WorldWideScience

Sample records for carcinogenic potency database

  1. DATA MINING POTENCY ESTIMATORS FROM TOXICOLOGICAL DATABASES

    OpenAIRE

    Piegorsch, Walter W.; Simmons, Susan J.; Zeiger, Errol

    2004-01-01

    We discuss use of data mining techniques to study estimators of toxic potency (activity) in toxicological databases. The methods are slight variations on the standard data mining motif, but fit fully within the larger context of knowledge discovery in databases. An example illustrates the general theme of the approach, using results from a U.S. National Toxicology Program Salmonella mutagenicity database.

  2. Incorporating potency into EU classification for carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennes, C; Batke, M; Bomann, W; Duhayon, S; Kosemund, K; Politano, V; Stinchcombe, S; Doe, J

    2014-11-01

    Although risk assessment, assessing the potential harm of each particular exposure of a substance, is desirable, it is not feasible in many situations. Risk assessment uses a process of hazard identification, hazard characterisation, and exposure assessment as its components. In the absence of risk assessment, the purpose of classification is to give broad guidance (through the label) on the suitability of a chemical in a range of use situations. Hazard classification in the EU is a process involving identification of the hazards of a substance, followed by comparison of those hazards (including degree of hazard) with defined criteria. Classification should therefore give guidance on degree of hazard as well as hazard identification. Potency is the most important indicator of degree of hazard and should therefore be included in classification. This is done for acute lethality and general toxicity by classifying on dose required to cause the effect. The classification in the EU for carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity does not discriminate across the wide range of potencies seen (6 orders of magnitude) for carcinogenicity and for developmental toxicity and fertility. Therefore potency should be included in the classification process. The methodology in the EU guidelines for classification for deriving specific concentration limits is a rigorous process for assigning substances which cause tumours or developmental toxicity and infertility in experimental animals to high, medium or low degree of hazard categories by incorporating potency. Methods are suggested on how the degree of hazard so derived could be used in the EU classification process to improve hazard communication and in downstream risk management.

  3. Carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies for different PAHs sources in coastal sediments of Shandong Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-liang; Lang, Yin-hai; Gao, Mao-sheng; Yang, Wei; Peng, Peng; Wang, Xiao-mei

    2014-07-15

    In this study, sources of PAHs in coastal sediments of Shandong Peninsula were apportioned using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model, and source apportionment of carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies was conducted combining CMB with the formula of benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenic equivalent (BaPTEQ) and BaP mutagenic equivalent (BaPMEQ) concentration. Total concentrations of sixteen PAHs in sediment ranged from 181.2 ng g(-1) to 303.6 ng g(-1), and concentrations of eight carcinogenic PAHs (cPAHs) varied from 98.8 ng g(-1) to 141.1 ng g(-1). The BaP played a dominant role for carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies of PAHs, although the IND showed the highest concentration level. The vehicular sources made the highest contribution to BaPTEQ (57.7%) and BaPMEQ (55.5%), while petrogenic source, the highest contributor for PAHs (39.4%), provided the lowest contribution to BaPTEQ (1.1%) and BaPMEQ (1.5%). Besides, the ecotoxicological evaluation, based on Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs), showed low ecological risks generally.

  4. Pleural carcinogenic potency of mineral fibers (asbestos, attapulgite) and their cytotoxicity on cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaurand, M C; Fleury, J; Monchaux, G; Nebut, M; Bignon, J

    1987-10-01

    The carcinogenicity of several samples of mineral fibers was tested following injection of 20 mg in the pleural cavity of noninbred Sprague-Dawley rats. Three samples of chrysotile asbestos (mean length: 3.2, 2.1, and 1.2 micron) induced mesotheliomas at a rate of 48, 52, and 19%, respectively. The first sample was acid leached prior to intrapleural injection; in that group, the percentage of mesotheliomas was reduced to 25%. Treatment with amosite and crocidolite resulted in the occurrence of 57 and 56% of mesotheliomas. Acid-treatment of amphiboles did not significantly modify the percentage of mesotheliomas. When the Stanton's fiber dimensions were taken into consideration to correlate with mesothelioma incidence, the observed number of mesotheliomas in the chrysotile-treated animals was much lower than that expected, suggesting that other fiber parameters (chemistry, physicochemistry) play a role in the carcinogenicity. Attapulgite fibers (mean length: 0.77 micron) did not induce tumor, and the mean survival time was of the same order as that observed in the control groups. The injection of quartz resulted in no mesothelioma but did result in 6 malignant histiocytic lymphomas (17%) and 2 malignant schwannomas (6%). In vitro experiments did not show strong correlation between cytotoxicity and the carcinogenic potency of these minerals, but the qualitative cellular responses might give some indications on the fiber's potency. In addition, the in vitro effects of the fibers seem to be modulated by their size.

  5. Potentially mutagenic impurities: analysis of structural classes and carcinogenic potencies of chemical intermediates in pharmaceutical syntheses supports alternative methods to the default TTC for calculating safe levels of impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Sheila M; Vijayaraj Reddy, M; McGettigan, Katherine; Gealy, Robert; Bercu, Joel

    2013-08-01

    Potentially mutagenic impurities in new pharmaceuticals are controlled to levels with negligible risk, the TTC (threshold of toxicological concern, 1.5 μg/day for a lifetime). The TTC was based on the more potent rodent carcinogens, excluding the highly potent "cohort of concern" (COC; for mutagenic carcinogens these are N-nitroso, Aflatoxin-like, and azoxy structures). We compared molecules with DEREK "structural alerts" for mutagenicity used in drug syntheses with the mutagenic carcinogens in the Gold Carcinogenicity Potency Database. Data from 108 diverse synthetic routes from 13 companies confirm that many "alerting" or mutagenic chemicals are in structural classes with lower carcinogenic potency than those used to derive the TTC. Acceptable daily intakes can be established that are higher than the default TTC for many structural classes (e.g., mono-functional alkyl halides and certain aromatic amines). Examples of ADIs for lifetime and shorter-term exposure are given for chemicals of various potencies. The percentage of chemicals with DEREK alerts that proved mutagenic in the Ames test ranged from 36% to 83%, depending on structural class, demonstrating that such SAR analysis to "flag" potential mutagens is conservative. We also note that aromatic azoxy compounds need not be classed as COC, which was based on alkyl azoxy chemicals.

  6. A Novel Approach: Chemical Relational Databases, and the Role of the ISSCAN Database on Assessing Chemical Carcinogenity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did no...

  7. QSAR Study for Carcinogenic Potency of Aromatic Amines Based on GEP and MLPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fucheng Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new analysis strategy was used to classify the carcinogenicity of aromatic amines. The physical-chemical parameters are closely related to the carcinogenicity of compounds. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR is a method of predicting the carcinogenicity of aromatic amine, which can reveal the relationship between carcinogenicity and physical-chemical parameters. This study accessed gene expression programming by APS software, the multilayer perceptrons by Weka software to predict the carcinogenicity of aromatic amines, respectively. All these methods relied on molecular descriptors calculated by CODESSA software and eight molecular descriptors were selected to build function equations. As a remarkable result, the accuracy of gene expression programming in training and test sets are 0.92 and 0.82, the accuracy of multilayer perceptrons in training and test sets are 0.84 and 0.74 respectively. The precision of the gene expression programming is obviously superior to multilayer perceptrons both in training set and test set. The QSAR application in the identification of carcinogenic compounds is a high efficiency method.

  8. QSAR Study for Carcinogenic Potency of Aromatic Amines Based on GEP and MLPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fucheng; Zhang, Anling; Liang, Hui; Cui, Lianhua; Li, Wenlian; Si, Hongzong; Duan, Yunbo; Zhai, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    A new analysis strategy was used to classify the carcinogenicity of aromatic amines. The physical-chemical parameters are closely related to the carcinogenicity of compounds. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) is a method of predicting the carcinogenicity of aromatic amine, which can reveal the relationship between carcinogenicity and physical-chemical parameters. This study accessed gene expression programming by APS software, the multilayer perceptrons by Weka software to predict the carcinogenicity of aromatic amines, respectively. All these methods relied on molecular descriptors calculated by CODESSA software and eight molecular descriptors were selected to build function equations. As a remarkable result, the accuracy of gene expression programming in training and test sets are 0.92 and 0.82, the accuracy of multilayer perceptrons in training and test sets are 0.84 and 0.74 respectively. The precision of the gene expression programming is obviously superior to multilayer perceptrons both in training set and test set. The QSAR application in the identification of carcinogenic compounds is a high efficiency method. PMID:27854309

  9. Chronic Dermal Toxicity of Epoxy Resins I. Skin Carcinogenic Potency and General Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, J.M.

    2001-01-16

    Epoxy resins are a diverse class of chemicals that differ in structure, physical properties, and, presumably, biological activity. The purpose of these experiments was to compare the chronic dermal toxicity and carcinogenicity of selected commercial epoxy resins and to determine the potential for positive synergistic carcinogenic interactions between different resins. This work is an extension and continuation of a Department of Energy sponsored program to evaluate epoxy resins for potential occupational health risks. The materials examined were chosen on the basis of their interest to the U.S. government. They are representative of the manufacturer's production at the time, and therefore the data are completely valid only for the specific production period. Results of the experimental exposures will be reported in two parts. This report describes the test materials, their chemical and physical characteristics and the experimental design. General (systemic) toxicity will be evaluated and the skin carcinogenicity of the materials compared. A subsequent report will provide morphological descriptions of skin and significant internal pathology induced by the various treatments.

  10. A novel approach: chemical relational databases, and the role of the ISSCAN database on assessing chemical carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Romualdo; Bossa, Cecilia; Richard, Ann M; Yang, Chihae

    2008-01-01

    Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity databases are crucial resources for toxicologists and regulators involved in chemicals risk assessment. Until recently, existing public toxicity databases have been constructed primarily as "look-up-tables" of existing data, and most often did not contain chemical structures. Concepts and technologies originated from the structure-activity relationships science have provided powerful tools to create new types of databases, where the effective linkage of chemical toxicity with chemical structure can facilitate and greatly enhance data gathering and hypothesis generation, by permitting: a) exploration across both chemical and biological domains; and b) structure-searchability through the data. This paper reviews the main public databases, together with the progress in the field of chemical relational databases, and presents the ISSCAN database on experimental chemical carcinogens.

  11. Occupational exposures to carcinogens in Italy: an update of CAREX database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabelli, Dario; Kauppinen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    To update estimates of the prevalence of occupational exposures to carcinogens in Italy, the 85 CAREX agents were re-assessed. The original exposure estimates in the CAREX database were updated, taking into account changes in exposure patterns and in numbers of employees by industrial class. The 21.8 million employees in Italy, 19.4 in industry and services, 2.4 in agriculture, had 4.2 million exposures. Prevalences of exposures were highest for environmental (passive) tobacco smoke (800,000 exposures), solar radiation (700,000), diesel engine exhaust (500,000), wood dust (280,000), silica (250,000), lead and inorganic lead compounds (230,000), benzene (180 000), hexavalent chromium compounds (160,000), glass wool (140,000), and PAHs (120,000). Exposures to carcinogens at work are still an issue in Italy and do not appear to be controlled as strictly as they should be.

  12. Predicting carcinogenicity of diverse chemicals using probabilistic neural network modeling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kunwar P., E-mail: kpsingh_52@yahoo.com [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi (India); Environmental Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi (India); Environmental Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Robust global models capable of discriminating positive and non-positive carcinogens; and predicting carcinogenic potency of chemicals in rodents were developed. The dataset of 834 structurally diverse chemicals extracted from Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) was used which contained 466 positive and 368 non-positive carcinogens. Twelve non-quantum mechanical molecular descriptors were derived. Structural diversity of the chemicals and nonlinearity in the data were evaluated using Tanimoto similarity index and Brock–Dechert–Scheinkman statistics. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) models were constructed for classification and function optimization problems using the carcinogenicity end point in rat. Validation of the models was performed using the internal and external procedures employing a wide series of statistical checks. PNN constructed using five descriptors rendered classification accuracy of 92.09% in complete rat data. The PNN model rendered classification accuracies of 91.77%, 80.70% and 92.08% in mouse, hamster and pesticide data, respectively. The GRNN constructed with nine descriptors yielded correlation coefficient of 0.896 between the measured and predicted carcinogenic potency with mean squared error (MSE) of 0.44 in complete rat data. The rat carcinogenicity model (GRNN) applied to the mouse and hamster data yielded correlation coefficient and MSE of 0.758, 0.71 and 0.760, 0.46, respectively. The results suggest for wide applicability of the inter-species models in predicting carcinogenic potency of chemicals. Both the PNN and GRNN (inter-species) models constructed here can be useful tools in predicting the carcinogenicity of new chemicals for regulatory purposes. - Graphical abstract: Figure (a) shows classification accuracies (positive and non-positive carcinogens) in rat, mouse, hamster, and pesticide data yielded by optimal PNN model. Figure (b) shows generalization and predictive

  13. The comet assay with multiple mouse organs: comparison of comet assay results and carcinogenicity with 208 chemicals selected from the IARC monographs and U.S. NTP Carcinogenicity Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y F; Sekihashi, K; Izumiyama, F; Nishidate, E; Saga, A; Ishida, K; Tsuda, S

    2000-11-01

    The comet assay is a microgel electrophoresis technique for detecting DNA damage at the level of the single cell. When this technique is applied to detect genotoxicity in experimental animals, the most important advantage is that DNA lesions can be measured in any organ, regardless of the extent of mitotic activity. The purpose of this article is to summarize the in vivo genotoxicity in eight organs of the mouse of 208 chemicals selected from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Groups 1, 2A, 2B, 3, and 4, and from the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) Carcinogenicity Database, and to discuss the utility of the comet assay in genetic toxicology. Alkylating agents, amides, aromatic amines, azo compounds, cyclic nitro compounds, hydrazines, halides having reactive halogens, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were chemicals showing high positive effects in this assay. The responses detected reflected the ability of this assay to detect the fragmentation of DNA molecules produced by DNA single strand breaks induced chemically and those derived from alkali-labile sites developed from alkylated bases and bulky base adducts. The mouse or rat organs exhibiting increased levels of DNA damage were not necessarily the target organs for carcinogenicity. It was rare, in contrast, for the target organs not to show DNA damage. Therefore, organ-specific genotoxicity was necessary but not sufficient for the prediction of organ-specific carcinogenicity. It would be expected that DNA crosslinkers would be difficult to detect by this assay, because of the resulting inhibition of DNA unwinding. The proportion of 10 DNA crosslinkers that was positive, however, was high in the gastrointestinal mucosa, stomach, and colon, but less than 50% in the liver and lung. It was interesting that the genotoxicity of DNA crosslinkers could be detected in the gastrointestinal organs even though the agents were administered intraperitoneally. Chemical carcinogens can be classified

  14. [Fiber as a carcinogenic agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, F

    1987-04-01

    According to the findings that long, thin, and durable fibres have a high carcinogenic potency after intrapleural and intraperitoneal administration, the elongated shape of a particle represents a carcinogenic agent; this physical phenomenon is a special cause of cancer. It induces a biological process which can lead to cancer by several as yet unknown steps. However, the properties of the material the fibres are made of determine the carcinogenic potency of a fibre in a secondary way although they do not seem to be responsible for the true carcinogenic agent. For example, these properties determine the degree of solubility and flexibility. The persistence of fibres in the tissue is a very important property with regard to their carcinogenic effect because the formation of a tumour takes many years or some decades. It can be assumed that a fibre has to remain by the bronchial or serosa tissue until the induction of tumour cells occurs. If this hypothesis is correct, there could be a "durability threshold value" for fibres whose length and diameter would otherwise indicate a high carcinogenic potency. There are indications that other fibre properties apart from length, diameter and durability are important for tumour induction, however, at present, they cannot be included in a definition of carcinogenic fibres. It is proposed to classify all natural and man-made mineral fibres with an aspect ratio of greater than 5:1 as carcinogenic when they are longer than 3 microns, thinner than 1 micron (or can split into such fine fibres) and when they can persist in the tissue for more than 3 years.

  15. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  16. Databases

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The databases of computational and experimental data from the first Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop are located here. The databases file names tell their contents by...

  17. Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Ryan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Databases are deeply embedded in archaeology, underpinning and supporting many aspects of the subject. However, as well as providing a means for storing, retrieving and modifying data, databases themselves must be a result of a detailed analysis and design process. This article looks at this process, and shows how the characteristics of data models affect the process of database design and implementation. The impact of the Internet on the development of databases is examined, and the article concludes with a discussion of a range of issues associated with the recording and management of archaeological data.

  18. Potencies of oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgren, R A; Sturtevant, F M

    1976-08-15

    Oral contraceptives are combinations of estrogens and progestogens or, in the case of the mini-pills, progestogens alone. With specific test procedures in laboratory animals or human subjects, it is possible to assign potency evaluations to the components relative to the progestational, estrogenic, or antiestrogenic activities of the progestogen or to the estrogenic potencies of the estrogenic component. It might even be possible to quantify the synergistic effects of the estrogen on the progestational agent. Unfortunately, however, it is impossible now to amalgamate such assay results into single estimates of the potencies of the combinations (either the combination products per se or the combination tablets of sequential products). For example, an over-all estrogenic potency of a combination preparation would involve the integration of contributions form the estrogen itself plus the estrogenic products of metabolism of the progestogen minus the antagonistic effect of the progestational agent, if any. These factors cannot now be quantified independently, much less merged into a single figure of clinical significance. Further, even if it were possible to produce such an estimate, it is unlikely that the evaluation would be meaningful in relation to any putative side effect or adverse reaction, i.e., the alleged thrombogenic effects of oral contraceptives cannot currently be related directly to any measure of potency that will allow prediction of these clinical conditions from laboratory models. Any evaluation of the potential of a given contraceptive to produce a specific side effect will depend upon data generated with specific regard to that adverse reaction and the individual product in question.

  19. Carcinogens formed when Meat is Cooked

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felton, J S; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G

    2003-05-30

    Diet has been associated with varying cancer rates in human populations for many years, yet the causes of the observed variation in cancer patterns have not been adequately explained (Wynder et al. 1977). Along with the effect of diet on human cancer incidence is the strong evidence that mutations are the initiating events in the cancer process (Vogelstein et al. 1992). Foods, when heated, are a good source of genotoxic carcinogens that very likely are a cause for some of these events(Doll et al. 1981). These carcinogens fall into two chemical classes: heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). There is ample evidence that many of these compounds are complete carcinogens in rodents(El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991). Heterocyclic aromatic amines are among the most potent mutagenic substances ever tested in the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity test (Wakabayashi et al. 1992). Both classes of carcinogen cause tumors in rodents at multiple sites, (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991) many of which are common tumor sites in people on a Western diet. An HAA, PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and a PAH, B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene), of comparable carcinogenic potency caused mammary gland tumors in a feeding study in female rats (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995). In addition, PhIP has recently been shown to cause carcinomas in the prostate of the male rat (Shirai et al. 1997). Complementing the rodent cancer studies are numerous human case-control and prospective studies suggesting a relationship between overheated beef, chicken, and lamb, and cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach (Sinha et al. 1999; Ward et al. 1997; Zheng et al. 1998).

  20. Beryllium: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Terry; Bowser, Darlene

    2003-12-10

    Beryllium (Be) has physical-chemical properties, including low density and high tensile strength, which make it useful in the manufacture of products ranging from space shuttles to golf clubs. Despite its utility, a number of standard setting agencies have determined that beryllium is a carcinogen. Only a limited number of studies, however, have addressed the underlying mechanisms of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of beryllium. Importantly, mutation and chromosomal aberration assays have yielded somewhat contradictory results for beryllium compounds and whereas bacterial tests were largely negative, mammalian test systems showed evidence of beryllium-induced mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and cell transformation. Although inter-laboratory differences may play a role in the variability observed in genotoxicity assays, it is more likely that the different chemical forms of beryllium have a significant effect on mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because workers are predominantly exposed to airborne particles which are generated during the machining of beryllium metal, ceramics, or alloys, testing of the mechanisms of the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of beryllium should be performed with relevant chemical forms of beryllium.

  1. Techniques for carcinogenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburger, E K

    1981-09-01

    Short-term tests to detect genetic, chromosomal, or DNA damage are now required by regulatory agencies for any new compound proposed for commercial production. Furthermore, full-scale carcinogenicity tests may be required for certain compounds. In this circumstance, the compound-related factors including stability, purity, physical properties, and chemical structure and reactivity must be considered. Animal factors include species and strain of test animal, route of administration, age, sex, diet, and spontaneous tumor incidence. A team of qualified investigators with experience in various disciplines is required to conduct the studies properly. Quality control measures and adherence to the code of good laboratory practice are also necessary during all phases of the study. The investment in a carcinogenicity study therefore becomes fairly substantial in terms of both time and money.

  2. Food derived carcinogenic amnoimidazoazaarenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik

    Carcinogenic aminoimidazoazaarenes are formed during cooking of meat and fish. Important factors for the formation of these compounds are meat type, cooking temperature and time. The compounds are genotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. In animal feeding studies the compounds tested so far we...... of the exocyclic amino group. Estimations of human cancer risk have indicated that ingestion of food containing aminoimidazoazaarenes are of importance....

  3. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, Epidemiologic and Other Supporting Evidence of Carcinogenic Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2013-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including from hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. Strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. PMID:23973663

  4. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Lash, Lawrence H; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. The strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE.

  5. Carcinogen testing. Fact and fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J A

    1988-10-15

    In the absence of human information on the carcinogenicity of chemical substances, one must rely primarily on information from long-term animal testing. Although far from perfect, animal studies seem to be reasonable predictors of the human experience, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Short-term tests for genotoxicity may be helpful for establishing priorities for chemical testing, but they are not as strong indicators of potential carcinogenicity as had been previously thought. New directions in toxicologic research hold the promise for scientists being able to perform more reasoned assessments of carcinogenic risk.

  6. Acrylonitrile: a suspected human carcinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerselman, W; van der Graaf, M

    1984-01-01

    The literature on carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile (an important intermediate in the chemical industry) is reviewed. The three main conclusions are: (1) Acrylonitrile has genotoxic effects in various tests in microorganisms and in mammal cells. (2) Chronic exposure to acrylonitrile causes tumours in rats. (3) Results of epidemiological studies indicate that acrylonitrile may be a human carcinogen. From this it is clear that acrylonitrile is very probably carcinogenic to humans. Therefore the authors plead for a reduction of acrylonitrile standards to the lowest practicable limit.

  7. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Wanibuchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P450 inducers, such as phenobarbital, a-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.

  8. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakehashi, Anna; Wei, Min [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-Ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Shoji [Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2445 Hirasawa, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0015 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail: wani@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-Ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2013-10-28

    This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P{sub 450} inducers, such as phenobarbital, α-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.

  9. Carcinogenicity studies on fibres, metal compounds, and some other dusts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, F; Ziem, U; Reiffer, F J; Huth, F; Ernst, H; Mohr, U

    1987-01-01

    About 50 dusts were examined on their carcinogenicity in rats mainly after intraperitoneal injection and some after intratracheal instillation. In the i.p. test, very low doses between 0.05 and 0.5 mg asbestos led to tumour incidences of about 20 to 80%. Polyvinyl-pyridine-N-oxide prolonged the tumour latency after injection of actinolite. 60 mg attapulgite from three sources with short fibre lengths were not shown to be carcinogenic but an attapulgite sample with longer fibres had a moderate effect. Relatively thick rock and ceramic fibres (median greater than 1 micron) induced tumours, but slag and wollastonite fibres did not, probably because of their better solubility. Intratracheal instillations of glass microfibres (20 X 0.5 mg) led to lung tumours in 5 of 34 rats (0 in control). The carcinogenic potency of an inorganic fibre depends on its size and persistency, and possibly also on other properties, especially on the surface. Nickel powder, nickel oxide, nickel subsulfide and cadmium sulfide were all found to be carcinogenic in the two tests. Cadmium chloride and cadmium oxide could only be administered in very low doses because of their high acute toxicity. A high amount of magnetite (15 X 15 mg i.tr.) led to an unexpected lung tumour incidence of 69%. The i.p. test in rats proved to be very sensitive for detecting the carcinogenic potency of non-acute toxic natural and man-made mineral dusts as well as metal compounds. This means that, if a high dose of one of these dusts does not induce tumours in this test, no suspicion of carcinogenic potency can be substantiated.

  10. INTEGRATION OF QSAR AND SAR METHODS FOR THE MECHANISTIC INTERPRETATION OF PREDICTIVE MODELS FOR CARCINOGENICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Fjodorova

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge-based Toxtree expert system (SAR approach was integrated with the statistically based counter propagation artificial neural network (CP ANN model (QSAR approach to contribute to a better mechanistic understanding of a carcinogenicity model for non-congeneric chemicals using Dragon descriptors and carcinogenic potency for rats as a response. The transparency of the CP ANN algorithm was demonstrated using intrinsic mapping technique specifically Kohonen maps. Chemical structures were represented by Dragon descriptors that express the structural and electronic features of molecules such as their shape and electronic surrounding related to reactivity of molecules. It was illustrated how the descriptors are correlated with particular structural alerts (SAs for carcinogenicity with recognized mechanistic link to carcinogenic activity. Moreover, the Kohonen mapping technique enables one to examine the separation of carcinogens and non-carcinogens (for rats within a family of chemicals with a particular SA for carcinogenicity. The mechanistic interpretation of models is important for the evaluation of safety of chemicals.

  11. Strategies of reducing the carcinogenic risk of cytostatic agents on the basis of bioassay evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M R

    1991-01-01

    This article described strategies that can be used to reduce the carcinogenic risk of cytostatic chemotherapy and summarizes our recent experimental results. Reduction of neoplasms caused by the carcinogenic potency inherent in cytostatic agents can be obtained. (A) by chemical modifications such as: (1) exchanging a chlorine atom in N, N'-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea (BCNU) in the chloroethyl group at N'-position for a hydroxyl group to form the less carcinogenic analog N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-nitrosourea (HECNU); (2) linking chlorambucil to the steroid prednisolone to obtain a conjugate (prednimustine) with distinctly lower carcinogenic potential than chlorambucil; (3) progressive ring halogenation of phenyl-triazenes to generate agents with decreased long-term toxic risk; (B) by replacing cyclophosphamide within the carcinogenic drug combination of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) by vincristine to form the combination VMF which has no detectable carcinogenic potential; (C) by coadministration of cyclophosphamide and mesna to achieve a dose-related reduction of cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder carcinomas; (D) by administration of dinaline, a compound which reduces the spontaneous incidence of malignant tumors in rats. These examples demonstrate that the carcinogenic risk of single agents and drug combinations used for antineoplastic chemotherapy has successfully been reduced, as assessed in long-term bioassays. Such strategies should be considered in the treatment of patients with long life expectancy following cytotoxic chemotherapy.

  12. ANTIOXIDANT POTENCY OF WATER KEFIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Alsayadi M.S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have strong relationship with several diseases. Many fermented foods were reported to be important sources for antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant activity of water kefir never reported in the scientific literature. The objective of this study was to detect and investigate the antioxidant potency of water kefir. Water kefir was prepared by fermentation of sugar solution with kefir grains for 24h. Antioxidant activity of fresh water kefir drink and its extract with (0.125–5 mg/ml was evaluated using 2,2,-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrozyl (DPPH scavenging method, and inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation and the reducing power of water kefir were determined, Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and ascorbic acid were used for comparison. Water kefir demonstrated great ability to DPPH scavenging ranged (9.88-63.17%. And inhibit ascorbate oxidation by (6.08-25.57% increased in consequent with concentration raising. These results prime to conclude that water kefir could be promisor source of natural antioxidants with good potency in health developing.

  13. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer.

  14. Cell-mediated mutagenesis and cell transformation of mammalian cells by chemical carcinogens. [Rats, hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberman, E.; Langenbach, R.

    1977-01-01

    We have developed a cell-mediated mutagenesis assay in which cells with the appropriate markers for mutagenesis are co-cultivated with either lethally irradiated rodent embryonic cells that can metabolize carcinogenic hydrocarbons or with primary rat liver cells that can metabolize chemicals carcinogenic to the liver. During co-cultivation, the reactive metabolites of the procarcinogen appear to be transmitted to the mutable cells and induce mutations in them. Assays of this type make it possible to demonstrate a relationship between carcinogenic potency of the chemicals and their ability to induce mutations in mammalian cells. In addition, by simultaneously comparing the frequencies of transformation and mutation induced in normal diploid hamster cells by benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and one of its metabolites, it is possible to estimate the genetic target size for cell transformation in vitro.

  15. Estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1975-01-01

    The estrogen potencies of 9 oral contraceptive pills, Enovid-E, Enovid-5, Ovulen, Demulen, Norinyl+80, Norinyl+50, Ovral, Norlestrin 1 mg. and Norlestrin 2.5 mg., were determined by bioassay. Relative estrogen potency was determined by analysis of variance. Enovid-5, the most estrogenic compound, had a potency of 4.88 compared to ethinyl estradiol, 50 mcg. equal 1.00; Ovral, the least estrogenic compound, had a potency of 0.81, a sixfold difference. Estrogen potencies at a fractional dose of 0.00155 correlate with reports of the incidence of minor side effects and thromboembolic disease. The effect of progestins on estrogen potency was purely additive (norgestrel and norethynodrel), purely antagonistic, or additive at low concentrations and antagonistic at high concentrations (norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, and ethynodiol diacetate). These results suggest that pills with a greater margin of safety might be developed by utilizing greater ratios of progestin to estrogen. In addition, differences in relative estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills may be used as a basis for better clinical selection.

  16. Observations of the effect of atmospheric processes on the genotoxic potency of airborne particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Torben; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between genotoxic potency and the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and nitro-PAH in urban and semi-rural air masses has been investigated. The Salmonella/microsome assay has been used as a measure of genotoxic...... potency. We find that the ratios of BaP/ mutagenicity and PAH/mutagenicity are highly variable. The processes responsible for the variation are formation and degradation of mutagens and transport of polluted air masses from heavily industrialized regions, Air masses from Central Europe are shown...... been used in the past as an indicator of the carcinogenic risk of airborne particles, it is suggested that the cancer risk of air pollution has to be re-evaluated....

  17. Antibacterial potency screening of Capparis zeylanica Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rezaul Haque; Wahedul Islam; Selina Parween

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To conduct the antibacterial potency and minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts (n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol) obtained from the root, leaf and stem of Capparis zeylanica. Methods: The powdered leaf, root and stem samples were Soxhlet extracted sequentially in n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol. Antibacterial potency was evaluated by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a control. Results: In vitro antibacterial activity against 12 bacteria was performed with crude extracts. Among them, all the bacteria showed the moderate activity but chloroform and methanolic extracts showed promising antibacterial potency against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae (leaf > root > stem). This activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method with a standard antibiotic, 30 µg/disc of amoxicillin. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial potency of chloroform and methanolic extracts provides new antibacterial compounds.

  18. In vitro determination of carcinogenicity of sixty-four compounds using a bovine papillomavirus DNA-carrying C3H/10T(1/2) cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, L A; Laitinen, A M; Mortazavi-Asl, B; Wee, R K; Erb, H E; Assi, K P; Madden, Z

    2000-01-01

    A new in vitro test for predicting rodent carcinogenicity is evaluated against a testing database of 64 chemicals including both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens and carcinogens that normally require addition of an S-9 microsomal fraction for detection in the bacterial mutagenicity assay. The assay uses focus formation in a stable, bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) DNA carrying C3H/10T(1/2) mouse embryo fibroblast cell line (T1) that does not require transfection, infection with virus, isolation of primary cells from animals, or addition of a microsomal fraction. Of a total database of 64 compounds, 92% of the carcinogens, promoters, or noncarcinogens were correctly predicted. Based on previously reported results, the test of bacterial mutagenicity would have correctly predicted 58% of carcinogens, promoters or noncarcinogens and the Syrian hamster embryo test would have correctly predicted 87% of carcinogens, promoters, or noncarcinogens of this database. Of carcinogens that normally require addition of an S-9 fraction, T1 cells correctly predicted rodent carcinogenicity of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aflatoxins, azo-compounds, nitrosamines, and hydrazine without the addition of an S-9 fraction. Of nongenotoxic carcinogens, T1 cells correctly predicted diethylstilbestroel, diethylhexylphthalate, acetamides, alkyl halides, ethyl carbamate, and phorbol ester tumour promoters.

  19. DNA-damaging activity in vivo and bacterial mutagenicity of sixteen aromatic amines and azo-derivatives, as related quantitatively to their carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, S; Taningher, M; Russo, P; Pala, M; Tamaro, M; Monti-Bragadin, C

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen aromatic amines and azo-derivatives were studied. They were: benzidine; 2-acetylaminofluorene; 3'-methyl-p-dimethylaminobenzene; o-aminoazo-toluene; p-dimethylaminoazobenzene; 2,4-diamino-toluene; 4,4'-oxydianiline; 2,4-diaminoanisole; 4,4'-methylenedianiline; 2-naphthylamine; Auramine O; Rhodamine B; Ponceau MX; 1-naphthylamine; p-aminoazobenzene and aniline. The compounds were examined for their capability to induce alkaline DNA fragmentation in rat liver after treatment in vivo, for their mutagenicity in the Salmonella strains TA 98 and TA 100, for their acute toxicity and for their carcinogenicity in mice and rats. For each parameter a quantitative potency index was established, and the correlation existing amongst the different parameters investigated. Only mutagenicity in the strain TA 98 was slightly correlated with carcinogenic potency (r = 0.408). DNA fragmentation and toxicity were not correlated with carcinogenicity. A significant correlation was found between DNA fragmentation and toxicity (r = 0.539). No correlation was found between DNA fragmentation and mutagenicity. The lack of correlation between DNA fragmentation and carcinogenicity is in contrast with previous results obtained with a family of hydrazine derivatives (12) and a group of nitrosocompounds (22). For these two groups of chemicals correlation between DNA fragmentation and carcinogenicity existed, but not between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity in the Ames' test. It is suggested that short term tests can perform very differently for different classes of chemicals.

  20. Environmental Carcinogen Releases and Lung Cancer Mortality in Rural-Urban Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juhua; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Environmental hazards are unevenly distributed across communities and populations; however, little is known about the distribution of environmental carcinogenic pollutants and lung cancer risk across populations defined by race, sex, and rural-urban setting. Methods: We used the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database to conduct an…

  1. Mechanism-Based Classification of PAH Mixtures to Predict Carcinogenic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, Susan C; Siddens, Lisbeth K; Krueger, Sharon K; Larkin, Andrew J; Löhr, Christiane V; Williams, David E; Baird, William M; Waters, Katrina M

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway-based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP, or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a 2-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC > BaP = Mix2 = Mix3 > Mix1 = Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared with tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (P < .05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus, and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. These data further provide a 'source-to-outcome' model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action-based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures.

  2. Prediction of thyroid C-cell carcinogenicity after chronic administration of GLP1-R agonists in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Willem; Emerenciana, Annette; Bellanti, Francesco; Della Pasqua, Oscar; van der Laan, Jan Willem

    2017-04-01

    Increased incidence of C-cell carcinogenicity has been observed for glucagon-like-protein-1 receptor (GLP-1r) agonists in rodents. It is suggested that the duration of exposure is an indicator of carcinogenic potential in rodents of the different products on the market. Furthermore, the role of GLP-1-related mechanisms in the induction of C-cell carcinogenicity has gained increased attention by regulatory agencies. This study proposes an integrative pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) framework to identify explanatory factors and characterize differences in carcinogenic potential of the GLP-1r agonist products. PK models for four products (exenatide QW (once weekly), exenatide BID (twice daily), liraglutide and lixisenatide) were developed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Predicted exposure was subsequently linked to GLP-1r stimulation using in vitro GLP-1r potency data. A logistic regression model was then applied to exenatide QW and liraglutide data to assess the relationship between GLP-1r stimulation and thyroid C-cell hyperplasia incidence as pre-neoplastic predictor of a carcinogenic response. The model showed a significant association between predicted GLP-1r stimulation and C-cell hyperplasia after 2years of treatment. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated using lixisenatide, for which hyperplasia data were accurately described during the validation step. The use of a model-based approach provided insight into the relationship between C-cell hyperplasia and GLP-1r stimulation for all four products, which is not possible with traditional data analysis methods. It can be concluded that both pharmacokinetics (exposure) and pharmacodynamics (potency for GLP-1r) factors determine C-cell hyperplasia incidence in rodents. Our work highlights the pharmacological basis for GLP-1r agonist-induced C-cell carcinogenicity. The concept is promising for application to other drug classes.

  3. Mineral fibre persistence and carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J C

    1998-10-01

    Epidemiological research during the past 40 years has demonstrated with increasing clarity that amphibole asbestos fibres--crocidolite, amosite and tremolite--are more carcinogenic than chrysotile. A smaller number of well-controlled studies using lung burden analyses, while adding to the specificity of this conclusion, have shown that amphibole fibres also differ from chrysotile in being far more durable and biopersistent in lung tissue. Analyses of mesothelioma and lung cancer in a large cohort of Canadian chrysotile miners and millers have recently shown that the low-level presence of fibrous tremolite in these mines, rather than the chrysotile, may well be responsible. The high risk of lung cancer, but not of mesothelioma, in the chrysotile textile industry remains anomalous and cannot be explained in this way. These various findings are directly relevant to the choice of the experimental methods which should be used for screening man-made fibres for industrial use. Although it is clear that biopersistence is a major determinant of cancer risk in animals, and perhaps also in man, other factors affecting the biological activity of mineral fibres may also be important.

  4. Scientific analysis of the proposed uses of the T25 dose descriptor in chemical carcinogen regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R A; Crump, K S; Lutz, W K; Wiegand, H J; Williams, G M; Harrison, P T; Purchase, I F

    2001-11-01

    The uncertainties that surround the methods used for risk assessment of exposure to carcinogens have been highlighted by a recent document advocating an approach based on the T25 dose (the dose giving a 25% incidence of cancer in an appropriately designed animal experiment). This method relies on derivation of the T25 dose then assesses risk at the exposure dose using proportionality provided by a linear extrapolation (T25/linear). To promote discussion of the scientific issues underlying methods for the risk assessment of chemical carcinogens, the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) hosted a one-day workshop in Brussels on 10 November 2000. Several invited presentations were made to participants, including scientists from regulatory authorities, industry and academia. In general, it was felt that there was sufficient basis for using the T25 dose as an index of carcinogenic potency and hence as part of the hazard assessment process. However, the use of the T25 in risk assessment has not been validated. The T25/linear and other extrapolation methods based on metrics such as LED 10 assume linearity which may be invalid. Any risk calculated using the T25/linear method would provide a precise risk figure similar to the output obtained from the Linearised Multistage (LMS) method formerly used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States of America. Similarity of output does not provide validation but rather reflects their reliance on similar mathematical approaches. In addition to the T25 issue, evidence was provided that using two separate methods (linearised non-threshold model for genotoxic carcinogens; no-observable-effect level with a safety factor (NOEL/SF) method for all other toxicity including non-genotoxic carcinogens) is not justified. Since the ultimate purpose of risk assessment is to provide reliable information to risk managers and the public, there was strong support at the workshop for

  5. 21 CFR 640.56 - Quality control test for potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control test for potency. 640.56 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.56 Quality control test for potency. (a) Quality control tests for potency of antihemophilic factor shall be...

  6. Potency of Animal Models in KANSEI Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Shigeru; Hisano, Setsuji; Iwamoto, Yoshiki

    Various species of animals have been used as animal models for neuroscience and provided critical information about the brain functions. Although it seems difficult to elucidate a highly advanced function of the human brain, animal models have potency to clarify the fundamental mechanisms of emotion, decision-making and social behavior. In this review, we will pick up common animal models and point to both the merits and demerits caused by the characteristics. We will also mention that wide-ranging approaches from animal models are advantageous to understand KANSEI as well as mind in humans.

  7. Carcinogenic effects of benzene: Cesare Maltoni's contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlman, Myron A

    2002-12-01

    Cesare Maltoni's contributions to understanding, identifying, and characterizing widely used commercial chemicals in experimental animals are among the most important methods developed in the history of toxicology and serve to protect working men and women, the general population, and our environment from hazardous substances. Maltoni developed experimental methods that have reached the "platinum standard" for protection of public health. Benzene was among the 400 or more chemicals that Maltoni and his associates tested for carcinogenicity. In 1976, Maltoni reported that benzene is a potent experimental carcinogen. Maltoni's experiments clearly demonstrated that benzene is carcinogenic in Sprague-Dawley rats, Wistar rats, Swiss mice, and RF/J mice when administered by inhalation or ingestion. Benzene caused carcinomas of the Zymbal gland, oral cavity, nasal cavities; cancers of the skin, forestomach, mammary glands, and lungs; angiosarcomas and hepatomas of the liver; and hemolymphoreticular cancers. Thus, benzene was shown to be a multipotential carcinogen that produced cancers in several species of animals by various routes of administration. On November 2, 1977, Chemical Week reported that Maltoni provided a "bombshell" when he demonstrated the "first direct link" between benzene and cancer. In this paper, I shall summarize early experiments and human studies and reports; Maltoni's experimental contribution to understanding the carcinogenicity of benzene in humans and animals; earlier knowledge concerning benzene toxicity; and benzene standards and permissible exposure levels.

  8. Cell-mediated mutagenesis by chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberman, E.; Langenbach, R.

    1978-01-01

    The cell-mediated mutation system, with the proper choice of metabolizing cells, can be used to detect the mutagenic activities of different classes of chemical carcinogens. When fibroblastic cells were used as the metabolizing cells, a correlation between the in vivo carcinogenic activity and the in vitro mutagenic activity of 11 aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons was observed. When primary liver cells were used as the metabolizing cells, three known liver carcinogens were demonstrated to be mutagenic by the cell-mediated assay, while two non-carcinogenic analogues were not mutagenic. These results from the cell-mediated system suggest that the reactive intermediates of the carcinogens are stable enough to be transferred from the metabolizing cells to the V79 cells. The cell-mediated mutagenesis system is a simple in vitro assay which may simulate the in vivo situation. It was concluded that this approach could be extended to the co-cultivation of cells from other organs or tissues with mutable mammalian cells.

  9. In Silico Methods for Carcinogenicity Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbamaki, Azadi; Benfenati, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Screening compounds for potential carcinogenicity is of major importance for prevention of environmentally induced cancers. A large sequence of alternative predictive models, ranging from short-term biological assays (e.g. mutagenicity tests) to theoretical models, have been attempted in this field. Theoretical approaches such as (Q)SAR are highly desirable for identifying carcinogens, since they actively promote the replacement, reduction, and refinement of animal tests. This chapter reports and describes some of the most noted (Q)SAR models based on the human expert knowledge and statistically approach, aiming at predicting the carcinogenicity of chemicals. Additionally, the performance of the selected models has been evaluated and the results are interpreted in details by applying these prediction models to some pharmaceutical molecules.

  10. [Leather azo dyes: mutagenic and carcinogenic risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonfero, E; Venier, P; Granella, M; Levis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data on azo dyes used in the leather industry. Two water soluble benzidine-based dyes were classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). No other dyes have been evaluated by the IARC. Of the 48 azo dyes assayed in the Salmonella/microsome test, 20 gave positive results. Attention is drawn to the important role of the in vivo metabolism of azo compounds, which includes a preliminary reduction of the azo bonds and subsequent release of the aromatic amines of the dye. A useful assay (Prival test) for evaluating the mutagenic properties of azo dyes involves a reductive step that permits the release of any genotoxic agents present in the compounds. A list of leather azo dyes is furnished that are considered as potentially harmful due to the presence of a carcinogenic aromatic amine (benzidine, p-aminobenzene and derivatives) in their formulae.

  11. The ISS Carcinogens Data Bank (BDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Roberto; Ceccarelli, Federica; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; D'Angiolini, Antonella; Fabri, Alessandra; Ferri, Maurizio; Riva, Giovanni; Roazzi, Paolo; Trucchi, Daniela; Marcello, Ida

    2008-01-01

    The Data Bank on Carcinogens (Banca Dati Cancerogeni, BDC) is a factual data bank, available on the Istituto Superiore di Sanità website, aimed at supporting the risk management decision making of central and local administrators. It can also represent a valuable tool for industry. The available information on carcinogenicity evaluations/classifications produced by European Union and by other institutions (IARC, USEPA, NTP, CCTN) is presented in a concise form accompanied by bibliographic references enabling the users to consult the original sources and, in some cases, to be directly connected to the relevant website. The classifications carried out by each organization in accordance with its own criteria assign the examined agents to specific qualitative categories and do not include quantitative assessment. BDC intends to provide an easy tool for experts, researchers and risk managers dealing with carcinogenic agents.

  12. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, A; Lauwerys, R

    1987-07-01

    The carcinogenicity of a number of beryllium compounds has been confirmed in experiments on laboratory animals and this metal has to be treated as a possible carcinogenic threat to man. These carcinogenic properties are associated with mutagenic activity as shown by the results of short-term tests performed in vitro with beryllium chloride and beryllium sulfate. These soluble beryllium compounds can produce some infidelity of in vitro synthesis, forward gene mutations in microorganisms and in mammalian cells. They are also able to induce cell transformation. In addition to the positive results obtained in several short-term assays beryllium compounds have been found to bind to nucleoproteins, to inhibit certain enzymes needed for DNA synthesis, to bind nucleic acids to cell membranes and to inhibit microtubule polymerization. The teratogenicity of beryllium salts is relatively unknown and needs additional investigation.

  13. The Danish (Q)SAR Database Update Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Dybdahl, Marianne; Abildgaard Rosenberg, Sine

    2013-01-01

    , carcinogenicity and others), each of them available for 185,000 organic substances. The database has been available online since 2005 (http://qsar.food.dtu.dk). A major update project for the Danish (Q)SAR database is under way, with a new online release planned in the beginning of 2015. The updated version...

  14. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

  15. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  16. 40 CFR 799.9420 - TSCA carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA carcinogenicity. 799.9420 Section 799.9420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... their selection. (ii) Age/weight. (A) Testing shall be started with young healthy animals as soon...

  17. Relational databases

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, D A

    1986-01-01

    Relational Databases explores the major advances in relational databases and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in relational databases. Topics covered include capture and analysis of data placement requirements; distributed relational database systems; data dependency manipulation in database schemata; and relational database support for computer graphics and computer aided design. This book is divided into three sections and begins with an overview of the theory and practice of distributed systems, using the example of INGRES from Relational Technology as illustration. The

  18. Biofuel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  19. Community Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This excel spreadsheet is the result of merging at the port level of several of the in-house fisheries databases in combination with other demographic databases such...

  20. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  1. Prediction of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity using in silico modelling: A case study of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vračko, M; Bobst, S

    2015-01-01

    In silico modelling is an important alternative method for the evaluation of properties of chemical compounds. Basically, two concepts are used in its applications: QSAR modelling for endpoint predictions, and grouping (categorization) of large groups of chemicals. In the presented report we address both of these concepts. As a case study we present the results on a set of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and some of their metabolites. Their mutagenicity and carcinogenic potency were evaluated with CAESAR and T.E.S.T. models, which are freely available over the internet. We discuss the value and reliability of the predictions, the applicability domain of models and the ability to create prioritized groupings of PCBs as a category of chemicals.

  2. MATHEMATICAL MODELING FOR ERYTHROMYCIN POTENCY DETERMINATION OF MASTIKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorita Burghelea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mastiker E is an antibacterial suspension for intramammary infusion in cattle mastitis. The active drug is erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic. The main characteristic of commercial product is erythromycin potency. The potency of erythromycin is estimated by comparing the inhibition of growth of sensitive micro-organisms produced by known concentrations of the antibiotic to be examined and a reference substance. The validation study aims to demonstrate the determination of the potency of erythromycin, it is an appropriate analytical method, reproducible and meets the quality requirements of Mastiker product. The paper establishes the performance characteristics of the method considered and identify the factors that influence these characteristics. The diameters of inhibition zones, directly proportional to the logarithm of the concentration of the antibiotic used for the assay, measured and calculated using statistical methods (Combistats Soft. The assay is designed in such a way that the mathematical model on which the potency equation is based can be proved to be valid. A parallel-line model is chosen. The two log dose response lines of the preparation under examination and the standard preparation are parallel; they are rectilinear over the range of doses used in the calculation. These conditions are verified by validity tests for a given probability (P = 0.05. The test is not valid unless the confidence limits (P = 0.95 are not less than 50% and not more than 200% of the estimated potency. The estimated potency is not less than 95% and not more than 105% of the stated potency. The stated potency is not less than 50.000 IU/g. The validation procedure includes details on protocol working to determine the potency of erythromycin, validation criteria, experimental results, mathematical modeling for determining the potency, inter laboratory comparisons.

  3. Prion potency in stem cells biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marilene H; Santos, Tiago G

    2012-01-01

    Prion protein (PrP) can be considered a pivotal molecule because it interacts with several partners to perform a diverse range of critical biological functions that might differ in embryonic and adult cells. In recent years, there have been major advances in elucidating the putative role of PrP in the basic biology of stem cells in many different systems. Here, we review the evidence indicating that PrP is a key molecule involved in driving different aspects of the potency of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells in self-perpetuation and differentiation in many cell types. It has been shown that PrP is involved in stem cell self-renewal, controlling pluripotency gene expression, proliferation, and neural and cardiomyocyte differentiation. PrP also has essential roles in distinct processes that regulate tissue-specific stem cell biology in nervous and hematopoietic systems and during muscle regeneration. Results from our own investigations have shown that PrP is able to modulate self-renewal and proliferation in neural stem cells, processes that are enhanced by PrP interactions with stress inducible protein 1 (STI1). Thus, the available data reveal the influence of PrP in acting upon the maintenance of pluripotent status or the differentiation of stem cells from the early embryogenesis through adulthood.

  4. Cobalt and antimony: genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, Marlies; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Lison, Dominique

    2003-12-10

    The purpose of this review is to summarise the data concerning genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Co and Sb. Both metals have multiple industrial and/or therapeutical applications, depending on the considered species. Cobalt is used for the production of alloys and hard metal (cemented carbide), diamond polishing, drying agents, pigments and catalysts. Occupational exposure to cobalt may result in adverse health effects in different organs or tissues. Antimony trioxide is primarily used as a flame retardant in rubber, plastics, pigments, adhesives, textiles, and paper. Antimony potassium tartrate has been used worldwide as an anti-shistosomal drug. Pentavalent antimony compounds have been used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Co(II) ions are genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and carcinogenic in rodents. Co metal is genotoxic in vitro. Hard metal dust, of which occupational exposure is linked to an increased lung cancer risk, is proven to be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Possibly, production of active oxygen species and/or DNA repair inhibition are mechanisms involved. Given the recently provided proof for in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential of hard metal dust, the mechanistic evidence of elevated production of active oxygen species and the epidemiological data on increased cancer risk, it may be advisable to consider the possibility of a new evaluation by IARC. Both trivalent and pentavalent antimony compounds are generally negative in non-mammalian genotoxicity tests, while mammalian test systems usually give positive results for Sb(III) and negative results for Sb(V) compounds. Assessment of the in vivo potential of Sb2O3 to induce chromosome aberrations (CA) gave conflicting results. Animal carcinogenicity data were concluded sufficient for Sb2O3 by IARC. Human carcinogenicity data is difficult to evaluate given the frequent co-exposure to arsenic. Possible mechanisms of action, including potential to produce active oxygen species and to interfere with

  5. RADON AND CARCINOGENIC RISK IN MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Golovanev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative evaluation of carcinogenic risk inMoscowfrom radon in indoor and atmospheric pollutants.Materials and methods: the lung cancer incidence in Moscow; radiation-hygienic passport of the territory; .U.S. EPA estimated average age at all and radon induced deaths, years of life lost; Report of UNSCEAR 2006 and WHO handbook on indoor radon, 2009. Trend analysis of incidence; evaluation of the excess relative risk; assessment of ratio radon-induced population risk and published values оf total population carcinogenic risk from chemical carcinogens.Results: it is shown that the 304 cases of lung cancer per year (1. 85 10-3 on average from 2006 to 2011 (21280diseases for 70 years in addition to background level induced by radon; the differences in average trends of all lungcancer incidence in the districts can exceed 25%.Conclusion. The potential of risk reduction by measures of mitigation radon concentration exceeds 5 times the cost efficiency to reduce emissions from vehicles and can reduce cancer incidence, on average 236 cases per year; population risk 16520 cases over 70 years or save not less than 2832 person-years of life per year. The annual effect of reducing losses from not-survival of 12 years as a result of radon-induced lung cancer deaths exceeds 14160000 dollars. The evaluating of the carcinogenic risk from radon in accordance with the definition of population risk increases the predictive evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive measures more than twice.

  6. Report on carcinogens monograph on 1-bromopropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on 1 bromopropane for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for 1 bromopropane in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to 1-bromopropane. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on 1 bromopropane, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that 1 bromopropane be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found inhalation exposure to 1-bromopropane caused skin tumors in male rats, large intestine tumors in female and male rats, and lung tumors in female mice. Also noted was that 1 bromopropane, either directly or via reactive metabolites, caused molecular alterations that typically are associated with carcinogenesis, including genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and glutathione depletion. These alterations, observed in mainly in vitro and toxicity studies in rodents, are relevant to possible mechanisms of human carcinogenicity and support the relevance of the cancer studies in

  7. [Carcinogenic activity of the pesticide propoxur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylev, L N; Vasil'eva, L A; Smirnova, O V; Khrustalev, S A; Trukhina, G M

    2010-01-01

    Wistar rats were fed propoxur in their diet at 0, 500, 3000, and 8000 ppm during throughout their life. The number of tumors was equal in the control and experimental groups. These were hemoblastoses and breast and uterine tumors. All tumors occurred spontaneously in the rats. A few experimental animals were found to have bladder epithelial hyperplasia that might be pretumorous; however, no bladder tumors were detected. It is concluded that the investigations revealed no carcinogenic activity of propoxur.

  8. The evolving definition of carcinogenic human papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castle Philip E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thirteen human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes have been judged to be carcinogenic or probably carcinogenic, and the cause of virtually all cervical cancer worldwide. Other HPV genotypes could possibly be involved. Although the inclusion of possibly carcinogenic HPV genotypes may hurt test specificity, it may indirectly increase the reassurance following a negative HPV test (i.e. the negative predictive value of an HPV test for cervical precancer and cancer. The future of cervical cancer screening in low-resource setting, however, may include once-in-a-lifetime, low-cost and rapid HPV testing. However, the tradeoff of more false positives for greater reassurance may not be acceptable if the local infrastructure cannot manage the screen positives. Now is the time for the community of scientists, doctors, and public health advocates to use the data presented at the 100th International Agency for Research on Cancer monograph meeting to rationally decide the target HPV genotypes for the next generation of HPV tests for use in high-resource and low-resource settings. The implications of including possibly HPV genotypes on HPV test performance, also for guidance on the use of these tests for cervical cancer prevention programs, are discussed.

  9. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity risk of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokuni, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    Novel materials are often commercialized without a complete assessment of the risks they pose to human health because such assessments are costly and time-consuming; additionally, sometimes the methodology needed for such an assessment does not exist. Carbon nanotubes have the potential for widespread application in engineering, materials science and medicine. However, due to the needle-like shape and high durability of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), concerns have been raised that they may induce asbestos-like pathogenicity when inhaled. Indeed, experiments in rodents supported this hypothesis. Notably, the genetic alterations in MWCNT-induced rat malignant mesothelioma were similar to those induced by asbestos. Single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) cause mitotic disturbances in cultured cells, but thus far, there has been no report that SWCNTs are carcinogenic. This review summarizes the recent noteworthy publications on the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of CNTs and explains the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for this carcinogenicity. The nanoscale size and needle-like rigid structure of CNTs appear to be associated with their pathogenicity in mammalian cells, where carbon atoms are major components in the backbone of many biomolecules. Publishing adverse events associated with novel materials is critically important for alerting people exposed to such materials. CNTs still have a bright future with superb economic and medical merits. However, appropriate regulation of the production, distribution and secondary manufacturing processes is required, at least to protect the workers.

  10. Analysis of genotoxicity and the carcinogenic mode of action for ortho-phenylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusick, David

    2005-06-01

    Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) and its sodium salt (SOPP) are commercial products that have wide human exposure and have been shown in several studies to be rodent carcinogens. Genetic toxicology data were assessed in an attempt to understand the carcinogenic mode of action of OPP and SOPP. More than 130 studies were evaluated to determine if OPP, SOPP, or any of their enzymatic or nonenzymatic breakdown products react directly with DNA to induce mutation, changes in chromosome structure or number, DNA repair, or nonspecific DNA damage including strand breakage or covalent binding. The genotoxicity databases for OPP and SOPP are not only large but heterogeneous, requiring weight-of-evidence methods to arrive at a conclusion regarding their genotoxic properties and potential. Evidence derived from the available studies leads to the conclusion that study results showing OPP/SOPP directly interacting with DNA are equivocal. Clastogenicity was the most consistent type of genetic toxicity produced by OPP/SOPP (and their break-down products) and was consistently associated with other intracellular preneoplastic toxicity produced at super-threshold concentrations. The weight of evidence from the combined database supports the hypothesis that OPP/SOPP-induced DNA damage is a threshold-dependent response associated with target tissue toxicity, most likely induced by their breakdown products phenylhydroquinone and phenylbenzoquinone. It is possible that this threshold-dependent clastogenicity could contribute to the carcinogenic mode of action for OPP or SOPP.

  11. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity of acrylonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, A; Gerber, G B; Stecca, C; Rueff, J; Borba, H; Farmer, P B; Sram, R J; Czeizel, A E; Kalina, I

    1999-05-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) is an important intermediary for the synthesis of a variety of organic products, such as artificial fibres, household articles and resins. Although acute effects are the primary concern for an exposure to AN, potential genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic risks of AN have to be taken seriously in view of the large number of workers employed in such industries and the world-wide population using products containing and possibly liberating AN. An understanding of the effect of acrylonitrile must be based on a characterization of its metabolism as well as of the resulting products and their genotoxic properties. Tests for mutagenicity in bacteria have in general been positive, those in plants and on unscheduled DNA synthesis doubtful, and those on chromosome aberrations in vivo negative. Wherever positive results had been obtained, metabolic activation of AN appeared to be a prerequisite. The extent to which such mutagenic effects are significant in man depends, however, also on the conditions of exposure. It appears from the limited data that the ultimate mutagenic factor(s), such as 2-cyanoethylene oxide, may have little opportunity to act under conditions where people are exposed because it is formed only in small amounts and is rapidly degraded. The carcinogenic action of AN has been evaluated by various agencies and ranged from 'reasonably be anticipated to be a human carcinogen' to 'cannot be excluded', the most recent evaluation being 'possibly carcinogenic to humans'. Animal data that confirm the carcinogenic potential of AN have certain limitations with respect to the choice of species, type of tumors and length of follow up. Epidemiological studies which sometimes, but not always, yielded positive results, encounter the usual difficulties of confounding factors in chemical industries. Exposure of workers to AN should continue to be carefully monitored, but AN would not have to be considered a cancer risk to the population provided

  12. A quantum mechanical approach to the theory of cancer from polynuclear compounds. Metabolic activation and carcinogenicity of extended anilines and aminoazo compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, S N

    1985-01-01

    Calculations have been carried out of the electronic structure and molecular properties in relation to metabolic activation and carcinogenic activities of polycyclic aromatic amines (PAAs). Quantum mechanical molecular orbital method MINDO/3 is employed in the calculations mainly on anilines, extended anilines, and aminoazo and other azo compounds. The calculations, in agreement with findings of Arcos and Argus, indicate that for the highest level of carcinogenic activity obtainable with the dicyclic aromatic amines, the amino substituent must be introduced at the terminal carbon atom of the longest conjugate chain. In the case of monocyclic compounds, in particular, charge distribution of the amino substitution aids in identifying the carcinogenic character of the PAAs. Our results demonstrate that ring hydroxylation leads to detoxification of the compounds. However, the major pathway leading to carcinogenic activity involves transformation to hydroxylamines and subsequently to electrophilic arylnitrenium ions (ANIs). These are in line with findings from experiments. Calculations of certain electronic parameters give expected relative carcinogenic potencies. In all cases the ANIs function as ambient electrophiles which can undergo both electrostatic and covalent binding with nucleophilic centers of proteins and DNA bases.

  13. 依据QSAR建立化学致癌物预测TD50的计算模型%A computing model based on QSAR to predict the chemical carcinogen TD50

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李科; 邢立国; 宋宏宇; 王捷

    2011-01-01

    Objective To build a kind of computer predicting model to predict the chemical carcinogen TDW. Methods Building the training sets and the validation sets of the model by using Carcinogenic Potency Database and on the basis of QSAR method. Then performing analysis and calculations on the molecule structures in the training sets. By using bond adjacent matrix of molecules as the calculation basis, the arithmetic convert the atom property weight adjacent bond to the bond weight through calculating formula and list it in the bond adjacent matrix as the weight of the bond, then calculate k-order (O^I^lS) of the matrix, and then calculate the spectral moments of the matrix . Finally by using multiple regression analysis, establishing regression equation with the data of TDH of the compounds in CPDB as dependent variable and the spectral moments as independent variable and then testing the results by using the data in the validation sets. Results In the statistical parameter of the regression equation established by using data in training sets, deciding coefficient r is 0.93524548,and the result of the significance test F is 33.73586. As to the data in validation sets, observations and predictive values of the model are generally in the 95% confidential interval. Conclusion The computer model obtained by this method can comparatively correctly tally with the data in CPDB, and thus provide a feasible method to predict chemical toxicity.%目的 建立一种预测化学致癌物TD50的计算机预测模型.方法 以定量构效关系( QSAR)方法为基础,利用CPDB( Carcinogenic Potency Database)数据库建立模型的训练集和验证集,通过对训练集中分子结构的解析和计算,以分子的键邻接矩阵作为计算基础,将与键邻接的原子性质分量通过计算公式转换为键的分量,并作为键的权值列入键邻接矩阵中,然后计算该矩阵的k次幂(0≤k≤15),进而计算出这些矩阵的谱矩(即矩阵的迹).最后利用多元

  14. Aroclor 1254 increases the genotoxicity of several carcinogens to liver primary cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T.; Lopez-Revilla, R.; Villa-Trevino, S.

    1985-01-01

    The genotoxicity of both direct-acting and precarcinogenic chemicals was evaluated in liver primary cell cultures (LPCC) from untreated and Aroclor 1254 (Ar) pretreated rats. Hepatocytes were isolated from partially hepatectomized rats and their DNA was labeled in vitro with (/sup 3/H) dThd; the molecular weight of single-stranded DNA was determined by alkaline sucrose sedimentation. Two parameters of DNA damage were defined: 1) the mean effective dose (ED50), i.e., the carcinogen concentration that decreased the DNA molecular weight to half the original, and 2) the DNA breaking potency (DBP), i.e., the number of breaks per DNA molecule produced by 2 h exposure to 1mM concentration of the chemical. Two hours exposure of LPCC from untreated rats to the direct-acting alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) (6.8-340..mu..M) and to the precarcinogens benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (0.05-0.33 mM) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) (0.45-16 mM) produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the molecular weight of DNA. Pretreatment of rats with Ar decreased significantly the sedimentation velocity of DNA and increased five, three, and two times the DBP of MNNG, BaP, and DMN, respectively. These results show that Ar-pretreatment of rats increases the genotoxicity of both direct-acting and precarcinogenic chemicals and suggest that Ar might increase the genotoxicity of chemical carcinogens perhaps by enhancing their metabolic activation, by producing direct genotoxic effects, or both. Our results also emphasize the carcinogenic risk that the environmental pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls might represent to humans.

  15. Aroclor 1254 increases the genotoxicity of several carcinogens to liver primary cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T; López-Revilla, R; Villa-Treviño, S

    1985-01-01

    The genotoxicity of both direct-acting and precarcinogenic chemicals was evaluated in liver primary cell cultures (LPCC) from untreated and Aroclor 1254 (Ar) pretreated rats. Hepatocytes were isolated from partially hepatectomized rats and their DNA was labeled in vitro with [3H] dThd; the molecular weight of single-stranded DNA was determined by alkaline sucrose sedimentation. Two parameters of DNA damage were defined: the mean effective dose (ED50), i.e., the carcinogen concentration that decreased the DNA molecular weight to half the original, and the DNA breaking potency (DBP), i.e., the number of breaks per DNA molecule produced by 2 h exposure to 1 mM concentration of the chemical. Two hours exposure of LPCC from untreated rats to the direct-acting alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) (6.8-340 microM) and to the precarcinogens benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0.05-0.33 mM) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) (0.45-16 mM) produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the molecular weight of DNA. Pretreatment of rats with Ar decreased significantly the sedimentation velocity of DNA and increased five, three, and two times the DBP of MNNG, BaP, and DMN, respectively. These results show that Ar-pretreatment of rats increases the genotoxicity of both direct-acting and precarcinogenic chemicals and suggest that Ar might increase the genotoxicity of chemical carcinogens perhaps by enhancing their metabolic activation, by producing direct genotoxic effects, or both. Our results also emphasize the carcinogenic risk that the environmental pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls might represent to humans.

  16. Hamster exhibits major differences in organ-specific metabolism of the esophageal carcinogen N-nitrosodiethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visoni, Sílvia; Lang, Matti; Ribeiro Pinto, Luis Felipe

    2008-12-15

    Nitrosamines are carcinogens that require metabolic activation by CYP enzymes in order to exert their carcinogenic effect. Species differences exist in their esophageal carcinogenic potency, with the rat being the most sensitive and the Syrian hamster a resistant species. In the latter, the liver is the main target organ. This difference does not apply to directly acting N-nitroso compounds, suggesting that tissue-specific metabolic activation is involved in hamster esophageal resistance to nitrosamines. We have previously shown that Cytochrome P450 2A3 (CYP2A3) is responsible for N-nitrosodiethylamine activation in the rat esophagus. In order to find a mechanistic explanation for the resistance of hamster esophagus for nitrosamines, we have compared the metabolism of NDEA between esophagus and liver of the hamster. Hamster esophagus is capable of activating NDEA (K(m)=1.02+/-0.44microM and V(max)=1.96+/-0.26nmol acetaldehyde/min/mg microsomal protein). However, the hamster liver showed a 40-fold higher catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) towards NDEA metabolism compared with its esophagus. Hamster esophagus expresses CYP2A8, CYP2A9 and CYP2A16, but not CYP2E1. An antibody against human CYP2A6 was able to inhibit NDEA metabolism in hamster esophageal, but not liver microsomes. Our results suggest that in the hamster esophagus, but not in the liver, most of the NDEA is metabolized by CYP2A enzymes, but with a rather poor efficiency when compared to the liver. This is in accordance with previous results showing that for the hamster, the main target organ of NDEA is the liver.

  17. Report on carcinogens monograph on cumene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on cumene for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for cumene in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to cumene. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on cumene, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that cumene be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found that cumene exposure caused lung tumors in male and female mice and liver tumors in female mice. Several proposed mechanisms of carcinogenesis support the relevance to humans of the lung and liver tumors observed in experimental animals. Specifically, there is evidence that humans and experimental animals metabolize cumene through similar metabolic pathways. In addition, mutations of the K-ras oncogene and p53 tumor-suppressor gene observed in cumene-induced lung tumors in mice, along with altered expression of many other genes, resemble molecular alterations found in human lung and other cancers.

  18. Quantification of the mutagenic potency and repair of glycidol-induced DNA lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa, Jenny; Vare, Daniel; Motwani, Hitesh V; Jenssen, Dag; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2016-07-01

    Glycidol (Gly) is an electrophilic low-molecular weight epoxide that is classified by IARC as probably carcinogenic to humans. Humans might be exposed to Gly from food, e.g. refined vegetable oils, where Gly has been found as a food process contaminant. It is therefore important to investigate and quantify the genotoxicity of Gly as a primary step towards cancer risk assessment of the human exposure. Here, quantification of the mutagenic potency expressed per dose (AUC: area under the concentration-time curve) of Gly has been performed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, using the HPRT assay. The dose of Gly was estimated in the cell exposure medium by trapping Gly with a strong nucleophile, cob(I)alamin, to form stable cobalamin adducts for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Gly was stable in the exposure medium during the time for cell treatment, and thus the dose in vitro is the initial concentration×cell treatment time. Gly induced mutations in the hprt-gene at a rate of 0.08±0.01 mutations/10(5) cells/mMh. Through comparison with the effect of ionizing radiation in the same system a relative mutagenic potency of 9.5rad-eq./mMh was obtained, which could be used for comparison of genotoxicity of chemicals and between test systems and also in procedures for quantitative cancer risk assessment. Gly was shown to induce strand breaks, that were repaired by base excision repair. Furthermore, Gly-induced lesions, present during replication, were found to delay the replication fork elongation. From experiments with repair deficient cells, homologous recombination repair and the ERCC1-XPF complex were indicated to be recruited to support in the repair of the damage related to the stalled replication elongation. The type of DNA damage responsible for the mutagenic effect of Gly could not be concluded from the present study.

  19. Classification of contact allergens according to potency: proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, I; Basketter, D A; Butler, M; Gamer, A; Garrigue, J-L; Gerberick, G F; Newsome, C; Steiling, W; Vohr, H-W

    2003-12-01

    It is clear that contact allergens vary substantially with regard to the relative potency with which they are able to induce skin sensitisation. Considerations of potency will in the future become a significant factor in the classification of skin sensitising chemicals. It is therefore appropriate to establish what is known of potency and thresholds in the induction of skin sensitisation and the elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis, and to identify approaches that might be available for assessment of relative potency for the purposes of categorising chemical allergens. This paper was prepared by an ECETOC (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology) Task Force that had the objective of recommending approaches for the measurement of potency and definition of thresholds for both the induction and elicitation of contact sensitisation. The deliberations recorded here build upon recommendations made previously by an ECETOC Task Force that considered the conduct of standard skin sensitisation test methods for the purposes of hazard identification and risk assessment (ECETOC, Monograph No. 29, Brussels, 2000). The emphasis in this present paper is also on standard and accepted methods for the assessment of skin sensitisation, and for which OECD guidelines are available: the local lymph node assay (LLNA), the guinea pig maximisation test and the occluded patch test of Buehler. For various reasons, discussed in detail herein, attention focused primarily upon consideration of categorisation of chemical allergens and the identification of thresholds with respect to the induction of skin sensitisation, rather than the elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis. It is concluded that although the LLNA is the method of choice for the determination of skin sensitisation potency for the purposes of categorisation, if data are already available from appropriate guinea pig tests then their judicious interpretation may provide information of value in determinations of

  20. Database Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    It is normal practice today for organizations to store large quantities of records of related information as computer-based files or databases. Purposeful information is retrieved by performing queries on the data sets. The purpose of DATABASE MANAGER is to communicate to students the method by which the computer performs these queries. This…

  1. Comparison of rat olfactory mucosal responses to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chloracetanilides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genter, M.B.; Warner, B.M.; Medvedovic, M.; Sartor, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Alachlor and butachlor are chloracetanilide herbicides that induce olfactory tumors in rats, whereas propachlor does not. The mechanism by which alachlor induces tumors is distinct from many other nasal carcinogens, in that alachlor induces a gradual de-differentiation of the olfactory mucosa (OM) to a more respiratory-like epithelium, in contrast to other agents that induce cytotoxicity, followed by an aberrant regenerative response. We studied biochemical and genomic effects of these compounds to identify processes that occur in common between alachlor- and butachlor-treated rats. Because we have previously shown that matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) is activated in OM by alachlor, in the present studies we evaluated both MMP2 activation and changes in OM gene expression in response to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chloracetanilide treatments. All three chloracetanilides activated MMP2, and > 300 genes were significantly up- or downregulated between control and alachlor-treated rats. The most significantly regulated gene was vomeromodulin, which was dramatically upregulated by alachlor and butachlor treatment (>60-fold), but not by propachlor treatment. Except for similar gene responses in alachlor- and butachlor-treated rats, we did not identify clear-cut differences that would predict OM carcinogenicity in this study. PMID:19425180

  2. FTIR analysis and evaluation of carcinogenic and mutagenic risks of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM1.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ismael Luís; Teixeira, Elba Calesso; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana Milena; Silva e Silva, Gabriel; Balzaretti, Naira; Braga, Marcel Ferreira; Oliveira, Luís Felipe Silva

    2016-01-15

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) represent a group of organic compounds of significant interest due to their presence in airborne particulates of urban centers, wide distribution in the environment, and mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. These compounds, associated with atmospheric particles of size mutagenic risks of the studied NPAHs associated with PM1.0 samples were also determined for two sampling sites: Canoas and Sapucaia do Sul. The results showed that NPAH standard spectra can effectively identify NPAHs in PM1.0 samples. The transmittance and emissivity sample spectra showed broader bands and lower relative intensity than the standard NPAH spectra. The carcinogenic risk and the total mutagenic risk were calculated using the toxic equivalent factors and mutagenic potency factors, respectively. Canoas showed the highest total carcinogenic risk, while Sapucaia do Sul had the highest mutagenic risk. The seasonal analysis suggested that in the study area the ambient air is more toxic during the cold periods. These findings might of significant importance for the decision and policy making authorities.

  3. Occurrence, uses, and carcinogenicity of arylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, King-Thom

    2015-01-01

    Arylamines are chemically synthesized and contained in oxidants, epoxy polymers, explosives, fungicides, pesticides, colorants, polyurethanes, and used in rubber, pharmacology, cosmetics, and other chemical industries. Many arylamines are ubiquitously present in cigarette smoke, cooking fume hoods, foods, automobile exhaust, industrial sites, etc. Some arylamines can be generated through azo reduction by intestinal, skin, and environmental microorganisms from azo dyes that are widely used. Arylamines can also be generated by reduction of the nitro-group containing polyhydrated hydrocarbons including muntions. Some arylamines are released by burning nitrogen containing organic materials at high temperatures. Some medical drugs are also arylamines. Furthermore, many arylamines are essential constituents of normal metabolism or the result of abnormal metabolism or dietary sources. Some arylamines are mutagenic, carcinogenic or the cause of other kinds of maladies. Some arylamine are considered the major etiological agents of bladder tumors in humans and animals but may also induce other types of cancers in various organs. The organ, tissue, and species specificity of the arylamine-inducing carcinogenesis may be determined by their availability, distribution, and the presence of metabolic activation/detoxicification enzymes of each organ or tissue of different species. The ubiquitous arylamines, therefore, pose serious hazards to human health and environment. This article will address the occurrence, uses, carcinogenicity, and other arylamines-induced diseases.

  4. Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2003-10-01

    The devastating link between tobacco products and human cancers results from a powerful alliance of two factors - nicotine and carcinogens. Without either one of these, tobacco would be just another commodity, instead of being the single greatest cause of death due to preventable cancer. Nicotine is addictive and toxic, but it is not carcinogenic. This addiction, however, causes people to use tobacco products continually, and these products contain many carcinogens. What are the mechanisms by which this deadly combination leads to 30% of cancer-related deaths in developed countries, and how can carcinogen biomarkers help to reveal these mechanisms?

  5. Probabilistic Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Suciu, Dan; Koch, Christop

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic databases are databases where the value of some attributes or the presence of some records are uncertain and known only with some probability. Applications in many areas such as information extraction, RFID and scientific data management, data cleaning, data integration, and financial risk assessment produce large volumes of uncertain data, which are best modeled and processed by a probabilistic database. This book presents the state of the art in representation formalisms and query processing techniques for probabilistic data. It starts by discussing the basic principles for rep

  6. Database Replication

    CERN Document Server

    Kemme, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Database replication is widely used for fault-tolerance, scalability and performance. The failure of one database replica does not stop the system from working as available replicas can take over the tasks of the failed replica. Scalability can be achieved by distributing the load across all replicas, and adding new replicas should the load increase. Finally, database replication can provide fast local access, even if clients are geographically distributed clients, if data copies are located close to clients. Despite its advantages, replication is not a straightforward technique to apply, and

  7. RDD Databases

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database was established to oversee documents issued in support of fishery research activities including experimental fishing permits (EFP), letters of...

  8. Dealer Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dealer reporting databases contain the primary data reported by federally permitted seafood dealers in the northeast. Electronic reporting was implemented May 1,...

  9. National database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helen Grundtvig; Stjernø, Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen.......Artikel om national database for sygeplejeforskning oprettet på Dansk Institut for Sundheds- og Sygeplejeforskning. Det er målet med databasen at samle viden om forsknings- og udviklingsaktiviteter inden for sygeplejen....

  10. Naturally-Occurring Glucosinolates, Glucoraphanin and Glucoerucin, are Antagonists to Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor as Their Chemopreventive Potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Noor, Noramaliza Mohd

    2015-01-01

    As a cytosolic transcription factor, the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor is involved in several patho- physiological events leading to immunosuppression and cancer; hence antagonists of the Ah receptor may possess chemoprevention properties. It is known to modulate carcinogen-metabolising enzymes, for instance the CYP1 family of cytochromes P450 and quinone reductase, both important in the biotransformation of many chemical carcinogens via regulating phase I and phase II enzyme systems. Utilising chemically-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) assay it was revealed that intact glucosinolates, glucoraphanin and glucoerucin, isolated from Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala sabellica and Eruca sativa ripe seeds, respectively, are such antagonists. Both glucosinolates were poor ligands for the Ah receptor; however, they effectively antagonised activation of the receptor by the avid ligand benzo[a]pyrene. Indeed, intact glucosinolate glucoraphanin was a more potent antagonist to the receptor than glucoerucin. It can be concluded that both glucosinolates effectively act as antagonists for the Ah receptor, and this may contribute to their established chemoprevention potency.

  11. Potency determination of antidandruff shampoos in nystatin international unit equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Hewage D.B.G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A convenient standard microbiological potency determination test for the antidandruff shampoos was developed by adopting the pharmacopoeial microbiological assay procedure of the drug nystatin. A standard curve was drawn consisting of the inhibition zone diameters vs. logarithm of nystatin concentrations in international units using the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast strain National Collection of Type Culture (NCTC 1071606 as the test organism. From the standard curve the yeast inhibitory potencies of the shampoos in nystatin international unit equivalents were determined from the respective inhibition zones of the test samples of the shampoos. Under test conditions four shampoo samples showed remarkable fungal inhibitory potencies of 10227, 10731, 12396 and 18211 nystatin international unit equivalents/ml while two shampoo samples had extremely feeble inhibitory potencies 4.07 and 4.37 nystatin international unit equivalents/ml although the latter two products claimed antifungal activity. The potency determination method could be applied to any antidandruff shampoo with any one or a combination of active ingredients.

  12. Emissions and air exposure of carcinogens and co-carcinogens in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Ketzel, Matthias;

    . A list of carcinogenic andco-carcinogenic pollutants (particles, heavy metals and organic compounds) emittedfrom energy production, industrial activities, road transport, navigation, agriculture, residential heating and product use was compiled. Pollutant emissions levels for 2010and trends for 1990......This project (KoL 12-08) was performed for the Climate and Air Quality Group (KlimaogLuftgruppen, KoL), Nordic Council of Ministers by atmospheric emission, exposureand epidemiology experts from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Emission inventory methods and exposure models were presented...... to 2010 were compiled and discussed, and modelled andmeasured atmospheric concentrations for 2010 were compiled on regional, urbanand local scales. Nordic maps of emissions and air concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NOx,NMVOC, benzene, BaP, dioxin, cadmium and nickel were compiled for allaggregated main...

  13. Carcinogenic risk of copper gluconate evaluated by a rat medium-term liver carcinogenicity bioassay protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Masayoshi; Usuda, Koji; Hayashi, Seigo; Ogawa, Izumi; Furukawa, Satoshi [Nissan Chemical Industries Limited, Toxicology and Environmental Science Department, Biological Research Laboratories, Saitama (Japan); Igarashi, Maki [Tokyo University of Agriculture, Laboratory of Protection of Body Function, Department of Food and Nutritional Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Nakae, Dai [Tokyo University of Agriculture, Laboratory of Protection of Body Function, Department of Food and Nutritional Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    Carcinogenic risk and molecular mechanisms underlying the liver tumor-promoting activity of copper gluconate, an additive of functional foods, were investigated using a rat medium-term liver carcinogenicity bioassay protocol (Ito test) and a 2-week short-term administration experiment. In the medium-term liver bioassay, Fischer 344 male rats were given a single i.p. injection of N-nitrosodiethylamine at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. as a carcinogenic initiator. Starting 2 weeks thereafter, rats received 0, 10, 300 or 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate in diet for 6 weeks. All rats underwent 2/3 partial hepatectomy at the end of week 3, and all surviving rats were killed at the end of week 8. In the short-term experiment, rats were given 0, 10, 300 or 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate for 2 weeks. Numbers of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive lesions, single GST-P-positive hepatocytes and 8-oxoguanine-positive hepatocytes, and levels of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the liver were significantly increased by 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate in the medium-term liver bioassay. Furthermore, hepatic mRNA expression of genes relating to the metal metabolism, inflammation and apoptosis were elevated by 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate both in the medium-term liver bioassay and the short-term experiments. These results indicate that copper gluconate possesses carcinogenic risk toward the liver at the high dose level, and that oxidative stress and inflammatory and pro-apoptotic signaling statuses may participate in its underlying mechanisms. (orig.)

  14. 76 FR 52664 - Request for Information: Announcement of Carcinogen and Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) Policy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Carcinogen and Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) Policy Assessment AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational... review its approach to classifying carcinogens and establishing recommended exposure limits (RELs) for... recommended exposure limit (REL) for carcinogens or should lower targets be considered? (4) In...

  15. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  16. Towards incorporating epigenetic mechanisms into carcinogen identification and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Zdenko; Lambert, Marie-Pierre; van Veldhoven, Karin; Demetriou, Christiana; Vineis, Paolo; Smith, Martyn T; Straif, Kurt; Wild, Christopher P

    2013-09-01

    Remarkable progress in the field of epigenetics has turned academic, medical and public attention to the potential applications of these new advances in medicine and various fields of biomedical research. The result is a broader appreciation of epigenetic phenomena in the a etiology of common human diseases, most notably cancer. These advances also represent an exciting opportunity to incorporate epigenetics and epigenomics into carcinogen identification and safety assessment. Current epigenetic studies, including major international sequencing projects, are expected to generate information for establishing the 'normal' epigenome of tissues and cell types as well as the physiological variability of the epigenome against which carcinogen exposure can be assessed. Recently, epigenetic events have emerged as key mechanisms in cancer development, and while our search of the Monograph Volume 100 revealed that epigenetics have played a modest role in evaluating human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs so far, epigenetic data might play a pivotal role in the future. Here, we review (i) the current status of incorporation of epigenetics in carcinogen evaluation in the IARC Monographs Programme, (ii) potential modes of action for epigenetic carcinogens, (iii) current in vivo and in vitro technologies to detect epigenetic carcinogens, (iv) genomic regions and epigenetic modifications and their biological consequences and (v) critical technological and biological issues in assessment of epigenetic carcinogens. We also discuss the issues related to opportunities and challenges in the application of epigenetic testing in carcinogen identification and evaluation. Although the application of epigenetic assays in carcinogen evaluation is still in its infancy, important data are being generated and valuable scientific resources are being established that should catalyse future applications of epigenetic testing.

  17. Mutagenic Potency of Food-Derived Heterocyclic Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felton, J S; Knize, M G; Wu, R W; Colvin, M E; Hatch, F T; Malfatti, M A

    2006-10-26

    The understanding of mutagenic potency has been primarily approached using ''quantitative structure activity relationships'' (QSAR). Often this method allows the prediction of mutagenic potency of the compound based on its structure. But it does not give the underlying reason why the mutagenic activities differ. We have taken a set of heterocyclic amine structures and used molecular dynamic calculations to dock these molecules into the active site of a computational model of the cytochrome P-450 1A1 enzyme. The calculated binding strength using Boltzman distribution constants was then compared to the QSAR value (HF/6-31G* optimized structures) and the Ames/Salmonella mutagenic potency. Further understanding will only come from knowing the complete set of mutagenic determinants. These include the nitrenium ion half-life, DNA adduct half-life, efficiency of repair of the adduct, and ultimately fixation of the mutation through cellular processes. For two isomers, PhIP and 3-Me-PhIP, we showed that for the 100-fold difference in the mutagenic potency a 5-fold difference can be accounted for by differences in the P450 oxidation. The other factor of 20 is not clearly understood but is downstream from the oxidation step. The application of QSAR (chemical characteristics) to biological principles related to mutagenesis is explored in this report.

  18. 9 CFR 113.9 - New potency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New potency test. 113.9 Section 113.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Applicability §...

  19. Relationship between Structures and Carcinogenicities of Heterocyclic Amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Xue-hai; DAI Qian-huan; CHEN Sha; WANG Wen-jun

    2004-01-01

    Semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations were performed on heterocyclic aromatic amines(HCAs). The relationship between the structures and the carcinogenicities can be rationally elucidated by the models based on the metabolism of HCAs and the Di-region theory. The degree of easiness for the formation of Di-region electrophilic centers determines the carcinogenic activity. There is a good linear relationship between the observed carcinogenicities and the PM3 calculated parameters, with r=0.973 and F=29.8>(F*0.*01).

  20. Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Takanori; Takeda, Makio; Kojima, Sayuri; Tomiyama, Naruto

    2016-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is still used in certain areas of tropics and subtropics to control malaria and other insect-transmitted diseases. DDT and its metabolites have been extensively studied for their toxicity and carcinogenicity in animals and humans and shown to have an endocrine disrupting potential affecting reproductive system although the effects may vary among animal species in correlation with exposure levels. Epidemiologic studies revealed either positive or negative associations between exposure to DDT and tumor development, but there has been no clear evidence that DDT causes cancer in humans. In experimental animals, tumor induction by DDT has been shown in the liver, lung, and adrenals. The mechanisms of hepatic tumor development by DDT have been studied in rats and mice. DDT is known as a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen and has been shown to induce microsomal enzymes through activation of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and to inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in the rodent liver. The results from our previously conducted 4-week and 2-year feeding studies of p,p′-DDT in F344 rats indicate that DDT may induce hepatocellular eosinophilic foci as a result of oxidative DNA damage and leads them to hepatic neoplasia in combination with its mitogenic activity and inhibitory effect on GJIC. Oxidative stress could be a key factor in hepatocarcinogenesis by DDT. PMID:26977256

  1. Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity, Cytotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan L. Stegelmeier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically. Less is known about chronic poisoning that may result when plant populations are sporadic, used as tisanes or herbal preparations, or when DHPAs contaminate milk, honey, pollen, or other animal-derived products. Such subclinical exposures may contribute to the development of chronic disease in humans or may be cumulative and probably slowly progress until liver failure. Recent work using rodent models suggest increased neoplastic incidence even with very low DHPA doses of short durations. These concerns have moved some governments to prohibit or limit human exposure to DHPAs. The purpose of this review is to summarize some recent DHPA research, including in vitro and in vivo DHPA toxicity and carcinogenicity reports, and the implications of these findings with respect to diagnosis and prognosis for human and animal health.

  2. Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity, Cytotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L.; Colegate, Steven M.; Brown, Ammon W.

    2016-01-01

    Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA)-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically. Less is known about chronic poisoning that may result when plant populations are sporadic, used as tisanes or herbal preparations, or when DHPAs contaminate milk, honey, pollen, or other animal-derived products. Such subclinical exposures may contribute to the development of chronic disease in humans or may be cumulative and probably slowly progress until liver failure. Recent work using rodent models suggest increased neoplastic incidence even with very low DHPA doses of short durations. These concerns have moved some governments to prohibit or limit human exposure to DHPAs. The purpose of this review is to summarize some recent DHPA research, including in vitro and in vivo DHPA toxicity and carcinogenicity reports, and the implications of these findings with respect to diagnosis and prognosis for human and animal health. PMID:27916846

  3. Tobacco carcinogen NNK-induced lung cancer animal models and associated carcinogenic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Guang-Zhe; Xu, Tian-Rui; Chen, Ceshi

    2015-07-01

    Tobacco usage is a major risk factor in the development, progression, and outcomes for lung cancer. Of the carcinogens associated with lung cancer, tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is among the most potent ones. The oncogenic mechanisms of NNK are not entirely understood, hindering the development of effective strategies for preventing and treating smoking-associated lung cancers. Here, we introduce the NNK-induced lung cancer animal models in different species and its potential mechanisms. Finally, we summarize several chemopreventive agents developed from these animal models.

  4. Carcinogenicity of individual and a mixture of dioxin-like compounds in female Harlan Sprague Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, N.; Nyska, A. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Crockett, P. [Constella Group, Research Triangle Park, NC (US)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The human health risk posed by exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated-dioxins (PCDDs), -furans (PCDFs) and - biphenyls (PCBs), present in the food and the environment is one of widespread concern throughout the industrialized world. The dioxin Toxic Equivalency Factor (TEF) approach is currently the most feasible interim approach for assessing and managing the risk posed by exposure to mixtures of these compounds and has been formally adopted by regulatory bodies in many countries, the International Programme on Chemical Safety and the World Health Organization. The TEF methodology is a relative potency scheme that estimates the total exposure and biological effects of a mixture of chemicals based on a common mechanism of action involving an initial binding of the compound to the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). An implicit assumption of the TEF methodology is that the combined risk of effects of the different congeners is dose additive. Therefore, the total dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of a mixture of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs may be estimated by the summation of the mass of each compound in the mixture after adjustment for its potency relative to that of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). While dose additivity is supported for certain mixtures for some biological endpoints in some experimental models, this has never been evaluated for cancer risk. Here we present a summary of four chronic rodent bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program (US Department of Health and Human Services) that evaluated the carcinogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3.3',4,4',5- pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) and 2,3,4,7,8 pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) and a mixture of these three dioxin-like compounds in female Harlan Sprague Dawley rats. Data from these studies will be used to test the hypothesis of dose-additivity of carcinogenicity by a defined mixture of dioxin-like compounds.

  5. Environmental carcinogens and mutational pathways in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliero, A; Godschalk, R; Andreassi, M G; Curfs, D; Van Schooten, F J; Izzotti, A

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is associated with DNA damage in both circulating and vessel-wall cells and DNA adducts derived from exposure to environmental mutagens are abundant in atherosclerotic vessels. Environmental chemical carcinogens identified as risk factor for atherosclerosis include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo(a)pyrene, dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, beta-naphthoflavone, pyrene, 3-methylcolanthrene), arsenic, cadmium, 1,3-butadiene, cigarette smoke. Accordingly, polymorphisms of genes encoding for phase I/II metabolic reaction and DNA repair are risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, although their role is negligible as compared to other risk factors. The pathogenic relevance of mutation-related molecular damage in atherosclerosis has been demonstrated in experimental animal models involving the exposure to chemical mutagens. The relevance of mutation-related events in worsening atherosclerosis prognosis has been demonstrated in human clinical studies mainly as referred to mitochondrial DNA damage. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the occurrence of high level of oxidative damage in blood vessel resulting from both endogenous and exogenous sources. Mitochondrial damage is a main endogenous source of oxidative stress whose accumulation causes activation of intrinsic apoptosis through BIRC2 inhibition and cell loss contributing to plaque development and instability. Environmental physical mutagens, including ionizing radiation, are a risk factor for atherosclerosis even at the low exposure dose occurring in case of occupational exposure or the high exposure doses occurring during radiotherapy. Conversely, the role of exciting UV radiation in atherosclerosis is still uncertain. This review summarizes the experimental and clinical evidence supporting the pathogenic role of mutation-related pathway in atherosclerosis examining the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  6. Human exposure to dioxins through the diet in Catalonia, Spain: carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, Jose L; Bocio, Ana; Casas, Conrad; Teixidó, Angel; Müller, Lutz

    2003-03-01

    The main objectives of this study were to estimate the dietary intake of dioxins by the population of Catalonia, Spain, to determine which food groups showed the greatest contribution to this intake, and to assess the health risks potentially associated with the dietary dioxin intake. From June to August 2000, food samples were randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia. Dioxin concentrations were determined in 108 samples belonging to the following groups: vegetables, fruits, pulses, cereals, fish and shellfish, meats and meat products, eggs, milk and dairy products, and oils and fats. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. Total dietary intake of dioxins for the general population of Catalonia was estimated to be 95.4 pg WHO-TEQ/day (78.4 pg I-TEQ/day), with fish and shellfish (31%), diary products (25%), cereals (14%) and meat (13%) showing the greatest percentages of contribution to dioxin intake. The contribution of all the rest of food groups to the total dietary intake was under 20%. The non-carcinogenic risk index of dioxin intake through the diet was in the range 0.34-1.36, while the carcinogenic risk level was 1,360 excess cancer over a lifetime of 70 years. Our results corroborate the decreasing tendency in dietary intake of dioxins found in recent studies (2000-2001) from various countries.

  7. Asphalt fume dermal carcinogenicity potential: I. dermal carcinogenicity evaluation of asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charles R; Burnett, Donald M; Parker, Craig M; Arp, Earl W; Swanson, Mark S; Minsavage, Gary D; Kriech, Anthony J; Osborn, Linda V; Freeman, James J; Barter, Robert A; Newton, Paul E; Beazley, Shelley L; Stewart, Christopher W

    2011-10-01

    Asphalt (bitumen) fume condensates collected from the headspace above paving and Type III built up roofing asphalt (BURA) tanks were evaluated in two-year dermal carcinogenicity assays in male C3H/HeNCrl mice. A third sample was generated from the BURA using a NIOSH laboratory generation method. Similar to earlier NIOSH studies, the BURA fume condensates were applied dermally in mineral oil twice per week; the paving sample was applied 7 days/week for a total weekly dose of 50 mg/wk in both studies. A single benign papilloma was observed in a group of 80 mice exposed to paving fume condensate at the end of the two-year study and only mild skin irritation was observed. The lab generated BURA fume condensate resulted in statistically significant (P<0.0001) increases in squamous cell carcinomas (35 animals or 55% of animals at risk). The field-matched BURA condensate showed a weaker but significant (P=0.0063) increase (8 carcinomas or 13% of animals) and a longer average latency (90 weeks vs. 76 for the lab fume). Significant irritation was observed in both BURA condensates. It is concluded that the paving fume condensate was not carcinogenic under the test conditions and that the field-matched BURA fume condensate produced a weak tumor response compared to the lab generated sample.

  8. Carcinogenicity and co-carcinogenicity studies on propoxur in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Y; Baqar, S M; Mehrotra, N K

    1998-12-01

    Propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate) is a widely used broad spectrum carbamate insecticide mainly used to control household pests. Propoxur exposure is reported to inhibit cholinesterase activity in rodents. Apart from other toxic effects, propoxur was found to possess tumorigenic activity in rats after oral administration. Propoxur does not produce tumours in mice or hamsters, or bladder hyperplasia in dogs and monkeys following oral feeding. In this set of investigations the complete carcinogenic, tumour initiating and promoting potential of propoxur was evaluated in male and female Swiss albino mice, since no information was available following dermal exposure of propoxur. The animals were exposed to propoxur through topical painting on the interscapular region at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. The results revealed that propoxur has tumour promoting potential on mouse skin following a two-stage initiation-promotion protocol, but it failed to induce the tumour(s) at a significant level, when tested for tumour initiating and complete carcinogenic property.

  9. Best practices for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamie K; Hall, Robert L; O'Brien, Peter; Strauss, Volker; Vahle, John L

    2011-02-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASCVP) convened a Clinical Pathology in Carcinogenicity Studies Working Group to recommend best practices for inclusion of clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. Regulatory guidance documents and literature were reviewed, and veterinary pathologists from North America, Japan, and Europe were surveyed regarding current practices, perceived value, and recommendations for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. For two-year rodent carcinogenicity studies, the Working Group recommends that clinical pathology testing be limited to collection of blood smears at scheduled and unscheduled sacrifices to be examined only if indicated to aid in the diagnosis of possible hematopoietic neoplasia following histopathologic evaluation. Additional clinical pathology testing is most appropriately used to address specific issues from prior toxicity studies or known test article-related class effects. Inadequate data were available to make a recommendation concerning clinical pathology testing for alternative six-month carcinogenicity assays using genetically modified mice, although the Working Group suggests that it may be appropriate to use the same approach as for two-year carcinogenicity studies since the study goal is the same.

  10. Does the term carcinogen send the wrong message?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, W G; Hughes, D

    1997-08-19

    The term carcinogen has been used by scientists and health regulatory officials for decades. During the last 20 years there have been attempts to redefine the term to make it more rigorous. But, as predicted two decades ago by a benchmark-setting subcommittee of the National Cancer Advisory Board, advances in scientific understanding have brought about dramatic changes in the way we are able to view the term carcinogen. These changes, their scientific bases and their effect on defining the term carcinogen are described. An alternative to the use of the term carcinogen is suggested by the recently proposed US Environmental Agency's guidelines for cancer risk assessment which appear to be in accord with current scientific understanding and the importance of considering the factors affecting the term carcinogen. The guidelines set forth four questions, the answers to which could, in our judgment, replace the need to define or use the term carcinogen which, in light of new scientific knowledge, has become more misleading than useful.

  11. Relevance of the mouse skin initiation-promotion model for the classification of carcinogenic substances encountered at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Thielmann, Heinz W; Meischner, Veronika; Fartasch, Manigé

    2015-06-01

    The Permanent Senate Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area (MAK Commission of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) evaluates chemical substances using scientific criteria to prevent adverse effects on health at the work place. As part of this task there is a need to evaluate tumor promoting activity of chemicals (enhancement of formation of squamous cell carcinomas via premalignant papillomas) obtained from two-stage initiation/promotion experiments using the mouse skin model. In the present communication we address this issue by comparing responses seen in mouse skin with those in humans. We conclude that tumor promotional effects seen in such animal models be carefully analyzed on a case by case basis. Substances that elicit a rather non-specific effect that is restricted to the high dose range are considered to be irrelevant to humans and thus do not require classification as carcinogens. In contrast, substances that might have both a mode of action and a potency similar to the specific effects seen with TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), the prototype tumor promoter in mouse skin, which triggers receptor-mediated signal cascades in the very low dose range, have to be classified in a category for carcinogens.

  12. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Hung [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Pei-Hsin [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Pei-Jen, E-mail: chenpj@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-30

    Highlights: • We assess ecotoxicological impact of azole fungicides in the aquatic environment. • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic azoles show different CYP activities in medaka. • We compare azole-induced CYP expression and carcinogenesis between fish and rodents. • Liver CYP-enzyme induction is a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. • We suggest toxicity evaluation methods for azole fungicides using medaka fish. - Abstract: Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish

  13. Comparative sensitizing potencies of fragrances, preservatives, and hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidén, Carola; Yazar, Kerem; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2016-01-01

    the sensitizing potencies of fragrance substances, preservatives, and hair dye substances, which are skin sensitizers that frequently come into contact with the skin of consumers and workers, LLNA results and EC3 values for 72 fragrance substances, 25 preservatives and 107 hair dye substances were obtained from...... two published compilations of LLNA data and opinions by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety and its predecessors. The median EC3 values of fragrances (n = 61), preservatives (n = 19) and hair dyes (n = 59) were 5.9%, 0.9%, and 1.3%, respectively. The majority of sensitizing preservatives...... and hair dyes are thus strong or extreme sensitizers (EC3 value of ≤2%), and fragrances are mostly moderate sensitizers. Although fragrances are typically moderate sensitizers, they are among the most frequent causes of contact allergy. This indicates that factors other than potency need to be addressed...

  14. Can biochemistry drive drug discovery beyond simple potency measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chène, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Among the fields of expertise required to develop drugs successfully, biochemistry holds a key position in drug discovery at the interface between chemistry, structural biology and cell biology. However, taking the example of protein kinases, it appears that biochemical assays are mostly used in the pharmaceutical industry to measure compound potency and/or selectivity. This limited use of biochemistry is surprising, given that detailed biochemical analyses are commonly used in academia to unravel molecular recognition processes. In this article, I show that biochemistry can provide invaluable information on the dynamics and energetics of compound-target interactions that cannot be obtained on the basis of potency measurements and structural data. Therefore, an extensive use of biochemistry in drug discovery could facilitate the identification and/or development of new drugs.

  15. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2014-07-30

    Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish populations in the aquatic environment.

  16. Epoxy resin monomers with reduced skin sensitizing potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Niamh M; Niklasson, Ida B; Tehrani-Bagha, Ali R; Delaine, Tamara; Holmberg, Krister; Luthman, Kristina; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2014-06-16

    Epoxy resin monomers (ERMs), especially diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A and F (DGEBA and DGEBF), are extensively used as building blocks for thermosetting polymers. However, they are known to commonly cause skin allergy. This research describes a number of alternative ERMs, designed with the aim of reducing the skin sensitizing potency while maintaining the ability to form thermosetting polymers. The compounds were designed, synthesized, and assessed for sensitizing potency using the in vivo murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). All six epoxy resin monomers had decreased sensitizing potencies compared to those of DGEBA and DGEBF. With respect to the LLNA EC3 value, the best of the alternative monomers had a value approximately 2.5 times higher than those of DGEBA and DGEBF. The diepoxides were reacted with triethylenetetramine, and the polymers formed were tested for technical applicability using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Four out of the six alternative ERMs gave polymers with a thermal stability comparable to that obtained with DGEBA and DGEBF. The use of improved epoxy resin monomers with less skin sensitizing effects is a direct way to tackle the problem of contact allergy to epoxy resin systems, particularly in occupational settings, resulting in a reduction in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis.

  17. Comparative anticonvulsant potency and pharmacokinetics of (+)-and (-)-enantiomers of stiripentol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, D D; Levy, R H; Savitch, J L; Boddy, A V; Tombret, F; Lepage, F

    1992-06-01

    The anticonvulsant potency and pharmacokinetics of the enantiomers of stiripentol were compared using the intravenous pentylenetetrazol infusion seizure model in the rat. Enantioselectivity was observed with respect to both the anticonvulsant activity and elimination kinetics of this compound. (+)-Stiripentol was 2.4 times more potent than its antipode against pentylenetetrazol-induced clonic seizure (brain EC50 of 15.2 micrograms/ml versus 36.1 micrograms/ml). The (+)-enantiomer was eliminated more rapidly than the (-)-enantiomer, as reflected in a higher plasma clearance (1.64 l/h/kg versus 0.557 l/h/kg) and a shorter half-life (2.83 h versus 6.50 h). Parallel studies with the racemate of stiripentol indicated that the anticonvulsant potency of the racemate was between the potency of the two enantiomers, suggesting that the combined activity reflects the additive action of (+)- and (-)-stiripentol. However, a marked metabolic interaction between enantiomers was evident after racemate administration. These results point to the need for information on the differential pharmacokinetics of stiripentol enantiomers following racemic drug administration.

  18. A novel antilithiatic protein from Tribulus terrestris having cytoprotective potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anshu; Tandon, Simran; Singla, Surinder Kumar; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2012-08-01

    Adhesion of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals to kidney cells is a key event in kidney stones associated with marked hyperoxaluria. As the propensity of stone recurrence and persistent side effects are not altered by surgical techniques available, phytotherapeutic agents could be useful as an adjuvant therapy. The present study is aimed at examining the antilithiatic potency of the protein biomolecules of Tribulus terrestris, a plant which is a common constituent of herbal marketed preparations to treat urolithiasis. Various biochemical methods with mass spectrometry were used to purify and characterize the purified protein. The protective potency of the protein was tested on the oxalate induced injury on renal epithelial cell lines (NRK 52E). An antilithiatic protein having molecular weight of ~ 60kDa was purified. This purified protein showed similarities with Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 7 (CCD7) of Arabidopsis thaliana after matching peptide mass fingerprints in MASCOT search engine. An EF hand domain was identified in CCD7 by SCAN PROSITE. Presence of an EF hand domain, a characteristic feature of calcium binding proteins and a role in the synthesis of retinol which is transported by retinol binding protein, a protein found in kidney stone matrix; of CCD7 support the role of TTP as an antilithiatic protein. The protective potency of TTP on NRK 52E was quite comparable to the aqueous extract of cystone. Our findings suggest that this purified protein biomolecule from Tribulus terrestris could open new vista in medical management of urolithiasis.

  19. Prediction of Non-Genotoxic Carcinogenicity Based on Genetic Profiles of Short Term Exposure Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Luis Orlando; González-José, Rolando; García, Pilar Peral

    2016-01-01

    Non-genotoxic carcinogens are substances that induce tumorigenesis by non-mutagenic mechanisms and long term rodent bioassays are required to identify them. Recent studies have shown that transcription profiling can be applied to develop early identifiers for long term phenotypes. In this study, we used rat liver expression profiles from the NTP (National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, USA) DrugMatrix Database to construct a gene classifier that can distinguish between non-genotoxic carcinogens and other chemicals. The model was based on short term exposure assays (3 days) and the training was limited to oxidative stressors, peroxisome proliferators and hormone modulators. Validation of the predictor was performed on independent toxicogenomic data (TG-GATEs, Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System, Osaka, Japan). To build our model we performed Random Forests together with a recursive elimination algorithm (VarSelRF). Gene set enrichment analysis was employed for functional interpretation. A total of 770 microarrays comprising 96 different compounds were analyzed and a predictor of 54 genes was built. Prediction accuracy was 0.85 in the training set, 0.87 in the test set and increased with increasing concentration in the validation set: 0.6 at low dose, 0.7 at medium doses and 0.81 at high doses. Pathway analysis revealed gene prominence of cellular respiration, energy production and lipoprotein metabolism. The biggest target of toxicogenomics is accurately predict the toxicity of unknown drugs. In this analysis, we presented a classifier that can predict non-genotoxic carcinogenicity by using short term exposure assays. In this approach, dose level is critical when evaluating chemicals at early time points. PMID:27818731

  20. A Web Server and Mobile App for Computing Hemolytic Potency of Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Kumar, Ritesh; Singh, Sandeep; Tuknait, Abhishek; Gautam, Ankur; Mathur, Deepika; Anand, Priya; Varshney, Grish C.; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-03-01

    Numerous therapeutic peptides do not enter the clinical trials just because of their high hemolytic activity. Recently, we developed a database, Hemolytik, for maintaining experimentally validated hemolytic and non-hemolytic peptides. The present study describes a web server and mobile app developed for predicting, and screening of peptides having hemolytic potency. Firstly, we generated a dataset HemoPI-1 that contains 552 hemolytic peptides extracted from Hemolytik database and 552 random non-hemolytic peptides (from Swiss-Prot). The sequence analysis of these peptides revealed that certain residues (e.g., L, K, F, W) and motifs (e.g., “FKK”, “LKL”, “KKLL”, “KWK”, “VLK”, “CYCR”, “CRR”, “RFC”, “RRR”, “LKKL”) are more abundant in hemolytic peptides. Therefore, we developed models for discriminating hemolytic and non-hemolytic peptides using various machine learning techniques and achieved more than 95% accuracy. We also developed models for discriminating peptides having high and low hemolytic potential on different datasets called HemoPI-2 and HemoPI-3. In order to serve the scientific community, we developed a web server, mobile app and JAVA-based standalone software (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/hemopi/).

  1. Review of the use of high potencies in basic research on homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Jürgen; van Wijk, Roeland; Albrecht, Henning

    2011-10-01

    The HomBRex database includes details of about 1500 basic research experiments in homeopathy. A general overview on the experiments listed in the HomBRex database is presented, focusing on high dilutions and the different settings in which those were used. Though often criticised, many experiments with remedies diluted beyond Avogadro's number demonstrate specific effects. A total of 830 experiments employing high potencies was found; in 745 experiments of these (90%), at least one positive result was reported. Animals represent the most often used model system (n=371), followed by plants (n=201), human material (n=92), bacteria and viruses (n=37) and fungi (n=32). Arsenicum album (Ars.) is the substance most often applied (n=101), followed by Sulphur (Sulph.) and Thuja (Thuj.) (n=65 and 48, respectively). Proving, prophylactic and therapeutic study designs have all been used and appear appropriate for homeopathy basic research using high dilutions. The basic research data set to support specific effects unique to high dilutions and opposite to those observed with low dilutions is, to date, insufficient.

  2. Studies in vitro to discern the structural requirements for carcinogenicity in analogues of the carcinogen 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (butter yellow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, J; Styles, J A; Paton, D

    1980-01-01

    4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene (butter yellow, DAB), is the parent member of a large family of 'azo-carcinogens'. Experiments have been conducted in vitro to determine the key structural requirements for carcinogenic activity in this chemical class, and it is suggested, based on the activity observed for 4-cyano-N,N-dimethylaniline, that the 4-phenylazo group of DAB is not an essential structural feature per se. The N-oxide derivative of DAB has been evaluated in vitro and the positive response observed related to its metabolic activation. It is concluded that cyclic amines, such as pyrrolidine, can replace the N-dimethyl group of DAB with a retention of biological activity. The confusion that exists in the literature concerning the chemical identity and carcinogenic status of 2-dimethylaminobenzo[c]cinnoline has been investigated, and it is concluded that it is a potential animal carcinogen. This observation also indicates that the phenylazo group of DAB can be incorporated within an aromatic ring system with a retention of biological activity. As observed earlier with a mixture of azobenzene and DAB, azobenzene also potentiates the cell transforming properties of the above cinnoline derivative in vitro. Two charts are presented. The first attempts to integrate DAB within a much larger family of carcinogens, and the second illustrates the usefulness of structure-activity studies in general.

  3. Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamede Robert

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

  4. The Potency of Krokot (Portulaca oleracea) as Functional Food Ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Irawan, Daisy; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Wijaya, Hanny

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia has many auxiliary plants that may have nutritional and or environmental benefits, so that it may increase the yield of the main crops. Krokot (Portulaca oleracea), one of the auxiliary plants, was traditionally consumed in many parts of the world for its delicacy and medicinal benefits. Our research indicated that krokot has high potency to improve the health status of the community. It has 5.4 mg/100 g of b-carotene, 22.2 mg/100 g of vitamin C, and significant amount of folic acid...

  5. Cannabis-induced psychosis associated with high potency "wax dabs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M; Gandal, Michael; Son, Maya

    2016-04-01

    With mounting evidence that the risk of cannabis-induced psychosis may be related to both dose and potency of tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), increasing reports of psychosis associated with cannabinoids containing greater amounts of THC are anticipated. We report two cases of emergent psychosis after using a concentrated THC extract known as cannabis "wax," "oil," or "dabs" raising serious concerns about its psychotic liability. Although "dabbing" with cannabis wax is becoming increasingly popular in the US for both recreational and "medicinal" intentions, our cases raise serious concerns about its psychotic liability and highlight the importance of understanding this risk by physicians recommending cannabinoids for purported medicinal purposes.

  6. Potency of Microalgae as Biodiesel Source in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Within 20 years, Indonesia should find another energy alternative to substitutecurrent fossil oil. Current use of renewable energy is only 5% and need to be improved up to 17%of our energy mix program. Even though, most of the area in Indonesia is covered by sea, howeverthe utilization of microalgae as biofuel production is still limited. The biodiesel from currentsources (Jatropha, palm oil, and sorghum is still not able to cover all the needs if the fossil oilcannot be explored anymore. In this paper, the potency of microalgae in Indonesia was analysed asthe new potential of energy (biodiesel sources.

  7. Potency of Microalgae as Biodiesel Source in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Within 20 years, Indonesia should find another energy alternative to substitute current fossil oil. Current use of renewable energy is only 5% and need to be improved up to 17% of our energy mix program. Even though, most of the area in Indonesia is covered by sea, however the utilization of microalgae as biofuel production is still limited. The biodiesel from current sources (Jatropha, palm oil, and sorghum is still not able to cover all the needs if the fossil oil cannot be explored anymore. In this paper, the potency of microalgae in Indonesia was analysed as the new potential of energy (biodiesel sources.

  8. Database development and management

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Introduction to Database Systems Functions of a DatabaseDatabase Management SystemDatabase ComponentsDatabase Development ProcessConceptual Design and Data Modeling Introduction to Database Design Process Understanding Business ProcessEntity-Relationship Data Model Representing Business Process with Entity-RelationshipModelTable Structure and NormalizationIntroduction to TablesTable NormalizationTransforming Data Models to Relational Databases .DBMS Selection Transforming Data Models to Relational DatabasesEnforcing ConstraintsCreating Database for Business ProcessPhysical Design and Database

  9. PROBIOTIC POTENCY OF LACTOBACILLUS SPP. ISOLATED FROM SUMBAWA MARE MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Sujaya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was deigned to elucidate the potency of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from sumbawa mare milk to be developed as a probiotic. Sixteen lacobacilli were screened based on their resitancy to a model of gastric juice at pH 2, 3, and 4, then followed by their resistncy to small intestional fluid model containing deoxycholic. Three lactobacilli i.e. Lactobacillus sp. SKA13, Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG49 were found to be resistentent to gastric juice at pH 3 and 4. However, there were no lactobacilli resisted to pH 2. Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG49 were able to reach the colon even after being expossed to a model of intestinal fluid containing 0,4 mM deoxycholate and pancreatine. Therefore, these isolates have a potency to be developed as probiotic lactobacilli. Nevertherless, these lactobcailli could probably transform cholic acid into secondary bile acids, which were not expected to be found in the probiotic, and this capability is not appropriate for probiotic. This character is worthly to be studied since it has never been reported in lactobacilli.

  10. IARC Monographs: 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearce, Neil E; Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M; Armstrong, Bruce K; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Beland, Frederick A; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier A; Birnbaum, Linda S; Brownson, Ross C; Bucher, John R; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W; Christiani, David C; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A; Dement, John M; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A; Engel, Lawrence S; Fenske, Richard A; Fleming, Lora E; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H; Lynch, Charles F; Lynge, Elsebeth; 't Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J; McLaughlin, John R; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Kristian; Olshan, Andrew F; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P; Perry, Melissa J; Pesatori, Angela C; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandler, Dale P; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Seniori Constantini, Adele; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silvermann, Debra T; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H; Smith, Martyn T; Spinelli, John J; Spitz, Margaret R; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W; Stewart, Patricia A; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G; Ward, Elizabeth M; Weinberg, Clarice R; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that IARC Working Groups' fa

  11. Binding of chemical carcinogens to macromolecules in cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    Metabolic activation of different chemical classes of carcinogens was studied in cultured human colon epithelia. Human colon epithelia were maintained in explant culture up to 4 days. Binding of benzo(a)pyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, and 1,2- dimethylhydrazine was found in both cell DNA and protein...

  12. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studie

  13. An Interdisciplinary and Alternative Approach to Assess Carcinogenicity of Chlorobenzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    carcinogenic activity of 1,4-di-, 1,2,4,5-tetra-, penta-, and hexa - chlorobenzenes in the Ito’s "Medium-Term Bioassay System" using partially...GST-P positive foci and related morphometric analyses, gene expressions of CYP1 A2, c-fos, c-jun, GSH/GSSG ratio, tissue porphyrin levels, DNA damage

  14. 18. Adduct detection in human monitoring for carcinogen exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Determination of the covalently bound products (adducts) of carcinogens with DNA or proteins may be used for the monitoring of exposure to these compounds. Protein adducts are generally stable and are not enzymatically repaired, and the use of these for cxposure monitoring is normally carried out with globin or albumin, because

  15. Non—Genotoxic Carcinogens.Approaches to Their Rish Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.A.CASTRO; M.I.DiazGomez; 等

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support the idea that most human cancers are related to chemicals present in the human environment.In turn,chemicals are believed to cause cancer via either genotoxic or non-genotoxic mechanisms.There were described in literature several simple rapid and inexpensive short term ests to reasonably predict the genotoxic nature of chemicals but in contrast,there is no reliable test or battery of tests available to predict the carcinogenicity of non-genotoxic compounds and this poses a major problem to their rish assessment.In addition,there are conflictive opinions about rish assessment needs for both classes of carcinogens.Some workers elieve that for non-genotoxic carcinogens,thresholds for exposure can be drawn while others do not.In this review,the reasons behind both of these opinions and the present hypotheses about the mechanism of action of non-genotoxic carcinogens are described and analyzed in relation to future needs.

  16. Flavonoids and alkenylbenzenes: mechanisms of mutagenic action and carcinogenic risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Woude, van der H.; Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Schutte, M.E.; Alink, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present review focuses on the mechanisms of mutagenic action and the carcinogenic risk of two categories of botanical ingredients, namely the flavonoids with quercetin as an important bioactive representative, and the alkenylbenzenes, namely safrole, methyleugenol and estragole. For quercetin a

  17. Carcinogenic metal compounds: recent insight into molecular and cellular mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyersmann, Detmar [University of Bremen (Germany). Biochemistry, Department of Biology and Chemistry; Hartwig, Andrea [Technical University of Berlin (Germany). Institute of Food Technology and Food Chemistry

    2008-08-15

    Mechanisms of carcinogenicity are discussed for metals and their compounds, classified as carcinogenic to humans or considered to be carcinogenic to humans: arsenic, antimony, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, nickel and vanadium. Physicochemical properties govern uptake, intracellular distribution and binding of metal compounds. Interactions with proteins (e.g., with zinc finger structures) appear to be more relevant for metal carcinogenicity than binding to DNA. In general, metal genotoxicity is caused by indirect mechanisms. In spite of diverse physicochemical properties of metal compounds, three predominant mechanisms emerge: (1) interference with cellular redox regulation and induction of oxidative stress, which may cause oxidative DNA damage or trigger signaling cascades leading to stimulation of cell growth; (2) inhibition of major DNA repair systems resulting in genomic instability and accumulation of critical mutations; (3) deregulation of cell proliferation by induction of signaling pathways or inactivation of growth controls such as tumor suppressor genes. In addition, specific metal compounds exhibit unique mechanisms such as interruption of cell-cell adhesion by cadmium, direct DNA binding of trivalent chromium, and interaction of vanadate with phosphate binding sites of protein phosphatases. (orig.)

  18. Cell-mediated mutagenesis and cell transformation by chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberman, E.; Langenbach, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported from studies that showed that mutagenesis of mammalian cells can be achieved by carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines, and aflatoxins when tested in the presence of fibroblasts and hepatocytes which are able to metabolize these carcinogens. Further, we have found that there is a relationship between the degree of mutant induction and the degree of carcinogenicity of the different chemicals tested. By simultaneously measuring the frequency of cell transformation and the frequency of mutation at one locus (ouabain resistance) in the same cell system, it was possible to estimate the genetic target site for cell transformation. The results indicated that the target site for transformation is approximately 20 times larger than that determined for ouabain resistance. The results suggest that cell transformation may be due to a mutational event and the mutation can occur in one out of a small number of the same or different genes, and that the cell-mediated mutagenesis approach may be a valuable means of detecting tissue-specific carcinogens.

  19. Databases and their application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C. Grimm; R.H.W Bradshaw; S. Brewer; S. Flantua; T. Giesecke; A.M. Lézine; H. Takahara; J.W.,Jr Williams

    2013-01-01

    During the past 20 years, several pollen database cooperatives have been established. These databases are now constituent databases of the Neotoma Paleoecology Database, a public domain, multiproxy, relational database designed for Quaternary-Pliocene fossil data and modern surface samples. The poll

  20. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlewska-Roberts, Katarzyna M; Teitel, Candee H; Lay, Jackson O; Roberts, Dean W; Kadlubar, Fred F

    2004-12-01

    Lactoperoxidase, an enzyme secreted from the human mammary gland, plays a host defensive role through antimicrobial activity. It has been implicated in mutagenic and carcinogenic activation in the human mammary gland. The potential role of heterocyclic and aromatic amines in the etiology of breast cancer led us to examination of the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of the most commonly studied arylamine carcinogens: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). In vitro activation was performed with lactoperoxidase (partially purified from bovine milk or human milk) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and calf thymus DNA. Products formed during enzymatic activation were monitored by HPLC with ultraviolet and radiometric detection. Two of these products were characterized as hydrazo and azo derivatives by means of mass spectrometry. The DNA binding level of 3H- and 14C-radiolabeled amines after peroxidase-catalyzed activation was dependent on the hydrogen peroxide concentration, and the highest levels of carcinogen binding to DNA were observed at 100 microM H2O2. Carcinogen activation and the level of binding to DNA were in the order of benzidine > ABP > IQ > MeIQx > PhIP. One of the ABP adducts was identified, and the level at which it is formed was estimated to be six adducts/10(5) nucleotides. The susceptibility of aromatic and heterocyclic amines for lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation and the binding levels of activated products to DNA suggest a potential role of lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogens in the etiology of breast cancer.

  1. Carcinogen derived biomarkers: applications in studies of human exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Hecht, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on carcinogen derived biomarkers of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). These biomarkers are specifically related to known carcinogens in tobacco smoke and include urinary metabolites, DNA adducts, and blood protein adducts.

  2. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic/carcinogenicity rodent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greim, Helmut; Saltmiras, David; Mostert, Volker; Strupp, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Glyphosate, an herbicidal derivative of the amino acid glycine, was introduced to agriculture in the 1970s. Glyphosate targets and blocks a plant metabolic pathway not found in animals, the shikimate pathway, required for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants. After almost forty years of commercial use, and multiple regulatory approvals including toxicology evaluations, literature reviews, and numerous human health risk assessments, the clear and consistent conclusions are that glyphosate is of low toxicological concern, and no concerns exist with respect to glyphosate use and cancer in humans. This manuscript discusses the basis for these conclusions. Most toxicological studies informing regulatory evaluations are of commercial interest and are proprietary in nature. Given the widespread attention to this molecule, the authors gained access to carcinogenicity data submitted to regulatory agencies and present overviews of each study, followed by a weight of evidence evaluation of tumor incidence data. Fourteen carcinogenicity studies (nine rat and five mouse) are evaluated for their individual reliability, and select neoplasms are identified for further evaluation across the data base. The original tumor incidence data from study reports are presented in the online data supplement. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect related to glyphosate treatment. The lack of a plausible mechanism, along with published epidemiology studies, which fail to demonstrate clear, statistically significant, unbiased and non-confounded associations between glyphosate and cancer of any single etiology, and a compelling weight of evidence, support the conclusion that glyphosate does not present concern with respect to carcinogenic potential in humans.

  3. Relative potency of ketamine and S(+)-ketamine in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, J C; Oleskovicz, N; Guirro, E C B P; Valadão, C A A; Soares, V E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative potency of racemic ketamine and S(+)-ketamine for the hypnotic effect and to evaluate the clinical anesthesia produced by equianesthetic doses of these two substances in dogs. One hundred and eight dogs were allocated in groups R2, R2.5, R3, R6, R9, R12, S2, S2.5, S3, S6, S9, and S12, to receive by intravenous route 2, 2.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mg/kg of ketamine or S(+)-ketamine, respectively. A dose-effect curve was drawn with the dose logarithm and the percentage of dogs that presented hypnosis in each group. The curve was used to obtain a linear regression, to determine the effective doses 100 and the potency relationship. In another experimental phase, eight groups of five dogs received 3, 6, 9 and 12 mg/kg of ketamine or S(+)-ketamine to evaluate the periods of latency, hypnosis, and total recovery. The times in which the dogs reached the sternal position, attempted to stand up for the first time, recovered the standing position, and started to walk were also recorded. The hypnotic dose for ketamine was 9.82 +/- 3.02 (6.86-16.5) mg/kg and for S(+)-ketamine was 7.76 +/- 2.17 (5.86-11.5) mg/kg. The time of hypnosis was longer in R3 and the first attempt to stand up occurred early in R6 when compared with S3 and S6 respectively. When R9 (100% of hypnosis with ketamine) and S6 [100% of hypnosis with S(+)-ketamine] were compared (1:1.5 ratio), the time to sternal position (12 +/- 2.5 and 20.2 +/- 5.6 min respectively) and the total recovery time (45 +/- 5.5 and 60.2 +/- 5.2 min respectively) were significantly shorter with S(+)-ketamine. It was concluded that the potency ratio between ketamine and S(+)-ketamine in dogs is smaller than the one reported in other species, and that the dose obtained after a reduction of 50%, as usually performed in humans, would not be enough to obtain equianesthetic effects in dogs.

  4. Relative potencies and combination effects of steroidal estrogens in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Karen L; Cummings, Rob I; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Scholze, Martin; Brighty, Geoff; Sumpter, John P; Tyler, Charles R

    2003-03-15

    The natural steroids estradiol-17beta (E2) and estrone (E1) and the synthetic steroid ethynylestradiol-17alpha (EE2) have frequently been measured in waters receiving domestic effluents. All of these steroids bind to the estrogen receptor(s) and have been shown to elicit a range of estrogenic responses in fish at environmentally relevant concentrations. At present, however, no relative potency estimates have been derived for either the individual steroidal estrogens or their mixtures in vivo. In this study the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, and EE2, and the combination effects of a mixture of E2 and EE2 (equi-potent fixed-ratio mixture), were assessed using vitellogenin induction in a 14-day in vivo juvenile rainbow trout screening assay. Median effective concentrations, relative to E2, for induction of vitellogenin were determined from the concentration-response curves and the relative estrogenic potencies of each of the test chemicals calculated. Median effective concentrations were between 19 and 26 ng L(-1) for E2, 60 ng L(-1) for E1, and between 0.95 and 1.8 ng L(-1) for EE2, implying that EE2 was approximately 11 to 27 times more potent than E2, while E2 was 2.3 to 3.2 times more potent than E1. The median effective concentration, relative to E2, for the binary mixture of E2 and EE2 was 15 ng L(-1) (comprising 14.4 ng L(-1) E2 and 0.6 ng L(-1) EE2). Using the model of concentration addition it was shown that this activity of the binary mixture could be predicted from the activity of the individual chemicals. The ability of each individual steroid to contribute to the overall effect of a mixture, even at individual no-effect concentrations, combined with the high estrogenic potency of the steroids, particularly the synthetic steroid EE2, emphasizes the need to consider the total estrogenic load of these chemicals in our waterways.

  5. LM potencies: one of the hidden treasures of the sixth edition of the Organon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, L

    1999-07-01

    50 millesimal (LM) potencies have great advantages for all patients, not just those who are hypersensitive because of their great power to heal without major aggravations. Before discussing their advantages this paper describes what LM potencies are, and how they are administered, then addresses two questions: why do we want to avoid aggravations if most homeopaths look for aggravation to know if the remedy is working? And if LM potencies are indeed superior, why are they still relatively unknown and unused?

  6. Increasing the potency of a cytotoxin with an arginine graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Stephen M; Rutkoski, Thomas J; Kung, Vanessa M; Groeschl, Ryan T; Raines, Ronald T

    2007-10-01

    Variants and homologs of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) can exhibit cytotoxic activity. This toxicity relies on cellular internalization of the enzyme. Residues Glu49 and Asp53 form an anionic patch on the surface of RNase A. We find that replacing these two residues with arginine does not affect catalytic activity or affinity for the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor (RI) protein. This 'arginine graft' does, however, increase toxicity towards human cancer cells. Appending a nonaarginine domain to this cationic variant results in an additional increase in cytotoxicity, providing one of the most cytotoxic known variants of RNase A. These findings correlate the potency of a ribonuclease with its deliverance of ribonucleolytic activity to the cytosol, and indicate a rational means to enhance the efficacy of ribonucleases and other cytotoxic proteins.

  7. Antibacterial potency of methanol extracts of lower plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OJO O.O.; AJAYI A.O.; ANIBIJUWON I.I.

    2007-01-01

    Antibacterial potency of methanol extracts of three green lower plants, Pneumatopteris afra, Platycerium bifurcatum and Nephrolepsis bisserata was determined using agar dilution method on clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp. and Salmomelia typhi. Antibacterial activities were observed at concentrations of 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100.0 μg/ml. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 12.5~100 μg/ml. Extracts ofP. afra and P. bifurcatum were most active. Antibacterial activities observed with N. bisserata were less pronounced with no detectable activity at extract concentrations of 12.5 and 25.0 μg/ml. E. coli, together with S. aureus appeared to be the most susceptible of the test bacteria while Klebsiella spp. was least sensitive. The significance of our findings is discussed.

  8. Enantiomers of a nonylphenol isomer: absolute configurations and estrogenic potencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Oppel, Iris M; Spiteller, Michael; Guenther, Klaus; Boehmler, Gabriele; Zuehlke, Sebastian

    2009-02-01

    Enantiomers of 4-(1,1,2-trimethylhexyl)phenol, a chiral isomer of the endocrine disrupting chemical nonylphenol, have been resolved and isolated by preparative chiral HPLC. The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were then determined by an X-ray crystallographic study of the (-)-camphanoyl derivative of the first eluted enantiomer NP(35)E1. The first enantiomer (NP(35)E1) and the second enantiomer (NP(35)E2) eluted were found to have the S and R absolute configurations, respectively. The estrogenic potencies of the S and R enantiomers were tested by the E-screen assay. A slight difference was observed in the relative proliferative effect between the S enantiomer and R enantiomer in the E-screen assay.

  9. Tubulin acetylation promoting potency and absorption efficacy of deacetylase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas-Sanjuan, V; Oláh, J; Gonzalez-Alvarez, I; Lehotzky, A; Tőkési, N; Bermejo, M; Ovádi, J

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and silent information regulator 2 (SIRT2) control the dynamics of the microtubule network via their deacetylase activities. Tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) enhances microtubule acetylation by its direct binding to HDAC6. Our objective was to characterize the multiple interactions of the deacetylases and to establish the inhibitory potency and the pharmacokinetic features of the deacetylase inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and AGK2. Experimental Approach The interactions of deacetylases with tubulin and TPPP/p25 were quantified by elisa using human recombinant proteins. The effect of inhibitors on the tubulin acetylation was established in HeLa cells transfected with pTPPP and CG-4 cells expressing TPPP/p25 endogenously by celisa (elisa on cells), Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy. The pharmacokinetic features of the inhibitors were evaluated by in situ kinetic modelling of their intestinal transport in rats. Key Results Deacetylases interact with both tubulin and TPPP/p25, notwithstanding piggy-back binding of HDAC6 or SIRT2 to the TPPP/p25-associated tubulin was established. Much higher inhibitory potency for TSA than for AGK2 was detected in both HeLa and CG-4 cells. Pioneer pharmacokinetic studies revealed passive diffusion and diffusion coupled with secretion for TSA and AGK2 respectively. Both inhibitors exhibited greater permeability than some other well-established drugs. Conclusions and Implications TPPP/p25-directed deacetylase inhibition provides mechanisms for the fine control of the dynamics and stability of the microtubule network. Deacetylase inhibitors with chemical structures similar to TSA and AGK2 appear to be excellent candidates for oral drug absorption. PMID:25257800

  10. Collecting Taxes Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Collecting Taxes Database contains performance and structural indicators about national tax systems. The database contains quantitative revenue performance...

  11. NoSQL Databases

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with database systems referred to as NoSQL databases. In the second chapter, I explain basic terms and the theory of database systems. A short explanation is dedicated to database systems based on the relational data model and the SQL standardized query language. Chapter Three explains the concept and history of the NoSQL databases, and also presents database models, major features and the use of NoSQL databases in comparison with traditional database systems. In the fourth ...

  12. USAID Anticorruption Projects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Anticorruption Projects Database (Database) includes information about USAID projects with anticorruption interventions implemented worldwide between 2007 and...

  13. An analysis of the Gene-Tox Carcinogen Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesnow, S; Bergman, H

    1988-01-01

    The Gene-Tox Carcinogen Data Base is an evaluated source of cancer data on 506 chemicals selected in part for their previous assessment in genetic toxicology bioassays. This data base has been analyzed for the distribution of these chemicals into chemical classes. The major chemical classes (6% or greater of the total data base) are: acyl-, alkyl-, and aryl-halides; alcohols and phenols; aliphatic and aromatic amines, amides, and sulfonamides; benzene-ring-containing chemicals; organo-lead, -mercury, -phosphorous compounds, metals and derivatives, phosphoric acid esters, and phosphoramides; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cancer studies representing a subset of the Gene-Tox Carcinogen Data Base, 199 chemicals which were rated as Sufficient Positive/Negative or Limited Positive/Negative, were examined for distribution of those studies by animal species, gender, route of chemical administration, duration of study, major tumor sites, and major tumor types. These analyses revealed that the Gene-Tox Carcinogen Data Base contains a large number of lifetime studies involving the rat and mouse treated by oral routes of administration. The major organs that were targets were: liver, lung, skin, forestomach, bladder, and mammary gland, while the major tumor types were: carcinoma, sarcoma, papilloma, and adenoma. Chemicals in the data base have been assessed for species-specific carcinogenic effects, and these results indicate that for mice and rats there is a high correspondence (85%). This number is higher than that (71%) reported by Tennant et al. (1986) based on the recent results of 72 chronic cancer bioassays performed by the National Toxicology Program. This difference is probably based on the nature of the chemicals selected for inclusion in both data bases. Although the absolute value of this correspondence is unknown, it would seem to be within this range. When chemicals in the Gene-Tox Carcinogen Data Base were examined for their previous evaluation in 73

  14. Sexual Function and the Use of Medical Devices or Drugs to Optimize Potency After Prostate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whaley, J. Taylor; Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Swanson, David A. [Department of Urology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pugh, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Bruno, Teresa L. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Frank, Steven J., E-mail: sjfrank@mdnaderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of sexual outcomes after prostate brachytherapy with iodine-125 seeds as monotherapy at a tertiary cancer care center. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 129 men with prostate cancer with I-125 seed implants (prescribed dose, 145 Gy) without supplemental hormonal or external beam radiation therapy. Sexual function, potency, and bother were prospectively assessed at baseline and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 months using validated quality-of-life self-assessment surveys. Postimplant dosimetry values, including dose to 10% of the penile bulb (D10), D20, D33, D50, D75, D90, and penile volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100) were calculated. Results: At baseline, 56% of patients recorded having optimal erections; at 1 year, 62% of patients with baseline erectile function maintained optimal potency, 58% of whom with medically prescribed sexual aids or drugs. Variables associated with pretreatment-to-posttreatment decline in potency were time after implant (p = 0.04) and age (p = 0.01). Decline in urinary function may have been related to decline in potency. At 1 year, 69% of potent patients younger than 70 years maintained optimal potency, whereas 31% of patients older than 70 maintained optimal potency (p = 0.02). Diabetes was related to a decline in potency (p = 0.05), but neither smoking nor hypertension were. For patients with optimal potency at baseline, mean sexual bother scores had declined significantly at 1 year (p < 0.01). Sexual potency, sexual function, and sexual bother scores failed to correlate with any dosimetric variable tested. Conclusions: Erections firm enough for intercourse can be achieved at 1 year after treatment, but most men will require medical aids to optimize potency. Although younger men were better able to maintain erections firm enough for intercourse than older men, there was no correlation between potency, sexual function, or sexual bother and penile bulb dosimetry.

  15. 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzenes: carcinogenicities and reductive cleavage by microsomal azo reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambooy, J P; Koffman, B M

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-four 4-dimethylaminoazobenzenes (DABs) in which systematic structural modifications have been made in the prime ring have been studied for substrate specificity for microsomal azo reductase. The DABs were also evaluated for carcinogenicity and it was found that there was no correlation between carcinogenicity and extent of azo bond cleavage by azo reductase. While any substituent in the prime ring reduces the rate of cleavage of the azo bond relative to the unsubstituted dye, there is a correlation between substituent size and susceptibility to the enzyme. Substituent size was also found to be a significant factor in the induction of hepatomas by the dyes. Preliminary studies have shown that there appears to be a positive correlation between microsomal riboflavin content and the activity of the azo reductase.

  16. A study of the carcinogenicity of glycidol in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijinsky, W; Kovatch, R M

    1992-01-01

    The industrial chemical glycidol is a directly acting mutagen and a broadly acting carcinogen in rats. It was administered to Syrian golden hamsters (20 male and 20 female) by gavage of 12 mg twice a week for 60 weeks. The total dose per animal was 1.45 g or 20 mmol. Survival was not different from control hamsters treated with corn oil/ethyl acetate. Of the treated males, 9 had tumors and 13 of the treated females had tumors, some of which were adrenal cortex tumors seen in controls. More tumors were seen in the glycidol-treated hamsters than in controls, but the spleen was the only notable target organ and the number of animals with spleen hemangiosarcomas was small. Glycidol appeared to be less carcinogenic in hamsters than in rats or mice.

  17. Overview of bioassays for mutagens, carcinogens, and teratogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, J.N.

    1982-01-01

    Bioassays to determine the risk of health hazards of man-made chemical substances are reviewed. The standard approach to testing a substance is the tier system, consisting of three levels of testing that are increasingly complex, lengthy, and costly. The paper describes the biological basis of bioassays, identifies various assays for mutagens, carcinogens and teratogens, and explains the problems involved in extrapolating test data to human risk estimates. Future improvements in assay techniques are discussed. (CR)

  18. Dose-response relationships for carcinogens: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Zeise, L; Wilson, R.; Crouch, E A

    1987-01-01

    We review the experimental evidence for various shapes of dose-response relationships for carcinogens and summarize those experiments that give the most information on relatively low doses. A brief review of some models is given to illustrate the shapes of dose-response curve expected from them. Our major interest is in the use of dose-response relationships to estimate risks to humans at low doses, and so we pay special attention to experimentally observed and theoretically expected nonlinea...

  19. The Role of Tobacco-Derived Carcinogens in Pancreas Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lochan, Rajiv; Reeves, Helen L.; Daly, Anne K.; Charnley, Richard M

    2011-01-01

    The extremely poor outcome from pancreas cancer is well known. However, its aetiology less well appreciated, and the molecular mechanisms underlying this are poorly understood. Tobacco usage is one of the strongest risk factors for this disease, and this is a completely avoidable hazard. In addition, there are well described hereditary diseases which predispose, and familial pancreas cancer. We have sought here to summarise the role of tobacco-derived carcinogens and the mode of their tumorig...

  20. Prevention of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Cancer by Sulforaphane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Julie E; Zang, Yan; Sen, Malabika; Li, Changyou; Wang, Lin; Egner, Patricia A; Fahey, Jed W; Normolle, Daniel P; Grandis, Jennifer R; Kensler, Thomas W; Johnson, Daniel E

    2016-07-01

    Chronic exposure to carcinogens represents the major risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Beverages derived from broccoli sprout extracts (BSE) that are rich in glucoraphanin and its bioactive metabolite sulforaphane promote detoxication of airborne pollutants in humans. Herein, we investigated the potential chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane using in vitro models of normal and malignant mucosal epithelial cells and an in vivo model of murine oral cancer resulting from the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Sulforaphane treatment of Het-1A, a normal mucosal epithelial cell line, and 4 HNSCC cell lines led to dose- and time-dependent induction of NRF2 and the NRF2 target genes NQO1 and GCLC, known mediators of carcinogen detoxication. Sulforaphane also promoted NRF2-independent dephosphorylation/inactivation of pSTAT3, a key oncogenic factor in HNSCC. Compared with vehicle, sulforaphane significantly reduced the incidence and size of 4NQO-induced tongue tumors in mice. A pilot clinical trial in 10 healthy volunteers evaluated the bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity of three different BSE regimens, based upon urinary sulforaphane metabolites and NQO1 transcripts in buccal scrapings, respectively. Ingestion of sulforaphane-rich BSE demonstrated the greatest, most consistent bioavailability. Mucosal bioactivity, defined as 2-fold or greater upregulation of NQO1 mRNA, was observed in 6 of 9 evaluable participants ingesting glucoraphanin-rich BSE; 3 of 6 ingesting sulforaphane-rich BSE; and 3 of 9 after topical-only exposure to sulforaphane-rich BSE. Together, our findings demonstrate preclinical chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane against carcinogen-induced oral cancer, and support further mechanistic and clinical investigation of sulforaphane as a chemopreventive agent against tobacco-related HNSCC. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 547-57. ©2016 AACR.

  1. The dermal carcinogenic potential of unrefined and hydrotreated lubricating oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, R H; Daughtrey, W C; Freeman, J J; Federici, T M; Phillips, R D; Plutnick, R T

    1989-08-01

    Unrefined lubricating oils contain relatively high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and have been shown to induce tumors in mouse skin. Exxon has developed a new method of refining these materials, a severe hydrotreatment process that is optimized for PAH removal. The specific objectives of the current study were to assess PAH reduction and then to evaluate directly the dermal carcinogenic potential of the materials that spanned the range of products produced by this method. The test samples included unrefined light and heavy vacuum distillates from a naphthenic crude oil, as well as the corresponding severely hydrotreated products. Two sets of samples were prepared to assess the effects of various operating parameters in the reactor. Additionally, positive (benzo[a]pyrene), negative (white mineral oil) and vehicle (toluene) control groups were included to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the bioassay. Each sample was applied in twice-weekly aliquots to the backs of 40 male C3H mice. In the analytical studies, significant reductions in the levels of several specific PAH were demonstrated. In the dermal carcinogenesis studies, the unrefined oils and the positive control induced tumors and also significantly reduced survival. None of the mice treated with severely hydrotreated oils or with the negative or vehicle controls developed skin tumors, and survival of these mice was not significantly different from the control. Thus, the data demonstrated that this new, severe hydrotreatment process was an effective means of converting carcinogenic feedstocks to non-carcinogenic products.

  2. Linearity of dose-response relationships for human carcinogenic exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    The shape of dose-response relationships is a critical factor in considering cancer risks for the work place and environmental exposure to carcinogens. Markedly different risk estimates result from assumptions of linearity versus sublinear and threshold assumptions. This paper presents evidence that the relationship between the relative risk of development of cancer and the dose rate to carcinogenic exposures is frequently linear with no evidence for thresholds. Dose-response relationships from four studies of asbestos and lung cancer were examined, all of which were consistent with a linear relationship. Analysis of the relationship between the relative risk of lung cancer and exposure to nickel in a smelter study, selected because of relatively good exposure data, demonstrated a close agreement with a linear relationship. The relationship between the level of arsenic in drinking wter and the prevalence of skin cancer also was linear for males in the highest prevalence age group in Taiwan, although there was some evidence of sublinearity for females and younger persons. Also, the relationships between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the relative risk of lung cancer was very close to linear in many studies. The analysis of these and other studies involving human exposure to carcinogens provides empirical evidence for linearity when the response variable is a rate ratio measure, rather than a risk difference measure. Linearity in dose-response is biologically plausible, without invoking a one-hit model. Except in special circumstances. the epidemiological evidence supports linear extrapolation of cancer relative risks.

  3. Workplace carcinogen and pesticide exposures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Timo; Chaves, Jorge; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Aragón, Aurora; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hogstedt, Christer; Kauppinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    The CAREX data system converts national workforce volumes and proportions of workers exposed to workplace carcinogens into numbers of exposed in 55 industrial categories. CAREX was adapted for Costa Rica for 27 carcinogens and seven groups of pesticides. Widespread workplace carcinogens in the 1.3 million workforce of Costa Rica are solar radiation (333,000 workers), diesel engine exhaust (278,000), environmental tobacco smoke (71,000), hexavalent chromium compounds (55,000), benzene (52,000), wood dust (32,000), silica dust (27,000), lead and inorganic lead compounds (19,000), and polycyclic aromatic compounds (17,000). The most ubiquitous pesticides were paraquat and diquat (175,000), mancozeb, maneb, and zineb (49,000), chlorothalonil (38,000), benomyl (19,000), and chlorophenoxy herbicides (11,000). Among women, formaldehyde, radon, and methylene chloride overrode pesticides, chromium, wood dust, and silica dust in numbers of exposed. High-risk sectors included agriculture, construction, personal and household services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, woodworks, mining, forestry and logging, fishing, manufacturing of electrical machinery, and bar and restaurant personnel.

  4. Artificial sweeteners--do they bear a carcinogenic risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihrauch, M R; Diehl, V

    2004-10-01

    Artificial sweeteners are added to a wide variety of food, drinks, drugs and hygiene products. Since their introduction, the mass media have reported about potential cancer risks, which has contributed to undermine the public's sense of security. It can be assumed that every citizen of Western countries uses artificial sweeteners, knowingly or not. A cancer-inducing activity of one of these substances would mean a health risk to an entire population. We performed several PubMed searches of the National Library of Medicine for articles in English about artificial sweeteners. These articles included 'first generation' sweeteners such as saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame, as well as 'new generation' sweeteners such as acesulfame-K, sucralose, alitame and neotame. Epidemiological studies in humans did not find the bladder cancer-inducing effects of saccharin and cyclamate that had been reported from animal studies in rats. Despite some rather unscientific assumptions, there is no evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. Case-control studies showed an elevated relative risk of 1.3 for heavy artificial sweetener use (no specific substances specified) of >1.7 g/day. For new generation sweeteners, it is too early to establish any epidemiological evidence about possible carcinogenic risks. As many artificial sweeteners are combined in today's products, the carcinogenic risk of a single substance is difficult to assess. However, according to the current literature, the possible risk of artificial sweeteners to induce cancer seems to be negligible.

  5. Critical factors in assessing risk from exposure to nasal carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanffy, M S; Mathison, B H; Kuykendall, J R; Harman, A E

    1997-10-31

    Anatomical, physiological, biochemical and molecular factors that contribute to chemical-induced nasal carcinogenesis are either largely divergent between test species and humans, or we know very little of them. These factors, let alone the uncertainty associated with our knowledge gap, present a risk assessor with the formidable task of making judgments about risks to human health from exposure to chemicals that have been identified in rodent studies to be nasal carcinogens. This paper summarizes some of the critical attributes of the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of risk assessments for nasal carcinogens that must be accounted for by risk assessors in order to make informed decisions. Data on two example compounds, dimethyl sulfate and hexamethylphosphoramide, are discussed to illustrate the diversity of information that can be used to develop informed hypotheses about mode of action and decisions on appropriate dosimeters for interspecies extrapolation. Default approaches to interspecies dosimetry extrapolation are described briefly and are followed by a discussion of a generalized physiologically based pharmacokinetic model that, unlike default approaches, is flexible and capable of incorporating many of the critical species-specific factors. Recent advancements in interspecies nasal dosimetry modeling are remarkable. However, it is concluded that without the development of research programs aimed at understanding carcinogenic susceptibility factors in human and rodent nasal tissues, development of plausible modes of action will lag behind the advancements made in dosimetry modeling.

  6. In vitro profiling of the endocrine-disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.; Kamstra, J.H.; Sonneveld, E.; Murk, A.J.; Kester, M.H.A.; Andersson, P.L.; Legler, J.; Brouwer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last years, increasing evidence has become available that some brominated flame retardants (BFRs) may have endocrine disrupting (ED) potencies. The goal of the current study was to perform a systematic in vitro screening of the ED potencies of BFRs (1) to elucidate possible modes of action

  7. Vasoconstriction Potency Induced by Aminoamide Local Anesthetics Correlates with Lipid Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminoamide local anesthetics induce vasoconstriction in vivo and in vitro. The goals of this in vitro study were to investigate the potency of local anesthetic-induced vasoconstriction and to identify the physicochemical property (octanol/buffer partition coefficient, pKa, molecular weight, or potency of local anesthetics that determines their potency in inducing isolated rat aortic ring contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves to local anesthetics (levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, lidocaine, and mepivacaine were obtained from isolated rat aorta. Regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between the reported physicochemical properties of local anesthetics and the local anesthetic concentration that produced 50% (ED50 of the local anesthetic-induced maximum vasoconstriction. We determined the order of potency (ED50 of vasoconstriction among local anesthetics to be levobupivacaine > ropivacaine > lidocaine > mepivacaine. The relative importance of the independent variables that affect the vasoconstriction potency is octanol/buffer partition coefficient > potency > pKa > molecular weight. The ED50 in endothelium-denuded aorta negatively correlated with the octanol/buffer partition coefficient of local anesthetics (r2=0.9563; P<0.001. The potency of the vasoconstriction in the endothelium-denuded aorta induced by local anesthetics is determined primarily by lipid solubility and, in part, by other physicochemical properties including potency and pKa.

  8. International ring trial of the epidermal equivalent sensitizer potency assay: reproducibility and predictive-capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis, M.A.T.; Spiekstra, S.W.; Smits, M.; Adriaens, E.; Eltze, T.; Galbiati, V.; Krul, C.A.M.; Landsiedel, R.; Pieters, R.; Reinders, J.; Roggen, E.; Corsini, E.; Gibbs, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the international ring trial of the epidermal-equivalent (EE) sensitizer potency assay. This assay does not distinguish a sensitizer from a non-sensitizer, but may classify known skin sensitizers according to their potency. It assesses the chemical concentration resulting in 50%

  9. International ring trial of the epidermal equivalent sensitizer potency assay: reproducibility and predictive capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis, M.A.T.; Spiekstra, S.W.; Smits, M.; Adriaens, E.; Eltze, T.; Galbiati, V.; Krul, C.; Landsiedel, R.; Pieters, R.; Reinders, J.; Roggen, E.; Corsini, E.; Gibbs, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the international ring trial of the epidermal-equivalent (EE) sensitizer potency assay. This assay does not distinguish a sensitizer from a non-sensitizer, but may classify known skin sensitizers according to their potency. It assesses the chemical concentration resulting in 50%

  10. 76 FR 9028 - Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance document provides manufacturers of cellular and gene therapy (CGT) products with recommendations for developing... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products''...

  11. Cloud Databases: A Paradigm Shift in Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Arora

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Relational databases ruled the Information Technology (IT industry for almost 40 years. But last few years have seen sea changes in the way IT is being used and viewed. Stand alone applications have been replaced with web-based applications, dedicated servers with multiple distributed servers and dedicated storage with network storage. Cloud computing has become a reality due to its lesser cost, scalability and pay-as-you-go model. It is one of the biggest changes in IT after the rise of World Wide Web. Cloud databases such as Big Table, Sherpa and SimpleDB are becoming popular. They address the limitations of existing relational databases related to scalability, ease of use and dynamic provisioning. Cloud databases are mainly used for data-intensive applications such as data warehousing, data mining and business intelligence. These applications are read-intensive, scalable and elastic in nature. Transactional data management applications such as banking, airline reservation, online e-commerce and supply chain management applications are write-intensive. Databases supporting such applications require ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability properties, but these databases are difficult to deploy in the cloud. The goal of this paper is to review the state of the art in the cloud databases and various architectures. It further assesses the challenges to develop cloud databases that meet the user requirements and discusses popularly used Cloud databases.

  12. Logical database design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garmany, John; Clark, Terry

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint

  13. Carcinogenicity of azo colorants: influence of solubility and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Kopps, Silke; Myslak, Zdislaw W

    2004-06-15

    In the past, azo colorants based on benzidine, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (o-tolidine), and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine (o-dianisidine) have been synthesized in large amounts and numbers. Studies in exposed workers have demonstrated that the azoreduction of benzidine-based dyes occurs in man. The metabolic conversion of benzidine-, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine- and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine-based dyes to their (carcinogenic) amine precursors in vivo is a general phenomenon that must be considered for each member of this class of chemicals. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the use of the benzidine-based dyes has caused bladder cancer in humans. However, in contrast to water-soluble dyes, the question of biological azoreduction of (practically insoluble) pigments has been a matter of discussion. As a majority of azo pigments are based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, much of the available experimental data are focused on this group. Long-term animal carcinogenicity studies performed with pigments based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine did not show a carcinogenic effect. The absence of a genotoxic effect has been supported by mutagenicity studies with the 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine-based Pigment Yellow 12. Studies in which azo pigments based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine had been orally administered to rats, hamsters, rabbits and monkeys could generally not detect significant amounts of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine in the urine. It, therefore, appears well established that the aromatic amine components from azo pigments based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine are practically not bioavailable. Hence, it is very unlikely that occupational exposure to insoluble azo pigments would be associated with a substantial risk of (bladder) cancer in man. According to current EU regulations, azo dyes based on benzidine, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine and 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine have been classified as carcinogens of category 2 as "substances which should be regarded as if they are carcinogenic

  14. Building-related symptoms and inflammatory potency of dust from office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allermann, L; Pejtersen, J; Gunnarsen, L;

    2007-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The aim was to investigate the association between building-related symptoms (BRS) in office buildings and the inflammatory potency of dust (PD). Furthermore, the association between dust potency and various building characteristics was investigated. Occupants of 22 office buildings...... received a retrospective questionnaire about BRS (2301 respondents). Dust was collected from groups of offices and building characteristics were recorded. The potency of a dust sample to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from the lung epithelial cell line A549 was measured as the slope of the initial...... linear part of the concentration-response curve. Symptoms of the central nervous system (CNS) were associated with the potency of surface dust (OR = 1.4). This association may be due to an association between an index of CNS symptoms and dust potency in offices of 1-6 occupants (OR = 1.5). No single...

  15. Building-related symptoms and inflammatory potency of dust from office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allermann, Leila; Pejtersen, Jan; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to investigate the association between building-related symptoms (BRS) in office buildings and the inflammatory potency of dust (PD). Furthermore, the association between dust potency and various building characteristics was investigated. Occupants of 22 office buildings...... linear part of the concentration- response curve. Symptoms of the central nervous system (CNS) were associated with the potency of surface dust (OR ¼ 1.4). This association may be due to an association between an index of CNS symptoms and dust potency in offices of 1-6 occupants (OR ¼ 1.5). No single...... symptoms correlated with the potency of surface dust. The PD was not related to single building factors. The inflammatory PD may be used as an integrated proxy measure of biologically active compounds in dust, reflecting health relevant properties of the dust....

  16. Differential potencies of effector genes in adult Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Andreas S; Knapek, Stephan; Rister, Jens; Dierichs-Schmitt, Eva; Heisenberg, Martin; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2006-09-10

    The GAL4/UAS gene expression system in Drosophila has been crucial in revealing the behavioral significance of neural circuits. Transgene products that block neurotransmitter release and induce cell death have been proved to inhibit neural function powerfully. Here we compare the action of the five effector genes shibire(ts1), Tetanus toxin light chain (TNT), reaper, Diphtheria toxin A-chain (DTA), and inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.1) and show differences in their efficiency depending on the target cells and the timing of induction. Specifically, effectors blocking neuronal transmission or excitability led to adult-induced paralysis more efficiently than those causing cell ablation. We contrasted these differential potencies in adult to their actions during development. Furthermore, we induced TNT expression in the adult mushroom bodies. In contrast to the successful impairment in short-term olfactory memory by shibire(ts1), adult TNT expression in the same set of cells did not lead to any obvious impairment. Altogether, the efficiency of effector genes depends on properties of the targeted neurons. Thus, we conclude that the selection of the appropriate effector gene is critical for evaluating the function of neural circuits.

  17. GABA receptor subunit composition relative to insecticide potency and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratra, G S; Casida, J E

    2001-07-01

    Three observations on the 4-[(3)H]propyl-4'-ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([(3)H]EBOB) binding site in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor indicate the specific target for insecticide action in human brain and a possible mechanism for selectivity. First, from published data, alpha-endosulfan, lindane and fipronil compete for the [(3)H]EBOB binding site with affinities of 0.3--7 nM in both human recombinant homooligomeric beta 3 receptors and housefly head membranes. Second, from structure-activity studies, including new data, GABAergic insecticide binding potency on the pentameric receptor formed from the beta 3 subunit correlates well with that on the housefly receptor (r=0.88, n=20). This conserved inhibitor specificity is consistent with known sequence homologies in the housefly GABA receptor and the human GABA(A) receptor beta 3 subunit. Third, as mostly new findings, various combinations of alpha 1, alpha 6, and gamma 2 subunits coexpressed with a beta 1 or beta 3 subunit confer differential insecticide binding sensitivity, particularly to fipronil, indicating that subunit composition is a major factor in insecticide selectivity.

  18. Radioiodination of chicken luteinizing hormone without affecting receptor binding potency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M.; Ishii, S. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    By improving the currently used lactoperoxidase method, we were able to obtain radioiodinated chicken luteinizing hormone (LH) that shows high specific binding and low nonspecific binding to a crude plasma membrane fraction of testicular cells of the domestic fowl and the Japanese quail, and to the ovarian granulosa cells of the Japanese quail. The change we made from the original method consisted of (1) using chicken LH for radioiodination that was not only highly purified but also retained a high receptor binding potency; (2) controlling the level of incorporation of radioiodine into chicken LH molecules by employing a short reaction time and low temperature; and (3) fractionating radioiodinated chicken LH further by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific radioactivity of the final {sup 125}I-labeled chicken LH preparation was 14 microCi/micrograms. When specific binding was 12-16%, nonspecific binding was as low as 2-4% in the gonadal receptors. {sup 125}I-Labeled chicken LH was displaced by chicken LH and ovine LH but not by chicken follicle-stimulating hormone. The equilibrium association constant of quail testicular receptor was 3.6 x 10(9) M-1. We concluded that chicken LH radioiodinated by the present method is useful for studies of avian LH receptors.

  19. Emergency planning and the acute toxic potency of inhaled ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, R A

    1999-08-01

    Ammonia is present in agriculture and commerce in many if not most communities. This report evaluates the toxic potency of ammonia, based on three types of data: anecdotal data, in some cases predating World War 1, reconstructions of contemporary industrial accidents, and animal bioassays. Standards and guidelines for human exposure have been driven largely by the anecdotal data, suggesting that ammonia at 5,000-10,000 parts per million, volume/volume (ppm-v), might be lethal within 5-10 min. However, contemporary accident reconstructions suggest that ammonia lethality requires higher concentrations. For example, 33,737 ppm-v was a 5-min zero-mortality value in a major ammonia release in 1973 in South Africa. Comparisons of secondary reports of ammonia lethality with original sources revealed discrepancies in contemporary sources, apparently resulting from failure to examine old documents or accurately translate foreign documents. The present investigation revealed that contemporary accident reconstructions yield ammonia lethality levels comparable to those in dozens of reports of animal bioassays, after adjustment of concentrations to human equivalent concentrations via U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures. Ammonia levels potentially causing irreversible injury or impairing the ability of exposed people to escape from further exposure or from coincident perils similarly have been biased downwardly in contemporary sources. The EPA has identified ammonia as one of 366 extremely hazardous substances subject to community right-to-know provisions of the Superfund Act and emergency planning provisions of the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act defines emergency planning zones (EPZs) around industrial facilities exceeding a threshold quantity of ammonia on-site. This study suggests that EPZ areas around ammonia facilities can be reduced, thereby also reducing emergency planning costs, which will vary roughly with the EPZ radius squared.

  20. [Advances in non-carcinogenic toxicity of trichloroethylene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peiwu; Li, Xuan; Liu, Wei; Liu, Jianjun

    2015-09-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used organic solvent and an important industrial material. Due to mass production and use, and improper waste disposal, TCE has become a common environmental contaminant, so there is a wide range of occupationally and environmentally exposed population. Occupational and environmental exposure to TCE can produce toxic effects on multiple organs and systems. This paper is a review of the immunotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, neurotoxicity, teratogenic effect and other non-carcinogenic toxic effects of TCE from the aspects of epidemiological study, experimental evidence on animals and toxic mechanisms.

  1. Database Urban Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutjes, B.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Database Urban Europe: ResSegr database on segregation in The Netherlands. Collaborative research on residential segregation in Europe 2014–2016 funded by JPI Urban Europe (Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe).

  2. Cell Centred Database (CCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Cell Centered Database (CCDB) is a web accessible database for high resolution 2D, 3D and 4D data from light and electron microscopy, including correlated imaging.

  3. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  4. E3 Staff Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — E3 Staff database is maintained by E3 PDMS (Professional Development & Management Services) office. The database is Mysql. It is manually updated by E3 staff as...

  5. Scopus database: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Judy F

    2006-03-08

    The Scopus database provides access to STM journal articles and the references included in those articles, allowing the searcher to search both forward and backward in time. The database can be used for collection development as well as for research. This review provides information on the key points of the database and compares it to Web of Science. Neither database is inclusive, but complements each other. If a library can only afford one, choice must be based in institutional needs.

  6. MPlus Database system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-20

    The MPlus Database program was developed to keep track of mail received. This system was developed by TRESP for the Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Operations. The MPlus Database program is a PC application, written in dBase III+'' and compiled with Clipper'' into an executable file. The files you need to run the MPLus Database program can be installed on a Bernoulli, or a hard drive. This paper discusses the use of this database.

  7. The contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fractions with different boiling ranges to the carcinogenic impact of emission condensate from coal fired residential furnaces as evaluated by topical application to the skin of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer, G; Brune, H; Deutsch-Wenzel, R; Dettbarn, G; Misfeld, J; Abel, U; Timm, J

    1985-09-15

    Flue gas condensate from briquet-fired residential furnaces was separated into a polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC)-free and a PAC-containing part, followed by a subfractionation of the PAC-containing fraction into 3 parts: PAC consisting predominantly of (a) 2 and 3 rings, (b) 4 and 5 rings and (c) 6 and more rings. To evaluate the carcinogenic potency of the condensate and its fractions, local application onto skin of mice in 2 or 3 doses was used. Since it was known from an earlier investigation that both the PAC-free fraction and the fraction containing PAC with 2 and 3 rings were almost ineffective, only PAC-fractions containing more than 3 rings were tested. The probit and Weibull analysis of the results showed that the condensate and the fractions containing PAC with 4 and 5 rings as well as 6 and more rings provoke local tumors after repeated application to the dorsal skin of mice. The tumor incidence exhibited a clear cut dose-response relationship. Fractions (b) and (c) were almost equally active, each contributing by about 50% to the total carcinogenicity. The content of benzo[a]pyrene (0.72 mg/g condensate) contributed by 10-11% to the total carcinogenicity of the emission.

  8. Comment on the significance of positive carcinogenicity studies using gavage as the route of exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, F.; Brennan, T. (Thomas); Fouts, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    There is continuing controversy, extending into regulatory matters, over the significance to human health of positive results in carcinogenicity studies in animals using the gavage technique as the route of exposure. Our review of a nonrandom sample of 117 chemicals or chemical processes listed as known or reasonably anticipated to be carcinogenic in the National Toxicology Program's Third Annual Report on Carcinogens provides support for the validity of the gavage route in such studies. Twen...

  9. KEYNOTE LECTURES-KL1 New development in risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun-Shi

    2006-01-01

    @@ The no-observed-effect level (NOEL) in a study of carcinogenicity for compounds that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic represents the limit of detection in that bioassay, rather than an estimate of a possible threshold. Therefore, for those genotoxic and carcinogenic contaminants (e.g. acrylamides, PAHs, etc.) in foods it is not possible to develop health-based guidance values (e.g. ADI or PTWI) using the traditional NOEL and safety/uncertainty factors.

  10. [The evaluation of carcinogenic effect in rats and mice after intraperitoneal administration of refractory ceramic fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnow, A; Lao, I; Stetkiewicz, J; Wiecek, E

    1998-01-01

    The carcinogenic effect of Langfaser and Thermowool ceramic fibres was assessed in Wistar rats and BALB/C mice. Fibres were administered into the animal peritoneal cavity in doses of 25 and 5 mg, and the animals were left for survival. Langfaser and Thermowool ceramic fibres were found carcinogenic. The carcinogenic properties of Thermowool ceramic fibre can be compared to those of Krokidoit UICC asbestos.

  11. DNA adducts in human tissues:biomarkers of exposure to carcinogens in tobacco smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Tobacco smoking causes millions of cancer deaths annually. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of thousands of chemicals including many known animal carcinogens. Because many carcinogens from DNA adducts in target animal or human tissues, the detection of the formation of adducts using such methods as postlabeling, immunoassay, fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry is a means of monitoring human exposure to tobacco carcinogens. Smokers are at increased risk of cancer in many organs,...

  12. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as “carcinogenic to humans” by the International...

  13. CTD_DATABASE - Cascadia tsunami deposit database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have...

  14. Carcinogenic effects ofcircadian disruption:an epigenetic viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas Salavaty

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms refer to the endogenous rhythms that are generated to synchronize physiology and behavior with 24-h environmental cues. These rhythms are regulated by both external cues and molecular clock mechanisms in almost all cells. Disruption of circadian rhythms, which is called circadian disruption, affects many biological processes within the body and results in different long-term diseases, including cancer. Circadian regulatory pathways result in rhythmic epigenetic modiifcations and the formation of circadian epigenomes. Aberrant epigenetic modiifcations, such as hypermethylation, due to circadian disruption may be involved in the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. Several studies have indicated an epigenetic basis for the carcinogenic effects of circadian disruption. In this review, I ifrst discuss some of the circadian genes and regulatory proteins. Then, I summarize the current evidence related to the epigenetic modiifcations that result in circadian disruption. In addition, I explain the carcinogenic effects of circadian disruption and highlight its potential role in different human cancers using an epigenetic view-point. Finally, the importance of chronotherapy in cancer treatment is highlighted.

  15. Formaldehyde in dentistry: a review of mutagenic and carcinogenic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.B.; Chestner, S.B.

    1981-09-01

    For many years there has been controversy over the value of antimicrobial drugs for intracanal dressings in endodontics. Formocresol, a formaldehyde compound, has evolved as the preferred drug for routine endodontic procedures, as well as pediatric endodontics. The increase in the use of formaldehyde has been complicated by the introduction of paraformaldehyde pastes for filling root canals. Neither of these formulas has ever been standardized. The doses are arbitrary, and the common dose of formocresol has been shown to be many times greater than the minimum dose needed for effect. The efficacy of paraformaldehyde pastes is questionable and remains clouded by inconclusive evidence, conflicting research, inadequate terminology, and a lack of convincing statistical evidence. The clinical use and delivery of formocresol and paraformaldehyde pastes remain arbitrary and unscientific. Formaldehyde has a known toxic mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Many investigations have been conducted to measure the risk of exposure to formaldehyde; it is clear that formaldehyde poses a carcinogenic risk in humans. There is a need to reevaluate the rationale underlying the use of formaldehyde in dentistry particularly in light of its deleterious effects.

  16. Carcinogenic effects of circadian disruption: an epigenetic viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavaty, Abbas

    2015-08-08

    Circadian rhythms refer to the endogenous rhythms that are generated to synchronize physiology and behavior with 24-h environmental cues. These rhythms are regulated by both external cues and molecular clock mechanisms in almost all cells. Disruption of circadian rhythms, which is called circadian disruption, affects many biological processes within the body and results in different long-term diseases, including cancer. Circadian regulatory pathways result in rhythmic epigenetic modifications and the formation of circadian epigenomes. Aberrant epigenetic modifications, such as hypermethylation, due to circadian disruption may be involved in the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. Several studies have indicated an epigenetic basis for the carcinogenic effects of circadian disruption. In this review, I first discuss some of the circadian genes and regulatory proteins. Then, I summarize the current evidence related to the epigenetic modifications that result in circadian disruption. In addition, I explain the carcinogenic effects of circadian disruption and highlight its potential role in different human cancers using an epigenetic viewpoint. Finally, the importance of chronotherapy in cancer treatment is highlighted.

  17. The carcinogenicity of the biocide ortho-phenylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, K E

    2000-04-01

    The biocides ortho-phenylphenol and its sodium salt (OPP and SOPP) are widely used as fungicides and antibacterial agents for commercial and consumer purposes. The carcinogenicity of OPP/SOPP toward the urinary bladder was demonstrated when rats were chronically fed concentrations of 0.5%-4% in their diet. Other species tested so far did not develop tumours. Understanding the mechanisms underlying OPP/SOPP-induced bladder carcinogenesis is critical to determine whether risks observed at high doses in rats are of relevance to humans exposed at much lower levels. This overview details experimental studies of carcinogenicity, genotoxicity as well as metabolism/toxicokinetics and other mechanistic studies which bear on cancer hazard and risk evaluation of exposure to humans. Based on the presently available knowledge, it is concluded that reactive quinoid metabolites exhibiting redox cycling activities are the crucial factors. At certain concentration levels, these metabolites are able to produce cytotoxic events with concomitant enhanced cell proliferation of the target tissue. Further important risk factors are probably promutagenic lesions induced by oxidative stress and a higher urinary pH. Supposed that these mechanisms are the basis for the tumourigenicity observed, then suitable low doses of OPP/SOPP will practically pose no cancer risk.

  18. Evidence supporting product standards for carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Stepanov, Irina; Severson, Herb; Jensen, Joni A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Horn, Kimberly; Khariwala, Samir S; Martin, Julia; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States vary significantly in yields of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). With the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the Food and Drug Administration now has the authority to establish product standards. However, limited data exist determining the relative roles of pattern of smokeless tobacco use versus constituent levels in the smokeless tobacco product in exposure of users to carcinogens. In this study, smokeless tobacco users of brands varying in nicotine and TSNA content were recruited from three different regions in the U.S. Participants underwent two assessment sessions. During these sessions, demographic and smokeless tobacco use history information along with urine samples to assess biomarkers of exposure and effect were collected. During the time between data collection, smokeless tobacco users recorded the amount and duration of smokeless tobacco use on a daily basis using their diary cards. Results showed that independent of pattern of smokeless tobacco use and nicotine yields, levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products played a significant role in carcinogen exposure levels. Product standards for reducing levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products are necessary to decrease exposure to these toxicants and potentially to reduce risk for cancer.

  19. Keyword Search in Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jeffrey Xu; Chang, Lijun

    2009-01-01

    It has become highly desirable to provide users with flexible ways to query/search information over databases as simple as keyword search like Google search. This book surveys the recent developments on keyword search over databases, and focuses on finding structural information among objects in a database using a set of keywords. Such structural information to be returned can be either trees or subgraphs representing how the objects, that contain the required keywords, are interconnected in a relational database or in an XML database. The structural keyword search is completely different from

  20. An Interoperable Cartographic Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodanka Ključanin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of producing a prototype of interoperable cartographic database is explored in this paper, including the possibilities of integration of different geospatial data into the database management system and their visualization on the Internet. The implementation includes vectorization of the concept of a single map page, creation of the cartographic database in an object-relation database, spatial analysis, definition and visualization of the database content in the form of a map on the Internet. 

  1. In vitro screening of the endocrine disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants and their metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.; Kamstra, J.H.; Sonneveld, E.; Murk, A.J.; Zegers, B.N.; Boon, J.P.; Brouwer, A.

    2004-01-01

    DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY vitro screening the endocrine disrupting potency brominated flame retardants and their metabolites Timo Hamers Jorke Kamstra Edwin Sonneveld Albertinka Murk Bart Zegers Jan Boon Abraham Brouwer Institute for Environmental Studies IVM Amsterdam BioDetection Sys

  2. Early biochemical recurrence, urinary continence and potency outcomes following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Hvarness, Helle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe recovery of urinary continence and potency and report oncological and functional outcomes using the survival, continence and potency (SCP) system for patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2009...... with preoperative ESI, 77.6% (67.9-86.1) and 34.4% (24.1-47.5) maintained ESI 12 months postoperatively after bilateral and unilateral nerve-sparing surgery (NS), respectively. NS (p .... Using the SCP system and defining potency as ESI, functional and oncological success 12 months after surgery was achieved in 69 out of 135 (51.1%) preoperative continent and potent patients who underwent unilateral or bilateral NS, and did not require adjuvant treatment; when defining potency as IIEF...

  3. The NCBI Taxonomy database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federhen, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The NCBI Taxonomy database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy) is the standard nomenclature and classification repository for the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC), comprising the GenBank, ENA (EMBL) and DDBJ databases. It includes organism names and taxonomic lineages for each of the sequences represented in the INSDC's nucleotide and protein sequence databases. The taxonomy database is manually curated by a small group of scientists at the NCBI who use the current taxonomic literature to maintain a phylogenetic taxonomy for the source organisms represented in the sequence databases. The taxonomy database is a central organizing hub for many of the resources at the NCBI, and provides a means for clustering elements within other domains of NCBI web site, for internal linking between domains of the Entrez system and for linking out to taxon-specific external resources on the web. Our primary purpose is to index the domain of sequences as conveniently as possible for our user community.

  4. The role of the 4''-hydroxyl on motilin agonist potency in the 9-dihydroerythromycin series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoquan; Carreras, Christopher W; Claypool, Mark; Myles, David C; Shaw, Simon J

    2011-06-15

    The role of the erythromycin 4''-hydroxyl group has been explored on the motilin agonist potential in the 9-dihydroerythromycin series of motilides. The compounds show potencies 2- to 4-fold superior to the corresponding hydroxylated compounds. The relationship is maintained when the 9-hydroxyl is alkylated to generate the corresponding 4''-deoxy-9-O-acetamido-9-dihydroerythromycins. However, concomitant with this increase in potency is an increase in hERG inhibition.

  5. The importance of carcinogen dose in chemoprevention studies: quantitative interrelationships between, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene dose, chlorophyllin dose, target organ DNA adduct biomarkers and final tumor outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, M Margaret; Reddy, Ashok P; Hendricks, Jerry D; Pereira, Cliff; Kensler, Thomas W; Bailey, George S

    2007-03-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL) is a potent antimutagen in vitro, an effective anti-carcinogen in several animal models, and significantly reduced urinary biomarkers of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) exposure in a human population. Here we report an expanded analysis of CHL chemoprevention using the potent environmental hydrocarbon dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP). A dose-dose matrix design employed over 12 000 rainbow trout to evaluate the interrelationships among dietary carcinogen dose, anti-carcinogen dose, carcinogen-DNA adduct levels at exposure and eventual tumor outcome in two target organs. Included was an evaluation of the pharmaceutical CHL preparation (Derifil), used previously in a study of individuals chronically exposed to AFB(1). CHL was pre-, co- and post-fed at doses of 0-6000 p.p.m. and co-fed with DBP at doses of 0-371.5 p.p.m. for 4 weeks. This protocol generated a total of 21 dose-dose treatment groups, each evaluated with three or more replicates of 100 animals. The DBP-only treatment produced dose-responsive increases in liver and stomach DBP-DNA adducts, whereas increasing CHL co-treatment doses produced successive inhibition in liver (49-83%) and stomach (47-75%) adduct levels at each DBP dose examined. The remaining 8711 trout were necropsied, 10 months later. DBP treatment alone produced a logit incidence versus log [DBP] dose-response curve in stomach that was linear; CHL co-treatment provided dose-dependent tumor inhibition which ranged from 30 to 68% and was predictable from the adduct response. The Derifil CHL preparation was also found to effectively reduce DNA adduction and final tumor incidence in stomach (as well as liver), with a potency compatible with its total chlorin content. Liver tumor incidence in the DBP-only groups appeared to plateau near 60%. At DBP doses of

  6. Database Description - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...EF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Description - DGBY | LSDB Archive ...

  7. The octave potencies convention: a mathematical model of dilution and succussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anick, David J

    2007-07-01

    Several hypothesized explanations for homeopathy posit that remedies contain a concentration of discrete information-carrying units, such as water clusters, nano-bubbles, or silicates. For any such explanation to be sustainable, dilution must reduce and succussion must restore the concentration of these units. Succussion can be modeled by a logistic equation, which leads to mathematical relationships involving the maximum concentration, the average growth of information-carrying units rate per succussion stroke, the number of succussion strokes, and the dilution factor (x, c, or LM). When multiple species of information-carrying units are present, the fastest-growing species will eventually come to dominate, as the potency is increased. An analogy is explored between iterated cycles dilution and succussion, in making homeopathic remedies, and iterated cycles of reseeding and growth, in bacterial cultures. Drawing on this analogy, the active ingredients in low and medium potency remedies may be present at early dilutions but only gradually come to 'dominate', while high potencies may develop from the occurrence of low-probability but faster-growing 'mutations.' Conclusions from this model include: 'x' and 'c' potencies are best compared by the amount of dilution, not the amount of succussion; the minimum number of succussion strokes needed per cycle is proportional to the logarithm of the dilution factor; and a plausible interpretation of why potencies at approximately regular ratios are traditionally used (the octave potencies convention).

  8. Kinetic microplate bioassays for relative potency of antibiotics improved by partial Least Square (PLS) regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Fabiane Lacerda; Saviano, Alessandro Morais; Almeida, Túlia de Souza Botelho; Lourenço, Felipe Rebello

    2016-05-01

    Microbiological assays are widely used to estimate the relative potencies of antibiotics in order to guarantee the efficacy, safety, and quality of drug products. Despite of the advantages of turbidimetric bioassays when compared to other methods, it has limitations concerning the linearity and range of the dose-response curve determination. Here, we proposed to use partial least squares (PLS) regression to solve these limitations and to improve the prediction of relative potencies of antibiotics. Kinetic-reading microplate turbidimetric bioassays for apramacyin and vancomycin were performed using Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), respectively. Microbial growths were measured as absorbance up to 180 and 300min for apramycin and vancomycin turbidimetric bioassays, respectively. Conventional dose-response curves (absorbances or area under the microbial growth curve vs. log of antibiotic concentration) showed significant regression, however there were significant deviation of linearity. Thus, they could not be used for relative potency estimations. PLS regression allowed us to construct a predictive model for estimating the relative potencies of apramycin and vancomycin without over-fitting and it improved the linear range of turbidimetric bioassay. In addition, PLS regression provided predictions of relative potencies equivalent to those obtained from agar diffusion official methods. Therefore, we conclude that PLS regression may be used to estimate the relative potencies of antibiotics with significant advantages when compared to conventional dose-response curve determination.

  9. Mathematical analysis of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) behaviour of monoclonal antibodies: predicting in vivo potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Philip J; Derks, Gianne; Raji, Adewale; Agoram, Balaji M; van der Graaf, Piet H

    2011-07-21

    We consider the relationship between the target affinity of a monoclonal antibody and its in vivo potency. The dynamics of the system is described mathematically by a target-mediated drug disposition model. As a measure of potency, we consider the minimum level of the free receptor following a single bolus injection of the ligand into the plasma compartment. From the differential equations, we derive two expressions for this minimum level in terms of the parameters of the problem, one of which is valid over the full range of values of the equilibrium dissociation constant K(D) and the other which is valid only for a large drug dose or for a small value of K(D). Both of these formulae show that the potency achieved by increasing the association constant k(on) can be very different from the potency achieved by decreasing the dissociation constant k(off). In particular, there is a saturation effect when decreasing k(off) where the increase in potency that can be achieved is limited, whereas there is no such effect when increasing k(on). Thus, for certain monoclonal antibodies, an increase in potency may be better achieved by increasing k(on) than by decreasing k(off).

  10. Database Description - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us RMG Database... Description General information of database Database name RMG Alternative name Rice Mitochondri...ational Institute of Agrobiological Sciences E-mail : Database classification Nucleotide Sequence Databases ...Organism Taxonomy Name: Oryza sativa Japonica Group Taxonomy ID: 39947 Database description This database co...e of rice mitochondrial genome and information on the analysis results. Features and manner of utilization of database

  11. Can creatine supplementation form carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renato Tavares dos Santos; Dörr, Felipe Augusto; Pinto, Ernani; Solis, Marina Yazigi; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Fernandes, Alan Lins; Murai, Igor Hisashi; Dantas, Wagner Silva; Seguro, Antônio Carlos; Santinho, Mirela Aparecida Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Carpentier, Alain; Poortmans, Jacques Remi; Gualano, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    There is a long-standing concern that creatine supplementation could be associated with cancer, possibly by facilitating the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). This study provides compelling evidence that both low and high doses of creatine supplementation, given either acutely or chronically, does not cause a significant increase in HCA formation. HCAs detection was unrelated to creatine supplementation. Diet was likely to be the main factor responsible for HCAs formation after either placebo (n = 6) or creatine supplementation (n = 3). These results directly challenge the recently suggested biological plausibility for the association between creatine use and risk of testicular germ cell cancer. Creatine supplementation has been associated with increased cancer risk. In fact, there is evidence indicating that creatine and/or creatinine are important precursors of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). The present study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effects of low- and high-dose creatine supplementation on the production of HCAs in healthy humans (i.e. 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-MeIQx), 2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo[4,5-b])pyridine (IFP) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx)). This was a non-counterbalanced single-blind crossover study divided into two phases, in which low- and high-dose creatine protocols were tested. After acute (1 day) and chronic supplementation (30 days), the HCAs PhIP, 8-MeIQx, IFP and 4,8-DiMeIQx were assessed through a newly developed HPLC-MS/MS method. Dietary HCA intake and blood and urinary creatinine were also evaluated. Out of 576 assessments performed (from 149 urine samples), only nine (3 from creatine and 6 from placebo) showed quantifiable levels of HCAs (8-MeIQx: n = 3; 4,8-DiMeIQx: n = 2; PhIP: n = 4). Individual analyses revealed that diet rather than creatine supplementation was

  12. Molecular basis of carcinogenicity of tungsten alloy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Robert M.; Williams, Tim D.; Waring, Rosemary H.; Hodges, Nikolas J., E-mail: n.hodges@bham.ac.uk

    2015-03-15

    The tungsten alloy of 91% tungsten, 6% nickel and 3% cobalt (WNC 91–6–3) induces rhabdomyosarcoma when implanted into a rat thigh muscle. To investigate whether this effect is species-specific human HSkMc primary muscle cells were exposed to WNC 91–6–3 particles and responses were compared with those from a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6-C11). Toxicity was assessed by the adenylate kinase assay and microscopy, DNA damage by the Comet assay. Caspase 3 enzyme activity was measured and oligonucleotide microarrays were used for transcriptional profiling. WNC 91–6–3 particles caused toxicity in cells adjacent to the particles and also increased DNA strand breaks. Inhibition of caspase 3 by WNC 91–6–3 occurred in rat but not in human cells. In both rat and human cells, the transcriptional response to WNC 91–6–3 showed repression of transcripts encoding muscle-specific proteins with induction of glycolysis, hypoxia, stress responses and transcripts associated with DNA damage and cell death. In human cells, genes encoding metallothioneins were also induced, together with genes related to angiogenesis, dysregulation of apoptosis and proliferation consistent with pre-neoplastic changes. An alloy containing iron, WNF 97–2–1, which is non-carcinogenic in vivo in rats, did not show these transcriptional changes in vitro in either species while the corresponding cobalt-containing alloy, WNC 97–2–1 elicited similar responses to WNC 91–6–3. Tungsten alloys containing both nickel and cobalt therefore have the potential to be carcinogenic in man and in vitro assays coupled with transcriptomics can be used to identify alloys, which may lead to tumour formation, by dysregulation of biochemical processes. - Highlights: • Use of transcriptomics to identify likely carcinogenic tungsten alloys in vitro • Cobalt containing alloys cause oxidative stress, DNA-damage and perturb apoptosis. • Presence of cobalt causes changes in gene expression

  13. Database design and database administration for a kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Vítek, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with creation of database design for a standard kindergarten, installation of the designed database into the database system Oracle Database 10g Express Edition and demonstration of the administration tasks in this database system. The verification of the database was proved by a developed access application.

  14. MATHEMATICAL MODELING FOR BENZYLPENICILIN POTASSIUM AND STREPTOMYCIN SULPHATE POTENCY DETERMINATION OF ASCOMICIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ciuca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascomicin is an antibacterial unguent for treatment of local infections of skin, eyes, outer ear, in cattle, sheep, pig, dog and cat. The product contains two active substances: benzylpenicillin potassium (Penicillin G potassium and streptomycin sulphate. The main characteristic of commercial product is benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate potency. The potency is estimated by comparing the inhibition of growth of sensitive micro-organisms produced by known concentrations of the antibiotic to be examined and a reference substance. The validation study aims to demonstrate the determination of the potency of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate, it is an appropriate analytical method, reproducible and meets the quality requirements of Ascomicin product. The paper establishes the performance characteristics of the method considered and identify the factors that influence these characteristics. The diameters of inhibition zones, directly proportional to the logarithm of the concentration of the antibiotic used for the assay, measured and calculated using statistical methods (Combistats Soft. The assay is designed in such a way that the mathematical model on which the potency equation is based can be proved to be valid. A parallel-line model is chosen. The two log dose response lines of the preparation under examination and the standard preparation are parallel; they are rectilinear over the range of doses used in the calculation. These conditions are verified by validity tests for a given probability (P = 0.05. The test is not valid unless the confidence limits (P = 0.95 are not less than 50 per cent and not more than 200 per cent of the estimated potency. The estimated potency is not less than 95 per cent and not more than 105 per cent of the stated potency. The stated potency is not less than 19400 international units/g benzylpenicillin potassium and 13960 international units/g streptomycin sulphate. The validation

  15. Conditioning Probabilistic Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Past research on probabilistic databases has studied the problem of answering queries on a static database. Application scenarios of probabilistic databases however often involve the conditioning of a database using additional information in the form of new evidence. The conditioning problem is thus to transform a probabilistic database of priors into a posterior probabilistic database which is materialized for subsequent query processing or further refinement. It turns out that the conditioning problem is closely related to the problem of computing exact tuple confidence values. It is known that exact confidence computation is an NP-hard problem. This has lead researchers to consider approximation techniques for confidence computation. However, neither conditioning nor exact confidence computation can be solved using such techniques. In this paper we present efficient techniques for both problems. We study several problem decomposition methods and heuristics that are based on the most successful search techn...

  16. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grams, W H

    2000-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

  17. National Database of Geriatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannegaard, Pia Nimann; Vinding, Kirsten L; Hare-Bruun, Helle

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the National Database of Geriatrics is to monitor the quality of interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of patients admitted to a geriatric hospital unit. STUDY POPULATION: The database population consists of patients who were admitted to a geriatric hospital unit....... Geriatric patients cannot be defined by specific diagnoses. A geriatric patient is typically a frail multimorbid elderly patient with decreasing functional ability and social challenges. The database includes 14-15,000 admissions per year, and the database completeness has been stable at 90% during the past......, percentage of discharges with a rehabilitation plan, and the part of cases where an interdisciplinary conference has taken place. Data are recorded by doctors, nurses, and therapists in a database and linked to the Danish National Patient Register. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Descriptive patient-related data include...

  18. [Thoughts on carcinogenic pollution caused by ionizing radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, R

    1976-01-01

    The pollution phenomenon groups the effects of small doses of radiation on large populations. These effects on Man are not directly accessible. One must: a) consider some epidemiological statistics (cosmic radiation at high altitudes; radioactivity from granitic surroundings); b) extrapolate from datas obtained with high doses; c) extrapolate from datas obtained with low doses in micro-organisms or mammalian cells in vitro. The interpolation scheme of Abrahamson et al. is so available for mutagenicity. The question of a threshold remains theoretical, although radiation-induced carcinogenesis often displays a dose-effects curve with a well market threshold. A new concept, that of a "practical threshold" is developped, which may be of great usefulness. The main genetic considerations are listed upon which the present international admissible doses are based. Finally, in order to establish quantitative comparisons between chemical and radiation carcinogenic pollution, the concept of "rad equivalents" for the main chemical mutagens is stressed.

  19. Carcinogenic risks associated with radiation pollution. [UV radiation, sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latarjet, R.

    1976-01-01

    The cancerogenic pollution by non-ionizing radiations is limited to the case of solar ultraviolet, whose activity at ground level may be increased as a consequence of the stratospheric depletion of ozone, produced by certain chemical pollutants: nitrogen oxides from supersonic aircrafts, freon. As regards ionizing radiations, the discussion is focused on the fundamental problem of the threshold, and on the means by which one may obtain some quantitative data related to carcinogenesis by small radiation doses in man. A new concept, that of a practical threshold, is proposed. A theory which links radiocancerogenesis, as well as chemical cancerogenesis, to errors produced in the repair of lesions in the DNA is discussed. The rads-equivalent project for chemical mutagens and carcinogens is described.

  20. Carcinogenicity, allergenicity, and lupus-inducibility of arylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, King-Thom

    2016-01-01

    Arylamines are widely used in food, drugs, and cosmetics as well as other industries. These chemicals are present ubiquitously in cigarette smoke, smoke emitted from cooking fume hoods as well as are generated by diverse industries. Arylamines can be generated by cleavage of azo dyes by intestinal and skin microbiota. Some arylamines are used as drugs while others are constituents of human metabolism. Many of the arylamines are mutagenic and carcinogenic. They are generally recognized as the major cause of human bladder cancer, but arylamines can induce cancers of other organs in humans and animals. Some arylamines are allergenic, causing lupus like syndrome, or other maladies. In view of their unbiquitious nature and the diseases they cause, arylamines are probably the most important chemicals causing health problems.

  1. Retraction: Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Bakir

    2010-11-01

    The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: "Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF)" published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3):245-50. After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  2. Inter-laboratory comparison of turkey in ovo carcinogenicity assessment (IOCA) of hepatocarcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, H; Brunnemann, K; Iatropoulos, M; Shpyleva, S; Lukyanova, N; Todor, I; Moore, M; Spicher, K; Chekhun, V; Tsuda, H; Williams, G

    2013-09-01

    In three independent laboratories carcinogens (diethylnitrosamine, DEN, 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, NNK) and non-carcinogens (N-nitrosoproline, nicotine) were evaluated in turkey eggs for in ovo carcinogenicity assessment (IOCA). Compounds were injected into aseptic fertilized eggs. After incubation for 24 days, foci of altered hepatocytes (FAH), some with a pseudoglandular structure and/or signs of compression of the surrounding tissue were observed in the fetal liver. All laboratories were able to distinguish unequivocally the hepatocarcinogen-exposed groups from those exposed to non-carcinogens or the vehicle controls, based on the pre-specified evaluation parameters: tumor-like lesions, pseudoglandular areas and FAH. In addition to focal changes, only the carcinogens induced hepatocellular karyomegaly. Lower doses of the carcinogens, which did not induce FAH, were sufficient to induce hepatocellular karyomegaly. After exposure to 4 mg DEN, gall bladder agenesis was observed in all fetuses. The IOCA may be a valuable tool for early investigative studies on carcinogenicity and since it does not use rodents may complement chronic rat or mouse bioassays. Test substances that are positive in both rodents and fertilized turkey eggs are most probably trans-species carcinogens with particular significance for humans. The good concordance observed among the three laboratories demonstrates that the IOCA is a reliable and robust method.

  3. 78 FR 4419 - Draft Report on Carcinogens Monographs for 1-Bromopropane and Cumene; Availability of Documents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Draft Report on Carcinogens Monographs for 1-Bromopropane... meeting of the Draft Report on Carcinogens (RoC) Monographs for 1-Bromopropane and Cumene. These documents....m. until adjournment, approximately 2:00 p.m. EDT. Document Availability: Draft monographs will...

  4. OVERVIEW OF DRINKING WATER MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY AND RISK FOR BLADDER CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroacetic acid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of 2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxici...

  5. [Evaluation of the carcinogenic effect of ceramic fibers in experiments on rats and mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnow, A; Lao, I; Stetkiewicz, J

    1997-01-01

    The carcinogenic effect of Kaowoll raw and thermally used ceramic fibres was assessed in experiments on rats and mice. The fibers were applied intraperitoneally in doses by 25 and 5 mg, and the animals were observed over their life-span. It was found that Kaowoll fibers were carcinogenic and that high temperature did not change these properties.

  6. Assessment of carcinogenic heavy metal levels in Brazilian cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Gustavo Freitas de Sousa; Garcia, Karina S; Menezes-Filho, Jose Antonio

    2011-10-01

    Several studies have associated high cancer incidence with smoking habits. According to IARC, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) are carcinogenic to humans. These metals are present in cigarettes and their levels vary according to geographical region of tobacco cultivation, fertilizer treatment, plant variety etc. This study aims to assess these metal levels in cigarettes commercialized in Brazil. Three cigarettes of each 20 different brands were individually weighed, the tobacco filling removed, and homogenized. After desiccation, samples were subjected to microwave-assisted digestion. Analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean levels for Pb, Cd, As, Ni, and Cr were, respectively, 0.27 ± 0.054, 0.65 ± 0.091, 0.09 ± 0.024, 1.26 ± 0.449, and 1.43 ± 0.630, in micrograms per gram of tobacco. No correlation was observed between Cd and any other metal analyzed. A mild correlation (r = 0.483, p < 0.05) was observed between Pb and Cr levels. Strong significant (p < 0.01) correlations were observed between Ni and Cr (r = 0.829), Ni and As (r = 0.799), Ni and Pb (r = 0.637), and between Cr and As (r = 0.621). Chromium and Ni levels were significantly higher in cigarettes from a multinational manufacturer. Our results show a high variability in heavy metal levels in cigarettes, representing an important exposure source of smokers and passive smokers to carcinogenic substances.

  7. Rodent carcinogenicity with the thiazolidinedione antidiabetic agent troglitazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J R; Dethloff, L A; McGuire, E J; Parker, R F; Walsh, K M; Gough, A W; Masuda, H; de la Iglesia, F A

    2002-07-01

    Carcinogenic potential of the thiazolidinedione antidiabetic troglitazone was assessed in 104-week studies in mice and rats. Mice were given 50, 400, or 800 mg/kg, male rats 100, 400, or 800 mg/kg, and female rats 25, 50, or 200 mg/kg. Vehicle and placebo controls were included. Survival was significantly decreased in both sexes of both species at high doses, but was adequate for valid evaluation of carcinogenicity. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of brown adipose tissue was observed in both species at all doses, and fatty change and hypocellularity of bone marrow was noted in mice at all doses and in female rats at 50 and 200 mg/kg. Hepatocellular vacuolation was observed in mice at 400 and 800 mg/kg, and centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy occurred in rats at > or = 200 mg/kg. Ventricular dilatation, myocardial fibrosis, and atrial myocyte karyomegaly in male rats at 400 and 800 mg/kg and female rats at all doses were morphologically similar to spontaneous lesions, but incidence and severity were increased compared with controls. In mice, the incidence of hemangiosarcoma was increased in females at 400 mg/kg and in both sexes at 800 mg/kg. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was increased in female mice at 800 mg/kg. Troglitazone exposure [AUC((0-24))] at the lowest dose associated with increased tumor incidence in mice was 16 times human therapeutic exposure at 400 mg daily. No tumors of any type were increased in rats at exposures up to 47 times therapeutic exposure.

  8. Searching Databases with Keywords

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Wang; Kun-Long Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, SQL query language is used to search the data in databases. However, it is inappropriate for end-users, since it is complex and hard to learn. It is the need of end-user, searching in databases with keywords, like in web search engines. This paper presents a survey of work on keyword search in databases. It also includes a brief introduction to the SEEKER system which has been developed.

  9. Specialist Bibliographic Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A.; Trukhachev, Vladimir I.; Kostyukova, Elena I.; Gerasimov, Alexey N.; Kitas, George D.

    2016-01-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and d...

  10. ITS-90 Thermocouple Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 60 NIST ITS-90 Thermocouple Database (Web, free access)   Web version of Standard Reference Database 60 and NIST Monograph 175. The database gives temperature -- electromotive force (emf) reference functions and tables for the letter-designated thermocouple types B, E, J, K, N, R, S and T. These reference functions have been adopted as standards by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

  11. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  12. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  13. IVR EFP Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains trip-level reports submitted by vessels participating in Exempted Fishery projects with IVR reporting requirements.

  14. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  15. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  16. Database Publication Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, P.A.; DeWitt, D.; Heuer, A.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in improving the publication processes for database research papers. This panel reports on recent changes in those processes and presents an initial cut at historical data for the VLDB Journal and ACM Transactions on Database Systems.......There has been a growing interest in improving the publication processes for database research papers. This panel reports on recent changes in those processes and presents an initial cut at historical data for the VLDB Journal and ACM Transactions on Database Systems....

  17. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  18. Veterans Administration Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  19. Micro-total envelope system with silicon nanowire separator for safe carcinogenic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K.; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Vishwakarma, Niraj K.; Jang, Seungwook; Min, Kyoung-Ik; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2016-02-01

    Exploration and expansion of the chemistries involving toxic or carcinogenic reagents are severely limited by the health hazards their presence poses. Here, we present a micro-total envelope system (μ-TES) and an automated total process for the generation of the carcinogenic reagent, its purification and its utilization for a desired synthesis that is totally enveloped from being exposed to the carcinogen. A unique microseparator is developed on the basis of SiNWs structure to replace the usual exposure-prone distillation in separating the generated reagent. Chloromethyl methyl ether chemistry is explored as a carcinogenic model in demonstrating the efficiency of the μ-TES that is fully automated so that feeding the ingredients for the generation is all it takes to produce the desired product. Syntheses taking days can be accomplished safely in minutes with excellent yields, which bodes well for elevating the carcinogenic chemistry to new unexplored dimensions.

  20. Carcinogenicity and other health effects of acrylonitrile with reference to occupational exposure limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, H

    2000-04-01

    The occupational exposure limit for acrylonitrile (AN) has been set by many organizations on the basis of its carcinogenicity. However, recent epidemiological studies do not afford evidence supporting the hypothesis that AN is carcinogenic to humans. Review of the 18 published cohort studies revealed that, although there is not adequate evidence in humans for carcinogenicity of AN, the possibility of a causal association between high exposure to AN and lung cancer in humans cannot be excluded. It was pointed out that carcinogenic potential of AN may be weak, if any, to humans, and the current occupational exposure limit (OEL) for AN of 2 ppm was evaluated as appropriate in view of AN exposure levels reported by epidemiological studies. Based also on review of the literature on health effects other than carcinogenicity, it was concluded that the current OEL for AN is a reasonable value and there is no need for a revision at present.

  1. Incipient cytotoxicity: A time-independent measure of cytotoxic potency in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülden, Michael; Kähler, Daria; Seibert, Hasso

    2015-09-01

    Time is an important determinant of toxicity but largely ignored in in vitro toxicity assays where exposure times chosen are rather arbitrary. To investigate the impact of time on the cytotoxic potency of chemicals in vitro, the concentration dependent cytotoxic action of selected chemicals (surfactants, metals, oxidative stressors, a mitochondrial poison) was determined after various exposure times (1-72 h) in cultures of Balb/c 3T3 cells. Time affected the cytotoxic potency as well as the cytotoxic efficacy. The median cytotoxic concentrations, EC50, decreased and in most cases approached an "incipient" value, EC50,∞, within 72 h. Cytotoxicity due to mitochondrial insult occurred after a threshold time which was dependent on the medium glucose concentration. Within the chemicals studied the extent of potency change with time ranged from 3- to >1000-fold and the "time to incipient cytotoxicity", tic, from 4 to >72 h. Hence, also the relative cytotoxic potencies depend on exposure time. Ignoring this may lead to severe bias in toxicological hazard and risk assessment. Therefore it is recommended to determine the incipient cytotoxic potency of chemical compounds, represented by, e.g., the incipient median effect (EC50,∞), no effect (NEC∞) or lowest effect concentrations (LEC∞) instead of measures obtained after arbitrary exposure times. If this is not possible, the 72 h-potency measurements appear to be useful surrogates. These time-independent incipient potency values can be reasonably compared between substances, endpoints, cells and biological test systems and may serve to define points of departure for quantitative in vitro-in vivo extrapolations.

  2. Experimental evidence in support of the biological effects and physical basis of homeopathic potencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Sukul

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homeopathic potencies 12 cH and above cross the Avogadro number and, for this, do not contain any original drug molecules. Two major problems involved in the scientific study of potencies are (1 understanding the physical basis of potencies and (2 demonstrating the biological effects of potencies. The present study aims to address these questions. Methods and Results: In course of our experimental studies spanned over more than 30 years we have demonstrated significant effects of homeopathic potencies on man, animals and plants. We have also showed that potencies could be differentiated through their electronic spectra, and this difference in spectra can be attributed to the electron transfer interaction. In a molecular complex, electron of one molecule absorbs a quantum of visible radiation and is excited, not to a higher energy level of this molecule, but to one of the vacant high energy levels of the neighboring molecules. This process is known as electron or charge transfer interaction. This has been demonstrated in Iodine Ó© in two different solvents of CCl4 and aqueous ethanol (Sukul N C, Environ Ecol 17,866-872, 1999. We have further demonstrated that the effect of a homeopathic potency can be transmitted from one part of a plant to another, and also from one plant to another through water. I am presenting here a few selected cases of our experimental studies. Potentized Nux vomica significantly reduced ethanol consumption in rats by 73.7%and ethanol-induced sleep time in albino mice by 44.4%. Causticum 30 C and Rhus tox 30 C produced anti-inflamatory and anti-nocicptive effect on adjuvant arthritis in albino rats. Potentized homeopathic drugs reduced microfilaraemia by 28 to 100% and filariasis in two villages of West Bengal endemic for Bancroftian filaiasis. Potentized Cina and Thuja ameliorated trichinellosis in mice reducing larval population in muscles by 84% and 68%, respectively. Potencies of Agaricus and Nux

  3. A Quality System Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, William H.; Turner, Anne M.; Gifford, Luther; Stites, William

    2010-01-01

    A quality system database (QSD), and software to administer the database, were developed to support recording of administrative nonconformance activities that involve requirements for documentation of corrective and/or preventive actions, which can include ISO 9000 internal quality audits and customer complaints.

  4. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  5. HIV Structural Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  6. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  7. Children's Culture Database (CCD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanting, Birgit

    a Dialogue inspired database with documentation, network (individual and institutional profiles) and current news , paper presented at the research seminar: Electronic access to fiction, Copenhagen, November 11-13, 1996......a Dialogue inspired database with documentation, network (individual and institutional profiles) and current news , paper presented at the research seminar: Electronic access to fiction, Copenhagen, November 11-13, 1996...

  8. Structural Ceramics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  9. Neutrosophic Relational Database Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Meena Arora; Ranjit Biswas; Dr. U.S.Pandey

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a method of decomposing a neutrosophic database relation with Neutrosophic attributes into basic relational form. Our objective is capable of manipulating incomplete as well as inconsistent information. Fuzzy relation or vague relation can only handle incomplete information. Authors are taking the Neutrosophic Relational database [8],[2] to show how imprecise data can be handled in relational schema.

  10. World Database of Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT The World Database of Happiness is an ongoing register of research on subjective appreciation of life. Its purpose is to make the wealth of scattered findings accessible, and to create a basis for further meta-analytic studies. The database involves four sections:
    1. Bib

  11. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  12. Patient Controlled Analgesia Used to Assess the Efficacy and Potency of a New Opioid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Ginsberg

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient controlled analgesia (PCA is widely used for the management of postoperative pain. PCA also permits a comparison to be made among analgesics in the clinical setting because it limits the variability introduced by third parties. Use of PCA to establish efficacy and potency data for an investigational drug, pentamorphone, compared with morphine is reported. Pentamorphone was found to be more efficacious than morphine in the first hour after surgery because significantly more patients were able to achieve a visual analogue scale of less than 30 mm with pentamorphone. Thereafter pentamorphone and morphine were found to be equally efficacious. Initially pentamorphone may be more potent than morphine based on the greater volume of morphine used in the first hour of therapy. However, a potency ratio could not be determined because this result was under conditions of unequal analgesia. The potency ratio determined at 24 h of therapy under equianalgesic conditions (252:1 is similar to previously reported potency data from laboratory studies (200:1. This study supports the use of PCA as a model to investigate and compare new drugs to establish their efficacy and potency.

  13. Fate and antibacterial potency of anticoccidial drugs and their main abiotic degradation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Martin [Section of Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: mah@farma.ku.dk; Krogh, Kristine A. [Section of Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Brandt, Asbjorn [Section of Veterinary Medicines, Danish Medicines Agency, Axel Heides Gade 1, DK-2300 Copenhagen (Denmark); Christensen, Jan H. [Section of Soil and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg (Denmark); Halling-Sorensen, Bent [Section of Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-02-15

    The antibacterial potency of eight anticoccidial drugs was tested in a soil bacteria bioassay (pour plate method), EC{sub 50}-values between 2.4 and 19.6 {mu}M were obtained; however, one compound, nicarbazin exhibited an EC{sub 50}-value above the maximum tested concentration (21 {mu}M, 9.1 mg L{sup -1}). The potency of mixtures of two of the compounds, narasin and nicarbazin, was synergistic (more than additive) with 10-fold greater antibacterial potency of the mixture than can be explained by their individual EC{sub 50}-values. The influence of pH, temperature, oxygen concentration and light on the transformation of robenidine and salinomycin was investigated. Robenidine was transformed by photolysis (DT{sub 50} of 4.1 days) and was unstable at low pH (DT{sub 50} of approximately 4 days); salinomycin was merely transformed at low pH, the latter into an unknown number of products. The antibacterial potency of the mixtures of transformation products of robenidine after photolysis and at low pH was comparable with that of the parent compound. Finally five photo-transformation products of robenidine were structural elucidated by accurate mass measurements, i-FIT values (isotopic pattern fit) and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. - Five photo-transformation products of robenidine were structural elucidated. This mixture was found to have similar antibacterial potency as the parent compound.

  14. Assessment of toxic potency of complex mixtures of PAHs from Lincoln Creek, Milwaukee, WI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, D.; Crunkilton, R.; DeVita, W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An assay of cytochrome P4501A catalytic activity in PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cells was used to evaluate the toxic potency of dialysates from triolein filled semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDS) exposed for variable durations and under various flow regimes to water from Lincoln Creek. Toxic potency was expressed as 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) calculated from bioassay results. Dose-dependent responses in measured ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity of PLHC-1 cells exposed to SPMD dialysates were shown. Toxic potency of dialysates, expressed as bioassay derived TCDD equivalents, increased with duration of SPMD exposure in Lincoln Creek from 2.0 pg/uL for a 2 day exposure to 19.5 pg/uL for a 30 day exposure. This corresponded to an increase in dialysate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration from 8.82 ug/g after a 2 day exposure to 24.14 ug/g after 30 days. Dialysates from SPMDs exposed to Lincoln Creek stormflow had higher toxic potencies and total PAH concentrations than those exposed to baseflow only, These results suggest that levels of PAH contamination, particularly those associated with stormflow, in Lincoln Creek have potential to accumulate in fish to levels significant enough to elicit a measurable biological response (cytochrome P4501 A induction) at a potency level approaching 0.08% that of TCDD.

  15. Team Potency and Its Impact on Performance via Self-efficacy and Adaptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bastos Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In sales, working together as a team for achieving individual performance is a relevant element. In this paper, we suggest a theoretical framework that analyzes the impact of team potency on subjective performance, according to two mechanisms: self-efficacy and adaptability. The hypotheses suggest that (a team potency has a positive relationship with self-efficacy and adaptability; self-efficacy and adaptability impact performance (b directly and (c indirectly, through a mediating role; and (d interpersonal climate quality moderates these associations. We did a national survey with 290 salespeople organized in 101 teams from a water purification company. We used multilevel analyses and results suggested that sales team potency has a main effect on self-efficacy and adaptability. Second, results showed that self-efficacy and adaptability explain subjective performance. Third, self-efficacy and adaptability mediate the association between team potency and individual performance. Fourth, we did not find support for a moderating role of interpersonal climate quality on team potency. Final remarks and future research are discussed in the paper.

  16. Selection of appropriate analytical tools to determine the potency and bioactivity of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nishant A. Dafale n; Uttam P. Semwal; Rupak K. Rajput; G.N. Singh

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are the chemotherapeutic agents that kill or inhibit the pathogenic microorganisms. Re-sistance of microorganism to antibiotics is a growing problem around the world due to indiscriminate and irrational use of antibiotics. In order to overcome the resistance problem and to safely use antibiotics, the correct measurement of potency and bioactivity of antibiotics is essential. Microbiological assay and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method are used to quantify the potency of antibiotics. HPLC method is commonly used for the quantification of potency of antibiotics, but unable to determine the bioactivity; whereas microbiological assay estimates both potency and bioactivity of antibiotics. Additionally, bioassay is used to estimate the effective dose against antibiotic resistant microbes. Simultaneously, microbiological assay addresses the several parameters such as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), mutation prevention concentration (MPC) and critical concentration (Ccr) which are used to describe the potency in a more informative way. Microbiological assay is a simple, sensitive, precise and cost effective method which gives reproducible results similar to HPLC. However, the HPLC cannot be a complete substitute for microbiological assay and both methods have their own significance to obtain more realistic and precise results.

  17. The LHCb configuration database

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, L; Van Herwijnen, Eric; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb configuration database is to store information about all the controllable devices of the detector. The experiment's control system (that uses PVSS ) will configure, start up and monitor the detector from the information in the configuration database. The database will contain devices with their properties, connectivity and hierarchy. The ability to store and rapidly retrieve huge amounts of data, and the navigability between devices are important requirements. We have collected use cases to ensure the completeness of the design. Using the entity relationship modelling technique we describe the use cases as classes with attributes and links. We designed the schema for the tables using relational diagrams. This methodology has been applied to the TFC (switches) and DAQ system. Other parts of the detector will follow later. The database has been implemented using Oracle to benefit from central CERN database support. The project also foresees the creation of tools to populate, maintain, and co...

  18. Reclamation research database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    A reclamation research database was compiled to help stakeholders search publications and research related to the reclamation of Alberta's oil sands region. New publications are added to the database by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA), a nonprofit association whose mandate is to develop frameworks and guidelines for the management of cumulative environmental effects in the oil sands region. A total of 514 research papers have been compiled in the database to date. Topics include recent research on hydrology, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, laboratory studies on biodegradation, and the effects of oil sands processing on micro-organisms. The database includes a wide variety of studies related to reconstructed wetlands as well as the ecological effects of hydrocarbons on phytoplankton and other organisms. The database format included information on research format availability, as well as information related to the author's affiliations. Links to external abstracts were provided where available, as well as details of source information.

  19. Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Peterson, Curt

    2003-01-01

    The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have been compiled from 52 studies, documenting 59 sites from northern California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia that contain known or potential tsunami deposits. Bibliographical references are provided for all sites included in the database. Cascadia tsunami deposits are usually seen as anomalous sand layers in coastal marsh or lake sediments. The studies cited in the database use numerous criteria based on sedimentary characteristics to distinguish tsunami deposits from sand layers deposited by other processes, such as river flooding and storm surges. Several studies cited in the database contain evidence for more than one tsunami at a site. Data categories include age, thickness, layering, grainsize, and other sedimentological characteristics of Cascadia tsunami deposits. The database documents the variability observed in tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin.

  20. CEBS: a comprehensive annotated database of toxicological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Isabel A.; Gong, Hui; Paleja, Anand; Rashid, Asif; Fostel, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The Chemical Effects in Biological Systems database (CEBS) is a comprehensive and unique toxicology resource that compiles individual and summary animal data from the National Toxicology Program (NTP) testing program and other depositors into a single electronic repository. CEBS has undergone significant updates in recent years and currently contains over 11 000 test articles (exposure agents) and over 8000 studies including all available NTP carcinogenicity, short-term toxicity and genetic toxicity studies. Study data provided to CEBS are manually curated, accessioned and subject to quality assurance review prior to release to ensure high quality. The CEBS database has two main components: data collection and data delivery. To accommodate the breadth of data produced by NTP, the CEBS data collection component is an integrated relational design that allows the flexibility to capture any type of electronic data (to date). The data delivery component of the database comprises a series of dedicated user interface tables containing pre-processed data that support each component of the user interface. The user interface has been updated to include a series of nine Guided Search tools that allow access to NTP summary and conclusion data and larger non-NTP datasets. The CEBS database can be accessed online at http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/databases/cebs/. PMID:27899660

  1. The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: The urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Morando; Padovani, Michela; Tibaldi, Eva; Falcioni, Laura; Manservisi, Fabiana; Belpoggi, Fiorella

    2014-04-01

    Aspartame (APM) is an artificial sweetener used since the 1980s, now present in >6,000 products, including over 500 pharmaceuticals. Since its discovery in 1965, and its first approval by the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) in 1981, the safety of APM, and in particular its carcinogenicity potential, has been controversial. The present commentary reviews the adequacy of the design and conduct of carcinogenicity bioassays on rodents submitted by G.D. Searle, in the 1970s, to the FDA for market approval. We also review how experimental and epidemiological data on the carcinogenic risks of APM, that became available in 2005 motivated the European Commission (EC) to call the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) for urgent re-examination of the available scientific documentation (including the Searle studies). The EC has further requested that, if the results of the evaluation should suggest carcinogenicity, major changes must be made to the current APM specific regulations. Taken together, the studies performed by G.D. Searle in the 1970s and other chronic bioassays do not provide adequate scientific support for APM safety. In contrast, recent results of life-span carcinogenicity bioassays on rats and mice published in peer-reviewed journals, and a prospective epidemiological study, provide consistent evidence of APM's carcinogenic potential. On the basis of the evidence of the potential carcinogenic effects of APM herein reported, a re-evaluation of the current position of international regulatory agencies must be considered an urgent matter of public health.

  2. The effect of electrical lighting power and irradiance on indoor-grown cannabis potency and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, David J; Duncombe, Paul

    2012-05-01

    The floral development and potencies [Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contents] of cannabis plants were compared when grown indoors under high-pressure sodium lamps consuming electrical power at three densities (270, 400, and 600 W/m(2)). After a 3-week vegetative phase, plants were grown for 8 weeks, with lamps maintaining an artificial day length of 12 h. Foliar and floral yields were measured. Gas chromatography was used to measure the content of the psychoactive cannabinoid THC. Mean yields per unit of electrical power in each lighting regime ranged from 0.9 to 1.6 g/W, the highest being achieved in the lowest irradiance regime. The individual potencies of the separated leaf and flower materials were not affected by increasing irradiance. However, there was a corresponding increase in the overall potency of the aerial plant tissue. This was because of the plants in brighter conditions producing a higher proportion of floral material.

  3. In vitro potency and combination testing of antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Amrita; Martin, Irene; Zhanel, George G; Mulvey, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    Antimicrobial resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major concern to public health due to decreased susceptibility to frontline antimicrobials. To find agents that are active against N. gonorrhoeae, we tested antimicrobials alone or in combination by Etest gradient strips. The potencies (as assessed by minimum inhibitory concentrations) of twenty-five antimicrobials were evaluated against nine reference strains of N. gonorrhoeae (WHO F, G, K, L, M, N, O, P and ATCC 49226). Potency was greatest for netilmicin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. Combinations of azithromycin, moxifloxacin, or gentamicin with ceftriaxone, doripenem, or aztreonam were tested against reference isolates and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated. All nine combinations resulted in indifference (>0.5 FICI ≤ 4). Combinations with FICI gonorrhoeae. These data on antimicrobials with higher potency and combinations that did not show antagonism can help to guide larger scale susceptibility studies for antimicrobial resistant N. gonorrhoeae.

  4. Reduced antimicrobial potencies of Oxytetracycline, tylosin, sulfadiazine, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin and olaquindox due to environmental processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Sengeløv, G.; Ingerslev, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    , and CF) and anaerobic experiments (OTC, TYL, and O) using analytical measurements (UV spectrophotometry or HPLC) combined with a growth inhibition pour plate assay using activated sludge bacteria. (OTC was additionally assessed using a soil bacterial assay.) This combination of results enabled...... the assessment of whether a loss in antibacterial potency was reflected in a similar reduction of substance concentration. If a potency reduction is not reflected in a decreased substance concentration, the results may indicate the formation of less potent degradation products possessing the same chromophoric...... system (same UV absorbance maximum) as the parent compound. With the exception of ST and CF, the antimicrobial agents generally lost a considerable amount of their antimicrobial potency in aerobic experiments. In the anaerobic experiments having either an experimental duration of 21 or 100 days only OTC...

  5. The potency of cannabis in New Zealand from 1976 to 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, H A; Sutherland, G J

    2000-01-01

    The potency of cannabis plant and cannabis products seized in New Zealand over the period of 20 years is studied. The earlier part of the study includes mainly imported cannabis oil and cannabis resin, and both imported and locally grown cannabis plant, that was seized by the police. The later part of the study includes little imported material. Cannabis plant is now locally grown, cannabis oil is locally manufactured and imported cannabis resin is rarely seized. The average potency of the cannabis plant available to the user has not increased over the 20 years period. Cannabis leaf contains on average 1% THC and the female flowering heads on average 3.5% THC. The average potency of cannabis oil has dropped from its peak at 34% THC in 1985 to 13% THC in 1995.

  6. PADB : Published Association Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jin-Sung

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although molecular pathway information and the International HapMap Project data can help biomedical researchers to investigate the aetiology of complex diseases more effectively, such information is missing or insufficient in current genetic association databases. In addition, only a few of the environmental risk factors are included as gene-environment interactions, and the risk measures of associations are not indexed in any association databases. Description We have developed a published association database (PADB; http://www.medclue.com/padb that includes both the genetic associations and the environmental risk factors available in PubMed database. Each genetic risk factor is linked to a molecular pathway database and the HapMap database through human gene symbols identified in the abstracts. And the risk measures such as odds ratios or hazard ratios are extracted automatically from the abstracts when available. Thus, users can review the association data sorted by the risk measures, and genetic associations can be grouped by human genes or molecular pathways. The search results can also be saved to tab-delimited text files for further sorting or analysis. Currently, PADB indexes more than 1,500,000 PubMed abstracts that include 3442 human genes, 461 molecular pathways and about 190,000 risk measures ranging from 0.00001 to 4878.9. Conclusion PADB is a unique online database of published associations that will serve as a novel and powerful resource for reviewing and interpreting huge association data of complex human diseases.

  7. Identification and characterization of protein 14-3-3 in carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Alok; Puchadapirom, Pranom; Plumworasawat, Sirikanya; Dontumprai, Rieofarng; Chan-On, Waraporn; Buates, Sureemas; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob; Suttiprapa, Sutas

    2016-10-27

    Protein 14-3-3s are abundant phospho-serine/threonine binding proteins, which are highly conserved among eukaryotes. Members of this protein family mediate metabolism and signal transduction networks through binding to hundreds of other protein partners. Protein 14-3-3s have been studied in other species of parasitic helminthes, but little is known about this protein in the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. In this study, we identified and characterized protein 14-3-3s of O. viverrini. Seven protein 14-3-3 encoded sequences were retrieved from the O. viverrini genome database. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis were performed. Two isoforms (protein 14-3-3 zeta and protein 14-3-3 epsilon) that have been previously found in the excretory-secretory (ES) products of O. viverrini were produced as recombinant protein in E. coli and the proteins were then used to immunize mice to obtain specific antibodies. Western blot analysis showed that both proteins were detected in all obtainable developmental stages of O. viverrini and the ES products. Immunolocalization revealed that both isoforms were expressed throughout tissues and organs except the gut epithelium. The highest expression was observed in testes especially in developing spermatocytes, suggesting their role in spermatogenesis. Prominent expression was also detected on tegumental surface of the parasite and on epical surface of bile duct epithelium indicates their additional role in host-parasite interaction. These findings indicate that protein 14-3-3s play important role in the life cycle of the parasite and might be involved in the pathogenesis of O. viverrini infection.

  8. Is Senna Laxative Use Associated to Cathartic Colon, Genotoxicity, or Carcinogenicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Morales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their natural origin, apparent low oral toxicity, effectiveness, and accessibility without a medical prescription, the anthranoid laxatives are a popular remedy for constipation and are frequently used abusively. Therefore, it is important to characterize its harmful and/or toxic effects. The sennosides, main active metabolites of senna, exhibit a very low toxicity in rats, and its genotoxic activity in bacterial strains as well as mammal cells was classified as weak in those cases where it was shown to be significant. The toxicological and mutagenic status of the crude extract of senna, however, is not as well characterized, and it is necessary to do so since it is frequently, and at the same time incorrectly, believed that the chronic use of anthranoid laxatives is a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer. The objective of this article was to review the information that arises in various scientific medical databases using key words such as senna, sen, Senna alexandrina, Cassia angustifolia, sennosides, laxative toxicity, mainly ISI and non-ISI articles of journals with an editorial committee. Web pages of products or companies that publicize or commercialize this type of laxative were not included. This analysis establishes that (1 there is no convincing evidence that the chronic use of senna has, as a consequence, a structural and/or functional alteration of the enteric nerves or the smooth intestinal muscle, (2 there is no relation between long-term administration of a senna extract and the appearance of gastrointestinal tumors or any other type in rats, (3 senna is not carcinogenic in rats even after a two-year daily dose of up to 300 mg/kg/day, and (4 the current evidence does not show that there is a genotoxic risk for patients who take laxatives containing senna extracts or sennosides.

  9. Is senna laxative use associated to cathartic colon, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M A; Hernández, D; Bustamante, S; Bachiller, I; Rojas, A

    2009-01-01

    Due to their natural origin, apparent low oral toxicity, effectiveness, and accessibility without a medical prescription, the anthranoid laxatives are a popular remedy for constipation and are frequently used abusively. Therefore, it is important to characterize its harmful and/or toxic effects. The sennosides, main active metabolites of senna, exhibit a very low toxicity in rats, and its genotoxic activity in bacterial strains as well as mammal cells was classified as weak in those cases where it was shown to be significant. The toxicological and mutagenic status of the crude extract of senna, however, is not as well characterized, and it is necessary to do so since it is frequently, and at the same time incorrectly, believed that the chronic use of anthranoid laxatives is a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer. The objective of this article was to review the information that arises in various scientific medical databases using key words such as senna, sen, Senna alexandrina, Cassia angustifolia, sennosides, laxative toxicity, mainly ISI and non-ISI articles of journals with an editorial committee. Web pages of products or companies that publicize or commercialize this type of laxative were not included. This analysis establishes that (1) there is no convincing evidence that the chronic use of senna has, as a consequence, a structural and/or functional alteration of the enteric nerves or the smooth intestinal muscle, (2) there is no relation between long-term administration of a senna extract and the appearance of gastrointestinal tumors or any other type in rats, (3) senna is not carcinogenic in rats even after a two-year daily dose of up to 300 mg/kg/day, and (4) the current evidence does not show that there is a genotoxic risk for patients who take laxatives containing senna extracts or sennosides.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Larkin, Andrew [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Bradfield, Christopher A. [McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Pereira, Cliff B. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Deptartment of Statistics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H. [Analytical and Environmental Sciences Division, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, King' s College London, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); and others

    2012-11-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by {sup 32}P post‐labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH‐dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p < 0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). -- Highlights: ► Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), 3 PAH mixtures, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were compared. ► DBC and 2 PAH mixtures were more potent than Relative Potency Factor estimates. ► Transcriptome profiles 12 hours post initiation were analyzed by microarray. ► Principle components analysis of alterations revealed treatment-based clustering. ► DBC gave a unique

  11. Product Licenses Database Application

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkovikj, Petar

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to organize and centralize the data about software tools available to CERN employees, as well as provide a system that would simplify the license management process by providing information about the available licenses and their expiry dates. The project development process is consisted of two steps: modeling the products (software tools), product licenses, legal agreements and other data related to these entities in a relational database and developing the front-end user interface so that the user can interact with the database. The result is an ASP.NET MVC web application with interactive views for displaying and managing the data in the underlying database.

  12. Plant Genome Duplication Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Junah; Robertson, Jon S; Paterson, Andrew H

    2017-01-01

    Genome duplication, widespread in flowering plants, is a driving force in evolution. Genome alignments between/within genomes facilitate identification of homologous regions and individual genes to investigate evolutionary consequences of genome duplication. PGDD (the Plant Genome Duplication Database), a public web service database, provides intra- or interplant genome alignment information. At present, PGDD contains information for 47 plants whose genome sequences have been released. Here, we describe methods for identification and estimation of dates of genome duplication and speciation by functions of PGDD.The database is freely available at http://chibba.agtec.uga.edu/duplication/.

  13. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  14. Database machine performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarini, F.; Salza, S.

    1987-01-01

    This book is devoted to the important problem of database machine performance evaluation. The book presents several methodological proposals and case studies, that have been developed within an international project supported by the European Economic Community on Database Machine Evaluation Techniques and Tools in the Context of the Real Time Processing. The book gives an overall view of the modeling methodologies and the evaluation strategies that can be adopted to analyze the performance of the database machine. Moreover, it includes interesting case studies and an extensive bibliography.

  15. ALICE Geometry Database

    CERN Document Server

    Santo, J

    1999-01-01

    The ALICE Geometry Database project consists of the development of a set of data structures to store the geometrical information of the ALICE Detector. This Database will be used in Simulation, Reconstruction and Visualisation and will interface with existing CAD systems and Geometrical Modellers.At the present time, we are able to read a complete GEANT3 geometry, to store it in our database and to visualise it. On disk, we store different geometry files in hierarchical fashion, and all the nodes, materials, shapes, configurations and transformations distributed in this tree structure. The present status of the prototype and its future evolution will be presented.

  16. Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Claus; Detlefsen, Sönke; Palnæs Hansen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database aims to prospectively register the epidemiology, diagnostic workup, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer in Denmark at an institutional and national level. STUDY POPULATION: Since May 1, 2011, all patients......, and survival. The results are published annually. CONCLUSION: The Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database has registered data on 2,217 patients with microscopically verified ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The data have been obtained nationwide over a period of 4 years and 2 months. The completeness...

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K; Larkin, Andrew; Krueger, Sharon K; Bradfield, Christopher A; Waters, Katrina M; Tilton, Susan C; Pereira, Cliff B; Löhr, Christiane V; Arlt, Volker M; Phillips, David H; Williams, David E; Baird, William M

    2012-11-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by ³²P post-labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH-dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p<0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs).

  18. Update History of This Database - Trypanosomes Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us Trypanosomes Database Up...date History of This Database Date Update contents 2014/05/07 The contact informatio...p://www.tanpaku.org/tdb/ ) is opened. Joomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Up...date History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - Trypanosomes Database | LSDB Archive ...

  19. Potential carcinogenicity of homoisoflavanoids and flavonoids from Resina sanguinis draconis (Dracaena cinnabari Balf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachálková, A; Novotný, L; Nejedlíková, M; Suchý, V

    1995-01-01

    Polarographic behavior of three homoisoflavanoids and four flavanoids isolated from the dragon's blood (Resina sanguinis draconis. Dracaena cinnabari Balf.), collected at Sokotra, was investigated in aprotic solution and an index of potential carcinogenicity tg alpha was determined. Generally, homoisoflavanoids and flavanoids were reduced in two two-electron steps, the first being reversible and the second one irreversible. The parameter tg alpha values indicated that the majority of these compounds possesses no or only marginal potential carcinogenic activity. However, it was demonstrated that some structural modifications in basic flavonoid structure lead to changed electrochemical properties and a substantial increase of derivative potential carcinogenicity.

  20. Classification of weakly carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: addressing the limits of epidemiology at the borderline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buonaguro Franco M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virtually all cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infections with a restricted set of human papillomaviruses (HPV. Some HPV types, like HPV16 and HPV18, are clear and powerful carcinogens. However, the categorization of the most weakly carcinogenic HPV types is extremely challenging. The decisions are important for screening test and vaccine development. This article describes for open discussion an approach recently taken by a World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC Monographs Working Group to re-assess the carcinogenicity of different HPV types.

  1. Applying tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers in product regulation and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hatsukami, Dorothy

    2010-06-21

    Tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers are metabolites or protein or DNA adducts of specific compounds in tobacco products. Highly reliable analytical methods, based mainly on mass spectrometry, have been developed and applied in large studies of many of these biomarkers. A panel of tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers is suggested here, and typical values for smokers and nonsmokers are summarized. This panel of biomarkers has potential applications in the new and challenging area of tobacco product regulation and in the development of rational approaches to cancer prevention by establishing carcinogen and toxicant uptake and excretion in people exposed to tobacco products.

  2. The spermicidal potency of Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C Y; Shieh, C C; Wu, P; Chiang, B N

    1987-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of Old Coke, caffeine-free New Coke, New Coke, Diet Coke and Pepsi-Cola on human sperm motility was studied with a trans-membrane migration method. None of them could decrease sperm motility to less than 70% of control within one hour. A previous study which claimed a marked variation of spermicidal potencies among different formulations of Coca-Cola could not be confirmed. Even if cola has a spermicidal effect, its potency is relatively weak as compared with other well-known spermicidal agents.

  3. Evaluation of the potency activity of aphrodisiac in Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, H H; Ikeda, S; Gan, E K

    2001-08-01

    The butanol, methanol, water and chloroform extracts of the roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied using various tests of potency of treated male rats. The results showed that E. longifolia produced a dose-dependent, recurrent and significant increase in the episodes of penile reflexes as evidenced by increases in quick flips, long flips and erections of the treated male rats during the 30 min observation period. These results provide further evidence that E. longifolia increases the aphrodisiac potency activity in treated animals.

  4. Rationale for further medical and health research on high-potency sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Susan S

    2012-10-01

    High-potency or artificial sweeteners have historically been considered inert compounds without physiological consequences other than taste sensations. However, recent data suggest that some of these sweeteners have biological effects that may impact human health. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in our current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these sweeteners, their potential for "sweetener-drug interactions" and their impact on appetite and body weight regulation. Nine research needs are described that address some of the major unknown issues associated with ingestion of high-potency sweeteners.

  5. Estrogenic potencies of resorcylic acid lactones and 17 beta-estradiol in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, D J; Perry, C J; Scott, K A; Martin, B W; Terry, M K

    1987-01-01

    Uterotrophic response in sexually immature female rats has been used to rank the relative estrogenic potencies of six resorcylic acid lactones (RALs) and to compare their activities with that of 17 beta-estradiol. On oral administration, the estrogenic potency relative to 17 beta-estradiol is as follows: 7 alpha-zearalenol, 10 times less; zeranol, 150 times less; taleranol, 350 times less; zearalanone, 400 times less; zearalenone, 650 times less; 7 beta-zearalenol, 3500 times less. On subcutaneous administration, zeranol is 500 times less estrogenic than 17 beta-estradiol.

  6. Urban air carcinogens and their effects on health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, J.F.

    1994-11-01

    Airborne carcinogens may be relevant especially in metropolitan regions with extreme smog as a primary cause of lung cancer. Lung cancer is most common in urban environs and the incidence directly correlates with the size of the city. In addition, several, but not all formal epidemiological studies also suggest a positive correlation between lung cancer incidence and the intensity of air pollution exposure. There is further support for a role of air pollution; as of 1993, 4.4% of all of the bronchogenic adenocarcinoma cancer cases among Mexicans living in industrialized cities are under 40 years of age. It is plausible that chronic inhalation of automobile combustion products, factory emissions, and/or radon is at least partially responsible for the higher incidence of lung cancer exemplified by the never-smoking urban residents. The exceptionally high incidence of lung cancer cases among never-smokers living in highly industrialized Mexican cities offers a unique opportunity to use molecular epidemiology to test whether chronic inhalation of atmospheric pollutants increases the risk for this disease. Overall, the analysis of the genetic alterations in two cancer genes, and possibly the hprt locus should give new insight as to whether the urban never-smokers developed their cancers because of exposure to environmental pollutants.

  7. Carcinogenic Aspects of Protein Phosphatase 1 and 2A Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami

    Okadaic acid is functionally a potent tumor promoter working through inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A), resulting in sustained phosphorylation of proteins in cells. The mechanism of tumor promotion with oka-daic acid is thus completely different from that of the classic tumor promoter phorbol ester. Other potent inhibitors of PP1 and PP2A - such as dinophysistoxin-1, calyculins A-H, microcystin-LR and its derivatives, and nodularin - were isolated from marine organisms, and their structural features including the crystal structure of the PP1-inhibitor complex, tumor promoting activities, and biochemical and biological effects, are here reviewed. The compounds induced tumor promoting activity in three different organs, including mouse skin, rat glandular stomach and rat liver, initiated with three different carcinogens. The results indicate that inhibition of PP1 and PP2A is a general mechanism of tumor promotion applicable to various organs. This study supports the concept of endogenous tumor promoters in human cancer development.

  8. The Jungle Database Search Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter; Bukauskas, Linas; Dyreson, Curtis

    1999-01-01

    Information spread in in databases cannot be found by current search engines. A database search engine is capable to access and advertise database on the WWW. Jungle is a database search engine prototype developed at Aalborg University. Operating through JDBC connections to remote databases, Jungle...

  9. Fine Arts Database (FAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Fine Arts Database records information on federally owned art in the control of the GSA; this includes the location, current condition and information on artists.

  10. National Assessment Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Assessment Database stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) and other watershed plans designed to...

  11. Disaster Debris Recovery Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 3,500 composting facilities, demolition contractors, haulers, transfer...

  12. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  13. Molecular marker databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kaitao; Lorenc, Michał Tadeusz; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    The detection and analysis of genetic variation plays an important role in plant breeding and this role is increasing with the continued development of genome sequencing technologies. Molecular genetic markers are important tools to characterize genetic variation and assist with genomic breeding. Processing and storing the growing abundance of molecular marker data being produced requires the development of specific bioinformatics tools and advanced databases. Molecular marker databases range from species specific through to organism wide and often host a variety of additional related genetic, genomic, or phenotypic information. In this chapter, we will present some of the features of plant molecular genetic marker databases, highlight the various types of marker resources, and predict the potential future direction of crop marker databases.

  14. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  15. National Geochemical Database: Sediment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical analysis of sediment samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are of stream sediment...

  16. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  17. Eldercare Locator Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Eldercare Locator is a searchable database that allows a user to search via zip code or city/ state for agencies at the State and local levels that provide...

  18. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  19. Hawaii bibliographic database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas L.; Takahashi, Taeko Jane

    The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and s or (if no ) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.

  20. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  1. Venus Crater Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This web page leads to a database of images and information about the 900 or so impact craters on the surface of Venus by diameter, latitude, and name.

  2. Uranium Location Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  3. IVR RSA Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains trip-level reports submitted by vessels participating in Research Set-Aside projects with IVR reporting requirements.

  4. Dissolution Methods Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information on...

  5. Household Products Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database links over 4,000 consumer brands to health effects from Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturers and allows scientists and...

  6. 1988 Spitak Earthquake Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1988 Spitak Earthquake database is an extensive collection of geophysical and geological data, maps, charts, images and descriptive text pertaining to the...

  7. National Geochemical Database: Concentrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemistry of concentrates from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are from the continental US and...

  8. National Geochemical Database: Sediment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical analysis of sediment samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are of stream sediment in...

  9. National Geochemical Database: Soil

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical analysis of soil samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are from the continental US...

  10. Food Habits Database (FHDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Food Habits Database has two major sources of data. The first, and most extensive, is the standard NEFSC Bottom Trawl Surveys Program. During these...

  11. NLCD 2011 database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Land Cover Database 2011 (NLCD 2011) is the most recent national land cover product created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium....

  12. Medicare Coverage Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Coverage Database (MCD) contains all National Coverage Determinations (NCDs) and Local Coverage Determinations (LCDs), local articles, and proposed NCD...

  13. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  14. Drycleaner Database - Region 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify...

  15. Dissolution Methods Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information...

  16. Records Management Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Records Management Database is tool created in Microsoft Access specifically for USAID use. It contains metadata in order to access and retrieve the information...

  17. Chemical Kinetics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

  18. Kansas Cartographic Database (KCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Cartographic Database (KCD) is an exact digital representation of selected features from the USGS 7.5 minute topographic map series. Features that are...

  19. The Exoplanet Orbit Database

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Jason T; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Han, Eunkyu; Feng, Ying; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W; Valenti, Jeff A; Anderson, Jay; Piskunov, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    We present a database of well determined orbital parameters of exoplanets. This database comprises spectroscopic orbital elements measured for 421 planets orbiting 357 stars from radial velocity and transit measurements as reported in the literature. We have also compiled fundamental transit parameters, stellar parameters, and the method used for the planets discovery. This Exoplanet Orbit Database includes all planets with robust, well measured orbital parameters reported in peer-reviewed articles. The database is available in a searchable, filterable, and sortable form on the Web at http://exoplanets.org through the Exoplanets Data Explorer Table, and the data can be plotted and explored through the Exoplanets Data Explorer Plotter. We use the Data Explorer to generate publication-ready plots giving three examples of the signatures of exoplanet migration and dynamical evolution: We illustrate the character of the apparent correlation between mass and period in exoplanet orbits, the selection different biase...

  20. OTI Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — OTI's worldwide activity database is a simple and effective information system that serves as a program management, tracking, and reporting tool. In each country,...

  1. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  2. Medicaid CHIP ESPC Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Scanning and Program Characteristic (ESPC) Database is in a Microsoft (MS) Access format and contains Medicaid and CHIP data, for the 50 states and...

  3. Danish Urogynaecological Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulla Darling; Gradel, Kim Oren; Larsen, Michael Due

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Urogynaecological Database is established in order to ensure high quality of treatment for patients undergoing urogynecological surgery. The database contains details of all women in Denmark undergoing incontinence surgery or pelvic organ prolapse surgery amounting to ~5,200 procedures...... per year. The variables are collected along the course of treatment of the patient from the referral to a postoperative control. Main variables are prior obstetrical and gynecological history, symptoms, symptom-related quality of life, objective urogynecological findings, type of operation......, complications if relevant, implants used if relevant, 3-6-month postoperative recording of symptoms, if any. A set of clinical quality indicators is being maintained by the steering committee for the database and is published in an annual report which also contains extensive descriptive statistics. The database...

  4. The Danish Urogynaecological Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg, Rikke; Brostrøm, Søren; Hansen, Jesper Kjær

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The Danish Urogynaecological Database (DugaBase) is a nationwide clinical database established in 2006 to monitor, ensure and improve the quality of urogynaecological surgery. We aimed to describe its establishment and completeness and to validate selected variables....... This is the first study based on data from the DugaBase. METHODS: The database completeness was calculated as a comparison between urogynaecological procedures reported to the Danish National Patient Registry and to the DugaBase. Validity was assessed for selected variables from a random sample of 200 women...... in the DugaBase from 1 January 2009 to 31 October 2010, using medical records as a reference. RESULTS: A total of 16,509 urogynaecological procedures were registered in the DugaBase by 31 December 2010. The database completeness has increased by calendar time, from 38.2 % in 2007 to 93.2 % in 2010 for public...

  5. ATLAS DAQ Configuration Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.Alexandrov; A.Amorim; 等

    2001-01-01

    The configuration databases are an important part of the Trigger/DAQ system of the future ATLAS experiment .This paper describes their current status giving details of architecture,implementation,test results and plans for future work.

  6. Fashion Information Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2002-01-01

    In the field of fashion industry, it is a bottleneck of how to control and apply the information in the procedure of fashion merchandising. By the aid of digital technology,a perfect and practical fashion information database could be established so that high- quality and efficient,low-cost and characteristic fashion merchandising system could be realized. The basic structure of fashion information database is discussed.

  7. Querying genomic databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baehr, A.; Hagstrom, R.; Joerg, D.; Overbeek, R.

    1991-09-01

    A natural-language interface has been developed that retrieves genomic information by using a simple subset of English. The interface spares the biologist from the task of learning database-specific query languages and computer programming. Currently, the interface deals with the E. coli genome. It can, however, be readily extended and shows promise as a means of easy access to other sequenced genomic databases as well.

  8. Neutrosophic Relational Database Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Arora

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method of decomposing a neutrosophic database relation with Neutrosophic attributes into basic relational form. Our objective is capable of manipulating incomplete as well as inconsistent information. Fuzzy relation or vague relation can only handle incomplete information. Authors are taking the Neutrosophic Relational database [8],[2] to show how imprecise data can be handled in relational schema.

  9. Database on Wind Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup, J.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061......his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061...

  10. Specialist Bibliographic Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Kitas, George D

    2016-05-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls.

  11. Update History of This Database - Yeast Interacting Proteins Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...Yeast Interacting Proteins Database Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2010/03/29 Yeast In...t This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Update History

  12. 78 FR 15020 - Report on Carcinogens Webinar on Pentachlorophenol; Notice of Public Webinar and Registration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Report on Carcinogens Webinar on Pentachlorophenol; Notice of Public Webinar and Registration Information SUMMARY: The National Toxicology Program (NTP) announces a public webinar, ``Human cancer studies on exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP):...

  13. The impact of low-dose carcinogens and environmental disruptors on tissue invasion and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Josiah; Nangami, Gladys N.; Ogunkua, Olugbemiga; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Koturbash, Igor; Odero-Marah, Valerie; McCawley, Lisa; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Ahmed, Nuzhat; Luqmani, Yunus; Chen, Zhenbang; Papagerakis, Silvana; Wolf, Gregory T.; Dong, Chenfang; Zhou, Binhua P.; Brown, Dustin G.; Colacci, Annamaria; Hamid, Roslida A.; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Woodrick, Jordan; Scovassi, Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Roy, Rabindra; Forte, Stefano; Memeo, Lorenzo; Salem, Hosni K.; Amedei, Amedeo; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Bisson, William H.; Eltom, Sakina E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to stimulate new ideas regarding low-dose environmental mixtures and carcinogens and their potential to promote invasion and metastasis. Whereas a number of chapters in this review are devoted to the role of low-dose environmental mixtures and carcinogens in the promotion of invasion and metastasis in specific tumors such as breast and prostate, the overarching theme is the role of low-dose carcinogens in the progression of cancer stem cells. It is becoming clearer that cancer stem cells in a tumor are the ones that assume invasive properties and colonize distant organs. Therefore, low-dose contaminants that trigger epithelial–mesenchymal transition, for example, in these cells are of particular interest in this review. This we hope will lead to the collaboration between scientists who have dedicated their professional life to the study of carcinogens and those whose interests are exclusively in the arena of tissue invasion and metastasis. PMID:26106135

  14. 29 CFR 1990.131 - Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... List. The inclusion or exclusion of any substance on these lists shall not be subject to judicial... carcinogen which has not been placed on these lists. The inclusion of a substance on either of these...

  15. An investigation of carcinogenic agents at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a study with the following results: 1. Three of the metals reported as carcinogens, arsenic, chromium, and nickel, were found within the range...

  16. 76 FR 71037 - Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process for the Report on Carcinogens: Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process for the Report on Carcinogens... Toxicology Program (DNTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); National Institutes... (see ADDRESSES). Dated: November 8, 2011. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National...

  17. AI AND SAR APPROACHES FOR PREDICTING CHEMICAL CARCINOGENICITY: SURVEY AND STATUS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide variety of artificial intelligence (AI) and structure-activity relationship (SAR approaches have been applied to tackling the general problem of predicting rodent chemical carcinogenicity. Given the diversity of chemical structures and mechanisms relative to this endpoin...

  18. Relative developmental toxicity potencies of retinoids in the embryonic stem cell test compared with their relative potencies in in vivo and two other in vitro assays for developmental toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louisse, J.; Gönen, S.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Verwei, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study determines the relative developmental toxicity potencies of retinoids in the embryonic stem (ES)-D3 cell differentiation assay of the embryonic stem cell test, and compares the outcomes with their relative potencies in in vivo and two other in vitro assays for developmental toxicit

  19. In vitro screening of the endocrine disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants and their metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, T.; Kamstra, J.H. [Inst. for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonneveld, E. [BioDetection Systems (BDS), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Murk, A.J. [Wageningen Univ., Toxicology Group, Wageningen (Netherlands); Zegers, B.N.; Boon, J.P. [Royal Netherlands Inst. for Sea Research (NIOZ), Den Burg (Netherlands); Brouwer, A. [Umea Univ., Umea (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Substantial evidence is recently becoming available that brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are potential endocrine disruptors. The toxicological profile of BFRs, however, is too incomplete and insufficient to perform human and ecological risk assessment. To fill these gaps, the EU funded research program FIRE was started in December 2002. This program aims at the identification and toxicological characterization of the most potent and environmentally relevant BFRs and their possible risk for human and wildlife health. As part of a hazard identification approach, twenty seven BFRs have been selected within the framework of FIRE for pre-screening their endocrinedisrupting potencies. Selection of test compounds was based on a maximal variation in physicochemical characteristics of BFRs within the test set, allowing the establishment of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). In addition, environmental relevance (e.g. high production volumes and persistence) and availability for testing were used as selection criteria. BFRs were tested in seven different in vitro bioassays for their potency to interfere via estrogenic, thyroidal, androgenic, progestagenic, and Ah-receptor mediated pathways. Metabolisation rates of BFRs were determined using phenobarbital-induced rat liver microsomes. Finally, the endocrine disrupting potency of the metabolites was determined in the same in vitro bio-assays and compared to the potency of the parent compounds.

  20. Detection of estrogenic potency in wastewater and surface water with three in vitro bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murk, A.J.; Legler, J.; Lipzig, van M.M.H.; Meerman, J.H.N.; Belfroid, A.C.; Spenkelink, A.; Burg, van der B.; Rijs, G.B.J.; Vethaak, D.

    2002-01-01

    A study was performed to optimize sample preparation and application of three in vitro assays for measuring estrogenic potency in environmental extracts. The three assays applied were an estrogen receptor (ER)-binding assay and two reporter gene effect assays: a yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the E

  1. Dose-response curve slope helps predict therapeutic potency and breadth of HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas E; Montefiori, David C; Lee, Benhur

    2015-09-29

    A new generation of HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) with remarkable potency, breadth and epitope diversity has rejuvenated interest in immunotherapeutic strategies. Potencies defined by in vitro IC50 and IC80 values (50 and 80% inhibitory concentrations) figure prominently into the selection of clinical candidates; however, much higher therapeutic levels will be required to reduce multiple logs of virus and impede escape. Here we predict bnAb potency at therapeutic levels by analysing dose-response curve slopes, and show that slope is independent of IC50/IC80 and specifically relates to bnAb epitope class. With few exceptions, CD4-binding site and V3-glycan bnAbs exhibit slopes >1, indicative of higher expected therapeutic effectiveness, whereas V2-glycan, gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER) and gp120-gp41 bnAbs exhibit less favourable slopes <1. Our results indicate that slope is one major predictor of both potency and breadth for bnAbs at clinically relevant concentrations, and may better coordinate the relationship between bnAb epitope structure and therapeutic expectations.

  2. Social Capital, Team Efficacy and Team Potency: The Mediating Role of Team Learning Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Hetty; Jawahar, I. M.; Schreurs, Bert; de Cuyper, Nele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing on social capital theory and self-identification theory, this study aims to examine the associations of two indicators of social capital, personal networks and deep-level similarity, with team capability measures of team efficacy and team potency. The central focus of the study is to be the hypothesized mediating role of team…

  3. Replacing the NIH test for rabies vaccine potency testing: a synopsis of drivers and barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiffelers, M.J.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Bakker, W.; Hendriksen, C.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 70% of animal use is utilized to demonstrate quality control of vaccines. Especially rabies vaccine potency testing, using the NIH challenge test, involves objections in terms of scientific relevance, animal welfare concern and costs. Several 3R models have been proposed to refine, red

  4. Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A specific cell-based potency assay to replace the mouse bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, Ester; Wang, Joanne; Molina, Yanira; Nelson, Jeremy B; Jacky, Birgitte P S; Aoki, K Roger

    2012-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A), a potent therapeutic used to treat various disorders, inhibits vesicular neurotransmitter exocytosis by cleaving SNAP25. Development of cell-based potency assays (CBPAs) to assess the biological function of BoNT/A have been challenging because of its potency. CBPAs can evaluate the key steps of BoNT action: receptor binding, internalization-translocation, and catalytic activity; and therefore could replace the current mouse bioassay. Primary neurons possess appropriate sensitivity to develop potential replacement assays but those potency assays are difficult to perform and validate. This report describes a CBPA utilizing differentiated human neuroblastoma SiMa cells and a sandwich ELISA that measures BoNT/A-dependent intracellular increase of cleaved SNAP25. Assay sensitivity is similar to the mouse bioassay and measures neurotoxin biological activity in bulk drug substance and BOTOX® product (onabotulinumtoxinA). Validation of a version of this CBPA in a Quality Control laboratory has led to FDA, Health Canada, and European Union approval for potency testing of BOTOX®, BOTOX® Cosmetic, and Vistabel®. Moreover, we also developed and optimized a BoNT/A CBPA screening assay that can be used for the discovery of novel BoNT/A inhibitors to treat human disease.

  5. Benzothiophene inhibitors of MK2. Part 2: improvements in kinase selectivity and cell potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David R; Meyers, Marvin J; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I; Long, Scott A; Pierce, Betsy S; Mahoney, Matthew W; Mourey, Robert J; Parikh, Mihir D

    2009-08-15

    Optimization of kinase selectivity for a set of benzothiophene MK2 inhibitors provided analogs with potencies of less than 500 nM in a cell based assay. The selectivity of the inhibitors can be rationalized by examination of X-ray crystal structures of inhibitors bound to MK2.

  6. Benzothiophene inhibitors of MK2. Part 2: Improvements in kinase selectivity and cell potency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, David R.; Meyers, Marvin J.; Kurumbail, Ravi G.; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I.; Long, Scott A.; Pierce, Betsy S.; Mahoney, Matthew W.; Mourey, Robert J.; Parikh, Mihir D.; Pfizer

    2010-10-01

    Optimization of kinase selectivity for a set of benzothiophene MK2 inhibitors provided analogs with potencies of less than 500 nM in a cell based assay. The selectivity of the inhibitors can be rationalized by examination of X-ray crystal structures of inhibitors bound to MK2.

  7. Opportunities and strategies to further reduce animal use for Leptospira vaccine potency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A; Srinivas, G B

    2013-09-01

    Hamsters are routinely infected with virulent Leptospira for two purposes in the regulation of biologics: the performance of Codified potency tests and maintenance of challenge culture for the Codified potency tests. Options for reducing animal use in these processes were explored in a plenary lecture at the "International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing: State of the Science and the Way Forward" held at the Center for Veterinary Biologics in September 2012. The use of validated in vitro potency assays such as those developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for Leptospira (L.) canicola, Leptospira grippotyphosa, Leptospira pomona, and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae rather than the Codified hamster vaccination-challenge assay was encouraged. Alternatives such as reduced animal numbers in the hamster vaccination-challenge testing were considered for problematic situations. Specifically, the merits of sharing challenge controls, reducing group sizes, and eliminating animals for concurrent challenge dose titration were assessed. Options for maintaining virulent, stable cultures without serial passage through hamsters or with decreased hamster use were also discussed. The maintenance of virulent Leptospira without the use of live animals is especially difficult since a reliable means to maintain virulence after multiple in vitro passages has not yet been identified.

  8. Antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes - Risperidone compared with low- and high-potency conventional antipsychotic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillevoort, [No Value; de Boer, A; Herings, RMC; Roos, RAC; Jansen, PAF; Leufkens, HGM

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To compare the risk of extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS) between patients using risperidone and those using low-potency conventional antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in outpatient clinical practice, as measured by the use of anticholinergic medication. We tried to replicate results from previous clinica

  9. 75 FR 8937 - Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures'' (EPA/635/R-08/012A). The draft document was... 27, 2010. The listening session on the draft document for PAH mixtures will be held on April 7,...

  10. Development of an Innovative in Vitro Potency Assay for Anti-Botulinum Antitoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Osnat; Ozeri, Eyal; Barnea, Ada; David, Alon Ben; Zichel, Ran

    2016-09-24

    Botulinum neurotoxins are bacterial proteins that cause botulism, a life-threatening disease. Therapy relies mostly on post-intoxication antibody treatment. The only accepted method to measure the potency of, and to approve, antitoxin preparations is the mouse lethality neutralization bioassay. However, this assay is time-consuming, labor-intensive, costly, and raises ethical issues related to the large numbers of laboratory animals needed. Until now, all efforts to develop an alternative in vitro assay have not provided a valid replacement to the mouse potency assay. In the present study, we report the development of an innovative in vitro assay for determining botulinum antitoxin potency, using botulinum type B as a model. The concept of the assay is to mimic two fundamental steps in botulinum intoxication: receptor binding and catalytic activity. By simulating these steps in vitro we were able to accurately determine the potency of antitoxin preparations. The reproducibility of the assay was high with a CV vitro assay highly correlated with that measured by the standard in vivo mouse assay (r = 0.9842, p vitro assay has the potential to be considered, after validation, as a replacement to the mouse assay for quantitating neutralizing antibody concentrations in pharmaceutical botulinum antitoxin preparations. Future adoption of this in vitro assay would minimize the use of laboratory animals, speed up the time, and reduce the cost of botulinum antitoxin approval.

  11. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments.

  12. Danish clinical databases: An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Clinical databases contain data related to diagnostic procedures, treatments and outcomes. In 2001, a scheme was introduced for the approval, supervision and support to clinical databases in Denmark....

  13. Accessing and using chemical databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Pavlov, Todor; Niemelä, Jay Russell

    2013-01-01

    , and dissemination. Structure and functionality of chemical databases are considered. The typical kinds of information found in a chemical database are considered-identification, structural, and associated data. Functionality of chemical databases is presented, with examples of search and access types. More details...... are included about the OASIS database and platform and the Danish (Q)SAR Database online. Various types of chemical database resources are discussed, together with a list of examples.......Computer-based representation of chemicals makes it possible to organize data in chemical databases-collections of chemical structures and associated properties. Databases are widely used wherever efficient processing of chemical information is needed, including search, storage, retrieval...

  14. Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) database is part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). This database contains assessments of selected surgical...

  15. Gene discovery for the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Robin B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA – cancer of the bile ducts – is associated with chronic infection with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Despite being the only eukaryote that is designated as a 'class I carcinogen' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, little is known about its genome. Results Approximately 5,000 randomly selected cDNAs from the adult stage of O. viverrini were characterized and accounted for 1,932 contigs, representing ~14% of the entire transcriptome, and, presently, the largest sequence dataset for any species of liver fluke. Twenty percent of contigs were assigned GO classifications. Abundantly represented protein families included those involved in physiological functions that are essential to parasitism, such as anaerobic respiration, reproduction, detoxification, surface maintenance and feeding. GO assignments were well conserved in relation to other parasitic flukes, however, some categories were over-represented in O. viverrini, such as structural and motor proteins. An assessment of evolutionary relationships showed that O. viverrini was more similar to other parasitic (Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma japonicum than to free-living (Schmidtea mediterranea flatworms, and 105 sequences had close homologues in both parasitic species but not in S. mediterranea. A total of 164 O. viverrini contigs contained ORFs with signal sequences, many of which were platyhelminth-specific. Examples of convergent evolution between host and parasite secreted/membrane proteins were identified as were homologues of vaccine antigens from other helminths. Finally, ORFs representing secreted proteins with known roles in tumorigenesis were identified, and these might play roles in the pathogenesis of O. viverrini-induced CCA. Conclusion This gene discovery effort for O. viverrini should expedite molecular studies of cholangiocarcinogenesis and accelerate research focused on developing new interventions

  16. Chemical and molecular regulation of enzymes that detoxify carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestera, T.; Holtzclaw, W.D.; Zhang, Y., Talalay, P. (John Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Inductions of detoxication (phase 2) enzymes, such as glutathione transferases and NAD(P)H:(quinone-acceptor) oxidoreductase, are a major mechanism for protecting animals and their cells against the toxic and neoplastic effects of carcinogens. These inductions result from enhances transcription, and they are evoked by diverse chemical agents: oxidizable diphenols and phenylenediamines; Michael reaction acceptors; organic isothiocyanates; other electrophiles-e.g., alkyl and aryl halides; metal ions-e.g., HgCl[sub 2] and CdCl[sub 2]; trivalent arsenic derivatives; vicinal dimercaptans; organic hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide; and 1,2-dithiole-3-thiones. The molecular mechanisms of these inductions were analyzed with the help of a construct containing a 41-bp enhancer element derived from the 5[prime] upstream region of the mouse liver glutathione transferase Ya subunit gene ligated to the 5[prime] end of the isolated promoter region of this gene, and inserted into a plasmid containing a human growth hormone reporter gene. When this construct was transfected into Hep G2 human hepatoma cells, the concentrations of 28 compounds (from the above classes) required to double growth hormone production, and the concentrations required to double quinone reductase specific activities in Hepa 1c1c7 cells, spanned a range of four orders of magnitude but were closely linearly correlated. Six compounds tested were inactive in both systems. A 26-bp subregion of the above enhancer oligonucleotide (containing the two tandem [open quotes]AP-1 like[close quotes] sites but lacking the preceding ETS protein binding sequence) was considerably less responsive to the same inducers. We conclude that the 41-bp enhancer element mediates most, if not all, of the phase 2 enzyme inducer activity of all of these widely different classes of compounds. 33 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Carcinogenicity of sublimed urethane in mice through the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, T; Hayashi, T; Masuyama, T; Tanaka, S; Nakajima, H; Kurokawa, N; Isa, Y

    1990-08-01

    The carcinogenicity of sublimed urethane (ethyl carbamate) in air was examined with mice. JCL:ICR mice were nursed in a plastic cage inside a vinyl chamber which was ventilated 4 times per hour. The mice were exposed to urethane gas for various periods by passing air which contained a high concentration of sublimed urethane (1.29 micrograms/ml) into the vinyl chamber, or by placing a vessel containing crystalline urethane inside the vinyl chamber so that it was filled with spontaneously-sublimed urethane gas at a low concentration (0.25 microgram/ml). When female mice were killed 5 months after exposure, lung tumor frequency increased almost linearly with the number of days of exposure in the low concentration experiment, but increased in a non-linear manner in the high concentration experiment. In terms of nearly the same total dose, i.e., (concentration of urethane gas in air) X (days of inhalation), one day of exposure to urethane gas at the low concentration induced lung tumors at a significantly higher frequency than 1/4 day of exposure to urethane gas at the high concentration. When male mice were killed at 12 months after exposure to examine the progressive change of induced tumors, malignant, invasive and metastatic tumors were found to have been induced more frequently in the lung after exposure to urethane gas at the low concentration (0.25 microgram/ml for 10 days) than at the high concentration (1.29 microgram/ml for 4 days), although the total dose in the former group was about half of that in the latter. Continuous exposure to urethane gas for a longer period at the low concentration seems to be more efficient for the induction, promotion and/or progression of lung tumors than the exposure for a shorter period at the high concentration.

  18. Vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) genotoxicity profile: relevance for carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Richard J

    2013-09-01

    Vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) is a site-of-contact carcinogen in rodents. It is also DNA reactive and mutagenic, but only after its carboxylesterase mediated conversion to acetaldehyde (AA), a metabolic reaction that also produces acetic acid and protons. As VAM's mutagenic metabolite, AA is normally produced endogenously; detoxification by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is required to maintain intra-cellular AA homeostasis. This review examines VAM's overall genotoxicity, which is due to and limited by AA, and the processes leading to mutation induction. VAM and AA have both been universally negative in mutation studies in bacteria but both have tested positive in several in vitro studies in higher organisms that usually employed high concentrations of test agents. Recently however, in vitro studies evaluating submillimolar concentrations of VAM or AA have shown threshold dose-responses for mutagenicity in human cultured cells. Neither VAM nor AA induced systemic mutagenicity in in vivo studies in metabolically competent mice when tested at non-lethal doses while treatments of animals deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh in animals) did induce both gene and chromosome level mutations. The results of several studies have reinforced the critical role for aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 in humans) in limiting AA's (and therefore VAM's) mutagenicity. The overall aim of this review of VAM's mutagenic potential through its AA metabolite is to propose a mode of action (MOA) for VAM's site-of-contact carcinogenesis that incorporates the overall process of mutation induction that includes both background mutations due to endogenous AA and those resulting from exogenous exposures.

  19. Functional potencies of dopamine agonists and antagonists at human dopamine D₂ and D₃ receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadori, Yoshihiro; Forbes, Robert A; McQuade, Robert D; Kikuchi, Tetsuro

    2011-09-01

    We measured the functional agonist potencies of dopamine agonists including antiparkinson drugs, and functional antagonist potencies of antipsychotics at human dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptors. In vitro pharmacological assessment included inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation and the reversal of dopamine-induced inhibition in clonal Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing low and high densities of human dopamine D(2L) and D(2S) receptors (hD(2L)-Low, hD(2L)-High, hD(2S)-Low and hD(2S)-High, respectively) and human dopamine D(3) Ser-9 and D(3) Gly-9 receptors (hD(3)-Ser-9 and hD(3)-Gly-9, respectively). Cabergoline, bromocriptine, pergolide, (±)-7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT), talipexole, pramipexole, R-(+)-trans-3,4,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-olhydrochloride (PD128907) and ropinirole behaved as dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptor full agonists and showed higher potencies in hD(2L)-High and hD(2S)-High compared to hD(2L)-Low and hD(2S)-Low. In hD(3)-Ser-9 and hD(3)-Gly-9 compared to hD(2L)-Low and hD(2S)-Low, dopamine, ropinirole, PD128907, and pramipexole potencies were clearly higher; talipexole and 7-OH-DPAT showed slightly higher potencies; pergolide showed slightly lower potency; and, cabergoline and bromocriptine potencies were lower. Aripiprazole acted as an antagonist in hD(2L)-Low; a low intrinsic activity partial agonist in hD(2S)-Low; a moderate partial agonist in hD(3)-Ser-9 and hD(3)-Gly-9; a robust partial agonist in hD(2L)-High; and a full agonist in hD(2S)-High. Amisulpride, sulpiride and perphenazine behaved as preferential antagonists; and chlorpromazine and asenapine behaved as modest preferential antagonists; whereas fluphenazine, haloperidol, and blonanserin behaved as non-preferential antagonists in hD(2S)-Low and hD(2S)-High compared to hD(3)-Ser-9 and hD(3)-Gly-9. These findings may help to elucidate the basis of therapeutic benefit observed with these drugs, with

  20. Effect of DNA type on response of DNA biosensor for carcinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Nor Diyana bt. Md.; Heng, Lee Yook; Surif, Salmijah; Lazim, Azwani Mat

    2013-11-01

    Carcinogens are cancer causing chemicals that can bind to DNA and cause damage to the DNA. These chemicals are available everywhere including in water, air, soil and food. Therefore, a sensor that can detect the presence of these chemicals will be a very useful tool. Since carcinogens bind to DNA, DNA can be used as the biological element in a biosensor. This study has utilized different types of DNA in a biosensor for carcinogen detection. The DNAs include double stranded calf thymus DNA, single stranded calf thymus DNA and guanine rich single stranded DNA. The modified SPE was exposed to a carcinogen followed by interaction with methylene blue which acts as the electroactive indicator. The SPE was then analysed using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Optimization studies were conducted for MB concentration and accumulation time, DNA concentration, as well as effect of buffer concentration, buffer pH and ionic strength. The performance of the biosensor was tested on a group 1 carcinogen, formaldehyde. The results indicated that the usage of guanine rich single stranded DNA also gives higher response as carcinogens prefer to bind with guanine compared to other bases.

  1. Detection of estrogenic potency in wastewater and surface water with three in vitro bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murk, Albertinka J; Legler, Juliette; van Lipzig, Marola M H; Meerman, John H N; Belfroid, Angelique C; Spenkelink, Albertus; van der Burg, Bart; Rijs, Gerard B J; Vethaak, Dick

    2002-01-01

    A study was performed to optimize sample preparation and application of three in vitro assays for measuring estrogenic potency in environmental extracts. The three assays applied were an estrogen receptor (ER)-binding assay and two reporter gene effect assays: a yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the ER-mediated chemically activated luciferase gene expression (ER-CALUX) assay. All assays were able to detect estrogenicity, but the amounts of material needed for the assays differed greatly between the three assays (ER-binding assay > YES > ER-CALUX). In addition, in the ER-binding assay, both agonists and antagonists give an estrogenic response, resulting in higher estradiol equivalency (EEQ) levels than both the ER-CALUX and the YES assay for the same samples. The EEQs found in wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) with the ER-CALUX assay were in the range of 4 to 440 and 0.11 to 59 pmol/L for influent and effluent, respectively. Water extracts from four large rivers had levels ranging from 0.25 to 1.72 pmol/L. Extracts from suspended matter and sludge contained estrogenic potency of 0.26 to 2.49 and 1.6 to 41 pmol EEQ/g dry weight, respectively. In WTPs, the average reduction of estrogenic potency in effluent compared to influent was 90 to 95% in municipal WTPs and about 50% in industrial WTPs. In influent, 30% of the ER-CALUX activity could not be explained by the calculated potencies based on chemical analysis of a number of known (xeno)estrogens; in effluent the unexplained fraction was 80%. These first results of analyzing estrogenic potency in WTP water and surface water in The Netherlands indicate that further studies are warranted to investigate the actual risks for aquatic systems.

  2. Effect of sugar positions in ginsenosides and their inhibitory potency on Na+/K+-ATPase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronald JY CHEN; Tse-yu CHUNG; Feng-yin LI; Nan-hei LIN; Jason TC TZEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether ginsenosides with various sugar attachments may act as active components responsible for the cardiac therapeutic effects of ginseng and sanqi (the roots of Panax ginseng and Panax notoginseng) via the same molecular mechanism triggered by cardiac glycosides, such as ouabain and digoxin. Methods: The structural similarity between ginsenosides and ouabain was analyzed. The inhibitory potency of ginseno-sides and ouabain on Na+/K+-ATPase activity was examined and compared. Molecular modeling was exhibited for the docking of ginsenosides to Na+/K+-ATPase. Results: Ginsenosides with sugar moieties attached only to the C-3 position of the steroid-like structure, equivalent to the sugar position in cardiac glycosides, and possessed inhibitory potency on Na+/K+-ATPase activity. However, their inhibi-tory potency was significantly reduced or completely abolished when a monosaccharide was linked to the C-6 or C-20 posi-tion of the steroid-like structure; replacement of the monosaccharide with a disaccharide molecule at either of these posi-tions caused the disappearance of the inhibitory potency. Molecular modeling and docking confirmed that the difference in Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitory potency among ginsenosides was due to the steric hindrance of sugar attachment at the C-6 and C-20 positions of the steroid-like structure. Conclusion: The cardiac therapeutic effects of ginseng and sanqi should be at least partly attributed to the effective inhi-bition of Na+/K+-ATPase by their metabolized ginsenosides with sugar moieties attached only to the C-3 position of the steroid-like structure.

  3. Multiplex Assay for Protein Profiling and Potency Measurement of German Cockroach Allergen Extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruna Khurana

    Full Text Available German cockroach (GCr allergens induce IgE responses and may cause asthma. Commercial GCr allergen extracts are variable and existing assays may not be appropriate for determining extract composition and potency.Our aim was to develop a multiplex antibody/bead-based assay for assessment of GCr allergen extracts.Single chain fragment variable (scFv antibodies against GCr were obtained by screening libraries derived from naïve human lymphocytes and hyperimmunized chicken splenocytes and bone marrow. Selected clones were sequenced and characterized by immunoblotting. Eighteen scFv antibodies (17 chicken, 1 human coupled to polystyrene beads were used in this suspension assay; binding of targeted GCr allergens to antibody-coated beads was detected using rabbit antisera against GCr, and against specific allergens rBla g 1, rBla g 2, and rBla g 4. The assay was tested for specificity, accuracy, and precision. Extracts were also compared by IgE competition ELISA.Chicken scFv's generated eight different binding patterns to GCr proteins from 14 to 150 kDa molecular weight. Human scFv's recognized a 100 kDa GCr protein. The multiplex assay was found to be specific and reproducible with intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV of 2.64% and inter-assay CV of 10.0%. Overall potencies of various GCr extracts were calculated using mean logEC50s for eight selected scFvs. Overall potency measures were also analyzed by assessing the contributions to potency of each target.An scFv antibody-based multiplex assay has been developed capable of simultaneously measuring different proteins in a complex mixture, and to determine the potencies and compositions of allergen extracts.

  4. Estrogenic potencies of several environmental pollutants, as determined by vitellogenin induction in a carp hepatocyte assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, J M; van Holsteijn, I; Giesy, J P; Seinen, W; van den Berg, M

    1999-08-01

    Estrogenic potencies of several xenoestrogens were determined in vitro, using cultured hepatocytes from a genetically uniform male carp strain (Cyprinus carpio). Estrogenicity was measured as induction of the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (Vtg), and compared to Vtg induction by 17beta-estradiol (E2). The order of estrogenic potency was: methoxychlor (MXCL) > o,p-DDT > chlordecone approximately/= bisphenol-A approximately/= 4-t-pentylphenol. Estrogenic potencies of these compounds varied from 1 x 10(-3) to 1 x 10(-4) relative to E2. The synthetic estrogen DES had a relative estrogenic potency of 0.5, whereas dieldrin, beta-endosulfan, o,p-DDE, and toxaphene (technical mixture) did not induce vitellogenesis at concentrations up to 100 microM. Experiments in which cells were simultaneously exposed to E2 and these xenoestrogens showed that the Vtg-inducing activities of E2 and 4-t-pentylphenol or bisphenol-A were (partially) additive, whereas E2 antagonized the estrogenic effects of MXCL and o,p-DDT. The effect of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-induction on the estrogenicity of MXCL was studied by co-exposing cells to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD (10 pM) caused a greater than 50-fold induction of CYP1A, measured as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, but Vtg induction by MXCL was not significantly affected. This indicates that CYP1A is not involved in the bioactivation of MXCL to more potent estrogenic metabolites in carp. The CARP-HEP (hepatocyte) assay can detect xenoestrogens with a potency > or = 2 x 10(-5) relative to E2. It allows simultaneous testing of more than 10 compounds for both estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects, which makes it a promising tool for the screening of suspected xenoestrogens.

  5. Estrogenic and esterase-inhibiting potency in rainwater in relation to pesticide concentrations, sampling season and location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.; Brink, van den P.J.; Mos, L.; Linden, van der S.C.; Legler, J.; Koeman, J.H.; Murk, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    In a year-round monitoring program (1998), pesticide composition and toxic potency of the mix of pollutants present in rainwater were measured. The goal of the study was to relate atmospheric deposition of toxic potency and pesticide composition to each other and to sampling period and local agricul

  6. Benzothiophene inhibitors of MK2. Part 1: structure-activity relationships, assessments of selectivity and cellular potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David R; Meyers, Marvin J; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I; Long, Scott A; Pierce, Betsy S; Mahoney, Matthew W; Mourey, Robert J

    2009-08-15

    Identification of potent benzothiophene inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, selectivity assessments against CDK2, cellular potency and mechanism of action are presented. Crystallographic data provide a rationale for the observed MK2 potency as well as selectivity over CDK2 for this class of inhibitors.

  7. A QSAR for the Mutagenic Potencies of Twelve 2-Amino-trimethylimidazopyridine Isomers: Structural, Quantum Chemical,and Hydropathic Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knize, M G; Hatch, F T; Tanga, M J; Lau, E V; Colvin, M E

    2005-04-23

    An isomeric series of heterocyclic amines related to one found in heated muscle meats was investigated for properties that predict their measured mutagenic potency. Eleven of the 12 possible 2-amino-trimethylimidazopyridine (TMIP) isomers were tested for mutagenic potency in the Ames/Salmonella test with bacterial strain TA98, and resulted in a 600-fold range in potency. Structural, quantum chemical and hydropathic data were calculated on the parent molecules and the corresponding nitrenium ions of all of the tested isomers to establish models for predicting the potency of the unknown isomer. The regression model accounting for the largest fraction of the total variance in mutagenic potency contains four predictor variables: dipole moment, a measure of the gap between amine LUMO and HOMO energies, percent hydrophilic surface, and energy of amine LUMO. The most important determinants of high mutagenic potency in these amines are: (1) a small dipole moment, (2) the combination of b-face ring fusion and N3-methyl group, and (3) a lower calculated energy of the {pi} electron system. Based on predicted potency from the average of five models, the isomer not yet synthesized and tested is expected to have a mutagenic potency of 0.84 revertants/{micro}g in test strain TA98.

  8. Determination of relative potencies for chemical inhibition of spontaneous neuronal activity using a four amplifier MEA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potency determination is important to identify the most promising drug candidates as well as identification of and ranking of compound toxicity. In our laboratory, we have utilized MEA recording techniques to determine the relative potency of 11 insecticidal compounds and rank th...

  9. ADANS database specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  10. The Chandra Bibliography Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rots, A. H.; Winkelman, S. L.; Paltani, S.; Blecksmith, S. E.; Bright, J. D.

    2004-07-01

    Early in the mission, the Chandra Data Archive started the development of a bibliography database, tracking publications in refereed journals and on-line conference proceedings that are based on Chandra observations, allowing our users to link directly to articles in the ADS from our archive, and to link to the relevant data in the archive from the ADS entries. Subsequently, we have been working closely with the ADS and other data centers, in the context of the ADEC-ITWG, on standardizing the literature-data linking. We have also extended our bibliography database to include all Chandra-related articles and we are also keeping track of the number of citations of each paper. Obviously, in addition to providing valuable services to our users, this database allows us to extract a wide variety of statistical information. The project comprises five components: the bibliography database-proper, a maintenance database, an interactive maintenance tool, a user browsing interface, and a web services component for exchanging information with the ADS. All of these elements are nearly mission-independent and we intend make the package as a whole available for use by other data centers. The capabilities thus provided represent support for an essential component of the Virtual Observatory.

  11. FishTraits Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  12. The Danish Depression Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videbech P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Poul Videbech,1 Anette Deleuran2 1Mental Health Centre Glostrup, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, 2Psychiatric Centre Amager, Copenhagen S, Denmark Aim of database: The purpose of the Danish Depression Database (DDD is to monitor and facilitate the improvement of the quality of the treatment of depression in Denmark. Furthermore, the DDD has been designed to facilitate research. Study population: Inpatients as well as outpatients with depression, aged above 18 years, and treated in the public psychiatric hospital system were enrolled. Main variables: Variables include whether the patient has been thoroughly somatically examined and has been interviewed about the psychopathology by a specialist in psychiatry. The Hamilton score as well as an evaluation of the risk of suicide are measured before and after treatment. Whether psychiatric aftercare has been scheduled for inpatients and the rate of rehospitalization are also registered. Descriptive data: The database was launched in 2011. Every year since then ~5,500 inpatients and 7,500 outpatients have been registered annually in the database. A total of 24,083 inpatients and 29,918 outpatients have been registered. The DDD produces an annual report published on the Internet. Conclusion: The DDD can become an important tool for quality improvement and research, when the reporting is more complete. Keywords: quality assurance, suicide, somatic diseases, national database

  13. License - Trypanosomes Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s database, under the license, as long as you comply with the following conditions: You must attribute this ...Trypanosomes Database License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2014/02/04 You may use this databa...ense terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follo...e . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely access part or whole of this database, and acq...whole of the data from this database under the license. You need to contact the Licensor shown below to requ

  14. The Characteristics and the Modern Research of Potency Cold%药性寒的特点及现代研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖开; 苗明三

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between the potency cold and functionality,the pharmacological effects,Chinese medicine attending,modern medicine attending,Smell,Meridian,chemical composition.Methods:The application of "traditional Chinese medicine functions-pharmacology-clinical database system",the query" cold "with the frequency of association between the pharmacological effects,Smell,Meridian,the function,Chinese medicine attending,modern medicine attending,chemical composition,based on the number of the frequency,take the highest frequency covers 2/3 as the basic category,the highest frequency covers the remaining 2/ 3 as joint areas,remaining as expansion areas.Results:the basic functions of the potency cold are heat,detoxification,cooling blood,swelling;basic pharmacological effects of potency cold are anti-bacterial,anti-inflammatory,anti-tumor,antipyretic,diuretic,affect the cardiovascular system,lowering blood pressure,sedation,analgesic,anti-cancer; the TCM Indications of potency cold are carbuncles,sore throat,jaundice,erysipelas,external treatment of eczema,boils,eczema,Wind hot cold,the hot leaching,the hot leaching astringent pain,pharyngitis,nose bleeding,red eyes,sore,vomiting blood,Mumps,blood in the stool,edema fullness; the modern medicine attending of potency cold are burns,eczema,psoriasis,dysentery,hepatitis,coronary heart disease,hypertension,hyperlipidemia,constipation gallbladder inflammation,herpes zoster,cervical erosion,flat warts,gastric ulcer,chronic bronchitis,chronic bronchitis,urticaria,mumps,whooping cough;the basic Smell often combined with potency cold is sweet and bitter; the basic Meridian of potency cold are liver,lung,stomach,heart,kidney; the basic chemical composition of potency cold are organic acids,alkaloids,carbohydrates,inorganic substances,amino acids,glycosides,llavonoids,esters,tannins,volatile oils.Conclusion:To determine the relationship between the potency cold and functionality,the pharmacological

  15. Open Geoscience Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Currently there is an enormous amount of various geoscience databases. Unfortunately the only users of the majority of the databases are their elaborators. There are several reasons for that: incompaitability, specificity of tasks and objects and so on. However the main obstacles for wide usage of geoscience databases are complexity for elaborators and complication for users. The complexity of architecture leads to high costs that block the public access. The complication prevents users from understanding when and how to use the database. Only databases, associated with GoogleMaps don't have these drawbacks, but they could be hardly named "geoscience" Nevertheless, open and simple geoscience database is necessary at least for educational purposes (see our abstract for ESSI20/EOS12). We developed a database and web interface to work with them and now it is accessible at maps.sch192.ru. In this database a result is a value of a parameter (no matter which) in a station with a certain position, associated with metadata: the date when the result was obtained; the type of a station (lake, soil etc); the contributor that sent the result. Each contributor has its own profile, that allows to estimate the reliability of the data. The results can be represented on GoogleMaps space image as a point in a certain position, coloured according to the value of the parameter. There are default colour scales and each registered user can create the own scale. The results can be also extracted in *.csv file. For both types of representation one could select the data by date, object type, parameter type, area and contributor. The data are uploaded in *.csv format: Name of the station; Lattitude(dd.dddddd); Longitude(ddd.dddddd); Station type; Parameter type; Parameter value; Date(yyyy-mm-dd). The contributor is recognised while entering. This is the minimal set of features that is required to connect a value of a parameter with a position and see the results. All the complicated data

  16. Towards Sensor Database Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Gehrke, Johannes; Seshadri, Praveen

    2001-01-01

    Sensor networks are being widely deployed for measurement, detection and surveillance applications. In these new applications, users issue long-running queries over a combination of stored data and sensor data. Most existing applications rely on a centralized system for collecting sensor data....... These systems lack flexibility because data is extracted in a predefined way; also, they do not scale to a large number of devices because large volumes of raw data are transferred regardless of the queries that are submitted. In our new concept of sensor database system, queries dictate which data is extracted...... from the sensors. In this paper, we define the concept of sensor databases mixing stored data represented as relations and sensor data represented as time series. Each long-running query formulated over a sensor database defines a persistent view, which is maintained during a given time interval. We...

  17. The LHCb configuration database

    CERN Document Server

    Abadie, Lana; Gaspar, Clara; Jacobsson, Richard; Jost, Beat; Neufeld, Niko

    2005-01-01

    The Experiment Control System (ECS) will handle the monitoring, configuration and operation of all the LHCb experimental equipment. All parameters required to configure electronics equipment under the control of the ECS will reside in a configuration database. The database will contain two kinds of information: 1.\tConfiguration properties about devices such as hardware addresses, geographical location, and operational parameters associated with particular running modes (dynamic properties). 2.\tConnectivity between devices : this consists of describing the output and input connections of a device (static properties). The representation of these data using tables must be complete so that it can provide all the required information to the ECS and must cater for all the subsystems. The design should also guarantee a fast response time, even if a query results in a large volume of data being loaded from the database into the ECS. To fulfil these constraints, we apply the following methodology: Determine from the d...

  18. Database Application Schema Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Quintus Beyers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application schema layer of a Database Management System (DBMS can be modified to deliver results that may warrant a forensic investigation. Table structures can be corrupted by changing the metadata of a database or operators of the database can be altered to deliver incorrect results when used in queries. This paper will discuss categories of possibilities that exist to alter the application schema with some practical examples. Two forensic environments are introduced where a forensic investigation can take place in. Arguments are provided why these environments are important. Methods are presented how these environments can be achieved for the application schema layer of a DBMS. A process is proposed on how forensic evidence should be extracted from the application schema layer of a DBMS. The application schema forensic evidence identification process can be applied to a wide range of forensic settings.

  19. Medical database security evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangalos, G J

    1993-01-01

    Users of medical information systems need confidence in the security of the system they are using. They also need a method to evaluate and compare its security capabilities. Every system has its own requirements for maintaining confidentiality, integrity and availability. In order to meet these requirements a number of security functions must be specified covering areas such as access control, auditing, error recovery, etc. Appropriate confidence in these functions is also required. The 'trust' in trusted computer systems rests on their ability to prove that their secure mechanisms work as advertised and cannot be disabled or diverted. The general framework and requirements for medical database security and a number of parameters of the evaluation problem are presented and discussed. The problem of database security evaluation is then discussed, and a number of specific proposals are presented, based on a number of existing medical database security systems.

  20. The Danish Melanoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive...... melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. MAIN VARIABLES: The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow's tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor...... quality register. The coverage is high, and the performance in the five Danish regions is quite similar due to strong adherence to guidelines provided by the Danish Melanoma Group. The list of monitored indicators is constantly expanding, and annual quality reports are issued. Several important scientific...

  1. Database Vs Data Warehouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Data warehouse technology includes a set of concepts and methods that offer the users useful information for decision making. The necessity to build a data warehouse arises from the necessity to improve the quality of information in the organization. The date proceeding from different sources, having a variety of forms - both structured and unstructured, are filtered according to business rules and are integrated in a single large data collection. Using informatics solutions, managers have understood that data stored in operational systems - including databases, are an informational gold mine that must be exploited. Data warehouses have been developed to answer the increasing demands for complex analysis, which could not be properly achieved with operational databases. The present paper emphasizes some of the criteria that information application developers can use in order to choose between a database solution or a data warehouse one.

  2. Harmonization of Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlifue, Susan; Tate, Denise; Biering-Sorensen, Fin

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to (1) provide an overview of existing spinal cord injury (SCI) clinical research databases-their purposes, characteristics, and accessibility to users; and (2) present a vision for future collaborations required for cross-cutting research in SCI. This vision...... highlights the need for validated and relevant data for longitudinal clinical trials and observational and epidemiologic SCI-related studies. Three existing SCI clinical research databases/registries are reviewed and summarized with regard to current formats, collection methods, and uses, including major...... strengths and weaknesses. Efforts to provide a uniform approach to data collection are also reviewed. The databases reviewed offer different approaches to capture important clinical information on SCI. They vary on size, purpose, data points, inclusion of standard outcomes, and technical requirements. Each...

  3. Mouse genome database 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.

  4. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures...... for gynecological cancer. STUDY POPULATION: DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. MAIN VARIABLES: DGCD data are organized within separate...... Danish personal identification number (CPR number). DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation...

  5. The Danish Sarcoma Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgensen PH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peter Holmberg Jørgensen,1 Gunnar Schwarz Lausten,2 Alma B Pedersen3 1Tumor Section, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Tumor Section, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Aim: The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. Study population: Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. Main variables: The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor characteristics such as location, size, malignancy grade, and growth pattern; details on treatment (kind of surgery, amount of radiation therapy, type and duration of chemotherapy; complications of treatment; local recurrence and metastases; and comorbidity. In addition, several quality indicators are registered in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. Descriptive data: Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System. Data quality and completeness are currently secured. Conclusion: The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring in Denmark since 2009. It is a valuable tool for monitoring sarcoma incidence and quality of treatment and its improvement, postoperative

  6. Database management systems understanding and applying database technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gorman, Michael M

    1991-01-01

    Database Management Systems: Understanding and Applying Database Technology focuses on the processes, methodologies, techniques, and approaches involved in database management systems (DBMSs).The book first takes a look at ANSI database standards and DBMS applications and components. Discussion focus on application components and DBMS components, implementing the dynamic relationship application, problems and benefits of dynamic relationship DBMSs, nature of a dynamic relationship application, ANSI/NDL, and DBMS standards. The manuscript then ponders on logical database, interrogation, and phy

  7. Assessment of Benzo(apyrene-equivalent Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity of Residential Indoor versus Outdoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposing Young Children in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Miller

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of benzo(apyrene (BaP-toxic equivalent factor to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH concentrations can provide a more accurate risk assessment from environmental exposure to PAH. We hypothesized that BaP-equivalent toxicity determined following residential air monitoring among young urban children may vary by season. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of PAH measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5–6 year old children (n = 260 in New York City were normalized to the cancer and mutagen potency equivalent factor of BaP (BaP = 1. Data are presented as carcinogenic equivalents (BaP-TEQ and mutagenic equivalents (BaP-MEQ for the sum of 8 PAH (∑8PAH; MW ³ 228 and individual PAH and compared across heating versus nonheating seasons. Results show that heating compared to nonheating season was associated significantly with higher (BaP-TEQ∑8PAH and (BaP-MEQ∑8PAH both indoors and outdoors (p < 0.001. Outdoor (BaP-TEQ∑8PAH and (BaP-MEQ∑8PAH were significantly higher than the corresponding indoor measures during the heating season (p < 0.01. These findings suggest that at levels encountered in New York City air, especially during the heating season, residential exposure to PAH may pose an increased risk of cancer and mutation.

  8. Comparison of the expression profiles induced by genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens in rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun [Bayer Healthcare AG, Department of Molecular and Genetic Toxicology, Aprather Weg 18a, 42096 Wuppertal (Germany)]. E-mail: heidrun.ellinger-ziegelbauer@bayerhealthcare.com; Stuart, Barry [Bayer Crop Science, Department of Toxicology, Stilwell, KS (United States); Wahle, Brad [Bayer Crop Science, Department of Toxicology, Stilwell, KS (United States); Bomann, Werner [Bayer Crop Science, Department of Toxicology, Stilwell, KS (United States); Ahr, Hans Juergen [Bayer Healthcare AG, Department of Molecular and Genetic Toxicology, Aprather Weg 18a, 42096 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2005-08-04

    Application of recently developed gene expression techniques using microarrays in toxicological studies (toxicogenomics) facilitate the interpretation of a toxic compound's mode of action and may also allow the prediction of selected toxic effects based on gene expression changes. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated whether carcinogens at doses known to induce liver tumors in the 2-year rat bioassay deregulate characteristic sets of genes in a short term in vivo study and whether these deregulated genes represent defined biological pathways. Male Wistar rats were dosed with the four nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens methapyrilene (MPy, 60 mg/kg/day), diethylstilbestrol (DES, 10 mg/kg/day), Wy-14643 (Wy, 60 mg/kg/day), and piperonylbutoxide (PBO, 1200 mg/kg/day). After 1, 3, 7, and 14 days, the livers were taken for histopathological evaluation and for analysis of the gene expression profiles on Affymetrix RG{sub U}34A arrays. The expression profile of the four nongenotoxic carcinogens were compared to the profiles of the four genotoxic carcinogens 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and aflatoxin B1 (AB1) from a similar study reported previously. By using statistical and clustering tools characteristically deregulated genes were extracted and functionally classified. Distinct cellular pathways were affected by the nongenotoxic carcinogens compared to the genotoxic carcinogens which at least partly correlated with the two-stage model of carcinogenesis. Characteristic to genotoxic carcinogens were a DNA damage response and the activation of proliferative and survival signaling. Nongenotoxic carcinogens showed responses to oxidative DNA or protein damage, as well as cell cycle progression and signs of regeneration. Many of the gene alterations found with the nongenotoxic carcinogens imply compound-specific mechanisms. Although neither a single gene nor a single pathway will be

  9. Use of the modified Ames test as an indicator of the carcinogenicity of residual aromatic extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogaard, P.; Hedelin, A.; Riley, A.; Rushton, E.; Vaissiere, M.; Minsavage, G.; Rohde, A.; Dalbey, W.

    2013-01-15

    Existing data demonstrate that residual aromatic extracts (RAEs) can be either carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic. CONCAWE had previously concluded that 'Although limited data available indicate that some RAEs are weakly carcinogenic, it is not possible to provide a general recommendation. Classify on a case-by-case basis' (CONCAWE 2005). Therefore CONCAWE's Health/Toxicology Subgroup (H/TSG) has developed a proposal for the use of the modified Ames test as a short-term predictive screening tool for decisions on the classification of RAEs for carcinogenicity. The relationship between RAE chemistry and carcinogenic potential is not as well understood as it is for some other categories of substances, e.g. Other Lubricant Base Oils (OLBO). However, a correlation has been found between the results of the skin carcinogenicity bioassay and the mutagenicity index (MI) obtained from the modified Ames test. Data supporting this correlation are summarised in this report. The H/TSG confirmed that the modified Ames test can be used as a predictive screening tool and that a cut-off value can be established to make a distinction between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic products. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 demonstrated carcinogenic potential upon dermal application to mouse skin with chronic exposure. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 did not demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. To justify the use of the modified Ames test with RAEs, additional analysis of the repeatability of the test with RAEs was required. With this objective, CONCAWE sponsored a round robin study with different samples of RAEs from member companies, at three different laboratories. The repeatability demonstrated in the round robin study with RAEs support the proposed use of the modified Ames test. As part of the tools available for use by member companies, the H/TSG proposed a standard operating procedure (SOP) (included as an Appendix to this report) on the conduct of the modified Ames test with RAEs. The H

  10. The CATH database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knudsen Michael

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The CATH database provides hierarchical classification of protein domains based on their folding patterns. Domains are obtained from protein structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank and both domain identification and subsequent classification use manual as well as automated procedures. The accompanying website http://www.cathdb.info provides an easy-to-use entry to the classification, allowing for both browsing and downloading of data. Here, we give a brief review of the database, its corresponding website and some related tools.

  11. The Danish Depression Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbech, Poul Bror Hemming; Deleuran, Anette

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The purpose of the Danish Depression Database (DDD) is to monitor and facilitate the improvement of the quality of the treatment of depression in Denmark. Furthermore, the DDD has been designed to facilitate research. STUDY POPULATION: Inpatients as well as outpatients...... with depression, aged above 18 years, and treated in the public psychiatric hospital system were enrolled. MAIN VARIABLES: Variables include whether the patient has been thoroughly somatically examined and has been interviewed about the psychopathology by a specialist in psychiatry. The Hamilton score as well...

  12. C# Database Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Working with data and databases in C# certainly can be daunting if you're coming from VB6, VBA, or Access. With this hands-on guide, you'll shorten the learning curve considerably as you master accessing, adding, updating, and deleting data with C#-basic skills you need if you intend to program with this language. No previous knowledge of C# is necessary. By following the examples in this book, you'll learn how to tackle several database tasks in C#, such as working with SQL Server, building data entry forms, and using data in a web service. The book's code samples will help you get started

  13. LandIT Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    Many of today’s farming systems are composed of purpose-built computerized farming devices such as spraying equipments, harvesters, fertilizer spreaders and so on. These devices produce large amounts of data. In most of the cases, it is essential to store data for longer time periods for analysis...... and reporting purposes. This paper presents the LandIT database; which is result of the LandIT project, which refers to an industrial collaboration project that developed technologies for communication and data integration between farming devices and systems. The LandIT database in principal is based...

  14. MARKS ON ART database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vlierden, Marieke; Wadum, Jørgen; Wolters, Margreet

    2016-01-01

    Mestermærker, monogrammer og kvalitetsmærker findes ofte præget eller stemplet på kunstværker fra 1300-1700. En illustreret database med denne typer mræker er under etablering på Nederlands Kunsthistoriske Institut (RKD) i Den Haag.......Mestermærker, monogrammer og kvalitetsmærker findes ofte præget eller stemplet på kunstværker fra 1300-1700. En illustreret database med denne typer mræker er under etablering på Nederlands Kunsthistoriske Institut (RKD) i Den Haag....

  15. The adsorption of a range of dietary carcinogens by alpha-cellulose, a model insoluble dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, L R; Roberton, A M; Watson, M E; Kestell, P; Harris, P J

    1993-12-01

    One of the ways dietary fibers may protect against colorectal cancer is by adsorbing carcinogens and carrying them out of the digestive tract, thus lessening interaction of the carcinogens with the colonic tissue. We investigated this mechanism of action by testing in vitro the abilities of a range of carcinogens, including known animal colon carcinogens, to adsorb to alpha-cellulose, which we have used as a model insoluble dietary fiber. The carcinogens were N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and a number of heterocyclic aromatic amines which have been found in heated foods. It was found that the ability of a carcinogen to adsorb to alpha-cellulose is strongly related to the hydrophobicity of the carcinogen measured as the calculated logarithm of the partition coefficient between 1-octanol and water (C log P). The hydrophilic carcinogen, NMU, (C log P = -0.204), adsorbed only poorly, whereas the very hydrophobic carcinogen, B[a]P, (C log P = 6.124), adsorbed strongly. Carcinogens with intermediate hydrophobicities showed intermediate abilities to adsorb.

  16. Inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of cobalt sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, J R; Hailey, J R; Roycroft, J R; Haseman, J K; Sills, R C; Grumbein, S L; Mellick, P W; Chou, B J

    1999-05-01

    Cobalt sulfate is a water-soluble cobalt salt with a variety of industrial and agricultural uses. Several cobalt compounds have induced sarcomas at injection sites in animals, and reports have suggested that exposure to cobalt-containing materials may cause lung cancer in humans. The present studies were done because no adequate rodent carcinogenicity studies had been performed with a soluble cobalt salt using a route relevant to occupational exposures. Groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to aerosols containing 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/m3 cobalt sulfate hexahydrate, 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 104 weeks. Survival and body weights of exposed rats and mice were generally unaffected by the exposures. In rats, proteinosis, alveolar epithelial metaplasia, granulomatous alveolar inflammation, and interstitial fibrosis were observed in the lung in all exposed groups. Nonneoplastic lesions of the nose and larynx were also attributed to exposure to all concentrations of cobalt sulfate. In 3.0 mg/m3 male rats and in female rats exposed to 1.0 or 3.0 mg/m3, the incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms were increased over those in the control groups. Lung tumors occurred with significant positive trends in both sexes. The incidences of adrenal pheochromocytoma in 1.0 mg/m3 male rats and in 3.0 mg/m3 female rats were increased. Nonneoplastic lesions of the respiratory tract were less severe in mice than in rats. In mice, alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms in 3.0 mg/m3 males and females were greater than those in the controls, and lung tumors occurred with significantly positive trends. Male mice had liver lesions consistent with a Helicobacter hepaticus infection. Incidences of liver hemangiosarcomas were increased in exposed groups of male mice; however, because of the infection, no conclusion could be reached concerning an association between liver hemangiosarcomas and cobalt sulfate. In summary, exposure to cobalt sulfate by inhalation

  17. DataBase on Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar Aparicio, R.; Gomez, D.; Coterillo Coz, I.; Wojcik, D.

    2012-12-01

    At CERN a number of key database applications are running on user-managed MySQL database services. The database on demand project was born out of an idea to provide the CERN user community with an environment to develop and run database services outside of the actual centralised Oracle based database services. The Database on Demand (DBoD) empowers the user to perform certain actions that had been traditionally done by database administrators, DBA's, providing an enterprise platform for database applications. It also allows the CERN user community to run different database engines, e.g. presently open community version of MySQL and single instance Oracle database server. This article describes a technology approach to face this challenge, a service level agreement, the SLA that the project provides, and an evolution of possible scenarios.

  18. DataBase on demand

    CERN Document Server

    Aparicio, Ruben Gaspar; Coterillo Coz, I

    2012-01-01

    At CERN a number of key database applications are running on user-managed MySQL database services. The database on demand project was born out of an idea to provide the CERN user community with an environment to develop and run database services outside of the actual centralised Oracle based database services. The Database on Demand (DBoD) empowers the user to perform certain actions that had been traditionally done by database administrators, DBA's, providing an enterprise platform for database applications. It also allows the CERN user community to run different database engines, e.g. presently open community version of MySQL and single instance Oracle database server. This article describes a technology approach to face this challenge, a service level agreement, the SLA that the project provides, and an evolution of possible scenarios.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative approaches in the dose-response assessment of genotoxic carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Shoji; Gi, Min; Kakehashi, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Matsumoto, Michiharu

    2016-05-01

    Qualitative and quantitative approaches are important issues in field of carcinogenic risk assessment of the genotoxic carcinogens. Herein, we provide quantitative data on low-dose hepatocarcinogenicity studies for three genotoxic hepatocarcinogens: 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN). Hepatocarcinogenicity was examined by quantitative analysis of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci, which are the preneoplastic lesions in rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the endpoint carcinogenic marker in the rat liver medium-term carcinogenicity bioassay. We also examined DNA damage and gene mutations which occurred through the initiation stage of carcinogenesis. For the establishment of points of departure (PoD) from which the cancer-related risk can be estimated, we analyzed the above events by quantitative no-observed-effect level and benchmark dose approaches. MeIQx at low doses induced formation of DNA-MeIQx adducts; somewhat higher doses caused elevation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyquanosine levels; at still higher doses gene mutations occurred; and the highest dose induced formation of GST-P positive foci. These data indicate that early genotoxic events in the pathway to carcinogenesis showed the expected trend of lower PoDs for earlier events in the carcinogenic process. Similarly, only the highest dose of IQ caused an increase in the number of GST-P positive foci in the liver, while IQ-DNA adduct formation was observed with low doses. Moreover, treatment with DEN at low doses had no effect on development of GST-P positive foci in the liver. These data on PoDs for the markers contribute to understand whether genotoxic carcinogens have a threshold for their carcinogenicity. The most appropriate approach to use in low dose-response assessment must be approved on the basis of scientific judgment.

  20. The Database State Machine Approach

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Database replication protocols have historically been built on top of distributed database systems, and have consequently been designed and implemented using distributed transactional mechanisms, such as atomic commitment. We present the Database State Machine approach, a new way to deal with database replication in a cluster of servers. This approach relies on a powerful atomic broadcast primitive to propagate transactions between database servers, and alleviates the need for atomic comm...

  1. Hadoop NoSQL database

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The theme of this work is database storage Hadoop Hbase. The main goal is to demonstrate the principles of its function and show the main usage. The entire text assumes that the reader is already familiar with the basic principles of NoSQL databases. The theoretical part briefly describes the basic concepts of databases then mostly covers Hadoop and its properties. This work also includes the practical part which describes how to install a database repository and illustrates basic database op...

  2. Databases and data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the course of the past decade, the breadth of information that is made available through online resources for plant biology has increased astronomically, as have the interconnectedness among databases, online tools, and methods of data acquisition and analysis. For maize researchers, the numbe...

  3. DistiLD Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palleja, Albert; Horn, Heiko; Eliasson, Sabrina;

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of hundreds of diseases. However, there is currently no database that enables non-specialists to answer the following simple questions: which SNPs associated with di...

  4. Database on wind characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, K.S. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Courtney, M.S. [Risoe National Lab., (Denmark)

    1999-08-01

    The organisations that participated in the project consists of five research organisations: MIUU (Sweden), ECN (The Netherlands), CRES (Greece), DTU (Denmark), Risoe (Denmark) and one wind turbine manufacturer: Vestas Wind System A/S (Denmark). The overall goal was to build a database consisting of a large number of wind speed time series and create tools for efficiently searching through the data to select interesting data. The project resulted in a database located at DTU, Denmark with online access through the Internet. The database contains more than 50.000 hours of measured wind speed measurements. A wide range of wind climates and terrain types are represented with significant amounts of time series. Data have been chosen selectively with a deliberate over-representation of high wind and complex terrain cases. This makes the database ideal for wind turbine design needs but completely unsuitable for resource studies. Diversity has also been an important aim and this is realised with data from a large range of terrain types; everything from offshore to mountain, from Norway to Greece. (EHS)

  5. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  6. NoSQL Databases

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this document, I present the main notions of NoSQL databases and compare four selected products (Riak, MongoDB, Cassandra, Neo4J) according to their capabilities with respect to consistency, availability, and partition tolerance, as well as performance. I also propose a few criteria for selecting the right tool for the right situation.

  7. The CAPEC Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Lund; Abildskov, Jens; Harper, Peter Mathias;

    2001-01-01

    The Computer-Aided Process Engineering Center (CAPEC) database of measured data was established with the aim to promote greater data exchange in the chemical engineering community. The target properties are pure component properties, mixture properties, and special drug solubility data. The datab...

  8. Database Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Database Programming Languages (DBPL 2007), held in Vienna, Austria, on September 23-24, 2007. DBPL 2007 was one of 15 meetings co-located with VLBD (the International Conference on Very Large Data Bases). DBPL continues...

  9. MARC and Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Jose; Trenor, Asuncion

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of MARC format in relational databases and addresses problems of incompatibilities. A solution is presented that is in accordance with Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standards and is based on experiences at the library of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). (four references) (EA)

  10. Dutch Vegetation Database (LVD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekens, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch Vegetation Database (LVD) hosts information on all plant communities in the Netherlands. This substantial archive consists of over 600.000 recent and historic vegetation descriptions. The data provide information on more than 85 years of vegetation recording in various habitats covering te

  11. A Semi-quantitative Serological Method to Assess the Potency of Inactivated Rabies Vaccine for Veterinary Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Liu; Shoufeng Zhang; Fei Zhang; Rongliang Hu

    2012-01-01

    Potency is one of the most important indexes of inactivated vaccines.A number of methods have been established to assay the potency,of which the NIH test and single-dose mouse protection test are the "prescribed methods".Here,we report a method to semi-quantitatively assay the potency of an inactivated rabies vaccine,which uses fewer animals and takes less time to complete.Depending on the quality requirements of a vaccine(e.g.minimum potency),a rabies reference vaccine is,for example,diluted to the minimum potency,and 50 μL of the dilution is taken to inoculate 10 mice.The same amount of the test rabies vaccine is inoculated into another 10 mice.After two weeks,all mice are bled and serum samples are assayed for viral neutralizing antibody by the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization(FAVN) test.By comparing the median and interquartile range of antibody titers of the reference vaccine with those of the test vaccine,the test vaccine potency can be semi-quantitatively judged as to whether it is in accord with the required quality.The reliability of this method was also confirmed in dogs.The procedure can be recommended for batch potency testing during inactivated rabies vaccine production.

  12. Potency trends of Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from 1993 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmedic, Zlatko; Chandra, Suman; Slade, Desmond; Denham, Heather; Foster, Susan; Patel, Amit S; Ross, Samir A; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2010-09-01

    The University of Mississippi has a contract with the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) to carry out a variety of research activities dealing with cannabis, including the Potency Monitoring (PM) program, which provides analytical potency data on cannabis preparations confiscated in the United States. This report provides data on 46,211 samples seized and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) during 1993-2008. The data showed an upward trend in the mean Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) content of all confiscated cannabis preparations, which increased from 3.4% in 1993 to 8.8% in 2008. Hashish potencies did not increase consistently during this period; however, the mean yearly potency varied from 2.5-9.2% (1993-2003) to 12.0-29.3% (2004-2008). Hash oil potencies also varied considerably during this period (16.8 ± 16.3%). The increase in cannabis preparation potency is mainly due to the increase in the potency of nondomestic versus domestic samples.

  13. Estimating Potency in High-Throughput Screening Experiments by Maximizing the Rate of Change in Weighted Shannon Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockley, Keith R

    2016-06-15

    High-throughput in vitro screening experiments can be used to generate concentration-response data for large chemical libraries. It is often desirable to estimate the concentration needed to achieve a particular effect, or potency, for each chemical tested in an assay. Potency estimates can be used to directly compare chemical profiles and prioritize compounds for confirmation studies, or employed as input data for prediction modeling and association mapping. The concentration for half-maximal activity derived from the Hill equation model (i.e., AC50) is the most common potency measure applied in pharmacological research and toxicity testing. However, the AC50 parameter is subject to large uncertainty for many concentration-response relationships. In this study we introduce a new measure of potency based on a weighted Shannon entropy measure termed the weighted entropy score (WES). Our potency estimator (Point of Departure, PODWES) is defined as the concentration producing the maximum rate of change in weighted entropy along a concentration-response profile. This approach provides a new tool for potency estimation that does not depend on the assumption of monotonicity or any other pre-specified concentration-response relationship. PODWES estimates potency with greater precision and less bias compared to the conventional AC50 assessed across a range of simulated conditions.

  14. Evaluation of monoquaternary pyridinium oximes potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odzak, Renata; Calić, Maja; Hrenar, Tomica; Primozic, Ines; Kovarik, Zrinka

    2007-04-20

    Monoquaternary N-benzyl-4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium bromide (Py-4-H) and its analogous with diverse substituents introduced into the phenyl ring (Py-4-CH(3), Py-4-Br, Py-4-Cl and Py-4-NO(2)) were synthesized in order to examine their potency as reactivators of tabun-inhibited human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7). Within 24h, the reactivation of tabun-inhibited AChE reached 80% with Py-4-CH(3), Py-4-Br and Py-4-Cl, 40% with Py-4-NO(2), and 30% with Py-4-H. The overall reactivation rate constants were up to 5.0min(-1)M(-1). All oximes inhibited human AChE reversibly, and the inhibition potency increased in the following order Py-4-Brtabun-phosphorylated human AChE.

  15. International Conference on Harmonisation: guidance on testing for carcinogenicity of pharmaceuticals. Notice. Food and Drug Administration, HHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a guidance entitled "S1B Testing for Carcinogenicity of Pharmaceuticals." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance outlines experimental approaches to evaluating the carcinogenic potential of pharmaceuticals to humans that may obviate the necessity for the routine conduct of two long-term rodent carcinogenicity studies

  16. Reevaluating the carcinogenicity of ortho-toluidine: a new conclusion and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, C; Markowitz, S

    1992-12-01

    The aromatic amine ortho-toluidine has been recognized by IARC as an animal carcinogen for the past decade. Three recent epidemiological studies of worker populations have now implicated this chemical as a human bladder carcinogen. In a study by E. Ward, A. Carpenter, S. Markowitz, D. Roberts, and W. Halperin ((1991), J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 83, 501-506), workers definitely exposed to ortho-toluidine for at least 10 years experienced a Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) of 27.2 (90% CI = 11.8-53.7). The other major exposure was to aniline, which significant epidemiological studies have failed to confirm as a human carcinogen. In retrospect, studies by G. F. Rubino, G. Scansetti, G. Piolatto ((1982) Environ. Res. 27, 241-254) and M. J. Stasik ((1988) Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 60, 21-24) also support the hypothesis that ortho-toluidine is a human bladder carcinogen. Animal studies of both ortho-toluidine and its possible confounders in these epidemiological investigations further confirm this hypothesis. When evaluated in a suitably comprehensive way, according to the traditional standards for assessing causality outlined by A. B. Hill ((1977) A Short Textbook of Medical Statistics, pp. 288-294, Lippincott, Philadelphia) the evidence that ortho-toluidine causes human bladder cancer has become much more conclusive. In this case, animal tests have proven a good predictor of human carcinogenicity.

  17. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2014-07-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as "carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. NNK and NNN are present in the tobacco of virtually all marketed cigarettes; levels in cigarette smoke are directly proportional to the amounts in tobacco. The NNK metabolite NNAL, itself a strong carcinogen, is present in the urine of smokers and nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Some of the highest levels of NNK and NNN are found in U.S. products. It is well established that factors such as choice of tobacco blend, agricultural conditions, and processing methods influence levels of NNK and NNN in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is time to control these factors and produce cigarettes with 100 ppb or less each of NNK and NNN in tobacco, which would result in an approximate 15- to 20-fold reduction of these carcinogens in the mainstream smoke of popular cigarettes sold in the United States.

  18. Establishment of animal model for potency evaluation of inactivated SARS virus experimental vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANMUDONG; QIAN; YANKONG; WENXUELIU; LIHINGYANG; JUNZHIWANG; YONGXINYU; YAOLONGSHU; ZHENGWANG; WEIDONGYIN; QINGYUZHU; HAIFAZHENG

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of source virus strain for the manufacture of the inactivated SARS virus vaccine, and establish an experimental method and preliminary standard for potency evaluation. Mice were divided into groups for being immunized with corresponding serially diluted experimental SARS virus inactivated vaccine. And the rabbits were immunized with undiluted vaccine. Challenge assay was conducted with a heterologous SARS virus. And the neutralization antibody was determined with plaque reduction neutralization test(PRNT), to which the neutralization antibody in the convalescent serum of SARS patients was compared. The experimental vaccine viral strains were proved to be suitable for manufacturing the vaccine. Mice immunized by vaccines of serial dilutions were able to elicit neutralizing antibody. The antibody titer from mice immunized with the undiluted vaccine could reach up to 1:495.2, while those of rabbits immunized with the undiluted vaccine could reach a GMT of 55.0-79.9. The capability of the antibody to neutralize the virus from Guangdong is more efficient than that from Beijing. The GMT of neutralizing antibody in SARS convalescents living in south and north China ranged from 50.12 to 54.95, and the titers of convalescents from north China were higher than those from south China. Mice and rabbits used as the model for evaluation of potency are of sensitivity, and the test is of reproducibility. The candidate challenge viral strains showed a relatively consistent effect on evaluating antibodies produced by various batches and different vaccine-source strains,hence they can be used to evaluate potency of the vaccine. The method for testing the vaccine potency and the evaluation standard was established preliminarily.

  19. Selection of appropriate analytical tools to determine the potency and bioactivity of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Nishant A. Dafale; Uttam P. Semwal; Rupak K. Rajput; Singh, G. N.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are the chemotherapeutic agents that kill or inhibit the pathogenic microorganisms. Resistance of microorganism to antibiotics is a growing problem around the world due to indiscriminate and irrational use of antibiotics. In order to overcome the resistance problem and to safely use antibiotics, the correct measurement of potency and bioactivity of antibiotics is essential. Microbiological assay and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method are used to quantify the pote...

  20. Selection of appropriate analytical tools to determine the potency and bioactivity of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant A. Dafale

    2016-08-01

    Simultaneously, microbiological assay addresses the several parameters such as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, mutation prevention concentration (MPC and critical concentration (Ccr which are used to describe the potency in a more informative way. Microbiological assay is a simple, sensitive, precise and cost effective method which gives reproducible results similar to HPLC. However, the HPLC cannot be a complete substitute for microbiological assay and both methods have their own significance to obtain more realistic and precise results.

  1. Inhibitory Potency of 4-Carbon Alkanes and Alkenes toward CYP2E1 Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jessica H.; Miller, Grover P.; Boysen, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    CYP2E1 has been implicated in the bioactivation of many small molecules into reactive metabolites which form adducts with proteins and DNA, and thus a better understanding of the molecular determinants of its selectivity are critical for accurate toxicological predictions. In this study, we determined the potency of inhibition of human CYP2E1 for various 4-carbon alkanes, alkenes and alcohols. In addition, known CYP2E1 substrates and inhibitors including 4-methylpyrazole, aniline, and dimethylnitrosamine were included to determine their relative potencies. Of the 1,3-butadiene-derived metabolites studied, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene was the strongest inhibitor with an IC50 of 110 μM compared to 1700 μM and 6600 μM for 1,2-butenediol and 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane, respectively. Compared to known inhibitors, inhibitory potency of 3,4-epoxy-1-butene is between 4-methylpyrazole (IC50 = 1.8 μM) and dimethylnitrosamine (IC50 = 230 μM). All three butadiene metabolites inhibit CYP2E1 activity through a simple competitive mechanism. Among the 4-carbon compounds studied, the presence and location of polar groups seems to influence inhibitory potency. To further examine this notion, the investigation was extended to include structurally and chemically similar analogs, including propylene oxide and various butane alcohols. Those results demonstrated preferential recognition of CYP2E1 toward the type and location of polar and hydrophobic structural elements. Taken together, CYP2E1 metabolism may be modified in vivo by exposure to 4-carbon compounds, such as drugs, and nutritional constituents, a finding that highlights the complexity of exposure to mixtures. PMID:24561005

  2. Inhibitory Potency of 4-Carbon Alkanes and Alkenes toward CYP2E1 Activity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    CYP2E1 has been implicated in the bioactivation of many small molecules into reactive metabolites which form adducts with proteins and DNA, and thus a better understanding of the molecular determinants of its selectivity are critical for accurate toxicological predictions. In this study, we determined the potency of inhibition of human CYP2E1 for various 4-carbon alkanes, alkenes and alcohols. In addition, known CYP2E1 substrates and inhibitors including 4-methylpyrazole, aniline, and dimethy...

  3. Monitoring blend potency in a tablet press feed frame using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Howard W; Blackwood, Daniel O; Polizzi, Mark; Clarke, Hugh

    2013-06-01

    A near-infrared (NIR) probe was installed into the feed frame of a rotary tablet press to monitor API concentration as a function of time. A series of step change experimental trials were completed, where a placebo blend was initially charged into the feed frame, and an active blend was layered above. The compression process was initiated, and process parameters, such as mass throughput rate, and feed frame paddle wheel speed were systematically varied. For the range of mass throughput rates studied, excellent correlations were shown between the NIR signal and weight corrected tablet potency from stratified tablet samples. A similar correlation was demonstrated for higher feed frame paddle wheel speeds. However, for lower feed frame paddle wheel speeds, a bias was observed between weight corrected tablet potency and the NIR signal. This finding suggests that compression process parameters, such as paddle wheel rotational speed and NIR probe location, must be optimized for different tablet press geometries to ensure that the NIR process signal can be related to tablet potency. This emerging application of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) may be used to identify powder segregation events during discharge of powder from an intermediate bulk container (IBC) or as a development tool to further understand powder mixing dynamics occurring within the feed frame. This may also be used as a diagnostic tool for fault detection during tablet compression. Finally, this PAT application may also be integrated with the tablet press control system as a gating or reject device for sub or super-potent tablets or enable Real-Time-Release testing (RTRt) through the continuous monitoring of the potency and homogeneity of powder circulating within the feed frame.

  4. Rationale for Further Medical and Health Research on High-Potency Sweeteners

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffman, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    High-potency or artificial sweeteners have historically been considered inert compounds without physiological consequences other than taste sensations. However, recent data suggest that some of these sweeteners have biological effects that may impact human health. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in our current knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of these sweeteners, their potential for “sweetener–drug interactions” and their impact on appetite and body weight regulation. Nine research n...

  5. Learned flavor preferences: the variable potency of post-oral nutrient reinforcers

    OpenAIRE

    Ackroff, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The notion that preferences for flavors paired with various nutrients can be attributed simply to their energy content (“flavor-calorie learning”) is belied by variation in nutrient reinforcing potency. Fructose, fat and ethanol, all regarded as powerful contributors to food and fluid preferences, are less potent than glucose when their orosensory effects are bypassed. Conditioning studies in animals infused with nutrients as they consume target flavor solutions have shown that the weaker rei...

  6. Phytoestrogens and sterols in waters with cyanobacterial blooms - Analytical methods and estrogenic potencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházková, Tereza; Sychrová, Eliška; Javůrková, Barbora; Večerková, Jaroslava; Kohoutek, Jiří; Lepšová-Skácelová, Olga; Bláha, Luděk; Hilscherová, Klára

    2017-03-01

    Compounds with estrogenic potencies and their adverse effects in surface waters have received much attention. Both anthropogenic and natural compounds contribute to overall estrogenic activity in freshwaters. Recently, estrogenic potencies were also found to be associated with cyanobacteria and their blooms in surface waters. The present study developed and compared the solid phase extraction and LC-MS/MS analytical approaches for determination of phytoestrogens (8 flavonoids - biochanin A, coumestrol, daidzein, equol, formononetin, genistein, naringenin, apigenin - and 5 sterols - ergosterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, brassicasterol) and cholesterol in water. The method was used for analyses of samples collected in stagnant water bodies dominated by different cyanobacterial species. Concentrations of individual flavonoids ranged from below the limit of detection to 3.58 ng/L. Sterols were present in higher amounts up to 2.25 μg/L. Biological potencies of these phytoestrogens in vitro were characterized using the hERα-HeLa-9903 cell line. The relative estrogenic potencies (compared to model estrogen - 17β-estradiol) of flavonoids ranged from 2.25E-05 to 1.26E-03 with coumestrol being the most potent. None of the sterols elicited estrogenic response in the used bioassay. Estrogenic activity was detected in collected field water samples (maximum effect corresponding to 2.07 ng/L of 17β-estradiol equivalents, transcriptional assay). At maximum phytoestrogens accounted for only 1.56 pg/L of 17β-estradiol equivalents, contributing maximally 8.5% of the total estrogenicity of the water samples. Other compounds therefore, most likely of anthropogenic origin such as steroid estrogens, are probably the major drivers of total estrogenic effects in these surface waters.

  7. Analysis of Cannabis Seizures in NSW, Australia: Cannabis Potency and Cannabinoid Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy Swift; Alex Wong; Li, Kong M.; Arnold, Jonathon C.; McGregor, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous...

  8. N-Aryl-oxazolidin-2-imine Muscle Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators Enhance Potency through Pharmacophore Reorientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirschl, Alexandra A.; Zou, Yan; Krystek, Jr., Stanley R.; Sutton, James C.; Simpkins, Ligaya M.; Lupisella, John A.; Kuhns, Joyce E.; Seethala, Ramakrishna; Golla, Rajasree; Sleph, Paul G.; Beehler, Blake C.; Grover, Gary J.; Egan, Donald; Fura, Aberra; Vyas, Viral P.; Li, Yi-Xin; Sack, John S.; Kish, Kevin F.; An, Yongmi; Bryson, James A.; Gougoutas, Jack Z.; DiMarco, John; Zahler, Robert; Ostrowski, Jacek; Hamann, Lawrence G.; (BMS)

    2010-11-09

    A novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) scaffold was discovered as a byproduct obtained during synthesis of our earlier series of imidazolidin-2-ones. The resulting oxazolidin-2-imines are among the most potent SARMs known, with many analogues exhibiting sub-nM in vitro potency in binding and functional assays. Despite the potential for hydrolytic instability at gut pH, compounds of the present class showed good oral bioavailability and were highly active in a standard rodent pharmacological model.

  9. What is a lexicographical database?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Skovgård Nielsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    project. Such cooperation will reach the highest level of success if the lexicographer has at least a basic knowledge of the topic presented in this paper: What is a database? This type of knowledge is also needed when the lexicographer describes an ongoing or a finished project. In this article, we......50 years ago, no lexicographer used a database in the work process. Today, almost all dictionary projects incorporate databases. In our opinion, the optimal lexicographical database should be planned in cooperation between a lexicographer and a database specialist in each specific lexicographic...... provide the description of this type of cooperation, using the most important theoretical terms relevant in the planning of a database. It will be made clear that a lexicographical database is like any other database. The only difference is that an optimal lexicographical database is constructed to fulfil...

  10. The Danish Melanoma Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hölmich Lr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lisbet Rosenkrantz Hölmich,1 Siri Klausen,2 Eva Spaun,3 Grethe Schmidt,4 Dorte Gad,5 Inge Marie Svane,6,7 Henrik Schmidt,8 Henrik Frank Lorentzen,9 Else Helene Ibfelt10 1Department of Plastic Surgery, 2Department of Pathology, Herlev-Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, 3Institute of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Breast Surgery and Burns, Rigshospitalet – Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 5Department of Plastic Surgery, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 6Center for Cancer Immune Therapy, Department of Hematology, 7Department of Oncology, Herlev-Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, 8Department of Oncology, 9Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 10Registry Support Centre (East – Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup – Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark Aim of database: The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients.Study population: All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD. In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register.Main variables: The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow’s tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor–node–metastasis stage. Information about the date of diagnosis, treatment, type of surgery, including safety margins, results of lymphoscintigraphy in patients for whom this was indicated (tumors > T1a, results of sentinel node biopsy, pathological evaluation hereof, and follow-up information, including recurrence, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date

  11. Sterol superlattice affects antioxidant potency and can be used to assess adverse effects of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsher, Michelle; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau

    2008-11-01

    We have developed a fluorescence method to examine how membrane sterol lateral organization affects the potency of antioxidants, and used this information to evaluate possible adverse effects of lipid-soluble antioxidants seen in recent clinical studies. In the presence of an antioxidant, the lag time (tau) produced during free radical-induced sterol oxidation in lipid vesicles reflects the potency of the antioxidant. The ascorbic acid-induced tau value varies with sterol mol% in a biphasic manner, showing a minimum at the critical sterol mole fraction for maximal superlattice formation (C r), in ascorbic acid concentrations antioxidant potency. In contrast, the biphasic change in tau at C r was observed only at doses of ascorbyl palmitate antioxidant than its water-soluble counterpart as judged by the tau value, it can easily perturb sterol lateral organization by insertion into membrane bilayers, which could impose detrimental effects on cells. The threshold antioxidant concentration (C th) to abolish biphasic change in tau at C r may vary with antioxidant and could be used to assess potential adverse effects of other lipid-soluble antioxidants.

  12. Potency Evaluation of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin in Brazil: Assessment of Reproducibility Using a Practical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cardoso do Nascimento

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the results of potency determination of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO obtained between 2010 and 2012 by the National Institute of Quality Control in Health (INCQS/Fiocruz, i.e., the National Control Laboratory (NCL, and by a manufacturer of rhEPO. In total, 47 different batches of commercially prepared rhEPO (alpha isoform were analyzed. All results, including those of the control and warning limits, remained within the limits recommended by European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.. All relative error (RE values were less than ± 30%, wh ereas most were approximately ± 20%. Applying the Bland-Altman plot, only two of 47 values remained outside the limits of agreement (LA. In addition, agreement of potency determination between INCQS and the manufacturer coefficient of variation of reproducibility (% CVR was considered satisfactory. Taken together, our results demonstrate (i. the potency assay of rhEPO performed at INCQS, is standardized and controlled, (ii. the comparison of our results with those of the manufacturer, revealed an adequate inter-laboratory variation, and (iii. the critical appraisal proposed here appears to be a feasible tool to assess the reproducibility of biological activity, providing additional information regarding monitoring and production consistency to manufacturers and NCLs.

  13. A common genetic influence on human intensity ratings of sugars and high-potency sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Liang-Dar; Zhu, Gu; Breslin, Paul A S; Reed, Danielle R; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J

    2015-08-01

    The perception of sweetness varies among individuals but the sources of this variation are not fully understood. Here, in a sample of 1,901 adolescent and young adults (53.8% female; 243 MZ and 452 DZ twin pairs, 511 unpaired individuals; mean age 16.2±2.8, range 12–26 years), we studied the variation in the perception of sweetness intensity of two monosaccharides and two high-potency sweeteners: glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC), and aspartame. Perceived intensity for all sweeteners decreased with age (2–5% per year) and increased with the history of otitis media (6–9%). Males rated aspartame slightly stronger than females (7%). We found similar heritabilities for sugars (glucose: h2=0.31, fructose: h2=0.34) and high-potency sweeteners (NHDC: h2=0.31, aspartame: h2=0.30); all were in the modest range. Multivariate modeling showed that a common genetic factor accounted for >75% of the genetic variance in the four sweeteners, suggesting that individual differences in perceived sweet intensity, which are partly due to genetic factors, may be attributed to a single set of genes. This study provided evidence of the shared genetic pathways between the perception of sugars and high-potency sweeteners.

  14. Reduction of animal suffering in rabies vaccine potency testing by introduction of humane endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Horiya, Madoka; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Potency controls of inactivated rabies vaccines for human use are confirmed by the National Institutes of Health challenge test in which lethal infection with severe neurological symptoms should be observed in approximately half of the mice inoculated with the rabies virus. Weight loss, decreased body temperature, and the presence of rabies-associated neurological signs have been proposed as humane endpoints. The potential for reduction of animal suffering by introducing humane endpoints in the potency test for inactivated rabies vaccine for human use was investigated. The clinical signs were scored and body weight was monitored. The average times to death following inoculation were 10.49 and 10.99 days post-inoculation (dpi) by the potency and challenge control tests, respectively, whereas the average times to showing Score-2 signs (paralysis, trembling, and coma) were 6.26 and 6.55 dpi, respectively. Body weight loss of more than 15% appeared at 5.82 and 6.42 dpi. The data provided here support the introduction of obvious neuronal signs combined with a body weight loss of ≥15% as a humane endpoint to reduce the time of animal suffering by approximately 4 days.

  15. Introduction of mismatches in a random shRNA-encoding library improves potency for phenotypic selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Wang

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a mechanism for interfering with gene expression through the action of small, non-coding RNAs. We previously constructed a short-hairpin-loop RNA (shRNA encoding library that is random at the nucleotide level [1]. In this library, the stems of the hairpin are completely complementary. To improve the potency of initial hits, and therefore signal-to-noise ratios in library screening, as well as to simplify hit-sequence retrieval by PCR, we constructed a second-generation library in which we introduced random mismatches between the two halves of the stem of each hairpin, on a random template background. In a screen for shRNAs that protect an interleukin-3 (IL3 dependent cell line from IL3 withdrawal, our second-generation library yielded hit sequences with significantly higher potencies than those from the first-generation library in the same screen. Our method of random mutagenesis was effective for a random template and is likely suitable, therefore, for any DNA template of interest. The improved potency of our second-generation library expands the range of possible unbiased screens for small-RNA therapeutics and biologic tools.

  16. Traditional marijuana, high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robin M; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose-response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co-administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high-potency forms of cannabis. Argument continues over the extent to which genetic predisposition is correlated to, or interacts with, cannabis use, and what proportion of psychosis could be prevented by minimizing heavy use. As yet, there is not convincing evidence that cannabis use increases risk of other psychiatric disorders, but there are no such doubts concerning its detrimental effect on cognitive function. All of the negative aspects are magnified if use starts in early adolescence. Irrespective of whether use of cannabis is decriminalized or legalized, the evidence that it is a component cause of psychosis is now sufficient for public health messages outlining the risk, especially of regular use of high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids.

  17. A study of cannabis potency in France over a 25 years period (1992-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujourdy, Laurence; Besacier, Fabrice

    2017-03-01

    Cannabis contains a unique class of compounds known as the cannabinoids. Pharmacologically, the principal psychoactive constituent is Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The amount of THC in conjunction with selected additional cannabinoid compounds (cannabidiol/CBD, cannabinol/CBN), determines the strength or potency of the cannabis product. Recently, reports have speculated over the change in the quality of cannabis products, from nearly a decade, specifically concerning the increase in cannabinoid content. This article exploits the analytical data of cannabis samples analyzed in the five French forensic police laboratories over 25 years. The increase potency of both herbal and resin cannabis in France is proved through the monitoring of THC content. For cannabis resin, it has slowly risen from 1992 to 2009, before a considerable increase in the last four years (mean THC content in mid-2016 is 23% compared to 10% in 2009). For herbal cannabis, it has known three main stages of growth (mean THC content is 13% in 2015 and mid-2016 compared to 7% in 2009 and 2% in 1995). The calculation of THC/CBD ratios in both herbal and resin samples confirms the recent change in chemotypes in favor of high potency categories. Finally, the CBN/THC ratios in marijuana samples were measured in order to evaluate the freshness of French seized hemp.

  18. Bioluminescence inhibition of bacterial luciferase by aliphatic alcohol, amine and carboxylic acid: inhibition potency and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Shinya; Yamada, Shuto; Takehara, Kô

    2013-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of hydrophobic molecules on the bacterial luciferase, BL, luminescence reaction were analyzed using an electrochemically-controlled BL luminescence system. The inhibition potency of alkyl amines, C(n)NH(2), and fatty acids, C(m)COOH (m = n - 1), on the BL reaction increased with an increase in the alkyl chain-length of these aliphatic compounds. C(m)COOH showed lower inhibition potency than C(n)NH(2) and alkyl alcohols, C(n)OH, data for which have been previously reported. To make clear the inhibition mechanisms of the aliphatic compounds on the BL reaction, the initial rate of the BL reaction was measured and analyzed using the Dixon plot and Cornish-Bowden plot. The C(12)OH inhibited the BL reaction in competition with the substrate C(11)CHO, while C(12)NH(2) and C(11)COOH inhibited in an uncompetitive manner with the C(11)CHO. These results suggest that the alkyl chain-length and the terminal unit of the aliphatic compound determine the inhibition potency and the inhibition mechanism, respectively.

  19. Traditional marijuana, high‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robin M.; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose‐response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co‐administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high‐potency forms of cannabis. Argument continues over the extent to which genetic predisposition is correlated to, or interacts with, cannabis use, and what proportion of psychosis could be prevented by minimizing heavy use. As yet, there is not convincing evidence that cannabis use increases risk of other psychiatric disorders, but there are no such doubts concerning its detrimental effect on cognitive function. All of the negative aspects are magnified if use starts in early adolescence. Irrespective of whether use of cannabis is decriminalized or legalized, the evidence that it is a component cause of psychosis is now sufficient for public health messages outlining the risk, especially of regular use of high‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:27717258

  20. Potency values from the local lymph node assay: application to classification, labelling and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, S E; Api, A-M; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Gamer, A; Jowsey, I R; Kern, P; Kimber, I; Lea, L; Lloyd, P; Mehmood, Z; Steiling, W; Veenstra, G; Woolhiser, M; Hennes, C

    2010-02-01

    Hundreds of chemicals are contact allergens but there remains a need to identify and characterise accurately skin sensitising hazards. The purpose of this review was fourfold. First, when using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), consider whether an exposure concentration (EC3 value) lower than 100% can be defined and used as a threshold criterion for classification and labelling. Second, is there any reason to revise the recommendation of a previous ECETOC Task Force regarding specific EC3 values used for sub-categorisation of substances based upon potency? Third, what recommendations can be made regarding classification and labelling of preparations under GHS? Finally, consider how to integrate LLNA data into risk assessment and provide a rationale for using concentration responses and corresponding no-effect concentrations. Although skin sensitising chemicals having high EC3 values may represent only relatively low risks to humans, it is not possible currently to define an EC3 value below 100% that would serve as an appropriate threshold for classification and labelling. The conclusion drawn from reviewing the use of distinct categories for characterising contact allergens was that the most appropriate, science-based classification of contact allergens according to potency is one in which four sub-categories are identified: 'extreme', 'strong', 'moderate' and 'weak'. Since draining lymph node cell proliferation is related causally and quantitatively to potency, LLNA EC3 values are recommended for determination of a no expected sensitisation induction level that represents the first step in quantitative risk assessment.

  1. Potency trends of delta9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated marijuana from 1980-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSohly, M A; Ross, S A; Mehmedic, Z; Arafat, R; Yi, B; Banahan, B F

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of 35,312 cannabis preparations confiscated in the USA over a period of 18 years for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and other major cannabinoids is reported. Samples were identified as cannabis, hashish, or hash oil. Cannabis samples were further subdivided into marijuana (loose material, kilobricks and buds), sinsemilla, Thai sticks and ditchweed. The data showed that more than 82% of all confiscated samples were in the marijuana category for every year except 1980 (61%) and 1981 (75%). The potency (concentration of delta9-THC) of marijuana samples rose from less than 1.5% in 1980 to approximately 3.3% in 1983 and 1984, then fluctuated around 3% till 1992. Since 1992, the potency of confiscated marijuana samples has continuously risen, going from 3.1% in 1992 to 4.2% in 1997. The average concentration of delta9-THC in all cannabis samples showed a gradual rise from 3% in 1991 to 4.47% in 1997. Hashish and hash oil, on the other hand, showed no specific potency trends. Other major cannabinoids [cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabichromene (CBC)] showed no significant change in their concentration over the years.

  2. Factors Affecting the Inclusion Potency for Acicular Ferrite Nucleation in High-Strength Steel Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongjoon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Kang, Joo-Hee; Lee, Changhee

    2016-06-01

    Factors affecting the inclusion potency for acicular ferrite nucleation in high-strength weld metals were investigated and the contribution of each factor was qualitatively evaluated. Two kinds of weld metals with different hardenabilities were prepared, in both, MnTi2O4-rich spinel formed as the predominant inclusion phase. To evaluate the factors determining the inclusion potency, the inclusion characteristics of size, phase distribution in the multiphase inclusion, orientation relationship with ferrite, and Mn distribution near the inclusion were analyzed. Three factors affecting the ferrite nucleation potency of inclusions were evaluated: the Baker-Nutting (B-N) orientation relationship between ferrite and the inclusion; the formation of an Mn-depleted zone (MDZ) near the inclusion; and the strain energy around the inclusion. Among these, the first two factors were found to be the most important. In addition, it was concluded that the increased chemical driving force brought about by the formation of an MDZ contributed more to the formation of acicular ferrite in higher-strength weld metals, because the B-N orientation relationship between ferrite and the inclusion was less likely to form as the transformation temperature decreased.

  3. Identifying carcinogenic activity of methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through electronic and topological indices

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, R S; Barone, P M V B

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of planar molecules, abundant in urban environment, which can induce chemical carcinogenesis. Their carcinogenic power varies in a large range, from very strong carcinogens to inactive ones. In a previous study, we proposed a methodology to identify the PAHs carcinogenic activity exploring electronic and topological indices. In the present work, we show that it is possible to simplify that methodology and expand its applicability to include methylated PAHs compounds. Using very simple rules, we can predict their carcinogenic activity with high accuracy (approx 89%).

  4. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  5. Protein Model Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidelis, K; Adzhubej, A; Kryshtafovych, A; Daniluk, P

    2005-02-23

    The phenomenal success of the genome sequencing projects reveals the power of completeness in revolutionizing biological science. Currently it is possible to sequence entire organisms at a time, allowing for a systemic rather than fractional view of their organization and the various genome-encoded functions. There is an international plan to move towards a similar goal in the area of protein structure. This will not be achieved by experiment alone, but rather by a combination of efforts in crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and computational modeling. Only a small fraction of structures are expected to be identified experimentally, the remainder to be modeled. Presently there is no organized infrastructure to critically evaluate and present these data to the biological community. The goal of the Protein Model Database project is to create such infrastructure, including (1) public database of theoretically derived protein structures; (2) reliable annotation of protein model quality, (3) novel structure analysis tools, and (4) access to the highest quality modeling techniques available.

  6. The Danish Sarcoma Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. STUDY POPULATION: Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both...... skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor...... in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization's International Classification...

  7. Rett networked database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grillo, Elisa; Villard, Laurent; Clarke, Angus

    2012-01-01

    underlie some (usually variant) cases. There is only limited correlation between genotype and phenotype. The Rett Networked Database (http://www.rettdatabasenetwork.org/) has been established to share clinical and genetic information. Through an "adaptor" process of data harmonization, a set of 293...... clinical items and 16 genetic items was generated; 62 clinical and 7 genetic items constitute the core dataset; 23 clinical items contain longitudinal information. The database contains information on 1838 patients from 11 countries (December 2011), with or without mutations in known genes. These numbers...... can expand indefinitely. Data are entered by a clinician in each center who supervises accuracy. This network was constructed to make available pooled international data for the study of RTT natural history and genotype-phenotype correlation and to indicate the proportion of patients with specific...

  8. Search Databases and Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jan C; Munk, Stephanie; Jensen, Lars J

    2016-01-01

    the vast amounts of raw data. This task is tackled by computational tools implementing algorithms that match the experimental data to databases, providing the user with lists for downstream analysis. Several platforms for such automated interpretation of mass spectrometric data have been developed, each...... having strengths and weaknesses that must be considered for the individual needs. These are reviewed in this chapter. Equally critical for generating highly confident output datasets is the application of sound statistical criteria to limit the inclusion of incorrect peptide identifications from database...... searches. Additionally, careful filtering and use of appropriate statistical tests on the output datasets affects the quality of all downstream analyses and interpretation of the data. Our considerations and general practices on these aspects of phosphoproteomics data processing are presented here....

  9. Geologic Field Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Hribernik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the field data relational database, which was compiled from data, gathered during thirty years of fieldwork on the Basic Geologic Map of Slovenia in scale1:100.000. The database was created using MS Access software. The MS Access environment ensures its stability and effective operation despite changing, searching, and updating the data. It also enables faster and easier user-friendly access to the field data. Last but not least, in the long-term, with the data transferred into the GISenvironment, it will provide the basis for the sound geologic information system that will satisfy a broad spectrum of geologists’ needs.

  10. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Freshwater Biological Traits Database. This report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also...

  11. Multilevel security for relational databases

    CERN Document Server

    Faragallah, Osama S; El-Samie, Fathi E Abd

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of Database Security Database Concepts Relational Database Security Concepts Access Control in Relational Databases      Discretionary Access Control      Mandatory Access Control      Role-Based Access Control Work Objectives Book Organization Basic Concept of Multilevel Database Security IntroductionMultilevel Database Relations Polyinstantiation      Invisible Polyinstantiation      Visible Polyinstantiation      Types of Polyinstantiation      Architectural Consideration

  12. The Danish Fetal Medicine database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tabor, Ann

    2016-01-01

    trimester ultrasound scan performed at all public hospitals in Denmark are registered in the database. MAIN VARIABLES/DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Data on maternal characteristics, ultrasonic, and biochemical variables are continuously sent from the fetal medicine units' Astraia databases to the central database via...... analyses are sent to the database. CONCLUSION: It has been possible to establish a fetal medicine database, which monitors first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities and second-trimester screening for major fetal malformations with the input from already collected data. The database...

  13. Download - Trypanosomes Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...earch and download Downlaod via FTP Joomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History

  14. Modeling Digital Video Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of the model is to present how the UnifiedModeling L anguage (UML) can be used for modeling digital video database system (VDBS). It demonstrates the modeling process that can be followed during the analysis phase of complex applications. In order to guarantee the continuity mapping of the mo dels, the authors propose some suggestions to transform the use case diagrams in to an object diagram, which is one of the main diagrams for the next development phases.

  15. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  16. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  17. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  18. Austrian Social Security Database

    OpenAIRE

    Zweimüller, Josef; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf; Lalive, Rafael; Kuhn, Andreas; Wuellrich, Jean-Philippe; Ruf, Oliver; Büchi, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The Austrian Social Security Database (ASSD) is a matched firm-worker data set, which records the labor market history of almost 11 million individuals from January 1972 to April 2007. Moreover, more than 2.2 million firms can be identified. The individual labor market histories are described in the follow- ing dimensions: very detailed daily labor market states and yearly earnings at the firm-worker level, together with a limited set of demographic characteris- tics. Additionally the ASSD pr...

  19. Real Time Baseball Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  20. Mathematical Foundations of Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-15

    34Spreadsheet Histories , Object- Histories , and Projection Simulation." ICDT 󈨜 2nd International Conference on Database Theory Bruges , Belgium, August...dissertation. The first topic, "Properties of Spreadsheet Histories ", formalized the use of spreadsheets for modelling the history of accounting-like...describing in more detail the results obtained. The first report, "Properties of Spreadsheet Histories ", is by Stephen Kurtzman. In this report, some

  1. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  2. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1993-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  3. The GLENDAMA Database

    CERN Document Server

    Goicoechea, Luis J; Gil-Merino, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This is the first version (v1) of the Gravitational LENses and DArk MAtter (GLENDAMA) database accessible at http://grupos.unican.es/glendama/database. The new database contains more than 6000 ready-to-use (processed) astronomical frames corresponding to 15 objects that fall into three classes: (1) lensed QSO (8 objects), (2) binary QSO (3 objects), and (3) accretion-dominated radio-loud QSO (4 objects). Data are also divided into two categories: freely available and available upon request. The second category includes observations related to our yet unpublished analyses. Although this v1 of the GLENDAMA archive incorporates an X-ray monitoring campaign for a lensed QSO in 2010, the rest of frames (imaging, polarimetry and spectroscopy) were taken with NUV, visible and NIR facilities over the period 1999$-$2014. The monitorings and follow-up observations of lensed QSOs are key tools for discussing the accretion flow in distant QSOs, the redshift and structure of intervening (lensing) galaxies, and the physica...

  4. The Cambridge Structural Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Colin R; Bruno, Ian J; Lightfoot, Matthew P; Ward, Suzanna C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal-organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface.

  5. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  6. Steviol glycoside safety: is the genotoxicity database sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, J D; Carakostas, M C; Brusick, D J

    2013-01-01

    The safety of steviol glycoside sweeteners has been extensively reviewed in the literature. National and international food safety agencies and approximately 20 expert panels have concluded that steviol glycosides, including the widely used sweeteners stevioside and rebaudioside A, are not genotoxic. However, concern has been expressed in recent publications that steviol glycosides may be mutagenic based on select studies representing a small fraction of the overall database, and it has been suggested that further in vivo genotoxicity studies are required to complete their safety profiles. To address the utility of conducting additional in vivo genotoxicity studies, this review evaluates the specific genotoxicity studies that are the sources of concern, and evaluates the adequacy of the database including more recent genotoxicity data not mentioned in those publications. The current database of in vitro and in vivo studies for steviol glycosides is robust and does not indicate that either stevioside or rebaudioside A are genotoxic. This, combined with a lack of evidence for neoplasm development in rat bioassays, establish the safety of all steviol glycosides with respect to their genotoxic/carcinogenic potential.

  7. Detection of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds in unused and used motor oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, R; Monarca, S

    1983-12-15

    The discharge of used motor oils in the environment poses public health problems because of the mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds in them. Among these hazardous chemicals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are of particular interest since the carcinogenic properties of some of them are known. The authors have applied the Salmonella/microsome test, coupled with two preparation methods of samples, to motor oils of different brands, both before and after use in car petrol engines. A PAH determination method was also studied. The results showed the unused motor oils to be nonmutagenic and to contain traces of PAH, while the used motor oils of the samples taken according to both preparation methods were highly mutagenic and contained a much higher quantity of mutagenic/carcinogenic PAH.

  8. [Mapping of carcinogens in the chemical production industry in the province of Ferrara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldotti, M; Spagnolo, M R; Minisci, S; De Rosa, E

    2008-01-01

    This study consists in the reconnaissance of the carcinogenic risk in some processing in Ferrara. The main object is to know, to estimate and to verify the diffusion of the carcinogenic substances and to estimate the number of the exposed or potentially exposed workers. The study has interested the synthesis chemistry and polymer production, woodworking, welding on stainless steel and chromium conversion coating and chrome electroplating. The research has involved 54 factories and 436 workers estimated exposed or potentially exposed to carcinogenic substances. The survey has consisted of inspections in the working places, collection of exposure data, control of the precautionary measures and exposure determination in the case of stainless steel welding. The smallest factories had less knowledge of the risk and for this reason it is necessary to keep constant attention.

  9. An Overview of Carcinogenic Heavy Metal: Molecular Toxicity Mechanism and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yeo Jin; Seo, Young Rok

    2015-01-01

    Almost all heavy metals are serious toxicants as carcinogens. However, due to their chemical and physiological properties, heavy metals are useful in industrial areas including alloy, smelting and production of commercial products. Such applications increase the opportunity for heavy metal exposure. Waste from industrial processes is also a major source of environmental contamination and accumulation in the human body. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and nickel are classified as group 1 carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and are utilized commercially. In this review, we used molecular pathway analysis to understand the toxicity and carcinogenic mechanisms of these metals. Our analyzed data showed that above-mentioned metallic substances induce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell death processes, resulting in increase the risk of cancer and cancer-related diseases. Thus, we might think phytochelatin molecules and antioxidative phytochemical substances are helpful for prevention of heavy metal-induced cancer. PMID:26734585

  10. Surface reactivity, cytotoxicity, and transforming potency of iron-covered compared to untreated refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Zoé; Poirot, Odile; Danière, Marie-Céleste; Terzetti, Francine; Binet, Stéphane; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice

    2002-12-13

    Untreated and iron-coated refractory ceramic fibers (RCFs) 1, 3, and 4 were examined for their potential to generate free radicals and to catalyze hydrogen peroxide decomposition in cell-free assays and were compared for cytotoxic and transforming potencies in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell system. Coating with a high quantity of iron increased the capability of RCFs to generate hydroxyl radicals and to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. In the SHE cells, the untreated RCFs had varying ability to induce inhibition of cell proliferation, cytotoxicity (as measured by the colony-forming efficiency, CE) and morphological transformation, in a concentration-dependent manner. According to cytotoxic and transforming potencies, they ranged as follows: RCF3 > RCF1 > RCF4. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50; decrease of CE to 50% of controls after 7 d of treatment) expressed per number of RCF3 and RCF1/cm(2) of culture dish was 2.5 x 10(4) and 3.7 x 10(4), respectively, whereas RCF4 was not cytotoxic up to the highest concentration tested (23.7 x 10(4) fibers/cm(2)). At LC50, RCF3 was 1.4-fold more transforming than RCF1, and the weakest, RCF4, induced less than 1% transformation. Iron coating of RCF1 and RCF3 markedly attenuated their cytostatic, cytotoxic, and transforming potencies without a linear concentration-transformation relationship. In contrast, iron coating of RCF4 affected slightly its low transforming potency, although the growth inhibitory effect was reduced. The observed decrease rather than increase in the cytotoxic and transforming potencies of the active samples RCF1 and RCF3 by their coating with large amounts of ferric iron suggests that it is not the quantity or any form of iron on the surface of fibers but the iron, even in trace, in a particular redox and coordinate state that might play a role in the fiber's surface reactivity with regard to the biological material. Surface chemical functions involved in the interaction with the cell

  11. The relative teratogenic index and teratogenic potency: proposed components of developmental toxicity risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabro, S; Shull, G; Brown, N A

    1982-01-01

    Teratogenicity tests should provide answers to three questions: (1) Can the agent induce developmental defects? ("teratogenic potential"); (2) What are the effective doses? ("teratogenic potency"); and (3) Are effective doses below adult toxic doses? ("teratogenic hazard"). The answers to (2) and (3) should be quantitative in nature, but there are no accepted parameters to express these properties. In this paper we propose parameters for the description of teratogenic potency and hazard in quantitative terms. Derivation and calculation of the parameters are illustrated by the analysis of adult lethality and teratogenicity data of eight structurally related anhydrides and imides, following testing in the CD-1 mouse. Teratogenicity was evaluated following treatment on Days 8-10 of gestation, using an average of four dose groups per compound and at least 10 dams per group. Adult lethality was estimated following a similar 3-day dosage schedule with an average of 6 dose groups per compound and at least 8 animals per group. Dose-response relationships of teratogenicity were fitted to a probit model from which tD50 (median effective dose), and other effective doses were computed. It is proposed that tD05, as a minimum teratogenic dose, best represents teratogenic potency. In this study, potency ranged from 0.17 mmol/kg/day for phenytoin to 5.2 mmol/kg/day for ethosuximide. In order to measure teratogenic hazard a ratio between adult toxic (lethality was chosen as the most appropriate measure) and teratogenic responses was made. Since the dose-response slopes of lethality and teratogenicity were different, a simple ratio between median effective doses could not be used. It is shown that a ratio of LD01 to tD05 provides a "Relative Teratogenic Index" (RTI) which reflects the teratogenic hazard of a test agent. The following RTI values (LD01/tD05) were computed in this study: phthalic anhydride, 0.9; phensuximide, 1.0; succinic anhydride, 1.0; ethosuximide, 1.2; phenytoin

  12. Embryonic turkey liver: activities of biotransformation enzymes and activation of DNA-reactive carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Duan, Jian Dong; Jeffrey, Alan M.; Williams, Gary M. [New York Medical College, Department of Pathology, Valhalla (United States); Ahr, Hans-Juergen; Schmidt, Ulrich [Bayer AG, Institute of Toxicology, Wuppertal (Germany); Enzmann, Harald H. [Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, Bonn (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    Avian embryos are a potential alternative model for chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity research. Because the toxic and carcinogenic effects of some chemicals depend on bioactivation, activities of biotransformation enzymes and formation of DNA adducts in embryonic turkey liver were examined. Biochemical analyses of 22-day in ovoturkey liver post-mitochondrial fractions revealed activities of the biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxycoumarin de-ethylase (ECOD), 7-ethoxyresorufin de-ethylase (EROD), aldrin epoxidase (ALD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (GLUT). Following the administration of phenobarbital (24 mg/egg) on day 21, enzyme activities of ECOD, EROD, ALD, EH and GLUT, but not of GST, were increased by two-fold or higher levels by day 22. In contrast, acute administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (5 mg/egg) induced only ECOD and EROD activities. Bioactivation of structurally diverse pro-carcinogens was also examined using {sup 32}P-postlabeling for DNA adducts. In ovoexposure of turkey embryos on day 20 of gestation to 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) resulted in the formation of DNA adducts in livers collected by day 21. Some of the DNA adducts had {sup 32}P-postlabeling chromatographic migration patterns similar to DNA adducts found in livers from Fischer F344 rats exposed to the same pro-carcinogens. We conclude that 21-day embryonic turkey liver is capable of chemical biotransformation and activation of genotoxic carcinogens to form DNA adducts. Thus, turkey embryos could be utilized to investigate potential chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity. (orig.)

  13. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat: What about environmental contaminants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí

    2016-02-01

    In October 26, 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) issued a press release informing of the recent evaluation of the carcinogenicity of red and processed meat consumption. The consumption of red meat and processed meat was classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans", and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. The substances responsible of this potential carcinogenicity would be generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures (N-nitroso-compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic aromatic amines). However, in its assessments, the IARC did not make any reference to the role that may pose some carcinogenic environmental pollutants, which are already present in raw or unprocessed meat. The potential role of a number of environmental chemical contaminants (toxic trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated naphthalenes and perfluoroalkyl substances) on the carcinogenicity of consumption of meat and meat products is discussed in this paper. A case-study, Catalonia (Spain), is specifically assessed, while the influence of cooking on the concentrations of environmental pollutants is also reviewed. It is concluded that although certain cooking processes could modify the levels of chemical contaminants in food, the influence of cooking on the pollutant concentrations depends not only on the particular cooking process, but even more on their original contents in each specific food item. As most of these environmental pollutants are organic, cooking procedures that release or remove fat from the meat should tend to reduce the total concentrations of these contaminants in the cooked meat.

  14. Chemical carcinogenic and mutagenic agents in the workplace, Poland, 2008–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Konieczko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to present a concise but comprehensive information on the occurrence of carcinogenic or mutagenic agents in Polish enterprises and the number of workers exposed to those agents reported to the central register by employers. Objectives and responsibilities of the register, as well as the range and methods of data gathering are discussed. Material and Methods: Data concerning carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances and technological processes reported to central register in 2008-2010 were analyzed. Results: In 2008-2010 more than 300 carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances were reported to the register. Approximately 2500 plants reported above 150 000 per-person-exposures annually. Among all technological processes regarded as occupational carcinogens, hardwood dusts exposure (about 660 companies; 11 000-13 000 exposed workers each year and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs present in coal products (117-125 plantsl 3000 exposed per year were reported. Conclusions: The most widespread carcinogenic/mutagenic substances were: benzene, chromium(VI compounds: potassium dichromate and chromate, chromium(VI trioxide and other chromium compounds, ethylene oxide, asbestos, benzo[a]pyrene and gasoline. The highest number of men was exposed to particular PAHs and benzene , and the majority of women was exposed to benzene, potassium dichromate and chromate, acrylamide, ethylene oxide and gasoline. The lack of clear-cut definitione of occupational exposure to carcinogen creates a problem faced by employers in defining the accurate number of exposed workers. Med Pr 2013;64(2:181–192

  15. SmallSat Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  16. Evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of pharmaceuticals. Opportunities arising from the International Conference on Harmonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, A M; MacDonald, J S

    1998-05-01

    The evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of pharmaceuticals is currently undergoing dramatic changes. For the past 25 years the regulatory expectation for agents intended for long term use has been that lifespan studies (usually lasting 2 years) in 2 rodent species be conducted. These studies take at least 3 years to plan, execute and interpret, and use over 1200 animals. It is now recognised that the quality of the information obtained from these studies is unreliable for prediction of carcinogenic risk to humans. Over the past 4 years, the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) has recommended changes in approaches to assessing the carcinogenic potential of pharmaceuticals. In future, only one long term rodent study will be routinely required (usually in rats), provided this is complemented with a short or medium term test in one of the emerging new models for carcinogenicity, such as transgenic mice or newborn mice. However, the relevance of these new models to human cancer and their use in risk assessment is still largely unknown and this situation must be kept under review as knowledge accumulates. A long term study in a second rodent species is still an option. Dose selection has also been improved inasmuch as there are now several alternatives to the use of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). In the past, the use of the MTD, when the normal homeostasis of the test animals is disturbed, has been considered one of the major problems with the rodent carcinogenicity bioassay. However, one of the alternative end-points to the use of the MTD, i.e. the comparison of plasma concentrations in rodents and humans, must be viewed with caution. While this may contribute to limiting the high dose level for agents of very low toxicity, the concept should not be interpreted as signifying that plasma concentrations provide a sound basis for comparing the carcinogenic activity of agents in different species. Recognition of the 4 properties (genotoxicity

  17. A Case for Database Filesystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, P A; Hax, J C

    2009-05-13

    Data intensive science is offering new challenges and opportunities for Information Technology and traditional relational databases in particular. Database filesystems offer the potential to store Level Zero data and analyze Level 1 and Level 3 data within the same database system [2]. Scientific data is typically composed of both unstructured files and scalar data. Oracle SecureFiles is a new database filesystem feature in Oracle Database 11g that is specifically engineered to deliver high performance and scalability for storing unstructured or file data inside the Oracle database. SecureFiles presents the best of both the filesystem and the database worlds for unstructured content. Data stored inside SecureFiles can be queried or written at performance levels comparable to that of traditional filesystems while retaining the advantages of the Oracle database.

  18. Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD) is a relational database being developed by the Assessment and Standards Division (ASD) of the US Environmental...

  19. Categorical database generalization in GIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: Categorical database, categorical database generalization, Formal data structure, constraints, transformation unit, classification hierarchy, aggregation hierarchy, semantic similarity, data model, Delaunay triangulation

  20. Shark Mark Recapture Database (MRDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shark Mark Recapture Database is a Cooperative Research Program database system used to keep multispecies mark-recapture information in a common format for...

  1. Antecedents of team potency and team effectiveness: an examination of goal and process clarity and servant leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Liden, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    Integrating theories of self-regulation with team and leadership literatures, this study investigated goal and process clarity and servant leadership as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team effectiveness, operationalized as team performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Our sample of 304 employees represented 71 teams in 5 banks. Results showed that team-level goal and process clarity as well as team servant leadership served as 3 antecedents of team potency and subsequent team performance and team organizational citizenship behavior. Furthermore, we found that servant leadership moderated the relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency, such that the positive relationships between both goal and process clarity and team potency were stronger in the presence of servant leadership.

  2. Proteochemometric modelling coupled to in silico target prediction: an integrated approach for the simultaneous prediction of polypharmacology and binding affinity/potency of small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paricharak, Shardul; Cortés-Ciriano, Isidro; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Malliavin, Thérèse E; Bender, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The rampant increase of public bioactivity databases has fostered the development of computational chemogenomics methodologies to evaluate potential ligand-target interactions (polypharmacology) both in a qualitative and quantitative way. Bayesian target prediction algorithms predict the probability of an interaction between a compound and a panel of targets, thus assessing compound polypharmacology qualitatively, whereas structure-activity relationship techniques are able to provide quantitative bioactivity predictions. We propose an integrated drug discovery pipeline combining in silico target prediction and proteochemometric modelling (PCM) for the respective prediction of compound polypharmacology and potency/affinity. The proposed pipeline was evaluated on the retrospective discovery of Plasmodium falciparum DHFR inhibitors. The qualitative in silico target prediction model comprised 553,084 ligand-target associations (a total of 262,174 compounds), covering 3,481 protein targets and used protein domain annotations to extrapolate predictions across species. The prediction of bioactivities for plasmodial DHFR led to a recall value of 79% and a precision of 100%, where the latter high value arises from the structural similarity of plasmodial DHFR inhibitors and T. gondii DHFR inhibitors in the training set. Quantitative PCM models were then trained on a dataset comprising 20 eukaryotic, protozoan and bacterial DHFR sequences, and 1,505 distinct compounds (in total 3,099 data points). The most predictive PCM model exhibited R (2) 0 test and RMSEtest values of 0.79 and 0.59 pIC50 units respectively, which was shown to outperform models based exclusively on compound (R (2) 0 test/RMSEtest = 0.63/0.78) and target information (R (2) 0 test/RMSEtest = 0.09/1.22), as well as inductive transfer knowledge between targets, with respective R (2) 0 test and RMSEtest values of 0.76 and 0.63 pIC50 units. Finally, both methods were integrated to predict the protein

  3. Estrogenic and esterase-inhibiting potency in rainwater in relation to pesticide concentrations, sampling season and location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, T.; Brink, P.J. van den; Mos, L.; Linden, S.C. van der; Legler, J.; Koeman, J.H.; Murk, A.J

    2003-05-01

    Estrogenic potency of rainwater correlated well with organochlorine concentrations, but could not be attributed to specific pesticides. - In a year-round monitoring program (1998), pesticide composition and toxic potency of the mix of pollutants present in rainwater were measured. The goal of the study was to relate atmospheric deposition of toxic potency and pesticide composition to each other and to sampling period and local agricultural activity. Rainwater was collected in 26 consecutive periods of 14 days in a background location (BACK) and in two locations representative for different agricultural practices, i.e. intensive greenhouse horticulture (HORT) and flower bulb culture (BULB). Samples were chemically analyzed for carbamate (CARB), organophosphate (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides and metabolites. Esterase inhibiting potency of rainwater extracts was measured in a specially developed bio-assay with honeybee esterases and was expressed as an equivalent concentration of the model inhibitor dichlorvos. Estrogenic potency of the extracts was measured in the ER-CALUX reporter gene assay and was expressed as an equivalent concentration of estradiol. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) techniques proved to be valuable tools to analyze the numerous pesticide concentrations in relation to toxic potency, sampling location, and sampling season. Pesticide composition in rainwater depended much more on sampling season than on sampling location, but differences between SPRING and SUMMER were mainly attributed to local differences in agricultural practice. On average, the esterase inhibiting potency exceeded the maximum permissible concentration set for dichlorvos in The Netherlands, and was significantly higher in HORT than in BACK and BULB. Esterase inhibition correlated significantly with OP and CARB concentrations, as expected given the working mechanism of these insecticides. The estrogenic potency incidentally exceeded NOEC levels reported for

  4. DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogens 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole and 4-aminobiphenyl are formed at environmental exposure levels and persist in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauwelaërs, Gwendoline; Bellamri, Medjda; Fessard, Valérie; Turesky, Robert J; Langouët, Sophie

    2013-09-16

    Aromatic amines and structurally related heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are produced during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meat. Exposure to some of these chemicals may contribute to the etiology of several common types of human cancers. 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) is the most abundant HAA formed in mainstream tobacco smoke: it arises in amounts that are 25-100 times greater than the levels of the arylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a human carcinogen. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) is a prevalent HAA formed in cooked meats. AαC and MeIQx are rodent carcinogens; however, their carcinogenic potency in humans is unknown. A preliminary assessment of the carcinogenic potential of these HAAs in humans was conducted by examining the capacity of primary human hepatocytes to form DNA adducts of AαC and MeIQx, in comparison to 4-ABP, followed by the kinetics of DNA adduct removal by cellular enzyme repair systems. The principal DNA adducts formed were N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts. Comparable levels of DNA adducts were formed with AαC and 4-ABP, whereas adduct formation was ∼5-fold lower for MeIQx. dG-C8-AαC and dG-C8-4-ABP were formed at comparable levels in a concentration-dependent manner in human hepatocytes treated with procarcinogens over a 10,000-fold concentration range (1 nM-10 μM). Pretreatment of hepatocytes with furafylline, a selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2, resulted in a strong diminution of DNA adducts signifying that P450 1A2 is a major P450 isoform involved in bioactivation of these procarcinogens. The kinetics of adduct removal varied for each hepatocyte donor. Approximately half of the DNA adducts were removed within 24 h of treatment; however, the remaining lesions persisted over 5 days. The high levels of AαC present in tobacco smoke and its propensity to form persistent DNA adducts in human hepatocytes suggest that AαC can contribute to DNA damage

  5. Relative Contribution of Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals to the Estrogenic Potency of Marine Sediments of Osaka Bay, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    KOYAMA, Jiro; KITOH, Asami; NAKAI, Makoto; KOHNO, Kumiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Uno, Seiichi; コヤマ, ジロウ; キトウ, アサミ; ナカイ, マコト; コウノ, クミコ; タナカ, ヒロユキ; ウノ, セイイチ; 小山, 次朗; 中井, 誠; 河野, 久美子

    2013-01-01

    Although concentrations of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in seawaters of Japan are relatively low, vitellogenin and ovotestis inductions are still being observed in some males of mullet and flounder collected in coastal areas. These fish species are benthic and could be affected by EDCs in marine sediments. Therefore, the concentrations of EDCs in marine sediments of Osaka Bay were determined by LC-MS/MS. In addition, the estrogen receptor binding potencies as estrogenic potencies of ...

  6. Clinical databases in physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, I.C.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Bakker, D. de; Wees, P.J. van der; Hart, D.L.; Deutscher, D.; Bosch, W.J.H.M. van den; Dekker, J.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical databases in physical therapy provide increasing opportunities for research into physical therapy theory and practice. At present, information on the characteristics of existing databases is lacking. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical databases in which physical therapists r

  7. Choosing among the physician databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R H

    1988-04-01

    Prudent examination and knowing how to ask the "right questions" can enable hospital marketers and planners to find the most accurate and appropriate database. The author compares the comprehensive AMA physician database with the less expensive MEDEC database to determine their strengths and weaknesses.

  8. The Danish Intensive Care Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Møller, Morten Hylander; Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of this database is to improve the quality of care in Danish intensive care units (ICUs) by monitoring key domains of intensive care and to compare these with predefined standards. STUDY POPULATION: The Danish Intensive Care Database (DID) was established in 2007...

  9. Social Capital Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2005-01-01

      This report has two purposes: The first purpose is to present our 4-page question­naire, which measures social capital. It is close to the main definitions of social capital and contains the most successful measures from the literature. Also it is easy to apply as discussed. The second purpose...... is to present the social capital database we have collected for 21 countries using the question­naire. We do this by comparing the level of social capital in the countries covered. That is, the report compares the marginals from the 21 surveys....

  10. Dansk kolorektal Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harling, Henrik; Nickelsen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The Danish Colorectal Cancer Database was established in 1994 with the purpose of monitoring whether diagnostic and surgical principles specified in the evidence-based national guidelines of good clinical practice were followed. Twelve clinical indicators have been listed by the Danish Colorectal...... Cancer Group, and the performance of each hospital surgical department with respect to these indicators is reported annually. In addition, the register contains a large collection of data that provide valuable information on the influence of comorbidity and lifestyle factors on disease outcome...

  11. Maize microarray annotation database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Dave K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has matured over the past fifteen years into a cost-effective solution with established data analysis protocols for global gene expression profiling. The Agilent-016047 maize 44 K microarray was custom-designed from EST sequences, but only reporter sequences with EST accession numbers are publicly available. The following information is lacking: (a reporter - gene model match, (b number of reporters per gene model, (c potential for cross hybridization, (d sense/antisense orientation of reporters, (e position of reporter on B73 genome sequence (for eQTL studies, and (f functional annotations of genes represented by reporters. To address this, we developed a strategy to annotate the Agilent-016047 maize microarray, and built a publicly accessible annotation database. Description Genomic annotation of the 42,034 reporters on the Agilent-016047 maize microarray was based on BLASTN results of the 60-mer reporter sequences and their corresponding ESTs against the maize B73 RefGen v2 "Working Gene Set" (WGS predicted transcripts and the genome sequence. The agreement between the EST, WGS transcript and gDNA BLASTN results were used to assign the reporters into six genomic annotation groups. These annotation groups were: (i "annotation by sense gene model" (23,668 reporters, (ii "annotation by antisense gene model" (4,330; (iii "annotation by gDNA" without a WGS transcript hit (1,549; (iv "annotation by EST", in which case the EST from which the reporter was designed, but not the reporter itself, has a WGS transcript hit (3,390; (v "ambiguous annotation" (2,608; and (vi "inconclusive annotation" (6,489. Functional annotations of reporters were obtained by BLASTX and Blast2GO analysis of corresponding WGS transcripts against GenBank. The annotations are available in the Maize Microarray Annotation Database http://MaizeArrayAnnot.bi.up.ac.za/, as well as through a GBrowse annotation file that can be uploaded to

  12. Usability in Scientific Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Suduc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Usability, most often defined as the ease of use and acceptability of a system, affects the users' performance and their job satisfaction when working with a machine. Therefore, usability is a very important aspect which must be considered in the process of a system development. The paper presents several numerical data related to the history of the scientific research of the usability of information systems, as it is viewed in the information provided by three important scientific databases, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library and IEEE Xplore Digital Library, at different queries related to this field.

  13. Database Description - Trypanosomes Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lature database) PDB (Protein Data Bank) KEGG PATHWAY Database DrugPort Entry list Available Query search Available Web services... Not available URL of Web services - Need for user registrati

  14. Determination of DNA adducts by combining acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and chromatographic analysis of the carcinogen-modified nucleobases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Elvis M K; Deng, Kailin; Wong, Tin-Yan; Chan, Wan

    2016-01-01

    The commonly used method of analyzing carcinogen-induced DNA adducts involves the hydrolysis of carcinogen-modified DNA samples by using a mixture of enzymes, followed by (32)P-postlabeling or liquid chromatography (LC)-based analyses of carcinogen-modified mononucleotides/nucleosides. In the present study, we report the development and application of a new approach to DNA adduct analysis by combining the H(+)/heat-catalyzed release of carcinogen-modified nucleobases and the use of LC-based methods to analyze DNA adducts. Results showed that heating the carcinogen-modified DNA samples at 70 °C for an extended period of 4 to 6 h in the presence of 0.05% HCl can efficiently induce DNA depurination, releasing the intact carcinogen-modified nucleobases for LC analyses. After optimizing the hydrolysis conditions, DNA samples with C8- and N (2) -modified 2'-deoxyguanosine, as well as N (6) -modified 2'-deoxyadenosine, were synthesized by reacting DNA with 1-nitropyrene, acetaldehyde, and aristolochic acids, respectively. These samples were then hydrolyzed, and the released nucleobase adducts were analyzed using LC-based analytical methods. Analysis results demonstrated a dose-dependent release of target DNA adducts from carcinogen-modified DNA samples, indicating that the developed H(+)/heat-catalyzed hydrolysis method was quantitative. Comparative studies with enzymatic digestion method on carcinogen-modified DNA samples revealed that the two hydrolysis methods did not yield systematically different results.

  15. 78 FR 67371 - Draft Report on Carcinogens Monographs for ortho-Toluidine and Pentachlorophenol and By-products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Draft Report on Carcinogens Monographs for ortho-Toluidine... Report on Carcinogens (RoC) Monographs for ortho-Toluidine and Pentachlorophenol and By-products of its... a.m. until adjournment, approximately 11:30 a.m. Document Availability: Draft monographs...

  16. 78 FR 51733 - Draft Report on Carcinogens Monographs for ortho-Toluidine and Pentachlorophenol and By-Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Draft Report on Carcinogens Monographs for ortho-Toluidine... Carcinogens (RoC) Monographs for ortho-Toluidine and Pentachlorophenol and By-products of its Synthesis.... Document Availability: Draft monographs will be available by August 28, 2013, at...

  17. Federated Spatial Databases and Interoperability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is a period of information explosion. Especially for spatialinfo rmation science, information can be acquired through many ways, such as man-mad e planet, aeroplane, laser, digital photogrammetry and so on. Spatial data source s are usually distributed and heterogeneous. Federated database is the best reso lution for the share and interoperation of spatial database. In this paper, the concepts of federated database and interoperability are introduced. Three hetero geneous kinds of spatial data, vector, image and DEM are used to create integrat ed database. A data model of federated spatial databases is given

  18. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390...... submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML......, reasoning and learning, network management and mobile systems, expert systems and decision support, and information modelling....

  19. Databases as an information service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of databases to information services, and the range of information services users and their needs for information is explored and discussed. It is argued that for database information to be valuable to a broad range of users, it is essential that access methods be provided that are relatively unstructured and natural to information services users who are interested in the information contained in databases, but who are not willing to learn and use traditional structured query languages. Unless this ease of use of databases is considered in the design and application process, the potential benefits from using database systems may not be realized.

  20. Genomic Database Searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, James R A

    2017-01-01

    The availability of reference genome sequences for virtually all species under active research has revolutionized biology. Analyses of genomic variations in many organisms have provided insights into phenotypic traits, evolution and disease, and are transforming medicine. All genomic data from publicly funded projects are freely available in Internet-based databases, for download or searching via genome browsers such as Ensembl, Vega, NCBI's Map Viewer, and the UCSC Genome Browser. These online tools generate interactive graphical outputs of relevant chromosomal regions, showing genes, transcripts, and other genomic landmarks, and epigenetic features mapped by projects such as ENCODE.This chapter provides a broad overview of the major genomic databases and browsers, and describes various approaches and the latest resources for searching them. Methods are provided for identifying genomic locus and sequence information using gene names or codes, identifiers for DNA and RNA molecules and proteins; also from karyotype bands, chromosomal coordinates, sequences, motifs, and matrix-based patterns. Approaches are also described for batch retrieval of genomic information, performing more complex queries, and analyzing larger sets of experimental data, for example from next-generation sequencing projects.