fatal malignancies, an effective dose was proposed on the basis of the assumption that the risk should be equal whether the whole body irradiated uniformly or whether there is non-uniform irradiation. The effective dose was defined by the product of organ or tissue doses and a weighting factor representing the proportion of risk factor for a fatal malignancy resulting from organ or tissue irradiation to the total malignant factor. The risk of malignancies can be derived by multiplying the malignant significant factor by the product of the risk factor and the effective dose. For the genetic risk, a significant factor was a relative child expectancy and organ or tissue doses were gonad doses. And, for the leukemogenic risk, a significant factor was the leukemia significant factor and organ or tissue dose was mean bone marrow dose. The present method makes it easy to estimate the risk for individuals and population from medical and occupational exposures. The variation with age and sex of risk rates for stochastic effects was discussed, and the present data on risk rates were compared with the variation of risk rates recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  7. Operational risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Vicky L

    2017-06-01

    In the world of risk management, which encompasses the business continuity disciplines, many types of risk require evaluation. Financial risk is most often the primary focus, followed by product and market risks. Another critical area, which typically lacks a thorough review or may be overlooked, is operational risk. This category encompasses many risk exposure types including those around building structures and systems, environmental issues, nature, neighbours, clients, regulatory compliance, network, data security and so on. At times, insurance carriers will assess internal hazards, but seldom do these assessments include more than a cursory look at other types of operational risk. In heavily regulated environments, risk assessments are required but may not always include thorough assessments of operational exposures. Vulnerabilities may linger or go unnoticed, only to become the catalyst for a business disruption at a later time, some of which are so severe that business recovery becomes nearly impossible. Businesses may suffer loss of clients as the result of a prolonged disruption of services. Comprehensive operational risk assessments can assist in identifying such vulnerabilities, exposures and threats so that the risk can be minimised or removed. This paper lays out how an assessment of this type can be successfully conducted.

  8. Risk assessment [Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis S. Ojima; Louis R. Iverson; Brent L. Sohngen; James M. Vose; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; David L. Peterson; Jeremy S. Littell; Stephen N. Matthews; Anantha M. Prasad; Matthew P. Peters; Gary W. Yohe; Megan M. Friggens

    2014-01-01

    What is "risk" in the context of climate change? How can a "risk-based framework" help assess the effects of climate change and develop adaptation priorities? Risk can be described by the likelihood of an impact occurring and the magnitude of the consequences of the impact (Yohe 2010) (Fig. 9.1). High-magnitude impacts are always...

  9. Chemical Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course is aimed at providing an overview of the fundamental guiding principles and general methods used in chemical risk assessment. Chemical risk assessment is a complex and ever-evolving process. These principles and methods have been organized by the National Research Cou...

  10. Overview of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimington, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper begins by defining some terms, and then refer to a number of technical and other difficulties. Finally it attempts to set out why risk assessment is important and what its purposes are. 2) First, risk and risk assessment - what are they?. 3) Risk is a subject of universal significance. Life is very uncertain, and we can achieve no object or benefit in it except by approaching nearer to particular hazards which lie between us and our objects. That approach represents acceptance of risk. 4) Risk assessment is a way of systematising our approach to hazard with a view to determining what is more and what is less risky. It helps us in the end to diminish our exposure while obtaining whatever benefits we have in mind, or to optimise the risks and the benefits

  11. Overview of risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimington, J D [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    The paper begins by defining some terms, and then refer to a number of technical and other difficulties. Finally it attempts to set out why risk assessment is important and what its purposes are. 2) First, risk and risk assessment - what are they?. 3) Risk is a subject of universal significance. Life is very uncertain, and we can achieve no object or benefit in it except by approaching nearer to particular hazards which lie between us and our objects. That approach represents acceptance of risk. 4) Risk assessment is a way of systematising our approach to hazard with a view to determining what is more and what is less risky. It helps us in the end to diminish our exposure while obtaining whatever benefits we have in mind, or to optimise the risks and the benefits.

  12. State of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.

    1978-03-01

    In view of the growing importance assumed in recent years by scientific work on the calculation, quantification, evaluation and acceptance as well as behavior in the face of risks in general and more specifically, the risks of large industrial plants, the report attempts to provide a survey of the current situation, results and evaluation of this new branch of research, risk assessment. The emphasis of the report is on the basic discussion and criticism of the theoretical and methodological approaches used in the field of risk assessment (section 3). It is concerned above all with - methodical problems of determining and quantifying risks (3.1) - questions of the possibility of risk evaluation and comp arison (3.1, 3.2) - the premises of normative and empirical studies on decision making under risk (3.2, 3.3) - investigations into society's acceptance of risks involved in the introduction of new technologies (3.4) - attempts to combine various aspects of the field of risk assessment in a unified concept (3.5, 3.6, 3.7). Because risk assessment is embedded in the framework of decision theory and technology assessment, it can be implicitly evaluated at a more general level within this framework, as far as its possibilities and weaknesses of method and application are concerned (section 4). Sections 2 and 5 deal with the social context of origin and utilization of risk assessment. Finally, an attempt is made at a summary indicating the possible future development of risk assessment. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Risk assessment of soil contamination criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Marter, W.L.; Montaque, D.F.; Holton, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    Criteria have been developed to select radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants at waste sites detailed analysis and risk assessment. These criteria were based on soil and water quality guidelines developed by various government agencies to determine if the criteria were appropriate. We performed a risk assessment of a hypothetical site which contained radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants at levels equal to the criteria values. Risks to the public from atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater exposure pathways were examined. Health risks to the public from atmospheric releases of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from a waste at soil criteria contamination levels are low. Health risks to the maximally exposed individual to chemical carcinogens are considerably below traditional EPA action levels. And health risks to the maximally exposed individual to atmospherically released radioactive contaminants is 1.88 x 10 -7 , more than a factor of 5 less than 10 -6 . Based on our atmospheric exposure pathways analysis and risk assessment, the applied soil criteria are appropriate for screening out unimportant risk contributors to human health from atmospheric exposure pathways. 13 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... they are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... of evidence to support that caries experience is still, unfortunately, the single best predictor for future caries development. In young children, prediction models which include a variety of risk factors seem to increase the accuracy of the prediction, while the usefulness of additional risk factors...

  15. Carcinogenic risk for workers exposed to ionizing radiation. A critical review of present epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies on workers who have been exposed to ionizing radiation have allowed to demonstrate certain cancer risks associated with elevated, often retrospectively reconstituted exposures. Present studies on still active workers or workers having worked for the last 15 years are indispensable to define the risk associated with low irradiation doses; they must, however, take into account confounding factors that may play a role in the etiology of the cancer studied

  16. EPA`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Cancer classification issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltse, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues presented are related to classification of weight of evidence in cancer risk assessments. The focus in this paper is on lines of evidence used in constructing a conclusion about potential human carcinogenicity. The paper also discusses issues that are mistakenly addressed as classification issues but are really part of the risk assessment process. 2 figs.

  17. A new calculation of the carcinogenic risk of obstetric X-raying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bithell, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The association between obstetric X-raying and childhood cancer was first identified by the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers in 1956. The present re-analysis exploits the case-control matching of the study while incorporating the effects of important risk determinants, notably year of birth, trimester of exposure and number of films exposed. The decline in risk over time is closely mirrored by the estimated decline in dose per film and, by constraining these two relationships to be parallel, time-invariant estimates of the extra risk per mGy are obtained. For example, it is now estimated that irradiating 10 6 foetuses with 1 mGy of X-rays would, in the absence of other causes of death, yield 175 extra cases of cancer and leukaemia in the first 15 years of life. (author)

  18. GAR Global Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskrey, Andrew; Safaie, Sahar

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk management strategies, policies and actions need to be based on evidence of current disaster loss and risk patterns, past trends and future projections, and underlying risk factors. Faced with competing demands for resources, at any level it is only possible to priorities a range of disaster risk management strategies and investments with adequate understanding of realised losses, current and future risk levels and impacts on economic growth and social wellbeing as well as cost and impact of the strategy. The mapping and understanding of the global risk landscape has been greatly enhanced by the latest iteration of the GAR Global Risk Assessment and the objective of this submission is to present the GAR global risk assessment which contributed to Global Assessment Report (GAR) 2015. This initiative which has been led by UNISDR, was conducted by a consortium of technical institutions from around the world and has covered earthquake, cyclone, riverine flood, and tsunami probabilistic risk for all countries of the world. In addition, the risks associated with volcanic ash in the Asia-Pacific region, drought in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa and climate change in a number of countries have been calculated. The presentation will share thee results as well as the experience including the challenges faced in technical elements as well as the process and recommendations for the future of such endeavour.

  19. Exposure Assessment Suggests Exposure to Lung Cancer Carcinogens in a Painter Working in an Automobile Bumper Shop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boowook Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old man who had worked as a bumper spray painter in an automobile body shop for 15 years developed lung cancer. The patient was a nonsmoker with no family history of lung cancer. To determine whether the cancer was related to his work environment, we assessed the level of exposure to carcinogens during spray painting, sanding, and heat treatment. The results showed that spray painting with yellow paint increased the concentration of hexavalent chromium in the air to as much as 118.33 μg/m3. Analysis of the paint bulk materials showed that hexavalent chromium was mostly found in the form of lead chromate. Interestingly, strontium chromate was also detected, and the concentration of strontium chromate increased in line with the brightness of the yellow color. Some paints contained about 1% crystalline silica in the form of quartz.

  20. Spatial Distribution and Fuzzy Health Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in Surface Water from Honghu Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Chaoyang; Cai, Ying; Xiao, Minsi

    2017-09-04

    Previous studies revealed that Honghu Lake was polluted by trace elements due to anthropogenic activities. This study investigated the spatial distribution of trace elements in Honghu Lake, and identified the major pollutants and control areas based on the fuzzy health risk assessment at screening level. The mean total content of trace elements in surface water decreased in the order of Zn (18.04 μg/L) > Pb (3.42 μg/L) > Cu (3.09 μg/L) > Cr (1.63 μg/L) > As (0.99 μg/L) > Cd (0.14 μg/L), within limits of Drinking Water Guidelines. The results of fuzzy health risk assessment indicated that there was no obvious non-carcinogenic risk to human health, while carcinogenic risk was observed in descending order of As > Cr > Cd > Pb. As was regarded to have the highest carcinogenic risk among selected trace elements because it generally accounted for 64% of integrated carcinogenic risk. Potential carcinogenic risk of trace elements in each sampling site was approximately at medium risk level (10 -5 to 10 -4 ). The areas in the south (S4, S13, and S16) and northeast (S8, S18, and S19) of Honghu Lake were regarded as the risk priority control areas. However, the corresponding maximum memberships of integrated carcinogenic risk in S1, S3, S10-S13, S15, and S18 were of relatively low credibility (50-60%), and may mislead the decision-makers in identifying the risk priority areas. Results of fuzzy assessment presented the subordinate grade and corresponding reliability of risk, and provided more full-scale results for decision-makers, which made up for the deficiency of certainty assessment to a certain extent.

  1. Sovereign default risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, H.A.; Altman, E.I.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach toward assessing sovereign risk by examining rigorously the health and aggregate default risk of a nation's private corporate sector. Models can be utilised to measure the probability of default of the non-financial sector cumulatively for five years, both as an absolute

  2. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. [/sup 14/C]NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned

  3. Food derived carcinogenic amnoimidazoazaarenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik

    Carcinogenic aminoimidazoazaarenes are formed during cooking of meat and fish. Important factors for the formation of these compounds are meat type, cooking temperature and time. The compounds are genotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. In animal feeding studies the compounds tested so far were...... of the exocyclic amino group. Estimations of human cancer risk have indicated that ingestion of food containing aminoimidazoazaarenes are of importance....

  4. [Risk assessment and countermeasure of BTEX in pesticide factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Wang, Tie-Yu; Du, Li-Yu; Tan, Bing; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Lu, Yong-Long

    2013-07-01

    BTEX are important environmental pollutants, harmful to human through respiratory inhalation, digestive tract and skin contact, and also have teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. BTEX were detected in multi-media to identify their distributions and assess their human health risk in a pesticide factory in Hebei province. Purge and trap GC-MS, adsorption/thermal desorption GC chromatography and the health risk assessment model were applied, and corresponding management measures were proposed. The results showed that BTEX existed in soil, dust, air, groundwater and wastewater. The concentration of BTEX in dust of the production area was 7.33 mg x kg(-1), in particular the concentration of toluene was 5.64 mg x kg(-1), exceeding the Canadian industrial land standard. Building three scenarios for working more than 10 years, 20 years and 30 years, the total non-carcinogens index was 4.19 x10(-3), 8.25 x 10(-3) and 1.22 x 10(-2), respectively, all lower than 1; the carcinogens index of benzene was 1.70 x 10(-7), 3.34 x 10(-7) and 4.92 x 10(-7), respectively, all lower than 10(-6). It indicated that there was no significant non-carcinogens and carcinogens hazard to workers inside the factory, but they might be exposed to more health risks if their work experience increase. Finally, recommendations for improving the environmental quality and personnel security in the factory were proposed based on the research results.

  5. Regulatory Forum commentary: alternative mouse models for future cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Daniel; Sistare, Frank D; Nambiar, Prashant R; Turner, Oliver C; Radi, Zaher; Bower, Nancy

    2014-07-01

    International regulatory and pharmaceutical industry scientists are discussing revision of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) S1 guidance on rodent carcinogenicity assessment of small molecule pharmaceuticals. A weight-of-evidence approach is proposed to determine the need for rodent carcinogenicity studies. For compounds with high human cancer risk, the product may be labeled appropriately without conducting rodent carcinogenicity studies. For compounds with minimal cancer risk, only a 6-month transgenic mouse study (rasH2 mouse or p53+/- mouse) or a 2-year mouse study would be needed. If rodent carcinogenicity testing may add significant value to cancer risk assessment, a 2-year rat study and either a 6-month transgenic mouse or a 2-year mouse study is appropriate. In many cases, therefore, one rodent carcinogenicity study could be sufficient. The rasH2 model predicts neoplastic findings relevant to human cancer risk assessment as well as 2-year rodent models, produces fewer irrelevant neoplastic outcomes, and often will be preferable to a 2-year rodent study. Before revising ICH S1 guidance, a prospective evaluation will be conducted to test the proposed weight-of-evidence approach. This evaluation offers an opportunity for a secondary analysis comparing the value of alternative mouse models and 2-year rodent studies in the proposed ICH S1 weight-of-evidence approach for human cancer risk assessment. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  6. Cea-Expo: A facility exposure matrix to assess passed exposure to chemical carcinogens and radionuclides of nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle-Lamberton, M.; Bouville, P.; Bergot, D.; Gagneau, M.; Marot, S.; Telle-Lamberton, M.; Giraud, J.M.; Gelas, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A 'Facility-Exposure Matrix' (FEM) is proposed to assess exposure to chemical carcinogens and radionuclides in a cohort of nuclear workers. Exposures are to be attributed in the following way: a worker reports to an administrative unit and/or is monitored for exposure to ionising radiation in a specific workplace. These units are connected with a list of facilities for which exposure is assessed through a group of experts. The entire process of the FEM applied in one of the nuclear centres included in the study shows that the FEM is feasible: exposure durations as well as groups of correlated exposures are presented but have to be considered as possible rather than positive exposures. Considering the number of facilities to assess (330), ways to simplify the method are proposed: (i) the list of exposures will be restricted to 18 chemical products retained from an extensive bibliography study; (ii) for each of the following classes of facilities: nuclear reactors, fuel fabrication, high-activity laboratories and radiation chemistry, accelerators and irradiators, waste treatment, biology, reprocessing, fusion, occupational exposure will be deduced from the information already gathered by the initial method. Besides taking into account confusion factors in the low doses epidemiological study of nuclear workers, the matrix should help in the assessment of internal contamination and chemical exposures in the nuclear industry. (author)

  7. Source contribution and risk assessment of airborne toxic metals by neutron activation analysis in Taejeon industrial complex area - Concentration analysis and health risk assessment of airborne toxic metals in Taejeon 1,2 industrial Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Jang, M. S.; Nam, B. H.; Yun, M. J. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The study centers on one-year continual concentration analysis using ICP-MS and on health risk assessment of 15 airborne toxic metals in Taejeon 1,2 industrial complex. About 1-year arithmetic mean of human carcinogen, arsenic, hexavalent chromium and nickel subsulfide is 6.05, 2.40 and 2.81 ng/m{sup 3} while the mean of probable human carcinogen, beryllium, cadmium and lead is 0.06, 3.92, 145.99 ng/m{sup 3}, respectively. And the long-term arithmetic mean concentration of non-carcinogenic metal, manganese is 44.60 ng/m{sup 3}. The point risk estimate for the inhalation of carcinogenic metals is 7.0 X10{sup -5}, which is higher than a risk standard of 10{sup -5}. The risk from human carcinogens is 6.2X10{sup -5}, while that from probable human carcinogens is 8.0X10{sup -6}, respectively. About 86 % of the cancer risk is due to the inhalation of human carcinogens, arsenic and hexavalent chromium. Thus, it is necessary to properly manage both arsenic and hexavalent chromium risk in Taejeon 1,2 industrial complex. 37 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  8. Chlorine transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautkaski, Risto; Mankamo, Tuomas.

    1977-02-01

    An assessment has been made on the toxication risk of the population due to the bulk rail transportation of liquid chlorine in Finland. Fourteen typical rail accidents were selected and their probability was estimated using the accident file of the Finnish State Railways. The probability of a chlorine leak was assessed for each type of accident separately using four leak size categories. The assessed leakage probability was dominated by station accidents, especially by collisions of a chlorine tanker and a locomotive. Toxication hazard areas were estimated for the leak categories. A simple model was constructed to describe the centring of the densely populated areas along the railway line. A comparison was made between the obtained risk and some other risks including those due to nuclear reactor accidents. (author)

  9. Assessment of fracture risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanis, John A.; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders; McCloskey, Eugene V.

    2009-01-01

    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  10. Quadrant III RFI draft report: Appendix J, Baseline risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    In accordance with the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (U. S.EPA 1989), which states that background risk should be calculated separately from site-related risk in order to provide important information to the risk manager, this appendix assesses the human health risks associated with background levels of naturally occurring compounds in soil at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). This appendix is organized as follows: Background Conditions, in which the results of Geraghty ampersand Miller's work on characterizing background levels of naturally occurring compounds in soils is summarized; Identification of Exposure Pathways; Estimation of Environmental Concentrations; Estimation of Human Intake; Toxicity Assessment, and Risk Characterization, in which numerical estimates of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risk are calculated for each naturally occurring compound and potential exposure pathway

  11. Concerning ethical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckle, F.

    1991-01-01

    After a fundamental consideration of the concept of responsibility and 'long-term responsibility' for late sequelae, the problems of an ehtical assessment of risks were illustrated: The concept of risk itself poses three problems - predicting the probability of occurrence, assessing the damage = subjective classification of the degree of damage, determining whether the advantages outweigh the risks. It is not possible to weigh the advantages and risks against each other without assessing the goals and the priorities which have been set. Here ethics is called for, because it concerns itself with the reasonableness of evaluative decisions. Its task is to enable us to become aware of and comprehend our system of values in all of its complexity in reference to real life. Ethics can only fulfill its task if it helps us to adopt an integral perspective, i.e. if it centers on the human being. 'One must assess all technical and economic innovations in terms of whether they are beneficial to the development of mankind on a long-term basis. They are only to be legitimized insofar as they prove themselves to be a means of liberating mankind and contributing to his sense of dignity and identity, as a means of bringing human beings together and encouraging them to care for one another, and as a means of protecting the natural basis of our existence. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, Rachel [Consumer' s Association, Health and Safety Commission (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered.

  13. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, Rachel

    1992-01-01

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered

  14. Integral risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1991-01-01

    The series of lectures which forms the basis of this book and took place in the winter of 1989/90 at the ETH in Zuerich were held for the purpose of discussing the stage of development of our system of ethics in view of the extremely fast pace of technological progress and the risks which accompany it. Legal, psychological and political aspects of the problem were examined, but the emphasis was placed on ethical aspects. The effects which are examined in conventional risk analyses can be considered as a part of the ethical and social aspects involved, and in turn, the consideration of ethical and social aspects can be viewed as an extension of the conventional form of risk analysis. In any case, among risk experts, the significance of ethical and social factors is uncontested, especially as regards activities which can have far-reaching repurcussions. Some objective difficulties interfere with this goal, however: - No generally acknowledged set of ethical values exists. - Cultural influences and personal motives can interfere. - Normally a risk assessment is carried out in reference to individual facilities and within a small, clearly defined framework. Under certain circumstances, generalizations which are made for complete technological systems can lead to completely different conclusions. One contribution deals with integral views of the risks of atomic energy from an ethical and social perspective. (orig.) [de

  15. Risk assessment and risk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1978-01-01

    With the help of results of investigations and model calculations the risk of nuclear energy in routine operation is shown. In this context it is pointed out that the excellent operation results of reactors all over the world have led to the acceptability of risks from local loads no longer being in question. The attention of radiation protection is therefore focused on the emissions of long-living isotopes which collect in the atmosphere. With LWRs the risk of accidents is so minimal that statistical data is, and never will be available. One has to therefore fall back upon the so-called fault tree analyses. On the subject of risk evalution the author referred to a poll in Austria. From the result of this investigation one might conclude that nuclear energy serves as a crystallization point for a discussion of varying concepts for future development. More attention should be paid to this aspect from both sides, in order to objectify the further expansion of this source of energy. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Hazard waste risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, K.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory continued to provide technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in the area of risk assessment for hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste management. The overall objective is to provide technical assistance to OOS in developing cost-effective risk assessment tools and strategies for bringing DOE facilities into compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Major efforts during FY 1985 included (1) completing the modification of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and developing training manuals and courses to assist in field office implementation of the modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS); (2) initiating the development of a system for reviewing field office HRS/mHRS evaluations for appropriate use of data and appropriate application of the methodology; (3) initiating the development of a data base management system to maintain all field office HRS/mHRS scoring sheets and to support the master OOS environmental data base system; (4) developing implementation guidance for Phase I of the DOE CERCLA Program, Installation Assessment; (5) continuing to develop an objective, scientifically based methodology for DOE management to use in establishing priorities for conducting site assessments under Phase II of the DOE CERCLA Program, Confirmation; and (6) participating in developing the DOE response to EPA on the proposed listing of three sites on the National Priorities List

  17. Health Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Formaldehyde and Benzene in Newly Remodeled Buildings, Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihui; Mo, Jinhan; Sundell, Jan; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Yinping

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess health risks associated with inhalation exposure to formaldehyde and benzene mainly emitted from building and decoration materials in newly remodeled indoor spaces in Beijing. Methods We tested the formaldehyde and benzene concentrations in indoor air of 410 dwellings and 451 offices remodeled within the past year, in which the occupants had health concerns about indoor air quality. To assess non-carcinogenic health risks, we compared the data to the health guidelines in China and USA, respectively. To assess carcinogenic health risks, we first modeled indoor personal exposure to formaldehyde and benzene using the concentration data, and then estimated the associated cancer risks by multiplying the indoor personal exposure by the Inhalation Unit Risk values (IURs) provided by the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (U.S. EPA IRIS) and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), respectively. Results (1) The indoor formaldehyde concentrations of 85% dwellings and 67% offices were above the acute Reference Exposure Level (REL) recommended by the OEHHA and the concentrations of all tested buildings were above the chronic REL recommended by the OEHHA; (2) The indoor benzene concentrations of 12% dwellings and 32% offices exceeded the reference concentration (RfC) recommended by the U.S. EPA IRIS; (3) The median cancer risks from indoor exposure to formaldehyde and benzene were 1,150 and 106 per million (based on U.S. EPA IRIS IURs), 531 and 394 per million (based on OEHHA IURs). Conclusions In the tested buildings, formaldehyde exposure may pose acute and chronic non-carcinogenic health risks to the occupants, whereas benzene exposure may pose chronic non-carcinogenic risks to the occupants. Exposure to both compounds is associated with significant carcinogenic risks. Improvement in ventilation, establishment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission labeling systems for decorating and refurbishing materials

  18. [Assessment of a risk from exposure to atmosphere bus industrial emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepkin, Iu I; Kuzmichev, M K

    2009-01-01

    The carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks to health were estimated in accordance with the requirements stated in the guide P 2.1.10.1920-04 "Guidelines for assessing the health risk in the population exposed to the chemicals polluting the environment" (approved by G. G. Onishchenko, state sanitary inspector on March 5, 2004) and comprised four successive steps: 1) identification of a hazard; 2) estimation of a dose-response relationship; 3) evaluation of exposure of the population to chemical substances; 4) characterization of a risk, by calculating the individual carcinogenic risk, hazard coefficients and indices characterizing the noncarcinogenic risk. The performed assessment of the health risk to the population living in the area exposed to the ambient air pollutant emissions by the AOA "Shinnyi Kompleks Amtel-Chenozymye" (Amtel-Chernozem Tyre Complex) allowed determination of priority pollutants, by taking into account their effect on human health. The individual carcinogenic risk to health has been found to be higher than the acceptable (safe) level (10-4) was due to the probable exposure to a 2-heptane fraction (nefras ChS 94/99) and hexavalent chromium. The highest non-carcinogenic risk to human was also due to the heptane fraction (nefras ChS 94/99) (hazard coefficient > 1).

  19. Risk assessment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, F.G.; Jones, J.L.; Hunt, R.N.; Roush, M.L.; Wierman, T.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment Unit at EG ampersand G Idaho has developed this handbook to provide guidance to a facility manager exploring the potential benefit to be gained by performance of a risk assessment properly scoped to meet local needs. This document is designed to help the manager control the resources expended commensurate with the risks being managed and to assure that the products can be used programmatically to support future needs in order to derive maximum beneflt from the resources expended. We present a logical and functional mapping scheme between several discrete phases of project definition to ensure that a potential customer, working with an analyst, is able to define the areas of interest and that appropriate methods are employed in the analysis. In addition the handbook is written to provide a high-level perspective for the analyst. Previously, the needed information was either scattered or existed only in the minds of experienced analysts. By compiling this information and exploring the breadth of knowledge which exists within the members of the PRA Unit, the functional relationships between the customers' needs and the product have been established

  20. Enhancements of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) metabolism and carcinogenic risk via NNK/arsenic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.-L.; Chang, Louis W.; Wu, J.-P.; Ueng, Y.-F.; Tsai, M.-H.; Hsieh, Dennis Paul Hsientang; Lin Pinpin

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicated an enhancement of cigarette smoke-induced carcinogenicity, including hepatocellular carcinoma, by arsenic. We believe that arsenic will enhance the expression of hepatic CYP2A enzyme and NNK metabolism (a cigarette smoke component), thus its metabolites, and carcinogenic DNA adducts. Male ICR mice were exposed to NNK (0.5 mg/mouse) and sodium arsenite (0, 10, or 20 mg/kg) daily via gavaging for 10 days and their urine was collected at day 10 for NNK metabolite analysis. Liver samples were also obtained for CYP2A enzyme and DNA adducts evaluations. Both the cyp2a4/5 mRNA levels and the CYP2A enzyme activity were significantly elevated in arsenic-treated mice liver. Furthermore, urinary NNK metabolites in NNK/arsenic co-treated mice also increased compared to those treated with NNK alone. Concomitantly, DNA adducts (N 7 -methylguanine and O 6 -methylguanine) were significantly elevated in the livers of mice co-treated with NNK and arsenic. Our findings provide clear evidence that arsenic increased NNK metabolism by up-regulation of CYP2A expression and activity leading to an increased NNK metabolism and DNA adducts (N 7 -methylguanine and O 6 -methylguanine). These findings suggest that in the presence of arsenic, NNK could induce greater DNA adducts formation in hepatic tissues resulting in higher carcinogenic potential

  1. Mutagenic and carcinogenic structural alerts and their mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plošnik, Alja; Vračko, Marjan; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2016-09-01

    Knowing the mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of chemicals is very important for their hazard (and risk) assessment. One of the crucial events that trigger genotoxic and sometimes carcinogenic effects is the forming of adducts between chemical compounds and nucleic acids and histones. This review takes a look at the mechanisms related to specific functional groups (structural alerts or toxicophores) that may trigger genotoxic or epigenetic effects in the cells. We present up-to-date information about defined structural alerts with their mechanisms and the software based on this knowledge (QSAR models and classification schemes).

  2. 2007 TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has announced The 2007 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference Cincinnati Marriott North, West Chester (Cincinnati), OHApril 23- 26, 2007 - Click to register!The Annual Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference is a unique meeting where several Government Agencies come together to discuss toxicology and risk assessment issues that are not only of concern to the government, but also to a broader audience including academia and industry. The theme of this year's conference is Emerging Issues and Challenges in Risk Assessment and the preliminary agenda includes: Plenary Sessions and prominent speakers (tentative) include: Issues of Emerging Chemical ContaminantsUncertainty and Variability in Risk Assessment Use of Mechanistic data in IARC evaluationsParallel Sessions:Uncertainty and Variability in Dose-Response Assessment Recent Advances in Toxicity and Risk Assessment of RDX The Use of Epidemiologic Data for Risk Assessment Applications Cumulative Health Risk Assessment:

  3. Parental Exposure to Workplace Carcinogens and the Risk of Development of Acute Leukemia in Infants. Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Saldivar, María Luisa; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Sierra-Ramírez, José Alfredo; Núñez-Villegas, Nancy; Pérez-Lorenzana, Héctor; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Román-Zepeda, Pedro Francisco; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María Del Carmen; González-Ulivarri, Juana Esther; López-Santiago, Norma; Martínez-Silva, Sofía Irene; Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Occupational exposure of parents to carcinogens is of great interest in the etiology of leukemias. Evidence of the impact of such exposure on infants or small children is scarce. Here we estimated whether occupational exposure of parents to carcinogens could be a risk factor for leukemias in their children. Cases of acute leukemia (AL) in infants ≤24 months old diagnosed in Mexico City (1998-2013) were included in a population-based, case-control study. Each of the 195 cases was matched with at least one healthy child (n = 369). For each of four exposure windows studied, the degree of exposure to carcinogens was determined for both parents by using a validated occupational exposure index. An unconditional logistic regression was carried out. Odds ratios (OR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the overall occupational exposure for parents during the four exposure windows indicated no association with risk of AL in their children. Pre-conception, the OR by the father 0.77 (0.49-1.21), by the mother 1.03 (0.50-2.11); during pregnancy, father 0.66 (0.38-1.15), mother 1.79 (0.46-6.90); during breastfeeding, father 0.75 (0.43-1.30), mother 0.96 (0.21-4.30); and after birth, father 0.74 (0.45-1.22), mother 0.90 (0.24-3.32). The statistical power of the sample size to identify an OR ≥2 and an exposure of ≥10% among controls was 78%. These data support the idea that parents' occupational exposure during any of the periods studied was not a risk factor contributing to the etiology of AL in infants ≤24 months of age. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tobacco smoking, polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes, and risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer: results from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahabi, Ahva; Corral, Román; Catsburg, Chelsea; Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Koo, Jocelyn; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Stern, Mariana C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between tobacco smoking and prostate cancer (PCa) remains inconclusive. This study examined the association between tobacco smoking and PCa risk taking into account polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes as possible effect modifiers (9 polymorphisms and 1 predicted phenotype from metabolism enzyme genes). The study included cases (n = 761 localized; n = 1199 advanced) and controls (n = 1139) from the multiethnic California Collaborative Case–Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking variables and risk of localized and advanced PCa risk. Being a former smoker, regardless of time of quit smoking, was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.6). Among non-Hispanic Whites, ever smoking was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1–2.1), whereas current smoking was associated with risk of advanced PCa (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0–1.9). However, no associations were observed between smoking intensity, duration or pack-year variables, and advanced PCa. No statistically significant trends were seen among Hispanics or African-Americans. The relationship between smoking status and PCa risk was modified by the CYP1A2 rs7662551 polymorphism (P-interaction = 0.008). In conclusion, tobacco smoking was associated with risk of PCa, primarily localized disease among non-Hispanic Whites. This association was modified by a genetic variant in CYP1A2, thus supporting a role for tobacco carcinogens in PCa risk

  5. [QUANTITATIVE DNA EVALUATION OF THE HIGH CARCINOGENIC RISK OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUSES AND HUMAN HERPES VIRUSES IN MALES WITH FERTILITY DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimov, V V; Naumenko, V A; Tulenev, Yu A; Kurilo, L F; Kovalyk, V P; Sorokina, T M; Lebedeva, A L; Gomberg, M A; Kushch, A A

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is an actual medical and social problem. In 50% of couples it is associated with the male factor and in more than 50% of cases the etiology of the infertility remains insufficiently understood. The goal of this work was to study the prevalence and to perform quantitative analysis of the human herpes viruses (HHV) and high carcinogenic risk papilloma viruses (HR HPV) in males with infertility, as well as to assess the impact of these infections on sperm parameters. Ejaculate samples obtained from 196 males fall into 3 groups. Group 1 included men with the infertility of unknown etiology (n = 112); group 2, patients who had female partners with the history of spontaneous abortion (n = 63); group 3 (control), healthy men (n = 21). HHV and HR HPV DNA in the ejaculates were detected in a total of 42/196 (21.4%) males: in 31 and 11 patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p > 0.05) and in none of healthy males. HHV were detected in 24/42; HR HPV, in 18/42 males (p > 0.05) without significant difference between the groups. Among HR HPV genotypes of the clade A9 in ejaculate were more frequent (14/18, p = 0.04). Comparative analysis of the sperm parameters showed that in the ejaculates of the infected patients sperm motility as well as the number of morphologically normal cells were significantly reduced compared with the healthy men. The quantification of the viral DNA revealed that in 31% of the male ejaculates the viral load was high: > 3 Ig10/100000 cells. Conclusion. The detection of HHV and HR HPV in the ejaculate is associated with male infertility. Quantification of the viral DNA in the ejaculate is a useful indicator for monitoring viral infections in infertility and for decision to start therapy.

  6. [Pollution Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals from Atmospheric Deposition in the Parks of Nanjing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Qian, Xin; Li, Hui-ming; Sun, Yi-xuan; Wang, Jin-hua

    2016-05-15

    Contents of heavy metals involving As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from atmospheric deposition in 10 parks of Nanjing were analyzed. The pollution level, ecological risk and health risk were evaluated using Geoaccumulation Index, Potential Ecological Risk Index and the US EPA Health Risk Assessment Model, respectively. The results showed that the pollution levels of heavy metals in Swallow Rock Park, Swallow Rock Park and Mochou Lake Park were higher than the others. Compared to other cities such as Changchun, Wuhan and Beijing, the contents of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition of parks in Nanjing were higher. The evaluation results of Geoaccumulation Index showed that Pb was at moderate pollution level, Zn and Cu were between moderate and serious levels, while Cd was between serious and extreme levels. The ecological risk level of Cd was high. The assessment results of Health Risk Assessment Model indicated that there was no non-carcinogenic risk for all the seven heavy metals. For carcinogenic risk, the risks of Cd, Cr and Ni were all negligible (Risk < 1 x 10⁻⁶), whereas As had carcinogenic risk possibility but was considered to be acceptable (10⁻⁶ < Risk < 10⁻⁴).

  7. Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) database is part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). This database contains assessments of selected surgical...

  8. Assessment of technical risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, T A [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialpruefung, Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    The safety of technical systems is so difficult to assess because the concept 'risk' contains technical-scientific factors as well as components of individual and social psychology. Immediate or short-term hazards of human life as i.e. caused by the operation of industrial plants and mediate and thus long-term hazards have to be distinguished. Characteristic for the second hazard groups is the great time-lag before the effect takes place. Thus a causal relationship can be recognized only late and not definitely. Even when the causes have been obviated the effects still show. The development of a systems-analytical model as a basis of decisive processes for the introduction of highly endangered large-scale technologies seems particularly difficult. A starting point for the quantification of the risk can still be seen in the product of the probability of realization and the extent of the damage. Public opinion, however, does not base its evaluations on an objective concept of risk but tends to have an attitude of aversion against great and disastrous accidents. On the other hand, plenty of slight accidents are accepted much more easily, even when the amount of deadly victims from accidents reaches dimensions beyond those of the rare large-scale accidents. Here, mostly the damage possible but not the probability of its occurence is seen, let alone the general use of the new technology. The value of the mathematical models for estimating risks is mainly due to the fact that they are able to clear up decisions.

  9. Health risk assessment and the practice of industrial hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustenbach, D J

    1990-07-01

    It has been claimed that there may be as many as 2000 airborne chemicals to which persons could be exposed in the workplace and in the community. Of these, occupational exposure limits have been set for approximately 700 chemicals, and only about 30 chemicals have limits for the ambient air. It is likely that some type of health risk assessment methodology will be used to establish limits for the remainder. Although these methods have been used for over 10 yr to set environmental limits, each step of the process (hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) contains a number of traps into which scientists and risk managers can fall. For example, regulatory approaches to the hazard identification step have allowed little discrimination between the various animal carcinogens, even though these chemicals can vary greatly in their potency and mechanisms of action. In general, epidemiology data have been given little weight compared to the results of rodent bioassays. The dose-response extrapolation process, as generally practiced, often does not present the range of equally plausible values. Procedures which acknowledge and quantitatively account for some or all of the different classes of chemical carcinogens have not been widely adopted. For example, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) and biologically based models need to become a part of future risk assessments. The exposure evaluation portion of risk assessments can now be significantly more valid because of better dispersion models, validated exposure parameters, and the use of computers to account for complex environmental factors. Using these procedures, industrial hygienists are now able to quantitatively estimate the risks caused not only by the inhalation of chemicals but also those caused by dermal contact and incidental ingestion. The appropriate use of risk assessment methods should allow scientists and risk managers to set scientifically valid

  10. Risk assessment of N-nitrosodimethylamine formed endogenously after fish-with-vegetable meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilmaker, M.J.; Bakker, M.I.; Schothorst, R.; Slob, W.

    2010-01-01

    The consumption of fish and nitrate-rich vegetables may lead to the formation of the genotoxic carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in the stomach. To assess human cancer risk associated with this formation, a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model was used to simulate NDMA formation in the

  11. Risk assessment and risk management of mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the magnitude and exposure, or probability, of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from certain agents or activities. Here, we summarize the four steps of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Risk assessments using these principles have been conducted on the major mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone) by various regulatory agencies for the purpose of setting food safety guidelines. We critically evaluate the impact of these risk assessment parameters on the estimated global burden of the associated diseases as well as the impact of regulatory measures on food supply and international trade. Apart from the well-established risk posed by aflatoxins, many uncertainties still exist about risk assessments for the other major mycotoxins, often reflecting a lack of epidemiological data. Differences exist in the risk management strategies and in the ways different governments impose regulations and technologies to reduce levels of mycotoxins in the food-chain. Regulatory measures have very little impact on remote rural and subsistence farming communities in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, where regulations are strictly enforced to reduce and/or remove mycotoxin contamination. However, in the absence of the relevant technologies or the necessary infrastructure, we highlight simple intervention practices to reduce mycotoxin contamination in the field and/or prevent mycotoxin formation during storage.

  12. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria...... predictors, baseline caries experience had moderate/good accuracy in pre-school children and limited accuracy in schoolchildren/adolescents. The period of highest risk for caries incidence in permanent teeth was the first few years after tooth eruption. In general, the quality of evidence was limited....... CONCLUSIONS: Multivariate models and baseline caries prevalence performed better in pre-school children than in schoolchildren/adolescents. Baseline caries prevalence was the most accurate single predictor in all age groups. The heterogeneity of populations, models, outcome criteria, measures and reporting...

  13. Methods of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (identification, quantification of risk); some approaches to risk evaluation (use of the 'no risk' principle; the 'acceptable risk' method; risk balancing; comparison of risks, benefits and other costs); cost benefit analysis; an alternative approach (tabulation and display; description and reduction of the data table); identification of potential decision sets consistent with the constraints. Some references are made to nuclear power. (U.K.)

  14. Risk assessments ensure safer power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-19

    A growth industry is emerging devoted to the study and comparison of the economic, social and health risks posed by large industrial installations. Electricity generation is one area coming under particularly close scrutiny. Types of risk, ways of assessing risk and the difference between experts' analyses and the public perception of risk are given. An example of improved risk assessment helping to reduce deaths and injuries in coal mining is included.

  15. Assessing the carcinogenic potential of low-dose exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment: focus on the cancer hallmark of tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiwei; Brooks, Samira A; Dormoy, Valérian; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Massfelder, Thierry; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Xia, Menghang; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Brown, Dustin G; Prudhomme, Kalan R; Colacci, Annamaria; Hamid, Roslida A; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Woodrick, Jordan; Scovassi, A Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Roy, Rabindra; Forte, Stefano; Memeo, Lorenzo; Salem, Hosni K; Lowe, Leroy; Jensen, Lasse; Bisson, William H; Kleinstreuer, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    One of the important 'hallmarks' of cancer is angiogenesis, which is the process of formation of new blood vessels that are necessary for tumor expansion, invasion and metastasis. Under normal physiological conditions, angiogenesis is well balanced and controlled by endogenous proangiogenic factors and antiangiogenic factors. However, factors produced by cancer cells, cancer stem cells and other cell types in the tumor stroma can disrupt the balance so that the tumor microenvironment favors tumor angiogenesis. These factors include vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial tissue factor and other membrane bound receptors that mediate multiple intracellular signaling pathways that contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Though environmental exposures to certain chemicals have been found to initiate and promote tumor development, the role of these exposures (particularly to low doses of multiple substances), is largely unknown in relation to tumor angiogenesis. This review summarizes the evidence of the role of environmental chemical bioactivity and exposure in tumor angiogenesis and carcinogenesis. We identify a number of ubiquitous (prototypical) chemicals with disruptive potential that may warrant further investigation given their selectivity for high-throughput screening assay targets associated with proangiogenic pathways. We also consider the cross-hallmark relationships of a number of important angiogenic pathway targets with other cancer hallmarks and we make recommendations for future research. Understanding of the role of low-dose exposure of chemicals with disruptive potential could help us refine our approach to cancer risk assessment, and may ultimately aid in preventing cancer by reducing or eliminating exposures to synergistic mixtures of chemicals with carcinogenic potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction

  17. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu

    2008-01-15

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction.

  18. The importance of radiation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    In its Publication 26, ICRP recommends a system of radiation dose limitation that is designed to ensure adequate protection from the harmful effects of radiation in conditions both of occupational and of environmental exposure. Clearly, however, no such system can be recommended or accepted as sufficiently safe unless the risks of the resultant exposures have been quantitatively assessed. Publication 26 reflects the increasing quantitative information that is now available on (a) carcinogenic risks of radiation in man, both from exposure of the whole body and from that of individual organs, at moderate exposures; (b) theoretical bases for inference of risk, from moderate to lower exposures; (c) genetic risks in the mouse, and inferences from such risks to those in man; (d) the dose equivalent levels at which certain non-stochastic effects may be induced. Despite a number of uncertainties, substantially improved estimates can therefore be made of the levels of safety that are likely to be achieved by observing the Commission's recommended dose limits, and the associated system of limitation of exposures to levels as low as reasonably achievable below these limits. Both for occupational exposure and for the exposure of the members of the public, these estimates are expressed in Publication 26 in terms of the risk of inducing fatal malignancies or serious hereditary ill health. These frequencies are compared with those of occupational fatalities in other industries or with accidental fatalities amongst the general public. The comparison between harm from radiation and from other agents in different industries is extended in ICRP-27 (on ''Problems Involved in Developing an Index of Harm'') in a review of the time lost through occupational diseases and non-fatal accidents, as well as from fatal diseases and accidents, so that the levels of safety achievable by the Commission's recommendations can be reviewed in the general perspective of occupational safety. (author)

  19. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  20. Risk assessment for halogenated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    A recent development in the cancer risk area is the advent of biologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. These models allow for the incorporation of biological and mechanistic data into the risk assessment process. These advances will not only improve the risk assessment process for halogenated solvents but will stimulate and guide basic research in the biological area

  1. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  2. The comparative estimation of the radiation and chemical carcinogenic risk induced by the atmosphere contamination due to releases from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Komleva, V.A.; Shandala, N.K.

    1992-01-01

    In experiments with 1000 white mongrel mice which inhaled benzo (a) pyrene (BP) and fly coal ash for a long time, these agents increased significantly lung tumour incidence, with the latent period shortened. BP is found to be 10-1000 fold more carcinogenic then fly coal ash. The BP inhalation at a sanitary standard level (0.1 μg/100m 3 ) appeared to be equivalent, in murine risk, to the whole-body exposure to a total gamma dose of about 2 Sv. The coal ash inhalation in a concentration of 0.05 mg/m 3 caused the same risk as a dose of 0.05 Sv. (author)

  3. Polymorphisms in genes related to activation or detoxification of carcinogens might interact with smoking to increase renal cancer risk: Results from The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, K.M.; Schouten, L.J.; Dijk, B.A.C. van; Houwelingen, K. van; Hulsbergen-Kaa, C.A. van de; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Houwelingen, K. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Oosterwijk, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic gene polymorphisms have previously been suggested as risk factors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These polymorphisms are involved in activation or detoxification of carcinogens in cigarette smoke which is another RCC risk factor. We evaluated gene-environment interactions between CYP1A1,

  4. HTGR accident and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silady, F.A.; Everline, C.J.; Houghton, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a synopsis of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) performed by General Atomic Company. Principal topics presented include: HTGR safety assessments, peer interfaces, safety research, process gas explosions, quantitative safety goals, licensing applications of PRA, enhanced safety, investment risk assessments, and PRA design integration

  5. Mycotoxins as human carcinogens-the IARC Monographs classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Toman, Jakub; Grosse, Yann

    2017-02-01

    Humans are constantly exposed to mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins), mainly via food intake of plant and animal origin. The health risks stemming from mycotoxins may result from their toxicity, in particular their carcinogenicity. In order to prevent these risks, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon (France)-through its IARC Monographs programme-has performed the carcinogenic hazard assessment of some mycotoxins in humans, on the basis of epidemiological data, studies of cancer in experimental animals and mechanistic studies. The present article summarizes the carcinogenic hazard assessments of those mycotoxins, especially aflatoxins (aflatoxin B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 and M 1 ), fumonisins (fumonisin B 1 and B 2 ) and ochratoxin A (OTA). New information regarding the genotoxicity of OTA (formation of OTA-DNA adducts), the role of OTA in oxidative stress and the identification of epigenetic factors involved in OTA carcinogenesis-should they indeed provide strong evidence that OTA carcinogenicity is mediated by a mechanism that also operates in humans-could lead to the reclassification of OTA.

  6. Health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the source water and drinking water of China: Quantitative analysis based on published monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Cheng, Shu-Pei

    2011-12-01

    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in source water and drinking water of China was conducted using probabilistic techniques from a national perspective. The published monitoring data of PAHs were gathered and converted into BaP equivalent (BaP(eq)) concentrations. Based on the transformed data, comprehensive risk assessment was performed by considering different age groups and exposure pathways. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The risk analysis indicated that, the risk values for children and teens were lower than the accepted value (1.00E-05), indicating no significant carcinogenic risk. The probability of risk values above 1.00E-05 was 5.8% and 6.7% for adults and lifetime groups, respectively. Overall, carcinogenic risks of PAHs in source water and drinking water of China were mostly accepted. However, specific regions, such as Yellow river of Lanzhou reach and Qiantang river should be paid more attention. Notwithstanding the uncertainties inherent in the risk assessment, this study is the first attempt to provide information on carcinogenic risk of PAHs in source water and drinking water of China, and might be useful for potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lifetime excess cancer risk due to carcinogens in food and beverages: Urban versus rural differences in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheasley, Roslyn; Keller, C Peter; Setton, Eleanor

    2017-09-14

    To explore differences in urban versus rural lifetime excess risk of cancer from five specific contaminants found in food and beverages. Probable contaminant intake is estimated using Monte Carlo simulations of contaminant concentrations in combination with dietary patterns. Contaminant concentrations for arsenic, benzene, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) were derived from government dietary studies. The dietary patterns of 34 944 Canadians from 10 provinces were available from Health Canada's Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, Nutrition (2004). Associated lifetime excess cancer risk (LECR) was subsequently calculated from the results of the simulations. In the calculation of LECR from food and beverages for the five selected substances, two (lead and PERC) were shown to have excess risk below 10 per million; whereas for the remaining three (arsenic, benzene and PCBs), it was shown that at least 50% of the population were above 10 per million excess cancers. Arsenic residues, ingested via rice and rice cereal, registered the greatest disparity between urban and rural intake, with LECR per million levels well above 1000 per million at the upper bound. The majority of PCBs ingestion comes from meat, with values slightly higher for urban populations and LECR per million estimates between 50 and 400. Drinking water is the primary contributor of benzene intake in both urban and rural populations, with LECR per million estimates of 35 extra cancers in the top 1% of sampled population. Overall, there are few disparities between urban and rural lifetime excess cancer risk from contaminants found in food and beverages. Estimates could be improved with more complete Canadian dietary intake and concentration data in support of detailed exposure assessments in estimating LECR.

  8. Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of

  9. [Forensic assessment of violence risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Robinat, Amadeo; Mohíno Justes, Susana; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 20 years there have been steps forward in the field of scientific research on prediction and handling different violent behaviors. In this work we go over the classic concept of "criminal dangerousness" and the more current of "violence risk assessment". We analyze the evolution of such assessment from the practice of non-structured clinical expert opinion to current actuarial methods and structured clinical expert opinion. Next we approach the problem of assessing physical violence risk analyzing the HCR-20 (Assessing Risk for Violence) and we also review the classic and complex subject of the relation between mental disease and violence. One of the most problematic types of violence, difficult to assess and predict, is sexual violence. We study the different actuarial and sexual violence risk prediction instruments and in the end we advise an integral approach to the problem. We also go through partner violence risk assessment, describing the most frequently used scales, especially SARA (Spouse Assault Risk Assessment) and EPV-R. Finally we give practical advice on risk assessment, emphasizing the importance of having maximum information about the case, carrying out a clinical examination, psychopathologic exploration and the application of one of the described risk assessment scales. We'll have to express an opinion about the dangerousness/risk of future violence from the subject and some recommendations on the conduct to follow and the most advisable treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Participation of IPEN in the international program of information about occupational exposure to carcinogen risks; Participacion del IPEN en el programa internacional de informacion sobre exposicion ocupacional de riesgos cancerigenos (CAREX-Peru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osores, Jose; Gonzales, Susana [Direccion de Servicios, Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    2014-07-01

    During 2014, the Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute participated in the mapping of risks to carcinogens due to occupational exposure for our country through CAREX program because all radioactive substances are considered by the International Agency for Research Cancer as type 1 carcinogens (high risk) and the presence of these substances in the work environment are unknown to professionals from other institutions. This occasion allowed the incorporation of Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) as indicators in all work activities that were not considered by the Energy and Mining Sector. (authors).

  11. Risk assessment and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The approach to determining how safe is safe for the nuclear industry is to ensure that the risks are comparable with or less than those of other safe industries. There are some problems in implementing such an approach, because the effects of low levels of radiation are stochastic and assumptions are required in estimating the risks. A conservative approach has generally been adopted. Risk estimates across different activities are a useful indication of where society may be overspending or underspending to reduce risk, but the analysis has to take account of public preferences. Once risks have been estimated, limits may be chosen which the industry is expected to meet under normal and postulated accident conditions. Limits have been set so that nuclear risks do not exceed those in safe industries, and under normal conditions nuclear facilities operate at levels far below these specified limits

  12. Health effects of low-level ionising radiation: biological basis for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The biological basis for risk assessment is discussed. The risks of carcinogenic effects, teratogenic effects, and genetic (heritable) effects are estimated to vary in proportion with the dose of radiation in the low-dose domain; however, the risks also appear to vary with the LET of the radiation, age at the time of irradiation, and other variables. Although the data suffice to place the risks in perspective with other hazards of modern life, further research to refine the reliability of the risk assessment is called for. (author)

  13. Models for Pesticide Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA considers the toxicity of the pesticide as well as the amount of pesticide to which a person or the environments may be exposed in risk assessment. Scientists use mathematical models to predict pesticide concentrations in exposure assessment.

  14. Using risk assessment in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Alan J

    2014-08-01

    Risk assessment has become a regular feature in both dental practice and society as a whole, and principles used to assess risk in society are similar to those used in a clinical setting. Although the concept of risk assessment as a prognostic indicator for periodontal disease incidence and activity is well established in the management of periodontitis, the use of risk assessment to manage the practical treatment of periodontitis and its sequelae appears to have less foundation. A simple system of initial risk assessment - building on the use of the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE), clinical, medical and social factors - is described, linked to protocols for delivering care suited to general dental practice and stressing the role of long-term supportive care. The risks of not treating the patient are considered, together with the possible causes of failure, and the problems of successful treatment are illustrated by the practical management of post-treatment recession.

  15. A review of regulatory risk assessment with formaldehyde as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbus, H R

    1988-09-01

    Quantitative risk assessment may vary by over a millionfold depending upon the model used. The EPA currently uses models which project the highest potential risk. Furthermore, there is no consideration of the probability that a chemical is a human carcinogen. Such an approach may result in unrealistically high risk at exposures far below current ambient levels. In the case of formaldehyde, three alternative approaches to risk assessment are examined. One uses the maximum likelihood estimate of the multistage model, another uses the no observable adverse effect level divided by a safety factor of 100, and the third uses a probability estimate that the substance is carcinogenic at typical ambient exposures multiplied by EPA's upper bound estimate. The probability estimate is made from considerations of metabolism and pharmacokinetics, toxicology, short-term tests, animal tests, and epidemiology.

  16. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, Joaquim [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Nadal, Martí [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, José L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10{sup −6}) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes. - Highlights: • We determined in skin-contact clothes the concentrations of a number of metals. • Dermal contact exposure and health risks for adults and for 1-year-old children were assessed. • Carcinogenic risks were considered as acceptable (<10{sup −6}). • For non-carcinogenic risks, only Sb exceeded a 10% of the HQ for dermal contact with clothes.

  17. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10 −6 ) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes. - Highlights: • We determined in skin-contact clothes the concentrations of a number of metals. • Dermal contact exposure and health risks for adults and for 1-year-old children were assessed. • Carcinogenic risks were considered as acceptable (<10 −6 ). • For non-carcinogenic risks, only Sb exceeded a 10% of the HQ for dermal contact with clothes

  18. Research toward the development of a biologically based dose response assessment for inorganic arsenic carcinogenicity: A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clewell, Harvey J.; Thomas, Russell S.; Gentry, P. Robinan; Crump, Kenny S.; Kenyon, Elaina M.; El-Masri, Hisham A.; Yager, Janice W.

    2007-01-01

    Cancer risk assessments for inorganic arsenic have been based on human epidemiological data, assuming a linear dose response below the range of observation of tumors. Part of the reason for the continued use of the linear approach in arsenic risk assessments is the lack of an adequate biologically based dose response (BBDR) model that could provide a quantitative basis for an alternative nonlinear approach. This paper describes elements of an ongoing collaborative research effort between the CIIT Centers for Health Research, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ENVIRON International, and EPRI to develop BBDR modeling approaches that could be used to inform a nonlinear cancer dose response assessment for inorganic arsenic. These efforts are focused on: (1) the refinement of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of the kinetics of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in the mouse and human; (2) the investigation of mathematical solutions for multi-stage cancer models involving multiple pathways of cell transformation; (3) the review and evaluation of the literature on the dose response for the genomic effects of arsenic; and (4) the collection of data on the dose response for genomic changes in the urinary bladder (a human target tissue for arsenic carcinogenesis) associated with in vivo drinking water exposures in the mouse as well as in vitro exposures of both mouse and human cells. An approach is proposed for conducting a biologically based margin of exposure risk assessment for inorganic arsenic using the in vitro dose response for the expression of genes associated with the obligatory precursor events for arsenic tumorigenesis

  19. Environmental Risk Communication through Qualitative Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabre J. Coleman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental analysts are often hampered in communicating the risks of environmental contaminants due to the myriad of regulatory requirements that are applicable. The use of a qualitative, risk-based control banding strategy for assessment and control of potential environmental contaminants provides a standardized approach to improve risk communication. Presented is a model that provides an effective means for determining standardized responses and controls for common environmental issues based on the level of risk. The model is designed for integration within an occupational health and safety management system to provide a multidisciplinary environmental and occupational risk management approach. This environmental model, which utilizes multidisciplinary control banding strategies for delineating risk, complements the existing Risk Level Based Management System, a proven method in a highly regulated facility for occupational health and safety. A simplified environmental risk matrix is presented that is stratified over four risk levels. Examples of qualitative environmental control banding strategies are presented as they apply to United States regulations for construction, research activities, facility maintenance, and spill remediation that affect air, water, soil, and waste disposal. This approach offers a standardized risk communication language for multidisciplinary issues that will improve communications within and between environmental health and safety professionals, workers, and management.

  20. Physical dosimetry and biological indicators of carcinogenic risk in a cohort of persons exposed to unhealthy ecological factors following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orel, V E; Tereschenki, V M; Czyatkovskaya, N N; Mazepa, M G; Buzunov, V A

    1998-01-01

    The April 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident caused ecological changes in the Ovruch State forests in the Zhytomir oblast in the Ukraine. The highest radioactivity existed in moss, followed by the pine-forest substrate and soil. During 1984-1985, the pine needles were primarily surface contaminated, whereas during 1986-1988, they were contaminated secondarily. Radioactivity in air was highest (1.07+/-0.185 Bq/l) during dry and sunny weather and when trees were felled; the lowest levels (0.196+/-0.044 Bq/l) occurred during periods of stable snow coverage. Between 1987 and 1989 (i.e., after the Chernobyl accident), the caesium levels in forestry employees exceeded by 13.9-fold the average levels found in the Ukrainian Polessje population. Ovruch forest guards and woodcutters had the highest effective equivalent doses of radiation, and they therefore exhibited the highest carcinogenic risk.

  1. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  2. Risk assessment for children exposed to DDT residues in various milk types from the Greek market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Ioannis N; Goumenou, Marina; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Ozcagli, Eren; Vynias, Dionysios; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of residues of DDT and its metabolites was monitored in 196 cow milk samples of various pasteurized commercial types collected from the Greek market. Residue levels were determined by GC-MS analysis. In 97.4% of the samples at least one DDT isomer or one of the DDT metabolites was detected, in levels not exceeding the maximum permitted residue level by the EU. Hazard Index for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects was estimated under two assumptions: a) using DDT concentrations from positive samples and b) imputing LOD/2 as an arbitrary concentration for negative samples. No statistically significant differences in detected or summed residue (p > 0.05) concentrations between different milk types were observed, with the exception of specific metabolites of DDT in some milk types. Exposure assessment scenarios were developed for children aged 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 years old based on estimated body weights and daily milk consumption. Hazard Indices for non-carcinogenic effects were below 0.109 covering also carcinogenic effects according to WHO approach. The cancer risk values for carcinogenic effects according to the US EPA Cancer Benchmark Concentration approach, ranged from 0.4 to 18. For both effects the highest values were calculated for the 1- to 3-year-old age groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Historical relationship between performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal and other types of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed until the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built on methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty

  4. Risk indices in comparative risk assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.

    1984-01-01

    More than a decade ago the development of comparative risk assessment studies aroused overwhelming interest. There was no doubt that data on the health and safety aspects of energy systems would greatly benefit, or even end, the debate on nuclear energy. Although such attempts are still strongly supported, the rose-coloured expectations of the early days have faded. The high uncertainties, and the contradictory aspect, of the first results might explain this evolution. The loose connection between the range of computed risk indices and the questions on which the debate was focused is another reason for this decline in interest. Important research work is being carried out aiming at reducing the different kinds of uncertainties. Rather than the uncertainties, the paper considers the meaning of available risk indices and proposes more significant indices with respect to the goals of risk assessment. First, the indices which are of frequent use in comparative studies are listed. The stress is put on a French comparative study from which most examples are drawn. Secondly, the increase in magnitude of the indices and the decrease in the attributability of the risk to a given system is shown to be a consequence of the trend towards more comprehensive analyses. Thirdly, the ambiguity of such indices as the collective occupational risk is underlined, and a possible solution is suggested. Whenever risk assessments are related to pragmatic decision making problems it is possible to find satisfactory risk indices. The development of cost-effectiveness analyses and the proposals for quantitative safety goals clearly demonstrate this point. In the field of comparison of social impacts some proposals are made, but there remain some gaps still to be filled. (author)

  5. Assessing the carcinogenic potential of low-dose exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment: the challenge ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, William H; Lowe, Leroy; Carpenter, David O; Gilbertson, Michael; Manaf Ali, Abdul; Lopez de Cerain Salsamendi, Adela; Lasfar, Ahmed; Carnero, Amancio; Azqueta, Amaya; Amedei, Amedeo; Charles, Amelia K; Collins, Andrew R; Ward, Andrew; Salzberg, Anna C; Colacci, Annamaria; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Berg, Arthur; Barclay, Barry J; Zhou, Binhua P; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Baglole, Carolyn J; Dong, Chenfang; Mondello, Chiara; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Naus, Christian C; Yedjou, Clement; Curran, Colleen S; Laird, Dale W; Koch, Daniel C; Carlin, Danielle J; Felsher, Dean W; Roy, Debasish; Brown, Dustin G; Ratovitski, Edward; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Corsini, Emanuela; Rojas, Emilio; Moon, Eun-Yi; Laconi, Ezio; Marongiu, Fabio; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Chiaradonna, Ferdinando; Darroudi, Firouz; Martin, Francis L; Van Schooten, Frederik J; Goldberg, Gary S; Wagemaker, Gerard; Nangami, Gladys N; Calaf, Gloria M; Williams, Graeme; Wolf, Gregory T; Koppen, Gudrun; Brunborg, Gunnar; Lyerly, H Kim; Krishnan, Harini; Ab Hamid, Hasiah; Yasaei, Hemad; Sone, Hideko; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Salem, Hosni K; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Park, Hyun Ho; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R; Scovassi, A Ivana; Klaunig, James E; Vondráček, Jan; Raju, Jayadev; Roman, Jesse; Wise, John Pierce; Whitfield, Jonathan R; Woodrick, Jordan; Christopher, Joseph A; Ochieng, Josiah; Martinez-Leal, Juan Fernando; Weisz, Judith; Kravchenko, Julia; Sun, Jun; Prudhomme, Kalan R; Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Cohen-Solal, Karine A; Moorwood, Kim; Gonzalez, Laetitia; Soucek, Laura; Jian, Le; D'Abronzo, Leandro S; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Li, Lin; Gulliver, Linda; McCawley, Lisa J; Memeo, Lorenzo; Vermeulen, Louis; Leyns, Luc; Zhang, Luoping; Valverde, Mahara; Khatami, Mahin; Romano, Maria Fiammetta; Chapellier, Marion; Williams, Marc A; Wade, Mark; Manjili, Masoud H; Lleonart, Matilde E; Xia, Menghang; Gonzalez, Michael J; Karamouzis, Michalis V; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Vaccari, Monica; Kuemmerle, Nancy B; Singh, Neetu; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; van Larebeke, Nik; Ahmed, Nuzhat; Ogunkua, Olugbemiga; Krishnakumar, P K; Vadgama, Pankaj; Marignani, Paola A; Ghosh, Paramita M; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Thompson, Patricia A; Dent, Paul; Heneberg, Petr; Darbre, Philippa; Sing Leung, Po; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Cheng, Qiang Shawn; Robey, R Brooks; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Roy, Rabindra; Andrade-Vieira, Rafaela; Sinha, Ranjeet K; Mehta, Rekha; Vento, Renza; Di Fiore, Riccardo; Ponce-Cusi, Richard; Dornetshuber-Fleiss, Rita; Nahta, Rita; Castellino, Robert C; Palorini, Roberta; Abd Hamid, Roslida; Langie, Sabine A S; Eltom, Sakina E; Brooks, Samira A; Ryeom, Sandra; Wise, Sandra S; Bay, Sarah N; Harris, Shelley A; Papagerakis, Silvana; Romano, Simona; Pavanello, Sofia; Eriksson, Staffan; Forte, Stefano; Casey, Stephanie C; Luanpitpong, Sudjit; Lee, Tae-Jin; Otsuki, Takemi; Chen, Tao; Massfelder, Thierry; Sanderson, Thomas; Guarnieri, Tiziana; Hultman, Tove; Dormoy, Valérian; Odero-Marah, Valerie; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Maguer-Satta, Veronique; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Engström, Wilhelm; Decker, William K; Bisson, William H; Rojanasakul, Yon; Luqmani, Yunus; Chen, Zhenbang; Hu, Zhiwei

    2015-06-01

    Lifestyle factors are responsible for a considerable portion of cancer incidence worldwide, but credible estimates from the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) suggest that the fraction of cancers attributable to toxic environmental exposures is between 7% and 19%. To explore the hypothesis that low-dose exposures to mixtures of chemicals in the environment may be combining to contribute to environmental carcinogenesis, we reviewed 11 hallmark phenotypes of cancer, multiple priority target sites for disruption in each area and prototypical chemical disruptors for all targets, this included dose-response characterizations, evidence of low-dose effects and cross-hallmark effects for all targets and chemicals. In total, 85 examples of chemicals were reviewed for actions on key pathways/mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Only 15% (13/85) were found to have evidence of a dose-response threshold, whereas 59% (50/85) exerted low-dose effects. No dose-response information was found for the remaining 26% (22/85). Our analysis suggests that the cumulative effects of individual (non-carcinogenic) chemicals acting on different pathways, and a variety of related systems, organs, tissues and cells could plausibly conspire to produce carcinogenic synergies. Additional basic research on carcinogenesis and research focused on low-dose effects of chemical mixtures needs to be rigorously pursued before the merits of this hypothesis can be further advanced. However, the structure of the World Health Organization International Programme on Chemical Safety 'Mode of Action' framework should be revisited as it has inherent weaknesses that are not fully aligned with our current understanding of cancer biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Assessing the carcinogenic potential of low-dose exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment: the challenge ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, William H.; Lowe, Leroy; Carpenter, David O.; Gilbertson, Michael; Manaf Ali, Abdul; Lopez de Cerain Salsamendi, Adela; Lasfar, Ahmed; Carnero, Amancio; Azqueta, Amaya; Amedei, Amedeo; Charles, Amelia K.; Collins, Andrew R.; Ward, Andrew; Salzberg, Anna C.; Colacci, Anna Maria; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Berg, Arthur; Barclay, Barry J.; Zhou, Binhua P.; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Baglole, Carolyn J.; Dong, Chenfang; Mondello, Chiara; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Naus, Christian C.; Yedjou, Clement; Curran, Colleen S.; Laird, Dale W.; Koch, Daniel C.; Carlin, Danielle J.; Felsher, Dean W.; Roy, Debasish; Brown, Dustin G.; Ratovitski, Edward; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Corsini, Emanuela; Rojas, Emilio; Moon, Eun-Yi; Laconi, Ezio; Marongiu, Fabio; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Chiaradonna, Ferdinando; Darroudi, Firouz; Martin, Francis L.; Van Schooten, Frederik J.; Goldberg, Gary S.; Wagemaker, Gerard; Nangami, Gladys N.; Calaf, Gloria M.; Williams, Graeme P.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Koppen, Gudrun; Brunborg, Gunnar; Lyerly, H. Kim; Krishnan, Harini; Ab Hamid, Hasiah; Yasaei, Hemad; Sone, Hideko; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Salem, Hosni K.; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Park, Hyun Ho; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Scovassi, A.Ivana; Klaunig, James E.; Vondráček, Jan; Raju, Jayadev; Roman, Jesse; Wise, John Pierce; Whitfield, Jonathan R.; Woodrick, Jordan; Christopher, Joseph A.; Ochieng, Josiah; Martinez-Leal, Juan Fernando; Weisz, Judith; Kravchenko, Julia; Sun, Jun; Prudhomme, Kalan R.; Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Cohen-Solal, Karine A.; Moorwood, Kim; Gonzalez, Laetitia; Soucek, Laura; Jian, Le; D’Abronzo, Leandro S.; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Li, Lin; Gulliver, Linda; McCawley, Lisa J.; Memeo, Lorenzo; Vermeulen, Louis; Leyns, Luc; Zhang, Luoping; Valverde, Mahara; Khatami, Mahin; Romano, Maria Fiammetta; Chapellier, Marion; Williams, Marc A.; Wade, Mark; Manjili, Masoud H.; Lleonart, Matilde E.; Xia, Menghang; Gonzalez Guzman, Michael J.; Karamouzis, Michalis V.; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Vaccari, Monica; Kuemmerle, Nancy B.; Singh, Neetu; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; van Larebeke, Nik; Ahmed, Nuzhat; Ogunkua, Olugbemiga; Krishnakumar, P.K.; Vadgama, Pankaj; Marignani, Paola A.; Ghosh, Paramita M.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Thompson, Patricia A.; Dent, Paul; Heneberg, Petr; Darbre, Philippa; Leung, Po Sing; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Cheng, Qiang (Shawn); Robey, R.Brooks; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Roy, Rabindra; Andrade-Vieira, Rafaela; Sinha, Ranjeet K.; Mehta, Rekha; Vento, Renza; Di Fiore, Riccardo; Ponce-Cusi, Richard; Dornetshuber-Fleiss, Rita; Nahta, Rita; Castellino, Robert C.; Palorini, Roberta; Hamid, Roslida A.; Langie, Sabine A.S.; Eltom, Sakina E.; Brooks, Samira A.; Ryeom, Sandra; Wise, Sandra S.; Bay, Sarah N.; Harris, Shelley A.; Papagerakis, Silvana; Romano, Simona; Pavanello, Sofia; Eriksson, Staffan; Forte, Stefano; Casey, Stephanie C.; Luanpitpong, Sudjit; Lee, Tae-Jin; Otsuki, Takemi; Chen, Tao; Massfelder, Thierry; Sanderson, Thomas; Guarnieri, Tiziana; Hultman, Tove; Dormoy, Valérian; Odero-Marah, Valerie; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Maguer-Satta, Veronique; Rathmell, W.Kimryn; Engström, Wilhelm; Decker, William K.; Bisson, William H.; Rojanasakul, Yon; Luqmani, Yunus; Chen, Zhenbang; Hu, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle factors are responsible for a considerable portion of cancer incidence worldwide, but credible estimates from the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) suggest that the fraction of cancers attributable to toxic environmental exposures is between 7% and 19%. To explore the hypothesis that low-dose exposures to mixtures of chemicals in the environment may be combining to contribute to environmental carcinogenesis, we reviewed 11 hallmark phenotypes of cancer, multiple priority target sites for disruption in each area and prototypical chemical disruptors for all targets, this included dose-response characterizations, evidence of low-dose effects and cross-hallmark effects for all targets and chemicals. In total, 85 examples of chemicals were reviewed for actions on key pathways/mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Only 15% (13/85) were found to have evidence of a dose-response threshold, whereas 59% (50/85) exerted low-dose effects. No dose-response information was found for the remaining 26% (22/85). Our analysis suggests that the cumulative effects of individual (non-carcinogenic) chemicals acting on different pathways, and a variety of related systems, organs, tissues and cells could plausibly conspire to produce carcinogenic synergies. Additional basic research on carcinogenesis and research focused on low-dose effects of chemical mixtures needs to be rigorously pursued before the merits of this hypothesis can be further advanced. However, the structure of the World Health Organization International Programme on Chemical Safety ‘Mode of Action’ framework should be revisited as it has inherent weaknesses that are not fully aligned with our current understanding of cancer biology. PMID:26106142

  7. Assessment of possible carcinogenicity of oxyfluorfen to humans using mode of action analysis of rodent liver effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Nicola J; LeBaron, Matthew J; Eisenbrandt, David L; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Klaunig, James E

    2012-08-01

    Oxyfluorfen is a herbicide that is not genotoxic and produces liver toxicity in rodents, following repeated administration at high dose levels. Lifetime rodent feeding studies reported in 1977 with low-purity oxyfluorfen (85%) showed no increase in any tumor type in rats (800 ppm, high dose) and only a marginally increased incidence of hepatocellular tumors in male CD-1 mice at the highest dose (200 ppm). To evaluate the potential carcinogenicity of the currently registered oxyfluorfen (> 98% purity), we conducted a series of short-term liver mode of action (MOA) toxicology studies in male CD-1 mice administered dietary doses of 0, 40, 200, 800, and 1600 ppm for durations of 3, 7, 10, or 28 days. MOA endpoints examined included liver weight, histopathology, cell proliferation, nuclear receptor-mediated gene expression, and other peroxisome proliferator-specific endpoints and their reversibility. Minimal liver effects were observed in mice administered doses at or below 200 ppm for up to 28 days. Increased liver weight, single-cell necrosis, cell proliferation, and peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were observed at 800 ppm after 28 days, but there was no increase in peroxisomes. Expression of Cyp2b10 and Cyp4a10 transcripts, markers of constitutive androstane receptor and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α nuclear receptor activation, respectively, were increased at 800 and 1600 ppm after 3 or 10 days. Collectively, these data along with the negative genotoxicity demonstrate that oxyfluorfen (> 98% purity) has the potential to induce mouse liver tumors through a nongenotoxic, mitogenic MOA with a clear threshold and is not predicted to be carcinogenic in humans at relevant exposure levels.

  8. Implications of probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullingford, M.C.; Shah, S.M.; Gittus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is an analytical process that quantifies the likelihoods, consequences and associated uncertainties of the potential outcomes of postulated events. Starting with planned or normal operation, probabilistic risk assessment covers a wide range of potential accidents and considers the whole plant and the interactions of systems and human actions. Probabilistic risk assessment can be applied in safety decisions in design, licensing and operation of industrial facilities, particularly nuclear power plants. The proceedings include a review of PRA procedures, methods and technical issues in treating uncertainties, operating and licensing issues and future trends. Risk assessment for specific reactor types or components and specific risks (eg aircraft crashing onto a reactor) are used to illustrate the points raised. All 52 articles are indexed separately. (U.K.)

  9. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland

    can increase the understanding of microbiological risks in foods. It is timely to inform food safety professionals about the availability and utility of MRA tools. Therefore, the focus of this report is to aid the food safety manager by providing a concise summary of the tools available for the MRA......Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...

  10. Integrated climate change risk assessment:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessments of flooding in urban areas during extreme precipitation for use in, for example, decision-making regarding climate adaptation, are surrounded by great uncertainties stemming from climate model projections, methods of downscaling and the assumptions of socioeconomic impact models...... to address the complex linkages between the different kinds of data required in assessing climate adaptation. It emphasizes that the availability of spatially explicit data can reduce the overall uncertainty of the risk assessment and assist in identifying key vulnerable assets. The usefulness...... of such a framework is demonstrated by means of a risk assessment of flooding from extreme precipitation for the city of Odense, Denmark. A sensitivity analysis shows how the presence of particularly important assets, such as cultural and historical heritage, may be addressed in assessing such risks. The output...

  11. Probabilistic risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinaishin, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    The objective of this work is to provide the tools necessary for clear identification of: the purpose of a Probabilistic Risk Study, the bounds and depth of the study, the proper modeling techniques to be used, the failure modes contributing to the analysis, the classical and baysian approaches for manipulating data necessary for quantification, ways for treating uncertainties, and available computer codes that may be used in performing such probabilistic analysis. In addition, it provides the means for measuring the importance of a safety feature to maintaining a level of risk at a Nuclear Power Plant and the worth of optimizing a safety system in risk reduction. In applying these techniques so that they accommodate our national resources and needs it was felt that emphasis should be put on the system reliability analysis level of PRA. Objectives of such studies could include: comparing systems' designs of the various vendors in the bedding stage, and performing grid reliability and human performance analysis using national specific data. (author)

  12. Probabilistic risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinaishin, M A

    1988-06-15

    The objective of this work is to provide the tools necessary for clear identification of: the purpose of a Probabilistic Risk Study, the bounds and depth of the study, the proper modeling techniques to be used, the failure modes contributing to the analysis, the classical and baysian approaches for manipulating data necessary for quantification, ways for treating uncertainties, and available computer codes that may be used in performing such probabilistic analysis. In addition, it provides the means for measuring the importance of a safety feature to maintaining a level of risk at a Nuclear Power Plant and the worth of optimizing a safety system in risk reduction. In applying these techniques so that they accommodate our national resources and needs it was felt that emphasis should be put on the system reliability analysis level of PRA. Objectives of such studies could include: comparing systems' designs of the various vendors in the bedding stage, and performing grid reliability and human performance analysis using national specific data. (author)

  13. Probabilistic risk assessment, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This book contains 158 papers presented at the International Topical Meeting on Probabilistic Risk Assessment held by the American Nuclear Society (ANS) and the European Nuclear Society (ENS) in Port Chester, New York in 1981. The meeting was second in a series of three. The main focus of the meeting was on the safety of light water reactors. The papers discuss safety goals and risk assessment. Quantitative safety goals, risk assessment in non-nuclear technologies, and operational experience and data base are also covered. Included is an address by Dr. Chauncey Starr

  14. Risk assessment in maritime transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C. Guedes; Teixeira, A.P.

    2001-01-01

    A review is presented of different approaches to quantify the risk in maritime transportation. The discussion of several accident statistics provides a global assessment of the risk levels and its differentiation in ship types and main types of ship losses. Early studies in the probability of ship loss by foundering and capsizing are reviewed. The approaches used to assess the risk of structural design are addressed. Finally a brief account is given of recent development of using formal safety assessments to support decision making on legislation applicable internationally to maritime transportation

  15. Framework for ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, D.; Norton, S.

    1992-02-01

    Increased interest in ecological issues such as global climate change, habitat loss, acid deposition, reduced biological diversity, and the ecological impacts of pesticides and toxic chemicals prompts this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, A Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment ('Framework Report'). The report describes basic elements, or a framework, for evaluating scientific information on the adverse effects of physical and chemical stressors on the environment. The framework offers starting principles and a simple structure as guidance for current ecological risk assessments and as a foundation for future EPA proposals for risk assessment guidelines

  16. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The Gunnison Baseline Risk Assessment for Groundwater Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site was performed to determine if long-term use of groundwater from domestic wells near the site has a potential for adverse health effects. The risk assessment was based on the results of sampling domestic wells during 1989--1990. A risk assessment evaluates health risks by comparing the amount of a contaminant taken in by a person with the amount of the contaminant that may be toxic. The Gunnison Risk Assessment used high intake values to estimate the maximum levels a person might be exposed to. The results of the risk assessment are divided into cancer (carcinogenic) risks and non-carcinogenic risks. Five key contaminants were evaluated for adverse health risks: uranium, manganese, lead antimony, and cadmium. Due to the potential health risks and the unavoidable uncertainties associated with limited groundwater and toxicity data, it is prudent public health policy to provide a permanent alternate water supply. Additionally, providing a permanent alternate water supply is cost-effective compared to long-term routine monitoring

  17. Risk Assessment and Integration Team (RAIT) Portfolio Risk Analysis Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Impact at management level: Qualitative assessment of risk criticality in conjunction with risk consequence, likelihood, and severity enable development of an "investment policy" towards managing a portfolio of risks. Impact at research level: Quantitative risk assessments enable researchers to develop risk mitigation strategies with meaningful risk reduction results. Quantitative assessment approach provides useful risk mitigation information.

  18. Quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Robert M (Inventor); Smidts, Carol S (Inventor); Mosleh, Ali (Inventor); Chang, Yung-Hsien (Inventor); Swaminathan, Sankaran (Inventor); Groen, Francisco J (Inventor); Tan, Zhibin (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS) builds a risk model of a system for which risk of failure is being assessed, then analyzes the risk of the system corresponding to the risk model. The QRAS performs sensitivity analysis of the risk model by altering fundamental components and quantifications built into the risk model, then re-analyzes the risk of the system using the modifications. More particularly, the risk model is built by building a hierarchy, creating a mission timeline, quantifying failure modes, and building/editing event sequence diagrams. Multiplicities, dependencies, and redundancies of the system are included in the risk model. For analysis runs, a fixed baseline is first constructed and stored. This baseline contains the lowest level scenarios, preserved in event tree structure. The analysis runs, at any level of the hierarchy and below, access this baseline for risk quantitative computation as well as ranking of particular risks. A standalone Tool Box capability exists, allowing the user to store application programs within QRAS.

  19. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime

  20. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K C [Exxon International (United States)

    1992-07-01

    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime.

  1. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems – examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data), and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines. PMID:26301217

  2. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems - examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data), and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines.

  3. Building better environmental risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eLayton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERA for genetically modified (GM crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems – examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data, and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines.

  4. Risk assessment in international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricklin, Daniela L.

    2008-01-01

    During international peace-keeping missions, a diverse number of non-battle hazards may be encountered, which range from heavily polluted areas, endemic disease, toxic industrial materials, local violence, traffic, and even psychological factors. Hence, elevated risk levels from a variety of sources are encountered during deployments. With the emphasis within the Swedish military moving from national defense towards prioritization of international missions in atypical environments, the risk of health consequences, including long term health effects, has received greater consideration. The Swedish military is interested in designing an optimal approach for assessment of health threats during deployments. The Medical Intelligence group at FOI CBRN Security and Defence in Umea has, on request from and in collaboration with the Swedish Armed Forces, reviewed a variety of international health threat and risk assessment models for military operations. Application of risk assessment methods used in different phases of military operations will be reviewed. An overview of different international approaches used in operational risk management (ORM) will be presented as well as a discussion of the specific needs and constraints for health risk assessment in military operations. This work highlights the specific challenges of risk assessment that are unique to the deployment setting such as the assessment of exposures to a variety of diverse hazards concurrently

  5. Assessment and perception of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daglish, J

    1981-01-01

    A recent two-day meeting was called by the Royal Society to discuss all types of risks, but symptomatic of the concerns of most of those present, the discussion centred mainly on the risks inherent in energy production and use. Among the subjects considered were public perception of differing risks, and how these are ranked, and risks versus benefits. Quotations from and summaries of many of the papers presented show that it was generally felt that scientists must be very careful in the way that they use numerical assessments of risk and that they should pay more attention than they have to social and political factors.

  6. Risk estimation for carcinogens based on epidemiological data: A structured approach, illustrated by an example on chromium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbohm, R.A.; Tielemans, E.L.J.P.; Heederik, D.; Rubingh, C.M.; Dekkers, S.; Willems, M.I.; Dinant Kroese, E.

    2006-01-01

    It is generally recognized that human, epidemiological data, if available, are preferred as the starting point for quantitative risk analysis above the use of data from animal studies. Although methods to obtain proper risk estimates from epidemiological data are available, several impediments

  7. Deterministic quantitative risk assessment development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Jane; Colquhoun, Iain [PII Pipeline Solutions Business of GE Oil and Gas, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Current risk assessment practice in pipeline integrity management is to use a semi-quantitative index-based or model based methodology. This approach has been found to be very flexible and provide useful results for identifying high risk areas and for prioritizing physical integrity assessments. However, as pipeline operators progressively adopt an operating strategy of continual risk reduction with a view to minimizing total expenditures within safety, environmental, and reliability constraints, the need for quantitative assessments of risk levels is becoming evident. Whereas reliability based quantitative risk assessments can be and are routinely carried out on a site-specific basis, they require significant amounts of quantitative data for the results to be meaningful. This need for detailed and reliable data tends to make these methods unwieldy for system-wide risk k assessment applications. This paper describes methods for estimating risk quantitatively through the calibration of semi-quantitative estimates to failure rates for peer pipeline systems. The methods involve the analysis of the failure rate distribution, and techniques for mapping the rate to the distribution of likelihoods available from currently available semi-quantitative programs. By applying point value probabilities to the failure rates, deterministic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) provides greater rigor and objectivity than can usually be achieved through the implementation of semi-quantitative risk assessment results. The method permits a fully quantitative approach or a mixture of QRA and semi-QRA to suit the operator's data availability and quality, and analysis needs. For example, consequence analysis can be quantitative or can address qualitative ranges for consequence categories. Likewise, failure likelihoods can be output as classical probabilities or as expected failure frequencies as required. (author)

  8. Modern biogeochemistry environmental risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Vladimir N

    2006-01-01

    Most books deal mainly with various technical aspects of ERA description and calculationsAims at generalizing the modern ideas of both biogeochemical and environmental risk assessment during recent yearsAims at supplementing the existing books by providing a modern understanding of mechanisms that are responsible for the ecological risk for human beings and ecosystem

  9. Risk assessment future cash flows

    OpenAIRE

    Chachina H. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article is about risk assessment in planning future cash flows. Discount rate in DCF-model must include four factors: risk cash flow, inflation, value of investments, turnover assets. This has an influence net present value cash flow and make his incomparable.

  10. Test reactor risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, R.H.; Rawlins, J.K.; Stewart, M.E.

    1976-04-01

    A methodology has been developed for the identification of accident initiating events and the fault modeling of systems, including common mode identification, as these methods are applied in overall test reactor risk assessment. The methods are exemplified by a determination of risks to a loss of primary coolant flow in the Engineering Test Reactor

  11. Anthropic Risk Assessment on Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piragnolo, M.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.; Salogni, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for risk assessment of anthropic activities on habitats and species. The method has been developed for Veneto Region, in order to simplify and improve the quality of EIA procedure (VINCA). Habitats and species, animals and plants, are protected by European Directive 92/43/EEC and 2009/147/EC but they are subject at hazard due to pollution produced by human activities. Biodiversity risks may conduct to deterioration and disturbance in ecological niches, with consequence of loss of biodiversity. Ecological risk assessment applied on Natura 2000 network, is needed to best practice of management and monitoring of environment and natural resources. Threats, pressure and activities, stress and indicators may be managed by geodatabase and analysed using GIS technology. The method used is the classic risk assessment in ecological context, and it defines the natural hazard as influence, element of risk as interference and vulnerability. Also it defines a new parameter called pressure. It uses risk matrix for the risk analysis on spatial and temporal scale. The methodology is qualitative and applies the precautionary principle in environmental assessment. The final product is a matrix which excludes the risk and could find application in the development of a territorial information system.

  12. Cloud computing assessing the risks

    CERN Document Server

    Carstensen, Jared; Golden, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Computing: Assessing the risks answers these questions and many more. Using jargon-free language and relevant examples, analogies and diagrams, it is an up-to-date, clear and comprehensive guide the security, governance, risk, and compliance elements of Cloud Computing.

  13. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses remains a complex challenge. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk asses...

  14. Evaluation of thermal risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, J.J.; Perry, E.S.

    1993-01-01

    Risk assessment was done in 1983 to estimate the ecological hazard of increasing the generating load and thermal output of an electric generating station. Subsequently, long-term monitoring in the vicinity of the station allowed verification of the predictions made in the risk assessment. This presentation will review the efficacy of early risk assessment methods in producing useful predictions from a resource management point of view. In 1984, the Chalk Point Generating facility of the Potomac Electric Power Company increased it's median generating load by 100%. Prior to this operational change, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia synthesized site specific data, model predictions, and results from literature to assess the risk of additional waste heat to the Patuxent River subestuary of Chesapeake Bay. Risk was expressed as the number of days per year that various species of fish and the blue crab would be expected to avoid the discharge vicinity. Accuracy of these predictions is assessed by comparing observed fish and crab distributions and their observed frequencies of avoidance to those predicted. It is concluded that the predictions of this early risk assessment were sufficiently accurate to produce a reliable resource management decision

  15. Glyphosate rodent carcinogenicity bioassay expert panel review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary M; Berry, Colin; Burns, Michele; de Camargo, Joao Lauro Viana; Greim, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate has been rigorously and extensively tested for carcinogenicity by administration to mice (five studies) and to rats (nine studies). Most authorities have concluded that the evidence does not indicate a cancer risk to humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), however, evaluated some of the available data and concluded that glyphosate probably is carcinogenic to humans. The expert panel convened by Intertek assessed the findings used by IARC, as well as the full body of evidence and found the following: (1) the renal neoplastic effects in males of one mouse study are not associated with glyphosate exposure, because they lack statistical significance, strength, consistency, specificity, lack a dose-response pattern, plausibility, and coherence; (2) the strength of association of liver hemangiosarcomas in a different mouse study is absent, lacking consistency, and a dose-response effect and having in high dose males only a significant incidence increase which is within the historical control range; (3) pancreatic islet-cell adenomas (non-significant incidence increase), in two studies of male SD rats did not progress to carcinomas and lacked a dose-response pattern (the highest incidence is in the low dose followed by the high dose); (4) in one of two studies, a non-significant positive trend in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in male rats did not lead to progression to carcinomas; (5) in one of two studies, the non-significant positive trend in the incidence of thyroid C-cell adenomas in female rats was not present and there was no progression of adenomas to carcinomas at the end of the study. Application of criteria for causality considerations to the above mentioned tumor types and given the overall weight-of-evidence (WoE), the expert panel concluded that glyphosate is not a carcinogen in laboratory animals.

  16. Pathology and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Programs for providing basic data for use in evaluating the hazard to man from exposure to radiation and other energy-related pollutants are reviewed. A computer program was developed that takes the existing mortality and fertility data on a given population and applies dose-response coefficients and estimated increments of exposure to chemical or radioactive effluents and derives the excess deaths by age and sex for 5-year intervals. The program was used in an analysis of the health effects of airborne coal combustion effluents. Preliminary results are reported from a study of the influence of products of fossil fuel combustion on the spontaneous activity patterns and daily metabolic cycles of mice as a factor of age, environment, and genetic constitution. Preliminary results are reported from studies on the early and late effects of polycyclic hydrocarbons on the immune competence of mice. Studies to determine the risk to human populations from radionuclides released to the environment from nuclear energy facilities use relative toxicity and dose response data from laboratory animals of different body size and life span and comparisons of the effects of internal exposure with those of external exposure to fission neutrons or gamma sources

  17. Taking the Risk Out of Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The ability to understand risks and have the right strategies in place when risky events occur is essential in the workplace. More and more organizations are being confronted with concerns over how to measure their risks or what kind of risks they can take when certain events transpire that could have a negative impact. NASA is one organization that faces these challenges on a daily basis, as effective risk management is critical to the success of its missions especially the Space Shuttle missions. On July 29, 1996, former NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin charged NASA s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance with developing a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) tool to support decisions on the funding of Space Shuttle upgrades. When issuing the directive, Goldin said, "Since I came to NASA [in 1992], we've spent billions of dollars on Shuttle upgrades without knowing how much they improve safety. I want a tool to help base upgrade decisions on risk." Work on the PRA tool began immediately. The resulting prototype, the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS) Version 1.0, was jointly developed by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, its Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, and researchers at the University of Maryland. QRAS software automatically expands the reliability logic models of systems to evaluate the probability of highly detrimental outcomes occurring in complex systems that are subject to potential accident scenarios. Even in its earliest forms, QRAS was used to begin PRA modeling of the Space Shuttle. In parallel, the development of QRAS continued, with the goal of making it a world-class tool, one that was especially suited to NASA s unique needs. From the beginning, an important conceptual goal in the development of QRAS was for it to help bridge the gap between the professional risk analyst and the design engineer. In the past, only the professional risk analyst could perform, modify, use, and perhaps even adequately understand PRA. NASA wanted

  18. Avalanche risk assessment in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yury; Sokratov, Sergey; Glazovskaya, Tatiana; Turchaniniva, Alla

    2017-04-01

    The avalanche prone area covers about 3 million square kilometers or 18% of total area of Russia and pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of the country. The constant growth of economic activity, especially in the North Caucasus region and therefore the increased avalanche hazard lead to the demand of the large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods development. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments during all stages of spatial planning of the territory. The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of Russian Federation. However, Russian Guidelines (SP 11-103-97; SP 47.13330.2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. A great size of Russia territory, vast diversity of natural conditions and large variations in type and level of economic development of different regions cause significant variations in avalanche risk values. At the first stage of research the small scale avalanche risk assessment was performed in order to identify the most common patterns of risk situations and to calculate full social risk and individual risk. The full social avalanche risk for the territory of country was estimated at 91 victims. The area of territory with individual risk values lesser then 1×10(-6) covers more than 92 % of mountain areas of the country. Within these territories the safety of population can be achieved mainly by organizational activities. Approximately 7% of mountain areas have 1×10(-6) - 1×10(-4) individual risk values and require specific mitigation measures to protect people and infrastructure. Territories with individual risk values 1×10(-4) and above covers about 0,1 % of the territory and include the most severe and hazardous mountain areas. The whole specter of mitigation measures is required in order to minimize risk. The future development of such areas is not recommended

  19. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic/carcinogenicity rodent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greim, Helmut; Saltmiras, David; Mostert, Volker; Strupp, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Glyphosate, an herbicidal derivative of the amino acid glycine, was introduced to agriculture in the 1970s. Glyphosate targets and blocks a plant metabolic pathway not found in animals, the shikimate pathway, required for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants. After almost forty years of commercial use, and multiple regulatory approvals including toxicology evaluations, literature reviews, and numerous human health risk assessments, the clear and consistent conclusions are that glyphosate is of low toxicological concern, and no concerns exist with respect to glyphosate use and cancer in humans. This manuscript discusses the basis for these conclusions. Most toxicological studies informing regulatory evaluations are of commercial interest and are proprietary in nature. Given the widespread attention to this molecule, the authors gained access to carcinogenicity data submitted to regulatory agencies and present overviews of each study, followed by a weight of evidence evaluation of tumor incidence data. Fourteen carcinogenicity studies (nine rat and five mouse) are evaluated for their individual reliability, and select neoplasms are identified for further evaluation across the data base. The original tumor incidence data from study reports are presented in the online data supplement. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect related to glyphosate treatment. The lack of a plausible mechanism, along with published epidemiology studies, which fail to demonstrate clear, statistically significant, unbiased and non-confounded associations between glyphosate and cancer of any single etiology, and a compelling weight of evidence, support the conclusion that glyphosate does not present concern with respect to carcinogenic potential in humans.

  20. Comparative pathophysiology, toxicology, and human cancer risk assessment of pharmaceutical-induced hibernoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radi, Zaher, E-mail: zaher.radi@pfizer.com [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Drug Safety R and D, 1 Burtt Rd., Andover, MA 01810 (United States); Bartholomew, Phillip, E-mail: phillip.m.bartholomew@pfizer.com [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Drug Safety R and D, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Elwell, Michael, E-mail: michael.elwell@covance.com [Covance Laboratories, Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Vogel, W. Mark, E-mail: w.mark.vogel@pfizer.com [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Drug Safety R and D, 1 Burtt Rd., Andover, MA 01810 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    In humans, hibernoma is a very rare, benign neoplasm of brown adipose tissue (BAT) that typically occurs at subcutaneous locations and is successfully treated by surgical excision. No single cause has been accepted to explain these very rare human tumors. In contrast, spontaneous hibernoma in rats is rare, often malignant, usually occurs in the thoracic or abdominal cavity, and metastases are common. In recent years, there has been an increased incidence of spontaneous hibernomas in rat carcinogenicity studies, but overall the occurrence remains relatively low and highly variable across studies. There have only been four reported examples of pharmaceutical-induced hibernoma in rat carcinogenicity studies. These include phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic antagonist; varenicline, a nicotine partial agonist; tofacitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor; and hydromorphone, an opiod analgesic. Potential non-genotoxic mechanisms that may contribute to the pathogenesis of BAT activation/proliferation and/or subsequent hibernoma development in rats include: (1) physiological stimuli, (2) sympathetic stimulation, (3) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonism, and/or (4) interference or inhibition of JAK/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling. The evaluation of an apparent increase of hibernoma in rats from 2-year carcinogenicity studies of novel pharmaceutical therapeutics and its relevance to human safety risk assessment is complex. One should consider: the genotoxicity of the test article, dose/exposure and safety margins, and pathophysiologic and morphologic differences and similarities of hibernoma between rats and humans. Hibernomas observed to date in carcinogenicity studies of pharmaceutical agents do not appear to be relevant for human risk at therapeutic dosages. - Highlights: • Highly variable incidence of spontaneous hibernoma in carcinogenicity studies • Recent increase in the spontaneous incidence of hibernomas

  1. Comparative pathophysiology, toxicology, and human cancer risk assessment of pharmaceutical-induced hibernoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radi, Zaher; Bartholomew, Phillip; Elwell, Michael; Vogel, W. Mark

    2013-01-01

    In humans, hibernoma is a very rare, benign neoplasm of brown adipose tissue (BAT) that typically occurs at subcutaneous locations and is successfully treated by surgical excision. No single cause has been accepted to explain these very rare human tumors. In contrast, spontaneous hibernoma in rats is rare, often malignant, usually occurs in the thoracic or abdominal cavity, and metastases are common. In recent years, there has been an increased incidence of spontaneous hibernomas in rat carcinogenicity studies, but overall the occurrence remains relatively low and highly variable across studies. There have only been four reported examples of pharmaceutical-induced hibernoma in rat carcinogenicity studies. These include phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic antagonist; varenicline, a nicotine partial agonist; tofacitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor; and hydromorphone, an opiod analgesic. Potential non-genotoxic mechanisms that may contribute to the pathogenesis of BAT activation/proliferation and/or subsequent hibernoma development in rats include: (1) physiological stimuli, (2) sympathetic stimulation, (3) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonism, and/or (4) interference or inhibition of JAK/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling. The evaluation of an apparent increase of hibernoma in rats from 2-year carcinogenicity studies of novel pharmaceutical therapeutics and its relevance to human safety risk assessment is complex. One should consider: the genotoxicity of the test article, dose/exposure and safety margins, and pathophysiologic and morphologic differences and similarities of hibernoma between rats and humans. Hibernomas observed to date in carcinogenicity studies of pharmaceutical agents do not appear to be relevant for human risk at therapeutic dosages. - Highlights: • Highly variable incidence of spontaneous hibernoma in carcinogenicity studies • Recent increase in the spontaneous incidence of hibernomas

  2. Competing risk theory and radiation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groer, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    New statistical procedures are applied to estimate cumulative distribution functions (c.d.f.), force of mortality, and latent period for radiation-induced malignancies. It is demonstrated that correction for competing risks influences the shape of dose response curves, estimates of the latent period, and of the risk from ionizing radiations. The equivalence of the following concepts is demonstrated: force of mortality, hazard rate, and age or time specific incidence. This equivalence makes it possible to use procedures from reliability analysis and demography for radiation risk assessment. Two methods used by reliability analysts - hazard plotting and total time on test plots - are discussed in some detail and applied to characterize the hazard rate in radiation carcinogenesis. C.d.f.'s with increasing, decreasing, or constant hazard rate have different shapes and are shown to yield different dose-response curves for continuous irradiation. Absolute risk is shown to be a sound estimator only if the force of mortality is constant for the exposed and the control group. Dose-response relationships that use the absolute risk as a measure for the effect turn out to be special cases of dose-response relationships that measure the effect with cumulative incidence. (H.K.)

  3. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed...... displayed a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present summary of literature, it may be concluded: (1) a caries risk assessment should be carried out at the child's first dental visit and reassessments should be done during childhood (D); (2) multivariate models display a better accuracy than...... the use of single predictors and this is especially true for preschool children (C); (3) there is no clearly superior method to predict future caries and no evidence to support the use of one model, program, or technology before the other (C); and (4) the risk category should be linked to appropriate...

  4. Assessing Risk of Innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgood, GO

    2001-01-01

    Today's manufacturing systems and equipment must perform at levels thought impossible a decade ago. Companies must push operations, quality, and efficiencies to unprecedented levels while holding down costs. In this new economy, companies must be concerned with market shares, equity growth, market saturation, and profit. U.S. manufacturing is no exception and is a prime example of businesses forced to adapt to constant and rapid changes in customer needs and product mixes, giving rise to the term ''Agile Manufacturing''. The survival and ultimate success of the American Manufacturing economy may depend upon its ability to create, innovate, and quickly assess the impact that new innovations will have on its business practices. Given the need for flexibility, companies need proven methods to predict and measure the impact that new technologies and strategies will have on overall plant performance from an enterprise perspective. The Value-Derivative Model provides a methodology and approach to assess such impacts in terms of energy savings, production increases, quality impacts, emission reduction, and maintenance and operating costs as they relate to enabling and emerging technologies. This is realized by calculating a set of first order sensitivity parameters obtained from expanding a Taylor Series about the system's operating point. These sensitivity parameters are invariant economic and operational indicators that quantify the impact of any proposed technology in terms of material throughput, efficiency, energy usage, environmental effects, and costs. These parameters also provide a mechanism to define metrics and performance measures that can be qualified in terms of real economic impact. Value-Derivative Analysis can be applied across all manufacturing and production segments of our economy and has found specific use in steel and textiles. Where economic models give the cost of conducting a business, Value-Derivative Analysis provides the cost to conduct

  5. Risk assessment research and technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albach, H.; Schade, D.; Sinn, H.

    1991-01-01

    The concepts and approaches for technology assessment, the targets and scientific principles, as well as recognizable deficits and recommendations concerning purposeful strategies for the promotion of this research field require a dialog between those concerned. Conception, deficits, and the necessary measures for risk assessment research and technology assessment were discussed as well as ethical aspects. The problematic nature of using organisms altered through genetic engineering in the open land, traffic and transport, site restoration, nuclear energy, and isotope applications were subjects particularly dealt with. (DG) [de

  6. Radiation protection standards: A practical exercise in risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Roger H [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    Within 12 months of the discovery of x-rays in 1895, it was reported that large doses of radiation were harmful to living human tissues. The first radiation protection standards were set to avoid the early effects of acute irradiation. By the 1950s, evidence was mounting for late somatic effects - mainly a small excess of cancers - in irradiated populations. In the late 1980's, sufficient human epidemiological data had been accumulated to allow a comprehensive assessment of carcinogenic radiation risks following the delivery of moderately high doses. Workers and the public are exposed to lower doses and dose-rates than the groups from whom good data are available so that risks have had to be estimated for protection purposes. However, in the 1990s, some confirmation of these risk factors has been derived occupationally exposed populations. If an estimate is made of the risk per unit dose, then in order to set dose limits, an unacceptable level of risk must be established for both workers and the public. There has been and continues to be a debate about the definitions of 'acceptable' and 'tolerable' and the attributing of numerical values to these definitions. This paper discusses the issues involved in the quantification of these terms and their application to setting dose limits on risk grounds. Conclusions are drawn about the present protection standards and the application of the methods to other fields of risk assessment. (author)

  7. Radiation protection standards: A practical exercise in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Roger H.

    1992-01-01

    Within 12 months of the discovery of x-rays in 1895, it was reported that large doses of radiation were harmful to living human tissues. The first radiation protection standards were set to avoid the early effects of acute irradiation. By the 1950s, evidence was mounting for late somatic effects - mainly a small excess of cancers - in irradiated populations. In the late 1980's, sufficient human epidemiological data had been accumulated to allow a comprehensive assessment of carcinogenic radiation risks following the delivery of moderately high doses. Workers and the public are exposed to lower doses and dose-rates than the groups from whom good data are available so that risks have had to be estimated for protection purposes. However, in the 1990s, some confirmation of these risk factors has been derived occupationally exposed populations. If an estimate is made of the risk per unit dose, then in order to set dose limits, an unacceptable level of risk must be established for both workers and the public. There has been and continues to be a debate about the definitions of 'acceptable' and 'tolerable' and the attributing of numerical values to these definitions. This paper discusses the issues involved in the quantification of these terms and their application to setting dose limits on risk grounds. Conclusions are drawn about the present protection standards and the application of the methods to other fields of risk assessment. (author)

  8. Risk assessment for transport operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.; Miles, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The world-wide safety of the transport of radioactive material is based on the IAEA Transport Regulations. Risk assessment can provide quantitative data to help in the demonstration, understanding and improvement of the effectiveness of the Regulations in assuring safety. In this Paper the methodology, data and computer codes necessary and available for transport risk assessment are reviewed. Notable examples of assessments carried out over the past 15 years are briefly described along with current research, and the benefits and limitations of the techniques are discussed. (author)

  9. [Distribution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Environmental Samples Around Electroplating Factories and the Health Risk Assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng-ran; Lei, Yong-qian; Zhou, Qiao-li; Wang, Chang; Pan, Jia-chuan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pollution degree and human health risk of heavy metals in soil and air samples around electroplating factories. Soil, air and waste gas samples were collected to measure 8 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) in two electroplating factories, located in Baiyun district of Guangzhou city. Geoaccumulation index and USEPA Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) were respectively carried out. Results showed that concentrations of Hg and Pb in waste gas and Cr in air samples were higher than limits of the corresponding quality standards, and concentrations of Cd, Hg and Zn in soil samples reached the moderate pollution level. The HQ and HI of exposure by heavy metals in air and soil samples were both lower than 1, indicating that there was no non-carcinogen risk. CRAs and CRCr in soil samples were beyond the maximum acceptable level of carcinogen risk (10(-4)), and the contribution rate of CRCr to TCR was over 81%. CRCr, CRNi and TCR in air samples were in range of 10(-6) - 10(-4), indicating there was possibly carcinogen risk but was acceptable risk. CR values for children were higher than adults in soils, but were higher for adults in air samples. Correlation analysis revealed that concentrations of heavy metals in soils were significantly correlated with these in waste gas samples, and PCA data showed pollution sources of Cd, Hg and Zn in soils were different from other metals.

  10. Exposure and risk assessment for aluminium and heavy metals in Puerh tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Hongbin; Qiao, Li; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Jianjiang

    2010-01-01

    As the consumption of Puerh tea is booming because of its multiple health-promoting effects, the possible health risks resulting from long-term exposure to metals contained in this tea need to be evaluated. To assess the human risk associated with drinking Puerh tea, concentrations of aluminium, lead, cadmium, mercury, zinc, copper and arsenic were determined in samples of Puerh tea, tea leaves from the plants, and planted soil collected from the Yunnan province, China. Site-specific exposure parameters such as body weight and consumption rate of Puerh tea were investigated in Kunming and Puer cities using face-to-face surveys. Health risks were evaluated for the inhabitants of Kunming and Puer cities by gender and by age groups. Although the Puerh tea plant easily absorbs aluminium from soil, the concentrations of Al and six other elements in Puerh tea were all far below the safety concentration limits of China. Both the HQ (Hazard Quotient) values for single elements and the HI (Hazard Index) value for all seven elements were far below one, indicating no non-carcinogenic risks from these seven elements for inhabitants of Kunming and Puer under the current consumption rates of Puerh tea. However, probabilistic estimation of carcinogenic risk shows that the 95th percentile carcinogenic rate of arsenic in Puerh tea approaches the accepted risk level of 10 -4 for the highest exposure group. Therefore, the arsenic in Puerh tea is of concern.

  11. Risk assessment and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of risk assessment techniques in the field of environment protection. I will argue that in some important instances the development of environment policy has been a source of fruitful development of a risk based methodologies. In other cases the importation of risk assessment techniques has proved much more problematic. As the scope of environmental regulation increases so does the possibility of inconsistent and arbitrary solutions to problems. The need for a more systematic approach to the development of environmental regulation has never been stronger, so it is important to understand the reasons for the mixed success of risk assessment. This applies equally to those nations with long traditions of the regulation of private sector industry and those just beginning on this course. The way ahead may be to extend our ideas of how to express risk and uncertainty. Some of the recent cause celebres of environment policy show this challenge very clearly. As an example, this paper will look at the problem of assessing the risk of man-made climate change

  12. Risk assessment and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, D J [Department of the Environment (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    This paper reviews the use of risk assessment techniques in the field of environment protection. I will argue that in some important instances the development of environment policy has been a source of fruitful development of a risk based methodologies. In other cases the importation of risk assessment techniques has proved much more problematic. As the scope of environmental regulation increases so does the possibility of inconsistent and arbitrary solutions to problems. The need for a more systematic approach to the development of environmental regulation has never been stronger, so it is important to understand the reasons for the mixed success of risk assessment. This applies equally to those nations with long traditions of the regulation of private sector industry and those just beginning on this course. The way ahead may be to extend our ideas of how to express risk and uncertainty. Some of the recent cause celebres of environment policy show this challenge very clearly. As an example, this paper will look at the problem of assessing the risk of man-made climate change.

  13. Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Resources Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk Assessment of weight and health risk involves using ... risk for developing obesity-associated diseases or conditions. Risk Factors for Health Topics Associated With Obesity Along ...

  14. Aspects regarding explosion risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Părăian Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive risk occurs in all activities involving flammable substances in the form of gases, vapors, mists or dusts which, in mixture with air, can generate an explosive atmosphere. As explosions can cause human losses and huge material damage, the assessment of the explosion risk and the establishment of appropriate measures to reduce it to acceptable levels according to the standards and standards in force is of particular importance for the safety and health of people and goods.There is no yet a recognized method of assessing the explosion risk, but regardless of the applied method, the likelihood of an explosive atmosphere occurrence has to be determined, together with the occurrence of an efficient ignition source and the magnitude of foreseeable consequences. In assessment processes, consequences analysis has a secondary importance since it’s likely that explosions would always involve considerable damage, starting from important material damages and up to human damages that could lead to death.The purpose of the work is to highlight the important principles and elements to be taken into account for a specific risk assessment. An essential element in assessing the risk of explosion in workplaces where explosive atmospheres may occur is technical installations and personal protective equipment (PPE that must be designed, manufactured, installed and maintained so that they cannot generate a source of ignition. Explosion prevention and protection requirements are governed by specific norms and standards, and a main part of the explosion risk assessment is related to the assessment of the compliance of the equipment / installation with these requirements.

  15. Risk assessment and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodansky, D.

    1982-01-01

    The range of risk perceptions involving nuclear power is so great that there is little hope of bridging extreme positions, but a consensus based upon reasoned discussion among uncommitted people could determine a sensible path. Our concerns over the uncertainties of risk assessment have made it increasingly difficult to make responsible decisions fast enough to deal with modern needs. The result is an immobility in energy matters that can point to a 2% reduction in oil use as its only triumph. The risk of nuclear war as a result of military action over energy issues suggests to some that the solution is to abolish nuclear power (however impractical) and to others that a rapid spread of nuclear power will eliminate energy as an incentive for war. If nuclear war is the major risk to consider, risk assessments need to include the risks of war, as well as those of carbon dioxide buildup and socio-economic disruptions, all of which loom larger than the risks of nuclear-plant accidents. Energy choices should be aimed at diminishing these major risks, even if they include the use of nuclear power. 26 references

  16. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HRS Find a Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without ... people of all ages and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool ...

  17. Human Health Risk Assessment and Safety Threshold of Harmful Trace Elements in the Soil Environment of the Wulantuga Open-Cast Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Jia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soil samples were collected from a large-scale open-cast coal mine area in Inner Mongolia, China. Arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, beryllium (Be and nickel (Ni in soil samples were detected using novel collision/reaction cell technology (CCT with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; collectively ICP-CCT-MS after closed-vessel microwave digestion. Human health risk from As, Cd, Be and Ni was assessed via three exposure pathways—inhalation, skin contact and soil particle ingestion. The comprehensive carcinogenic risk from As in Wulantuga open-cast coal mine soil is 6.29–87.70-times the acceptable risk, and the highest total hazard quotient of As in soils in this area can reach 4.53-times acceptable risk levels. The carcinogenic risk and hazard quotient of Cd, Be and Ni are acceptable. The main exposure route of As from open-cast coal mine soils is soil particle ingestion, accounting for 76.64% of the total carcinogenic risk. Considering different control values for each exposure pathway, the minimum control value (1.59 mg/kg could be selected as the strict reference safety threshold for As in the soil environment of coal-chemical industry areas. However, acceptable levels of carcinogenic risk are not unanimous; thus, the safety threshold identified here, calculated under a 1.00 × 10−6 acceptable carcinogenic risk level, needs further consideration.

  18. Developing RESRAD-BASELINE for environmental baseline risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jing-Jy.

    1995-01-01

    RESRAD-BASELINE is a computer code developed at Argonne developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform both radiological and chemical risk assessments. The code implements the baseline risk assessment guidance of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1989). The computer code calculates (1) radiation doses and cancer risks from exposure to radioactive materials, and (2) hazard indexes and cancer risks from exposure to noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic chemicals, respectively. The user can enter measured or predicted environmental media concentrations from the graphic interface and can simulate different exposure scenarios by selecting the appropriate pathways and modifying the exposure parameters. The database used by PESRAD-BASELINE includes dose conversion factors and slope factors for radionuclides and toxicity information and properties for chemicals. The user can modify the database for use in the calculation. Sensitivity analysis can be performed while running the computer code to examine the influence of the input parameters. Use of RESRAD-BASELINE for risk analysis is easy, fast, and cost-saving. Furthermore, it ensures in consistency in methodology for both radiological and chemical risk analyses

  19. Global challenges in the risk assessment of nanomaterials: Relevance to South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gulumian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Internationally, there are efforts to develop standardised toxicity testing and risk assessmentmethods for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs. To this end, health risk assessments need tobe conducted on ENMs synthesised in South Africa. Country-specific risk characterisationrequires specific exposure assessments for those ENMs for which the likelihood exists foroccupational and environmental exposure in that country. A challenge in hazard identificationand risk assessment related to ENMs, regardless of country of origin, is that data on toxicity,carcinogenicity, pharmacokinetics, and occupational or environmental exposure are generallynot available for most ENMs. Although the mechanisms previously identified as importantin the toxicity and carcinogenicity of particles and fibres may be applicable, the possibilityexists that the unusual physicochemical properties of ENMs may give rise to unique, andas yet unidentified, adverse effects. Moreover, generalised exposure scenarios that considerthe life cycle of the agent have not been developed and are needed for the complete riskcharacterisation of ENMs. As health risk assessment is both resource and labour intensive, it isimperative to identify the aims of such an exercise prior to embarking on large-scale projects,to ensure that the data most useful for public health decision-making is provided. Identifyingpriorities in South Africa, in coordination with international efforts, can facilitate the effectiveuse of research efforts for risk assessment and risk management decision-making.

  20. Human reliability assessment and probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.; Lucas, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Human reliability assessment (HRA) is used within Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to identify the human errors (both omission and commission) which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. There exist a variey of HRA techniques and the selection of an appropriate one is often difficult. This paper reviews a number of available HRA techniques and discusses their strengths and weaknesses. The techniques reviewed include: decompositional methods, time-reliability curves and systematic expert judgement techniques. (orig.)

  1. Environmental Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramov, A. A.

    In this paper, various aspects of modern nanotechnologies and, as a result, risks of nanomaterials impact on an environment are considered. This very brief review of the First International Conference on Material and Information Sciences in High Technologies (2007, Baku, Azerbaijan) is given. The conference presented many reports that were devoted to nanotechnology in biology and business for the developing World, formation of charged nanoparticles for creation of functional nanostructures, nanoprocessing of carbon nanotubes, magnetic and optical properties of manganese-phosphorus nanowires, ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films, and nanophotonics communications in Azerbaijan. The mathematical methods of simulation of the group, individual and social risks are considered for the purpose of nanomaterials risk reduction and remediation. Lastly, we have conducted studies at a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials), located near Baku. Assessments have been conducted on the individual risk of person affection and constructed the map of equal isolines and zones of individual risk for a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials).

  2. Probabilistic risk assessment: Number 219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a methodology for analyzing the safety of nuclear power plants. A historical overview of plants in the US is provided, and past, present, and future nuclear safety and risk assessment are discussed. A primer on nuclear power plants is provided with a discussion of pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR) and their operation and containment. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), utilizing both event-tree and fault-tree analysis, is discussed as a tool in reactor safety, decision making, and communications. (FI)

  3. Risk assessment using probabilistic standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, R.

    2004-01-01

    A core element of risk is uncertainty represented by plural outcomes and their likelihood. No risk exists if the future outcome is uniquely known and hence guaranteed. The probability that we will die some day is equal to 1, so there would be no fatal risk if sufficiently long time frame is assumed. Equally, rain risk does not exist if there was 100% assurance of rain tomorrow, although there would be other risks induced by the rain. In a formal sense, any risk exists if, and only if, more than one outcome is expected at a future time interval. In any practical risk assessment we have to deal with uncertainties associated with the possible outcomes. One way of dealing with the uncertainties is to be conservative in the assessments. For example, we may compare the maximal exposure to a radionuclide with a conservatively chosen reference value. In this case, if the exposure is below the reference value then it is possible to assure that the risk is low. Since single values are usually compared; this approach is commonly called 'deterministic'. Its main advantage lies in the simplicity and in that it requires minimum information. However, problems arise when the reference values are actually exceeded or might be exceeded, as in the case of potential exposures, and when the costs for realizing the reference values are high. In those cases, the lack of knowledge on the degree of conservatism involved impairs a rational weighing of the risks against other interests. In this presentation we will outline an approach for dealing with uncertainties that in our opinion is more consistent. We will call it a 'fully probabilistic risk assessment'. The essence of this approach consists in measuring the risk in terms of probabilities, where the later are obtained from comparison of two probabilistic distributions, one reflecting the uncertainties in the outcomes and one reflecting the uncertainties in the reference value (standard) used for defining adverse outcomes. Our first aim

  4. Dynamical systems probabilistic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ames, Arlo Leroy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is the primary tool used to risk-inform nuclear power regulatory and licensing activities. Risk-informed regulations are intended to reduce inherent conservatism in regulatory metrics (e.g., allowable operating conditions and technical specifications) which are built into the regulatory framework by quantifying both the total risk profile as well as the change in the risk profile caused by an event or action (e.g., in-service inspection procedures or power uprates). Dynamical Systems (DS) analysis has been used to understand unintended time-dependent feedbacks in both industrial and organizational settings. In dynamical systems analysis, feedback loops can be characterized and studied as a function of time to describe the changes to the reliability of plant Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs). While DS has been used in many subject areas, some even within the PRA community, it has not been applied toward creating long-time horizon, dynamic PRAs (with time scales ranging between days and decades depending upon the analysis). Understanding slowly developing dynamic effects, such as wear-out, on SSC reliabilities may be instrumental in ensuring a safely and reliably operating nuclear fleet. Improving the estimation of a plant's continuously changing risk profile will allow for more meaningful risk insights, greater stakeholder confidence in risk insights, and increased operational flexibility.

  5. Assessment of radiation risk as a part of ecological risk in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltanova, Irina; Saltanov, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of the work: foundation for principles of planning protection measures, that provide safety for population activity on the territories, contaminated with radio-nuclides, by analysing radio-chemical situation, using risk assessment methods. Problems set in the work: -) Analyses of radiation risk in the structure of ecological risk in the territory of the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident; -) Investigation of chemical risk level, connected with air pollution from stationary objects exhausts, for the territories, contaminated with Chernobyl radio-nuclides; -) Modelling of the combined impact of ionising radiation and chemical carcinogen for the possible ecological risk assessment; -) Involving modern geo informational systems in the radio-ecological risk assessment process; -) Foundation for the assessment methodology of the complex influence of negative factors in the territories, contaminated with Chernobyl radio-nuclides. The problems are solved by carrying out specific experiments and by analysing published and own data on radioactive and chemical contamination of some regions of Belarus. Major findings: Radiation input to the really registered carcinogens is estimated to app. 10 %. In case of multiple factors influence of different contaminators of industrial and natural origin (i.e. radiation is not the only negative factor), ignorance of non-radiation origin factors may seriously distort estimation of radiation risk, when it is related to the registered effects. Radiation should be in no way treated as the major factor of real ecological risk in Belarus. Method for comparative analysis of territories' ecological risk level is developed and implemented. A GIS segment, that includes subsystem of the real and forecasted radio-ecological mapping, is created. The authors grounded the experimental model for study the complex influence of radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical carcinogen) factors. Revealed dependencies 'dose

  6. Health risk assessment of hazardous metals for population via consumption of seafood from Ogoniland, Rivers State, Nigeria; a case study of Kaa, B-Dere, and Bodo City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkpaa, K W; Patrick-Iwuanyanwu, K C; Wegwu, M O; Essien, E B

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the human health risk through consumption of seafood from contaminated sites in Kaa, B-Dere, and Bodo City all in Ogoniland. The potential non-carcinogenic health risk for consumers were investigated by assessing the estimated daily intake and target hazard quotients for Cr, Cd, Zn, Pb, Mn, and Fe while carcinogenic health effect from Cr, Cd, and Pb was also estimated. The estimated daily intake from seafood consumption was below the threshold values for Cr, Mn, and Zn while they exceeded the threshold for Cd, Pb, and Fe. The target hazard quotients for Zn and Cr were below 1. Target hazard quotients values for Cd, Pb, Mn, and Fe were greater than 1 except for Fe level in Liza falcipinis from Kaa. Furthermore, estimation of carcinogenic risk for Cr in all samples under study exceeded the accepted risk level of 10E-4. Also, Cd carcinogenic risk level for L. falcipinis and Callinectes pallidus collected from B-Dere and C. pallidus collected from Bodo City was 1.1E-3 which also exceeded the accepted risk level of 10E-4 for Cd. Estimation of carcinogenic risk for Pb was within the acceptable range of 10E-4. Consumers of seafood from these sites in Ogoniland may be exposed to metal pollution.

  7. Probabilistic risk assessment as an aid to risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments are providing important insights into nuclear power plant safety. Their value is two-fold: first as a means of quantifying nuclear plant risk including contributors to risk, and second as an aid to risk management. A risk assessment provides an analytical plant model that can be the basis for performing meaningful decision analyses for controlling safety. It is the aspect of quantitative risk management that makes probabilistic risk assessment an important technical discipline of the future

  8. Methodology for technical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for and applied to the assessment of the technical risks associated with an evolving technology. This methodology, originally developed for fusion by K. W. Billman and F. R. Scott at EPRI, has been applied to assess the technical risk of a fuel system for a fusion reactor. Technical risk is defined as the risk that a particular technology or component which is currently under development will not achieve a set of required technical specifications (i.e. probability of failure). The individual steps in the technical risk assessment are summarized. The first step in this methodology is to clearly and completely quantify the technical requirements for the particular system being examined. The next step is to identify and define subsystems and various options which appear capable of achieving the required technical performance. The subsystem options are then characterized regarding subsystem functions, interface requirements with the subsystems and systems, important components, developmental obstacles and technical limitations. Key technical subsystem performance parameters are identified which directly or indirectly relate to the system technical specifications. Past, existing and future technical performance data from subsystem experts are obtained by using a Bayesian Interrogation technique. The input data is solicited in the form of probability functions. Thus the output performance of the system is expressed as probability functions

  9. Epigenetic factors in cancer risk: effect of chemical carcinogens on global DNA methylation pattern in human TK6 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M Tabish

    Full Text Available In the current study, we assessed the global DNA methylation changes in human lymphoblastoid (TK6 cells in vitro in response to 5 direct and 10 indirect-acting genotoxic agents. TK6 cells were exposed to the selected agents for 24 h in the presence and/or absence of S9 metabolic mix. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for quantitative profiling of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine. The effect of exposure on 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine between control and exposed cultures was assessed by applying the marginal model with correlated residuals on % global DNA methylation data. We reported the induction of global DNA hypomethylation in TK6 cells in response to S9 metabolic mix, under the current experimental settings. Benzene, hydroquinone, styrene, carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene induced global DNA hypomethylation in TK6 cells. Furthermore, we showed that dose did not have an effect on global DNA methylation in TK6 cells. In conclusion we report changes in global DNA methylation as an early event in response to agents traditionally considered as genotoxic.

  10. Ecological risk assessment: Lessons learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This conference was held November 14--18, 1993 in Houston, Texas for the purpose of providing a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on ecological risk assessment. This book is comprised of the abstracts of the presentations at this symposium. Individual abstracts have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  11. Where You Live: Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Where you live page shows visitors to the risk assessment website how to contact their local regional office by state. Since these link to pages maintained by the local offices they will have the most up-to-date contact information.

  12. Hygienic assessment of drinking water quality and risks to public health in Krasnoyarsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Goryaev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the hygienic assessment of water quality in water sources of the Krasnoyarsk region used for centralized drinking water supply. It is shown that the exceeding of hygienic standards was registered at such indicators as iron (iron content is noted at the level to 1.8 mg/dm 3 or 6 MPC; fluorine (up to 6 MPC; ammonia and ammonium nitrogen (up to 2 MPC, nitrates (up to 5 MPC, organochlorine compounds (chloroform, carbon tetrachloride up to 5 MPC, manganese (up to 5.5 MPC, aluminium (up to 2 MPC. In water carcinogenic contaminants are recorded in significant concentrations: benzo(apyrene, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, lead. It is determined that the total lifetime carcinogenic risk to public health in the cities and districts of the Krasnoyarsk region due to oral intake from drinking water of chemicals of carcinogenic nature is negligible in 22 areas, and requires no additional measures to reduce. 23 territories of the region have carcinogenic risk ranged 1.0E-6 to 1.0E-5, which meets the criteria of acceptable risk. 9 territories (the town of Borodino, Lesosibirsk, Yeniseisk, Kazachinskiy, Partizansky, Pirovskiy, Rybinskiy, Sayanskiy, Uyarskiy areas show the level of lifetime individual cancer risk from 1.0E-5 to 2.0E-4, which is unacceptable for the population in general. The main contribution to the risk level (80.8–98.4 % makes the contents of arsenic in the drinking water. There is an increased risk of district (NI=1.2 and NI=1.17, respectively; bone and teeth from residents of the Sukhobuzimsky district (NI=1.04. High hazard indexes due to the nitrate and fluoride. Providing the population of urban districts and municipal districts of the Krasnoyarsk region with safe drinking water requires a set of various measures with the development and implementation of programs on improvement of water supply of populated areas

  13. Predictive Models for Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity are endpoints of major environmental and regulatory concern. These endpoints are also important targets for development of alternative methods for screening and prediction due to the large number of chemicals of potential concern and the tremendous cost (in time, money, animals) of rodent carcinogenicity bioassays. Both mutagenicity and carcinogenicity involve complex, cellular processes that are only partially understood. Advances in technologies and generation of new data will permit a much deeper understanding. In silico methods for predicting mutagenicity and rodent carcinogenicity based on chemical structural features, along with current mutagenicity and carcinogenicity data sets, have performed well for local prediction (i.e., within specific chemical classes), but are less successful for global prediction (i.e., for a broad range of chemicals). The predictivity of in silico methods can be improved by improving the quality of the data base and endpoints used for modelling. In particular, in vitro assays for clastogenicity need to be improved to reduce false positives (relative to rodent carcinogenicity) and to detect compounds that do not interact directly with DNA or have epigenetic activities. New assays emerging to complement or replace some of the standard assays include VitotoxTM, GreenScreenGC, and RadarScreen. The needs of industry and regulators to assess thousands of compounds necessitate the development of high-t

  14. Use of early phenotypic in vivo markers to assess human relevance of an unusual rodent non-genotoxic carcinogen in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boess, Franziska; Lenz, Barbara; Funk, Juergen; Niederhauser, Urs; Bassett, Simon; Zhang, Jitao David; Singer, Thomas; Roth, Adrian B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • RG3487 induced foci of altered hepatocytes and subsequent liver tumors in rats. • Early phenotypic markers preceding foci appearance in rats were identified. • These early foci markers could be recapitulated in cellular rat liver models. • A species comparison using rat, mouse and dog liver cell models qualified the approach. • In vitro human data support non-human-relevance for RG3487 induced foci formation. - Abstract: Foci of altered hepatocytes (FAH) are considered putative, pre-neoplastic lesions that can occur spontaneously in aging rodents, but can also be induced by chemicals or drugs. Progression of FAH to hepatocellular neoplasms has been reported repeatedly but increases in foci in rodents do not necessarily lead to tumors in carcinogenicity studies and the relevance for humans often remains unclear. Here we present the case of RG3487, a molecule which induced FAH and, later on, tumors in rats. Because the molecule was negative in genotoxicity assays it was classified as a non-genotoxic carcinogen. In order to assess the potential for liver tumor formation in humans, we analyzed treatment-induced changes in vivo to establish a possible mode of action (MoA). In vivo and in vitro gene expression analysis revealed that nuclear receptor signaling was unlikely to be the relevant MoA and no other known mechanism could be established. We therefore took an approach comparing phenotypic markers, including mRNA changes, proliferation and glycogen accumulation, in vitro using cells of different species to assess the human relevance of this finding. Since the alterations observed in rats were not seen in the liver of mice or dogs in vivo, we could validate the relevance of the cell models chosen by use of hepatocytes from these species in vitro. This ultimately allowed for a cross-species comparison, which suggested that the formation of FAH and liver tumors was rat specific and unlikely to translate to human. Our work showed that phenotypic

  15. Evaluation of the clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV for carcinogenic HPV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Philippe; Benmoura, Dominique; Agostini, Aubert; Khiri, Hacene; Penaranda, Guillaume; Martineau, Agnes; Blanc, Bernard

    2010-08-01

    Abbott RealTime (RT) High-Risk (HR) HPV assay is a new qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of 14 HR HPV DNA. The assay can differentiate between the infection by HPV 16, HPV 18 and non-HPV 16/18 types through the distinct fluorescent labels on the type specific probes. To evaluate the clinical performance of the Abbott RT HR HPV test, in comparison with biopsy, Hybrid Capture II (HCII), and Linear Array (LA), for detection of high-grade disease (CIN2+). The study population consisted of 143 women who were included in three referral gynecology clinics in Marseilles (France) between March 2007 and June 2008. The clinical performance of the RT HR HPV assay, performed on the fully automated m2000 system, was compared with HCII and LA. HR HPV positivity rate was similar for all tests (Abbott RT HR HPV and HCII, 62%, and LA 63%). All tests had high sensitivities and negative predictive values for CIN2+ detection (>90%). The agreement between HCII and Abbott RT HR HPV, and between HCII and LA were 93% (k=0.85) and 96% (k=0.91) respectively. As expected, HPV16 or HPV18 positivity was greater in advanced grades of disease, especially in CIN2+ patients: 85% in CIN2+ vs. 33% in Abbott RT HR HPV assay is good and closely correlated with the two other assays. The automation and ability to identify type 16 and 18 make this a very attractive option for HPV testing in laboratories and potentially provides improved patient management. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. An approach to risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L.; Lund, S. P.; Hass, Ulla

    1998-01-01

    of Ministers with the task to propose criteria for neurotoxicity. Functional effects on the nervous system, such as reduction in memory and learning ability, decrease in attention, and alteration of behavior due to toxic chemicals in the environment is now being acknowledged as an important public health...... indicate that numerous persons are exposed in the working as well as in the general environment to several chemicals, for which almost no data on the effect on subtle neurophysiological functions are available. Development of an approach to risk assessment dealing with this problem is a major challenge...... in the nineties. Different approaches to risk assessment are discussed, the quality of the databases available for hazard assessment are evaluated, and the needs for further research are identified. (C) 1996 Intox Press, Inc....

  17. Assessment of Carcinogenicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a short-term assay using Xpa(-/-) and Xpa(-/-)/p53(+/-) mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Bertram, Margareta; Aarup, V.

    2002-01-01

    The potential of Xpa(-/-) and Xpa(-/-)/p53(+/-) mice for short-term carcinogenicity assays was evaluated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Groups of 15 male and female Xpa(-/-) mice, received diets containing 0, 1,500, 3, 000, or 6,000 ppm DEHP, and wild-type (WT) and Xpa(-/-)/p53(+/-) mice 0...... 7). The negative carcinogenic response to DEHP and the positive response to p-cresidine support the expected sensitivity to genotoxic carcinogens in these transgenic models....

  18. 24 CFR 35.315 - Risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risk assessment. 35.315 Section 35... Provided by a Federal Agency Other Than HUD § 35.315 Risk assessment. Each owner shall complete a risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Each risk assessment shall be completed in accordance with...

  19. [The identification of viruses of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk and evaluation of physical status of viral DNA using technique of polymerase-chain reaction under affection of cervical epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazovaia, A A; Kuevda, D A; Trofimova, O B; Shipulina, O Iu; Ershov, V A; Lialina, L V; Narvskaia, O V

    2013-08-01

    The DNA of virus of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk was detected in 116 cervical samples. At that, the morphological symptoms of background processes are detected in 19 samples, CIN 1 in 9, CIN 2 in 23, CIN 3 in 54 (and out of them carcinoma in situ in 13), epidermoid cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) in 11 cases. The viral load of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk in all samples of DNA exceeded threshold of clinical value (3 lg copies of DNA of human papilloma/105 cells). The genetic typing of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk revealed the dominance of human papilloma of type 16 in 49.7%, type 33 in 15.3%, type 31 in 12.3% and type 45 in 5.5%. In women with background processes in cervix of the uterus DNA of human papilloma type 16 was detected more often in episome form. In case of dysplastic alterations of epithelium and cervical cancer DNA of human papilloma type 16 is detected in mixt form with different degree of integration into cell genome.

  20. Risk assessment of radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki

    2012-01-01

    This commentary describes the radiation cancer risk assessed by international organizations other than ICRP, assessed for radon and for internal exposure, in the series from the aspect of radiation protection of explaining the assessments done until ICRP Pub. 103. Statistic significant increase of cancer formation is proved at higher doses than 100-200 mSv. At lower doses, with use of mathematical model, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) reported the death probability due to the excess lifetime risk (ELR) at 100 mSv of 0.36-0.77% for solid tumors and 0.03-0.05% for leukemia, and NRC in US, the risk of exposure-induced prevalence and death (REID) per 100 thousands persons of 800 (male)/1,310 (female) and 410/610, respectively. Both are essentially based on findings in A-bomb survivors. The assessment for Rn is described here not on dose. UK and US analyses of pooled raw data in case control studies revealed the significant increase of lung cancer formation at as low level as 100 Bq Rn/m3. Their analyses also showed the significance of smoking, which had been realized as a confounding factor in risk analysis of Rn for uranium miners. The death probability until the age of 85 y was found to be 1.2 x 10 -4 in non-smokers and 24 x 10 -4 in smokers/ Working Level Month (WLM). Increased thyroid cancer incidence has been known in Chernobyl Accident, which is realized as a result of internal exposure of radioiodine; however, the relationship between the internal dose to thyroid and its cancer prevalence resembles that in the case of external exposure. There is no certain evidence against the concept that risk of internal exposure is similar to and/or lower than, the external one although assessment of the internal exposure risk accompanies uncertainty depending on the used model and ingested dose. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations hitherto have been important and precious despite

  1. Dietary Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Bruce N.

    1983-01-01

    Describes 16 mutagens/carcinogens found in plant food and coffee as well as several anticarcinogens also found in such food. Speculates on relevant biochemical mechanisms, particularly the role of oxygen radicals and their inhibitors in the fat/cancer relationship, promotion, anticarcinogenesis, and aging. (JN)

  2. Hormesis: from marginalization to mainstream A case for hormesis as the default dose-response model in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides an account of how the hormetic dose response has emerged in recent years as a serious dose-response model in toxicology and risk assessment after decades of extreme marginalization. In addition to providing the toxicological basis of this dose-response revival, the paper reexamines the concept of a default dose model in toxicology and risk assessment and makes the argument that the hormetic model satisfies criteria (e.g., generalizability, frequency, application to risk assessment endpoints, false positive/negative potential, requirements for hazard assessment, reliability of estimating risks, capacity for validation of risk estimates, public health implications of risk estimates) for such a default model better than its chief competitors, the threshold and linear at low dose models. The selection of the hormetic model as the default model in risk assessment for noncarcinogens and specifically for carcinogens would have a profound impact on the practice of risk assessment and its societal implications

  3. RELEVANCE OF PROCESS RISK ASSESSMENT IN AIRLINES

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana G. Feoktistova; Igor K. Turkin; Sergey V. Barinov

    2017-01-01

    The notion of “the concept on assumed risk” that took over from the outdated concept of absolute security is analyzed, the increasing significance of operating risk assessment at the present stage is noted. Some basic risk assessment techniques are considered. Matrix technique of risk assessment is considered more thoroughly, and it may be used in risk assessment of airlines in the context of labour protection management system.The ability to correctly assess risks and develop appropriate pre...

  4. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyessar Turdi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively. The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y. Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element–induced health risk (including for DW adults was higher than acceptable (10−6 and lower than priority risk levels (10−4 (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B. For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10−4, higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10−4.

  5. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-09-23

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)).

  6. Health Risk Assessment of Vegetables Grown on the Contaminated Soils in Daye City of Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available China is an agriculturally-producing country and the safety of its vegetables will have an extensive attention at home and abroad. Recently, contamination of soils and vegetables caused by mining activities is of great social concern because of the potential risk to human health, especially to the residents whom live near metal or metalloid mines. In this study, 18 topsoil and 141 vegetable samples were collected from the contaminated areas in Daye City Hubei Province, China and the concentrations of copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb were analyzed. A self-designed questionnaire was assigned to obtain the exposure scenario and the USEPA health risk assessment model was adopted to assess two type of risks (non-carcinogenic risks and carcinogenic risks of vegetables to humans. The results showed that the average contents of metal(loids in soils exceeded the background value of Daye City. The average contents of metal(loids, especially As, Cd, Pb, in three kinds of vegetables were significantly higher than the permissible values based on Chinese national standard. Leafy vegetables had relatively higher concentrations and the transfer factors of As (0.015, Cd (0.080 and Pb (0.003 were comparable to leguminous and fruit vegetables. Leguminous vegetables had relatively higher concentrations and transfer factors of Cu (0.032 and Zn (0.094 than leafy and fruit vegetables. The transfer factors from soil to plants follows a decreasing order as Cd (0.068, Zn (0.047 > Cu (0.023 > As (0.006, Pb (0.002. Furthermore, health risk assessment revealed the following results: the non-carcinogenic risk decreased in the order of children, adult, adolescent, while the carcinogenic risk followed a decreasing order of adult, adolescent, children; the calculated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of the metal(loids by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy vegetables > fruit vegetables > leguminous vegetables. The relatively

  7. Health risk assessment of chemical pollutants in a petrochemical complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Golbabaie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: workers in petrochemical industries are exposed to various contaminants and are facing to serious hazards, therefore a comprehensive risk assessment program for identification of hazardous chemicals that affect human health and also determination of hazardous tasks and processes is necessary.     Methods : This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in three stages. First stage consisted of identifying hazardous chemicals and determination of chemicals risk ratio, the second stage included the evaluation of worker's exposure to hazardous chemicals, and the third stage was estimating the relative risk of blood cancer caused by exposure to benzene through epidemiological studies.     Results: With regard to risk assessment method, 40 chemicals were identified in this Petrochemical Company. Among them, Benzene introduced as the most hazardous chemical. The results of the second stage showed that site man workers in noon shift work and in aromatic site with mean exposure 4.29 ppm had the highest exposure to benzene. The results of estimated leukemia relative risk stage in benzene exposure, the highest relative risk in workers related to site man workers in aromatic units with cumulative benzene exposure of 4.149 ppm. Years that obtained the relative risk of 2.3. The statistical test results showed that the relationship between worker's exposure to benzene and their job was significant(p<0/001     Conclusion : This study showed that benzene with a risk ratio of 4.5 -5 have 5th rank in risk levels and this indicates that preventative actions regarding to this hazardous and carcinogenic chemical must be started as soon as possible.

  8. Risk assessment and societal choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otway, H J

    1975-02-15

    Many countries are experiencing a period in which traditional values are being questioned; plans for further technological progress are being met by a variety of demands for a closer examination of the benefits and risks of large-scale technologies. In this paper the concepts of risk assessment are presented and a model is proposed which illustrates the importance of socio-psychological mechanisms in the acceptance of technological risks. The research plan of the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project is outlined: this work is directed toward gaining an improved understanding of how societies judge the acceptability of technologies and how societal attitudes and anticipated responses may be better integrated into the decision-making process. Some preliminary results are reported. (author)

  9. Risk assessment and societal choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    Many countries are experiencing a period in which traditional values are being questioned; plans for further technological progress are being met by a variety of demands for a closer examination of the benefits and risks of large-scale technologies. In this paper the concepts of risk assessment are presented and a model is proposed which illustrates the importance of socio-psychological mechanisms in the acceptance of technological risks. The research plan of the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project is outlined: this work is directed toward gaining an improved understanding of how societies judge the acceptability of technologies and how societal attitudes and anticipated responses may be better integrated into the decision-making process. Some preliminary results are reported. (author)

  10. Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative fire risk assessment can serve as an additional tool to assess the safety level of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and to set priorities for fire protection improvement measures. The recommended approach to be applied within periodic safety reviews of NPPs in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. Results of the first quantitative fire risk studies performed in Germany are reported. (author)

  11. Hydrocarbons pipeline transportation risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, A. V.; Milke, A. A.; Kvasov, I. N.

    2018-04-01

    The pipeline transportation applying risks assessment issue in the arctic conditions is addressed in the paper. Pipeline quality characteristics in the given environment has been assessed. To achieve the stated objective, the pipelines mathematical model was designed and visualized by using the software product SOLIDWORKS. When developing the mathematical model the obtained results made possible to define the pipeline optimal characteristics for designing on the Arctic sea bottom. In the course of conducting the research the pipe avalanche collapse risks were examined, internal longitudinal and circular loads acting on the pipeline were analyzed, as well as the water impact hydrodynamic force was taken into consideration. The conducted calculation can contribute to the pipeline transport further development under the harsh climate conditions of the Russian Federation Arctic shelf territory.

  12. Probabilistic risk assessment of HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.; Houghton, W.J.; Hannaman, G.W.; Joksimovic, V.

    1980-08-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment methods have been applied to gas-cooled reactors for more than a decade and to HTGRs for more than six years in the programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Significant advancements to the development of PRA methodology in these programs are summarized as are the specific applications of the methods to HTGRs. Emphasis here is on PRA as a tool for evaluating HTGR design options. Current work and future directions are also discussed

  13. Probabilistic risk assessment of HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.; Houghton, W.J.; Hannaman, G.W.; Joksimovic, V.

    1981-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment methods have been applied to gas-cooled reactors for more than a decade and to HTGRs for more than six years in the programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. Significant advancements to the development of PRA methodology in these programs are summarized as are the specific applications of the methods to HTGRs. Emphasis here is on PRA as a tool for evaluating HTGR design options. Current work and future directions are also discussed. (author)

  14. Chemical pollution of environment in the cities of Central Siberia: risk for the health of the population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Klimatskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available pollution in cities including the problem of risk assessment. The aim of the study is to determine carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for the health of the population due to chemical contamination of air, water and food in the cities of the Krasnoyarsk region. Material and methods. The research was conducted in the Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Krasnoyarsk region. 5122 samples of air, 4863 samples of water and 6915 samples of food stuff have been analyzed. Concentration of chemical substances was the base on which individual carcinogenesis risk (ICR and population carcinogenic conventional risks (PCCR and non carcinogenic risks [1] have been calculated. In the industrial cities chemical pollution of air, water and food stuff including carcinogenic substances creates carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of morbidity of the population with the reinforcement of the complex impact, “with” which greatly exceeds the maximum acceptable risks. Results. Chemical pollution of environmental facilities in cities of the Krasnoyarsk region produce complex carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks which exceed maximum limit. The greatest shares in structure of complex carcinogenic risks are made in food stuff and water consumption in structure of complex non-carcinogenic risks as a result of air pollution and food stuff pollution. Conclusions. Obtained data could be used to set priorities in preventive measures to preserve health of the population in industrial cities of the Krasnoyarsk region.

  15. Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Munday

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved.

  16. Asian Americans and disproportionate exposure to carcinogenic hazardous air pollutants: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W; Morales, Danielle X

    2017-07-01

    Studies have demonstrated disparate exposures to carcinogenic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in neighborhoods with high densities of Black and Hispanic residents in the US. Asians are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the US, yet they have been underemphasized in previous studies of environmental health and injustice. This cross-sectional study investigated possible disparities in residential exposure to carcinogenic HAPs among Asian Americans, including Asian American subgroups in the US (including all 50 states and the District of Columbia, n = 71,208 US census tracts) using National Air Toxics Assessment and US Census data. In an unadjusted analysis, Chinese and Korean Americans experience the highest mean cancer risks from HAPs, followed by Blacks. The aggregated Asian category ranks just below Blacks and above Hispanics, in terms of carcinogenic HAP risk. Multivariate models adjusting for socioeconomic status, population density, urban location, and geographic clustering show that an increase in proportion of Asian residents in census tracts is associated with significantly greater cancer risk from HAPs. Neighborhoods with higher proportions (as opposed to lower proportions) of Chinese, Korean, and South Asian residents have significantly greater cancer risk burdens relative to Whites. Tracts with higher concentrations of Asians speaking a non-English language and Asians that are US-born have significantly greater cancer risk burdens. Asian Americans experience substantial residential exposure to carcinogenic HAPs in US census tracts and in the US more generally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Uncertainties in risk assessment at USDOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has embarked on an ambitious program to remediate environmental contamination at its facilities. Decisions concerning cleanup goals, choices among cleanup technologies, and funding prioritization should be largely risk-based. Risk assessments will be used more extensively by the USDOE in the future. USDOE needs to develop and refine risk assessment methods and fund research to reduce major sources of uncertainty in risk assessments at USDOE facilities. The terms{open_quote} risk assessment{close_quote} and{open_quote} risk management{close_quote} are frequently confused. The National Research Council (1983) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991a) described risk assessment as a scientific process that contributes to risk management. Risk assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing and integrating data and information to identify hazards, assess exposures and dose responses, and characterize risks. Risk characterization must include a clear presentation of {open_quotes}... the most significant data and uncertainties...{close_quotes} in an assessment. Significant data and uncertainties are {open_quotes}...those that define and explain the main risk conclusions{close_quotes}. Risk management integrates risk assessment information with other considerations, such as risk perceptions, socioeconomic and political factors, and statutes, to make and justify decisions. Risk assessments, as scientific processes, should be made independently of the other aspects of risk management (USEPA, 1991a), but current methods for assessing health risks are based on conservative regulatory principles, causing unnecessary public concern and misallocation of funds for remediation.

  18. Uncertainties in risk assessment at USDOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has embarked on an ambitious program to remediate environmental contamination at its facilities. Decisions concerning cleanup goals, choices among cleanup technologies, and funding prioritization should be largely risk-based. Risk assessments will be used more extensively by the USDOE in the future. USDOE needs to develop and refine risk assessment methods and fund research to reduce major sources of uncertainty in risk assessments at USDOE facilities. The terms open-quote risk assessment close-quote and open-quote risk management close-quote are frequently confused. The National Research Council (1983) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991a) described risk assessment as a scientific process that contributes to risk management. Risk assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing and integrating data and information to identify hazards, assess exposures and dose responses, and characterize risks. Risk characterization must include a clear presentation of open-quotes... the most significant data and uncertainties...close quotes in an assessment. Significant data and uncertainties are open-quotes...those that define and explain the main risk conclusionsclose quotes. Risk management integrates risk assessment information with other considerations, such as risk perceptions, socioeconomic and political factors, and statutes, to make and justify decisions. Risk assessments, as scientific processes, should be made independently of the other aspects of risk management (USEPA, 1991a), but current methods for assessing health risks are based on conservative regulatory principles, causing unnecessary public concern and misallocation of funds for remediation

  19. Content of Heavy Metal in the Dust of Leisure Squares and Its Health Risk Assessment-A Case Study of Yanta District in Xi'an.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tianjie; Pan, Lihuan; Chen, Zhiqing; Wang, Ruiyuan; Li, Wenjing; Qin, Qing; He, Yuran

    2018-02-25

    Taking Yanta District in Xi'an as the research object, the present study measures the contents of Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), and Chromium (Cr) in dust samples and further assesses the health risk of heavy metals intake through dust based on the assessment method of human exposure risk proposed by U.S. EPA, with an aim to investigate the content of heavy metal in the dust of leisure squares and its exposure risk. As the results indicate, the average contents of five heavy metals are obviously higher than the soil background value in Shaanxi Province. Therefore, Cd, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Cr are obviously enriched in urban surface dust in Shaanxi Province, due to the influence of human activities. In addition, it can also be found that the non-carcinogen exposure risk in children is significantly higher than that in adults with the risk values of these five heavy metals all one order of magnitude higher than those of adults. Irrespective of whether addressing the results for children or adults, the non-carcinogen exposure doses of five heavy metals are sorted as Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd. According to the present situation, for a child, the total non-carcinogenic risk values of five heavy metals have exceeded the safety limit in 11 of the 20 leisure squares in Yanta District of Xi'an. That means the leisure squares are no longer suitable for physical and recreational activities. For the five heavy metals, the average non-carcinogenic risk value of Cr is largest, and causes the largest threat to health in Yanta District, Xi'an. The carcinogenic exposure doses of the heavy metals Cr, Cd, and Ni are very low in respiratory pathways and there is no carcinogenic health risk. In general, the Cr content in dust in domestic cities is higher than that of foreign cities; however, the Pb content is much lower.

  20. Prioritizing Chemicals for Risk Assessment Using Chemoinformatics: Examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Neela; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Loomis, Dana; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Identifying cancer hazards is the first step towards cancer prevention. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Programme, which has evaluated nearly 1,000 agents for their carcinogenic potential since 1971, typically selects agents for hazard identification on the basis of public nominations, expert advice, published data on carcinogenicity, and public health importance. Here, we present a novel and complementary strategy for identifying agents for hazard evaluation using chemoinformatics, database integration, and automated text mining. To inform selection among a broad range of pesticides nominated for evaluation, we identified and screened nearly 6,000 relevant chemical structures, after which we systematically compiled information on 980 pesticides, creating network maps that allowed cluster visualization by chemical similarity, pesticide class, and publicly available information concerning cancer epidemiology, cancer bioassays, and carcinogenic mechanisms. For the IARC Monograph meetings that took place in March and June 2015, this approach supported high-priority evaluation of glyphosate, malathion, parathion, tetrachlorvinphos, diazinon, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). This systematic approach, accounting for chemical similarity and overlaying multiple data sources, can be used by risk assessors as well as by researchers to systematize, inform, and increase efficiency in selecting and prioritizing agents for hazard identification, risk assessment, regulation, or further investigation. This approach could be extended to an array of outcomes and agents, including occupational carcinogens, drugs, and foods. Citation: Guha N, Guyton KZ, Loomis D, Barupal DK. 2016. Prioritizing chemicals for risk assessment using chemoinformatics: examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides. Environ Health Perspect 124:1823-1829; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP186.

  1. Prioritizing Chemicals for Risk Assessment Using Chemoinformatics: Examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Neela; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Loomis, Dana; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identifying cancer hazards is the first step towards cancer prevention. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Programme, which has evaluated nearly 1,000 agents for their carcinogenic potential since 1971, typically selects agents for hazard identification on the basis of public nominations, expert advice, published data on carcinogenicity, and public health importance. Objectives: Here, we present a novel and complementary strategy for identifying agents for hazard evaluation using chemoinformatics, database integration, and automated text mining. Discussion: To inform selection among a broad range of pesticides nominated for evaluation, we identified and screened nearly 6,000 relevant chemical structures, after which we systematically compiled information on 980 pesticides, creating network maps that allowed cluster visualization by chemical similarity, pesticide class, and publicly available information concerning cancer epidemiology, cancer bioassays, and carcinogenic mechanisms. For the IARC Monograph meetings that took place in March and June 2015, this approach supported high-priority evaluation of glyphosate, malathion, parathion, tetrachlorvinphos, diazinon, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Conclusions: This systematic approach, accounting for chemical similarity and overlaying multiple data sources, can be used by risk assessors as well as by researchers to systematize, inform, and increase efficiency in selecting and prioritizing agents for hazard identification, risk assessment, regulation, or further investigation. This approach could be extended to an array of outcomes and agents, including occupational carcinogens, drugs, and foods. Citation: Guha N, Guyton KZ, Loomis D, Barupal DK. 2016. Prioritizing chemicals for risk assessment using chemoinformatics: examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides. Environ Health Perspect 124:1823–1829;

  2. Reducing uncertainty in risk assessment by using specific knowledge to replace default options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, R O

    1996-01-01

    abundance of similarities. Indeed, this is a major argument for the use of laboratory animals to obtain information relevant to humans. Nonetheless, vigilance to differences among species is important. When differences are observed, we must capitalize on them to better understand the underlying biological mechanisms that mediate the differences. If, as I have suggested, laboratory animal species are more like than different from humans in their basic biological characteristics, there is a rationale for continuing to use laboratory animals as sources of data to help assess human risks of exposure to chemicals. It follows from this that quantitative differences among species such as observed with both formaldehyde and 1,3-butadiene assume major importance for assessing human risks. In my opinion, quantitation of the likely human carcinogenic potency of chemicals is of major importance. It is not sufficient to simply classify chemicals with regard to the likelihood of their being human carcinogens, as done by IARC (1994) and U.S. EPA (1986). IARC has placed more than 60 chemicals or processes (such as coke production) in group 1, carcinogenic to humans; more than 50 in group 2a, probably carcinogenic to humans; and 250 in group 2b, possibly carcinogenic to humans. This rank order implies differing levels of concern for three categories. However, even this rough three-bin system does not convey a very clear picture as to the degree of concern that should be accorded a given chemical for producing cancer. For example, the chemicals categorized as group 1, human carcinogens, using potency estimates developed by the U.S. EPA differ in potency by roughly 4 orders of magnitude. For example, a lifetime cancer risk is 6.2 x 10(-2) per micrograms/m3 for bischloromethyl ether and 8.3 x 10(-6) for benzene (NRC, 1994). Differences such as this offer strong arguments for complementing simplistic hazard identification schemes such as the IARC and EPA carcinogen classification systems w

  3. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Knaap, L.M.; Leenarts, L.E.W.; Born, M.P.; Oosterveld, P.

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the

  4. Reevaluating Interrater Reliability in Offender Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Born, Marise Ph.; Oosterveld, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Offender risk and needs assessment, one of the pillars of the risk-need-responsivity model of offender rehabilitation, usually depends on raters assessing offender risk and needs. The few available studies of interrater reliability in offender risk assessment are, however, limited in the generalizability of their results. The present study…

  5. Actual problems of environmental factors risk assessment on human health and ways to improve it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Rakhmanin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of global trends and new areas of health risk assessment and analysis methodology caused by exposure to chemicals, environmental pollutants, and the contemporary issues of national assessment methodology. Most details are considered: risk assessment evidence base, modern methods and problems of carcinogenic risk assessment, hygienic regulation based on risk assessment, the economic aspects of the methodology. Particular attention is paid to reasons of recent years perceived gaps in the Russian methodological basis of the best foreign samples. The urgent measures to improve the national risk assessment methodology are proposed, the main of which are: legislative consolidation of the basic concepts of risk assessment, a further update of the methodology and the practice of hygienic regulation on the basis of risk assessment, improving the valuation of damage to human health, the tightening of the requirements to the developed regulatory guidance documents on risk assessment, as well as to the training and retraining of personnel in the risk assessment.

  6. Mutagens and carcinogens in foods. Epidemiologic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Hislop, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence that diet contributes to the development of cancer is strengthening. This paper examines mutagens and carcinogens, such as naturally occurring substances, products of cooking and food processing, intentional and unintentional additives, and contaminants, found in foods. Such substances are present in minute quantities in the diets of average Canadians. Indication of health risk is largely limited to experimental laboratory evidence.

  7. Mutagens and carcinogens in foods. Epidemiologic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence that diet contributes to the development of cancer is strengthening. This paper examines mutagens and carcinogens, such as naturally occurring substances, products of cooking and food processing, intentional and unintentional additives, and contaminants, found in foods. Such substances are present in minute quantities in the diets of average Canadians. Indication of health risk is largely limited to experimental laboratory evidence. PMID:8499796

  8. Total cardiovascular disease risk assessment: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2011-09-01

    The high risk strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires an assessment of an individual\\'s total CVD risk so that the most intensive risk factor management can be directed towards those at highest risk. Here we review developments in the assessment and estimation of total CVD risk.

  9. Bioaccessibility and human health risk assessment of lead in soil from Daye City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Li, F.; Xiao, M. S.; Cai, Y.; Xiong, L.; Huang, J. B.; Fu, J. T.

    2018-01-01

    Lead (Pb) in soil from 4 sampling sites of Daye City was studied. Bioaccessibilities of Pb in soil were determined by the method of simplified bioaccessible extraction test (SBET). Since traditional health risk assessment was built on the basis of metal total content, the risk may be overestimated. Modified human health risk assessment model considering bioaccessibility was built in this study. Health risk of adults and children exposure to Pb based on total contents and bioaccessible contents were evaluated. The results showed that bioaccessible content of Pb in soil was much lower than its total content, and the average bioaccessible factor (BF) was only 25.37%. The hazard indexes (HIs) for adults and children calculated by two methods were all lower than 1. It indicated that there were no no-carcinogenic risks of Pb for human in Daye. By comparing with the results, the average bioaccessible HIs for adults and children were lower than the total one, which was due to the lower hazard quotient (HQ). Proportions of non-carcinogenic risk exposure to Pb via different pathways have also changed. Particularly, the most main risk exposure pathway for adults turned from the oral ingestion to the inhalation.

  10. The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belpomme, D.; Irigaray, P.; Hardell, L.; Clapp, R.; Montagnier, L.; Epstein, S.; Sasco, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We have recently proposed that lifestyle-related factors, screening and aging cannot fully account for the present overall growing incidence of cancer. In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We thus analyze the carcinogenic effect of microorganisms (including viruses), radiations (including radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and xenochemicals. Chemicals related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as well as other cancers. Of major concerns are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children, and food pollution by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment

  11. [Risk Assessment and Risk Management of Chemicals in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tie-yu; Zhou, Yun-qiao; Li, Qi-feng; Lü, Yong-long

    2016-02-15

    Risk assessment and risk management have been increasingly approved as an effective approach for appropriate disposal and scientific management of chemicals. This study systematically analyzed the risk assessment methods of chemicals from three aspects including health risk, ecological risk and regional risk. Based on the current situation of classification and management towards chemicals in China, a specific framework of risk management on chemicals was proposed by selecting target chemicals, predominant industries and related stakeholders as the objects. The results of the present study will provide scientific support for improving risk assessment and reasonable management of chemicals in China.

  12. Risk communication and environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a broad context for consideration of appropriate risk communication approaches. It examines the basis of public concerns and in particular the non-risk dimensions. The latter are so important in any risk decision that means of communication which can deal with them are required which extend beyond understanding how to present risk estimates. These means relate to (a) the decision processes themselves and the extent to which they provide for involvement of the public in decisions, (b) the communication skills of experts, and (c) the robustness of the risk information which is available. (Author)

  13. Molecular radiobiology and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Attitudes towards the radiation protection standards on in Europe and the world largely depends on scientific knowledge, periodically published by the United Nations Scientific Committee (UNSCEAR) and the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), which also comply with the research. The new scientific evidence by conducting an additional research is a crucial element in the process of protection of people, workers and patients in medicine from the adverse health effects. Although these standards are clear and easy to apply, there is serious doubt from a scientific perspective about the level of health risk at low doses, which keep up a fierce debate, both eight scientific and political society. The answer to this question requires the integrated efforts of many scientific disciplines. Increasingly rapid advances in biological and medical knowledge provide the necessary conditions for achieving this aim. This lecture tries to shed light on the current state of knowledge, the main unresolved problems in science in the context of radiation protection and risk assessment, and on those lines of research that have the greatest potential to address the issues. They mainly concern issues of doses and biological effects of different types of ionisation radiation, biological effects in cells/tissues which initiate health effects at low doses, individual variability and direct health risk assessment by epidemiological studies of groups exposed to lower doses irradiation

  14. Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soils and Sediments of India: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2017-10-01

    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments was conducted using the probabilistic approach from a national perspective. Published monitoring data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in soils and sediments at different study points across India were collected and converted to their corresponding BaP equivalent concentrations. These BaP equivalent concentrations were used to evaluate comprehensive cancer risk for two different age groups. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The analysis denotes 90% cancer risk value of 1.770E-5 for children and 3.156E-5 for adults at heavily polluted site soils. Overall carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of India were mostly in acceptance limits. However, the food ingestion exposure route for sediments leads them to a highly risked zone. The 90% risk values from sediments are 7.863E-05 for children and 3.999E-04 for adults. Sensitivity analysis reveals exposure duration and relative skin adherence factor for soil as the most influential parameter of the assessment, followed by BaP equivalent concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For sediments, biota to sediment accumulation factor of fish in terms of BaP is most sensitive on the total outcome, followed by BaP equivalent and exposure duration. Individual exposure route analysis showed dermal contact for soils and food ingestion for sediments as the main exposure pathway. Some specific locations such as surrounding areas of Bhavnagar, Raniganj, Sunderban, Raipur, and Delhi demand potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. The current study is probably the first attempt to provide information on the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediments across India.

  15. Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soils and Sediments of India: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2017-10-01

    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments was conducted using the probabilistic approach from a national perspective. Published monitoring data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in soils and sediments at different study points across India were collected and converted to their corresponding BaP equivalent concentrations. These BaP equivalent concentrations were used to evaluate comprehensive cancer risk for two different age groups. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The analysis denotes 90% cancer risk value of 1.770E-5 for children and 3.156E-5 for adults at heavily polluted site soils. Overall carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of India were mostly in acceptance limits. However, the food ingestion exposure route for sediments leads them to a highly risked zone. The 90% risk values from sediments are 7.863E-05 for children and 3.999E-04 for adults. Sensitivity analysis reveals exposure duration and relative skin adherence factor for soil as the most influential parameter of the assessment, followed by BaP equivalent concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For sediments, biota to sediment accumulation factor of fish in terms of BaP is most sensitive on the total outcome, followed by BaP equivalent and exposure duration. Individual exposure route analysis showed dermal contact for soils and food ingestion for sediments as the main exposure pathway. Some specific locations such as surrounding areas of Bhavnagar, Raniganj, Sunderban, Raipur, and Delhi demand potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. The current study is probably the first attempt to provide information on the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediments across India.

  16. Smoking out carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, David; Griffiths, Huw; Parker, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Smoked foods are becoming increasingly popular and are being produced by large and small food operations, artisan producers, chefs and consumers themselves. Epidemiological studies conducted over a number of decades have linked the consumption of smoked foods with various cancers and these findings have been supported by animal testing. Smoke contains a group of dangerous carcinogens that are responsible for lung cancer in cigarette smokers and implicated as causative agents for colorectal an...

  17. Leaching characteristics, ecotoxicity, and risk assessment based management of mine wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Ju, W. J.; Jho, E. H.; Nam, K.; Hong, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    Mine wastes generated during mining activities in metal mines generally contain high concentrations of metals that may impose toxic effects to surrounding environment. Thus, it is necessary to properly assess the mining-impacted landscapes for management. The study investigated leaching characteristics, potential environmental effects, and human health risk of mine wastes from three different metal mines in South Korea (molybdenum mine, lead-zinc mine, and magnetite mine). The heavy metal concentrations in the leachates obtained by using the Korean Standard Test Method for Solid Wastes (STM), Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) met the Korea Waste Control Act and the USEPA region 3 regulatory levels accordingly, even though the mine wastes contained high concentrations of metals. Assuming that the leachates may get into nearby water sources, the leachate toxicity was tested using Daphnia Magna. The toxic unit (TU) values after 24 h and 48 h exposure of all the mine wastes tested met the Korea Allowable Effluent Water Quality Standards (TUwaste may have long-term toxic effects (TU>1 for the eluent at L/S of 30) implying that the long-term effect of mine wastes left in mining areas need to be assessed. Considering reuse of mine wastes as a way of managing mine wastes, the human health risk assessment of reusing the lead-zinc mine waste in industrial areas was carried out using the bioavailable fraction of the heavy metals contained in the mine wastes, which was determined by using the Solubility/Bioavailability Research Consortium method. There may be potential carcinogenic risk (9.7E-05) and non-carcinogenic risk (HI, Hazard Index of 1.0E+00) as CR≧1.0E-05 has carcinogenic risk and HI≧1.0E+00 has non-carcinogenic risk. Overall, this study shows that not only the concentration-based assessment but ecological toxic effect and human health risk based assessments can be utilized for mining

  18. Bioassay-based risk assessment of complex mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, K.C.; Safe, S.H. [Texas A& M Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Randerath, K.; Randerath, E. [College Station and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    To compare the standard chemical-based risk assessment with in vitro genotoxicity assays, two complex environmental mixtures from a wood preserving site were analyzed in the Salmonella/microsome and E. coli prophage induction assays. Using GC/MS, sample 003 was found to contain relatively low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs) and elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), while sample 005 had higher levels of PNAs and relatively low levels of PCDDs. The complex mixtures were sequentially extracted with methylene chloride and methanol for analysis in Salmonella, or extracted with 1:1 hexane: acetone mixture for analysis in the prophage induction assay. At a dose of 1.0 mg/plate in Salmonella strain TA98 with metabolic activation, the methanol extract of sample 003 induced 197 net revertants, while sample 005 induced 436 net revertants. In the prophage induction assay, with activation, the hexane:acetone extract of sample 003 induced a fold increase that was slightly lower than that observed with sample 005. The estimated incremental carcinogenic risk for dermal adsorption and ingestion was 1.5E-3 for sample 003, while for sample 005 the estimated risk was 1.5E-2. Thus, the sample which induced the maximum response in both bioassays also had the highest estimated cancer risk. However, the frequency of PNA-DNA adducts in both skin and liver tissues was appreciably higher with sample 005 than with sample 003.

  19. How many food additives are rodent carcinogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F M

    2002-01-01

    One generally assumes that chemical agents added to foods are reasonably free of risks to human health, and practically everyone consumes some additives in his or her food daily throughout life. In the United States, the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 requires food manufacturers to demonstrate the safety of food additives to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Amendment contains a provision that prohibits approval of an additive if it is found to cause cancer in humans or animals. In the present study, data from the National Toxicology Program rodent bioassay (NTPRB) were used to identify a sample of approximately 50 rodent-tested additives and other chemicals added to food that had been evaluated independently of the FDA/food industry. Surprisingly, the sample shows more than 40% of these food chemicals to be carcinogenic in one or more rodent groups. If this percentage is extrapolated to all substances added to food in the United States, it would imply that more than 1000 of such substances are potential rodent carcinogens. The NTP and FDA test guidelines use similar, though not necessarily identical, rodent test procedures, including near lifetime exposures to the maximum tolerated dose. The FDA specifies that test chemicals should be administered by the oral route. However, the oral route includes three methods of delivering chemicals, that is, mixed in the food or water or delivered by stomach tube (gavage). The NTP data show only 1 of 18 food chemicals mixed in the food are rodent carcinogens, but 16 of 23 gavage-administered food chemicals are carcinogenic to rodents. The distribution suggests that among orally delivered chemicals, those administered in the feed will more likely prove to be noncarcinogens than chemicals given by gavage. The rodent data also reveal that effects may vary according to dose and genotype, as well as by route of administration, to further complicate extrapolation to humans

  20. Concept of risk: risk assessment and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The dissertation is a critical examination of risk assessment and its role in public policy. Nuclear power safety safety issues are selected as the primary source of illustrations and examples. The dissertation examines how risk assessment studies develop a concept of risk which becomes decisive for policy choices. Risk-assessment techniques are interpreted as instruments which secure an evaluation of risk which, in turn, figures prominently in technical reports on nuclear power. The philosophical critique is mounted on two levels. First, an epistemological critique surveys distinctions between the technical concept of risk and more familiar senses of risk. The critique shows that utilization of risk assessment re-structures the concept of risk. The technical concept is contrasted to the function of risk within a decision-maker's conceptual agenda and hierarchy of values. Second, an ethical critique exposes the value commitments of risk assessment recommendations. Although some of these values might be defended for policy decisions, the technical character of risk assessment obfuscates normative issues. Risk assessment is shown to be a form of factual enquiry which, nonetheless, represents a commitment to a specific selection of ethical and social values. Risk assessment should not be interpreted as a primary guide to decision unless the specific values incorporated into its concept of risk are stated explicitly and justified philosophically. Such a statement would allow value questions which have been sublimated by the factual tone of the analytic techniques to be debated on clear, social and ethical grounds

  1. Prediction of rodent carcinogenic potential of naturally occurring chemicals in the human diet using high-throughput QSAR predictive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerio, Luis G.; Arvidson, Kirk B.; Chanderbhan, Ronald F.; Contrera, Joseph F.

    2007-01-01

    Consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Critical Path Initiative, predictive toxicology software programs employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are currently under evaluation for regulatory risk assessment and scientific decision support for highly sensitive endpoints such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. At the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Office of Food Additive Safety and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Informatics and Computational Safety Analysis Staff (ICSAS), the use of computational SAR tools for both qualitative and quantitative risk assessment applications are being developed and evaluated. One tool of current interest is MDL-QSAR predictive discriminant analysis modeling of rodent carcinogenicity, which has been previously evaluated for pharmaceutical applications by the FDA ICSAS. The study described in this paper aims to evaluate the utility of this software to estimate the carcinogenic potential of small, organic, naturally occurring chemicals found in the human diet. In addition, a group of 19 known synthetic dietary constituents that were positive in rodent carcinogenicity studies served as a control group. In the test group of naturally occurring chemicals, 101 were found to be suitable for predictive modeling using this software's discriminant analysis modeling approach. Predictions performed on these compounds were compared to published experimental evidence of each compound's carcinogenic potential. Experimental evidence included relevant toxicological studies such as rodent cancer bioassays, rodent anti-carcinogenicity studies, genotoxic studies, and the presence of chemical structural alerts. Statistical indices of predictive performance were calculated to assess the utility of the predictive modeling method. Results revealed good predictive performance using this software's rodent carcinogenicity module of over 1200 chemicals

  2. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-08-17

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range.

  3. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Zheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS. The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range.

  4. Historical Relationship Between Performance Assessment for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Other Types of Risk Assessment in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.

    2000-07-14

    This paper describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed to the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built upon methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty and the tools used to evaluate it.

  5. Historical Relationship Between Performance Assessment for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Other Types of Risk Assessment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, Robert P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed to the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built upon methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty and the tools used to evaluate it

  6. Evaluating the biological risk of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and functionalized oxygen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes as possible toxic, carcinogenic, and embryotoxic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara-Martínez LA

    2017-10-01

    evaluation of the transformation to cancer cells and cytotoxicity process showed little effect. However, we found a severe embryotoxicity in chicken embryos that were treated with fMWCNTs, while fCOxs seem to exert cardioembryotoxicity and a discrete teratogenicity. Furthermore, it seems that the time of contact plays an important role during cell transformation and embryotoxicity. A single contact with fMWCNTs is not sufficient to transform cells in a short time; an exposure of fMWCNTs for 2 weeks led to cell transformation risk and cardioembryotoxicity effects. Keywords: nanostructure, biocompatibility, scaffold, cell proliferation, cell cycle, carcinogenic

  7. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: the theory of stakeholders, the citizens’ involvement and the community interest and consultation are reported. Different aspects of risk communication (public communication, scientific uncertainty, trust, care, consensus and crisis communication are discussed.

  8. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ma, Zongwei; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Yuan, Zengwei; Huang, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Heavy metal pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially developing countries such as China. This review summarizes available data in the literature (2005-2012) on heavy metal polluted soils originating from mining areas in China. Based on these obtained data, this paper then evaluates the soil pollution levels of these collected mines and quantifies the risks these pollutants pose to human health. To assess these potential threat levels, the geoaccumulation index was applied, along with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended method for health risk assessment. The results demonstrate not only the severity of heavy metal pollution from the examined mines, but also the high carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks that soil heavy metal pollution poses to the public, especially to children and those living in the vicinity of heavily polluted mining areas. In order to provide key management targets for relevant government agencies, based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, As, and Ni are selected as the priority control heavy metals; tungsten, manganese, lead-zinc, and antimony mines are selected as the priority control mine categories; and southern provinces and Liaoning province are selected as the priority control provinces. This review, therefore, provides a comprehensive assessment of soil heavy metal pollution derived from mines in China, while identifying policy recommendations for pollution mitigation and environmental management of these mines. © 2013.

  9. Distribution and health risk assessment to heavy metals near smelting and mining areas of Hezhang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briki, Meryem; Zhu, Yi; Gao, Yang; Shao, Mengmeng; Ding, Huaijian; Ji, Hongbing

    2017-08-19

    Mining and smelting areas in Hezhang have generated a large amount of heavy metals into the environment. For that cause, an evaluative study on human exposure to heavy metals including Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr, As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Bi, Be, and Hg in hair and urine was conducted for their concentrations and correlations. Daily exposure and non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk were estimated. Sixty-eight scalp hair and 66 urine samples were taken from participants of different ages (6-17, 18-40, 41-60, and ≥ 65 years) living in the vicinity of an agricultural soil near mine and smelting areas. The results compared to the earlier studies showed an elevated concentration of Pb, Be, Bi, Co, Cr, Ni, Sb, and Zn in hair and urine. These heavy metals were more elevated in mining than in smelting. Considering gender differences, females were likely to be more affected than male. By investigating age differences in this area, high heavy metal concentrations in male's hair and urine existed in age of 18-40 and ≥ 66, respectively. However, females did not present homogeneous age distribution. Hair and urine showed a different distribution of heavy metals in different age and gender. In some cases, significant correlation was found between heavy metals in hair and urine (P > 0.05 and P > 0.01) in mining area. The estimated average daily intake of heavy metals in vegetables showed a great contribution compared to the soil and water. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk values of total pathways in mining and smelting areas were higher than 1 and exceeded the acceptable levels. Thus, the obtained data might be useful for further studies. They can serve as a basis of comparison and assessing the effect of simultaneous exposure from heavy metals in mining and smelting areas, and potential health risks from exposure to heavy metals in vegetables need more consideration.

  10. Spatial Distribution and Mobility Assessment of Carcinogenic Heavy Metals in Soil Profiles Using Geostatistics and Random Forest, Boruta Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Shaheen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In third world countries, industries mainly cause environmental contamination due to lack of environmental policies or oversight during their implementation. The Sheikhupura industrial zone, which includes industries such as tanneries, leather, chemical, textiles, and colour and dyes, contributes massive amounts of untreated effluents that are released directly into drains and used for the irrigation of crops and vegetables. This practice causes not only soil contamination with an excessive amount of heavy metals, but is also considered a source of toxicity in the food chain, i.e., bioaccumulation in plants and ultimately in human body organs. The objective of this research study was to assess the spatial distribution of the heavy metals chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb, at three depths of soil using geostatistics and the selection of significant contributing variables to soil contamination using the Random Forest (RF function of the Boruta Algorithm. A total of 60 sampling locations were selected in the study area to collect soil samples (180 samples at three depths (0–15 cm, 15–30 cm, and 60–90 cm. The soil samples were analysed for their physico-chemical properties, i.e., soil saturation, electrical conductivity (EC, organic matter (OM, pH, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, and Cr, Cd, and Pb using standard laboratory procedures. The data were analysed with comprehensive statistics and geostatistical techniques. The correlation coefficient matrix between the heavy metals and the physico-chemical properties revealed that electrical conductivity (EC had a significant (p ≤ 0.05 negative correlation with Cr, Cd, and Pb. The RF function of the Boruta Algorithm employed soil depth as a classifier and ranked the significant soil contamination parameters (Cr, Cd, Pb, EC, and P in relation to depth. The mobility factor indicated the leachate percentage of heavy metals at different vertical depths of soil. The spatial distribution pattern of

  11. Heavy metals pollution levels and children health risk assessment of Yerevan kindergartens soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepanosyan, Gevorg; Maghakyan, Nairuhi; Sahakyan, Lilit; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2017-08-01

    Children, the most vulnerable urban population group, are exceptionally sensitive to polluted environments, particularly urban soils, which can lead to adverse health effects upon exposure. In this study, the total concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 111 topsoil samples collected from kindergartens in Yerevan. The objectives of this study were to evaluate heavy metal pollution levels of kindergarten's soils in Yerevan, compare with national legal and international requirements on heavy metal contents in kindergarten soil, and assess related child health risk. Multivariate geostatistical analyses suggested that the concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, and Zn observed in the kindergarten's topsoil may have originated from anthropogenic sources, while Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, and V mostly come from natural sources. According to the Summary pollution index (Zc), 102 kindergartens belong to the low pollution level, 7 to the moderate and only 2 to the high level of pollution. Summary concentration index (SCI) showed that 109 kindergartens were in the allowable level, while 2 featured in the low level of pollution. The health risk assessment showed that in all kindergartens except for seven, non-carcinogenic risk for children was detected (HI>1), while carcinogenic risk from arsenic belongs to the very low (allowable) level. Cr and multi-element carcinogenic risk (RI) exceeded the safety level (1.0E- 06) in all kindergartens and showed that the potential of developing cancer, albeit small, does exist. Therefore, city's kindergartens require necessary remedial actions to eliminate or reduce soil pollution and heavy metal-induced health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Marine pollution in the Libyan coastal area: Environmental and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Maria; Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Al-Tayeb Sharif, Ehab A; D'Agostino, Fabio; Traina, Anna; Quinci, Enza Maria; Giaramita, Luigi; Monastero, Calogera; Benothman, Mohamed; Sprovieri, Mario

    2018-03-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the potential adverse effects on environment and human health generated by the inputs of chemicals from the most important Libyan petrochemical plant is presented. Ecotoxicological risk associated with the presence of As, Hg, Ni, Zn and PAHs in marine sediments is low or moderate, with a probability of toxicity for ecosystem <9% and <20% for heavy metals and PAHs respectively. However, surface sediments result strongly enriched in Hg and As of anthropogenic origin. Investigation of metals in fish allowed to assess potential risks for human populations via fish intake. Target hazard quotients values indicate potential risk associated to toxic metals exposure by fish consumption and lifetime cancer risk (TR) values highlight a potential carcinogen risk associated to As intake. Noteworthy, the presented results provide an unprecedented environmental dataset in an area where the availability of field data is very scant, for a better understanding of anthropogenic impacts at Mediterranean scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. RISK MANAGEMENT: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO RISK MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabo Alina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to offer an overview over risk management cycle by focusing on prioritization and treatment, in order to ensure an integrated approach to risk management and assessment, and establish the ‘top 8-12’ risks report within the organization. The interface with Internal Audit is ensured by the implementation of the scoring method to prioritize risks collected from previous generated risk report. Methodology/approach: Using evidence from other research in the area and the professional expertise, this article outlines an integrated approach to risk assessment and risk management reporting processes, by separating the risk in two main categories: strategic and operational risks. The focus is on risk prioritization and scoring; the final output will comprise a mix of strategic and operational (‘top 8-12’ risks, which should be used to establish the annual Internal Audit plan. Originality/value: By using an integrated approach to risk assessment and risk management will eliminate the need for a separate Internal Audit risk assessment over prevailing risks. It will reduce the level of risk assessment overlap by different functions (Tax, Treasury, Information System over the same risk categories as a single methodology, is used and will align timings of risk assessment exercises. The risk prioritization by usage of risk and control scoring criteria highlights the combination between financial and non-financial impact criteria allowing risks that do not naturally lend themselves to a financial amount to be also assessed consistently. It is emphasized the usage of score method to prioritize the risks included in the annual audit plan in order to increase accuracy and timelines.

  14. Assessment of radiation dose due to intake of uranium through ground water and its carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks in SW and NE Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, B.S.

    2017-01-01

    In the present investigations, Laser Fluorimetry technique has been used for the microanalysis of uranium content in drinking water samples collected from different sources like the hand pumps, tube wells of various depths from wide range of locations in the four districts of SW-Punjab, India and two districts of NE - Punjab, India. The purpose of this study was to investigate the uranium concentration levels of ground water being used for drinking and to determine its health effects, if any, to the local population of these regions

  15. Risks, risk assessment and risk competence in toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlmann, Ralf; Horvath, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the toxic effects of xenobiotics requires sound knowledge of physiology and biochemistry. The often described lack of understanding pharmacology/toxicology is therefore primarily caused by the general absence of the necessary fundamental knowledge. Since toxic effects depend on exposure (or dosage) assessing the risks arising from toxic substances also requires quantitative reasoning. Typically public discussions nearly always neglect quantitative aspects and laypersons tend to disregard dose-effect-relationships. One of the main reasons for such disregard is the fact that exposures often occur at extremely low concentrations that can only be perceived intellectually but not by the human senses. However, thresholds in the low exposure range are often scientifically disputed. At the same time, ignorance towards known dangers is wide-spread. Thus, enhancing the risk competence of laypersons will have to be initially restricted to increasing the awareness of existing problems. PMID:26195922

  16. Risks, risk assessment and risk competence in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlmann, Ralf; Horvath, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the toxic effects of xenobiotics requires sound knowledge of physiology and biochemistry. The often described lack of understanding pharmacology/toxicology is therefore primarily caused by the general absence of the necessary fundamental knowledge. Since toxic effects depend on exposure (or dosage) assessing the risks arising from toxic substances also requires quantitative reasoning. Typically public discussions nearly always neglect quantitative aspects and laypersons tend to disregard dose-effect-relationships. One of the main reasons for such disregard is the fact that exposures often occur at extremely low concentrations that can only be perceived intellectually but not by the human senses. However, thresholds in the low exposure range are often scientifically disputed. At the same time, ignorance towards known dangers is wide-spread. Thus, enhancing the risk competence of laypersons will have to be initially restricted to increasing the awareness of existing problems.

  17. Risks, risk assessment and risk competence in toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stahlmann, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the toxic effects of xenobiotics requires sound knowledge of physiology and biochemistry. The often described lack of understanding pharmacology/toxicology is therefore primarily caused by the general absence of the necessary fundamental knowledge. Since toxic effects depend on exposure (or dosage assessing the risks arising from toxic substances also requires quantitative reasoning. Typically public discussions nearly always neglect quantitative aspects and laypersons tend to disregard dose-effect-relationships. One of the main reasons for such disregard is the fact that exposures often occur at extremely low concentrations that can only be perceived intellectually but not by the human senses. However, thresholds in the low exposure range are often scientifically disputed. At the same time, ignorance towards known dangers is wide-spread. Thus, enhancing the risk competence of laypersons will have to be initially restricted to increasing the awareness of existing problems.

  18. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify

  19. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify

  20. Assessing mixed trace elements in groundwater and their health risk of residents living in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Suy, Bunseang; Wong, Ming Hung; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in shallow Cambodian groundwater. Groundwater and hair samples were collected from three provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia and analyzed by ICP-MS. Groundwater from Kandal (n = 46) and Kraite (n = 12) were enriched in As, Mn, Ba and Fe whereas none of tube wells in Kampong Cham (n = 18) had trace elements higher than Cambodian permissible limits. Risk computations indicated that 98.7% and 12.4% of residents in the study areas of Kandal (n = 297) and Kratie (n = 89) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects from exposure to multiple elements, yet none were at risk in Kampong Cham (n = 184). Arsenic contributed 99.5%, 60.3% and 84.2% of the aggregate risk in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. Sustainable and appropriate treatment technologies must therefore be implemented in order for Cambodian groundwater to be used as potable water. -- Highlights: •We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in Cambodian groundwater. •Residents of Kandal (98.7%) and Kratie (12.4%) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects. •Significant positive correlation between As, Mn and Ba in groundwater and hair were found. -- Risk assessment indicated that 98.7% of residents in Kandal and 12.4% of Kratie study areas were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects of multiple elements in groundwater

  1. The assessment of technical risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, T.A.

    1978-01-01

    The safety of technical systems is so difficult to assess because the concept 'risk' contains technical-scientific factors as well as components of individual and social psychology. Immediate or short-term hazards of human life as i.e. caused by the operation of industrial plants and mediate and thus long-term hazards have to be distinguished. Characteristic for the second hazard groups is the great time-lag before the effect takes place. Thus a causal relationship can be recognized only late and not definitely. Even when the causes have been obviated the effects still show. The development of a systems-analytical model as a basis of decisive processes for the introduction of highly endangered large-scale technologies seems particularly difficult. A starting point for the quantification of the risk can still be seen in the product of the probability of realization and the extent of the damage. Public opinion, however, does not base its evaluations on an objective concept of risk but tends to have an attitude of aversion against great and disastrous accidents. On the other hand, plenty of slight accidents are accepted much more easily, even when the amount of deadly victims from accidents reaches dimensions beyond those of the rare large-scale accidents. Here, mostly the damage possible but not the probability of its occurence is seen, let alone the general use of the new technology. The value of the mathematical models for estimating risks is mainly due to the fact that they are able to clear up decisions. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Yeong Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m3, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10−4 (central tendency exposure and 0.56 × 10−4 (reasonable maximum exposure, which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10−4. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed.

  3. Exposure monitoring and risk assessment of biphenyl in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Shin, Sae-Mi; Ham, Miran; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2015-05-13

    This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m³, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10⁻⁴ (central tendency exposure) and 0.56 × 10⁻⁴ (reasonable maximum exposure), which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10⁻⁴. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed.

  4. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in street dusts from different functional areas in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Gao, Bo; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Huaidong; Lu, Jin

    2015-02-01

    Street dusts from Heavy Density Traffic Area, Residential Area, Educational Area and Tourism Area in Beijing, China, were collected to study the distribution, accumulation and health risk assessment of heavy metals. Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations were in higher concentrations in these four locations than in the local soil background. In comparison with the concentrations of selected metals in other cities, the concentrations of heavy metals in Beijing were generally at moderate or low levels. Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations in the Tourism Area were the highest among four different areas in Beijing. A pollution assessment by Geoaccumulation Index showed that the pollution level for the heavy metals is in the following order: Cd>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cr>Ni. The Cd levels can be considered "heavily contaminated" status. The health risk assessment model that was employed to calculate human exposure indicated that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of selected metals in street dusts were generally in the low range, except for the carcinogenic risk from Cr for children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in PM(2.5) in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q Z; Li, S; Jia, Q; Luo, B; Su, L M; Liu, Q; Yuan, X R; Wang, Y H; Ruan, Y; Niu, J P

    2018-06-06

    Objective: To understand the pollution characteristics and assess the pollution health risks of heavy metals in atmospheric PM(2.5) in Lanzhou. Methods: According to the regional characteristics of air pollution and industrial distribution characteristics in Lanzhou, atmospheric PM(2.5) was sampled monthly in Chengguan and Xigu Districts from January, 2015 to December, 2016. Detected the concentration of PM(2.5) and 12 kinds of elements (Sb, Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Mn, Ni, Se and Tl) by weighing method and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index were used to describe the pollution characteristics, while health risk assessment was conducted using the recommended United States Environmental Protection Agency (USA EPA) model. The health risks of non-carcinogens were evaluated by non-cancer hazard quotient (HQ), the non-carcinogenic risk was considered to be negligible when HQ1 meant a health risk. With a single contaminant cancer Risk value to evaluate the health risks of carcinogens, when the Risk value between 10(-6) to10(-4) as an acceptable level. Results: The daily average concentrations of PM(2.5) was 83.0 μg/m(3), 77.0 μg/m(3) in Chengguan and Xigu Districts, respectively, during the sampling periods, and the concentration of PM(2.5) in winter/spring was higher than summer/fall in both districts. The concentration of Al in PM(2.5) was the highest and other elements in descending order: Pb, Mn, As, Sb/Cd, Tl in both districts. Enrichment factor results showed that Al and Mn were mainly affected by natural factors, the rest of five elements were all typical man-made pollution elements and according to geo-accumulation index pollution level of Cd was the strongest in the winter. The results of health risk assessment showed that Mn had the highest non-cancer risks (HQ>1) and affected the health of the children seriously. HQ reached up to 2.44 and 1.79 in Chengguan and Xigu Districts, respectively. Pb, As, Sb

  6. Proposed changes in the classification of carcinogenic chemicals in the work area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, H G; Thielmann, H W; Filser, J G; Gelbke, H P; Greim, H; Kappus, H; Norpoth, K H; Reuter, U; Vamvakas, S; Wardenbach, P; Wichmann, H E

    1997-12-01

    Carcinogenic chemicals in the work area are currently classified into three categories in Section III of the German List of MAK and BAT Values. This classification is based on qualitative criteria and reflects essentially the weight of evidence available for judging the carcinogenic potential of the chemicals. It is proposed that these Categories--IIIA1, IIIA2, and IIIB--be retained as Categories 1, 2, and 3, to conform with EU regulations. On the basis of our advancing knowledge of reaction mechanisms and the potency of carcinogens, it is now proposed that these three categories be supplemented with two additional categories. The essential feature of substances classified in the new categories is that exposure to these chemicals does not convey a significant risk of cancer to man, provided that an appropriate exposure limit (MAK value) is observed. It is proposed that chemicals known to act typically by nongenotoxic mechanisms and for which information is available that allows evaluation of the effects of low-dose exposures be classified in Category 4. Genotoxic chemicals for which low carcinogenic potency can be expected on the basis of dose-response relationships and toxicokinetics and for which risk at low doses can be assessed will be classified in Category 5. The basis for a better differentiation of carcinogens is discussed, the new categories are defined, and possible criteria for classification are described. Examples for Category 4 (1,4-dioxane) and Category 5 (styrene) are presented. The proposed changes in classifying carcinogenic chemicals in the work area are presented for further discussion.

  7. Use of risk to resolve conflicts in assessing hazards at mixed-waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.

    1991-01-01

    Two main issues contribute to the assessment of health hazard from mixed waste: the scientific methods to assess these materials and the legislative and regulatory control of these materials. This paper is primarily concerned with the scientific method of assessing hazards from mixed waste (i.e., carcinogenic chemicals, noncarcinogenic chemicals, and radioactive material). This paper discusses SRS, a Site Ranking System, and its use of risk concepts to avoid introducing new inconsistencies when ranking mixed-waste sites. SRS ranks each site by scoring factors that influence the human health risk. The factors are (1) the potentially exposed population, (2) the average amount of exposure to the waste, and (3) the toxicity of the waste. The relative risk of a release is measured as the product of these three factors. The third factor, toxicity, is indexed with a single score, but because methods of measuring toxicity differ for carcinogenic chemicals, noncarcinogenic chemicals, and radionuclides, comparison can be difficult; hence, this paper also summarizes the logic and assumptions used to make toxicity comparisons in SRS. As may be expected, results from a ranking scheme based on risk are different from results generated by the original Hazard Ranking System (HRS), used by the Environmental Protection Agency. This paper briefly discusses these differences for five Superfund sites (no mixed waste). The legislative and regulatory control of these materials to protect human health is also discussed. 37 refs., 1 tab

  8. The relation of risk assessment and health impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Gulis, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    than assessing a present situation. As part of this process, however, methods applied in risk assessment are used. Risk assessment typically characterises relation of a well-defined risk factor to a well-defined health outcome. Within HIA usually several individual risk assessments are needed...... of the causal chain from the proposal through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The stepwise analysis, systematic prioritization and consideration of horizontal interactions between the causal pathways make it feasible to use widely recognized risk assessment methods in the HIA......The level and distribution of health risks in a society is substantially influenced by measures of various policies, programmes or projects. Risk assessment can evaluate the nature, likelihood and severity of an adverse effect. Health impact assessment (HIA) provides similar function when used...

  9. Getting fire risk assessment right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, David

    2012-06-01

    The NHS has one of the world's largest and most varied estates, which at any time accommodates many of the most dependent people in society. With around 6,000 fires occurring in NHS premises each year, its duty of care--and that of other healthcare providers--demands very close attention to fire safety. Here Dr David Charters BSc, PhD, CEng, FIFireE, MIMechE, MSFPE, director of Fire Engineering at BRE Global, an independent third party approvals body offering certification of fire, security, and sustainability products and services, examines the critical role of fire risk assessment, and explains why the process should provide the 'foundation' for effective fire safety measures.

  10. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    Full Text Available The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such "indirect risks" can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their "at-risk status" designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but-by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here-they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within.

  11. Social aspects of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Linnerooth, J.; Niehaus, F.

    1977-01-01

    Plans for technological development have often been met by demands for a closer examination of the associated benefits and risks and the consideration of social values in public planning and decision processes. A theoretical framework for inter-disciplinary risk assessment studies is presented to aid the balancing of technical data with social values in decision making. Methods for obtaining value measures are reviewed and an attitude-based method is developed in detail; this model allows identification of the relative importance of the technical, psychological and social factors which underlie attitudes and indicates which factors differentiate between social groups. Results of a pilot application to nuclear power are summarized. For these subjects, different attitudes between pro and con were primarily due to strongly differing beliefs about the benefits of nuclear power. Preliminary results are reported of an application of this model with a heterogeneous sample drawn from the general public. The cognitive limitations which affect rationality in intuitive decision making are summarized as background to introduce formal decision methodologies for the use of attitude data in public decision making

  12. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  13. Groundwater contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon due to diesel spill from a telecom base station in a Nigerian City: assessment of human health risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu Cornelius; Ochonogor, Alfred

    2018-03-26

    Diesel pollution of groundwater poses great threat to public health, mainly as a result of the constituent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, the human health risk exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel contaminated groundwater used by several families at Ring Road, Jos, Nigeria (as caused by diesel spill from a telecom base station) was assessed. Prior to the groundwater being treated, the residents were using the water after scooping off the visible diesel sheen for purposes of cooking, washing, and bathing. Until this study, it is not clear whether the groundwater contamination had resulted in sub-chronic exposure of the residents using the water to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the extent of the PAHs posing a health risk. The diesel contaminated groundwater and uncontaminated nearby groundwater (control) were collected and analyzed for PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The dosage of the dermal and oral ingestion entry routes of PAHs was determined. The estimation of the non-carcinogenic health risk was via hazard quotients (HQ) and the associated hazard index (HI), while the estimation of the carcinogenic health risk was via lifetime cancer risks (LCR) and the associated risk index (RI). Obtained results indicate that the exposure of the residents to the PAHs may have made them susceptible to the risk of non-carcinogenic health effects of benzo(a)pyrene and the carcinogenic health effects of benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene.

  14. Chemical Risk Assessment Screening Tool of a Global Chemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Tjoe-Nij

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper describes a simple-to-use and reliable screening tool called Critical Task Exposure Screening (CTES, developed by a chemical company. The tool assesses if the exposure to a chemical for a task is likely to be within acceptable levels. Methods: CTES is a Microsoft Excel tool, where the inhalation risk score is calculated by relating the exposure estimate to the corresponding occupational exposure limit (OEL or occupational exposure band (OEB. The inhalation exposure is estimated for tasks by preassigned ART1.5 activity classes and modifying factors. Results: CTES requires few inputs. The toxicological data, including OELs, OEBs, and vapor pressure are read from a database. Once the substance is selected, the user specifies its concentration and then chooses the task description and its duration. CTES has three outputs that may trigger follow-up: (1 inhalation risk score; (2 identification of the skin hazard with the skin warnings for local and systemic adverse effects; and (3 status for carcinogenic, mutagenic, or reprotoxic effects. Conclusion: The tool provides an effective way to rapidly screen low-concern tasks, and quickly identifies certain tasks involving substances that will need further review with, nevertheless, the appropriate conservatism. This tool shows that the higher-tier ART1.5 inhalation exposure assessment model can be included effectively in a screening tool. After 2 years of worldwide extensive use within the company, CTES is well perceived by the users, including the shop floor management, and it fulfills its target of screening tool. Keywords: occupational exposure, risk assessment, risk management

  15. Risk assessment of forensic patients: nurses' role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinares, Maxima; McMaster, Jeff James; McNamee, Jim

    2005-03-01

    One of the unique roles of forensic nurses is to conduct risk assessments. Establishing a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship helps forensic nurses perform accurate and useful risk assessments. Accurate risk assessments can facilitate formulation of individualized risk management plans, designed to meet patients' needs and ensure public safety. The importance of forensic nurses' knowledge and application of appropriate communication and proper documentation cannot be overemphasized.

  16. Assessment of volatile organic compounds and particulate matter in a dental clinic and health risks to clinic personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yu-Jue; Huang, Yen-Ching; Lee, I-Long; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chitsan; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess (1) levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) in a dental clinic in southern Taiwan and (2) dental care personnel's health risks associated with due to chronic exposure to VOCs. An automatic, continuous sampling system and a multi-gas monitor were employed to quantify the air pollutants, along with environmental comfort factors, including temperature, CO2, and relative humidity at six sampling sites in the clinic over eight days. Specific VOC compounds were identified and their concentrations were quantified. Both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic VOC compounds were assessed based on the US Environmental Protection Agency's Principles of Health Risk Assessment in terms of whether those indoor air pollutants increased health risks for the full-time dental care professionals at the clinic. Increased levels of VOCs were recorded during business hours and exceeded limits recommended by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency. A total of 68 VOC compounds were identified in the study area. Methylene methacrylate (2.8 ppm) and acetone (0.176 ppm) were the only two non-carcinogenic compounds that posed increased risks for human health, yielding hazard indexes of 16.4 and 4.1, respectively. None of the carcinogenic compounds increased cancer risk. All detected PM10 levels ranged from 20 to 150 μg/m(3), which met the Taiwan EPA and international limits. The average PM10 level during business hours was significantly higher than that during non-business hours (P = 0.04). Improved ventilation capacity in the air conditioning system was recommended to reduce VOCs and PM levels.

  17. Radiological safety and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.; Barg, D.C.; Baird, R.D.; Card, D.H.; de Souza, F.; Elder, J.; Felthauser, K.; Jensen, C.; Winkler, V.

    1982-02-01

    A brief radiological safety and risk assessment of a nuclear power generation center with an adjacent on-site waste disposal facility at a specific site in the State of Utah is presented. The assessment was conducted to assist in determining the feasibility and practicality of developing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in Utah consisting of nine 1250 MWe nuclear pressurized water reactor (PWR) electrical generating units arranged in 3 clusters of 3 units each known as triads. The site selected for this conceptual study is in the Horse Bench area about 15 miles directly south of the town of Green River, Utah. The radiological issues included direct radiation exposures to on-site workers and the off-site population, release of radioactive material, and effects of these releases for both normal operations and accidental occurrences. The basic finding of this study is that the concept of an NEC in the Green River area, specifically at the Horse Bench site, is radiologically feasible

  18. Risk assessment - The future trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Many organizations today are faced with cleaning a site or facility, selecting appropriate remedial alternatives, or explaining the potential effects on human health and the environment caused by the releases of toxic compounds into the air, soil, and water, The use of risk assessment (RA) as a management tool is increasing because it offers an integrated approach to the analysis of toxicological, geological, physio-chemical, meteorological, statistical, and biological parameters that must be evaluated in the assessment of potential impacts to human health. The regulatory atmosphere in the 1990s is leaning toward the adoption of further laws requiring the completion of the RA process. Any industry involved in submitting permit applications to Air Quality Management Districts or complying with California's Proposition 65 and AB 2588 will be required to prepare RAs. Several guidance documents are available that support the RA process including the California Site Mitigation Decision Tree Manual published by the State Department of Health Services (DHS), which bases its approach on developing cleanup objectives (Applied Action Levels) on RA. This presentation focuses on the applications RA can have to the petroleum industry and the kinds of data that each case should develop to make maximum use of the RA process

  19. Gender differences in risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R. Harris

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Across many real-world domains, men engage in more risky behaviors than do women. To examine some of the beliefs and preferences that underlie this difference, 657 participants assessed their likelihood of engaging in various risky activities relating to four different domains (gambling, health, recreation, and social, and reported their perceptions of (1 probability of negative outcomes, (2 severity of potential negative outcomes, and (3 enjoyment expected from the risky activities. Women's greater perceived likelihood of negative outcomes and lesser expectation of enjoyment partially mediated their lower propensity toward risky choices in gambling, recreation, and health domains. Perceptions of severity of potential outcomes was a partial mediator in the gambling and health domains. The genders did not differ in their propensity towards taking social risks. A fifth domain of activities associated with high potential payoffs and fixed minor costs was also assessed. In contrast to other domains, women reported being more likely to engage in behaviors in this domain. This gender difference was partially mediated by women's more optimistic judgments of the probability of good outcomes and of

  20. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Megan E.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Singh, Gerald G.; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such “indirect risks” can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their “at-risk status” designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but—by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here—they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  1. Risk assessment and risk management in managed aquifer recharge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Page, D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents the methodologies used for risk assessment and risk management in MAR in Australia and the European Union, qualitative and quantitative approaches adopted within the RECLAIM Water project and case studies where the outcomes...

  2. Regional scale ecological risk assessment: using the relative risk model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landis, Wayne G

    2005-01-01

    ...) in the performance of regional-scale ecological risk assessments. The initial chapters present the methodology and the critical nature of the interaction between risk assessors and decision makers...

  3. Nano-TiO₂--feasibility and challenges for human health risk assessment based on open literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Frans M; Johnston, Helinor J; Stone, Vicki; Aitken, Robert J; Hankin, Steve; Peters, Sheona; Aschberger, Karin

    2011-06-01

    This study aims at investigating feasibility and challenges associated with conducting a human health risk assessment for nano-titanium-dioxide (nano-TiO₂) based on the open literature by following an approach similar to a classical regulatory risk assessment. Gaps in the available data set, both in relation to exposures and hazard, do not allow reaching any definite conclusions that could be used for regulatory decision-making. Results show that repeated inhalation in the workplace and possibly consumer inhalation may cause risks. Also short-term inhalation following spray applications may cause risks. Main future work should focus on generating occupational and consumer inhalation exposure data, as well as toxicity data on absorption following inhalation, repeated dermal contact, and contact with damaged skin. Also relevant seems further information on possible neurotoxicity and genotoxicity/carcinogenicity, as well as establishing a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for acute inhalation of nano-TiO₂.

  4. Lessons learned: Needs for improving human health risk assessment at USDOE Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.; Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1993-09-01

    Realistic health risk assessments were performed in a pilot study of three U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites. These assessments, covering a broad spectrum of data and methods, were used to identify needs for improving future health risk assessments at USDOE sites. Topics receiving specific recommendations for additional research include: choice of distributions for Monte Carlo simulation; estimation of risk reduction; analysis of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Database on food and nutrient intakes; investigations on effects of food processing on contaminant levels; background food and environmental concentrations of contaminants; method for handling exposures to groundwater plumes, methods for analyzing less than lifetime exposure to carcinogens; and improvement of bioaccumulation factors

  5. Comparative statistical analysis of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects of uranium in groundwater samples from different regions of Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Komal; Singh, Parminder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    LED flourimeter has been used for microanalysis of uranium concentration in groundwater samples collected from six districts of South West (SW), West (W) and North East (NE) Punjab, India. Average value of uranium content in water samples of SW Punjab is observed to be higher than WHO, USEPA recommended safe limit of 30 µg l −1 as well as AERB proposed limit of 60 µg l −1 . Whereas, for W and NE region of Punjab, average level of uranium concentration was within AERB recommended limit of 60 µg l −1 . Average value observed in SW Punjab is around 3–4 times the value observed in W Punjab, whereas its value is more than 17 times the average value observed in NE region of Punjab. Statistical analysis of carcinogenic as well as non carcinogenic risks due to uranium have been evaluated for each studied district. - Highlights: • Uranium level in groundwater samples have been assessed in different regions of Punjab. • Comparative study of carcinogenic and non carcinogenic effects of uranium has been done. • Wide variation has been found for different geological regions. • It has been found that South west Punjab is worst affected by uranium contamination in its water. • For west and north east regions of Punjab, uranium levels in groundwater laid under recommended safe limits.

  6. Acrylamide in Romanian food using HPLC-UV and a health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroian, Mircea; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of acrylamide from coffee, potato chips and French fries in Romanian food. According to the European Food Safety Authority, coffee beans, potato chips and French fries have the highest levels of acrylamide. For this survey, 50 samples of coffee beans, 50 samples of potato chips and 25 samples of French fries were purchased from different producers from the Romanian market. Acrylamide levels have been quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method, using water as mobile phase. Health risk assessment was achieved by computing the average daily intake, hazard quotient, cumulative risk, carcinogenic risk and cancer risk. For coffee, potato chips and French fries, acrylamide was not shown to pose a health risk in Romanian food.

  7. Immunologic methods for monitoring carcinogen exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Regina M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Zhang, Yu J.; Chen, Chen J.; Young, Tie L.

    1993-03-01

    Immunologic methods have been developed for monitoring human exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens. These methods involve the development of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera which specifically recognize the carcinogens themselves or their DNA or protein adducts. Antisera recognizing the DNA adducts of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides have been used in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to monitor adducts in tissue or blood samples. Elevated levels of DNA adducts have been seen in mononuclear cells of smokers and in total white blood cells of foundry and coke oven workers. Environmental exposure to PAH has been measured in individuals living in a highly polluted region of Poland. Antisera recognizing PAH-DNA adducts have also been used in immunohistochemical studies to monitor adducts in specific cells of biopsy samples. The DNA adducts of aflatoxin B1 have been monitored in liver tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Taiwan. Detectable adducts were seen in 50 - 70% of the patients suggesting that dietary exposure to this carcinogen may be a risk factor for cancer induction. Thus, immunoassays for monitoring exposure to carcinogens are an important tool in epidemiologic studies.

  8. Risk assessment of metal vapor arcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C. (Inventor); Leidecker, Henning W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for assessing metal vapor arcing risk for a component is provided. The method comprises acquiring a current variable value associated with an operation of the component; comparing the current variable value with a threshold value for the variable; evaluating compared variable data to determine the metal vapor arcing risk in the component; and generating a risk assessment status for the component.

  9. Model of MSD Risk Assessment at Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    K. Sekulová; M. Šimon

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders risk assessment model at workplace. In this model are used risk factors that are responsible for musculoskeletal system damage. Based on statistic calculations the model is able to define what risk of MSD threatens workers who are under risk factors. The model is also able to say how MSD risk would decrease if these risk factors are eliminated.

  10. Occurrence and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements and typical organic pollutants in contaminated rural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongfeng; Dai, Shixiang; Meng, Ke; Wang, Yuting; Ren, Wenjie; Zhao, Ling; Christie, Peter; Teng, Ying

    2018-07-15

    The residual levels and risk assessment of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rural soils near different types of pollution sources in Tianjin, China, were studied. The soils were found to be polluted to different extents with PTEs, PAEs and PAHs from different pollution sources. The soil concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), acenaphthylene (Any) and acenaphthene (Ane) were higher than their corresponding regulatory reference limits. The health risk assessment model used to calculate human exposure indicates that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from selected pollutants were generally acceptable or close to acceptable. Different types of pollution sources and soil physicochemical properties substantially affected the soil residual concentrations of and risks from these pollutants. PTEs in soils collected from agricultural lands around industrial and residential areas and organic pollutants (PAEs and PAHs) in soils collected from agricultural areas around livestock breeding were higher than those from other types of pollution sources and merit long-term monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk assessment and management in IOR projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodyear, S.G.; Gregory, A.T.

    1994-01-01

    The application of IOR techniques is one of the investment opportunities open to Exploration and Production companies. A project will only go forward if the perceived balance between the rewards and the risks is acceptable. IOR projects may be ruled out because they are considered to involve significantly higher risks than conventional developments. Therefore, some means of evaluating the actual level of risk may be required if the full economic benefits from IOR techniques are to be realized. Risk assessment is a key element in safety cases, where a well-established methodology for quantifying risk exists. This paper discusses the extension of these methods to IOR project risk assessment. Combining reservoir and IOR technique uncertainties with their impact on project performance allows project risk to be better quantified. The results of the risk assessment are presented in terms of a risk-reward diagram that plots the probability surface for possible project outcomes as a function of NPV (reward) and exposure (risk)

  12. Assessment of global and gene-specific DNA methylation in rat liver and kidney in response to non-genotoxic carcinogen exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozden, Sibel, E-mail: stopuz@istanbul.edu.tr [Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Turgut Kara, Neslihan [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Sezerman, Osman Ugur [Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Acibadem University, Istanbul (Turkey); Durasi, İlknur Melis [Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabancı University, Istanbul (Turkey); Chen, Tao [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Demirel, Goksun; Alpertunga, Buket [Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Chipman, J. Kevin [School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Mally, Angela [Department of Toxicology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Altered expression of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, which is regulated in part at the level of DNA methylation, is an important event involved in non-genotoxic carcinogenesis. This may serve as a marker for early detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), methapyrilene (MPY) and male rat kidney carcinogens, d-limonene, p-dichlorobenzene (DCB), chloroform and ochratoxin A (OTA) on global and CpG island promoter methylation in their respective target tissues in rats. No significant dose-related effects on global DNA hypomethylation were observed in tissues of rats compared to vehicle controls using LC–MS/MS in response to short-term non-genotoxic carcinogen exposure. Initial experiments investigating gene-specific methylation using methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing, revealed partial methylation of p16 in the liver of rats treated with HCB and TCDD. However, no treatment related effects on the methylation status of Cx32, e-cadherin, VHL, c-myc, Igfbp2, and p15 were observed. We therefore applied genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation combined with microarrays to identify alterations in gene-specific methylation. Under the conditions of our study, some genes were differentially methylated in response to MPY and TCDD, whereas d-limonene, DCB and chloroform did not induce any methylation changes. 90-day OTA treatment revealed enrichment of several categories of genes important in protein kinase activity and mTOR cell signaling process which are related to OTA nephrocarcinogenicity. - Highlights: • Studied non-genotoxic carcinogens caused no change on global DNA hypomethylation. • d-Limonene, DCB and chloroform did not show any genome-wide methylation changes. • Some genes were differentially methylated in response to MPY, TCDD and OTA. • Protein kinase activity

  13. Assessment of global and gene-specific DNA methylation in rat liver and kidney in response to non-genotoxic carcinogen exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, Sibel; Turgut Kara, Neslihan; Sezerman, Osman Ugur; Durasi, İlknur Melis; Chen, Tao; Demirel, Goksun; Alpertunga, Buket; Chipman, J. Kevin; Mally, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Altered expression of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, which is regulated in part at the level of DNA methylation, is an important event involved in non-genotoxic carcinogenesis. This may serve as a marker for early detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), methapyrilene (MPY) and male rat kidney carcinogens, d-limonene, p-dichlorobenzene (DCB), chloroform and ochratoxin A (OTA) on global and CpG island promoter methylation in their respective target tissues in rats. No significant dose-related effects on global DNA hypomethylation were observed in tissues of rats compared to vehicle controls using LC–MS/MS in response to short-term non-genotoxic carcinogen exposure. Initial experiments investigating gene-specific methylation using methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing, revealed partial methylation of p16 in the liver of rats treated with HCB and TCDD. However, no treatment related effects on the methylation status of Cx32, e-cadherin, VHL, c-myc, Igfbp2, and p15 were observed. We therefore applied genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation combined with microarrays to identify alterations in gene-specific methylation. Under the conditions of our study, some genes were differentially methylated in response to MPY and TCDD, whereas d-limonene, DCB and chloroform did not induce any methylation changes. 90-day OTA treatment revealed enrichment of several categories of genes important in protein kinase activity and mTOR cell signaling process which are related to OTA nephrocarcinogenicity. - Highlights: • Studied non-genotoxic carcinogens caused no change on global DNA hypomethylation. • d-Limonene, DCB and chloroform did not show any genome-wide methylation changes. • Some genes were differentially methylated in response to MPY, TCDD and OTA. • Protein kinase activity

  14. The role of risk assessment in remedial action cleanup programs (RACP): A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessler, R.G.; Bergmann, W.R.; Greenberg, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A RACP (Remedial Action Cleanup Program) selects site cleanup criteria that protect human health and the environment and are cost effective. They generally use existing environmental standards and/or guidelines which include safe drinking water, RCRA groundwater protection, threshold limit values and air quality standards, and recommended soil cleanup level guidelines. If these are the only criteria used, the RACP may be more stringent and expensive than necessary. Another step, a risk assessment program, should then be considered in the cleanup decision process. A risk assessment uses chemical concentrations observed in soils, groundwater, and air to project their impact on human health and the environment. Toxicological data on human exposure to these concentrations (LD 50s and carcinogenic action levels) are used to assess risks to human health and the environment. The risk assessment also considers the probability of exposure. E.g., remedial programs at Superfund sites consider three criteria in order to assess risks to human health and the environment: (1) pathways of exposure, (2) population at risk, and (3) chemicals of concern. By eliminating or severely limiting the significance of any criteria, the site may no longer represent a significant risk. This paper presents a RACP case history where a risk assessment was needed to select a cost effective and environmentally acceptable cleanup program

  15. Methodology of environmental risk assessment management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful protection of environment is mostly based on high-quality assessment of potential and present risks. Environmental risk management is a complex process which includes: identification, assessment and control of risk, namely taking measures in order to minimize the risk to an acceptable level. Environmental risk management methodology: In addition to these phases in the management of environmental risk, appropriate measures that affect the reduction of risk occurrence should be implemented: - normative and legal regulations (laws and regulations, - appropriate organizational structures in society, and - establishing quality monitoring of environment. The emphasis is placed on the application of assessment methodologies (three-model concept, as the most important aspect of successful management of environmental risk. Risk assessment methodology - European concept: The first concept of ecological risk assessment methodology is based on the so-called European model-concept. In order to better understand this ecological risk assessment methodology, two concepts - hazard and risk - are introduced. The European concept of environmental risk assessment has the following phases in its implementation: identification of hazard (danger, identification of consequences (if there is hazard, estimate of the scale of consequences, estimate of consequence probability and risk assessment (also called risk characterization. The European concept is often used to assess risk in the environment as a model for addressing the distribution of stressors along the source - path - receptor line. Risk assessment methodology - Canadian concept: The second concept of the methodology of environmental risk assessment is based on the so-called Canadian model-concept. The assessment of ecological risk includes risk arising from natural events (floods, extreme weather conditions, etc., technological processes and products, agents (chemical, biological, radiological, etc

  16. Chemical-based risk assessment and in vitro models of human health effects induced by organic pollutants in soils from the Olona valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baderna, Diego, E-mail: diego.baderna@marionegri.it; Colombo, Andrea; Amodei, Giorgia; Cantù, Stefano; Teoldi, Federico; Cambria, Felice; Rotella, Giuseppe; Natolino, Fabrizio; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2013-10-01

    Risk assessment of soils is usually based on chemical measurements and assuming accidental soil ingestion and evaluating induced toxic and carcinogenic effects. Recently biological tools have been coupled to chemical-based risk assessment since they integrate the biological effects of all xenobiotics in soils. We employed integrated monitoring of soils based on chemical analyses, risk assessment and in vitro models in the highly urbanized semirural area of the Olona Valley in northern Italy. Chemical characterization of the soils indicated low levels of toxic and carcinogenic pollutants such as PAHs, PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HCB and human risk assessment did not give any significant alerts. HepG2 and BALB/c 3T3 cells were used as a model for the human liver and as a tool for the evaluation of carcinogenic potential. Cells were treated with soil extractable organic matters (EOMs) and the MTS assay, LDH release and morphological transformation were selected as endpoints for toxicity and carcinogenicity. Soil EOMs induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth at low doses and cytotoxicity after exposure to higher doses. This might be the result of block of cell cycle progression to repair DNA damage caused by oxidative stress; if this DNA damage cannot be repaired, cells die. No significant inductions of foci were recorded after exposure to EOMs. These results indicate that, although the extracts contain compounds with proven carcinogenic potential, the levels of these pollutants in the analyzed soils were too low to induce carcinogenesis in our experimental conditions. In this proposed case study, HepG2 cells were found an appropriate tool to assess the potential harm caused by the ingestion of contaminated soil as they were able to detect differences in the toxicity of soil EOMs. Moreover, the cell transformation assay strengthened the combined approach giving useful information on carcinogenic potential of mixtures. Highlights: • A combined approach for risk

  17. Apperception and assessment of technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyos, C.; Hauke, G.

    1986-01-01

    Risk is defined to be the possibility to induce damage or loss. Any person confronted with risk in his activities has to assess the risk in every case. The author explains a number of actions and events that have been worked out to train people in better management of risk, especially in the working environment. (DG) [de

  18. Performing the lockout/tagout risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W Jon

    2007-03-01

    Lockout/tagout provides the greatest level routine, repetitive, and integral to the production process, a risk assessment should be performed. If the task performed poses an unacceptable risk, acceptable risk reduction methods should be implemented to reduce the risk to acceptable levels.

  19. Risk communication in environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahm-Crites, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States). Washington Operations Office

    1996-08-26

    Since the enactment of NEPA and other environmental legislation, the concept of `risk communication` has expanded from simply providing citizens with scientific information about risk to exploring ways of making risk information genuinely meaningful to the public and facilitating public involvement in the very processes whereby risk is analyzed and managed. Contemporary risk communication efforts attempt to find more effective ways of conveying increasingly complex risk information and to develop more democratic and proactive approaches to community involvement, in particular to ensuring the participation of diverse populations in risk decisions. Although considerable progress has been made in a relatively short time, risk communication researchers and practitioners currently face a number of challenges in a time of high expectations, low trust, and low budgets.

  20. Thyroid Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package thyroid implements a risk prediction model developed by NCI researchers to calculate the absolute risk of developing a second primary thyroid cancer (SPTC) in individuals who were diagnosed with a cancer during their childhood.

  1. Is ionizing radiation regulated more stringently than chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Pack, S.R.; Hattemer-Frey, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    It is widely believed that United States government agencies regulate exposure to ionizing radiation more stringently than exposure to chemical carcinogens. It is difficult to verify this perception, however, because chemical carcinogens and ionizing radiation are regulated using vastly different strategies. Chemical carcinogens are generally regulated individually. Regulators consider the risk of exposure to one chemical rather than the cumulative radiation exposure from all sources. Moreover, standards for chemical carcinogens are generally set in terms of quantities released or resultant environmental concentrations, while standards for ionizing radiation are set in terms of dose to the human body. Since chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared on the basis of equal dose to the exposed individual, standards regulating chemicals and ionizing radiation cannot be compared directly. It is feasible, however, to compare the two sets of standards on the basis of equal risk to the exposed individual, assuming that standards for chemicals and ionizing radiation are equivalent if estimated risk levels are equitable. This paper compares risk levels associated with current standards for ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens. The authors do not attempt to determine whether either type of risk is regulated too stringently or not stringently enough but endeavor only to ascertain if ionizing radiation is actually regulated more strictly than chemical carcinogens

  2. INCORPORATING NONCHEMICAL STRESSORS INTO CUMMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk assessment paradigm has begun to shift from assessing single chemicals using "reasonable worst case" assumptions for individuals to considering multiple chemicals and community-based models. Inherent in community-based risk assessment is examination of all stressors a...

  3. Enrichment and assessment of the health risks posed by heavy metals in PM1 in Changji, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu Y; Shen, Ya X; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Hao F

    2017-04-16

    The present study aims to investigate the influence of human activity on heavy metals in a typical arid urban area of China and assess human health risks posed by heavy metals in PM 1 (particles <1.0 μm in diameter) for different people. In this paper, Changji (Xinjiang, China) was selected as the study area, and samples were collected from March 2014 to March 2015. A total 14 elements in PM 1 were quantified using ICP-MS. An enrichment factor (EF) was used to assess the influence of human activity on the contamination of these metals. The results indicated that Mn was not enriched; Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Tl, and V were slightly enriched; Mo, Pb, and Sb were moderately enriched; and Ag, As, and Cd were strongly enriched. To assess the health risks associated with inhaling PM 1 , the risk assessment code and loss in life expectancy based on the individual metals were calculated. The results showed that the elements Ag, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Tl, and V in PM 1 posed low levels of non-carcinogenic risks, but these metals may still pose risks to certain susceptible populations. In addition, the results also showed that As, Co, and Cr posed an appreciable carcinogenic risk, while Cd and Ni posed low levels of carcinogenic risk. The total predicted loss of life expectancy caused by the three metals As, Co, and Ni was 63.67 d for the elderly, 30.95 d for adult males, 26.62 d for adult females, and 48.22 d for children. Therefore, the safety of the elderly and children exposed to PM 1 should be given more attention than the safety of adults. The results from this study demonstrate that the health risks posed by heavy metals in PM 1 in Changji, Xinjiang, China should be examined.

  4. [Urban ecological risk assessment: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-E; Chen, Wei-Ping; Peng, Chi

    2014-03-01

    With the development of urbanization and the degradation of urban living environment, urban ecological risks caused by urbanization have attracted more and more attentions. Based on urban ecology principles and ecological risk assessment frameworks, contents of urban ecological risk assessment were reviewed in terms of driven forces, risk resources, risk receptors, endpoints and integrated approaches for risk assessment. It was suggested that types and degrees of urban economical and social activities were the driven forces for urban ecological risks. Ecological functional components at different levels in urban ecosystems as well as the urban system as a whole were the risk receptors. Assessment endpoints involved in changes of urban ecological structures, processes, functional components and the integrity of characteristic and function. Social-ecological models should be the major approaches for urban ecological risk assessment. Trends for urban ecological risk assessment study should focus on setting a definite protection target and criteria corresponding to assessment endpoints, establishing a multiple-parameter assessment system and integrative assessment approaches.

  5. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  6. Risk assessment theory, methods, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rausand, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    With its balanced coverage of theory and applications along with standards and regulations, Risk Assessment: Theory, Methods, and Applications serves as a comprehensive introduction to the topic. The book serves as a practical guide to current risk analysis and risk assessment, emphasizing the possibility of sudden, major accidents across various areas of practice from machinery and manufacturing processes to nuclear power plants and transportation systems. The author applies a uniform framework to the discussion of each method, setting forth clear objectives and descriptions, while also shedding light on applications, essential resources, and advantages and disadvantages. Following an introduction that provides an overview of risk assessment, the book is organized into two sections that outline key theory, methods, and applications. * Introduction to Risk Assessment defines key concepts and details the steps of a thorough risk assessment along with the necessary quantitative risk measures. Chapters outline...

  7. Risk assessment - black art or science?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.

    1988-01-01

    Measures of risk can be divided into two categories, those that observe or calculate the risk of a process or project, and those that rely on the level of risk as perceived by the people during the assessment. Collection of data of accidents (where cause and effect are obvious) and experiments on animals which can then be extrapolated to humans, are two ways of risk assessment. Mathematical models and computerized simulations, using either fault tree analysis or Monte Carlo methods are explained simply. Using these methods, experts are able to perceive risk fairly realistically. However, the general public's perception of risk is often quite different, as potential risk is assessed in different ways. The concept of tolerable risk is considered, particularly with reference to nuclear reactors such as Sizewell-B. The need to inform the public of safeguards and safety procedures so they have a better understanding of the risks of nuclear power is stressed. (U.K.)

  8. Facts and values in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, Frank B.

    1998-01-01

    Risk, as commonly understood, is a complex melange of facts, values, and fears. While this complexity of public risk perception is now broadly recognized, its implications are insufficiently explored. Public risk perceptions offer p poor guide for public policymaking. Popular assessments of risk are tainted by misinformation and unreliable heuristics. While subjective considerations, often called values, play a role in public perception of risk, those 'values' are often inappropriate for government decisionmaking. Reliance on public perceptions of risk means more premature deaths. Public risk perception also is systematically skewed contrary to the interests of the disadvantaged. Strict probabilistic risk measures generally provide a superior guide for government regulatory policy

  9. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in the vegetable bases of northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawut, Rukeya; Kasim, Nijat; Maihemuti, Balati; Hu, Li; Abliz, Abdugheni; Abdujappar, Abdusalam; Kurban, Miradil

    2018-06-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate heavy metal contamination in four major vegetable bases and determine the health risks of residents in the vicinity of the highly urbanized city Urumqi in Xinjiang, China. In this paper, we determined the contents of six heavy metals (i.e., As, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb) in surface soil and groundwater to evaluate the levels of heavy metal pollution and human health risks using the pollution index (PI), the Nemerow integrated pollution index (NIPI), the ecological risk factor (E i r ), risk index (RI) and the health risk assessment model. The results showed that (1) The PI, NIPI, the ecological risk factor and risk index indicated that Cd and Hg were the primary pollutants in Sishihu village. These indices suggested moderate to slightly heavy potential ecological risks. In Anningqu town, Hg and Cd led to high levels of pollution and posed slightly heavy potential ecological risks. In Qinggedahu village, it was concluded that the metals Zn, Cr, Cd, Hg, and Pb caused moderate to heavy pollution. In Liushihu village, the pollution trends in the area were low. The results of the pollution level of the irrigation well water (i.e., groundwater) indicated that the well water was considerably safer than the soil, but Cr posed a slight pollution risk. (2) The non-carcinogenic risks for adults based on the HI values of these four vegetable bases were  Sishihu village > Anningqu town. For children, the carcinogenic risks posed by As through trough inhalation and ingestion were the main exposure pathways. From the TCR results, it can be seen that in Sishihu village, Anningqu town, and Qinggedahu village, the TCR values for adults and children were >1 × 10 -4 (unitless), and this degree of carcinogenic risk is unacceptable. (3) The identification of risk sources determined the main pollution sources affecting the vegetable bases were human activities and natural sources. Anthropogenic activities were most often related to

  10. Life Cycle Assessment and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for environmental assessment of product and systems – over the whole life cycle from acquisition of raw materials to the end-of-life of the product – and encompassing all environmental impacts of emissions and resource usage, e.g. global warming, acidification...... cycle. The models for assessing toxic impacts in LCA are to a large extent based on those developed for RA, e.g. EUSES, and require basic information about the inherent properties of the emissions like solubility, LogKow,ED50 etc. Additionally, it is a prerequisite to know how to characterize...

  11. Modeling for operational event risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattison, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has been using risk models to evaluate the risk significance of operational events in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants for more seventeen years. During that time, the models have evolved in response to the advances in risk assessment technology and insights gained with experience. Evaluation techniques fall into two categories, initiating event assessments and condition assessments. The models used for these analyses have become uniquely specialized for just this purpose

  12. Risk Assessment in the Maritime Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mousavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is a well-developed field which many operators are currently applying to improve their operations and reduce their risk exposure. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the risk assessment for mariners in the Maritime transportation. The risks addressed are primarily those affecting the safety of a vessel, facility or operation. The concept of risk is defined, and the methods available to assess the risks associated with an operation are described. Regulatory requirements that have prompted the development of modern risk assessment practices are described, and future regulatory trends are discussed. There are many different analysis techniques and models that have been developed to aid in conducting risk assessments. A key to any successful risk analysis is choosing the right method (or combination of methods for the situation at hand. This is achieved through critical analysis of the available data concerning marine crises. This paper provides a brief introduction to some of the analysis methods available and suggests risk analysis approaches to support different types of decision making within the maritime transportation to cope with crises. Finally, as awareness of risk assessment increases, the benefits which can be realized through its application will continue to increase. Organizations in both the public and the private sector are becoming more and more familiar with the benefits associated with risk-based approaches to managing safety and consequently reducing crisis in maritime transportation.

  13. Long-term composition dynamics of PAH-containing NAPLs and implications for risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, C.A.; Knightes, C.D.; Brown, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Subsurface contaminants such as coal tar, creosote, diesel fuel, and other petroleum-derived materials typically exist as very complex chemical mixtures. Risk assessment is useful for site management if a single metric can represent the composition-dependent risk profile of the mixture. This paper examines the factors governing human health risk assessment for multicomponent nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A model is presented describing the interdependence of the dissolution rates of individual compounds and the shifts in the NAPL composition that occur due to the large differences in aqueous solubilities. The model also accounts for solidification of the less soluble NAPL constituents. Thirty-year numerical simulations describe composition dynamics for natural environmental processes as well as three remediation processes: pump-and-treat, bioremediation, and solvent extraction. Carcinogenic risk due to ingestion of contaminated groundwater at the source is estimated, and its dependence on contaminant removal and NAPL composition shifts is described. When composition dynamics are slow, a compound like naphthalene has great potential to contribute to risk because it may persist in groundwater. When there is significant depletion of the lower molecular weight compounds, the risk is dominated by contributions from compounds such as benzo[a]pyrene. Remediation technologies have the greatest potential for risk reduction if they are effective in removing the more carcinogenic, high molecular weight compounds. Because PAHs can contribute to risk for different reasons and because of the interdependence of their behaviors, compositional approaches lead to better risk predictions for PAHs than simple lumped metrics such as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban soil of Novi Sad, Serbia: occurrence and cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrbić, Biljana D; Đurišić-Mladenović, Nataša; Tadić, Đorđe J; Cvejanov, Jelena Đ

    2017-07-01

    Contents of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in 30 soil samples from 15 locations in Novi Sad, Serbia, assessing for the first time the corresponding health risks in the Serbian urban zone. Total concentrations were in the range of 22-2247 μg kg -1 , with a mean and median value of 363 and 200 μg kg -1 , respectively. Comparison with the relevant maximum allowed contents proposed by the Serbian government and with the Dutch target values implied that soils from the urban area of Novi Sad were "suitable as residential soils" and that no intervention would be needed if the current levels were retained. Seven diagnostic ratios were calculated, indicating the pyrogenic sources of PAHs as the dominant. Cancer risks in humans via accidental ingestion, inhalation of soil particles, and dermal contact with soil were estimated. Cancer risk for soil ingestion by children was the highest. The total lifetime carcinogenic risk as sum of individual cancer risks for seven carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was within the range 10 -4 to 10 -6 , indicating acceptable risks at 30 and 47% of sites for children and adults, respectively. However, for the rest of the samples, total lifetime cancer risk was >10 -4 indicating over the acceptable risk, even though the contents in soil were not of concern as the comparison with the environmental guidance previously showed. This could be explained by (a) the dominant concentrations of higher molecular weight compounds with 4 to 6 rings, among which there are compounds with higher toxicity equivalents, but also with (b) the extreme conditions used for the conservative risk assessment under maximal exposure frequency, exposure time, and ingestion rates.

  15. RELEVANCE OF PROCESS RISK ASSESSMENT IN AIRLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana G. Feoktistova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of “the concept on assumed risk” that took over from the outdated concept of absolute security is analyzed, the increasing significance of operating risk assessment at the present stage is noted. Some basic risk assessment techniques are considered. Matrix technique of risk assessment is considered more thoroughly, and it may be used in risk assessment of airlines in the context of labour protection management system.The ability to correctly assess risks and develop appropriate precautionary measures will allow airlines to avoid incidents leading to drastic consequences for staff, as well as to direct and indirect costs for the enterprise among which there could be singled out both direct property damage and loss of profit and expenses connected to incident investigation, penalty and compensation payment, loss of business reputation and so on. To reduce the rate of accidents and to develop safe activities skills for airlines staff a risk assessment chart is supposed to be implemented, which will be an efficient accidents prevention involving the staff in the process and making them follow safe working conditions.Process risk assessment is an integral part of assessment of the whole enterprise activity and work efficiency of a department and particular workers evaluation system. Labour protection activity should be based on risk identification and its control. Risk assessment is a keystone of labour protection activity planning.

  16. Advanced Test Reactor outage risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, T.A.; Atkinson, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Beginning in 1997, risk assessment was performed for each Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) outage aiding the coordination of plant configuration and work activities (maintenance, construction projects, etc.) to minimize the risk of reactor fuel damage and to improve defense-in-depth. The risk assessment activities move beyond simply meeting Technical Safety Requirements to increase the awareness of risk sensitive configurations, to focus increased attention on the higher risk activities, and to seek cost-effective design or operational changes that reduce risk. A detailed probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) had been performed to assess the risk of fuel damage during shutdown operations including heavy load handling. This resulted in several design changes to improve safety; however, evaluation of individual outages had not been performed previously and many risk insights were not being utilized in outage planning. The shutdown PRA provided the necessary framework for assessing relative and absolute risk levels and assessing defense-in-depth. Guidelines were written identifying combinations of equipment outages to avoid. Screening criteria were developed for the selection of work activities to receive review. Tabulation of inherent and work-related initiating events and their relative risk level versus plant mode has aided identification of the risk level the scheduled work involves. Preoutage reviews are conducted and post-outage risk assessment is documented to summarize the positive and negative aspects of the outage with regard to risk. The risk for the outage is compared to the risk level that would result from optimal scheduling of the work to be performed and to baseline or average past performance

  17. Human Health Risk Assessment of Trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, Saemi; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the human health risks of trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A. The excessive carcinogenic risks for central tendency exposure were 1.40 ? 10?5 for male and female residents in the vicinity of Industrial Complex A. The excessive cancers risk for reasonable maximum exposure were 2.88 ? 10?5 and 1.97 ? 10?5 for males and females, respectively. These values indicate that there are potential cancer risks for exposure to these concentrations. The hazard index for cen...

  18. Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2010-01-01

    The Tin Whisker Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool has been designed to evaluate the risk of metal vapor arcing and to help facilitate a decision toward a researched risk disposition. Users can evaluate a system without having to open up the hardware. This process allows for investigating components at risk rather than spending time and money analyzing every component. The tool points to a risk level and provides direction for appropriate action and documentation.

  19. Energy and environment: Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1993-01-01

    Two problems connected to the concept of 'risk' were analyzed: nuclear power production and global climate changes. In fact, nuclear power, despite of the risk management of the plants, does not produce gaseous emissions and can be used to reduce environmental risks. Even if a cost benefit analysis of nuclear power is very difficult, to perform it is author's opinion that, very probably, industrial countries will continue to use this form of energy

  20. CEA: risk management assessment 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, Bernard; Bonnevie, Edwige; Maillot, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This report proposes a qualitative and quantitative overview of CEA activities in the field of risk management during 2011. These activities concerned the impact on the environment, the safety of installations, the management of professional risks (safety and health at work), the radiological protection of workers, the transports of hazardous materials, waste management, protection of sites, installations and heritage, the management of emergency situations, the management of law risks, controls and audits

  1. CEA - 2014 risk management assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnevie, Edwige; Verwaerde, Daniel; Maillot, Bernard

    2015-06-01

    After introducing presentations of CEA managers in charge of risk management and controls, this document presents and comments the actions undertaken by the CEA and the obtained results in terms of risk management in different fields: protection and control of the environment, installation safety, health, safety and radiation protection, transport of hazardous materials, waste management, protection of sites, installations and heritage, management of emergency situations, management of legal risks, internal audits and controls. Other topics are addressed like the presentation of the risk management department, and the role of the CEA in the relationship between research and industry

  2. Environmental Comparative Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Health and environmental impacts associated with energy production and industrial activities as well as food production and agricultural activities have had great concern in the last decades. Early activities emerged in late 80s of the last century through an Inter- Agency project (lAEA, UNDY, WHO, ... ) on the comparative risk assessment from energy systems and industrial complexes. A work-shop on Risk Assessment and Management in large industrial areas was held in Alexandria Egypt on 20-33 Det 1993, sponsored by IAEA. Several conferences, experts work groups and workshops were held there of Recent trends in determining risks are: 1. Use of probabilistic risk assessment approach to identify hazardous activities and accident scenario. 2. development of data base on failure probabilities and appropriate physical models. 3. Development of related directives and regulations and criteria Comparative risk assessment case study as a tool for comparing risk is emphasized Criteria of exposure to human and ecological risks are addressed

  3. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  4. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Tutorial - Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) primer that organizes QMRA tutorials. The tutorials describe functionality of a QMRA infrastructure, guide the user through software use and assessment options, provide step-by-step instructions for implementi...

  5. Assessing reservoir operations risk under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, L.D.; Maurer, E.P.; Anderson, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Townsley, E.S.; Harrison, A.; Pruitt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Risk-based planning offers a robust way to identify strategies that permit adaptive water resources management under climate change. This paper presents a flexible methodology for conducting climate change risk assessments involving reservoir operations. Decision makers can apply this methodology to their systems by selecting future periods and risk metrics relevant to their planning questions and by collectively evaluating system impacts relative to an ensemble of climate projection scenarios (weighted or not). This paper shows multiple applications of this methodology in a case study involving California's Central Valley Project and State Water Project systems. Multiple applications were conducted to show how choices made in conducting the risk assessment, choices known as analytical design decisions, can affect assessed risk. Specifically, risk was reanalyzed for every choice combination of two design decisions: (1) whether to assume climate change will influence flood-control constraints on water supply operations (and how), and (2) whether to weight climate change scenarios (and how). Results show that assessed risk would motivate different planning pathways depending on decision-maker attitudes toward risk (e.g., risk neutral versus risk averse). Results also show that assessed risk at a given risk attitude is sensitive to the analytical design choices listed above, with the choice of whether to adjust flood-control rules under climate change having considerably more influence than the choice on whether to weight climate scenarios. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Maternal-Fetal Cancer Risk Assessment of Ochratoxin A during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chit Shing Jackson Woo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has demonstrated that in utero exposure to environmental chemicals may interfere with fetal development and increase the risk of disease and cancer development later in life. Ochratoxin A (OTA has been proven to induce diverse toxic effects including teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity and potential endocrine disruption. Due to the continuous and widespread occurrence of OTA as a potential contaminant of staple foods, there is increasing concern of in utero exposure of fetus to this mycotoxin. In this study, maternal-fetal risk assessment of OTA during pregnancy was conducted using the benchmark dose approach for genotoxic carcinogens. The daily intake of OTA for Egyptian pregnant women was estimated based on their serum OTA level using the refined Klaassen equation for pregnancy. Fetal exposure level was also estimated based on the maternal data. Comparison between the estimated daily exposure and the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI, and the calculation of margin of exposure (MOE implicated that OTA exposure from dietary intake would be of low health concern for this general subpopulation of Egyptian women. This subpopulation of pregnant women was generally estimated not to be in high-risk for toxicity induced by OTA.

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their Bioaccessibility in Meat: a Tool for Assessing Human Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Elliyana Nadia; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Selamat, Jinap; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are primarily formed as a result of thermal treatment of food, especially barbecuing or grilling. Contamination by PAHs is due to generation by direct pyrolysis of food nutrients and deposition from smoke produced through incomplete combustion of thermal agents. PAHs are ubiquitous compounds, well-known to be carcinogenic, which can reach the food in different ways. As an important human exposure pathway of contaminants, dietary intake of PAHs is of increasing concern for assessing cancer risk in the human body. In addition, the risks associated with consumption of barbecued meat may increase if consumers use cooking practices that enhance the concentrations of contaminants and their bioaccessibility. Since total PAHs always overestimate the actual amount that is available for absorption by the body, bioaccessibility of PAHs is to be preferred. Bioaccessibility of PAHs in food is the fraction of PAHs mobilized from food matrices during gastrointestinal digestion. An in vitro human digestion model was chosen for assessing the bioaccessibility of PAHs in food as it offers a simple, rapid, low cost alternative to human and animal studies; providing insights which may not be achievable in in vivo studies. Thus, this review aimed not only to provide an overview of general aspects of PAHs such as the formation, carcinogenicity, sources, occurrence, and factors affecting PAH concentrations, but also to enhance understanding of bioaccessibility assessment using an in vitro digestion model.

  8. Blood proteins as carcinogen dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, S.R.; Skipper, P.L.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of quantifying exposure to genotoxins in a given individual represents a formidable challenge. In this paper methods which rely on the covalent binding of carcinogens and their metabolites to blood proteins are described. That carcinogens interact with proteins as well as with DNA has been established, although whether protein-carcinogen adducts can result in genetic damage has not been established. It has been shown, however, that the amount of a protein carcinogen adduct formed may be used as a quantitative measure of exposure to a carcinogen. Such a measure presumably is reflective of the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of the compound in an exposed individual. Protein adduction may reflect exposure in a time-frame of weeks to months. Thus, protein adduct measurement is a form of human chemical dosimetry. Hemoglobin and albumin are promising candidates for such dosimeters. Hemoglobin has a lifetime of about 120 days in humans; thus, circulating levels of carcinogen-modified hemoglobin will reflect the level of carcinogen exposure during a period of nearly four months. It also possesses some metabolic competence, particularly, the ability to oxidize aromatic hydroxylamines to nitroso compounds which react quite efficiently with sulfhydryl groups. Albumin has a half-life of 20 to 25 days in man. This protein does not possess metabolic capacity other than, perhaps, some esterase activity. In contrast to hemoglobin, though, it is not protected by the erythrocyte membrane and might be the target for a greater number of carcinogens. It is present and is synthesized in the same cells in which the reactive metabolic intermediates of carcinogens are mostly formed - the hepatocytes. Also, albumin has a number of high-affinity binding sites for a broad spectrum of xenobiotics and endobiotics. 25 refs., 1 tab

  9. Evidence supporting product standards for carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Stepanov, Irina; Severson, Herb; Jensen, Joni A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Horn, Kimberly; Khariwala, Samir S; Martin, Julia; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States vary significantly in yields of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). With the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the Food and Drug Administration now has the authority to establish product standards. However, limited data exist determining the relative roles of pattern of smokeless tobacco use versus constituent levels in the smokeless tobacco product in exposure of users to carcinogens. In this study, smokeless tobacco users of brands varying in nicotine and TSNA content were recruited from three different regions in the U.S. Participants underwent two assessment sessions. During these sessions, demographic and smokeless tobacco use history information along with urine samples to assess biomarkers of exposure and effect were collected. During the time between data collection, smokeless tobacco users recorded the amount and duration of smokeless tobacco use on a daily basis using their diary cards. Results showed that independent of pattern of smokeless tobacco use and nicotine yields, levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products played a significant role in carcinogen exposure levels. Product standards for reducing levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products are necessary to decrease exposure to these toxicants and potentially to reduce risk for cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. High Level of Tobacco Carcinogen-Derived DNA Damage in Oral Cells Is an Independent Predictor of Oral/Head and Neck Cancer Risk in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S; Ma, Bin; Ruszczak, Chris; Carmella, Steven G; Lindgren, Bruce; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Hecht, Stephen S; Stepanov, Irina

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is recognized to play an important role in the development of oral/head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). We recently reported higher levels of TSNA-associated DNA adducts in the oral cells of smokers with HNSCC as compared with cancer-free smokers. In this study, we further investigated the tobacco constituent exposures in the same smokers to better understand the potential causes for the elevated oral DNA damage in smokers with HNSCC. Subjects included cigarette smokers with HNSCC (cases, n = 30) and cancer-free smokers (controls, n = 35). At recruitment, tobacco/alcohol use questionnaires were completed, and urine and oral cell samples were obtained. Analysis of urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and N '-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN; TSNA biomarkers), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP, a PAH), cotinine, 3'-hydroxycotinine, and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) were performed. Cases and controls differed in mean age, male preponderance, and frequency of alcohol consumption (but not total alcoholic drinks). Univariate analysis revealed similar levels of NNN, 1-HOP, and cotinine between groups but, as reported previously, significantly higher DNA adduct formation in the cases. Multiple regression adjusting for potential confounders showed persistent significant difference in DNA adduct levels between cases and controls [ratio of geometric means, 20.0; 95% CI, 2.7-148.6). Our cohort of smokers with HNSCC demonstrates higher levels of TSNA-derived oral DNA damage in the setting of similar exposure to nicotine and tobacco carcinogens. Among smokers, DNA adduct formation may act as a predictor of eventual development of HNSCC that is independent of carcinogen exposure indicators. Cancer Prev Res; 10(9); 507-13. ©2017 AACR See related editorial by Johnson and Bauman, p. 489 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Carcinogenicity of soil extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbak, N P

    1970-01-01

    A total of 270 3-mo-old mice, hybrids of the C57BL and CBA strains which are highly susceptible to carcinogens, were painted on the skin (2-3 admin./week) with 3-4 drops of (1) a concentrated benzene extract of soil taken near a petroleum refinery with a 3,4 benzpyrene (BP) content of 0.22%; (2) a 0.22% soln of pure BP in benzene; (3) a concentrated benzene extract of soil taken from an old residential area of Moscow (BP content 0.0004%); (4) a 0.0004% BP soln in benzene; and (5) pure benzene. Only mice in the first 2 groups developed tumors. In group (1), 8 mice had papillomas, 46 had skin cancer, 1 had a sarcoma and 2 had plasmocytomas. In group (2) all 60 animals had skin cancer. Lung metastases were present at autopsy in 5 mice in group (1) and in 10 mice in group (2); in some cases, these tumors were multiple. Lymph node metastases were found in 6 mice in group (1) and in 10 mice in group (2). Tumors developed more slowly in group (1) than in group (2).

  12. Information security risk assessment, aggregation, and mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Voss, T.; Wang, H.; Pieprzyk, J.; Varadharajan, V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of their compliance process with the Basel 2 operational risk management requirements, banks must define how they deal with information security risk management. In this paper we describe work in progress on a new quantitative model to assess and aggregate information security risks that is

  13. Genetic toxicology and cancer risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choy, Wai Nang

    2001-01-01

    ... their risks to humans are obvious goals for the protection of public health. When exposure is unavoidable, an accurate estimation of human risk as a result of exposure is essential for making regulatory decisions. Quantitative cancer risk assessment is an intricate process that utilizes knowledge from many different scien...

  14. Bahia State, Brazil : Ariculture Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Diego; Caballero, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The present study is part of an effort by the World Bank and the State of Bahia to assess agriculture sector risks as a contribution to the strategic economic development and poverty reduction agenda of the state government. It is composed of two phases: an agricultural sector risk identification and prioritization (volume one) and a risk management strategy and action plan (volume two). T...

  15. Low-frequency fields - health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, J.

    1993-01-01

    The author briefly reviews the biological actions and effects of low-frequency fields, epidemiological studies and discusses health risks in detail. He describes the assessment principles of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), medical principles for risk assessment, determination of limits and thesholds, and aspects of prevention. This is supplemented to by several fables and literature list. (Uhe) [de

  16. Evaluation of a constipation risk assessment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernike, W; Henderson, A

    1999-06-01

    This project was undertaken in order to evaluate the utility of a constipation risk assessment scale and the accompanying bowel management protocol. The risk assessment scale was primarily introduced to teach and guide staff in managing constipation when caring for patients. The intention of the project was to reduce the incidence of constipation in patients during their admission to hospital.

  17. Recovery in environmental risk assessment at EFSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    EFSA performs environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for single potential stressors such as plant protection products, genetically modified organisms and feed additives and for invasive alien species that are harmful for plant health. In this risk assessment domain, the EFSA Scientific Committee

  18. Explaining probalistic risk assessment in common language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Probabilistic human health risk assessment is explained in ordinary language using a hypothetical example and the ingestion equation from EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund. A section on understanding probabilities and probability distributions used in a Monte Carlo simulation is included as well as an appendix showing the computer run and the technical assumptions behind it

  19. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to

  20. A biological basis for the linear non-threshold dose-response relationship for low-level carcinogen exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter examines low-level dose-response relationships in terms of the two-stage mouse tumorigenesis model. Analyzes the feasibility of the linear non-threshold dose-response model which was first adopted for use in the assessment of cancer risks from ionizing radiation and more recently from chemical carcinogens. Finds that both the interaction of B(a)P with epidermal DNA of the mouse skin and the dose-response relationship for the initiation stage of mouse skin tumorigenesis showed a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship. Concludes that low level exposure to environmental carcinogens has a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship with the carcinogen acting as an initiator and the promoting action being supplied by the factors that are responsible for the background cancer rate in the target tissue

  1. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site

  2. Risk Assessment for an Unmanned Merchant Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ø.J. Rødseth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The MUNIN project is doing a feasibility study on an unmanned bulk carrier on an intercontinental voyage. To develop the technical and operational concepts, MUNIN has used a risk-based design method, based on the Formal Safety Analysis method which is also recommended by the International Mari-time Organization. Scenario analysis has been used to identify risks and to simplify operational scope. Systematic hazard identification has been used to find critical safety and security risks and how to address these. Technology and operational concept testing is using a hypothesis-based test method, where the hypotheses have been created as a result of the risk assessment. Finally, the cost-benefit assessment will also use results from the risk assessment. This paper describes the risk assessment method, some of the most important results and also describes how the results have been or will be used in the different parts of the project.

  3. Hanford Site Risk Assessment Methodology. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and ecological evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigations (RI) and the Resource conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) facility investigations (FI) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1994), referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and ecological risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site

  4. Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA): transforming the way we assess health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela R D; Dotson, G Scott; Maier, Andrew

    2012-10-16

    Human health risk assessments continue to evolve and now focus on the need for cumulative risk assessment (CRA). CRA involves assessing the combined risk from coexposure to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors for varying health effects. CRAs are broader in scope than traditional chemical risk assessments because they allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of the interaction between different stressors and their combined impact on human health. Future directions of CRA include greater emphasis on local-level community-based assessments; integrating environmental, occupational, community, and individual risk factors; and identifying and implementing common frameworks and risk metrics for incorporating multiple stressors.

  5. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehashi, Anna; Wei, Min; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P 450 inducers, such as phenobarbital, α-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate

  6. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakehashi, Anna; Wei, Min [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-Ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Shoji [Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2445 Hirasawa, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0015 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail: wani@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-Ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2013-10-28

    This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P{sub 450} inducers, such as phenobarbital, α-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.

  7. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Wanibuchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P450 inducers, such as phenobarbital, a-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.

  8. Ethical dimensions in assessing technical risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbacher, D.

    1991-01-01

    Contrary to the present tendency of partially impact-independent technology assessment, the author does not see a difference between a risk-benefit analysis and an ethical technology assessment. As long as the risk-benefit analysis is truly comprehensive, both fall together. This does not mean that convictions of those who have their doubts about some new technologies, independently of impact assessments, may be disregarded in purely consequential risk evaluations. On the contrary, qualms of representatives of these principles, just as any other stable non-acceptance, have to be included as aggravating negative elements in technology assessments. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Quantified risk assessment - a nuclear industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief summary of the methodology used for the assessment of risk arising from fuel handling and dismantling operations in advanced gas-cooled reactor power stations. The difficulties with and problems arising from such risk assessments are discussed. In particular, difficulties arise from (i) the onerous risk criteria that nuclear plants are expected to satisfy, (ii) the necessary complexity of the plant, (iii) the conflicting requirements for the fault consequence assessments to be bounding but not grossly pessimistic, and (iv) areas of fault frequency assessment which contain possibly subjective considerations such as software and common mode failure. (author)

  10. The evolution of violence risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, John; Skeem, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    Many instruments have been published in recent years to improve the ability of mental health clinicians to estimate the likelihood that an individual will behave violently toward others. Increasingly, these instruments are being applied in response to laws that require specialized risk assessments. In this review, we present a framework that goes beyond the "clinical" and "actuarial" dichotomy to describe a continuum of structured approaches to risk assessment. Despite differences among them, there is little evidence that one instrument predicts violence better than another. We believe that these group-based instruments are useful for assessing an individual's risk, and that the instrument should be chosen based on the purpose of the assessment.

  11. IARC monographs: 40 years of evaluating carcinogenic hazards to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Neil; Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M; Armstrong, Bruce K; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Beland, Frederick A; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Birnbaum, Linda S; Brownson, Ross C; Bucher, John R; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W; Christiani, David C; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A; Dement, John M; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A; Engel, Lawrence S; Fenske, Richard A; Fleming, Lora E; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H; Lynch, Charles F; Lynge, Elsebeth; 't Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J; McLaughlin, John R; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Cristian; Olshan, Andrew F; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P; Perry, Melissa J; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandler, Dale P; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra T; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H; Smith, Martyn T; Spinelli, John J; Spitz, Margaret R; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W; Stewart, Patricia A; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G; Ward, Elizabeth M; Weinberg, Clarice R; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia Hoar

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans. The authors of this Commentary are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We examined criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. Here, we present the results of that examination, review the history of IARC evaluations, and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed. We concluded that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various disciplines and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed. The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public's health.

  12. On risk assessment of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunii, Katsuhiko

    2005-07-01

    Today we cannot ignore the risk of health and/or environment by energy production such as power generation since the risk has been made large enough. In this report an information survey has been done in order to know the outline and points of risk assessment. Based on the information of reports and literature about risk assessment, have been surveyed mainly the external cost assessment of power generation (in which quantification of health and/or environment risk has been done), in addition, risks of disasters, accidents, investments, finance etc. and impacts of those risks on social activities. The remarks obtained by the survey are as follows: 1) Some of external cost assessment of power generation show different results even if the assessment conditions of technology, site, etc. are mostly the same. It is necessary to remark on the information such as basic data, model, background, application limit of assessment considering the reliability. 2) Especially it is considered that the reliability of risk assessment is not enough at present because of the lack of basic data. (author)

  13. RISK MANAGEMENT: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO RISK MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo Alina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to offer an overview over risk management cycle by focusing on prioritization and treatment, in order to ensure an integrated approach to risk management and assessment, and establish the ‘top 8-12’ risks report within the organization. The interface with Internal Audit is ensured by the implementation of the scoring method to prioritize risks collected from previous generated risk report. Methodology/approach: Using evidence from other research in ...

  14. Approaches and methods of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The classification system of risk assessment includes the categories: 1) risk comparisons, 2) cost-effectiveness of risk reduction, 3) balancing of costs, risks and benefits against one another, 4. Metasystems. An overview of methods and systems reveals that no single method can be applied to all cases and situations. The visibility of the process and the absolute consideration of all aspects of judging are, however, of first and fore most importance. (DG) [de

  15. Risk assessment: A regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palecek, M [Occupational Safety Research Institute, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1992-07-01

    An assessment of the region of North Bohemia which suffered from forty years socialist economy and heavy emissions from German and Polish factories and power stations is presented. The case strongly underlines the need for regional and international cooperation both in the assessment of hazards and finding solution to public health and environmental problems.

  16. Risk assessment: A regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palecek, M.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the region of North Bohemia which suffered from forty years socialist economy and heavy emissions from German and Polish factories and power stations is presented. The case strongly underlines the need for regional and international cooperation both in the assessment of hazards and finding solution to public health and environmental problems

  17. Report on carcinogens monograph on 1-bromopropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on 1 bromopropane for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for 1 bromopropane in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to 1-bromopropane. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on 1 bromopropane, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that 1 bromopropane be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found inhalation exposure to 1-bromopropane caused skin tumors in male rats, large intestine tumors in female and male rats, and lung tumors in female mice. Also noted was that 1 bromopropane, either directly or via reactive metabolites, caused molecular alterations that typically are associated with carcinogenesis, including genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and glutathione depletion. These alterations, observed in mainly in vitro and toxicity studies in rodents, are relevant to possible mechanisms of human carcinogenicity and support the relevance of the cancer studies in

  18. A mode-of-action approach for the identification of genotoxic carcinogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lya G Hernández

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between clastogens and aneugens is vital in cancer risk assessment because the default assumption is that clastogens and aneugens have linear and non-linear dose-response curves, respectively. Any observed non-linearity must be supported by mode of action (MOA analyses where biological mechanisms are linked with dose-response evaluations. For aneugens, the MOA has been well characterised as disruptors of mitotic machinery where chromosome loss via micronuclei (MN formation is an accepted endpoint used in risk assessment. In this study we performed the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and immunofluorescence mitotic machinery visualisation in human lymphoblastoid (AHH-1 and Chinese Hamster fibroblast (V79 cell lines after treatment with the aneugen 17-β-oestradiol (E₂. Results were compared to previously published data on bisphenol-A (BPA and Rotenone data. Two concentration-response approaches (the threshold-[Td] and benchmark-dose [BMD] approaches were applied to derive a point of departure (POD for in vitro MN induction. BMDs were also derived from the most sensitive carcinogenic endpoint. Ranking comparisons of the PODs from the in vitro MN and the carcinogenicity studies demonstrated a link between these two endpoints for BPA, E₂ and Rotenone. This analysis was extended to include 5 additional aneugens, 5 clastogens and 3 mutagens and further concentration and dose-response correlations were observed between PODs from the in vitro MN and carcinogenicity. This approach is promising and may be further extended to other genotoxic carcinogens, where MOA and quantitative information from the in vitro MN studies could be used in a quantitative manner to further inform cancer risk assessment.

  19. Risk assessment for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detected in (herbal) teas and plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Mulder, Patrick P J; Louisse, Jochem; Peijnenburg, Ad; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are plant metabolites present in some botanical preparations, with especially 1,2-unsaturated PAs being of concern because they are genotoxic carcinogens. This study presents an overview of tumour data on PAs and points of departure (PODs) derived from them, corroborating that the BMDL 10 for lasiocarpine represents a conservative POD for risk assessment. A risk assessment using this BMDL 10 and mean levels of PAs reported in literature for (herbal) teas, indicates that consumption of one cup of tea a day would result in MOE values lower than 10 000 for several types of (herbal) teas, indicating a priority for risk management for these products A refined risk assessment using interim relative potency (REP) factors showed that based on the mean PA levels, 7(54%) of 13 types of (herbal) teas and 1 (14%) of 7 types of plant food supplements (PFS) resulted in MOE values lower than 10 000, indicating a priority for risk management also for these products in particular. This includes both preparations containing PA-producing and non-PA-producing plants. Our study provides insight in the current state-of-the art and limitations in the risk assessment of PA-containing food products, especially (herbal) teas and PFS, indicating that PAs in food presents a field of interest for current and future risk management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioral, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. Methods We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and trends in exposure by age group......, sex, year, and geography for 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2015. This study included 388 risk-outcome pairs that met World Cancer Research Fund-defined criteria for convincing or probable evidence. We extracted relative risk...... pollution; reductions in risk-deleted DALY rates rather than reductions in exposure drove these declines. Rising exposure contributed to notable increases in attributable DALYs from high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, occupational carcinogens, and drug use. Environmental risks and childhood...

  1. An analysis of pharmaceutical experience with decades of rat carcinogenicity testing: support for a proposal to modify current regulatory guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistare, Frank D; Morton, Daniel; Alden, Carl; Christensen, Joel; Keller, Douglas; Jonghe, Sandra De; Storer, Richard D; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Kraynak, Andrew; Trela, Bruce; Bienvenu, Jean-Guy; Bjurström, Sivert; Bosmans, Vanessa; Brewster, David; Colman, Karyn; Dominick, Mark; Evans, John; Hailey, James R; Kinter, Lewis; Liu, Matt; Mahrt, Charles; Marien, Dirk; Myer, James; Perry, Richard; Potenta, Daniel; Roth, Arthur; Sherratt, Philip; Singer, Thomas; Slim, Rabih; Soper, Keith; Fransson-Steen, Ronny; Stoltz, James; Turner, Oliver; Turnquist, Susan; van Heerden, Marjolein; Woicke, Jochen; DeGeorge, Joseph J

    2011-06-01

    Data collected from 182 marketed and nonmarketed pharmaceuticals demonstrate that there is little value gained in conducting a rat two-year carcinogenicity study for compounds that lack: (1) histopathologic risk factors for rat neoplasia in chronic toxicology studies, (2) evidence of hormonal perturbation, and (3) positive genetic toxicology results. Using a single positive result among these three criteria as a test for outcome in the two-year study, fifty-two of sixty-six rat tumorigens were correctly identified, yielding 79% test sensitivity. When all three criteria were negative, sixty-two of seventy-six pharmaceuticals (82%) were correctly predicted to be rat noncarcinogens. The fourteen rat false negatives had two-year study findings of questionable human relevance. Applying these criteria to eighty-six additional chemicals identified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as likely human carcinogens and to drugs withdrawn from the market for carcinogenicity concerns confirmed their sensitivity for predicting rat carcinogenicity outcome. These analyses support a proposal to refine regulatory criteria for conducting a two-year rat study to be based on assessment of histopathologic findings from a rat six-month study, evidence of hormonal perturbation, genetic toxicology results, and the findings of a six-month transgenic mouse carcinogenicity study. This proposed decision paradigm has the potential to eliminate over 40% of rat two-year testing on new pharmaceuticals without compromise to patient safety.

  2. Probabilistic inhalation risk assessment due to radioactivity released from coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, M.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Bhangare, R.C.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with assessment of radiological risk to the general public around in the neighborhood of a 1000 MWe coal-based thermal power plant. We have used Monte Carlo simulation for characterization of uncertainty in inhalation risk due to radionuclide escaping from the stack of thermal power plant. Monte Carlo simulation treats parameters as random variables bound to a given probabilistic distribution to evaluate the distribution of the resulting output. Risk assessment is the process that estimates the likelihood of occurrence of adverse effects to humans and ecological receptors as a result of exposure to hazardous chemical, radiation, and/or biological agents. Quantitative risk characterization involves evaluating exposure estimates against a benchmark of toxicity, such as a cancer slope factor. Risk is calculated by multiplying the carcinogenic slope factor (SF) of the radionuclide by the dose an individual receives. The collective effective doses to the population living in the neighborhood of coal-based thermal power plant were calculated using Gaussian plume dispersion model. Monte Carlo Analysis is the most widely used probabilistic method in risk assessment. The MCA technique treats any uncertain parameter as random variable that obeys a given probabilistic distribution. This technique is widely used for analyzing probabilistic uncertainty. In MCA computer simulation are used to combine multiple probability distributions associated with the dose and SF depicted in risk equation. Thus we get a probabilistic distribution for the risk

  3. Nitrate and nitrite in the diet: how to assess their benefit and risk for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeyer, Michael; Roth, Angelika; Guth, Sabine; Diel, Patrick; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Epe, Bernd; Fürst, Peter; Heinz, Volker; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Joost, Hans-Georg; Knorr, Dietrich; de Kok, Theo; Kulling, Sabine; Lampen, Alfonso; Marko, Doris; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Rietjens, Ivonne; Stadler, Richard H; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Rudi; Steinberg, Pablo; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a natural constituent of the human diet and an approved food additive. It can be partially converted to nitrogen monoxide, which induces vasodilation and thereby decreases blood pressure. This effect is associated with a reduced risk regarding cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Moreover, dietary nitrate has been associated with beneficial effects in patients with gastric ulcer, renal failure, or metabolic syndrome. Recent studies indicate that such beneficial health effects due to dietary nitrate may be achievable at intake levels resulting from the daily consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables. N-nitroso compounds are endogenously formed in humans. However, their relevance for human health has not been adequately explored up to now. Nitrate and nitrite are per se not carcinogenic, but under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation, it cannot be excluded that ingested nitrate and nitrite may lead to an increased cancer risk and may probably be carcinogenic to humans. In this review, the known beneficial and detrimental health effects related to dietary nitrate/nitrite intake are described and the identified gaps in knowledge as well as the research needs required to perform a reliable benefit/risk assessment in terms of long-term human health consequences due to dietary nitrate/nitrite intake are presented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Utilization of artificial recharged effluent for irrigation: pollutants' removal and risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Wei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reclaimed water from soil aquifer treatment (SAT column was reused for irrigation as the source water, pollutants' removal and health risk assessment was analyzed via the comparison with secondary and tertiary effluents. The effect of the SAT pre-treatment on the qualities and growth of different crops (Lachca sativa – lettuce, Brasica rapa var chinensis – pak choi, Cucumis sativus – cucumber, Brassica oleracea – cabbage, and Zea mays – maize were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the tertiary and SAT treatments had no significant effect on the crop qualities, and could efficiently decrease the accumulation of heavy metals (especially for SAT pre-treatment. Moreover, the carcinogenic risk of the chemical carcinogens for the 1.5 m SAT effluent irrigation declined roughly an order of magnitude as compared with the secondary effluent, and three to four orders of magnitude decreasing of the virus risk. These findings are significant for the safe and cheap reuse of secondary effluent for irrigation purposes.

  5. Environmental risk assessment in an oil production station near a mangrove area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z' Graggen, M.; Moraes, R.; Ferreira, H.; Thomas, C. [Golder Associates, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Linhares, M.; Vaqueiro, R.L.C.; Sauerbronn, J.L.B. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Pedra Branca Station is an oil production area that pumps, stores and transfers crude oil from wells located near the station. It is located 2 km of the mouth of the Sao Paulo River, northeast Brazil, in a mangrove area of social, economical and environmental importance. During the past 30+ years of operation, the area has been contaminated with leaks and spills of crude oil from pipelines and storage tanks. The assessment aimed to verify if local conditions represent risk to maintenance workers at the Station, nearby residents that collect firewood and shellfish and that consume shellfish from the Site. Crab and oyster samples were collected and analyzed and a questionnaire concerning activities of workers and residents was administrated. Contaminants of potential concern included barium, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum hydrocarbons. Potential risks associated with soil/sediment ingestion, dermal contact with soil/sediment and ingestion of shellfish were evaluated. The study indicated that risks to maintenance worker and nearby residents due to exposure to non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic substances present in soil, sediment, and shellfish were below limits considered acceptable to regulatory authorities. The evaluation provided scientific bases for decision making regarding the management of the contaminated area. (author)

  6. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage...

  7. Defining Probability in Sex Offender Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    There is ongoing debate and confusion over using actuarial scales to predict individuals' risk of sexual recidivism. Much of the debate comes from not distinguishing Frequentist from Bayesian definitions of probability. Much of the confusion comes from applying Frequentist probability to individuals' risk. By definition, only Bayesian probability can be applied to the single case. The Bayesian concept of probability resolves most of the confusion and much of the debate in sex offender risk assessment. Although Bayesian probability is well accepted in risk assessment generally, it has not been widely used to assess the risk of sex offenders. I review the two concepts of probability and show how the Bayesian view alone provides a coherent scheme to conceptualize individuals' risk of sexual recidivism.

  8. Systems Toxicology: The Future of Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John Michael; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel; Knudsen, Thomas B; Hoeng, Julia; Hayes, A Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment, in the context of public health, is the process of quantifying the probability of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from human activities. With increasing public health concern regarding the potential risks associated with chemical exposure, there is a need for more predictive and accurate approaches to risk assessment. Developing such an approach requires a mechanistic understanding of the process by which xenobiotic substances perturb biological systems and lead to toxicity. Supplementing the shortfalls of traditional risk assessment with mechanistic biological data has been widely discussed but not routinely implemented in the evaluation of chemical exposure. These mechanistic approaches to risk assessment have been generally referred to as systems toxicology. This Symposium Overview article summarizes 4 talks presented at the 35th Annual Meeting of the American College of Toxicology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Risk assessment in support of plant health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeger, Michael; Schans, Jan; Lövei, Gabor L.

    2012-01-01

    environmental risk assessment and the evaluation of risk reducing options. Quantitative approaches have become increasingly important during this time. The Panel has developed such methods in climatic mapping (in association with the Joint Research Councils), application of spatial spread models, re......With the establishment of the Plant Health Panel in 2006, EFSA became the body responsible for risk assessment in the plant health area for the European Union (EU). Since then more than 70 outputs have been produced dealing with the full range of organisms harmful to plant health across all crop...... types and plants in the environment. There has been an increasing trend towards producing scientific opinions which are full pest risk assessments for the whole EU territory. In its work, and as a contribution to the wider development of risk assessment methodology, the Panel has developed a series...

  10. Approaches to risk assessment in food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Hattersley, S.; Buck, J.

    2009-01-01

    modelling is considered to be the most promising approach for use in population risk assessment (which is a particular focus for risk managers). For all approaches, further improvement of input data is desirable, particularly data on consumption patterns/food choices in food allergic consumers, data...... models. The workshop concluded that all the three approaches to safety and risk assessment of allergenic foods should continue to be considered. A particular strength of the MoE and probabilistic approaches is that they do not rely on low-dose extrapolations with its inherent issues. Probabilistic......A workshop was organised to investigate whether risk assessment strategies and methodologies used in classical/conventional toxicology may be used for risk assessment of allergenic foods. to discuss the advantages and limitations of different approaches and to determine the research needed to move...

  11. PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessments) Participation versus Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, Diana; Banke, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) are performed for projects or programs where the consequences of failure are highly undesirable. PRAs primarily address the level of risk those projects or programs posed during operations. PRAs are often developed after the design has been completed. Design and operational details used to develop models include approved and accepted design information regarding equipment, components, systems and failure data. This methodology basically validates the risk parameters of the project or system design. For high risk or high dollar projects, using PRA methodologies during the design process provides new opportunities to influence the design early in the project life cycle to identify, eliminate or mitigate potential risks. Identifying risk drivers before the design has been set allows the design engineers to understand the inherent risk of their current design and consider potential risk mitigation changes. This can become an iterative process where the PRA model can be used to determine if the mitigation technique is effective in reducing risk. This can result in more efficient and cost effective design changes. PRA methodology can be used to assess the risk of design alternatives and can demonstrate how major design changes or program modifications impact the overall program or project risk. PRA has been used for the last two decades to validate risk predictions and acceptability. Providing risk information which can positively influence final system and equipment design the PRA tool can also participate in design development, providing a safe and cost effective product.

  12. NASA Human System Risk Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, D.; Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA utilizes an evidence based system to perform risk assessments for the human system for spaceflight missions. The center of this process is the multi-disciplinary Human System Risk Board (HSRB). The HSRB is chartered from the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) at NASA Headquarters. The HSRB reviews all human system risks via an established comprehensive risk and configuration management plan based on a project management approach. The HSRB facilitates the integration of human research (terrestrial and spaceflight), medical operations, occupational surveillance, systems engineering and many other disciplines in a comprehensive review of human system risks. The HSRB considers all factors that influence human risk. These factors include pre-mission considerations such as screening criteria, training, age, sex, and physiological condition. In mission factors such as available countermeasures, mission duration and location and post mission factors such as time to return to baseline (reconditioning), post mission health screening, and available treatments. All of the factors influence the total risk assessment for each human risk. The HSRB performed a comprehensive review of all potential inflight medical conditions and events and over the course of several reviews consolidated the number of human system risks to 30, where the greatest emphasis is placed for investing program dollars for risk mitigation. The HSRB considers all available evidence from human research and, medical operations and occupational surveillance in assessing the risks for appropriate mitigation and future work. All applicable DRMs (low earth orbit for 6 and 12 months, deep space for 30 days and 1 year, a lunar mission for 1 year, and a planetary mission for 3 years) are considered as human system risks are modified by the hazards associated with space flight such as microgravity, exposure to radiation, distance from the earth, isolation and a closed environment. Each risk has a summary

  13. Enhancing the ecological risk assessment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Virginia H; Biddinger, Gregory R; Newman, Michael C; Oris, James T; Suter, Glenn W; Thompson, Timothy; Armitage, Thomas M; Meyer, Judith L; Allen-King, Richelle M; Burton, G Allen; Chapman, Peter M; Conquest, Loveday L; Fernandez, Ivan J; Landis, Wayne G; Master, Lawrence L; Mitsch, William J; Mueller, Thomas C; Rabeni, Charles F; Rodewald, Amanda D; Sanders, James G; van Heerden, Ivor L

    2008-07-01

    The Ecological Processes and Effects Committee of the US Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board conducted a self-initiated study and convened a public workshop to characterize the state of the ecological risk assessment (ERA), with a view toward advancing the science and application of the process. That survey and analysis of ERA in decision making shows that such assessments have been most effective when clear management goals were included in the problem formulation; translated into information needs; and developed in collaboration with decision makers, assessors, scientists, and stakeholders. This process is best facilitated when risk managers, risk assessors, and stakeholders are engaged in an ongoing dialogue about problem formulation. Identification and acknowledgment of uncertainties that have the potential to profoundly affect the results and outcome of risk assessments also improves assessment effectiveness. Thus we suggest 1) through peer review of ERAs be conducted at the problem formulation stage and 2) the predictive power of risk-based decision making be expanded to reduce uncertainties through analytical and methodological approaches like life cycle analysis. Risk assessment and monitoring programs need better integration to reduce uncertainty and to evaluate risk management decision outcomes. Postdecision audit programs should be initiated to evaluate the environmental outcomes of risk-based decisions. In addition, a process should be developed to demonstrate how monitoring data can be used to reduce uncertainties. Ecological risk assessments should include the effects of chemical and nonchemical stressors at multiple levels of biological organization and spatial scale, and the extent and resolution of the pertinent scales and levels of organization should be explicitly considered during problem formulation. An approach to interpreting lines of evidence and weight of evidence is critically needed for complex assessments, and it would