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Sample records for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic

  1. Some carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R. K.; Kumar, Pardeep; Ram, R. S.; Zaidi, Zahid H.

    1999-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted spectroscopists, astrophysicts and environmentalist because of their importance in our day to day life. It is well known that epoxides are produced during the metabolism of PAHs and have the requisite chemical reactivity to qualify them for the role as an ultimate carcinogenic form of PAHs. Several carcinogenic PAHs such as 3.4-benzopyrene, 1.2,3.4-dibenzopyrene, 3.4,9.10- dibenzopyrene etc. are found to be present in tobacco smoke and among air pollutants. Although PAH molecules are being studied for last several years by using conventional spectroscopy but no systematic attempt has been made to study non-radiative transitions. In our laboratory, we have studied many PAH molecules by a non-destructive technique with unique capability and sensitivity, known as Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy. PA spectroscopy is an analytical and research tool to get information about non-radiative transitions and singlet-triplet electronic transitions, where the conventional spectroscopic technique fails. The study of electronic transitions of some carcinogenic molecules are reported using PA and optical absorption spectra in boric acid glass in the region 250 - 400 nm. The electronic transitions of these molecules observed experimentally, have been interpreted using the optimized geometries and CNDO/S-CI method. A good agreement is found between the experimental and calculated results. Assignments of observed electronic transitions are made on the basis of singlet-triplet electronic transitions. Vibrations attached to these electronic transitions are attributed to the ground state vibrational modes.

  2. Correlation of levels of volatile versus carcinogenic particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples from smokehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Poulsen, O M; Christensen, J M

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, data on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in air samples from fish smokehouses (Nordholm et al. 1986) and meat smokehouses (Hansen et al. submitted for publication) were used to analyze the extent to which six different volatile PAH compounds could...... carcinogenic PAH compounds in air samples from smokehouses, whereas fluoranthene and pyrene displayed the highest specificity. However, when the applicability of the six markers was tested on air samples from iron foundries, only naphthalene and pyrene were useful as markers for the carcinogenic compounds...... function as markers for the total concentration of six different carcinogenic particulate PAH compounds. Although a significant positive correlation was observed between the concentration of each of six volatile compounds and the total concentration of carcinogenic PAH compounds, a particularly good...

  3. Identifying carcinogenic activity of methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through electronic and topological indices

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, R S; Barone, P M V B

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of planar molecules, abundant in urban environment, which can induce chemical carcinogenesis. Their carcinogenic power varies in a large range, from very strong carcinogens to inactive ones. In a previous study, we proposed a methodology to identify the PAHs carcinogenic activity exploring electronic and topological indices. In the present work, we show that it is possible to simplify that methodology and expand its applicability to include methylated PAHs compounds. Using very simple rules, we can predict their carcinogenic activity with high accuracy (approx 89%).

  4. Analysis of carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS): an overview of modern electroanalytical techniques and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürk, Zühre

    2013-02-01

    A number of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been shown to be toxicants, and induce carcinogenic and immunotoxic effects. Since PAHs are often present in low concentrations and it may be difficult to determine them in complex matrices, it is therefore essential to use powerful analytical tools to separate and identify the analyses in the samples. In this paper, initially, a short description of the principles, instrumentation, and use of common extraction and analytical techniques for PAH pollutants and their metabolites will be made in light of the previously reported works and major reviews. Special attention will be given to the use of modern polarographic and voltammetric techniques on the mercury and different types of solid electrodes, together with their some practical applications. The main drawbacks and limitations of these methods will also be discussed.

  5. Removal of probable human carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated water using molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupadam, Reddithota J; Khan, Muntazir S; Wate, Satish R

    2010-02-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbent for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was prepared using a non-covalent templating technique. MIP particles sized from 2 to 5 microm were synthesized in acetonitrile by using six PAHs mix as a template, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. When compared with the non-imprinted polymer (NIP), the MIP showed an excellent affinity towards PAHs in aqueous solution with binding capacity (B(max)) of 687 microg g(-1)MIP, imprinting effect of 6, and a dissociation constant of 24 microM. The MIP exhibited significant binding affinity towards PAHs even in the presence of environmental parameters such as dissolved organic matter (COD) and total dissolved inorganic solids (TDS), suggesting that this material may be appropriate for removal of carcinogenic PAHs. The feasibility of removing PAHs from water by the MIP demonstrated using groundwater spiked with PAHs. In addition, the MIP reusability without any deterioration in performance was demonstrated at least ten repeated cycles.

  6. Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in umbilical cord blood of human neonates from Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yongyong; Huo, Xia [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Wu, Kusheng [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Liu, Junxiao; Zhang, Yuling [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Xu, Xijin, E-mail: xuxj@stu.edu.cn [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China)

    2012-06-15

    Unregulated electronic-waste recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Guiyu, China. We evaluated the body burden of seven carcinogenic PAHs and potential health risks for neonates. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected from Guiyu (n = 103), and the control area of Chaonan (n = 80), China. PAHs in UCB were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The median N-Ary-Summation 7c-PAH concentration was 108.05 ppb in UCB samples from Guiyu, vs. 79.36 ppb in samples from Chaonan. Residence in Guiyu and longer cooking time of food during the gestation period were significant factors contributing to the N-Ary-Summation 7c-PAH level. Benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were found to correlate with reduced neonatal height and gestational age. Infants experiencing adverse birth outcomes, on the whole, displayed higher BaA, Chr, and BaP levels compared to those with normal outcomes. We conclude that maternal PAH exposure results in fetal accumulation of toxic PAHs, and that such prenatal exposure correlates with adverse effects on neonatal health.

  7. Quantitative determination of hydroxy polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudneh, Million B; Benskin, Jonathan P; Grace, Richard; Hamilton, M Coreen; Magee, Brian H; Hoeger, Glenn C; Forsberg, Norman D; Cosgrove, John R

    2016-07-01

    A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method was developed for quantitative analysis of hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs). Four hydroxy metabolites of known and suspected carcinogenic PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A), and chrysene (CRY)) were selected as suitable biomarkers of PAH exposure and associated risks to human health. The analytical method included enzymatic deconjugation, liquid - liquid extraction, followed by derivatization with methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and instrumental analysis. Photo-induced oxidation of target analytes - which has plagued previously published methods - was controlled by a combination of minimizing exposure to light, employing an antioxidant (2-mercaptoethanol) and utilizing a nitrogen atmosphere. Stability investigations also indicated that conjugated forms of the analytes are more stable than the non-conjugated forms. Accuracy and precision of the method were 77.4-101% (<4.9% RSD) in synthetic urine and 92.3-117% (<15% RSD) in human urine, respectively. Method detection limits, determined using eight replicates of low-level spiked human urine, ranged from 13 to 24pg/mL. The method was successfully applied for analysis of a pooled human urine sample and 78 mouse urine samples collected from mice fed with PAH-contaminated diets. In mouse urine, greater than 94% of each analyte was present in its conjugated form. PMID:27266337

  8. Human health risk due to consumption of vegetables contaminated with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sardar [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Inst. of Urban Environment; Peshawar Univ. (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Science; Cao, Qing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environemntal Sciences

    2012-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent, toxic, and carcinogenic contaminants present in soil ecosystem globally. These pollutants are gradually accumulating in wastewater-irrigated soils and lead to the contamination of vegetables. Food chain contamination with PAH is considered as one of the major pathways for human exposure. This study was aimed to investigate the concentrations of PAH in soils and vegetables collected from wastewater-irrigated fields from metropolitan areas of Beijing, China. Origin of PAH, daily intake, and health risks of PAH through consumption of contaminated vegetables were studied. Soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-20 cm) of both wastewater-irrigated and reference sites and sieved (<2 mm mesh) and then followed by freeze-drying at -50 C and 123 {+-} 2 Pa. Standing vegetables were also collected from the same sites used for soil sampling and divided into roots and shoots, thoroughly washed with deionized water, and freeze-dried. PAH were extracted using the Soxhlet method with 200 mL DCM for 24 h, and the extracts were cleaned with silica adsorption chromatography prepared with silica gel, alumina, and capped with anhydrous sodium. The final concentrated extracts (soil and vegetable) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Agilent 6890). Bioaccumulation factors, daily intake of PAH, and carcinogenicity of PAH were calculated by different statistical equations. Results indicate that the soils and grown vegetables were contaminated with all possible carcinogenic PAH (declared by USEPA 2002) except indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. The highest concentration (242.9 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) was found for benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), while lowest (79.12 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The emission sources of PAH were both pyrogenic and petrogenic in nature. However, the total concentrations of PAH were lower than the permissible limits set by different countries like Canada, Denmark and Germany

  9. Humoral immunosuppression in men exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related carcinogens in polluted environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Szczeklik, A; Szczeklik, J; Galuszka, Z; Musial, J; Kolarzyk, E; Targosz, D

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated humoral immunity by measuring IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE concentrations in 274 male workers in an iron foundry in Cracow, Poland. There were two groups: 199 coke oven workers and 76 cold-rolling mill workers. The groups were similar with respect to age, length of work (average 15 years), and smoking habits. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), assessed by personal and area monitoring, ranged from 0.2 to 50 micrograms/m3 benzo[a]pyrene in coke plant workers and was of ...

  10. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  11. Source apportionment of the carcinogenic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated to airborne PM10 by a PMF model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, M S; Iturmendi, A; López, J M; Mastral, A M

    2014-02-01

    In order to perform a study of the carcinogenic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaP-eq) concentration was calculated and modelled by a receptor model based on positive matrix factorization (PMF). Nineteen PAH associated to airborne PM10 of Zaragoza, Spain, were quantified during the sampling period 2001-2009 and used as potential variables by the PMF model. Afterwards, multiple linear regression analysis was used to quantify the potential sources of BaP-eq. Five sources were obtained as the optimal solution and vehicular emission was identified as the main carcinogenic source (35 %) followed by heavy-duty vehicles (28 %), light-oil combustion (18 %), natural gas (10 %) and coal combustion (9 %). Two of the most prevailing directions contributing to this carcinogenic character were the NE and N directions associated with a highway, industrial parks and a paper factory. The lifetime lung cancer risk exceeded the unit risk of 8.7 x 10(-5) per ng/m(3) BaP in both winter and autumn seasons and the most contributing source was the vehicular emission factor becoming an important issue in control strategies. PMID:24022101

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cervix of women infected with carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: An immunohistochemistry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, M. Margaret [Carcinogen-DNA Interactions Section, LCBG, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States)], E-mail: prattm@mail.nih.gov; Sirajuddin, Paul; Poirier, Miriam C. [Carcinogen-DNA Interactions Section, LCBG, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Schiffman, Mark [Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Glass, Andrew G.; Scott, David R.; Rush, Brenda B. [Northwest Kaiser Permanente, Portland, OR (United States); Olivero, Ofelia A. [Carcinogen-DNA Interactions Section, LCBG, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Castle, Philip E. [Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Among women infected with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), there is a two- to five-fold increased risk of cervical precancer and cancer in women who smoke compared to those who do not smoke. Because tobacco smoke contains carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it was of interest to examine human cervical tissue for PAH-DNA adduct formation. Here, we measured PAH-DNA adduct formation in cervical biopsies collected in follow-up among women who tested positive for carcinogenic HPV at baseline. A semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) method using antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7,t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) was used to measure nuclear PAH-DNA adduct formation. Cultured human cervical keratinocytes exposed to 0, 0.153, or 0.331 {mu}M BPDE showed dose-dependent increases in r7,t8,t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N{sup 2}deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPdG) adducts. For BPdG adduct analysis, paraffin-embedded keratinocytes were stained by IHC with analysis of nuclear color intensity by Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS) and, in parallel cultures, extracted DNA was assayed by quantitative BPDE-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). For paraffin-embedded samples from carcinogenic HPV-infected women, normal-appearing cervical squamous epithelium suitable for scoring was found in samples from 75 of the 114 individuals, including 29 cases of cervical precancer or cancer and 46 controls. With a lower limit of detection of 20 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides, detectable PAH-DNA adduct values ranged from 25 to 191/10{sup 8} nucleotides, with a median of 75/10{sup 8} nucleotides. PAH-DNA adduct values above 150/10{sup 8} nucleotides were found in eight samples, and in three samples adducts were non-detectable. There was no correlation between PAH-DNA adduct formation and either smoking or case status. Therefore, PAH-DNA adduct formation as measured by this methodology did not appear

  13. Epigenetic effectiveness of complete carcinogens: specific interactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aminoazo dyes with cholesterol and apolipoprotein A - I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contag, B. [Technische Fachhochschule Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich II - Pharma- und Chemietechnik

    2005-10-01

    During a co-precipitation of cholesterol (Chol) and slight amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or aminoazo dyes (AZOs) in aqueous albumin solution, complex particles are formed; on their surfaces apolipoproteins with an amphipathic {alpha}-helix (e.g. apoA-I) are more or less firmly adsorbed. An efficacy index can be calculated from the strength of the hydrophobic interactions between apoA-I and the [Chol/PAH]- or [Chol/AZO]-complex, and the solubility of the PAH or AZO in an aqueous medium, which correlates to the carcinogenicity of these compounds. A short-term test for PAHs and AZOs is described, in which the efficacy index can be determined in the simplest manner without any great expenditure on equipment. The previous results suggest that the parent compounds of the PAHs and AZOs can be involved in a specific interaction with cholesterol-domains of the plasma membrane of a cell. The changes in membrane fluidity and architecture caused by these specific interactions could modulate the distribution and/or activity of membrane proteins which are critical to the regulation of cellular proliferation. (orig.)

  14. Development of an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 15 carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocyclic compounds. application to diesel particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvain, J J; Vu Duc, T; Huynh, C K

    2001-12-01

    A new method enabling the determination of 15 priority carcinogenic polyaromatic compounds (PAC) proposed by the US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has been developed and applied to diesel exhaust particulates (DEP). The clean-up procedure consists of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and HPLC fractionation on silica phases followed by liquid-liquid extraction and chromatography on a polyvinylbenzene copolymer column. The method gives good recoveries for all PAC studied except dibenzo[a,j]acridine and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, for which recovery values are below 80%. The use of GC-MS ion trap and its capacity to achieve single-ion storage enhanced the sensitivity of the method, enabling the detection of high-molecular-weight PAH in the low ng g(-1) concentration range. Intermediate polarity GC columns, e.g. BPX-50 or equivalent, enabled better separation, when applied to DEP analysis, than the generally used DB-5 apolar phase. This is observed mainly for separation of isomeric compounds belonging to the benzofluoranthene and dibenzopyrene families. The application of this method to DEP sampled from the exhaust of a diesel engine and in confined locations such as a tunnel has shown that all PAH of the NTP list could be detected, except dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. No dibenzacridine or dibenzocarbazole could be detected in such matrices. The method is sufficiently sensitive to be applicable to environmental exposure measurements in occupational health surveys.

  15. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithgall, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate carcinogens derived from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 5-methylchrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Since microsomal activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is highly stereospecific, the stereochemical course of enzymatic trans-dihydrodiol oxidation was monitored using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. The major product formed from the dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol of naphthalene was characterized using UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, and appears to be 4-hydroxy-1,2-naphthoquinone. Mass spectral analysis suggests that an analogous hydroxylated o-quinone is formed as the major product of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols was shown to be potently inhibited by all of the major classes of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Enhancement of trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogen oxidation may protect against possible adverse effects of the aspirin-like drugs, and help maintain the balance between activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  16. The temporal variability of the profile of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air: a study in a medium traffic area in Rome, 1993-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichini, E.; Monfredini, F.; Merli, F.

    The constancy, both temporal and spatial, of the profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) relative to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a prerequisite to using the BaP-indicator approach in the carcinogenic risk assessment for PAHs. The principal aim of this study was to provide a contribution to validate this approach, by studying the variability of the profile at a typical urban site through a multi-year data set and by comparing the profiles available for different cities. Seven carcinogenic PAHs (benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b+j+k]fluoranthenes, BaP, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene) were determined in PM 10 24-h samples collected every third day at a road site; moreover, benzo[e]pyrene was determined as a reference PAH due to its stability. The profile was found stable from year to year. Besides, it was similar to those recently found in other European cities (observed differences within a factor of four) and to those elaborated from earlier (1970s-1980s) investigations. The substantial similarity of profiles, both temporal (on an annual basis) and spatial, supports the validity of the BaP-indicator approach. Large PAH-to-PAH differences were, however, found in the seasonal pattern of profile: they were explained by the different atmospheric degradability of PAHs, whose effect is enhanced under the meteoclimatic conditions typical of the European Mediterranean countries. PAH annual means showed a slight declining trend since 1994. In the last sampling year, mean concentration of BaP was 1.2 ng m -3. Within-year differences among monthly averaged PAH concentrations were observed, as large as up to 44-fold for BaP, underlining the need for whole-year monitoring.

  17. Epigenetic effectiveness of complete carcinogens: specific interactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aminoazo dyes with cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contag, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    During a co-precipitation of cholesterol (Chol) and slight amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or aminoazo dyes (AZOs) in aqueous albumin solution, complex particles are formed; on their surfaces apolipoproteins with an amphipathic alpha-helix (e.g. apoA-I) are more or less firmly adsorbed. An efficacy index can be calculated from the strength of the hydrophobic interactions between apoA-I and the [Chol/PAH]- or [Chol/AZO]-complex, and the solubility of the PAH or AZO in an aqueous medium, which correlates to the carcinogenicity of these compounds. A short-term test for PAHs and AZOs is described, in which the efficacy index can be determined in the simplest manner without any great expenditure on equipment. The previous results suggest that the parent compounds of the PAHs and AZOs can be involved in a specific interaction with cholesterol-domains of the plasma membrane of a cell. The changes in membrane fluidity and architecture caused by these specific interactions could modulate the distribution and/or activity of membrane proteins which are critical to the regulation of cellular proliferation.

  18. Assessment of Benzo(apyrene-equivalent Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity of Residential Indoor versus Outdoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposing Young Children in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Miller

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of benzo(apyrene (BaP-toxic equivalent factor to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH concentrations can provide a more accurate risk assessment from environmental exposure to PAH. We hypothesized that BaP-equivalent toxicity determined following residential air monitoring among young urban children may vary by season. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of PAH measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5–6 year old children (n = 260 in New York City were normalized to the cancer and mutagen potency equivalent factor of BaP (BaP = 1. Data are presented as carcinogenic equivalents (BaP-TEQ and mutagenic equivalents (BaP-MEQ for the sum of 8 PAH (∑8PAH; MW ³ 228 and individual PAH and compared across heating versus nonheating seasons. Results show that heating compared to nonheating season was associated significantly with higher (BaP-TEQ∑8PAH and (BaP-MEQ∑8PAH both indoors and outdoors (p < 0.001. Outdoor (BaP-TEQ∑8PAH and (BaP-MEQ∑8PAH were significantly higher than the corresponding indoor measures during the heating season (p < 0.01. These findings suggest that at levels encountered in New York City air, especially during the heating season, residential exposure to PAH may pose an increased risk of cancer and mutation.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Larkin, Andrew [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Bradfield, Christopher A. [McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Pereira, Cliff B. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Deptartment of Statistics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H. [Analytical and Environmental Sciences Division, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, King' s College London, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); and others

    2012-11-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by {sup 32}P post‐labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH‐dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p < 0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). -- Highlights: ► Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), 3 PAH mixtures, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were compared. ► DBC and 2 PAH mixtures were more potent than Relative Potency Factor estimates. ► Transcriptome profiles 12 hours post initiation were analyzed by microarray. ► Principle components analysis of alterations revealed treatment-based clustering. ► DBC gave a unique

  20. Determination of semi-volatile and particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Stockholm air with emphasis on the highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Silvia; Lim, Hwanmi; Bergvall, Christoffer; Johansson, Christer; Westerholm, Roger

    2016-09-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been determined in the gaseous phase and in various particulate matter (PM) size fractions at different locations in and outside of Stockholm, Sweden, representative of street level, urban and rural background. The focus has been on the seldom determined but highly carcinogenic dibenzopyrene isomers (DBPs) dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. PAHs with 3 rings were found to be mainly associated with the vapor phase (>90%) whereas PAHs with 5-6 rings were mostly associated with particulate matter (>92%) and the 4-ringed PAHs partitioned between the two phases. PAH abundance was determined to be in the order street level > urban background > rural background with the PM10 street level 2010 mean of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) reaching 0.24 ng/m3, well below the EU annual limit value of 1 ng/m3. In addition, higher PAH concentrations were found in the sub-micron particle fraction (PM1) as compared to the super-micron fraction (PM1-10) with the abundance in PM1 varying between 57 and 86% of the total PAHs. The B[a]P equivalent concentrations derived for DB[a,l]P and total DBPs exceeded 1-2 and 2-4 times, respectively, that of B[a]P at the four sampling sites; therefore underestimation of the cancer risk posed by PAHs in air could be made if the DBPs were not considered in risk assessment using the toxic equivalency approach, whilst the high correlation (p < 0.001) found in the relative concentrations supports the use of B[a]P as a marker substance for assessment of the carcinogenic risk associated to PAHs. However, the big difference in concentration ratios of B[a]P and the DBPs between the present study and some literature data calls for further research to evaluate the temporal and spatial invariance of the B[a]P/DBP ratios.

  1. Contorted polycyclic aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Melissa; Zhong, Yu; Wu, Ying; Schenck, Christine; Ng, Fay; Steigerwald, Michael; Xiao, Shengxiong; Nuckolls, Colin

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: This Account describes a body of research in the design, synthesis, and assembly of molecular materials made from strained polycyclic aromatic molecules. The strain in the molecular subunits severely distorts the aromatic molecules away from planarity. We coined the term "contorted aromatics" to describe this class of molecules. Using these molecules, we demonstrate that the curved pi-surfaces are useful as subunits to make self-assembled electronic materials. We have created and continue to study two broad classes of these "contorted aromatics": discs and ribbons. The figure that accompanies this conspectus displays the three-dimensional surfaces of a selection of these "contorted aromatics". The disc-shaped contorted molecules have well-defined conformations that create concave pi-surfaces. When these disc-shaped molecules are substituted with hydrocarbon side chains, they self-assemble into columnar superstructures. Depending on the hydrocarbon substitution, they form either liquid crystalline films or macroscopic cables. In both cases, the columnar structures are photoconductive and form p-type, hole- transporting materials in field effect transistor devices. This columnar motif is robust, allowing us to form monolayers of these columns attached to the surface of dielectrics such as silicon oxide. We use ultrathin point contacts made from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes that are separated by a few nanometers to probe the electronic properties of short stacks of a few contorted discs. We find that these materials have high mobility and can sense electron-deficient aromatic molecules. The concave surfaces of these disc-shaped contorted molecules form ideal receptors for the molecular recognition and assembly with spherical molecules such as fullerenes. These interfaces resemble ball-and-socket joints, where the fullerene nests itself in the concave surface of the contorted disc. The tightness of the binding between the two partners can be

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some grounded coffee brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Sharma, Rashmi; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-08-01

    Potentially toxic 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in four brands of grounded coffee. Four to 13 PAHs were detected. Concentrations of total PAHs in different brands of coffee samples were in the range of 831.7-1,589.7 μg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in Nescafe Premium whereas naphthalene (2B: possible human carcinogen) was found in all the samples of coffee. PMID:23242460

  3. Occurrence and carcinogenic potential of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some large-scale enclosed/semi-enclosed vehicle parking areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiru; Zeng, Xiangying; Zhang, Delin; Chen, Pei; Yu, Zhiqiang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    2014-06-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originating from vehicle exhaust have aroused much attention due to their potential healthy effect. In this study, air samples were collected from three representative parking lots in a metropolitan area, analyzed for PAHs and evaluated for inhalation risk. Atmospheric PAH levels of these parking areas ranged between 1,178-4,793 ng m(-3), one order of magnitude higher than general urban areas. Their benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) values varied in 11.0-98.0 ng m(-3), far exceeding the air quality standard of WHO (1.0 ng m(-3)). Monte Carlo simulation (100,000 trials) results suggest that the potential lifetime inhalation cancer risks of PAHs were 0.27 × 10(-5) to 7.11 × 10(-5) for park employees, which are in the acceptable range acknowledged by US EPA (1.0 × 10(-6) to 1.0 × 10(-4)). Several source diagnostic methods proved that vehicle exhaust was the dominant PAH contributor of these parks with the contribution percentages being >53%; oil combustion and/or coal combustion were other important sources. Logarithms of gas-particle distribution coefficients (Kps) of PAHs in all studied parks were linearly correlated with those of both their sub-cooled vapor pressures (pLs) and octanol-air partition coefficients (KOAs). The correlation coefficients indicated that both adsorption onto black carbon and absorption into organic matter were involved in the partition process, but the latter was dominant. PMID:24797904

  4. Deuterated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Doney, Kirstin D; Mori, Tamami; Onaka, Takashi; Tielens, A G G M

    2016-01-01

    The amount of deuterium locked up in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has to date been an uncertain value. We present a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic survey of HII regions in the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) obtained with AKARI, which aims to search for features indicative of deuterated PAHs (PAD or Dn-PAH) to better constrain the D/H ratio of PAHs. Fifty-three HII regions were observed in the NIR (2.5-5 {\\mu}m), using the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the AKARI satellite. Through comparison of the observed spectra with a theoretical model of deuterated PAH vibrational modes, the aromatic and (a)symmetric aliphatic C-D stretch modes were identified. We see emission features between 4.4-4.8 {\\mu}m, which could be unambiguously attributed to deuterated PAHs in only six of the observed sources, all of which are located in the Milky Way. In all cases, the aromatic C-D stretching feature is weaker than the aliphatic C-D stretching feature, and, in the case o...

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) occurrence and remediation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Henner, Pascale; Schiavon, Michel; Morel, Jean-Louis; Lichtfouse, Eric

    1997-01-01

    International audience Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic substances occurring at various concentrations in atmosphere, soils, waters and sediments. PAHs, inherited both from natural and anthropogenic processes, are persistent organic pollutants (POP) due to their chemical stability and biodegradation resistance. The increase of road transportation, and of industrial and agricultural activities has led to a notable build up of PAH amounts in ...

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with SPICA

    CERN Document Server

    Berne, O; Mulas, G; Tielens, A G G M; Goicoechea, J R

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to high sensitivity and angular resolution and broad spectral coverage, SPICA will offer a unique opportunity to better characterize the nature of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains (VSGs), to better use them as probes of astrophysical environments. The angular resolution will enable to probe the chemical frontiers in the evolution process from VSGs to neutral PAHs, to ionized PAHs and to "Grand-PAHs" in photodissotiation regions and HII regions, as a function of G$_0$/n (UV radiation field / density). High sensitivity will favor the detection of the far-IR skeletal emission bands of PAHs, which provide specific fingerprints and could lead to the identification of individual PAHs. This overall characterization will allow to use PAH and VSG populations as tracers of physical conditions in spatially resolved protoplanetary disks and nearby galaxies (using mid-IR instruments), and in high redshift galaxies (using the far-IR instrument), thanks to the broad spectral coverage SPIC...

  7. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  8. Longitudinal study of excretion of metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine from two psoriatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Poulsen, O M; Menné, T

    1993-01-01

    Coal tar, which is widely used in the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis, chronic eczema, and psoriasis, contains a large amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Some of the PAH compounds are known either to be carcinogenic or to potentiate the effects of other carcinogenic...

  9. Carcinogenic potential of hydrotreated petroleum aromatic extracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Doak, S. M.; Hend, R W; van der Wiel, A; Hunt, P F

    1985-01-01

    Five experimental petroleum extracts were produced from luboil distillates derived from Middle East paraffinic crude by solvent extraction and severe hydrotreatment. The polycyclic aromatic content (PCA) of the extracts was determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction and ranged from 3.7-9.2% w/w. The five extracts were evaluated for their potential to induce cutaneous and systemic neoplasia in female mice derived from Carworth Farm No 1 strain (CF1). The test substances were applied undilute...

  10. Aromaticity Competition in Differentially Fused Borepin-Containing Polycyclic Aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, Reid E; Siegler, Maxime A; Tovar, John D

    2016-07-01

    This report describes the synthesis and characterization of a series of borepin-based polycyclic aromatics bearing two different arene fusions. The borepin synthesis features streamlined Ti-mediated alkyne reduction, leading to Z-olefins, followed by direct lithiation and borepin formation. These molecules allow for an assessment of aromatic competition between the fused rings and the central borepin core. Crystallographic, magnetic, and computational studies yielded insights about the aromaticity of novel, differentially fused [b,f]borepins and allowed for comparison to literature compounds. Multiple borepin motifs were also incorporated into polycyclic aromatics with five or six rings in the main backbone, and their properties were also evaluated.

  11. PROPOSED PROCEDURE FOR DERIVATION OF REGULATORY VALUES FOR CARCINOGENIC AIRBORNE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) BASED ON COAL TAR PITCH (CTP) VOLATILES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A procedure for estimating upper bound lifetime human cancer risk from air levels of 6 common carcinogenic PAHs, termed "PAHs of concern", is proposed. These PAHs are benzo(a)pyrene, benz(a)anathracene, benzo(k)flouranthene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene and chrysene. In application,...

  12. Application of the Margin of Exposure (MoE) Approach to Substances in Food that are Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Example: Benzo[a]pyrene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the work of an expert group established by the International Life Sciences Institute - European branch (ILSI Europe) to follow up the recommendations of an international conference on "Risk Assessment of Compounds that are both Genotoxic and Carcinogenic: New ...

  13. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the 32P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG)

  14. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabro Nielsen, P.

    1996-12-31

    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG).

  15. Exposure of iron foundry workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Øyvind; Sherson, D; Hansen, Åse Marie;

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in foundry workers has been evaluated by determination of benzo(a)pyrene-serum albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene binding to albumin and 1-hydroxypyrene were quantitatively measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay...... (ELISA) and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. 70 male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. High and low exposure groups were defined from breathing zone hygienic samples, consisting of 16 PAH compounds in particulate and gaseous phase. Mean...... than in smoking and non-smoking controls (0 (0-0.022) and 0 (0-0.010) mumol/mol creatinine). Dose-response relations between total PAH, pyrene, carcinogenic PAHs, and 1-hydroxypyrene for smokers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to dust for non-smokers are suggested. Exposure to PAHs...

  16. Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of carcinogenic aromatic amides and polycyclic hydrocarbons and ultraviolet irradiation in normally repairing and repair-deficient (xeroderma pigmentosum) diploid human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cloning ability of fibroblasts taken from a xeroderma pigmentosum patient proved 2.5 to 3.5 times more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of active derivatives of carcinogens or to uv irradiation than that of normal cells. They also exhibited a corresponding 2.5- to 3.5-fold greater increase in the frequency of induced mutations to 8-azaguanine resistance per survivor, which might have been expected since these XP cells exhibit less than 20 percent of the DNA-repairing capacity of the normal cells following exposure to such DNA-damaging agents

  17. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafoods from Lake Timsah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Gamal A

    2002-03-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrpcarvons (PAHs) in some seafoods caught from Lake Timsah were determined. The tested samples were tilapia fish (Oreochromis aureus), crabs (Portuns pelagicus), bivalves (Venerupis decussata), clams (Strombus tricornis) and gastropods (Munes Sp.). Where these seafoods are locally and favorite consumed foods in the area around the lake (Ismailia governorate). Results showed that crabs contained significantly higher concentrations of both total and carcinogenic PAHs ranging from 1318.6 to 3767.4 and 1230.3 to 3442.2 microg kg(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, clams contained significantly lower levels with mean value of 28.4 microg kg(-1) for total and 24.4 microg kg(-1) for carcinogenic PAHs. The most frequently detected PAHs in the tested samples were indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene followed by benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene which are characterized as carcinogenic compounds. PMID:11970818

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Liu, Hsu-Chung; Mi, Hsiao-Hsuan

    Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 2-7 ring) and regulated air pollutants (CO, HC, NO x, PM) from 2-stroke carburetor (2-Stk/Cb), 4-stroke carburetor (4-Stk/Cb) and 4-stroke fuel injection (4-Stk/FI) motorcycles were investigated by testing these vehicles on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samplings were carried out on diluted exhausts in a dilution tunnel connected to a constant volume sampling system. Measurements were performed on a standard driving cycle. The results reveal that low molecular weight PAHs (especially naphthalene) dominated in the exhaust gas. The averages of soluble organic fractions were 86.4%, 46.3% and 48.9% for the 2-Stk/Cb, 4-Stk/Cb and 4-Stk/FI motorcycles, respectively. PAH emissions are greater from cold-start driving than those from hot-start driving cycle for all these three kinds of motorcycles. Total PAH emission factors were 8320, 5990 and 3390 μg km -1 for the in-used 2-Stk/Cb, 4-Stk/Cb and 4-Stk/FI motorcycles, respectively. PAH emission factors were the largest for the 2-Stk/Cb motorcycles. Besides, the 2-Stk/Cb motorcycle had the largest total BaP equivalent emission factor of 10.8 μg km -1, indicating that the emission exhaust from the 2-Stk/Cb motorcycle was most carcinogenic. HC, PM and PAH emissions were the lowest for the 4-Stk/FI motorcycles. The correlation coefficient between CO and total PAH emissions for all the test motorcycles was 0.51, indicating that CO and PAH emissions are not highly correlated.

  19. Effect of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on nodulation of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 on Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Paredes, Y.; Ferrera-Cerrato, R.; Alarcon, A.

    2009-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous organic pollutants that are considered toxic and carcinogenic compounds to living organisms. There us scarce information about the effect of PAH on symbiotic systems such as Azolla-Anabaena, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-plants, or legume-rhizobia. (Author)

  20. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with special focus on cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are a group of compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings. Most of them are formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials such as wood and fossil fuels, petroleum products, and coal. The composition of PAH mixtures varies with the source and is also affected by selective weathering effects in the environment. PAHs are ubiquitous pollutants frequently found in a variety of environments such as fresh water and marine sediments, the atmosphere, and ice. Due to their widespread distribution, the environmental pollution due to PAHs has aroused global concern. Many PAHs and their epoxides are highly toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic to microorganisms as well as to higher forms of life including humans. The main aim of this review is to provide contemporary information on PAH sources, route of exposure, worldwide emission rate, and adverse effects on humans, especially with reference to cancer.

  1. Spectroscopic Characterisation of Novel Polycyclic Aromatic Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Luke; Lynch, Patrick; McNamara, Mary; Byrne, Hugh

    2007-01-01

    A series of novel polyphenylenevinylene (PPV) derivative polymers were studied by absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies. The effect of the sequential introduction of polycyclic aromatic ring substituents into the delocalized backbone was examined with relation to hypsochromatic and bathochromatic shifting. While the replacement of the phenyl units by naphthyl units results in a substantial hypsochromic shift of both the absorption and emission spectra, their subsequent substitution ...

  2. Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİR, İsmail; DEMİRBAĞ, Zihni

    1999-01-01

    Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as petroleum and petroleum derivatives, are widespread organic pollutants entering the environment, chiefly, through oil spills and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Since most PAHs are persist in the environment for a long period of time and bioaccumulate, they cause environmental pollution and effect biological equilibrium dramatically. Biodegradation of some PAHs by microorganisms has been biochemically and genetically investigated. Ge...

  3. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, C. K.; Schüpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of μg.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  4. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, C K; Schuepfer, P; Boiteux, P, E-mail: chuynh@hospvd.c [Institute for Work and Health, rue du Bugnon 21, CH-1005 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of mug.g{sup -1} or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  5. Calculated molecular properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hites, R.A.; Simonsick, W.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains a compilation of calculated molecular properties for 272 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and monomethylated PAH, listed in sequence according to their increasing molecular weight. The Chemical Abstracts Registry number is also included for easy reference. The molecular properties were calculated using the semiempirical MDCO method with geometric optimization. These parameters include the heats of formation, the frontier orbital energies, the electronic and nuclear energies, the dipole moment, and the net atomic charges on each atom. The shape parameter and the length/breadth ratio from the optimized geometries is also computed.

  6. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water using an electrochemical DNA biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    R Manaffar; B Sehatnia; R Sabzi; Ehsani, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants in aquatic environments. These contaminants are generated through oil spills, manufactory processes, and industrial wastes or naturally through the incomplete combustion of coal, oil, gas, and wood waste. Most of these compounds are noted as carcinogenic and mutagenic. Therefore, detection of these pollutants by a sensitive and inexpensive method is very important. Materials and Method...

  7. Biological monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in a highly polluted area of Poland.

    OpenAIRE

    Ovrebø, S; Fjeldstad, P E; Grzybowska, E; Kure, E H; Chorazy, M; Haugen, A

    1995-01-01

    Air pollution in Poland and particularly in Silesia is among the worst in Europe. Many coal mines and coke oven plants are located in this area, representing a major source of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We quantitated the PAH exposure level in air samples using personal sampling devices, collected urine samples from the same individuals, and measured 1-hydroxypyrene with high performance liquid chromatography. Samples were collected twice, once in February and once ...

  8. Lung cancer mortality and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in British coke oven workers

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Brian G.; Doust, Emma; Cherrie, John W.; Hurley, J Fintan

    2013-01-01

    Background Workers on coke oven plants may be exposed to potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly during work on the ovens tops. Two cohorts, employees of National Smokeless Fuels (NSF) and the British Steel Corporation (BSC) totalling more than 6,600 British coke plant workers employed in 1967, had been followed up to mid-1987 for mortality. Previous analyses suggested an excess in lung cancer risk of around 25%, or less when compared with Social Class I...

  9. Structural Evolution of Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammonds, Mark; Candian, Alessandra; Mori, Tamami; Usui, Fumihiko; Onaka, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important reservoir for molecular carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM), and investigations into their chemistry and behaviour may be important to the understanding of how carbon is processed from simple forms into complex prebiotic molecules such as those detected in chondritic meteorites. In this study, infrared astronomical data from AKARI and other observatories are used together with laboratory and theoretical data to study variations in the structure of emitting PAHs in interstellar environments using spectroscopic decomposition techniques and bands arising from carbon-hydrogen bond vibrations at wavelengths from 3 - 14 microns. Results and inferences are discussed in terms of the processing of large carbonaceous molecules in astrophysical environments.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values yogurts with low and high fats were compared.

  11. Alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel/biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Carina S.; Arbilla, Graciela; Corrêa, Sergio M.

    2014-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely studied in environmental matrices, such as air, water, soil and sediment, because of their toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of these properties, the environmental agencies of developed countries have listed sixteen PAHs as priority pollutants. Few countries have limits for these compounds for ambient air, but they only limit emissions from stationary and mobile sources and occupational areas. There are several studies to specifically address the 16 priority PAHs and very little for the alkyl PAHs. These compounds are more abundant, more persistent and frequently more toxic than the non-alkylated PAHs, and the toxicity increases with the number of alkyl substitutions on the aromatic ring. In this study, a method was developed for the analysis of PAHs and alkyl PAHs by using a GC-MS and large injection volume injection coupled with program temperature vaporisation, which allows for limits of detection below 1.0 ng μL-1. Several variables were tested, such as the injection volume, injection velocity, injector initial temperature, duration of the solvent split and others. This method was evaluated in samples from particulate matter from the emissions of engines employing standard diesel, commercial diesel and biodiesel B20. Samples were collected on a dynamometer bench for a diesel engine cycle and the results ranged from 0.5 to 96.9 ng mL-1, indicating that diesel/biodiesel makes a significant contribution to the formation of PAHs and alkyl PAHs.

  12. Vehicular Traffic–Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H.; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Richardson, David B; Millikan, Robert C.; Engel, Lawrence S; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E.; Neugut, Alfred I; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in laboratory animals. However, the association between PAHs and breast cancer in women is unclear. Vehicular traffic is a major ambient source of PAH exposure. Objectives Our study aim was to evaluate the association between residential exposure to vehicular traffic and breast cancer incidence. Methods Residential histories of 1,508 particip...

  13. Repair of DNA damage induced by anthanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) without bay or fjord regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Johannessen, Christian; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants, formed during incomplete burning of coal, oil and gas. Several PAHs have carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies, but these compounds must be activated in order to exert their mutagenic effects. One of the principal pathways...

  14. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Grutters, M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PA

  15. Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Titan's Atmosphere, the Interstellar Medium and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landera, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Several different mechanisms leading to the formation of (substituted) naphthalene and azanaphthalenes were examined using theoretical quantum chemical calculations. As a result, a series of novel synthetic routes to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (N-PACs) have been proposed. On Earth, these aromatic compounds originate from incomplete combustion and are released into our environment, where they are known to be major pollutants, often with carcinogenic properties. In the atmosphere of a Saturn's moon Titan, these PAH and N-PACs are believed to play a critical role in organic haze formation, as well as acting as chemical precursors to biologically relevant molecules. The theoretical calculations were performed by employing the ab initio G3(MP2,CC)/B3LYP/6-311G** method to effectively probe the Potential Energy Surfaces (PES) relevant to the PAH and N-PAC formation. Following the construction of the PES, Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus (RRKM) theory was used to evaluate all unimolecular rate constants as a function of collision energy under single-collision conditions. Branching ratios were then evaluated by solving phenomenological rate expressions for the various product concentrations. The most viable pathways to PAH and N-PAC formation were found to be those where the initial attack by the ethynyl (C2H) or cyano (CN) radical toward a unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule led to the formation of an intermediate which could not effectively lose a hydrogen atom. It is not until ring cyclization has occurred, that hydrogen elimination leads to a closed shell product. By quenching the possibility of the initial hydrogen atom elimination, one of the most competitive processes preventing the PAH or N-PAC formation was avoided, and the PAH or N-PAC formation was allowed to proceed. It is concluded that these considerations should be taken into account when attempting to explore any other potential routes towards

  16. Environmental Remediation: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah

    2012-11-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous persistent semi-volatile organic compounds. They are contaminants that are resistant to degradation and can remain in the environment for long periods due to their high degree of conjugation, and aromaticity. PAHs are present in industrial effluents as products of incomplete combustion processes of organic compounds. Petroleum, coal and shale oil contain extremely complex mixtures of these PAHs, and their transport and refining process can also result in the release of PAHs. It is therefore prudent that such effluents are treated before discharge into the environment. In this project, different approaches to the treatment of PAHs have been investigated. Hydrous pyrolysis has been explored as a potential technique for degrading PAHs in water using anthracene as a model compound. The experiments were performed under different conditions of temperature, substrate, redox systems and durations. The conditions include oxidising systems comprising pure water, hydrogen peroxide and Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts to assess a range of reactivities. Products observed in GCMS analysis of the extract from the water phase include anthrone, anthraquinone, xanthone and multiple hydro-anthracene derivatives (Paper I). In addition a modified version of the Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water oxidising system was tested; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts were adopted for the conversion of a mixture of anthracene, fluorene and fluoranthene. The rate of conversion in the mixture was high as compared to that of only anthracene (Paper II). Also the use of LECA (Lightweight expanded clay aggregates) as an adsorbent (Paper III) for PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) removal from water has been.(Author)

  17. Porphyrins Fused with Unactivated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Diev, Vyacheslav V.

    2012-01-06

    A systematic study of the preparation of porphyrins with extended conjugation by meso,β-fusion with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is reported. The meso-positions of 5,15-unsubstituted porphyrins were readily functionalized with PAHs. Ring fusion using standard Scholl reaction conditions (FeCl 3, dichloromethane) occurs for perylene-substituted porphyrins to give a porphyrin β,meso annulated with perylene rings (0.7:1 ratio of syn and anti isomers). The naphthalene, pyrene, and coronene derivatives do not react under Scholl conditions but are fused using thermal cyclodehydrogenation at high temperatures, giving mixtures of syn and anti isomers of the meso,β-fused porphyrins. For pyrenyl-substituted porphyrins, a thermal method gives synthetically acceptable yields (>30%). Absorption spectra of the fused porphyrins undergo a progressive bathochromic shift in a series of naphthyl (λ max = 730 nm), coronenyl (λ max = 780 nm), pyrenyl (λ max = 815 nm), and perylenyl (λ max = 900 nm) annulated porphyrins. Despite being conjugated with unsubstituted fused PAHs, the β,meso-fused porphyrins are more soluble and processable than the parent nonfused precursors. Pyrenyl-fused porphyrins exhibit strong fluorescence in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, with a progressive improvement in luminescent efficiency (up to 13% with λ max = 829 nm) with increasing degree of fusion. Fused pyrenyl-porphyrins have been used as broadband absorption donor materials in photovoltaic cells, leading to devices that show comparatively high photovoltaic efficiencies. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong-cang; JIN Bao-sheng; ZHONG Zhao-ping; HUANG Ya-ji; XIAO Rui; LI Da-ji

    2005-01-01

    The hazardous organic pollutants generated from coal gasification, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. More researchers have paid particular attention to them. Using air and steam as gasification medium, the experiments of three kinds of coals were carried out in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. The contents of the 16 PAHs specified by US EPA in raw coal, slag, bag house coke, cyclone coke and gas were measured by HPLC to study the contents of PAHs in raw coal and the effects of the inherent characters of coals on the formation and release of PAHs in coal gasification. The experimental results showed that the distributions of PAHs in the gasified products are similar to raw coals and the total-PAHs content in coal gasification is higher than in raw coal(except Coal C). The total-PAHs contents increase and then decrease with the rise of fixed carbon and sulfur of coal while there has an opposite variation when volatile matters content increase. The quantities of PAHs reduce with the increase of ash content or the drop of heating value during coal gasification.

  19. Partition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on organobentonites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of organobentonites synthesized by exchanging organiccation such as dodecyltri-methylammonium (DTMA),benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium (BDTDA), cetyltrimethyl-ammonium (CTMA), octodeyltrimethylammonium (OTMA) on bentonite. The optimal condition, properties and mechanisms for the organobentonites to sorb phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, acenaphthene in water were investigated in detail. The partition behavior was determined for four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and acenaphthene, from water to a series of organobentonites. The interlayer spacings and organic carbon contents of organobentonites, removal rate and sorption capacities for organobentonites to treat phenanthrene,anthracene, naphthalene, acenaphthene were correlated to the length of alkyl chains and the amounts of cation surfactant exchanged on Foundation item: the bentonite. Phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, and acenaphthene sorption to organobentonites were characterized by linear isotherms, indicating solute partition between water and the organic phase composed of the large alkyl functional groups of quaternary ammonium cations. PAHs distribution coefficients (Kd)between organobentonites and water were proportional to the organic carbon contents of organobentonites. However, the partition coefficients (Koc) were nearly constants for PAHs in the system of organobentonite-water. The Koc of phenanthrene, anthracene,naphthalene, acenaphthene were 2.621x105, 2.106x105, 2.247x104,5.085x104, respectively. The means Koc values on the organobentonites are about ten to twenty times larger than the values on the soils/sediments, what is significant prerequisite for organobentonite to apply to remediation of pollution soil and groundwater. The sorption mechanism was also evaluated from octanol-water partition coefficients and aqueous solubility of PAHs. The correlations between lgKoc and 1gkow, 1gKoc and 1gS for PAHs in the system of water

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulates emitted by motorcycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined eleven PAHs and four NPAHs in particulates and regulated pollutants (CO, CO2, HC, NOx, PM) exhausted from motorcycles to figure out the characteristics of motorcycle exhausts. Fluoranthene and pyrene accounted for more than 50% of the total detected PAHs. Among four detected NPAHs, 6-nitrochrysene and 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene were the predominant NPAHs and were highly correlated relationship with their parent PAHs (R = 0.93 and 0.97, respectively). The PM and HC emissions tended to be close to the PAH emissions. NOx and NPAHs were negatively correlated. Despite their small engine size, motorcycles emitted much more PM and PAHs, showed stronger PAH-related carcinogenicity and indirect-acting mutagenicity, but weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenic potency than automobiles. This is the first study to analyze both PAHs and NPAHs emitted by motorcycles, which could provide useful information to design the emission regulations and standards for motorcycles such as PM. -- Highlights: ► We characterized PAHs and NPAHs distribution in motorcycle exhausts. ► NPAHs concentrations were about three orders of magnitude lower than those of PAHs. ► We found larger amounts of PM and PAHs in exhaust of motorcycles than of automobiles. ► Motorcycles showed stronger PAH-related toxicity than automobiles. ► Motorcycles showed weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenicity than automobiles. -- Control polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in particulates emitted by motorcycles due to their toxic potency

  1. Airborne Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Among Workers in Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, David C; Osborn, Linda V; Johnson, Kathleen A; Fayerweather, William E

    2015-01-01

    We studied exposure of 151 workers to polycyclic aromatic compounds and asphalt emissions during the manufacturing of asphalt roofing products-including 64 workers from 10 asphalt plants producing oxidized, straight-run, cutback, and wax- or polymer-modified asphalts, and 87 workers from 11 roofing plants producing asphalt shingles and granulated roll roofing. The facilities were located throughout the United States and used asphalt from many refiners and crude oils. This article helps fill a gap in exposure data for asphalt roofing manufacturing workers by using a fluorescence technique that targets biologically active 4-6 ring polycyclic aromatic compounds and is strongly correlated with carcinogenic activity in animal studies. Worker exposures to polycyclic aromatic compounds were compared between manufacturing plants, at different temperatures and using different raw materials, and to important external benchmarks. High levels of fine limestone particulate in the plant air during roofing manufacturing increased polycyclic aromatic compound exposure, resulting in the hypothesis that the particulate brought adsorbed polycyclic aromatic compounds to the worker breathing zone. Elevated asphalt temperatures increased exposures during the pouring of asphalt. Co-exposures in these workplaces which act as confounders for both the measurement of total organic matter and fluorescence were detected and their influence discussed. Exposures to polycyclic aromatic compounds in asphalt roofing manufacturing facilities were lower than or similar to those reported in hot-mix paving application studies, and much below those reported in studies of hot application of built-up roofing asphalt. These relatively low exposures in manufacturing are primarily attributed to air emission controls in the facilities, and the relatively moderate temperatures, compared to built-up roofing, used in these facilities for oxidized asphalt. The exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds was a very

  2. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlewska-Roberts, Katarzyna M; Teitel, Candee H; Lay, Jackson O; Roberts, Dean W; Kadlubar, Fred F

    2004-12-01

    Lactoperoxidase, an enzyme secreted from the human mammary gland, plays a host defensive role through antimicrobial activity. It has been implicated in mutagenic and carcinogenic activation in the human mammary gland. The potential role of heterocyclic and aromatic amines in the etiology of breast cancer led us to examination of the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of the most commonly studied arylamine carcinogens: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). In vitro activation was performed with lactoperoxidase (partially purified from bovine milk or human milk) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and calf thymus DNA. Products formed during enzymatic activation were monitored by HPLC with ultraviolet and radiometric detection. Two of these products were characterized as hydrazo and azo derivatives by means of mass spectrometry. The DNA binding level of 3H- and 14C-radiolabeled amines after peroxidase-catalyzed activation was dependent on the hydrogen peroxide concentration, and the highest levels of carcinogen binding to DNA were observed at 100 microM H2O2. Carcinogen activation and the level of binding to DNA were in the order of benzidine > ABP > IQ > MeIQx > PhIP. One of the ABP adducts was identified, and the level at which it is formed was estimated to be six adducts/10(5) nucleotides. The susceptibility of aromatic and heterocyclic amines for lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation and the binding levels of activated products to DNA suggest a potential role of lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogens in the etiology of breast cancer.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's experimental coal program: minimizing the hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, R.C. III; Cochran, H.D.; Bolton, N.E.

    1977-01-01

    Many processing techniques for the liquefaction or gasification of coal are being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and elsewhere. Although different in many other respects, all coal conversion processes produce a liquid effluent comprising a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. Such mixtures invariably contain significant amounts of polycyclic, aromatic compounds, some of which are known to be highly active carcinogens. The underlying philosophy that has been adopted for the protection of personnel involved in experimental coal processing operations is defined, and procedures that have been instituted to govern the conduct of such experimental work and handling of associated coal-derived liquids are detailed.

  4. Dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after hairwash with coal-tar shampoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooten, F.-J. van; Moonen, E.J.C.; Rhijnsburger, E.; Agen, B. van; Thijssen, H.H.W.; Kleinjans, J.C.S. [University of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology

    1994-11-26

    Describes an experiment to assess the dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after hairwashing with coal tar antidandruff shampoo. The urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-P), a PAH metabolile was used to assess internal dose of PAH. A single use of coal tar shampoo resulted in increased 1-OH-P excretion in all members of the experimental group compared with the control group using a non-coal tar antidandruff shampoo. It is suggested that repeated use of coal tar shampoo would result in a high internal dose of carcinogenic PAH. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH during woodworking operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evin Danisman Bruschweiler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC. Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools.To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common woodworking operations, PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n=30 were collected.Wood dust was generated using tree different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF, beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personnel sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatographic-ion trap mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS.Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24 – 7.95 ppm with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal exposures to PAHs observed were between 37.5-119.8 ng m-3 among workers during wood working operations.Our results suggest that PAH exposures during woodworking operation are present and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure.

  6. Bioavailability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils and Sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a group of priority pollutants which are of increasing environmental concern because of their adverse effects on humans, animals, and plants. Soils and sediments generally serve as a sink for PAHs, which leads to the accumulation of PAHs at contamin

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples of meat smokehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Olsen, I L; Poulsen, O M

    1992-01-01

    In a screening programme nine Danish meat smokehouses were randomly selected for measurements on concentration of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A total of 23 stationary air samples were collected during the entire working period of the kiln either above the kiln doors or approx...

  8. THE RATES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM INCENSE BURNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents the results of experiments performed to determine the amounts of gas- and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in incense smoke. Ten brands of incense, 3 of stick, 2 of joss stick, and one each of cone, smudge bundle, rope, powder, and rock, w...

  9. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in ...

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish barbecued meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Meinert, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    Barbecuing is known to result in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A validated method that employed pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on Silica and analytical determination by GC-MS was applied...

  11. Biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Giessing, Anders; Rasmussen, Lene Juel;

    2008-01-01

    Deposit-feeding polychaetes constitute the dominant macrofauna in marine environments that tend to be depositional centers for organic matter and contaminants. Polychaetes are known to accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from both particulate and dissolved phases but less is known...

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around Guanting Reservoir, Beijing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, W.T.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Li, J.; Han, Jingyi; Wang, G.; Hu, W.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( 16PAHs) were measured by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) in 56 topsoil samples around Guanting Reservior (GTR), which is an important water source for Beijing. Low to medium levels of PAH contamination

  13. Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Characterization of Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikilili, P. V.; Chirwa, E. M. N.

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was studied. Naphthalene was used as a model compound to represent these compounds. Low initial concentrations of naphthalene in a range of 30-60 mg/L were completely degraded after incubation for 15 hrs by consortia from a landfill soil while consortia from minewater took more that 29 hrs to reach complete degradation.

  14. Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements with botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    OpenAIRE

    Martena, Martijn J.; Grutters, Michiel; De Groot, Henk; Konings, Erik; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified 8 priority PAH (PAH8) or 4 of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PAH in food. The current study aims to determine benzo[a]pyrene and other EFSA priority PAH in different categories of food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients. In 20...

  15. An Emission Inventory of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xilong; Zhu, Xianlei; Wang, Xuesong

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most dangerous compounds due to their high carcinogenic and mutagenic character. Emission inventory provides the primary data to account for the sources of ambient PAHs and server as a necessary database for effective PAHs pollution control. China is experiencing fast economic growth and large energy consumption, which might result in a large amount of PAHs anthropogenic emissions. Therefore, based on the previous studies and combined recently field emission measurements as well as socio-economic activity data, the development of a nationwide PAHs emission inventory is needed. In this work, the emission inventory of 16 PAHs listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants in China in the year 2012 is compiled. The emission amounts of PAHs were estimated as annual rates of emission-related activities multiplied by respective emission factors. The activities such as fuel consumption, including fossil fuel and biofuel, and socio-economic statistics were obtained from yearbook released by Chinese central government and/or provincial governments, as well as related industry reports. Emission factors were derived from the related literature. Recently reported emission factors from local measurements were used. The total emissions of PAHs were 120611 ton in 2012. In China, PAHs were emitted predominantly from domestic combustion of coal and biofuel, coking industry and motor vehicles, accounting for 72% of the total amount. PAHs emission profiles were significantly different between China and the other countries. The emission profile in China featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic combustion and coking industry. Domestic combustion of straw, coal and firewood emitted 19464 ton, 8831 ton, and 5062 ton of PAHs, respectively, which were much higher than those in other countries. Emission per capita showed

  16. Correlation between atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and urinary hydroxyl metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in elderly population in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓蕾

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify suitable hydroxyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(OH-PAHs) for co-evaluation of internal exposure level of PAHs by simultaneous determination of a variety of OH-PAHs in urine. Methods The 24-h individual particulate matter and morning urine

  17. Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Osaka Bay, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Contamination of sediment by PAHs and alkylated PAHs was investigated in Osaka Bay. • The major sources appeared to be pyrogenic or both pyrogenic and petrogenic. • PAH concentrations were remarkably high at a site near Kobe. • PAHs in Kobe may have been derived from the fire associated with the earthquake. - Abstract: Contaminations in sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs were investigated at 44 sites in Osaka Bay, Japan. Concentrations of total PAHs and alkylated PAHs were in the range 6.40–7800 ng/g dry weights and 13.7–1700 ng/g dry weights, respectively. The PAH concentrations tended to be higher along the shoreline in the vicinities of big ports, industrialized areas, and densely populated regions such as the cities of Osaka and Kobe. The major sources appeared to be pyrogenic or both pyrogenic and petrogenic at most of the sites. PAH concentrations were remarkably high at a site near Kobe, where the concentrations of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene exceeded the effects-range-medium concentration and eight PAHs were above the corresponding effects-range-low concentrations. Those PAHs may have been derived from the great fire associated with the large earthquake in 1995

  18. Risk of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause adverse effects on human health. The relative contributions of their two major intake routes (diet and inhalation) to population PAH exposure are still unclear. We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to the overall PAH exposure of the population of Beijing in China, and assessed their human incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) using a Mont Carlo simulation approach. The results showed that diet accounted for about 85% of low-molecular-weight PAH (L-PAH) exposure, while inhalation accounted for approximately 57% of high-molecular-weight PAH (H-PAH) exposure of the Beijing population. Meat and cereals were the main contributors to dietary PAH exposure. Both gaseous- and particulate-phase PAHs contributed to L-PAH exposure through inhalation, whereas exposure to H-PAHs was mostly from the particulate-phase. To reduce the cancer incidence of the Beijing population, more attention should be given to inhaled particulate-phase PAHs with considerable carcinogenic potential. - Highlights: • We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to population PAH exposure. • Diet contributed 85% of population exposure to low molecular-weight PAHs. • Inhalation contributed 57% of population exposure to high molecular-weight PAHs. • The PAH exposure level with body-weight adjustment decreased with age increasing. • The population cancer risk of PAH exposure is lower than the serious risk level. - The exposure of the Beijing population to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was mainly from inhaled particulate matter

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric depositions around the Venice Lagoon

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini, Paolo; Matteucci, Gabriele; Raccanelli, Stefano; Favotto, Maurizio; Guerzoni, Stefano; Gattolin, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Studies have revealed the potential risks to which human health and ecosystems are exposed in the Venice Lagoon, due to the atmospheric deposition of persistent pollutants such as trace metals and organic compounds. A total of 77 atmospheric bulk deposition samples were collected monthly from April 2002 to December 2004, from three sites located in the cities of Mestre and Venice, and inside the industrial area of Porto Marghera. Samples were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS for polycyclic aromatic hydr...

  20. THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricca, Alessandra [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Allamandola, Louis J., E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov [Space Science Division, Mail Stop 245-6, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Dagang Oilfield (China: Distribution, Sources, and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Jiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in 27 upper layer (0–25 cm soil samples collected from the Dagang Oilfield (China in April 2013 to estimate their distribution, possible sources, and potential risks posed. The total concentrations of PAHs (∑PAHs varied between 103.6 µg·kg−1 and 5872 µg·kg−1, with a mean concentration of 919.8 µg·kg−1; increased concentrations were noted along a gradient from arable desert soil (mean 343.5 µg·kg−1, to oil well areas (mean of 627.3 µg·kg−1, to urban and residential zones (mean of 1856 µg·kg−1. Diagnostic ratios showed diverse source of PAHs, including petroleum, liquid fossil fuels, and biomass combustion sources. Combustion sources were most significant for PAHs in arable desert soils and residential zones, while petroleum sources were a significant source of PAHs in oilfield areas. Based ontheir carcinogenity, PAHs were classified as carcinogenic (B or not classified/non-carcinogenic (NB. The total concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs (∑BPAHs varied from 13.3 µg·kg−1 to 4397 µg·kg−1 across all samples, with a mean concentration of 594.4 µg·kg−1. The results suggest that oilfield soil is subject to a certain level of ecological environment risk.

  2. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coking industries in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Mu; Lin Peng; Junji Cao; Qiusheng He; Fan Li; Jianqiang Zhang; Xiaofeng Liu

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to assess the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from coking industries,with field samplings conducted at four typical coke plants.For each selected plant,stack flue gas samples were collected during processes that included charging coal into the ovens (CC),pushing coke (PC) and the combustion of coke-oven gas (CG).Sixteen individual PAHs on the US EPA priority list were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).Results showed that the total PAH concentrations in the flue gas ranged from 45.776 to 414.874 μg/m3,with the highest emission level for CC (359.545 μg/m3).The concentration of PAH emitted from the CC process in CP1 (stamp charging) was lower than that from CP3 and CP4 (top charging).Low-molecular-weight PAHs (i.e.,two-to three-ring PAHs) were predominant contributors to the total PAH contents,and Nap,AcPy,Flu,PhA,and AnT were found to be the most abundant ones.Total BaPeq concentrations for CC (2.248 iμg/m3) were higher than those for PC (1.838 μg/m3) and CG (1.082 μg/m3),and DbA was an important contributor to carcinogenic risk as BaP in emissions from coking processes.Particulate PAH accounted for more than 20% of the total BaPeq concentrations,which were significantly higher than the corresponding contributions to the total PAH mass concentration (5%).Both particulate and gaseous PAH should be taken into consideration when the potential toxicity risk of PAH pollution during coking processes is assessed.The mean total-PAH emission factors were 346.132 and 93.173 μg/kg for CC and PC,respectively.

  3. Biodegradation Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Petroleum Oil Contaminating The Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants in urban atmospheres (Chen et al., 2013). PAHs enter the environment via incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and accidental leakage of petroleum products, and as components of products such as creosote (Muckian et al., 2009). Due to PAHs carcinogenic activity, they have been included in the European Union (EU) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority pollutant lists. Human exposure to PAHs occurs in three ways, inhalation, dermal contact and consumption of contaminated foods, which account for 88-98% of such contamination; in other words, diet is the major source of human exposure to these contaminants (Rey-Salgueiro et al., 2008). Both the World Health Organization and the UK Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (EPAQS) have considered benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a marker of the carcinogenic potency of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) mixture (Delgado-Saborit et al., 2011). Polycyclic aromatic and heavier aliphatic hydrocarbons, which have a stable recalcitrant molecular structure, exhibit high hydrophobicity and low aqueous solubility, are not readily removed from soil through leaching and volatilization (Brassington et al., 2007). The hydrophobicity of PAHs limits desorption to the aqueous phase (Donlon et al., 2002). Six main ways of dissipation, i.e. disappearance, are recognized in the environment: volatilization, photooxidation, Aim of the Work chemical oxidation, sorption, leaching and biodegradation. Microbial degradation is considered to be the main process involved in the dissipation of PAH (Yuan et al., 2002). Thus, more and more research interests are turning to the biodegradation of PAHs. Some microorganisms can utilize PAHs as a source of carbon and energy so that PAHs can be degraded to carbon dioxide and water, or transformed to other nontoxic or low-toxic substances (Perelo, 2010). Compared with other physical and chemical methods such as combustion

  4. Tumour-promoting activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated or nitrated derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Kentaro; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji; Yanagida, Mitsuaki

    2016-03-01

    Various types of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in diesel exhaust particles are thought to contribute to carcinogenesis in mammals. Although the carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and tumour-initiating activity of these compounds have been evaluated, their tumour-promoting activity is unclear. In the present study, to determine the tumour-inducing activity of PACs, including previously known mutagenic compounds in atmospheric environments, a transformation assay for promoting activity mediated by the release of contact inhibition was conducted for six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) and seven nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs) using mouse embryonic fibroblast cells transfected with the v-Ha-ras gene (Bhas 42 cells). Of these, two PAHs [benzo[k]fluoranthene (B[k]FA) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]FA)], one oxy-PAH [6H-benzo[cd]pyren-6-one (BPO)] and two nitro-PAHs (3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one and 6-nitrochrysene) were found to exhibit particularly powerful tumour-promoting activity (≥10 foci following exposure to BPO). Further, an HO-1 antioxidant response activation was observed following exposure to B[k]FA, B[b]FA and BPO, suggesting that the induction of tumour-promoting activity in these compounds is correlated with the dysfunction of signal transduction via AhR-mediated responses and/or oxidative stress responses.

  5. Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in European coke oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaska, Glenn; Thoroman, Jeff; Schuman, Brenda; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    Biomonitoring is an excellent method for capturing the results of all exposures, regardless of route. Coke oven workers include certain groups that have the potential for high exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other materials. Biomarkers of exposure to these agents include PAH metabolites as markers of internal dose and carcinogen-DNA adducts as measure of effective dose. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of these biomarkers in persons with different job duties in a modern coke oven plant. We report that the mean levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1HP) and carcinogen DNA adducts in the exfoliated urothelial cells of coke oven workers are increased the closer a group of workers is to the ovens and highest in the top oven workers with average 1HP level of 11.6 μg/l and 22 adducts per 10(9) unadducted nucleotides. Both 1HP and carcinogen DNA adduct levels increased in supervisors, area workers, side oven workers, top and side oven workers, and top oven workers, respectively. These data are the first to demonstrate an increase in target organ genotoxicity in coke oven workers and a relationship with other biomarkers. Future studies will determine the identity of the DNA adducts, their correlation with 1HP levels and the relationship between levels in individual workers. PMID:25445007

  6. Analysis of 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smokeless tobacco by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Irina; Villalta, Peter W; Knezevich, Aleksandar; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S

    2010-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco contains 28 known carcinogens and causes precancerous oral lesions and oral and pancreatic cancer. A recent study conducted by our research team identified eight different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in U.S. moist snuff, encouraging further investigations of this group of toxicants and carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products. In this study, we developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method that allows simultaneous analysis of 23 various PAHs in smokeless tobacco after a simple two-step extraction and purification procedure. The method produced coefficients of variation under 10% for most PAHs. The limits of quantitation for different PAHs varied between 0.3 and 11 ng/g tobacco, starting with a 300 mg sample. The recovery of the stable isotope-labeled internal standards averaged 87%. The method was applied to analysis of 23 moist snuff samples that included various flavors of the most popular U.S. moist snuff brands, as well as 17 samples representing the currently marketed brands of spit-free tobacco pouches, a relatively new type of smokeless tobacco. The sum of all detected PAHs in conventional moist snuff averaged 11.6 (+/-3.7) microg/g dry weight; 20% of this amount was comprised of carcinogenic PAHs. The levels of PAHs in new spit-free tobacco products were much lower than those in moist snuff; the sum of all detected PAHs averaged 1.3 (+/-0.28) microg/g dry weight. Our findings render PAHs one of the most prevalent groups of carcinogens in smokeless tobacco. Urgent measures are required from the U.S. tobacco industry to modify manufacturing processes so that the levels of these toxicants and carcinogens in U.S. moist snuff are greatly reduced.

  7. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Asia: A review from 1999 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in both gaseous and particulate phases. These compounds are considered to be atmospheric contaminants and are human carcinogens. Many studies have monitored atmospheric particulate and gaseous phases of PAH in Asia over the past 5 years. This work compares and discusses different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods. The main PAH sources are traffic exhausts (AcPy, FL, Flu, PA, Pyr, CHR, BeP) and industrial emissions (BaP, BaA, PER, BeP, COR, CYC). PAH concentrations are highest in areas of traffic, followed by the urban sites, and lowest in rural sites. Meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed and humidity, strongly affect PAH concentrations at all sampling sites. This work elucidates the characteristics, sources and distribution, and the healthy impacts of atmospheric PAH species in Asia. - This work summarizes the characteristics, sources and distribution, and the healthy impacts of atmospheric PAH species in Asia

  8. Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs. PMID:24100092

  9. [Limit values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil of children's playgrounds--basic criteria and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscher, E; Liebl, B; Schwegler, U; Schmied, R; Kerscher, G

    1996-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAK) are often found in the soil of former waste disposal sites, industrial areas, etc. It is desirable and useful to determine orientation values to facilitate and unify the evaluation of contaminations under the aspects of present or planned uses of an area, health protection and decision-making on remedial measures. In the present paper we wish to draw attention to, and discuss problems resulting from, particular characteristics of PAK, e.g. the toxicological property "complete carcinogens" or the necessity of taking into account oral, inhalative and dermal exposure of children on a playground. Based on the discussion, orientation values for benzo[a]pyrene and PAK ("normal" pattern) of 0.5 mg/kg soil and 5 mg/kg soil, respectively, are recommended for top soil of vegetation-free playgrounds. In comparison, deductions carried out by other working groups are presented.

  10. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  11. Failure of hydrogenation in protecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Gatchell, Michael; de Ruette, Nathalie; Chen, Tao; Giacomozzi, Linda; Nascimento, Rodrigo F; Wolf, Michael; Anderson, Emma K; Delaunay, Rudy; Viziano, Violaine; Rousseau, Patrick; Adoui, Lamri; Huber, Bernd A; Schmidt, Henning T; Zettergren, Henning; Cederquist, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    A recent study of soft X-ray absorption in native and hydrogenated coronene cations, C$_{24}$H$_{12+m}^+$ $m=0-7$, led to the conclusion that additional hydrogen atoms protect (interstellar) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules from fragmentation [Reitsma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 053002 (2014)]. The present experiment with collisions between fast (30-200 eV) He atoms and pyrene (C$_{16}$H$_{10+m}^+$, $m=0$, 6, and 16) and simulations without reference to the excitation method suggests the opposite. We find that the absolute carbon-backbone fragmentation cross section does not decrease but increases with the degree of hydrogenation for pyrene molecules.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S; Li, K; Xia, X J; Xu, X B

    2009-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PAH concentrations in 13 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 0.18 to 3.52 microg g(-1). Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that the PAHs were derived from a coal combustion source, although various effects of traffic emissions were also observed. Furthermore, the PAH levels in Beijing tended to be higher in the southeast. Finally, the nemerow composite index revealed that the degree of pollution in the sandstorm depositions varied widely among sampling sites. PMID:18773130

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, S.; Li, K.; Xia, X.J.; Xu, X.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-02-15

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PAH concentrations in 13 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 0.18 to 3.52 {mu} g g{sup -1}. Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that the PAHs were derived from a coal combustion source, although various effects of traffic emissions were also observed. Furthermore, the PAH levels in Beijing tended to be higher in the southeast. Finally, the Nemerow composite index revealed that the degree of pollution in the sandstorm depositions varied widely among sampling sites.

  14. Partially oxidized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons show an increased bioavailability and biodegradability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, R.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Doddema, H.J.; Field, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have a low water solubility and tend to adsorb on soil particles, which both result in slow bioremediation processes. Many microorganisms, known for their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, only partially oxidize these compounds. White rot fungi, fo

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Are They a Problem in Processed Oil Shales?

    OpenAIRE

    Maase, David L.; Adams, V. Dean

    1983-01-01

    Organic residues from processed oil shales were characterisized with specific attention to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Oil shale development in the White River Basin (Utah and Colorado) was projected and hydrological and geological parameters pertinent to estimations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) flux were focused. Oil shale samples from the Union B, Paraho, and Tosco II processes were extr...

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the South American environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Ricardo; Castillo, Caroline; Torres, Joao Paulo Machado

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) should be a global concern, especially in urbanized areas. In South American countries, where notable increase in urban populations has been observed in the past few years, reliable information about the pollution status of these urban environments is not always easily accessible, and therefore an effort to collect updated information is required. This review attempts to contribute by analyzing the existing information regarding environmental levels of PAHs in some South American countries. A regional trend for environmental PAH information is an uneven contribution, because some countries, such as Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, and Ecuador, have reported no information at all in the scientific literature, reflecting to a certain extent the different patterns of economic, technical, and scientific development. PAH air monitoring is one of the areas that has received the most attention during the last few years, mainly in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina, where data represent a few geographical areas within the region. PAH levels in air from some urban areas in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, considered moderate to high (100-1000ng/m3), are probably among the highest values reported in the open literature. Urbanization, vehicle pollution, and wood fires are the principal contributors to the high reported levels. In more temperate areas, a clear distinction is observed between summer and winter levels. PAH monitoring in soils is very limited within the region, with few data available, and most information indicates widespread pollution. In Brazil, values for many representative ecosystems were found. In Chile, data from forestry and agricultural areas indicate in general low concentrations, in spite of a relatively high detection frequency. Pollution levels in soils are highly dependent on their closeness to PAH sources and certain cultural practices (agricultural burnings, forest fires, etc.). Water PAH

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the South American environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Ricardo; Castillo, Caroline; Torres, Joao Paulo Machado

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) should be a global concern, especially in urbanized areas. In South American countries, where notable increase in urban populations has been observed in the past few years, reliable information about the pollution status of these urban environments is not always easily accessible, and therefore an effort to collect updated information is required. This review attempts to contribute by analyzing the existing information regarding environmental levels of PAHs in some South American countries. A regional trend for environmental PAH information is an uneven contribution, because some countries, such as Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, and Ecuador, have reported no information at all in the scientific literature, reflecting to a certain extent the different patterns of economic, technical, and scientific development. PAH air monitoring is one of the areas that has received the most attention during the last few years, mainly in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina, where data represent a few geographical areas within the region. PAH levels in air from some urban areas in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, considered moderate to high (100-1000ng/m3), are probably among the highest values reported in the open literature. Urbanization, vehicle pollution, and wood fires are the principal contributors to the high reported levels. In more temperate areas, a clear distinction is observed between summer and winter levels. PAH monitoring in soils is very limited within the region, with few data available, and most information indicates widespread pollution. In Brazil, values for many representative ecosystems were found. In Chile, data from forestry and agricultural areas indicate in general low concentrations, in spite of a relatively high detection frequency. Pollution levels in soils are highly dependent on their closeness to PAH sources and certain cultural practices (agricultural burnings, forest fires, etc.). Water PAH

  18. The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in evolved circumstellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the circumstellar outflows of evolved stars is reviewed, with an emphasis on carbon stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch. Evidence for PAHs present in their winds is provided by meteoritic studies and recent observations of the Unidentified Infrared bands. We detail the chemical processes leading to the closure of the first aromatic ring as well as the growth mechanisms leading to amorphous carbon grains. Existing studies on PAH formation in evolved stellar envelopes are reviewed and new results for the modelling of the inner wind of the archetype carbon star IRC+10216 are presented. Benzene, C6H6, forms close to the star, as well as water, H2O, as a result of non-equilibrium chemistry induced by the periodic passage of shocks. The growth process of aromatic rings may thus resemble that active in sooting flames due to the presence of radicals like hydroxyl, OH. Finally, we discuss possible formation processes for PAHs and aromatic compounds in the hydrogen-...

  19. Investigating unmetabolized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in adolescents' urine as biomarkers of environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, Sam; Croes, Kim; van Larebeke, Nicolas; Sioen, Isabelle; Schoeters, Greet; Loots, Ilse; Nawrot, Tim; Nelen, Vera; Campo, Laura; Fustinoni, Silvia; Baeyens, Willy

    2016-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of interest to human biomonitoring studies due to their carcinogenic potential. Traditionally metabolites of these compounds, like 1-hydroxypyrene, are monitored in urine, but recent methods allow the determination of the parent compounds in urine, which give additional information regarding sources and toxicity of PAHs. In order to assess the feasibility of incorporating these methods in a human biomonitoring study, the 16 USEPA parent PAHs were determined in 20 urine samples. These samples were obtained from 10 boys and 10 girls aged 14-16 years, participating in the third Flemish Environment and Health Study (Flanders, Belgium). Of these 16 parent PAHs, nine could be determined in more than 95% of the samples and three (including benzo(a)pyrene) in more than 50%. Several correlations were found between different PAHs, but not between pyrene and its metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene. Diagnostic PAH ratios in urine and air samples pointed towards combustion sources and are in line with the ratios in environmental samples. Benzo(a)pyrene, naphthalene and fluorene have the highest carcinogenic potential in our cohort, when using toxic equivalency factors. Some associations between PAH congeners and determinants of exposure were found, while fluorene and acenaphthylene were positively associated with thyroid hormone levels and benzo(a)pyrene showed a positive correlation with DNA damage by comet assay. These results confirm that parent PAHs in urine are useful as biomarkers of exposure in biomonitoring studies. PMID:27105152

  20. Longitudinal study of excretion of metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine from two psoriatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A M; Poulsen, O M; Menné, T

    1993-06-01

    Coal tar, which is widely used in the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis, chronic eczema, and psoriasis, contains a large amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Some of the PAH compounds are known either to be carcinogenic or to potentiate the effects of other carcinogenic substances. In the present study, the excretion patterns of 1-hydroxypyrene (metabolite of pyrene) and alpha-naphthol (metabolite of naphthalene) in urine were studied in 2 patients, both treated once a day with coal tar pitch covering more than 50% of the skin. After 1 week of treatment, the concentration of both alpha-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene increased approximately 100 times. However, the concentration after 3 weeks of treatment was decreased to approximately the concentration measured before initiation of the treatment, even though the patients were coal tar-treated with unchanged intensity. The measured concentrations of alpha-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of the 2 patients exceeded by order of magnitude the levels measured in the urine of occupationally exposed workers, and in view of the present study, epidemiological studies are needed to clarify to what extent coal tar treatment results in an increased risk of skin cancer, and e.g. bladder cancer.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commercial squids from different geographical origins: levels and risks for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Filipa; Oliveira, Marta; Ramalhosa, Maria João; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in five commercially valuable squid species from different geographical origins (Atlantic, Indic and Pacific Oceans). Out of the 18 quantified PAHs (the 16 PAHs considered by US EPA as priority pollutants, dibenzo(a,l)pyrene and benzo(j)fluoranthene) only dibenz(a,h)anthracene was not detected. The total concentrations of PAHs varied by a factor of more than 100-fold, from 0.22 (Loligo gahi) to 60.9 μg/kg ww (Loligo reynaudii). Intra- and inter-specific variability of PAH levels was statistically assessed. Nine carcinogenic (probable/possible) PAHs accounted for 1% (L. reynaudii) to 26% (Loligo opalescens) of the total PAHs content being the main contributors naphthalene (in Loligo duvaucelii, L. reynaudii and Loligo vulgaris species), chrysene (in L. opalescens) and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (in L. gahi). PAHs source analysis indicated that four of the five zones of capture of the different squid species are significantly affected by both petrogenic and pyrolytic sources. Assessment of the target carcinogenic risks, established by the US EPA, suggested that L. gahi (Atlantic Ocean) and L. opalescens (from Pacific Ocean) may pose additional risks for consumers, if not eaten in moderation, derived from benzo(a)pyrene ingestion.

  2. The chemokine CXCL13 in lung cancers associated with environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Zhen; Cheng, Xin; Zhou, Bo; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Yun-Chao; Chen, Hao-Bin; Li, Gao-Feng; Huang, Zhi-Liang; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Feng, Lin; Wei, Ming-Ming; Qu, Li-Wei; Cao, Yi; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-11-13

    More than 90% of lung cancers are caused by cigarette smoke and air pollution, with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as key carcinogens. In Xuanwei City of Yunnan Province, the lung cancer incidence is among the highest in China, attributed to smoky coal combustion-generated PAH pollution. Here, we screened for abnormal inflammatory factors in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) from Xuanwei and control regions (CR) where smoky coal was not used, and found that a chemokine CXCL13 was overexpressed in 63/70 (90%) of Xuanwei NSCLCs and 44/71 (62%) of smoker and 27/60 (45%) of non-smoker CR patients. CXCL13 overexpression was associated with the region Xuanwei and cigarette smoke. The key carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced CXCL13 production in lung epithelial cells and in mice prior to development of detectable lung cancer. Deficiency in Cxcl13 or its receptor, Cxcr5, significantly attenuated BaP-induced lung cancer in mice, demonstrating CXCL13's critical role in PAH-induced lung carcinogenesis.

  3. Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, P; Jourenkova, N; Gustavsson, P

    1997-05-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cancer is reviewed. High occupational exposure to PAHs occurs in several industries and occupations. Covered here are aluminum production, coal gasification, coke production, iron and steel foundries, tar distillation, shale oil extraction, wood impregnation, roofing, road paving, carbon black production, carbon electrode production, chimney sweeping, and calcium carbide production. In addition, workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust in the transport industry and in related occupations are exposed to PAHs and nitro-PAHs. Heavy exposure to PAHs entails a substantial risk of lung, skin, and bladder cancer, which is not likely to be due to other carcinogenic exposures present in the same industries. The lung seems to be the major target organ of PAH carcinogenicity and increased risk is present in most of the industries and occupations listed above. An increased risk of skin cancer follows high dermal exposure. An increase in bladder cancer risk is found mainly in industries with high exposure to PAHs from coal tars and pitches. Increased risks have been reported for other organs, namely the larynx and the kidney; the available evidence, however, is inconclusive. The results of studies addressing environmental PAH exposure are consistent with these conclusions.

  4. Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from domestic coal combustion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chunmei; Chen, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoyang; Ren, Lihong; Yin, Baohui; Liu, Xiaoyu; Bai, Zhipeng

    2014-01-01

    Domestic coal stove is widely used in China, especially for countryside during heating period of winter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important in flue gas of the stove. By using dilution tunnel system, samples of both gaseous and particulate phases from domestic coal combustion were collected and 18 PAH species were analyzed by GC-MS. The average emission factors of total 18 PAH species was 171.73 mg/kg, ranging from 140.75 to 229.11 mg/kg for bituminous coals, while was 93.98 mg/kg, ranging from 58.48 to 129.47 mg/kg for anthracite coals. PAHs in gaseous phases occupied 95% of the total of PAHs emission of coal combustion. In particulate phase, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs were the main components, accounting for 80% of the total particulate PAHs. The total toxicity potency evaluated by benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent carcinogenic power, sum of 7 carcinogenic PAH components and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin had a similar tendency. And as a result, the toxic potential of bituminous coal was higher than that of anthracite coal. Efficient emission control should be conducted to reduce PAH emissions in order to protect ecosystem and human health.

  5. Formation History of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Seok, Ji Yeon; Asano, Ryosuke S

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are some of the major dust components in the interstellar medium (ISM). We present our evolution models for the abundance of PAHs in the ISM on a galaxy-evolution timescale. We consider shattering of carbonaceous dust grains in interstellar turbulence as the formation mechanism of PAHs while the PAH abundance can be reduced by coagulation onto dust grains, destruction by supernova shocks, and incorporation into stars. We implement these processes in a one-zone chemical evolution model to obtain the evolution of the PAH abundance in a galaxy. We find that PAH formation becomes accelerated above certain metallicity where shattering becomes efficient. For PAH destruction, while supernova shock is the primary mechanism in the metal-poor environment, coagulation is dominant in the metal-rich environment. We compare the evolution of the PAH abundances in our models with observed abundances in galaxies with a wide metallicity range. Our models reproduce both the paucity of PAH...

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - Primitive pigment systems in the prebiotic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deamer, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The chemical evolution of meteoritic organics in the primitive earth is examined experimentally with attention given to the photochemical effects of hydrocarbon/water mixtures. Also addressed are the generation of amphiphilic products by photochemical reactions and the transduction of light energy into potentially useful forms. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorb light and exist in carbonaceous chondrites; PAHs are therefore examined as primitive pigments by means of salt solutions with pyrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene derivatives with hexadecane. The hexadecane undergoes photochemical oxidation and yields long-chain amphiphiles with oxygen supplied by water, and acid pH shifts also occur. PAHs are also tested in lipid bilayer membranes to examine light-energy transduction. Protons are found to accumulate within the membrane-bounded volume to form proton gradients, and this reaction is theorized to be a good model of primitive photochemical reactions that related to the transduction of light energy into useable forms.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanxia; Duan, Xiaoyong

    2015-10-01

    Increasing pollution pressures were placed in the coastal and estuarine ecosystems in China because of the elevated pollutants discharged from various sources. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment were closely linked to human activities, which have been intensively studied for their geochemical interest as markers. In this review, the status of PAH contamination in China Sea was assessed by comprehensive reviews of the concentrations, sources, and fates of PAHs in sediments of China Sea. PAH concentrations in China Sea sediments decreased from north to south due to the higher emissions in North China. Atmosphere was probably the main carrier of PAHs in the north due to the higher contents of atmospheric fine particles and higher wind speeds. However, riverine inputs were probably the most important sources of PAHs in the coastal sediments of South China due to higher rainfall.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed. PMID:26776034

  10. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in cereal breakfast products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemniak, Artur; Chrachol, Lucyna

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants formed by incomplete combustion (pyrolysis) of several organic materials. PAHs occur as complex mixtures, never as individual components. They are chemically stable and highly lipophilic in nature and occur as contaminants in different food categories: vegetables, fruit, cereals, oils and fats, especially barbecued and smoked food. The present study was carried out to determine 16 PAHs in cereal products: musli, corn, oats and barley flakes, and crunchy. The analytical procedure was based on alkaline digestion, extraction with n-hexane and cleaned up in a florisil cartridge. Chromatographic separation was performed using gas chromatography (HP 6890) coupled to mass spectrometry (HP 5973). The levels of PAHs in most samples were generally low and excepting one sample of bred varied between 4.2 to 169 microg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene, was detected in all samples, at level 0.02 microg/kg to 16 microg/kg. PMID:19143427

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cereal products on the Turkish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacmaz, Sibel

    2016-09-01

    The contamination level of four EU marker polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in some cereal-derived products was surveyed in this study. Thirty-eight samples, 20 bread and 18 breakfast cereals, were purchased from retail shops and local markets of East Black sea region in Turkey. The samples were analysed for four EU marker PAHs, using ultrasonic extraction, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean up and stable-isotope dilution gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric (GC/MS) detection. The method was validated with the parameters linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and uncertainty. Total content of the four PAHs in bread varied from 0.19 to 0.46 µg kg(-1) and in breakfast cereals from 0.10 to 0.87 µg kg(-1). PMID:26986946

  12. A Shape-Persistent Cryptand for Capturing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Feng; Hu, Wen-Jing; Liu, Yahu A; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Li, Jiu-Sheng; Jiang, Biao; Wen, Ke

    2016-07-01

    A shape-persistent cryptand 1, containing two face-to-face oriented electron-deficient 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine units separated by approximately 7 Å, and bridged by two rigid 1,8-naphthyridine linkers and a pentaethylene oxide loop, is created for capturing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cryptand 1 formed 1:1 complexes with PAH guest molecules, such as phenanthrene (6), anthracene (7), pyrene (8), triphenylene (9), and tetraphene (10). The single-crystal structure of complex 6⊂1 revealed that 6 was included in the cavity of 1 via face-to-face π···π stacking interactions. Soaking crystalline 1 in a toluene solution of anthracene resulted in anthracene from the toluene solution being picked up by the crystalline solid of 1. PMID:27258531

  13. Removal of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternatives for the removal of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HWM-PAH from soil were tested by adding fertilizer or glycerol, as well as the combination of both. Experiments were carried out for 60 days in reactors containing a HWM-PAH-contaminated soil (8030 μg kg-1, accompanied by pH monitoring, humidity control and quantification of total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungus. Fertilizer addition removed 41.6% of HWM-PAH. Fertilizer and glycerol in combination removed 46.2%. When glycerol was added individually, degradation reached 50.4%. Glycerol also promoted the increase of degradation rate during the first 30 days suggesting the HMW-PAH removal occurred through cometabolic pathways.

  14. Environmental Behavior, Sources, and Effects of Chlorinated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ohura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental sources and behaviors of chlorinated 2- to 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs. ClPAHs are ubiquitous contaminants found in urban air, vehicle exhaust gas, snow, tap water, and sediments. The concentrations of ClPAHs in each of these environments are generally higher than those of dioxins but markedly lower than the concentrations of the parent compounds, PAHs. Environmental data and emission sources analysis for ClPAHs reveal that the dominant process of generation is by reaction of PAHs with chlorine in pyrosynthesis. This secondary reaction process also occurs in aquatic environments. Certain ClPAHs show greater toxicity, such as mutagenicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity, than their corresponding parent PAHs. Investigation of the sources and environmental behavior of ClPAHs is of great importance in the assessment of human health risks.

  15. Size-distribution of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic source markers in the surroundings of a cement plant powered with alternative fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Soberón, Francisco; van Drooge, Barend L; Rovira, Joaquim; Grimalt, Joan O; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-15

    The distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and molecular tracer organic compounds for biomass combustion, traffic emissions, soil dust, and secondary aerosol processing have been studied in three fractions of ambient air particulate matter (PM10, 2.5, and 1) collected in the vicinity of a cement plant. PAH concentrations were used to estimate the carcinogenic risks in humans. Combustion related compounds, including PAHs, and those from secondary aerosol processing, predominated in the finest (PMlaw. Exposure and inhalation carcinogenic risks from total PAHs were below the EPA threshold of acceptable risk (1·10(-6)). PMID:26859698

  16. /sup 32/P-Postlabeling test for covalent DNA binding of chemicals in vivo: Application to a variety of aromatic carcinogens and methylating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M.V.; Gupta, R.C.; Randerath, E.; Randerath, K.

    1984-02-01

    Carcinogen--DNA adducts were detected and determined by /sup 32/P-postlabeling assay after exposure of mouse or rat tissues in vivo to a total of 28 compounds comprising 7 arylamines and derivatives, 3 azo compounds, 2 nitroaromatics, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 4 methylating agents. DNA was isolated from mouse skin, mouse liver, and rat liver after treatment with the individual carcinogens, then digested enzymatically to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were converted to 5'-/sup 32/P-labeled deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)phosphate transfer from (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP. The nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. The determination of low levels of DNA binding of the aromatic carcinogens entailed the removal of normal nucleotides prior to the resolution of adduct nucleotides. For this purpose, an alternative procedure employing reversed-phase t.l.c. was devised which offered advantages for the detection of quantitatively minor adducts. The procedures described enabled the detection of 1 aromatic DNA adduct in approximately 10(/sup 8/) normal nucleotides, while the limit of detection of methylated adducts was 1 adduct in approximately 6 X 10(/sup 5/) nucleotides. The results show that a great number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure are substrates for /sup 32/P-labeling by polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation. Because covalent DNA adduct formation in vivo appears to be an essential property of the majority of chemical carcinogens, /sup 32/P-postlabeling analysis of carcinogen--DNA adducts in mammalian tissues may serve as a test for the screening of chemicals for potential carcinogenicity.

  17. 32P-Postlabeling test for covalent DNA binding of chemicals in vivo: Application to a variety of aromatic carcinogens and methylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcinogen--DNA adducts were detected and determined by 32P-postlabeling assay after exposure of mouse or rat tissues in vivo to a total of 28 compounds comprising 7 arylamines and derivatives, 3 azo compounds, 2 nitroaromatics, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 4 methylating agents. DNA was isolated from mouse skin, mouse liver, and rat liver after treatment with the individual carcinogens, then digested enzymatically to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were converted to 5'-32P-labeled deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [gamma-32P]ATP. The nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. The determination of low levels of DNA binding of the aromatic carcinogens entailed the removal of normal nucleotides prior to the resolution of adduct nucleotides. For this purpose, an alternative procedure employing reversed-phase t.l.c. was devised which offered advantages for the detection of quantitatively minor adducts. The procedures described enabled the detection of 1 aromatic DNA adduct in approximately 10(8) normal nucleotides, while the limit of detection of methylated adducts was 1 adduct in approximately 6 X 10(5) nucleotides. The results show that a great number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure are substrates for 32P-labeling by polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation. Because covalent DNA adduct formation in vivo appears to be an essential property of the majority of chemical carcinogens, 32P-postlabeling analysis of carcinogen--DNA adducts in mammalian tissues may serve as a test for the screening of chemicals for potential carcinogenicity

  18. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsh, Jessica; Shen, Allison; Aliano, Kristen; Davenport, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exist and persist in the atmosphere due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, and are established human carcinogens. The influence of PAHs on the development of breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide, remains unclear. As established risk factors only account for approximately 41% of the breast cancer cases in the USA, researchers have sought to uncover environmental factors involved in breast cancer development. The breasts are particularly susceptible to aromatic carcinogenesis, and the implementation of biomarkers has provided promising insights regarding PAH-DNA adducts in breast cancer. The use of biomarkers measuring PAH-DNA adducts assesses exposure to eliminate the bias inherent in self-reporting measures in case-control studies investigating the link between PAHs and cancer. Adduct levels reflect exposure dose as well as how the body responds to this exposure, which is partially attributable to genetic variability. Evidence suggests that exposure to PAHs has a causational effect on breast cancer in humans, yet this interaction is not clearly understood. In vitro and animal-based studies have consistently revealed that exposure to PAHs deleteriously affects breast tissue, but there is no definitive link between these compounds and breast cancer. PMID:26688678

  19. Sedimentary record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Lake Erhai,Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianyang Guo; Zhang Liang; Haiqing Liao; Zhi Tang; Xiaoli Zhao; Fengchang Wu

    2011-01-01

    The temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in a sediment core from Lake Erhal in Southwest China using gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method.The total organic carbon (TOC) normalized total PAHs concentrations (sum of US Environmental Protection Agency proposed 16 priority PAHs) ranged from 31.9 to 269 μg/g dry weight (dw),and were characterized by a slowly increasing stage in the deeper sediments and a sharp increasing stage in the upper sediments.The PAHs in the sediments were dominated by low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs,suggesting that the primary source of PAHs was low- and moderate temperature combustion processes.However,both the significant increase in high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs in the upper sediments and the vertical profile of diagnostic ratios pointed out a change in the sources of PAHs from low-temperature combustion to high-temperature combustion.The ecotoxicological assessment based on consensus-based sediment quality guidelines implied that potential adverse biological impacts were possible for benzo(ghi)perylenelene and most LMW PAHs.In addition,the total BaP equivalent quotient of seven carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (BaA,CHr,BbF,BkF,BaP,DBA and INP) was 106.1 ng/g,according to the toxic equivalency factors.Although there was no great biological impact associated with the HMW PAlls,great attention should be paid to these PAH components based on their rapid increase in the upper sediments.

  20. Nucleobases in Space: Laboratory Studies of Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie; Mattioda, Andy; Bernstein, Max; Sandford, Scott; Hudgins, Doug

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHs) are heterocyclic aromatics Le., PAHs with carbon atoms replaced by a nitrogen atom. These molecules have been detected in meteorite extracts, and in general these nitrogen heterocycles are of astrobiological interest since this class of molecules include nucleobases, basic components of our nucleic acids. These compounds are predicted to be present in the interstellar medium and in Titan tholin, but have received relatively little attention. We will present spectra and reactions of PANHs, frozen in solid H2O at 12 K, conditions germane to astronomical observations. In contrast to simple PAHs, that do not interact strongly with solid H2O, the nitrogen atoms in PANHs are potentially capable of hydrogen bonding with H20 changing their spectra, complicating their remote detection on the surfaces of icy bodies. Moreover, we have studied the photo-chemistry of these interesting compounds under astrophysical conditions and will use our lab studies to assess a potential interstellar heritage of these compounds in carbonaceous chondrites.

  1. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to polystyrene nanoplastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijing; Fokkink, Remco; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has become an emerging contaminant of global concern. Bulk plastic can degrade to form smaller particles down to the nanoscale (<100 nm), which are referred to as nanoplastics. Because of their high surface area, nanoplastic may bind hydrophobic chemicals very effectively, increasing their hazard when such nanoplastics are taken up by biota. The present study reports distribution coefficients for sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to 70 nm polystyrene in freshwater, and PAH adsorption isotherms spanning environmentally realistic aqueous concentrations of 10(-5)  μg/L to 1 μg/L. Nanopolystyrene aggregate state was assessed using dynamic light scattering. The adsorption isotherms were nonlinear, and the distribution coefficients at the lower ends of the isotherms were very high, with values up to 10(9) L/kg. The high and nonlinear sorption was explained from π-π interactions between the planar PAHs and the surface of the aromatic polymer polystyrene and was higher than for micrometer-sized polystyrene. Reduction of nanopolystyrene aggregate sizes had no significant effect on sorption, which suggests that the PAHs could reach the sorption sites on the pristine nanoparticles regardless of the aggregation state. Pre-extraction of the nanopolystyrene with C18 polydimethylsiloxane decreased sorption of PAHs, which could be explained by removal of the most hydrophobic fraction of the nanopolystyrene. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1650-1655. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with special focus on cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thamaraiselvan; Rengarajan; Peramaiyan; Rajendran; Natarajan; Nandakumar; Boopathy; Lokeshkumar; Palaniswami; Rajendran; Ikuo; Nishigaki

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclie aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) are a group of compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings.Most of them are formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials such as wood and fossil fuels,petroleum products,and coal.The composition of PAH mixtures varies with the source and is also affected by selective weathering effects in the environment.PAHs are ubiquitous pollutants frequently found in a variety of environments such as fresh water and marine sediments,the atmosphere,and ice.Due to their widespread distribution,the environmental pollution due to PAHs has aroused global concern.Many PAHs and their epoxides are highly toxic,mutagenic and/or carcinogenic to microorganisms as well as to higher forms of life including humans.The main aim of this review is to provide contemporary information on PAH sources,route of exposure,worldwide emission rate,and adverse effects on humans,especially with reference to cancer.

  3. Identification of persulfate oxidation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon during remediation of contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent of PAH transformation, the formation and transformation of reaction byproducts during persulfate oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coking plant soil was investigated. Pre-oxidation analyses indicated that oxygen-containing PAHs (oxy-PAHs) existed ...

  4. Iridium-catalyzed intermolecular dehydrogenative silylation of polycyclic aromatic compounds without directing groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Masahito; Takami, Keishi; Takai, Kazuhiko

    2015-03-16

    This study describes the iridium-catalyzed intermolecular dehydrogenative silylation of C(sp(2))-H bonds of polycyclic aromatic compounds without directing groups. The reaction produced various arylsilanes through both Si-H and C-H bond activation, with hydrogen as the sole byproduct. Reactivity was affected by the electronic nature of the aromatic compounds, and silylation of electron-deficient and polycyclic aromatic compounds proceeded efficiently. Site-selectivity was controlled predominantly by steric factors. Therefore, the current functionalization proceeded with opposite chemo- and site-selectivity compared to that observed for general electrophilic functionalization of aromatic compounds.

  5. Magnetic graphene oxide as adsorbent for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linli; Xu, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Detection of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites in urine is an advisable and valid method to assess human environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this work, novel Fe3O4/graphene oxide composites were prepared and their application in the magnetic solid-phase extraction of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine was investigated by coupling with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In the hybrid material, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles provide fast separation to simplify the analytical process and graphene oxide provides a large functional surface for the adsorption. The prepared magnetic nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The experimental conditions were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, the recoveries of these compounds were in the range of 98.3-125.2%, the relative standard deviations ranged between 6.8 and 15.5%, and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.01-0.15 ng/mL. The simple, quick, and affordable method was successfully used in the analysis of human urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two different cities. The results indicated that the monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons level in human urine can provide useful information for environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  6. Release behavior and formation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during coal pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meiqi; Wang, Yulong; Dong, Jie; Li, Fan; Xie, Kechang

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major environmental pollutants. They have attracted considerable attention due to their severe potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and genotoxic effects on human health. In this study, five different rank coals from China were pyrolyzed using pyro-probe CDS 5250 and the release behavior of 16 PAHs under different pyrolysis conditions were studied by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The structural characteristics of the five coals were determined by Cross-Polarization/Magic Angle Spinning Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP/MAS (13)C NMR) spectroscopy, and then the factors influencing the formation of PAHs during coal pyrolysis were discussed together with the coal structural data. It was shown that the amount of PAHs generated during coal pyrolysis was largely related to coal rank and followed the order of medium metamorphic coal > low metamorphic coal > high metamorphic coal. The amount of total PAHs varied as the temperature was increased from 400 °C to 1200 °C, which showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, with the maximum value at 800 °C. Moreover, the species of PAHs released varied with pyrolysis temperatures. When the temperature was lower than 800 °C, the small ring PAHs were the most abundant, while the proportion of heavy rings increased at higher temperature. The results indicate that the formation of PAHs during coal pyrolysis depends on the structure of the coal. The species and amounts of PAHs generated during coal pyrolysis are closely related to the contents of protonated aromatic carbons and bridging ring junction aromatic carbons present in the coal structure. PMID:27239965

  7. Release behavior and formation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during coal pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meiqi; Wang, Yulong; Dong, Jie; Li, Fan; Xie, Kechang

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major environmental pollutants. They have attracted considerable attention due to their severe potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and genotoxic effects on human health. In this study, five different rank coals from China were pyrolyzed using pyro-probe CDS 5250 and the release behavior of 16 PAHs under different pyrolysis conditions were studied by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The structural characteristics of the five coals were determined by Cross-Polarization/Magic Angle Spinning Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP/MAS (13)C NMR) spectroscopy, and then the factors influencing the formation of PAHs during coal pyrolysis were discussed together with the coal structural data. It was shown that the amount of PAHs generated during coal pyrolysis was largely related to coal rank and followed the order of medium metamorphic coal > low metamorphic coal > high metamorphic coal. The amount of total PAHs varied as the temperature was increased from 400 °C to 1200 °C, which showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, with the maximum value at 800 °C. Moreover, the species of PAHs released varied with pyrolysis temperatures. When the temperature was lower than 800 °C, the small ring PAHs were the most abundant, while the proportion of heavy rings increased at higher temperature. The results indicate that the formation of PAHs during coal pyrolysis depends on the structure of the coal. The species and amounts of PAHs generated during coal pyrolysis are closely related to the contents of protonated aromatic carbons and bridging ring junction aromatic carbons present in the coal structure.

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Ionization Energy Lowering in Water Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    In studying various interstellar and solar system ice analogs, we have recently found that upon vacuum ultraviolet photolysis, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frozen in water ice at low temperatures are easily ionized and indefinitely stabilized as trapped ions (Gudipati; Gudipati & Allamandola). Here we report the first experimental study that shows that PAH ionization energy is significantly lowered in PAH/H2O ices, in agreement with recent theoretical work (Woon & Park). The ionization energy (IE) of the PAH studied here, quaterrylene (C40H20, IE = 6.11 eV), is lowered by up to 2.11 eV in water ice. PAH ionization energy reduction in low-temperature water ice substantially expands the astronomical regions in which trapped ions and electrons may be important. This reduction in ionization energy should also hold for other types of trapped species in waterrich interstellar, circumstellar, and solar system ices. Subject headings: ISM: clouds - methods: laboratory - molecular processes - radiation mechanisms: nonthermal -ultraviolet: ISM - ultraviolet: solar system

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation under simulated coal seam pyrolysis conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shuqin; Wang Yuanyuan; Wang Caihong; Bao Pengcheng; Dang Jinli

    2011-01-01

    Coal seam pyrolysis occurs during coal seam fires and during underground coal gasification.This is an important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in China.Pyrolysis in a coal seam was simulated in a tubular furnace.The 16 US Environmental Protection Agency priority controlled PAHs were analyzed by HPLC.The effects of temperature,heating rate,pyrolysis atmosphere,and coal size were investigated.The results indicate that the 3-ring PAHs AcP and AcPy are the main species in the pyrolysis gas.The 2-ring NaP and the 4-ring Pyr are also of concern.Increasing temperature caused the total PAH yield to go through a minimum.The lowest value was obtained at the temperature of 600 ℃ Higher heating rates promote PAH formation,especially formation of the lower molecular weight PAHs.The typical heating rate in a coal seam,5 ℃/min,results in intermediate yields of PAHs.The total PAHs yield in an atmosphere of N2 is about 1.81 times that seen without added N2,which indicates that an air flow through the coal seam accelerates the formation of PAHs.An increase in coal particle size reduces the total PAHs emission but promotes the formation of 5- and 6-ring PAHs.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in household dust near diesel transport routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chung-Yih; Chen, Heng-Chun; Cheng, Fang-Ching; Huang, Li-Ru; Chien, Po-Shan; Wang, Jing-Ya

    2012-02-01

    A river-dredging project has been undertaken in Nantou, Taiwan. A large number of diesel vehicles carrying gravel and sand shuttle back and forth on the main roads. Ten stations along major thoroughfares were selected as the exposure sites for testing, while a small village located about 9 km from a main traffic route was selected as the control site. Levels of household dust loading at the exposure sites (60.3 mg/m(2)) were significantly higher than those at the control site (38.2 mg/m(2)). The loading (μg/m(2)) of t-PAHs (total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the household dust at the exposure sites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than was the case at the control site. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs showed that diesel emissions were the dominant source of PAHs at the exposure sites. The lack of a significant correlation between the concentrations of Fe and t-PAHs suggested that the t-PAHs in household dust might come from diverse sources. However, a significant correlation (P = 0.003) between the concentrations of Mo and t-PAHs implied that the most of the t-PAHs in the household dust might have resulted from diesel emissions. The lifetime cancer risks of BaP(eq) from household dust exposure were markedly higher than those resulting from inhalation exposure.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Dalian soils: distribution and toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.; Chen, J.W.; Yang, P.; Qiao, X.L.; Tian, F. [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Dept. of Environmental Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Concentrations of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surface soils collected from Dalian, China, for examination of distributions and composition profiles and their potential toxicity. The sum of 15 PAHs ({Sigma} PAHs) ranged from 190 to 8595 ng g{sup -1} dry weight, and showed an apparent urban-suburban-rural gradient in both {Sigma} PAHs and composition profiles. Using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), the sampling sites were grouped into four clusters corresponding to traffic area, park/residential area, suburban and rural areas. The ratios of naphthalene (Nap) and fluorene (Fl) versus fluoranthene (Flu), pyrene (Pyr) and indeno(1,2,3-cd) pyrene (InP) in the four clusters provided evidence of local distillation. The diagnostic ratios indicated the prevalent PAH sources were petroleum combustion and coal combustion in Dalian, and a cross plot of diagnostic ratios distinguished the urban samples from suburban and rural ones. Toxic potency assessment of soil PAHs presented a good relationship with benzo(a) pyrene (BaP) levels, toxic equivalent concentrations based on BaP (TEQ(BaP)) and dioxin-like toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ(TCDD)). The study highlights that BaP is a good indicator for assessing the potential toxicity of PAHs, and presents a promising toxicity assessment method for soil PAHs.

  12. Solubilization and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in microemulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, J.W.C.; Zhao, Z.Y.; Yang, J.; Wong, S.Y. [Hong Kong Baptist Univ., Hong Kong (China). Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment, Dept. of Biology

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using microemulsions to enhance the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Microemulsions are commonly used in soil washing as a means of enhancing the solubility of hydrophobic pollutants. The microemulsions were composed of Tween-80, 1-pentanol and linseed oil. Phenanthrene (PHE) was dissolved in dichloromethane and added to a glass vial. Microemulsions were added separately to the vials. A high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) was used to determine PHE concentrations. The vials were inoculated with an isolated PAH degradative bacterium Bacillus subtilis B-UM. Soil collected from abandoned shipyards in Hong Kong were then spiked with the mixtures and aged for 3 months. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analyses were conducted. Results of the study showed that a microemulsion composed of 0.4 Tween-80, 0.1 per cent 1-pentanol, and 0.05 linseed oil effectively enhanced the biodegradation of PHE in the aqueous phase. It was concluded that microemulsions can be used to remediate soils contaminated by PAHs. 26 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in soil of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucarević Mira M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with several groups of compounds that represent the most frequent pollutants of soil in the world. The paper also reviews results of long-term studies conducted at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad on the residues of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the soil of the Vojvodina Province. The analyzed samples have been found to contain residues of persistent pesticides and their metabolites lindane and its metabolites 6,20 μg/kg, alachlor 3,56 μg/kg, aldrin 2,3 μg/kg, heptachlor epoxide 0,99 μg/kg, chlordane 3,82 μg/kg, DDT and its metabolites 10,77 μg/kg, dieldrin 2,04 μg/kg, endrin 3,57 μg/kg and endrin aldehyde 1,36 μg/kg. Soil samples from Novi Sad municipality contained 53,69 μg/kg of DDT and its metabolites. The values of atrazine ranged from 0,0005 to 0,8 mg/kg. The values of PAHs were 6,64 mg/kg in industrial soil, 4,93 mg/kg in agricultural soil, and 4,55 mg/kg and 5,48 mg/kg in the Novi Sad municipality. The lowest value, 0.83 mg/kg, was found for nonagricultural/nonindustrial soils.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrinas, Simona; Soceanu, Alina; Popescu, Viorica; Coatu, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    This Research Communication reports analysis of 37 compounds comprising polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPS and OPPS) in milk powder (one brand each of commercial infant formulae, follow-on formulae and baby formulae purchased from a local supermarket in Romania). The selected analytes were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography with thermionic sensitive detection (GC-TSD). The estimated limits of detection for most target analytes were in the μg/kg level (range 0·001-0·320 µg/kg). The purpose of the study was to determine the selected analytes, to assess the exposure of babies and infants and to produce data for comparison with tolerable limits according to the European Union Regulations. In most of the samples the organochlorine pesticides values were under the limit of detection. Exceptions were heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan sulphate, the last of which was found in all analysed samples at low concentrations. We also found detectable levels of ethoprophos, parathion-methyl, chlorpyrifos, prothiofos, guthion, disulfoton and fenchlorphos in most of the analysed samples. Benzo[a]pyrene, which is used as an indicator for the presence of PAHs, was not detected in selected samples. The low level of exposure to contaminants indicates that there are no health risks for the infants and babies that consume this brand of milk powder formulae. PMID:27210498

  15. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by arbuscular mycorrhizal leek plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, A.; Dalpe, Y. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Grain and Oilseeds Branch

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine the response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), nutrient uptake, and leek growth under greenhouse conditions. This experiment included 3 mycorrhizal treatments, 2 microorganism treatments, 2 PAH chemicals, and 4 concentrations of PAHs. Plant growth was greatly reduced by the addition of anthracene or phenanthrene in soil, whereas mycorrhizal inoculation not only increased plant growth, but also enhanced uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus. PAH concentrations in soil was lowered through the inoculation of two different strains of the species G. intraradices and G. versiforme. In 12 weeks of pot cultures, anthracene and phenanthrene concentrations decreased for all 3 PAH levels tested. However, the reduced amount of phenanthrene in soil was greater than that of anthracene. The addition of a soil microorganism extract into pot cultures accelerated the PAH degradation. The inoculation of AMF in a hydrocarbon contaminated soil was shown to enhance PAHs soil decontamination. It was concluded that a soil colonized with AMF can not only improve plant growth but can also stimulate soil microflora abundance and diversity. AMF may therefore directly influence PAH soil decontamination through plant growth enhancement.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Italian preserved food products in oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Anna

    2016-06-01

    A method based on gas chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess levels of 16 EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 48 preserved food products in oil including foods such as vegetables in oil, fish in oil and oil-based sauces obtained from the Italian market. The benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from <0.04 to 0.40 µg kg(-1), and 72.9% of the samples showed detectable levels of this compound. The highest contamination level was observed for chrysene with three additional PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[c]fluorene) giving mean values higher than the mean value for benzo[a]pyrene. Chrysene was detected in all the samples at concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 1.80 µg kg(-1) (median 0.31 µg kg(-1)). The contamination expressed as PAH4 (sum of benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene), for which the maximum tolerable limit has been set by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011, varied between 0.10 and 2.94 µg kg(-1). PMID:26886159

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal by sorption: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Shanti; Bal Krishna, K C; Sarukkalige, Ranjan

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic micro pollutants which are persistent compounds in the environment due to their hydrophobic nature. Concerns over their adverse effects in human health and environment have resulted in extensive studies on various types of PAHs removal methods. Sorption is one of the widely used methods as PAHs possess a great sorptive ability into the solid media and their low aqueous solubility property. Several adsorbent media such as activated carbon, biochar, modified clay minerals have been largely used to remove PAHs from aqueous solution and to immobilise PAHs in the contaminated soils. According to the past studies, very high removal efficiency could be achieved using the adsorbents such as removal efficiency of activated carbon, biochar and modified clay mineral were 100%, 98.6% and >99%, respectively. PAHs removal efficiency or adsorption/absorption capacity largely depends on several parameters such as particle size of the adsorbent, pH, temperature, solubility, salinity including the production process of adsorbents. Although many studies have been carried out to remove PAHs using the sorption process, the findings have not been consolidated which potentially hinder to get the correct information for future study and to design the sorption method to remove PAHs. Therefore, this paper summarized the adsorbent media which have been used to remove PAHs especially from aqueous solutions including the factor affecting the sorption process reported in 142 literature published between 1934 and 2015. PMID:26820781

  18. Fullerenes, fulleranes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Allende meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, L.; Bunch, T. E.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we confirm our earlier observations of fullerenes (C60 and C70) in the Allende meteorite (Becker et al., 1994a, 1995). Fullerene C60 was also detected in two separate C-rich (approximately 0.5-1.0%) dark inclusions (Heymann et al., 1987) that were hand picked from the Allende sample. The amounts of C60 detected were approximately 5 and approximately 10 ppb, respectively, which is considerably less than what was detected in the Allende 15/21 sample (approximately 100 ppb; Becker et al., 1994a, 1995). This suggests that fullerenes are heterogeneously distributed in the meteorite. In addition, we present evidence for fulleranes, (C60Hx), detected in separate samples by laser desorption (reflectron) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (LDMS). The LDMS spectra for the Allende extracts were remarkably similar to the spectra generated for the synthetic fullerane mixtures. Several fullerane products were synthesized using a Rh catalyst (Becker et al., 1993a) and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also observed ppm levels) that included benzofluoranthene and corannulene, a cup-shaped molecule that has been proposed as a precursor molecule to the formation of fullerenes in the gas phase (Pope et al., 1993).

  19. Anharmonicity and infrared bands of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrignani, Annemieke; Maltseva, Elena; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2015-08-01

    We present a systematic laboratory study of the CH stretching region in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules of different shapes and sizes to investigate anharmonic behaviour and address the reliability of the never-validated but universally accepted scaling factors employed in astronomical PAH models. At the same time, new anharmonic theoretical quantum chemistry studies have been performed with the software program Spectro using our experimental data as benchmark. We performed mass and conformational-resolved, high-resolution spectroscopy of cold (~10K) linear and compact PAH molecules starting with naphthalene (C10H8) in the 3-µm CH stretching region. Surprisingly, the measured infrared spectra show many more strong modes than expected. Measurements of the deuterated counterparts demonstrate that these bands are the result of Fermi Resonances. First comparisons with harmonic and anharmonic DFT calculations using Gaussian 09 show that both approximations are not able to reproduce in detail the observed molecular reality. The improved anharmonic calculations performed with Spectro now include the effects of Fermi resonances and have been applied to PAHs for the first time. The analysis of the experimental data is greatly aided by these new theoretical quantum chemistry studies. Preliminary assignments are presented, aided by comparison between the observed rotational contour and the symmetry of candidate bands.

  20. Multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Imasaka, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Imasaka, Totaro

    2015-08-01

    In order to suppress the fragmentation and improve the sensitivity for determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs), the mechanism of multiphoton ionization was studied for the following representative NPAHs, 9-nitroanthracene, 3-nitrofluoranthene, and 1-nitropyrene. The analytes were extracted from the PM2.5 on the sampling filter ultrasonically, and were measured using gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry with a femtosecond tunable laser in the range from 267 to 405 nm. As a result, a molecular ion was observed as the major ion and fragmentation was suppressed at wavelengths longer than 345 nm. Furthermore, the detection limit measured at 345 nm was measured to be the subpicogram level. The organic compounds were extracted from a 2.19 mg sample of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), and the extract was subjected to multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry after gas chromatograph separation. The background signals were drastically suppressed at 345 nm, and the target NPAHs, including 9-nitroanthracene and 1-nitropyrene, were detected, and their concentrations were determined to be 5 and 3 pg/m(3), respectively. PMID:26048831

  1. Photoinduced toxicity of sediment-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, B.M.; Duxbury, C.L.; Marwood, C.A.; Huang, X.D.; Dixon, D.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be both mutagenic and toxic. Light, in particular UV irradiation, increases their toxicity. Since aquatic plants cannot avoid PAHs or light, they are at risk. However, the major loadings of PAHs are in sediment. In this study the authors examined the assimilation of both intact and photomodified labelled PAHs bound to a surrogate, sediment (sand) by the higher aquatic plant Lemna gibba L. G-3. They found that simulated solar radiation significantly promoted the release of PAHs from sand and their assimilation by Lemna, although assimilation from the solid phase was slower than for chemicals placed directly into the aqueous medium. Toxicity of PAHs bound to sand was then measured by exposing plants to the sand-chemical composite for 8 d. Plants were exposed to both visible and SSR light conditions during this period, and toxicity was measured as inhibition of growth, inhibition of photosynthesis (chlorophyll fluorescence induction) and chlorosis. All three endpoints indicated that PAHs bound to a sediment phase can express phototoxicity and that the effects are most strongly promoted by the UV region of the solar spectrum. The authors have now extended this work to probe the effects of UV-B and PAHs on chloroplast development, with the finding that both stresses inhibit development of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  2. Eisenia fetida increased removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of phenanthrene, anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene added at three different concentrations was investigated with or without earthworms (Eisenia fetida) within 11 weeks. Average anthracene removal by the autochthonous micro-organisms was 23%, 77% for phenanthrene and 13% for benzo(a)pyrene, while it was 51% for anthracene, 47% for benzo(a)pyrene and 100% for phenanthrene in soil with earthworms. At 50 and 100 mg phenanthrene kg-1 E. fetida survival was 91% and 83%, but at 150 mg kg-1 all died within 15 days. Survival of E. fetida in soil amended with anthracene ≤1000 mg kg-1 and benzo(a)pyrene ≤150 mg kg-1 was higher than 80% and without weight loss compared to the untreated soil. Only small amounts of PAHs were detected in the earthworms. It was concluded that E. fetida has the potential to remove large amounts of PAHs from soil, but more work is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved. - Addition of earthworms, Eisenia fetida, accelara removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

  3. Threshold Energies for Single Carbon Knockout from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Stockett, M H; Chen, T; de Ruette, N; Giacomozzi, L; Wolf, M; Schmidt, H T; Zettergren, H; Cederquist, H

    2015-01-01

    We have measured absolute cross sections for ultrafast (fs) single-carbon knockout from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) cations as functions of He-PAH center-of-mass collision energy in the range 10-200 eV. Classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations cover this range and extend up to 10$^5$ eV. The shapes of the knockout cross sections are well described by a simple analytical expression yielding experimental and MD threshold energies of $E_{th}^{Exp}=32.5\\pm 0.4$ eV and $E_{th}^{MD}=41.0\\pm 0.3$ eV, respectively. These are the first measurements of knockout threshold energies for molecules isolated \\emph{in vacuo}. We further deduce semi-empirical (SE) and MD displacement energies --- \\emph{i.e.} the energy transfers to the PAH molecules at the threshold energies for knockout --- of $T_{disp}^{SE}=23.3\\pm 0.3$ eV and $T_{disp}^{MD}=27.0\\pm 0.3$ eV. The semi-empirical results compare favorably with measured displacement energies for graphene $T_{disp}=23.6$ eV [Meyer \\emph{et al.} Phys. Rev Lett. \\tex...

  4. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science

    2005-10-01

    Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Source and deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Yan; Xiang Li; Jianmin Chen; Xinjun Wang; Jianfei Du; Lin Ma

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent efforts to investigate the distribution and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air,water,and soil,very little is known about their temporal change in wet deposition.As a result of increased attention to public health,a large-scale survey on the deposition flux and distribution of PAH contamination in rainwater was urgently conducted in Shanghai,China.In this study,163 rainwater samples were collected from six sites,and 15 PAH compounds were detected by the use of a simple solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The dominant PAH species monitored were naphthalene,phenanthrene,anthracene,and fluoranthene.The concentration of total PAHs per event was between 74 and 980 ng/L,with an average value of 481 ng/L,which is at the high end of worldwide figures.The annual deposition flux of PAHs in rainwater was estimated to be 4148 kg/yr in the Shanghai area,suggesting rainfall as a major possible pathway for removing PAHs from the atmosphere.Diagnostic analysis by the ratios of An/178 and F1/F1+Py suggested that combustion of grass,wood,and coal was the major contributor to PAHs in the Shanghai region.Back trajectory analysis also indicated that the pollutant sources could be from the southern part of China.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in urban soil from Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-hong; MA Ling-ling; LIU Xiu-fen; FU Shan; CHENG Hang-xin; XU Xiao-bai

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA-PAHs) in the urban surface soils from Beijing were determined using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is significantly complementary for understanding the PAHs pollution in soil of integrated Beijing city on the basis of the information known in the outskirts. The total concentration of 16 EPA-PAH was from 0.467 to 5.470 μg/g and was described by the contour map. Compound profiles presented that the 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs were major compositions. The correlation analysis showed that PAHs have the similar source in the most sampling sites and BaP might be considered as the indicator of PAHs. Characteristic ratios of anthracene (An)/(An+ phenanthrene (Phe)), fluoranthene (Flu)/(Flu+pyrene (Pyr)) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP) indicated that the PAHs pollutants probably mainly originated from the coal combustion and it was not negligible from vehicular emission. The level of PAHs in our study area was compared with other studies.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Dalian soils: distribution and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Chen, Jingwen; Yang, Ping; Qiao, Xianliang; Tian, Fulin

    2007-02-01

    Concentrations of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surface soils collected from Dalian, China, for examination of distributions and composition profiles and their potential toxicity. The sum of 15 PAHs (SigmaPAHs) ranged from 190 to 8595 ng g(-1) dry weight, and showed an apparent urban-suburban-rural gradient in both SigmaPAHs and composition profiles. Using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), the sampling sites were grouped into four clusters corresponding to traffic area, park/residential area, suburban and rural areas. The ratios of naphthalene (Nap) and fluorene (Fl) versus fluoranthene (Flu), pyrene (Pyr) and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (InP) in the four clusters provided evidence of local distillation. The diagnostic ratios indicated the prevalent PAH sources were petroleum combustion and coal combustion in Dalian, and a cross plot of diagnostic ratios distinguished the urban samples from suburban and rural ones. Toxic potency assessment of soil PAHs presented a good relationship with benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) levels, toxic equivalent concentrations based on BaP (TEQ(BaP)) and dioxin-like toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ(TCDD)). The study highlights that BaP is a good indicator for assessing the potential toxicity of PAHs, and presents a promising toxicity assessment method for soil PAHs. PMID:17285163

  8. The hydrogen coverage of interstellar PAHs [Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate at which the CH bond in interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) rupture due to the absorption of a uv photon has been calculated. The results show that small PAHs (less than or equal to 25 carbon atoms) are expected to be partially dehydrogenated in regions with intense uv fields, while large PAHs (greater than or equal to 25 atoms) are expected to be completely hydrogenated in those regions. Because estimate of the carbon content of interstellar PAHs lie in the range of 20 to 25 carbon atoms, dehydrogenation is probably not very important. Because of the absence of other emission features besides the 11.3 micrometer feature in ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra, it has been suggested that interstellar PAHs are partially dehydrogenated. However, IRAS 8 to 22 micrometer spectra of most sources that show strong 7.7 and 11.2 micrometer emission features also show a plateau of emission extending from about 11.3 to 14 micrometer. Like the 11.3 micrometer feature, this new feature is attributed to the CH out of plane bending mode in PAHs. This new feature shows that interstellar PAHs are not as dehydrogenated as estimated from ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra. It also constrains the molecular structure of interstellar PAHs. In particular, it seems that very condensed PAHs, such as coronene and circumcoronene, dominate the interstellar PAH mixture as expected from stability arguments

  9. Does glucose enhance the formation of nitrogen containing polycyclic aromatic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis of proline?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip F. Britt; A.C. Buchanan; Clyde V. Owens, Jr.; J. Todd Skeen [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Division

    2004-08-01

    The gas-phase pyrolysis of proline, glucose, 1-((2{prime}-carboxy)pyrrolidinyl)-1-deoxy-D-fructose (the proline Amadori compound), and a 1:1 mixture by weight of proline and glucose was investigated at high temperatures (600-840{sup o}C) and short residence time (i.e. 1.0 s) in an inert atmosphere to determine if glucose or Maillard reaction products enhance the formation of nitrogen containing polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PACs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the pyrolysis of proline. To study the gas-phase formation of N-PACs and PAHs, the substrates were sublimed into the pyrolysis furnace at 460{sup o}C. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that glucose, the proline/glucose mixture, and the proline Amadori compound undergo solid-state decomposition reactions before subliming. Thus, the substrates were pyrolyzed in two stages: at 460{sup o}C during the sublimation and at 600-840{sup o}C. At 800{sup o}C with a residence time of 1.0 s, proline produced low yields of N-PACs, such as quinoline, isoquinoline, indole, acridine, and carbazole, and PAHs, such as phenanthrene, pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, benzofluoranthene isomers, and benzo(a)pyrene. Increasing the temperature and residence time increased the yield of these products. Under similar pyrolysis conditions, the proline Amadori compound produced 2-8 fold more N-PACs and PAHs than proline. A 1:1 mixture of proline and glucose produced a similar slate of pyrolysis products as the proline Amadori compound, but it is unclear whether the proline Amadori compound was an intermediate in the reaction. In general, the proline Amadori compound produced a higher yield of N-PACs and PAHs than the proline/glucose mixture, but glucose clearly enhances the low temperature gas-phase formation of N-PACs and PAHs from the pyrolysis of proline. 56 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. The Exobiological Role of Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Before this time, the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed-at, the presence of ices in interstellar clouds ignored, and the notion that large, gas phase, carbon rich molecules might be abundant and widespread throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today, the composition of dust in the ISM is reasonably well constrained to micron-sized cold refractory materials comprised of amorphous and crystalline silicates mixed with an amorphous carbonaceous material containing aromatic structural units and short, branched aliphatic chains. Shrouded within the protective confines of cold, opaque molecular clouds--the birthplace of stars and planets--these cold dust particles secrete mantles of mixed molecular ices whose compositions are also well constrained. Finally, amidst the molecular inventory of these ice mantles are likely to be found polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), shockingly large molecules by the standards of interstellar chemistry, the telltale infrared spectral signature of which is now recognized throughout the Universe. In the first part of this talk, we will review the spectroscopic evidence that forms the basis for the currently accepted abundance and ubiquity of PANs in the ISM. We will then look at a few specific examples which illustrate how experimental and theoretical data can be applied to interpret the interstellar spectra and track how the PAN population evolves as it passes from its formation site in the circumstellar outflows of dying stars, through the various phases of the ISM, and into forniing planetary systems. Nevertheless, despite the fact that PANs likely represent the single largest molecular reservoir of organic carbon in evolving planetary systems, they are not what would be considered

  11. Inhibitory effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on photosynthetic performance are not related to their aromaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajoo, Anjana; Mekala, Nageswara Rao; Tomar, Rupal Singh; Grieco, Michele; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very toxic and highly persistent environmental pollutants which accumulate in soil and affect growth of the plants adversely. This study aims to investigate inhibitory effects of 3 major PAH particularly on photosynthetic processes in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in soil treated with PAH. The 3 PAH chosen differ from each other in aromaticity (number of rings) comprising their structure (2 rings: naphthalene, 3 rings: anthracene and 4 rings: pyrene). Several growth parameters and Chlorophyll a fluorescence was monitored in PAH treated plants. BN-PAGe analysis was done in order to get information about change in the protein conformation. PAH treatment led to increased value of Fo which collaborated with increase in the amount of free LHC as seen through BN-Page analysis. Thus PAH were found to inhibit PS II photochemistry and caused distinct change in pigment composition. However the results led us to infer that 3-ring anthracence is more inhibitory as compared to 2-ring naphthalene and 4-ring pyrene. This indicates that aromaticity of PAH is unrelated to their response on photosynthetic processes.

  12. Emission characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of different residential coals in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wen X. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: wxliu@urban.pku.edu.cn; Dou Han; Wei, Zhi C.; Chang Biao; Qiu, Wei X.; Liu Yuan; Tao Shu [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-02-01

    Emission properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion of six residential coals in North China were investigated. The results indicated that, the total emission factors (EFs) for 15 PAH species in gaseous and particulate phases ranged from 52.8 to 1434.8 mg/kg with a decreasing sequence of local bituminous coals and anthracite coals, and honeycomb briquettes were largely dependent on the raw coals used to produce them. Particulate phase, dominated by median or high molecular weight components, made a major contribution (68.8% - 76.5%) to the total EFs for bituminous coals, while gaseous phase with principal low molecular weight species accounted for most (86.3% - 97.9%) of the total EFs for anthracite coals. The phase partitioning of PAH emission for honeycomb briquettes was similarly dependent on the crude coals. The total EFs, phase partitioning and component profiles of emitted PAHs were mainly influenced by the inner components of the studied coals. Burning mode and flue number on household coal-stoves also affected the emission characteristics by means of the oxygen supply. A sum of seven carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene(BaP)-equivalent carcinogenic power and total toxicity potency expressed in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin(TCDD) toxic equivalence exhibited that bituminous coals and produced honeycomb briquettes had remarkably elevated values. Fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene from anthracite coals showed higher levels of BaP-based toxic equivalent factor, though the other toxicity indices were rather low for this type of coal.

  13. UVA Photoirradiation of Halogenated-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Leading to Induction of Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Fu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the finding in the 1930s, a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs of different structures have been tested for potential tumorigenicity. Structure-activity relationships of halo-PAHs have been investigated to determine the regions of a PAH that may be involved in cancer initiation. From these studies, a number of halo-PAHs were found to be tumorigenic in experimental animals. It was not until the 1980s that halo-PAHs were found to be present in the environment, including municipal incinerator fly ash, urban air, coal combustion, soil, snow, automobile exhausts, and tap water. Due to their widespread presence in the environment and their genotoxic activities, including carcinogenicity, many of these compounds may pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of halo-PAHs have been studied their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. In this study, we study the photoirradiation of a series of structure-related halo-PAHs by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate, and determine as to whether or not these compounds can induce lipid peroxidation. The halo-PAHs chosen for study include 2-bromonaphthalene, 1-chloroanthracene, 9,10-dibromoanthracene, 9-chlorophenanthrene, 9-bromophenanthrene, 7-chlorobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromo-5-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 6-chlorobenzo[a]pyrene, and 6-bromobenzo[a]pyrene. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation at different levels. These results suggest that halo-PAHs may be harmful to human health.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of the Zhelin Bay in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qiaoxiang; HUANG Hong; HUANG Changjiang

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments collected in July 2004 from eight stations in the Zhelin Bay, one of the most important bays for large-scale mariculture in Guangdong Province. Thirteen individual parent PAH compounds were identified using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The overall average concentration of total PAHs was 477.0 ng/g, ranging from 146.1 to 928.8 ng/g. Low molecular mass PAHs with two to three rings (e.g., acenaphthene) were dominant in each sample. The PAH concentration varied among sampling stations, with the highest concentration observed at bay outlets and the lowest found at stations outside the bay. Ratios of low to high molecular mass PAHs and fluoranthene to pyrene were used to determine the origin of PAHs, and results indicated mainly petroleum-derived contamination. Compared with other bays and harbors around the world, the total concentrations of PAHs in surface sediments at the Zhelin Bay are moderate, but this does not exclude the possibility of potential impact on human consumers because some strong carcinogenic PAHs with high molecular mass were found at the station with a nearby caged-fish and oyster farm. Long-term monitoring of PAH contamination in the Zhelin Bay is recommended to reduce the potential toxicological effects on aquatic: organisms and humans.

  15. Emissions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Natural Gas Extraction into Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, L Blair; Donald, Carey E; Smith, Brian W; Tidwell, Lane G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Kincl, Laurel; Haynes, Erin N; Anderson, Kim A

    2016-07-19

    Natural gas extraction, often referred to as "fracking", has increased rapidly in the United States in recent years. To address potential health impacts, passive air samplers were deployed in a rural community heavily affected by the natural gas boom. Samplers were analyzed for 62 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were grouped based on distance from each sampler to the nearest active well. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene, phenanthrene, and carcinogenic potency of PAH mixtures were highest when samplers were closest to active wells. PAH levels closest to natural gas activity were comparable to levels previously reported in rural areas in winter. Sourcing ratios indicated that PAHs were predominantly petrogenic, suggesting that PAH levels were influenced by direct releases from the earth. Quantitative human health risk assessment estimated the excess lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to the measured PAHs. At sites closest to active wells, the risk estimated for maximum residential exposure was 0.04 in a million, which is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acceptable risk level. Overall, risk estimates decreased 30% when comparing results from samplers closest to active wells to those farthest from them. This work suggests that natural gas extraction is contributing PAHs to the air, at levels that would not be expected to increase cancer risk. PMID:27400263

  16. Global atmospheric emissions and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Evaluation of modeling and transboundary pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2014-05-01

    Global atmospheric emissions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 69 major sources were estimated for a period from 1960 to 2030. Regression models and a technology split method were used to estimated country and time specific emission factors, resulting in a new estimate of PAH emission factor variation among different countries and over time. PAH emissions in 2007 were spatially resolved to 0.1° × 0.1° grids based on a newly developed global high-resolution fuel combustion inventory (PKU-FUEL-2007). MOZART-4 (The Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4) was applied to simulate the global tropospheric transport of Benzo(a)pyrene, one of the high molecular weight carcinogenic PAHs, at a horizontal resolution of 1.875° (longitude) × 1.8947° (latitude). The reaction with OH radical, gas/particle partitioning, wet deposition, dry deposition, and dynamic soil/ocean-air exchange of PAHs were considered. The simulation was validated by observations at both background and non-background sites, including Alert site in Canadian High Arctic, EMEP sites in Europe, and other 254 urban/rural sites reported from literatures. Key factors effecting long-range transport of BaP were addressed, and transboundary pollution was discussed.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air : concentration levels and patterns and source analysis in Nairobi, Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthini, M.; Yoshimichi, H.; Yutaka, K.; Shigeki, M. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences

    2005-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the environment are often the result of incomplete combustion processes. This paper reported concentration levels and patterns of high molecular weight PAHs in Nairobi, Kenya. Daily air samples for 30 different PAHs were collected at residential, industrial and business sites within the city. Samples were then extracted using deuterated PAH with an automated Soxhlet device. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a capillary column was used to analyze the extracts using a selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Statistical analyses were then performed. PAH concentration levels were reported for average, median, standard deviation, range, and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Data were then analyzed for sources using a principal component analysis (PCA) technique and isomer ratio analysis. Nonparametric testing was then conducted to detect inherent differences in PAH concentration data obtained from the different sites. Results showed that pyrene was the most abundant PAH. Carcinogenic PAHs were higher in high-traffic areas. The correlation coefficient between coronene and benzo(ghi)pyrene was high. The PAH isomer ratio analysis demonstrated that PAHs in Nairobi are the product of traffic emissions and oil combustion. Results also showed that PAH profiles were not well separated. It was concluded that source distinction methods must be improved in order to better evaluate PAH emissions in the city. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  18. Cancer risk assessments of Hong Kong soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Yu Bon [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Kang, Yuan [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Hong Sheng [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lau, Winifred; Li, Hui; Sun, Xiao Lin [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Giesy, John P. [Department of Biology and Chemistry and State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Chow, Ka Lai [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Ming Hung, E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► High levels of soil organic matter in soils render PAHs more resistant to degradation. ► Open burning site contain high concentrations of PAHs in Hong Kong. ► Car dismantling workshop can increase potential cancer risk on human. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate soils from 12 different land use types on human cancer risks, with the main focus being on human cancer risks related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fifty-five locations were selected to represent 12 different types of land use (electronic waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)); open burning site (OBS); car dismantling workshop (CDW) etc.). The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in terms of total burden and their bioaccessibility were analysed using GC/MS. The PAHs concentrations were subsequently used to establish cancer risks in humans via three exposure pathways, namely, accident ingestion of soil, dermal contact soil and inhalation of soil particles. When the 95th centile values of total PAH concentrations were used to derive ingestion and dermal cancer risk probabilities on humans, the CDW land use type indicated a moderate potential for cancerous development (244 × 10{sup −6} and 209 × 10{sup −6}, respectively). Bioaccessible PAHs content in soil samples from CDW (3.60 × 10{sup −6}) were also classified as low cancer risk. CDW soil possessed a higher carcinogenic risk based on PAH concentrations. Bioremediation is recommended to treat the contaminated soil.

  19. Sensitive method for the determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Barbara; Weiss, Richard; Pfannhauser, Werner

    2003-01-01

    The presence of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) as contaminants in foods is nowadays a legitimate cause of concern, as they are reported to be strong direct-acting mutagens and carcinogens that may pose a risk to human health. Nevertheless, their concentrations in foods are in the ultra-trace region. In this study, we present a very sensitive analytical method for the determination of this compound class in complex food matrices. Special emphasis was put on sample extraction and clean up. Recoveries of 75% could be obtained for 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene; for all other compounds investigated the recoveries were >/=94%. The determination of the compounds was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the use of negative chemical ionization (NCI) increases the sensitivity by one order of magnitude in comparison to electron impact ionization (EI) (limits of detection 0.07-0.25 micro g kg(-1) for EI and 0.01-0.02 micro g kg(-1) for NCI). The influence of the sample matrix on the sensitivity of the method is demonstrated with extracts of a sample from a duplicate diet study. Due to the lack of a certified reference material the suitability of the method is demonstrated with pumpkin seed oil that was spiked with nitro-PAHs at two different concentration levels. PMID:12520455

  20. Sensitive method for the determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the human diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegmund, B.; Weiss, R.; Pfannhauser, W. [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Food Chemistry

    2003-01-01

    The presence of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) as contaminants in foods is nowadays a legitimate cause of concern, as they are reported to be strong direct-acting mutagens and carcinogens that may pose a risk to human health. Nevertheless, their concentrations in foods are in the ultra-trace region. In this study, we present a very sensitive analytical method for the determination of this compound class in complex food matrices. Special emphasis was put on sample extraction and clean up. Recoveries of 75% could be obtained for 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene; for all other compounds investigated the recoveries were {>=}94%. The determination of the compounds was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the use of negative chemical ionization (NCI) increases the sensitivity by one order of magnitude in comparison to electron impact ionization (EI) (limits of detection 0.07-0.25 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for EI and 0.01-0.02 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for NCI). The influence of the sample matrix on the sensitivity of the method is demonstrated with extracts of a sample from a duplicate diet study. Due to the lack of a certified reference material the suitability of the method is demonstrated with pumpkin seed oil that was spiked with nitro-PAHs at two different concentration levels. (orig.)

  1. Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at an Electric Steel Foundry in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Hanchi, Mariem; Olgiati, Luca; Polledri, Elisa; Consonni, Dario; Zrafi, Ines; Saidane-Mosbahi, Dalila; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    Occupational exposures during iron and steel founding have been classified as carcinogenic to humans, and the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this industrial setting may contribute to cancer risk. The occupational exposure to PAHs was assessed in 93 male workers at an electric steel foundry in Tunisia by biomonitoring, with the aims of characterizing the excretion profile and investigating the influence of job title and personal characteristics on the biomarkers. Sixteen 2-6 ring unmetabolized PAHs (U-PAHs) and eight hydroxylated PAH metabolites (OHPAHs) were analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Among U-PAHs, urinary naphthalene (U-NAP) was the most abundant compound (median level: 643ng l(-1)), followed by phenanthrene (U-PHE, 18.5ng l(-1)). Urinary benzo[a]pyrene (U-BaP) level was foundries. Based on 1-OHPYR levels, our findings show that occupational exposure of these workers was similar to that reported in recent studies of electric steel foundry workers. The multianalytic approach is useful in revealing different exposure levels among job titles. PMID:27206821

  2. Cancer risk assessments of Hong Kong soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► High levels of soil organic matter in soils render PAHs more resistant to degradation. ► Open burning site contain high concentrations of PAHs in Hong Kong. ► Car dismantling workshop can increase potential cancer risk on human. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate soils from 12 different land use types on human cancer risks, with the main focus being on human cancer risks related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fifty-five locations were selected to represent 12 different types of land use (electronic waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)); open burning site (OBS); car dismantling workshop (CDW) etc.). The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in terms of total burden and their bioaccessibility were analysed using GC/MS. The PAHs concentrations were subsequently used to establish cancer risks in humans via three exposure pathways, namely, accident ingestion of soil, dermal contact soil and inhalation of soil particles. When the 95th centile values of total PAH concentrations were used to derive ingestion and dermal cancer risk probabilities on humans, the CDW land use type indicated a moderate potential for cancerous development (244 × 10−6 and 209 × 10−6, respectively). Bioaccessible PAHs content in soil samples from CDW (3.60 × 10−6) were also classified as low cancer risk. CDW soil possessed a higher carcinogenic risk based on PAH concentrations. Bioremediation is recommended to treat the contaminated soil

  3. Anthropogenic input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into five lakes in Western China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jianyang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Wu Fengchang, E-mail: wufengchang@vip.skleg.c [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory for Lake Pollution Control, Research Center of Lake Eco-Environment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Luo Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liang Zhang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory for Lake Pollution Control, Research Center of Lake Eco-Environment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liao Haiqing [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory for Lake Pollution Control, Research Center of Lake Eco-Environment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhang Runyu; Li Wen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Zhao Xiaoli [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory for Lake Pollution Control, Research Center of Lake Eco-Environment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Chen Shejun; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-06-15

    The temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined in dated sediments from five lakes in Western China. The surficial concentrations of seven carcinogenic PAHs (BaA, Chyr, BbF, BkF, BaP, DBA and INP, hereafter denoted as PAH{sub 7}) were highly site-specific. The SIGMAPAH{sub 7} concentrations generally increased from the deep layers to surface sediments. The temporal trends of SIGMAPAH{sub 7} concentrations were clearly different from those reported in developed countries. From 1950s to 1980s, which PAHs started to decrease in developed countries, is the right period that PAHs started to increase rapidly in Western China. The fluxes and mass inventories suggest that the PAH{sub 7} input over the past three decades was much more rapidly than it was before the 1980s. Source identification indicates that the PAHs were primarily from biomass burning and domestic coal combustion, and increasing vehicular and/or industrial coal combustion emission was also found. - The present manuscript provides critical information for comprehensive understanding of the temporal trends of PAHs in lake sediments from Western China and the global PAHs emission.

  4. Emissions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Natural Gas Extraction into Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, L Blair; Donald, Carey E; Smith, Brian W; Tidwell, Lane G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Kincl, Laurel; Haynes, Erin N; Anderson, Kim A

    2016-07-19

    Natural gas extraction, often referred to as "fracking", has increased rapidly in the United States in recent years. To address potential health impacts, passive air samplers were deployed in a rural community heavily affected by the natural gas boom. Samplers were analyzed for 62 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were grouped based on distance from each sampler to the nearest active well. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene, phenanthrene, and carcinogenic potency of PAH mixtures were highest when samplers were closest to active wells. PAH levels closest to natural gas activity were comparable to levels previously reported in rural areas in winter. Sourcing ratios indicated that PAHs were predominantly petrogenic, suggesting that PAH levels were influenced by direct releases from the earth. Quantitative human health risk assessment estimated the excess lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to the measured PAHs. At sites closest to active wells, the risk estimated for maximum residential exposure was 0.04 in a million, which is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acceptable risk level. Overall, risk estimates decreased 30% when comparing results from samplers closest to active wells to those farthest from them. This work suggests that natural gas extraction is contributing PAHs to the air, at levels that would not be expected to increase cancer risk.

  5. Distribution and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) in Marine Environment of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jinshu(郑金树); Bruce J. Richardson; O.Shouming; ZHENG Jianhua(郑建华)

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds that have raised considerable environmental concern. The highest concentrations of PAHs in the coastal sediment samples in China was 5.8-11.0μg/g (dry weight) in the core from the Huangpu River, Shanghai. The second highest concentration of PAHs was 4.42μg/g (dry weight) in surface sediment of Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong, and 5.73μg/g (dry weight) in sediment of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao City. The low concentrations of PAHs were always in the sediments far away from industrial zones and cities, and ranged from 0.10 to 0.30μg/g (dry weight). Several environmental parameters are considered for the identification of sources of PAHs in marine environment. High proportion of naphthalene, low molecular weight PAHs and alkylated PAHs, plus high ratio of phenanthrene to anthracene (>15) and low ratio of fluoranthene to pyrene (<1) suggested a petrogenic source. According to these parameters, the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary of Shanghai, Jiaozhou Bay of Qingdao City, Zhujiang (Pearl) River mouth, Jiulong River mouth and most of Hong Kong coastal waters were heavily contaminated by PAHs from petrogenic sources. However, PAHs in rural coastal areas were dominated by pyrolytic origin PAHs. This review clearly showed that oil pollution and incomplete combustion of oil, coal and biomass are the main reason for PAHs anormalies in the study areas.

  6. Anthropogenic input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into five lakes in Western China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, J.Y.; Wu, F.C.; Luo, X.J.; Liang, Z.; Liao, H.Q.; Zhang, R.Y.; Li, W.; Zhao, X.L.; Chen, S.J.; Mai, B.X. [Chinese Research Institute of Environmental Science, Beijing (China)

    2010-06-15

    The temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined in dated sediments from five lakes in Western China. The surficial concentrations of seven carcinogenic PAHs (BaA, Chyr, BbF, BkF, BaP, DBA and INP, hereafter denoted as PAH(7)) were highly site-specific. The {Sigma}PAH(7) concentrations generally increased from the deep layers to surface sediments. The temporal trends of {Sigma} PAH(7) concentrations were clearly different from those reported in developed countries. From 1950s to 19805, which PAHs started to decrease in developed countries, is the right period that PAHs started to increase rapidly in Western China. The fluxes and mass inventories suggest that the PAH(7) input over the past three decades was much more rapidly than it was before the 1980s. Source identification indicates that the PAHs were primarily from biomass burning and domestic coal combustion, and increasing vehicular and/or industrial coal combustion emission was also found.

  7. Dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the rhizosphere: Synthesis through meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread and persistent organic pollutants with high carcinogenic effect and toxicity; their behavior and fate in the soil-plant system have been widely investigated. In the present paper, meta-analysis was used to explore the interaction between plant growth and dissipation of PAHs in soil based on the large body of published literature. Plants have a promoting effect on PAH dissipation in soils. There was no difference in PAH dissipation between soils contaminated with single and mixed PAHs. However, plants had a more obvious effect on PAH dissipation in freshly-spiked soils than in long-term field-polluted soils. Additionally, a positive effect of the number of microbial populations capable of degrading PAHs was observed in the rhizosphere compared with the bulk soil. Our meta-analysis established the importance of the rhizosphere effect on PAH dissipation in variety of the soil-plant systems. - The meta-analysis provides the first quantitative evidence of the positive effect of rhizosphere processes on PAH dissipation.

  8. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in marine environment of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Jinshu; Bruce J. Richardson; O. Shouming; Zheng Jianhua [Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China). State Oceanic Administration

    2004-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds that have raised considerable environmental concern. The highest concentrations of PAHs in the coastal sediment samples in China was 5.8-11.0 {mu}g/g (dry weight) in the core from the Huangpu River, Shanghai. The second highest concentration of PAHs was 4.42 {mu}g/g (dry weight) in surface sediment of Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong, and 5.73 {mu}g/g (dry weight) in sediment of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao City. The low concentrations of PAHs were always in the sediments far away from industrial zones and cities, and ranged from 0.10 to 0.30 {mu}g/g (dry weight). Several environmental parameters are considered for the identification of sources of PAHs in marine environment. High proportion of naphthalene, low molecular weight PAHs and alkylated PAHs, plus high ratio of phenanthrene to anthracene ({gt}15) and low ratio of fluoranthene to pyrene ({lt}1) suggested a petrogenic source. According to these parameters, the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary of Shanghai, Jiaozhou Bay of Qingdao City, Zhujiang (Pearl) River mouth, Jiulong River mouth and most of Hong Kong coastal waters were heavily contaminated by PAHs from petrogenic sources. However, PAHs in rural coastal areas were dominated by pyrolytic origin PAHs. This review clearly showed that oil pollution and incomplete combustion of oil, coal and biomass are the main reason for PAHs anormalies in the study areas.

  9. Detection and characterization of human serum antibodies to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol-epoxide DNA adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, M.J.; Light, B.A.; Weston, A.; Tollurud, D.; Clark, J.L.; Mann, D.L.; Blackmon, J.P.; Harris, C.C.

    1988-07-01

    The presence of serum antibodies to the diol-epoxide DNA adducts of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chrysene, benz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene, was determined by ELISA using serum samples obtained from normal healthy individuals. Antibodies that reacted against PAH adducted-DNA, but not against PAH-adducted protein, were found in the serum of approximately 40% of the test individuals. Specificity analysis of the antibodies demonstrated that serological cross-reactions between the benzo(a)pyrene and the chrysene diol-epoxide adducts were present. Similar cross-reactivity between the benz(a)anthracene and the chrysene adducts was observed. Sera containing antibodies that were apparently specific for each of the three PAH-DNA adducts were also identified. The presence of antibodies to PAH-DNA adducts indicates both past exposure to these carcinogenic PAH and their metabolic activation to the DNA damaging metabolites. These antibodies may prove to be useful in both retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies of various diseases associated with PAH exposure.

  10. REMOVAL OF SELECTED CONGENERS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS FROM THE BOTTOM SEDIMENTS USING CHEMICAL OXIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Książek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottom sediments are the part of the aquatic ecosystem, which accumulates most of pollution emitted into environment and flowing into surface waters. This concerns of nutrients, heavy metals and Persistent Organic Pollutants, which include, among others, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. PAHs are toxic, carcinogenic mutagenic and teratogenic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of chemical oxidation to remove selected PAH contained in bottom sediments. Oxidation of the impurities were carried out using 30% solution of hydrogen peroxide and with the addition of H2O2 with the catalyst FeSO4x7H2O (the Fenton’s method. The efficiency of oxidation was evaluated on the basis of changes in the content of tested impurities, which was determined by gas chromatography coupled with the mass spectrometer (GC-MS after extraction of analytes from bottom sediments. Preliminary studies have shown the efficacy of the use of H2O2 and the Fenton’s method to remove of selected PAHs.

  11. [How do transport and metabolism affect the biological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Kanae; Toriba, Akira; Tang, Ning; Kameda, Takayuki; Takigami, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Go; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are carcinogenic/mutagenic, are generated by combustion of fossil fuels and also released through tanker or oilfield accident to cause a large scale environmental pollution. PAHs concentration in China is especially high in East Asia because of many kinds of generation sources such as coal heating systems, vehicles and factories without exhaust gas/particulate treatment systems. So, the atmospheric pollution caused by PAHs in China has been seriously concerned from the view point of health effects. Like yellow sand and sulfur oxide, PAHs exhausted in China are also transported to Japan. Additionally, strongly mutagenic nitrated PAHs (NPAHs), estrogenic/antiestrogenic PAH hydroxides (PAHOHs) and reactive oxygen species-producing PAH quinones (PAHQs) are formed from PAHs by the chemical reaction during the transport. Furthermore these PAHOHs and PAHQs are produced by the metabolism in animal body. In the biological activities caused by the above PAH derivatives, the structure-activity relationship was observed. In this review, our recent results on the generation of PAH derivatives by atmospheric transport and metabolism are reported. Also, the existing condition of PAHs as atmospheric pollutants is considered. PMID:22382837

  12. Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haritash, A.K., E-mail: akharitash@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India); Kaushik, C.P. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India)

    2009-09-30

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} (aerobic) or CH{sub 4} (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions

  13. Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H2O, CO2 (aerobic) or CH4 (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the rate can be

  14. Near Infrared Spectra of Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioda, A. L.; Hudgins, D. M.; Bauschlicher, C. W.; Allamandola, L. J.

    The widespread, mid-IR interstellar emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 microns are generally attributed to vibrationally excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Since these features typcially originate from radiation-rich regions, it has been generally thought that UV photons must dominate the interstellar excitation process since PAHs have very strong UV absorption bands. However, observations have shown that lower energy photons can also pump the emission (Aitken and Roche, Uchida and Sellgren), raising questions about the PAH model. Although it has long been known that larger PAHs should absorb at longer wavelengths (e.g. Schutte et. al., Salama et al., Li and Draine) data was not available for the isolated, neutral and ionized PAHs of sizes comparable to those thought responsible for the interstellar emission features. Here the matrix-isolated near-IR (NIR) spectra (from 0.7 to 2.5 microns) are presented for the anions and cations of PAHs ranging in size from C34H16 to C50H22. These molecules are characterized by strong absorption bands in this region, bands that can account for the emission of the interstellar features from UV poor regions. These NIR PAH transitions could also contribute to the extinction curve associated with the diffuse interstellar medium. For example, band overlap, as expected from a mixture of PAHs, can contribute to the continuum. Overlapping broad bands could lead to slight undulations in the continuum reminiscent of the Very Broad Structure (VBS, e.g. Hayes et al.). Furthermore, as previously pointed out, individual PAH bands may contribute to the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) spectrum (e.g. Romanini)

  15. Sorption characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aluminum smelter residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedveld, Gijs D; Pelletier, Emilien; St Louis, Richard; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2007-04-01

    High temperature carbon oxidation in primary aluminum smelters results in the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) into the environment. The main source of PAH are the anodes, which are composed of petroleum coke (black carbon, BC) and coal tar pitch. To elucidate the dominant carbonaceous phase controlling the environmental fate of PAH in aluminum smelter residues (coke BC and/or coal tar), the sorptive behavior of PAHs has been determined, using passive samplers and infinitesink desorption methods. Samples directly from the wet scrubber were studied as well as ones from an adjacent 20-year old storage lagoon and roof dust from the smelter. Carbon-normalized distribution coefficients of native PAHs were 2 orders of magnitude higher than expected based on amorphous organic carbon (AOC)/water partitioning, which is in the same order of magnitude as reported literature values for soots and charcoals. Sorption isotherms of laboratory-spiked deuterated phenanthrene showed strong (-100 times stronger than AOC) but nonetheless linear sorption in both fresh and aged aluminum smelter residues. The absence of nonlinear behavior typical for adsorption to BC indicates that PAH sorption in aluminum smelter residues is dominated by absorption into the semi-solid coal tar pitch matrix. Desorption experiments using Tenax showed that fresh smelter residues had a relatively large rapidly desorbing fraction of PAH (35-50%), whereas this fraction was strongly reduced (11-16%) in the lagoon and roof dust material. Weathering of the coal tar residue and/or redistribution of PAH between coal tar and BC phases could explain the reduced availability in aged samples.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in Kostrena coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsak, Dijana Tomić; Linsak, Zeljko; Besić, Denis; Vojcić, Nina; Telezar, Mirna; Coklo, Miran; Susnić, Sasa; Mićović, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals in seawater and sediment in Kostrena coastal area, as well as their toxicity using bioluminescence based tests. Total PAH concentration in seawater ranged 1.7-155.3 ng/L. The share of carcinogenetic PAH was relatively high, ranging 22-48.3%. Nickel concentrations in seawater were beyond detection limits (chrome concentrations were beyond detection limits, and copper concentrations were also beyond detection limits or extremely low (up to 0.32 microg/L). EC50 values in seawater ranged 23.80-90.90 ng/L. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of seawater showed strong connection between them (r = 0.9579). Total PAH concentration in marine sediment ranged 58.02-1116 microg/kg dry weight (d.w.). The share of carcinogenetic PAH was extremely high ranging 10-53%. Nickel concentrations in marine sediment ranged 8-24 mg/kg d.w., vanadium concentrations ranged 24-42 mg/kg d.w., chrome concentrations ranged 11-19 mg/kg d.w., and copper concentrations ranged 7-25 mg/kg d.w. EC50 values in marine sediment ranged 818-4596 microg/kg d.w. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of marine sediment showed weak connection between them (r = 0.2590). Previous studies of seawater samples from areas of the Adriatic sea under the direct influence of oil industry did not include concentrations of heavy metals, which makes our study the first to present such comprehensive results. Our results point out the need for further evaluations and following of marine environment pollution and its consequences on living organisms and marine ecosystem in whole.

  17. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND THE DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS: A SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the proposal of relating the origin of some of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs) to neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in translucent interstellar clouds. An assessment of ionized PAHs will be examined in a future report. The spectra of several cold, isolated gas-phase PAHs have been measured in the laboratory under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions and are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early-type stars. This comparison provides-for the first time-accurate upper limits for the abundances of specific PAH molecules along specific lines of sight, something not attainable from IR observations alone. The comparison of these unique laboratory data with high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra leads to two major findings: (1) a finding specific to the individual molecules that were probed in this study and, which leads to the clear and unambiguous conclusion that the abundance of these specific neutral PAHs must be very low in the individual translucent interstellar clouds that were probed in this survey (PAH features remain below the level of detection) and, (2) a general finding that neutral PAHs exhibit intrinsic band profiles that are similar to the profile of the narrow DIBs indicating that the carriers of the narrow DIBs must have close molecular structure and characteristics. This study is the first quantitative survey of neutral PAHs in the optical range and it opens the way for unambiguous quantitative searches of PAHs in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments.

  18. Identification and discrimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutis, Edward; Szymanski, Paul; Applin, Daniel; Goltz, Douglas

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely present throughout the Solar System and beyond. They have been implicated as a contributor to unidentified infrared emission bands in the interstellar medium, comprise a substantial portion of the insoluble organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites, are expected stable components of organic matter on Mars, and are present in a wide range of terrestrial hydrocarbons and as components of biomolecules. However, PAH structures can be very complicated, making their identification challenging. Raman spectroscopy is known to be especially sensitive to the highly polarizable C-C and C=C bonds found in PAHs, and therefore, can be a powerful tool for PAH structural and compositional elucidation. This study examined Raman spectra of 48 different PAHs to determine the degree to which Raman spectroscopy could be used to uniquely identify different species, factors that control the positions of major Raman peaks, the degree to which induced fluorescence affects the intensity of Raman peaks, its usefulness for PAH discrimination, and the effects of varying excitation wavelength on some PAH Raman spectra. It was found that the arrangement and composition of phenyl (benzene) rings, and the type and position of functional groups can greatly affect fluorescence, positions and intensities of Raman peaks associated with the PAH backbone, and the introduction of new Raman peaks. Among the functional groups found on many of the PAHs that were analyzed, only a few Raman peaks corresponding to the molecular vibrations of these groups could be clearly distinguished. Comparison of the PAH Raman spectra that were acquired with both 532 and 785 nm excitation found that the longer wavelength resulted in reduced fluorescence, consistent with previous studies.

  19. Optimization and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar-based fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Zhou, Hui; Gan, Jay; Sun, Mingxing; Shang, Guofeng; Liu, Liang; Shen, Guoqing

    2015-03-01

    The agronomic benefit of biochar has attracted widespread attention to biochar-based fertilizers. However, the inevitable presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar is a matter of concern because of the health and ecological risks of these compounds. The strong adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to biochar complicates their analysis and extraction from biochar-based fertilizers. In this study, we optimized and validated a method for determining the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar-based fertilizers. Results showed that accelerated solvent extraction exhibited high extraction efficiency. Based on a Box-Behnken design with a triplicate central point, accelerated solvent extraction was used under the following optimal operational conditions: extraction temperature of 78°C, extraction time of 17 min, and two static cycles. The optimized method was validated by assessing the linearity of analysis, limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery, and application to real samples. The results showed that the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exhibited good linearity, with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. The limits of detection varied between 0.001 (phenanthrene) and 0.021 mg/g (benzo[ghi]perylene), and the limits of quantification varied between 0.004 (phenanthrene) and 0.069 mg/g (benzo[ghi]perylene). The relative recoveries of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 70.26-102.99%.

  20. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN COLLECTED SAMPLES FROM VICINITY OF A HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Samimi ، R. Akbari Rad ، F. Ghanizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tehran as the biggest city of Iran with a population of more than 10 millions has potentially high pollutant exposures of gas oil and gasoline combustion from vehicles that are commuting in the highways every day. The vehicle exhausts contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are produced by incomplete combustion and can be directly deposited in the environment. In the present study, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in the collected samples of a western highway in Tehran was investigated. The studied location was a busy highway in Tehran. High performance liquid chromatography equipped with florescence detector was used for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the studied samples. Total concentration of the ten studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds ranged from 11107 to 24342 ng/g dry weight in the dust samples and increased from 164 to 2886 ng/g dry weight in the soil samples taken from 300 m and middle of the highway, respectively. Also the average of Σ PAHs was 1759 ng/L in the water samples of pools in parks near the highway. The obtained results indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination levels were very high in the vicinity of the highway.

  1. A quantitative PCR approach for quantification of functional genes involved in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Taha, Mohamed; Ball, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major pollutants globally and due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties their clean-up is paramount. Bioremediation or using PAH degrading microorganisms (mainly bacteria) to degrade the pollutants represents cheap, effective methods. These PAH degraders harbor functional genes which help microorganisms use PAHs as source of food and energy. Most probable number (MPN) and plate counting methods are widely used for counting PAHs degraders; however, as culture based methods only count a small fraction (soil samples.•This protocol enables us to screen a vast number of PAH contaminated soil samples in few hours.•This protocol provides valuable information about the natural attenuation potential of contaminated soil and can be used to monitor the bioremediation process. PMID:27054096

  2. A compilation of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data on aromatic aminosulphonic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, R; Steinle, D; Anliker, R

    1992-07-01

    A review is presented to evaluate existing information on genotoxicity and carcinogenicity testing of various aromatic aminosulphonic acids (AASAs). A great variety of water-soluble azo dyes can form aromatic phenyl- or naphthyl-aminosulphonic acids by chemical and enzymatic reduction. AASAs are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of azo dyes and azo pigments and can arise as contaminants in the final products. Comparisons have been made with the data available on the corresponding unsulphonated analogues, some of which are known to be genotoxic and/or carcinogenic. The vast majority of the AASAs were conclusively non-mutagenic in the Ames test. In most cases the absence of genotoxicity was also demonstrated with a variety of other test systems in vitro and in vivo. It is concluded that AASAs, in contrast with some of their unsulphonated analogues, generally have no or very low genotoxic and tumorigenic potential.

  3. Blood levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in children of Lucknow, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vipul K; Patel, Devendra K; Ram, S; Mathur, N; Siddiqui, M K J; Behari, Jai Raj

    2008-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds with two or more fused benzene rings produced by incomplete combustion of organic substances involved in natural and anthropogenic processes. Children are exposed to these compounds through inhalation, dietary ingestion, and, also, soil at the playground. It has been well established that PAHs have carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects. Considering possible health risks due to PAHs exposure among children, the present study was carried out in collaboration with the Pediatrics Department, King George's Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow, to determine its exposure in children by estimating blood PAHs levels. Due to the variable composition of PAHs mixtures emitted from different environmental sources, any single compound or metabolite may not be representative of all exposure conditions. For these reasons, the measurement of blood PAHs levels as a possible biomarker, especially of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency, USA) priority list, has been proposed. Acenaphthylene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, naphthalene, pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene were determined by HPLC-FD/UV. On the basis of the individual compound, the median (50th percentile) of naphthalene (19 ppb) was highest, however, benzo(a)pyrene (4.0 ppb) level was found to be lowest among all detected PAHs. The median level of total noncarcinogenic PAHs (113.55 ppb) was higher than the total carcinogenic PAHs (32.35 ppb) in blood samples of children. A significant correlation was found between period of time spent in the surrounding breathing zone of the cooking place and total noncarcinogenic PAHs (p < 0.05), while the blood carcinogenic PAHs level in children was found to be associated with lower status of their families (p < 0.05). It is speculated that there may be chances of health hazards through exposure to PAHs, those not yet declared hazardous and present at higher concentrations in

  4. Fusing porphyrins with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocycles for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Mark E.; Diev, Viacheslav; Hanson, Kenneth; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2015-08-18

    A compound that can be used as a donor material in organic photovoltaic devices comprising a non-activated porphyrin fused with one or more non-activated polycyclic aromatic rings or one or more non-activated heterocyclic rings can be obtained by a thermal fusion process. The compounds can include structures of Formula I: ##STR00001## By heating the reaction mixture of non-activated porphyrins with non-activated polycyclic aromatic rings or heterocyclic rings to a fusion temperature and holding for a predetermined time, fusion of one or more polycyclic rings or heterocyclic rings to the non-activated porphyrin core in meso,.beta. fashion is achieved resulting in hybrid structures containing a distorted porphyrin ring with annulated aromatic rings. The porphyrin core can be olygoporphyrins.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in insular and coastal soils of the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, E. V.; Tomashunas, V. M.; Lodygin, E. D.; Gabov, D. N.; Sokolov, V. T.; Krylenkov, V. A.; Kirtsideli, I. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    The content and individual component compositions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in polar soils of the Russian Arctic sector have been studied. The contamination of soils near research stations is identified from the expansion of the range of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the abrupt increase in the content of heavy fractions, and the accumulation of benzo[ a]pyrene. Along with heavy hydrocarbons, light hydrocarbons (which are not only natural compounds, but also components of organic pollutants) are also accumulated in the contaminated soils. Heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are usually of technogenic origin and can serve as markers of anthropogenic impact in such areas as Cape Sterligov, Cape Chelyuskin, and the Izvestii TsIK Islands. The content of benzo[ a]pyrene, the most hazardous organic toxicant, appreciably increases in soils around the stations, especially compared to the control; however, the level of MPC is exceeded only for the soils of Cape Chelyuskin.

  6. Bioremediation of Mixtures of High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Wu, J.; Shi, X.; Sun, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Although bioremediation has been considered as one of the most promising means to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from polluted environments, the efficacy of PAHs bioremediation still remains challenged, especially for high molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) and their mixtures. This study was focused on (a) isolation and characterization of pure strain and mixed microbial communities able to degrade HMW PAHs and (b) further evaluation of the ability of the isolated microbes to degrade HMW PAHs mixtures in the absence and presence of indigenous flora. Fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene were selected as the representative HMW PAHs in this study. A pure bacterial strain, identified as Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1, was isolated from activated sludge. A mixed bacterial community designated as consortium-4 was isolated from petroleum contaminated soils, containing Pseudomonas sp. FbP1、Enterobacter sp. FbP2、Hydrogenophaga sp. FbP3 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that bacterial strains of Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4 can also degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene. Experiment results showed that both strain FA1 and consortium-4 could degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene within a wide range of temperature, pH and initial PAHs concentration. Degradation of HMW PAHs mixtures (binary and ternary) demonstrated the interactive effects that can alter the rate and extent of biodegradation within a mixture. The presence of indigenous flora was found to either increase or decrease the degradation of HMW PAHs, suggesting possible synergistic or competition effects. Biodegradation kinetics of HMW PAHs for sole substrates, binary and ternary systems was evaluated, with the purpose to better characterize and compare the biodegradation process of individual HMW PAH and mixtures of HMW PAHs. Results of this study

  7. The Origins of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Are They Everywhere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    During the past 15 years considerable progress in observational techniques has been achieved in the middle-infrared region (5000-500 per centimeter, 2-20 micron), the region where most diagnostic molecular vibrations occur. Spectra of many different astronomical infrared sources, some deeply embedded in dark molecular clouds and others at their edges, are now available. These spectra provide a powerful probe, not only for the identification of interstellar molecules in both the gas and solid phases, but also of the physical and chemical conditions which prevail in these two very different domains. The two lectures will focus on the evidence that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important, ubiquitous and abundant interstellar species. PAHs are. extremely stable species which can range in size from a few angstroms across to several hundred angstroms (PAHs are also the building blocks of amorphous carbon particles). This identification rests on the suggestive agreement between the laboratory spectra of PAHs with a set of IR emission bands which emanate from many different sources where ultraviolet starlight impinges on a "dusty" region. The picture is that individual PAHs are first pumped into highly vibrationally excited states and relax by fluorescence at their fundamental vibrational frequencies. That PAHs are a ubiquitous interstellar component has serious ramifications in other spectral regions as well, including the strong extinction in the ultraviolet, and the classic visible diffuse interstellar bands discovered more than 50 years ago (but unexplained to this day) The first part of the course will focus on the interpretation of astronomical spectra. The second lecture will start by showing how recent laboratory data on PAHs taken under realistic interstellar conditions has con borated the PAH hypothesis and led to great insight into the conditions in the PAH containing regions. This lecture will end by reviewing the ever-increasing evidence for

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Plausible Prebiotic Membrane Components

    OpenAIRE

    Groen, Joost; Deamer, David W.; Kros, Alexander; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Aromatic molecules delivered to the young Earth during the heavy bombardment phase in the early history of our solar system were likely to be among the most abundant and stable organic compounds available. The Aromatic World hypothesis suggests that aromatic molecules might function as container elements, energy transduction elements and templating genetic components for early life forms. To investigate the possible role of aromatic molecules as container elements, we incorporated different p...

  9. Impact of using fishing boat fuel with high poly aromatic content on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Li, Hsing-Wang; Chen, Chung-Ban; Fang, Guor-Cheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    Because of the fishery subsidy policy, the fishing boat fuel oil (FBFO) exemption from commodity taxes, business taxes and air pollution control fees, resulted in the price of FBFO was ˜50% lower than premium diesel fuel (PDF) in Taiwan. It is estimated that ˜650,000 kL FBFO was illegally used by traveling diesel-vehicles (TDVs) with a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE), which accounted for ˜16.3% of the total diesel fuel consumed by TDVs. In this study, sulfur, poly aromatic and total-aromatic contents in both FBFO and PDF were measured and compared. Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carcinogenic potencies (BaP eq) from a HDDE under transient cycle testing for both FBFO and PDF were compared and discussed. Finally, the impact caused by the illegal use of FBFO on the air quality was examined. Results show that the mean sulfur-, poly aromatic and aromatic-contents in FBFO were 43.0, 3.89 and 1.04 times higher than that of PDF, respectively. Emission factors of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq obtained by utilizing FBFO were 51.5 and 0.235 mg L -1-Fuel, which were 3.41 and 5.82 times in magnitude higher than obtained by PDF, respectively. The estimated annual emissions of total-PAHs and total-BaP eq to the ambient environment due to the illegally used FBFO were 23.6 and 0.126 metric tons, respectively, which resulted in a 17.9% and a 25.0% increment of annual emissions from all mobile sources, respectively. These results indicated that the FBFO used illegally by TDVs had a significant impact on PAH emissions to the ambient environment.

  10. Determination of oxygen and nitrogen derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fractions of asphalt mixtures using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Gobo, Luciana Assis; Bohrer, Denise; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Cravo, Margareth Coutinho; Leite, Leni Figueiredo Mathias

    2015-12-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, the oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formed in asphalt fractions. Two different methods have been developed for the determination of five oxygenated and seven nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are characterized by having two or more condensed aromatic rings and present mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all compounds. The detection limits of the methods ranged from 0.1 to 57.3 μg/L for nitrated and from 0.1 to 6.6 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The limits of quantification were in the range of 4.6-191 μg/L for nitrated and 0.3-8.9 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The methods were validated against a diesel particulate extract standard reference material (National Institute of Standards and Technology SRM 1975), and the obtained concentrations (two nitrated derivatives) agreed with the certified values. The methods were applied in the analysis of asphalt samples after their fractionation into asphaltenes and maltenes, according to American Society for Testing and Material D4124, where the maltenic fraction was further separated into its basic, acidic, and neutral parts following the method of Green. Only two nitrated derivatives were found in the asphalt sample, quinoline and 2-nitrofluorene, with concentrations of 9.26 and 2146 mg/kg, respectively, whereas no oxygenated derivatives were detected. PMID:26446274

  11. Determination of oxygen and nitrogen derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fractions of asphalt mixtures using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Gobo, Luciana Assis; Bohrer, Denise; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Cravo, Margareth Coutinho; Leite, Leni Figueiredo Mathias

    2015-12-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, the oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formed in asphalt fractions. Two different methods have been developed for the determination of five oxygenated and seven nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are characterized by having two or more condensed aromatic rings and present mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all compounds. The detection limits of the methods ranged from 0.1 to 57.3 μg/L for nitrated and from 0.1 to 6.6 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The limits of quantification were in the range of 4.6-191 μg/L for nitrated and 0.3-8.9 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The methods were validated against a diesel particulate extract standard reference material (National Institute of Standards and Technology SRM 1975), and the obtained concentrations (two nitrated derivatives) agreed with the certified values. The methods were applied in the analysis of asphalt samples after their fractionation into asphaltenes and maltenes, according to American Society for Testing and Material D4124, where the maltenic fraction was further separated into its basic, acidic, and neutral parts following the method of Green. Only two nitrated derivatives were found in the asphalt sample, quinoline and 2-nitrofluorene, with concentrations of 9.26 and 2146 mg/kg, respectively, whereas no oxygenated derivatives were detected.

  12. Development of a flow-injection fluorescence method for estimation of total polycyclic aromatic compounds in asphalt fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeister, Charles E; Olsen, Larry D; Dollberg, Donald D

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, measurements of specific polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) have been attempted as an estimate of asphalt fume exposure. However, asphalt fumes contain numerous alkyl substituted PACs, including PACs containing heteroatoms of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Many of these compounds coelute precluding the resolution of the individual compounds resulting in ambiguous data. Moreover, many researchers believe that some observed health hazards are associated with PACs overall and not just a few select PACs. Therefore, NIOSH method 5800 was developed to evaluate total PACs as a chemical class in asphalt fumes. Asphalt fume samples were collected on a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) filter backed by an XAD-2 sorbent tube. The samples were extracted with hexane; then, a cyano-solid-phase-extraction column was used to remove the polar compounds while the aliphatic and aromatic compounds were eluted with hexane. An equal volume of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was added to the hexane extract, causing the aromatic compounds to partition into the DMSO, thus isolating the PACs. The PACs were then analyzed for fluorescence using a flow-injection method with two fluorescence detectors. Wavelength settings for the first detector (254-nm excitation, 370-nm emission) emphasized the 2- to 4-ring PACs that may cause eye and respiratory tract irritation. Wavelength settings of the second detector (254-nm excitation, 400-nm emission) emphasized the 4- and higher-ring PACs that are often mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic. PMID:14521431

  13. Argentation chromatography for the separation of polycyclic aromatic compounds according to ring number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocun, Margarete; Andersson, Jan T

    2012-01-01

    Crude oils are the most complex mixtures known and every speciation method relies on a simplification of their complexity. Argentation chromatography is shown to be superior to traditional liquid chromatographic ways of separating aromatic compounds based on the number of aromatic carbon atoms. A silver(I) mercaptopropano silica gel allows an efficient group separation of polycyclic aromatic compounds to be achieved. The usefulness of this phase is demonstrated for SRM 1582 Wilmington crude oil and a diesel fuel. Furthermore, the phase can also be used for semi-preparative purposes to collect fractions for further analysis with high resolution mass spectrometry. Orbitrap mass spectra are obtained here for the polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles and it is demonstrated that they can contain one to five naphtheno rings.

  14. Use of the modified Ames test as an indicator of the carcinogenicity of residual aromatic extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogaard, P.; Hedelin, A.; Riley, A.; Rushton, E.; Vaissiere, M.; Minsavage, G.; Rohde, A.; Dalbey, W.

    2013-01-15

    Existing data demonstrate that residual aromatic extracts (RAEs) can be either carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic. CONCAWE had previously concluded that 'Although limited data available indicate that some RAEs are weakly carcinogenic, it is not possible to provide a general recommendation. Classify on a case-by-case basis' (CONCAWE 2005). Therefore CONCAWE's Health/Toxicology Subgroup (H/TSG) has developed a proposal for the use of the modified Ames test as a short-term predictive screening tool for decisions on the classification of RAEs for carcinogenicity. The relationship between RAE chemistry and carcinogenic potential is not as well understood as it is for some other categories of substances, e.g. Other Lubricant Base Oils (OLBO). However, a correlation has been found between the results of the skin carcinogenicity bioassay and the mutagenicity index (MI) obtained from the modified Ames test. Data supporting this correlation are summarised in this report. The H/TSG confirmed that the modified Ames test can be used as a predictive screening tool and that a cut-off value can be established to make a distinction between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic products. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 demonstrated carcinogenic potential upon dermal application to mouse skin with chronic exposure. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 did not demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. To justify the use of the modified Ames test with RAEs, additional analysis of the repeatability of the test with RAEs was required. With this objective, CONCAWE sponsored a round robin study with different samples of RAEs from member companies, at three different laboratories. The repeatability demonstrated in the round robin study with RAEs support the proposed use of the modified Ames test. As part of the tools available for use by member companies, the H/TSG proposed a standard operating procedure (SOP) (included as an Appendix to this report) on the conduct of the modified Ames test with RAEs. The H

  15. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water using an electrochemical DNA biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Manaffar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread environmental contaminants in aquatic environments. These contaminants are generated through oil spills, manufactory processes, and industrial wastes or naturally through the incomplete combustion of coal, oil, gas, and wood waste. Most of these compounds are noted as carcinogenic and mutagenic. Therefore, detection of these pollutants by a sensitive and inexpensive method is very important. Materials and Methods: In this study, an electrochemical DNA biosensor was used to detect PAHs due to its sensitivity, ability, and high response rate. For this purpose, the bovine thymus double-stranded DNA was fixed on a screen-printed electrode. Then, the electrodes electrochemical behavior was investigated. This electrochemical DNA biosensor works upon the difference between the electrochemical response of guanine bases in DNA structure in the presence and absence of PAH compounds. To evaluate the biosensors performance, the response of biosensor to real samples was compared with conventional pollutant determination methods like liquid-liquid chromatography. Results: Optimum conditions were examined for biosensor response including effect of activation potential and time on electrode pretreatment, applied potential for DNA immobilization, and detection potential. Under optimal conditions, the pretreatment of the electrode obtained in 1.6 V for 350s, then the DNA was immobilized on the electrode surface by applying a potential of -0.5 V to detect different PAHs in real samples in the range of micro molar. Conclusion: Electrochemical DNA biosensors are capable of detecting the sum of PAHs in water samples with high accuracy, sensitivity, and low cost compared with chromatographic methods.

  16. Phototransformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on a Non-Semi Conductive Surface Such as Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabestani, R., Sigman, M.E.

    1997-09-16

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), by products of fossil fuel production and consumption, constitute a large class of environmental pollutants. These toxic and sometimes carcinogenic compounds are also found in coal tar and fly ash. When released into the air, they can be sorbed onto particulates present in the atmosphere where they find their way into soil and ground water upon being washed by rain. During their residence time in the environment, PAHs will be exposed to solar radiation and may undergo phototransformation to other products. Thus, light induced photodegradation of PM`s at the solid/air interfaces can play a significant role in their depletion. Light-induced processes have been claimed to enhance transformation of these PM`s in the environment. However, detailed studies on the nature and identities of photoproducts formed during the transformation of these compounds on solid surfaces is scarce. Since insulators such as silica, alumina,silicoaluminates and calcium carbonate are believed to constitute up 20-30% of inorganic particulates present in the atmosphere, they serve as environmentally relevant model surfaces to study the photophysical and photochemical behavior of PM`s. Although photochemistry of organic compounds adsorbed on solid surfaces has received much attention in recent years, the specific properties of the interface which influence photoprocesses and the exact mechanism of interaction between a surface and a substrate are often not well understood. We have investigated the photochemistry of many PAHs including eight that are on Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) sixteen priority pollutant PAH list shown in Table 1 at silica/air interface.

  17. Impact and uncertainty of a traffic management intervention: Population exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris [Public and Environmental Health Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sotiris.vardoulakis@lshtm.ac.uk; Chalabi, Zaid; Fletcher, Tony; Grundy, Chris [Public and Environmental Health Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Leonardi, Giovanni S. [Centre for Radiation, Chemical, and Environmental Hazards, Health Protection Agency, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    In urban areas, road traffic is a major source of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), thus any changes in traffic patterns are expected to affect PAH concentrations in ambient air. Exposure to PAH and other traffic-related air pollutants has often been quantified in a deterministic manner that disregards the various sources of uncertainty in the modelling systems used. In this study, we developed a generic method for handling uncertainty in population exposure models. The method was applied to quantify the uncertainty in population exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) before and after the implementation of a traffic management intervention. This intervention would affect the movement of vehicles in the studied area and consequently alter traffic emissions, pollutant concentrations and population exposure. Several models, including an emission calculator, a dispersion model and a Geographic Information System were used to quantify the impact of the traffic management intervention. We established four exposure zones defined by distance of residence postcode centroids from major road or intersection. A stochastic method was used to quantify the uncertainty in the population exposure model. The method characterises uncertainty using probability measures and propagates it applying Monte Carlo analysis. The overall model predicted that the traffic management scheme would lead to a minor reduction in mean population exposure to BaP in the studied area. However, the uncertainty associated with the exposure estimates was much larger than this reduction. The proposed method is generic and provides realistic estimates of population exposure to traffic-related pollutants, as well as characterises the uncertainty in these estimates. This method can be used within a decision support tool to evaluate the impact of alternative traffic management policies.

  18. Level, potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Paola; Cocozziello, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Onorati, Giuseppe; Saccone, Irene; Santagada, Vincenzo; Settimo, Gaetano; Severino, Beatrice; Perissutti, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    In Naples, particulate matter PM10 associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined in urban background (NA01) and urban traffic (NA02) sites. The principal objective of the study was to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 for identification of their possible sources (through diagnostic ratio - DR and principal component analysis - PCA) and an estimation of the human health risk (from exposure to airborne TEQ). Airborne PM10 samples were collected on quartz filters using a Low Volume Sampler (LVS) for 24 h with seasonal samples (autumn, winter, spring and summer) of about 15 days each between October 2012 and July 2013. The PM10 mass was gravimetrically determined. The PM10 levels, in all seasons, were significantly higher (P agents, (i.e Benzo[a]Pyrene, Indeno[1,2,3-cd]Pyrene, Benzo[b]Fluoranthene, Benzo[k]Fluoranthene and Benzo[g,h,i]Perylene), had a large contribution (∼50-55%) of total PAHs concentration in PM10 in two sites and in each of the campaigns. Diagnostic ratio analysis and PCA suggested a substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. In particular diesel vehicular emissions were the major source of PAHs at the studied sites. The use of Toxicity Equivalence Quantity (TEQ) concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities; health risk to adults and children associated with PAHs inhalation was assessed by taking into account the lifetime average daily dose and corresponding incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR was within the acceptable range (10-6-10-4), indicating a low health risk to residents in these areas.

  19. Biofilm and Planktonic Bacterial and Fungal Communities Transforming High-Molecular-Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folwell, Benjamin D; McGenity, Terry J; Whitby, Corinne

    2016-04-15

    High-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) are natural components of fossil fuels that are carcinogenic and persistent in the environment, particularly in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). Their hydrophobicity and tendency to adsorb to organic matter result in low bioavailability and high recalcitrance to degradation. Despite the importance of microbes for environmental remediation, little is known about those involved in HMW-PAH transformations. Here, we investigated the transformation of HMW-PAHs using samples of OSPW and compared the bacterial and fungal community compositions attached to hydrophobic filters and in suspension. It was anticipated that the hydrophobic filters with sorbed HMW-PAHs would select for microbes that specialize in adhesion. Over 33 days, more pyrene was removed (75% ± 11.7%) than the five-ring PAHs benzo[a]pyrene (44% ± 13.6%) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (41% ± 12.6%). For both bacteria and fungi, the addition of PAHs led to a shift in community composition, but thereafter the major factor determining the fungal community composition was whether it was in the planktonic phase or attached to filters. In contrast, the major determinant of the bacterial community composition was the nature of the PAH serving as the carbon source. The main bacteria enriched by HMW-PAHs werePseudomonas,Bacillus, andMicrobacteriumspecies. This report demonstrates that OSPW harbors microbial communities with the capacity to transform HMW-PAHs. Furthermore, the provision of suitable surfaces that encourage PAH sorption and microbial adhesion select for different fungal and bacterial species with the potential for HMW-PAH degradation. PMID:26850299

  20. Genotoxicity in child populations exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the air from Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldeco R. Gamboa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The economy of the state of Tabasco is based on oil extraction. However, this imposes major effects to the environment and communities. Examples are the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs that may be found in the soil, water and sediment of the region. Their volatility makes them available to living beings and results in genotoxic activity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the levels of PAHs in the air at several points in the state, and to analyze their relationship with possible damage to DNA on local inhabitants. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay (Comet Assay was applied to peripheral blood lymphocytes of five groups of children between six and 15 years of age. PAH samples were analyzed following US/EPA TO-13-A method. Results indicated the presence in the air of most of the 16 PAHs considered as high priority by EPA, some of which have been reported with carcinogenic activity. Differences (p<0.05 were found between PAHs concentration in the gaseous component and in the particulate component of air samples, with the greatest values for the gaseous component. Greatest PAH concentrations were detected in areas with high oil extraction activities. Children groups from high oil activity areas presented genotoxic damage labeled from moderate to high according to DNA migration from nuclei (Tail Length: 14.2 - 42.14 mm and Tail/Head: 0.97 - 2.83 mm compared with control group (12.25 and 0.63 mm, respectively. The group with greatest cell damage was located in the area with the greatest oil activity. We conclude that the presence of PAHs in the air may represent a health risk to populations that are chronically exposed to them at high oil activity regions.

  1. Mixed uncertainty analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon inhalation and risk assessment in ambient air of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yajuan; GUO Huaicheng; LIU Yong; HUANG Kai; WANG Zhen; ZHAN Xinye

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the application of an integrated method that estimates the dispersion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air, and assesses the human health risk associated with PAHs inhalation. An uncertainty analysis method consisting of three components were applied in this study, where the three components include a bootstrapping method for analyzing the whole process associated uncertainty, an inhalation rate (IR) representation for evaluating the total PAH inhalation risk for human health, and a normally distributed absorption fraction (AF) ranging from 0% to 100% to represent the absorption capability of PAHs in human body. Using this method, an integrated process was employed to assess the health risk of the residents in Beijing, China, from inhaling PAHs in the air. The results indicate that the ambient air PAHs in Beijing is an important contributor to human health impairment, although over 68% of residents seem to be safe from daily PAH carcinogenic inhalation. In general, the accumulated daily inhalation amount is relatively higher for male and children at 10 years old of age than for female and children at 6 years old. In 1997, about 1.73% cancer sufferers in Beijing were more or less related to ambient air PAHs inhalation. At 95% confidence interval, approximately 272-309 individual cancer incidences can be attributed to PAHs pollution in the air. The probability of greater than 500 cancer occurrence is 15.3%. While the inhalation of ambient air PAHs was shown to be an important factor responsible for higher cancer occurrence in Beijing, while the contribution might not be the most significant one.

  2. Statistical Modeling of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using OSHA Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Derrick G; Lavoué, Jérôme; Spinelli, John J; Burstyn, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of pollutants with multiple variants classified as carcinogenic. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) provided access to two PAH exposure databanks of United States workplace compliance testing data collected between 1979 and 2010. Mixed-effects logistic models were used to predict the exceedance fraction (EF), i.e., the probability of exceeding OSHA's Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL = 0.2 mg/m3) for PAHs based on industry and occupation. Measurements of coal tar pitch volatiles were used as a surrogate for PAHs. Time, databank, occupation, and industry were included as fixed-effects while an identifier for the compliance inspection number was included as a random effect. Analyses involved 2,509 full-shift personal measurements. Results showed that the majority of industries had an estimated EF < 0.5, although several industries, including Standardized Industry Classification codes 1623 (Water, Sewer, Pipeline, and Communication and Powerline Construction), 1711 (Plumbing, Heating, and Air-Conditioning), 2824 (Manmade Organic Fibres), 3496 (Misc. Fabricated Wire products), and 5812 (Eating Places), and Major group's 13 (Oil and Gas Extraction) and 30 (Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastic Products), were estimated to have more than an 80% likelihood of exceeding the PEL. There was an inverse temporal trend of exceeding the PEL, with lower risk in most recent years, albeit not statistically significant. Similar results were shown when incorporating occupation, but varied depending on the occupation as the majority of industries predicted at the administrative level, e.g., managers, had an estimated EF < 0.5 while at the minimally skilled/laborer level there was a substantial increase in the estimated EF. These statistical models allow the prediction of PAH exposure risk through individual occupational histories and will be used to create a job-exposure matrix for use in a population-based case

  3. [Variation Characteristics and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Karst Subterranean River During Rainfall Events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ze-li; Sun, Yu-chuan; Wang, Zun-bo; Liang, Zuo-bing; Ren, Kun; Xie, Zheng-lan; Zhang, Mei; Liao, Yu

    2015-11-01

    The water samples were continuously collected at the outlet of Nanshan Laolongdong subterranean river basin, which is located in Chongqing, during the rainfall event in June 2014. Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water were quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The objectives of this study were to reveal the variation characteristics and sources of PAH16 in karst subterranean river during the rainfall event. The results showed that the subterranean river responded promptly to the rainfall, and there were four peaks of the total concentrations of PAH16, two peaks occurred during the flow rise stage, the others were in the maximum flow and flow decline stages. The total concentrations of PAH16 ranged 101-3 624 ng x L(-1), with a mean of 578 ng x L(-1), the total concentrations of 7 carcinogenic PAHs ranged ND-336 ng x L(-1), with a mean of 31.1 ng x L(-1). The PAH compositional profiles were dominated by 2,3-ring compounds, which accounted for 86.17% of the total concentrations of PAH16. The total concentrations of PAH16 were most influenced by the rainfall, through the cleaning of atmospheric pollutants by the rain and the scouring of the surface contaminants by the rainfall runoff. The PAHs in water mainly originated from the incomplete combustion of petroleum products and fossil fuels such as coal, as well as natural digenetic process. Compared to other areas in the world, the concentrations of PAH16 were generally at moderately polluted and heavily polluted levels. PMID:26910994

  4. Impact and uncertainty of a traffic management intervention: Population exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In urban areas, road traffic is a major source of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), thus any changes in traffic patterns are expected to affect PAH concentrations in ambient air. Exposure to PAH and other traffic-related air pollutants has often been quantified in a deterministic manner that disregards the various sources of uncertainty in the modelling systems used. In this study, we developed a generic method for handling uncertainty in population exposure models. The method was applied to quantify the uncertainty in population exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) before and after the implementation of a traffic management intervention. This intervention would affect the movement of vehicles in the studied area and consequently alter traffic emissions, pollutant concentrations and population exposure. Several models, including an emission calculator, a dispersion model and a Geographic Information System were used to quantify the impact of the traffic management intervention. We established four exposure zones defined by distance of residence postcode centroids from major road or intersection. A stochastic method was used to quantify the uncertainty in the population exposure model. The method characterises uncertainty using probability measures and propagates it applying Monte Carlo analysis. The overall model predicted that the traffic management scheme would lead to a minor reduction in mean population exposure to BaP in the studied area. However, the uncertainty associated with the exposure estimates was much larger than this reduction. The proposed method is generic and provides realistic estimates of population exposure to traffic-related pollutants, as well as characterises the uncertainty in these estimates. This method can be used within a decision support tool to evaluate the impact of alternative traffic management policies

  5. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA, rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6. The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73 μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error. The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4 with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4. The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation.

  6. Indoor emission, dispersion and exposure of total particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Jian, Yating; Cao, Changsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Cooking processes highly contribute to indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. High molecular weight and potentially carcinogenic PAHs are generally found attached to small particles, i.e., particulate phase PAHs (PPAHs). Due to the fact that indoor particle dynamics have been clear, describing the indoor dynamics of cooking-generated PPAHs within a specific time span is possible. This paper attempted to quantify the dynamic emission rate, simultaneous spatial dispersion and individual exposure of PPAHs using a cooking source. Experiments were conducted in a real-scale kitchen chamber to elucidate the time-resolved emission and effect of edible oil temperature and mass. Numerical simulations based on indoor particle dynamics were performed to obtain the spatial dispersion and individual inhalation intake of PPAHs under different emission and ventilation conditions. The present work examined the preheating cooking stage, at which edible oil is heated up to beyond its smoke point. The dynamic emission rate peak point occurred much earlier than the oil heating temperature. The total PPAH emission ranged from 2258 to 6578 ng upon heating 40-85 g of edible oil. The overall intake fraction by an individual within a period of 10 min, including 3 min for heating and 7 min for natural cooling, was generally ∼1/10,000. An important outcome of this work was that the overall intake fraction could be represented by multiplying the range hood escape efficiency by the inhalation-to-ventilation rate ratio, which would be no greater than the same ratio. The methodology and results of this work were extendible for the number-based assessment of PPAHs. This work is expected to help us understand the health risks due to inhalation exposure to cooking-generated PPAHs in the kitchen.

  7. Sources and transformations of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Marr

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding sources, concentrations, and transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmosphere is important because of their potent mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. The measurement of particle-bound PAHs by three different methods during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign in April 2003 presents a unique opportunity for characterization of these compounds and assessment of the methods. The three methods are (1 collection and analysis of bulk samples for time-integrated gas- and particle-phase speciation by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; (2 aerosol photoionization for fast detection of PAHs on particles' surfaces; and (3 aerosol mass spectrometry for fast analysis of size and chemical composition. This research represents the first time aerosol mass spectrometry has been used to measure ambient PAH concentrations and the first time that fast, real-time methods have been used to quantify PAHs alongside traditional filter-based measurements in an extended field campaign. Speciated PAH measurements suggest that motor vehicles and garbage and wood burning are important sources in Mexico City. The diurnal concentration patterns captured by aerosol photoionization and aerosol mass spectrometry are generally consistent. Ambient concentrations typically peak at ~110 ng m−3 during the morning rush hour and rapidly decay due to changes in source activity patterns and dilution as the boundary layer rises, although surface-bound PAH concentrations decay faster. The more rapid decrease in surface versus bulk PAH concentrations during the late morning suggests that freshly emitted combustion-related particles are quickly coated by secondary aerosol material in Mexico City's atmosphere and may also be transformed by heterogeneous reactions.

  8. Shorter telomere length in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanello, Sofia; Pesatori, Angela-C; Dioni, Laura; Hoxha, Mirjam; Bollati, Valentina; Siwinska, Ewa; Mielzyńska, Danuta; Bolognesi, Claudia; Bertazzi, Pier-Alberto; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2010-02-01

    Shorter telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) is predictive of lung cancer risk. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are established lung carcinogens that cause chromosome instability. Whether PAH exposure and its molecular effects are linked with shorter TL has never been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic exposure to PAHs on TL measured in PBLs of Polish male non-current smoking cokeoven workers and matched controls. PAH exposure and molecular effects were characterized using measures of internal dose (urinary 1-pyrenol), effective dose [anti-benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide (anti-BPDE)-DNA adduct], genetic instability (micronuclei, MN) and DNA methylation [p53 promoter and Alu and long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) repetitive elements, as surrogate measures of global methylation] in PBLs. TL was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cokeoven workers were heavily exposed to PAHs (79% exceeded the urinary 1-pyrenol biological exposure index) and exhibited lower TL (P = 0.038) than controls, as well as higher levels of genetic and chromosomal alterations [i.e. anti-BPDE-DNA adduct and MN (P < 0.0001)] and epigenetic changes [i.e. p53 gene-specific promoter and global methylation (P

  9. Sources and transformations of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Marr

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding sources, concentrations, and transformations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmosphere is important because of their potent mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. The measurement of particle-bound PAHs by three different methods during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign in April 2003 presents a unique opportunity for characterization of these compounds and intercomparison of the methods. The three methods are (1 collection and analysis of bulk samples for time-integrated gas- and particle-phase speciation by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; (2 aerosol photoionization for fast detection of PAHs on particles' surfaces; and (3 aerosol mass spectrometry for fast analysis of size and chemical composition. This research represents the first time aerosol mass spectrometry has been used to measure ambient PAH concentrations and the first time that fast, real-time methods have been used to quantify PAHs alongside traditional filter-based measurements in an extended field campaign. Speciated PAH measurements suggest that motor vehicles and garbage and wood burning are important sources in Mexico City. The diurnal concentration patterns captured by aerosol photoionization and aerosol mass spectrometry are generally consistent. Ambient concentrations of particle-phase PAHs typically peak at ~110 ng m-3 during the morning rush hour and rapidly decay due to changes in source activity patterns and dilution as the boundary layer rises, although surface-bound PAH concentrations decay faster. The more rapid decrease in surface versus bulk PAH concentrations during the late morning suggests that freshly emitted combustion-related particles are quickly coated by secondary aerosol material in Mexico City's atmosphere and may also be transformed by heterogeneous reactions.

  10. Nitro Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Particulate Matter Emitted by the Combustion of Diesel and Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Hernández, B. L.; Amador-Muñoz, O.; Jazcilevich, A. D.; Santos-Medina, G. L.; Hernández-Lopéz, E.; Villalobos-Pietrini, R.

    2013-05-01

    The rapid population growth in large urban areas, has resulted in a precipitous increase in the consumption of fossil fuels, mainly by the transport sector, diesel vehicles are a significant source of air pollution by particulate matter emissions, damaging the population health, because of the size and composition of these particles, as they may contain carcinogenic organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, nitro-PAH. This study focused on analysis of nitro-PAH contained in particles emitted from diesel engines fuelled with biodiesel blends (B5, B10 and B16.67) to different driving cycles (rpm and torque), and to compare their concentrations with emissions from current diesel. A diesel truck engine was used in the laboratory for collect particulate mass emitted directly from the exhaust. Mass of particles and nitro-PAH were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using negative chemical ionization. No reduction was observed in the particles mass per second by using biodiesel relative to diesel (p > 0.1). Seven nitro-PAH were observed in samples: 1-nitronaphthalene, 2-nitronaphthalene, 9-nitroanthracene, 3-nitrophenanthrene, 1,8-dinitronaphthalene, 1-nitropyrene and 1,6-dinitropyrene. 1-nitropyrene showed the highest mass concentration in diesel and in all blends of biodiesel, followed by 3-nitrophenanthrene. Emissions reduction in biodiesel combustion with respect to diesel combustion were observed for 1-nitropyrene: 50 %, in all blends (B5, B10 and B16.67) and for 3-nitrophenanthrene: 55 % in B5, 72 % in B10 and 64 % in B16.67.

  11. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  12. Chronic toxicity of polycyclic aromatic compounds to the springtail Folsomia candida and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus cripticus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T.J. Droge; M. Leon; E.A.J. Bleeker; M.H.S. Kraak; C.A.M. van Gestel

    2006-01-01

    Abstract-An urgent need exists for incorporating heterocyclic compounds and (bio)transformation products in ecotoxicological test schemes and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). The aim of the present study therefore was to determine the chronic effects of (heterocyclic) PACs on

  13. An Evaluation of Uncertainty Associated to Analytical Measurements of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Ambient Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an evaluation of uncertainty associated to analytical measurement of eighteen polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in ambient air by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD). The study was focused on analyses of PM10, PM2.5 and gas phase fractions. Main analytical uncertainty was estimated for eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and two hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) based on the analytical determination, reference material analysis and extraction step. Main contributions reached 15-30% and came from extraction process of real ambient samples, being those for nitro- PAHs the highest (20-30%). Range and mean concentration of PAC mass concentrations measured in gas phase and PM10/PM2.5 particle fractions during a full year are also presented. Concentrations of OH-PAHs were about 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than their parent PAHs and comparable to those sparsely reported in literature. (Author)

  14. Probing the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the photoelectric heating within photodissociation regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okada, Y.; Pilleri, P.; Berne, O.; Ossenkopf, V.; Fuente, A.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Joblin, C.; Kramer, C.; Roellig, M.; Teyssier, D.; van der Tak, F. F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. We observationally investigate the relation between the photoelectric heating efficiency in photodissociation regions (PDRs) and the charge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are considered to play a key role in photoelectric heating. Methods. Using PACS onboard Herschel, we obs

  15. Novel β-cyclodextrin modified quantum dots as fluorescent probes for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Ping Han; Hai Bing Li

    2008-01-01

    Water-soluble CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs)were prepared via a simple sonochemical procedure using β-cyclodextrin (CD)as surface coating agent.The QDs displayed a sensitive emission enhancement for anthracene over other related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,and the detection limit was around 1.6 × 10-8 mol/L.

  16. The NASA Ames Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Infrared Spectroscopic Database : The Computed Spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauschlicher, C. W.; Boersma, C.; Ricca, A.; Mattioda, A. L.; Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; de Armas, F. Sanchez; Saborido, G. Puerta; Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The astronomical emission features, formerly known as the unidentified infrared bands, are now commonly ascribed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The laboratory experiments and computational modeling done at the NASA Ames Research Center to create a collection of PAH IR spectra relevant t

  17. 多环芳烃的加氢裂化%Hydrocracking of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全信; 刘希尧

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress on the catalysts, reaction network and reaction mechanism for hydrocracking of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in recent years.%本文综述了近年来多环芳烃加氢裂化反应催化剂、反应网络及反应机理等方面的研究进展。

  18. Weathering and toxicity of marine sediments contaminated with oils and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Sinke, A.; Brils, J.M.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Many sediments are contaminated with mixtures of oil residues and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but little is known about the toxicity of such mixtures to sediment-dwelling organisms and the change in toxicity on weathering. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a seminatur

  19. Polar metabolites of polycyclic aromatic compounds from fungi are potential soil and groundwater contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Johnsen, Anders R.; Christensen, Jan H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the sorption to soil of water-soluble metabolites from polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). The soil fungus Cunninghamella elegans was used to produce PAC metabolites from two un-substituted PACs (phenanthrene, pyrene), three alkyl-substituted PACs (2-methylnaphthalene, 1...

  20. Gas-phase infrared spectra of cationized nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galué, Alvaro; Pirali, O.; Oomens, J.

    2010-01-01

    Gas-phase infrared spectra of several ionized nitrogen substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) have been recorded in the 600-1600 cm(-1) region via IR multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The UV photoionized PANH ions are trapped and isolated in a quadrupole ion trap where

  1. Gas-phase infrared spectra of cationized nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Galué; O. Pirali; J. Oomens

    2010-01-01

    Gas-phase infrared spectra of several ionized nitrogen substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) have been recorded in the 600-1600 cm-1 region via IR multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The UV photoionized PANH ions are trapped and isolated in a quadrupole ion trap where t

  2. Availabiltiy and leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Controlling processes and comparison of testing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskam, G.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the availability and leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from two contaminated materials, a tar-containing asphalt granulate (¿16 US-EPA PAHs 3412 mg/kg) and gasworks soil (¿PAHs 900 mg/kg), by comparing results from three typical types of leaching tests: a column, se

  3. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soot and sediment : solvent selection and implications for sorption mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Soot contains high levels of toxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Extraction of PAHs from soot for quantitative analysis is difficult because the compounds are extremely tightly bound to the sorbent matrix. This study was designed to investigate the effect of solvent type

  4. Development of analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulates:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-bin; LIU Yan; LIN Jin-ming; TANG Ning; HAYAKAWA Kazuichi; MAEDA Tsuneaki

    2007-01-01

    In the present work,the different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulates is systematacially reviewed, and the applications of these pretreatment and analytical methods for PAHs are compared in detail. Some comments on the future expectation are also presented.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dust in regions of massive star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Els

    2002-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known on earth as a large family of tarry materials naturally present in for example coal and crude oil. In addition, they are also formed in the combustion of all sorts of carbonaceous fuels and hence are found in auto exhaust, cigarette smoke, candle soo

  6. Gas phase adiabatic electron affinities of cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, P.D.; Koper, C.; van Lenthe, J.H.; Jenneskens, L.W.

    2008-01-01

    The B3LYP/DZP++ adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) of nine (non)-alternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are reported and discussed. Calculations became feasible for molecules this size by projecting out the near-linearly dependent part of the one-electron basis. Non-alternant PAH consisting of an

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ionization as a tracer of gas flows through protoplanetary disk gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Maaskant; M. Min; L.B.F.M. Waters; A.G.G.M. Tielens

    2014-01-01

    Context. Planet-forming disks of gas and dust around young stars contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Aims. We aim to characterize how the charge state of PAHs can be used as a probe of flows of gas through protoplanetary gaps. In this context, our goal is to understand the PAH spectra o

  8. Supercooled liquid vapour pressures and related thermodynamic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.H. Haftka; J.R. Parsons; H.A.J. Govers

    2006-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method using Kovats retention indices has been applied to determine the liquid vapour pressure (P-i), enthalpy of vaporization (Delta H-i) and difference in heat capacity between gas and liquid phase (Delta C-i) for a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This group

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE EFFECT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON GEOMETRY ON THE HYDROLYSIS OF DIOL EPOXIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative studies of the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geometry on the hydrolysis of diol epoxides The interaction of the diol epoxides (DEs) of both planar and non-planar PAHs with water have been examined using quantum mechanical and molecular dynamics. Th...

  10. Seasonal effect and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Firoz; Latif, Mohd Talib; Lim, Chee Hou; Amil, Norhaniza; Jaafar, Shoffian Amin; Dominick, Doreena; Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul; Sahani, Mazrura; Tahir, Norhayati Mohd

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to investigate distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) captured in a semi-urban area in Malaysia during different seasons, and to assess their health risks. PM2.5 samples were collected using a high volume air sampler on quartz filter paper at a flow rate of 1 m3 min-1 for 24 h. PAHs on the filter paper were extracted with dichloromethane (DCM) using an ultrasonic centrifuge solid-phase extraction method and measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The results showed that the range of PAHs concentrations in the study period was between 0.21 and 12.08 ng m-3. The concentrations of PAHs were higher during the south-west monsoon (0.21-12.08 ng m-3) compared to the north-east monsoon (0.68-3.80 ng m-3). The high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (≥5 ring) are significantly prominent (>70%) compared to the low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (≤4 ring) in PM2.5. The Spearman correlation indicates that the LMW and HMW PAHs correlate strongly among themselves. The diagnostic ratios (DRs) of I[c]P/I[c]P + BgP and B[a]P/B[g]P suggest that the HMW PAHs originated from fuel combustion sources. The source apportionment analysis of PAHs was resolved using DRs-positive matrix factorization (PMF)-multiple linear regression (MLR). The main sources identified were (a) gasoline combustion (65%), (b) diesel and heavy oil combustion (19%) and (c) natural gas and coal burning (15%). The health risk evaluation, by means of the lifetime lung cancer risk (LLCR), showed no potential carcinogenic risk from the airborne BaPeq (which represents total PAHs at the present study area in Malaysia). The seasonal LLCR showed that the carcinogenic risk of total PAHs were two fold higher during south-westerly monsoon compared to north-easterly monsoon.

  11. Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediments from Tiber River and estuary, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuori, Paolo; Aurino, Sara; Garzonio, Fatima; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale; Nardone, Antonio; Triassi, Maria

    2016-10-01

    The concentration, source and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Tiber River and its environmental impact on the Tyrrhenian Sea (Central Mediterranean Sea) were estimated. The 16 priority PAHs were determined in the water dissolved phase (DP), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments collected from 21 sites in four different seasons. Total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 10.3 to 951.6ngL(-1) and from 36.2 to 545.6ngg(-1) in water (sum of DP and SPM) and in sediment samples, respectively. The compositions of PAHs showed that 2- to 4-ring PAHs were abundant in DP, 4- to 6-ring PAHs were predominant in SPM samples, and 4- to 5-ring PAHs were abundant in sediments. The diagnostic ratio analysis indicated that the PAHs mainly had a pyrolytic source. The toxic equivalent concentration of carcinogenic PAHs was 45.3ngTEQg(-1), suggesting low carcinogenic risk for Tiber River. Total PAHs loads into the sea were calculated in about 3161.7kgyear(-1) showing that this river is one of the main contribution sources of these contaminants to the Tyrrhenian Sea. PMID:27265739

  12. Semipolar polycyclic aromatic compounds: identification of 15 priority substances and the need for regulatory steps under REACH regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Markus A; Behnke, Andreas; Brandt, Marc; Eisenträger, Adolf; Hassauer, Martin; Kalberlah, Fritz; Seidel, Albrecht

    2014-07-01

    Semipolar polycyclic aromatic compounds (sPACs) are frequently found in association with homocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in substances of unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products, or biological materials (UVCBs) from coal or crude oil and products derived thereof. However, major information deficiencies exist with regard to their prevalence and their toxicological and ecotoxicological potential, persistency, and bioaccumulation characteristics. Therefore, in this work, the environmental concern and relevance of sPACs was addressed in a general, stepwise approach. First, a large list of sPACs was collected and subsequently refined by assessing their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (PBT) properties by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods and their relevance by determining their respective frequency of occurrence. In this way, 15 priority sPACs were identified. These 15 priority sPACs were further characterized in detail with respect to their ecotoxicological properties, environmental behavior, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity attributes. All of these 15 substances were quantified in distillate or product samples. In the next step, some principles for nomination of indicator substances, indicative for the overall content of sPACs, are derived. Data gaps on ecotoxicological endpoints preclude final conclusions, but the respective necessary supplemental tests were identified. Five of the 15 sPACs were tentatively characterized as potential substances of very high concern (SVHC) for the environment. The overall results of this study also clearly show that regulatory risk management of homocyclic PAHs within the European Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) does not address the environmental concern created by sPACs within UVCBs from coal or crude oil. The study proves the need for additional regulatory steps under REACH and suggests indicator

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-induced ROS accumulation enhances mutagenic potential of T-antigen from human polyomavirus JC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Anna; Waligórski, Piotr; Lassak, Adam; Vashistha, Himanshu; Lirette, David; Tate, David; Zea, Arnold H; Koochekpour, Shahriar; Rodriguez, Paulo; Meggs, Leonard G; Estrada, John J; Ochoa, Augusto; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the products of incomplete combustion of organic materials, which are present in cigarette smoke, deep-fried food, and in natural crude oil. Since PAH-metabolites form DNA adducts and cause oxidative DNA damage, we asked if these environmental carcinogens could affect transforming potential of the human Polyomavirus JC oncoprotein, T-antigen (JCV T-antigen). We extracted DMSO soluble PAHs from Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (oil-PAHs), and detected several carcinogenic PAHs. The oil-PAHs were tested in exponentially growing cultures of normal mouse fibroblasts (R508), and in R508 stably expressing JCV T-antigen (R508/T). The oil-PAHs were cytotoxic only at relatively high doses (1:50-1:100 dilution), and at 1:500 dilution the growth and cell survival rates were practically unaffected. This non-toxic dose triggered however, a significant accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), caused oxidative DNA damage and the formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Although oil-PAHs induced similar levels of DNA damage in R508 and R508/T cells, only T-antigen expressing cells demonstrated inhibition of high fidelity DNA repair by homologous recombination (HRR). In contrast, low-fidelity repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) was unaffected. This potential mutagenic shift between DNA repair mechanisms was accompanied by a significant increase in clonal growth of R508/T cells chronically exposed to low doses of the oil-PAHs. Our results indicate for the first time carcinogenic synergy in which oil-PAHs trigger oxidative DNA damage and JCV T-antigen compromises DNA repair fidelity. PMID:23558788

  14. Comparison of rapid solvent extraction systems for the GC–MS/MS characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged, contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Mansur, Abdulatif A.; Koshlaf, Eman; Morrison, Paul D.; Osborn, A. Mark; Ball, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major class of organic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight that originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Sixteen PAHs are included in the U.S Environmental Protection agency list of priority pollutants due to their mutagenic, carcinogenic, toxic and teratogenic properties. In this study, the development and optimization of a simplified and rapid solvent extraction for the characterisation of 16 USEPA priority poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged contaminated soils was established with subsequent analysis by GC–MS/MS. • Five different extraction solvent systems: dichloromethane: acetone, chloroform: methanol, dichloromethane, acetone: hexane and hexane were assessed in terms of their ability to extract PAHs from aged PAH-contaminated soils. • Highest PAH concentrations were extracted using acetone: hexane and chloroform: methanol. Given the greater toxicity associated with chloroform: methanol, acetone: hexane appears the best choice of solvent extraction system. • This protocol enables efficient extraction of PAHs from aged weathered soils. PMID:27200269

  15. Modern Electrochemical Methods for Monitoring of Chemical Carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Zima, J; Moreira, J.; J. Barek

    2005-01-01

    This contribution is based on our presentation at the 1st International Symposium on Sensor Science, Paris, 16-20 June 2003. It presents recent results regarding the electrochemical determination of submicromolar and nanomolar concentrations of various carcinogenic substances (nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, azo compounds, aromatic amino compounds, etc.) using both traditional (classical dropping mercury electrode, static mercury drop electrode, hanging merc...

  16. FORMATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND THEIR GROWTH TO SOOT -A REVIEW OF CHEMICAL REACTION PATHWAYS. (R824970)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generation by combustion processes of airborne species of current health concern such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot particles necessitates a detailed understanding of chemical reaction pathways responsible for their formation. The present review discus...

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect survival and development of common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) embryos and hatchlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Meter, Robin J. [School of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Policy and Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: robinjvanmeter@yahoo.com; Spotila, James R. [School of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Policy and Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: spotiljr@drexel.edu; Avery, Harold W. [School of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Policy and Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: Haltort@aol.com

    2006-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic compounds found in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We assessed the impact of PAHs and crude oil on snapping turtle development and behavior by exposing snapping turtle eggs from the Refuge and from three clean reference sites to individual PAHs or a crude oil mixture at stage 9 of embryonic development. Exposure to PAHs had a significant effect on survival rates in embryos from one clean reference site, but not in embryos from the other sites. There was a positive linear relationship between level of exposure to PAHs and severity of deformities in embryos collected from two of the clean reference sites. Neither righting response nor upper temperature tolerance (critical thermal maximum, CTM) of snapping turtle hatchlings with no or minor deformities was significantly affected by exposure to PAHs. - Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the egg reduces survival of snapping turtle embryos and causes developmental abnormalities.

  18. Understanding the Reactivity of Planar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Towards the Graphene Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodeja, Yago; Solà, Miquel; Fernández, Israel

    2016-07-18

    The Diels-Alder reactivity of maleic anhydride towards the bay regions of planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was explored computationally in the DFT framework. The process becomes more and more exothermic and the associated activation barriers become lower and lower when the size of the system increases. This enhanced reactivity follows an exponential behavior that reaches its maximum for systems having 18-20 benzenoid rings in their structures. This peculiar behavior was analyzed in detail by using the activation strain model of reactivity in combination with energy decomposition analysis. The influence of the change in the aromaticity of the polycyclic compound during the process on the respective activation barriers was also studied. PMID:27304921

  19. Fused polycyclic aromatics incorporating boron in the core: fundamentals and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escande, Aude; Ingleson, Michael J

    2015-04-14

    The incorporation of boron into the core structure of fused polycyclic aromatics generates compounds with highly attractive properties that have recently received significant attention. Embedding boron into the backbone of ladder or 2D poly aromatic hydrocarbons is an underexplored approach to modulate optoelectronic properties, with tricoordinate boron representing a novel acceptor moiety for organic optoelectronic applications. Furthermore, the incorporation of boron into polycyclics containing other heteroatoms (e.g., chalcogens or pnictogens) leads to more extensive structural diversity and considerable ability to modify the frontier orbital energies and character, often in a controlled manner, to fine tune material properties for specific applications. This feature article summarizes the recent key developments in this field.

  20. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fractions in asphalt mixtures using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Gobo, Luciana Assis; Bohrer, Denise; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Cravo, Margareth Coutinho; Leite, Leni Figueiredo Mathias

    2015-07-01

    An analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in asphalt fractions has been developed. The 14 compounds determined, characterized by having two or more condensed aromatic rings, are expected to be present in asphalt and are considered carcinogenic and mutagenic. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all of the compounds. The limits of detection ranged from 0.5 to 346.5 μg/L and the limits of quantification ranged from 1.7 to 1550 μg/L. The method was validated against a diesel particulate extract standard reference material (NIST SRM 1975), and the obtained concentrations agreed with the certified values. The method was applied to asphalt samples after its fractionation according to ASTM D4124 and the method of Green. The concentrations of the seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons quantified in the sample ranged from 0.86 mg/kg for benzo[ghi]perylene to 98.32 mg/kg for fluorene.

  1. Enumeration and phylogenetic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria from Puget sound sediments.

    OpenAIRE

    Geiselbrecht, A D; Herwig, R P; Deming, J. W.; Staley, J T

    1996-01-01

    Naphthalene- and phenanthrene-degrading bacteria in Puget Sound sediments were enumerated by most-probable-number enumeration procedures. Sediments from a creosote-contaminated Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Site (Eagle Harbor) contained from 10(4) to 10(7) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria g (dry weight) of sediment-1, whereas the concentration at an uncontaminated site ranged from 10(3) to 10(4) g of sediment(-1). Isolates of PAH-degrading bacteria were obt...

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation by a New Marine Bacterium, Neptunomonas naphthovorans gen. nov., sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Brian P.; Geiselbrecht, Allison D.; Bair, Timothy J.; Staley, James T.

    1999-01-01

    Two strains of bacteria were isolated from creosote-contaminated Puget Sound sediment based on their ability to utilize naphthalene as a sole carbon and energy source. When incubated with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compound in artificial seawater, each strain also degraded 2-methylnaphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene; in addition, one strain, NAG-2N-113, degraded 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and phenanthrene. Acenaphthene was not degraded when it was used as a sole carbon source but wa...

  3. NMR solution structures of adducts derived from the binding of polycyclic aromatic diol epoxides to DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosman, M.; Patel, D.J. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States). Cellular Biochemistry and Biophysics Program; Hingerty, B.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health and Safety Research Div.; Amin, S. [American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY (United States); Broyde, S.; Geacintov, N.E. [New York Univ., NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Site-specifically modified oligonucleotides were derived from the reactions of stereoisomeric polycyclic aromatic diol epoxide metabolite model compounds with oligonucleotides of defined base composition and sequence. The NMR solution structures of ten different adducts studied so far are briefly described, and it is shown that stereochemical factors and the nature of the oligonucleotide context of the complementary strands, exert a powerful influence on the conformational features of these adducts.

  4. Genotoxicity in child populations exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the air from Tabasco, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa, Aldeco R.; Rodríguez T. Gamboa; Bravo, Alvarez H.; Wegman P. Ostrosky

    2008-01-01

    The economy of the state of Tabasco is based on oil extraction. However, this imposes major effects to the environment and communities. Examples are the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) that may be found in the soil, water and sediment of the region. Their volatility makes them available to living beings and results in genotoxic activity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the levels of PAHs in the air at several points in the state, and to analyze their relationship with possib...

  5. Molecular comparison of cultivable protozoa from a pristine and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon polluted site

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Enrique; Berney, Cédric; Ekelund, Flemming; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    We compared the abundance and diversity of cultivable protozoa (flagellates and amoebae) in a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soil and an unpolluted control, by isolating and cultivating clonal strains. The number of cultivable protozoa was higher in the polluted soil; however, the polluted soil displayed an impoverished community, dominated by certain taxa, such as Acanthamoeba sp. We isolated a total of 31 protozoan strains to characterize them morphologically and by 18S rRNA...

  6. Estimated IR and phosphorescence emission fluxes for specific Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Red Rectangle

    CERN Document Server

    Mulas, G; Joblin, C; Toublanc, D

    2005-01-01

    Following the tentative identification of the blue luminescence in the Red Rectangle by Vijh et al. (2005), we compute absolute fluxes for the vibrational IR emission and phosphorescence bands of three small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The calculated IR spectra are compared with available ISO observations. A subset of the emission bands are predicted to be observable using presently available facilities, and can be used for an immediate, independent, discriminating test on their alleged presence in this well-known astronomical object.

  7. On-line DACC-HPLC analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils

    OpenAIRE

    Neđeral, Sandra; Pukec, Dragutin; Škevin, Dubravka; Kraljić, Klara; Obranović, Marko; Zrinjan, Petra

    2014-01-01

    In this work an HPLC method for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in edible oils on a DACC (donor-acceptor complex chromatography) column coupled with an on-line HPLC system with fluorescent detection. Method was used to determine the content of individual PAHs in the refined sunflower oil, virgin olive oil, cold pressed pumpkin seed oil, dark sesame oil and pumpkin seed oil produced with roasting obtained from domestic market. Calibration and validation were conducted f...

  8. Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Plasma Cytokines, and Heart Rate Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Binyao Yang; Qifei Deng; Wangzhen Zhang; Yingying Feng; Xiayun Dai; Wei Feng; Xiaosheng He; Suli Huang; Xiao Zhang; Xiaohai Li; Dafeng Lin; Meian He; Huan Guo; Huizhen Sun; Jing Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heart rate variability (HRV). However, the roles of plasma cytokines in these associations are limited. In discovery stage of this study, we used Human Cytokine Antibody Arrays to examine differences in the concentrations of 280 plasma cytokines between 8 coke-oven workers and 16 community residents. We identified 19 cytokines with significant different expression (fold change ≥2 or ≤−2, an...

  9. Estimation of individual dermal and respiratory uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 12 coke oven workers.

    OpenAIRE

    VanRooij, J G; Bodelier-Bade, M M; Jongeneelen, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve workers from a coke plant in The Netherlands participated in an intensive skin monitoring programme combined with personal air sampling and biological monitoring during five consecutive eight hour workshifts. The purpose of the study was to make a quantitative assessment of both the dermal and respiratory intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pyrene was used as a marker compound for both dermal and respiratory exposure to PAHs. The biological measure for the internal expos...

  10. DNA adducts as a measure of lung cancer risk in humans exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    Kriek, E; van Schooten, F.J.; Hillebrand, M J; van Leeuwen, F E; Den Engelse, L; De Looff, A J; Dijkmans, A P

    1993-01-01

    Workers in the coking, foundry, and aluminum industry can be exposed to high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and are at increased risk for lung cancer, as are cigarette smokers. In recent years several studies on workers in the foundry and coking industries have been reported. In these studies, white blood cell(WBC) DNA was used for analysis of PAH-DNA adducts. Theoretically, DNA adduct formation is a more relevant biological parameter for assessing exposure risk tha...

  11. Pollution of Flooded Arable Soils with Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesielczuk, Tomasz; Kusza, Grzegorz; Poluszyńska, Joanna; Kochanowska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Soils that are exposed to floodwaters because of shallow groundwater and periodical wetlands are, to a large extent, exposed to contamination by organic and inorganic compounds. These are mainly compounds that have drifted along with the inflow of heavily laden floodwater and are produced within the soil profile by the anaerobic transformation of organic matter. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are absorbed by the soil of the floodwaters, and moving in the soil...

  12. Enhanced aqueous solubility and photodimerization of polycyclic aromatics mediated by γ-Cyclodextrin derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hai Ming

    2012-01-01

    A series of hydrophilic γ-cyclodextrin (CD) thioethers were synthesized and selected as hosts. They were able to solubilize polycyclic aromatic guests in water to much higher extents than native CDs. The results of experimental (phase-solubility method and fluorescence spectroscopy) and theoretical (quantum mechanical and space-filling calculations) investigations confirmed the formation of 1:2 CD-guest complexes in aqueous solution. True molecular solutions of C60 were obtained by dissolving...

  13. Detection and characterization of human serum antibodies to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol-epoxide DNA adducts.

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, M J; Light, B A; Weston, A; Tollurud, D; Clark, J L; Mann, D L; Blackmon, J P; Harris, C C

    1988-01-01

    The presence of serum antibodies to the diol-epoxide DNA adducts of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, was determined by ELISA using serum samples obtained from normal healthy individuals. Antibodies that reacted against PAH adducted-DNA, but not against PAH-adducted protein, were found in the serum of approximately 40% of the test individuals. Specificity analysis of the antibodies demonstrated that serological cross-reactio...

  14. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Identification and Source Discrimination in Rural Soil of the Northern Persian Gulf Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Valizadeh-kakhki; Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria; Ahmad Zaharin Aris; Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli; Mehdi Mohammadi; Hasan Tajik

    2014-01-01

    Due to strategic situation of the Persian Gulf, identifying the petroleum pollution level and source is an important issue. Therefore, this paper enhanced fingerprinting method of applying biomarkers Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in identifying source and distribution of oil spills of the exposed areas. 10 soil samples collected from the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf along three provinces in the south of Iran. PAH concentrations in the soil ranged from 42.76 to 5596.49 ng.g-1....

  15. Assessment of the bioavailability and phytotoxicity of sediment spiked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rončević, Srđan; Spasojević, Jelena; Maletić, Snežana; Jazić, Jelena Molnar; Isakovski, Marijana Kragulj; Agbaba, Jasmina; Grgić, Marko; Dalmacija, Božo

    2016-02-01

    Large amounts of sediment are dredged globally every year. This sediment is often contaminated with low concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and other organic pollutants. Some of this sediment is disposed of on land, creating a need for risk assessment of the sediment disposal method, to minimize the degradation of environmental quality and prevent risks to human health. Evaluating the available fractions of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is very important, as in the presence of various organisms, they are believed to be easily subject to the processes of bioaccumulation, biosorption and transformation. In order to determine the applicability of applying these methods for the evaluation of pollutant bioavailability in sediments, the desorption kinetics from the sediment of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of Tenax and XAD4 were examined over the course of 216 h. Changes in the PAH concentrations in dredged sediments using five different seed plants during a short time of period (10 days) were also followed. Using chemical extraction techniques with Tenax and XAD4, a time of around 24 h is enough to achieve equilibrium for all four PAHs. Results showed good agreement between the seed accumulation and PAH extraction methods with both agents. If we compare the two extraction techniques, XAD4 gave better results for phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene, and Tenax gave better results for chrysene. PMID:26490893

  16. MODELING GALACTIC EXTINCTION WITH DUST AND 'REAL' POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas, Giacomo; Casu, Silvia; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Strada n.54, Loc. Poggio dei Pini, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Zonca, Alberto, E-mail: gmulas@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: silvia@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: ccp@oa-cagliari.inaf.it, E-mail: azonca@oa-cagliari.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, Strada Prov.le Monserrato-Sestu Km 0.700, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the remarkable apparent variety of galactic extinction curves by modeling extinction profiles with core-mantle grains and a collection of single polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our aim is to translate a synthetic description of dust into physically well-grounded building blocks through the analysis of a statistically relevant sample of different extinction curves. All different flavors of observed extinction curves, ranging from the average galactic extinction curve to virtually 'bumpless' profiles, can be described by the present model. We prove that a mixture of a relatively small number (54 species in 4 charge states each) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can reproduce the features of the extinction curve in the ultraviolet, dismissing an old objection to the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the interstellar extinction curve. Despite the large number of free parameters (at most the 54 Multiplication-Sign 4 column densities of each species in each ionization state included in the molecular ensemble plus the 9 parameters defining the physical properties of classical particles), we can strongly constrain some physically relevant properties such as the total number of C atoms in all species and the mean charge of the mixture. Such properties are found to be largely independent of the adopted dust model whose variation provides effects that are orthogonal to those brought about by the molecular component. Finally, the fitting procedure, together with some physical sense, suggests (but does not require) the presence of an additional component of chemically different very small carbonaceous grains.

  17. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendyk Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II and totally impervious surface (III. Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS. Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.

  18. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K.; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed toward removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of PAHs. The main

  19. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed toward removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of PAHs. The main

  20. Understanding Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon transfers at the catchment scale combining chemical and fallout radionuclides analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Lefevre, Irène; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Contamination of river water and sediment constitutes a major environmental issue for industrialized countries. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants characterized by two or more fused rings. In recent years, studies dealing with PAHs have grown in number. Some PAHs present indeed a high risk for environment and human health because of their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. However, most of these studies focused on measuring PAH concentration in the different compartments of the environment (air, soil, sediment, water, etc.) In this context, there remains a lack of understanding regarding the various processes responsible for PAH transfers from one environmental compartment to another. Our study aims to quantify PAHs transfers at the catchment scale by combining chemical analysis with gamma spectrometry. Air, soil, river water and sediment samples (n=820) were collected in two upstream sub-catchments of the Seine River basin (France) during one year. Chemical analyses were carried out to determine PAHs concentrations in all samples. Furthermore, measurement of fallout radionuclides (Beryllium-7, Lead-210, Caesium-137) in both rainfall and river sediment provided a way to discriminate between freshly eroded sediment vs. resuspension of older material that previously deposited on the riverbed. This information is crucial to estimate PAH residence time and transfer velocities in the Seine River basin. The results show that the PAH behaviour varies from one subcatchment to the next. PAH transfers depend indeed on both the characteristics of the catchment (e.g. topography, presence of drained cropland in catchments) and the local anthropogenic pressures. A significant increase in atmospheric deposition of PAHs is observed during winter due to a larger number of sources (household heating). The 14-month study has also highlighted the seasonal variations of PAH fluxes, which are mainly related to the hydrological

  1. Profile distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of drained peatlands after wildfires (Moscow region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibart, Anna; Gennadiev, Alexander; Koshovskii, Timur; Kovach, Roman

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) are formed in different natural and anthropogenic processes and could be found in many landscape components. These compounds are carcinogenic and belong to the group of persistent organic pollutants. The anthropogenic sources of PAHs are well-studied, but insufficient data are available on the hightemperature production of PAHs in natural processes. For example, natural fires are frequently related to the PAHs sources in landscapes, but very little factual data are on this topic. The soils of drained peatlands affected by catastrophic wildfires of 2010 and 2002 were studied in the Eastern part of Moscow Region (Russia). A total of 14 profiles of histosols and histic podsols were investigated. These series included soils of plots subjected to fires of different intensities and age, as well as soils of the background plots. Soil samples were taken from genetic horizons and from every 10 cm. The samples were analyzed for the contents of 14 prevailing individual compounds: fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, anthracene, tetraphene, benz[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[e]pyrene, coronene, dibenztiophene, triphenilene, benz(k)fluorantene. Morfological properties of soils after wildfires on drained peatlands were changed dramatically, the horizons of ash and char instead of organic layers were formed. These new horizons differ in the capability of PAHs accumulation. The char horizons have the highest concentrations of PAHs - up to 300 ng/g because of incomplete burning of organic matter in this sites, and the ash horizons, where the complete burning occured, contain only 10 ng/g PAHs. The highest concentrations of PAHs in soil profiles were detected after recent fires, and in cases of thick peat layers. After the combustion of peat chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, benz[e]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benz(k)fluorantene and tetraphene accumulated in soils. This is mainly the group of 4-6-nuclear compounds. The formation of

  2. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K.; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed toward removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of PAHs. The main

  3. Current state of knowledge in microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Ghosal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed towards removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of

  4. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed toward removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of PAHs. The main

  5. Fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in infrared absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, Matteo; Lucotti, Andrea; Alfè, Michela; Ciajolo, Anna; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed a set of 51 PAHs whose structures have been hypothesized from mass spectrometry data collected on samples extracted from carbon particles of combustion origin. We have obtained relationships between infrared absorption signals in the fingerprint region (mid-IR) and the chemical structures of PAHs, thus proving the potential of IR spectroscopy for the characterization of the molecular structure of aromatic combustion products. The results obtained here for the spectroscopic characterization of PAHs can be also of interest in Materials Science and Astrophysics.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. Strain 10-1B, a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degrader in Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Bello-Akinosho, Maryam; Adeleke, Rasheed; Swanevelder, Dirk; Thantsha, Mapitsi

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain 10-1B was isolated from artificially polluted soil after selective enrichment. Its draft genome consists of several predicted genes that are involved in the hydroxylation of the aromatic ring, which is the rate-limiting step in the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  7. DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS IN AIRBORNE PARTICULATES OF EAST ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Liu; Libin Liu; Jin-Ming Lin; Ning Tang; Kazuichi Hayakawa

    2006-01-01

    A review is presented on the distribution and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)and their derivatives, including nitro-PAHs and hydro-PAHs, on atmospheric particulates of East Asia. Generally, PAH compounds with two or three aromatic rings are released mainly into the gas phase, while those containing three or more aromatic rings are associated with particulate matter (PM) emission. Particle-associated PAHs are primarily adsorbed on fine particles, and little associated with coarse particles. Investigation into the concentration level of PAHs in different areas can serve not only to reflect the pollutant status and sources but also to lead to the formulation of control strategies.The results of the present study show that China has more severe PAH pollution than such East Asian countries as Japan and Korea.

  8. Seasonal patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in digestive gland and arm of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) from the Northwest Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Miguel; Oliveira, Marta; Gomes, Filipa; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone; Ferreira, Marta

    2014-05-15

    Among organic pollutants existing in coastal areas, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great concern due to their ubiquity and carcinogenic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal patterns of PAHs in the digestive gland and arm of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) from the Northwest Atlantic Portuguese coast. In the different seasons, 18 PAHs were determined and the detoxification capacity of the species was evaluated. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) activities were measured to assess phase I biotransformation capacity. Individual PAH ratios were used for major source (pyrolytic/petrogenic) analysis. Risks for human consumption were determined by the total toxicity equivalence approach. Generally, low levels of PAHs were detected in the digestive gland and in the arm of octopus, with a predominance of low molecular over high molecular weight compounds. PAHs exhibited seasonality in the concentrations detected and in their main emission sources. In the digestive gland, the highest total PAH levels were observed in autumn possibly related to fat availability in the ecosystem and food intake. The lack of PAH elimination observed in the digestive gland after captivity could be possibly associated to a low biotransformation capacity, consistent with the negligible/undetected levels of EROD and ECOD activity in the different seasons. The emission sources of PAHs found in the digestive gland varied from a petrogenic profile observed in winter to a pyrolytic pattern in spring. In the arm, the highest PAH contents were observed in June; nevertheless, levels were always below the regulatory limits established for food consumption. The carcinogenic potential calculated for all the sampling periods in the arm were markedly lower than the ones found in various aquatic species from different marine environments. The results presented in this study give relevant baseline data for environmental

  9. Investigation of the presence of amino and nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a Söderberg primary aluminum smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farant, Jean-Pierre; Ogilvie, David

    2002-01-01

    An excessive risk of bladder cancer among Söderberg primary aluminum smelter potroom workers has been reported by several authors, and to date, a causal agent has not been identified. Certain nitro and amino polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are either known or suspected human bladder carcinogens, and their presence in this work environment would be cause for concern. In fact, one of these, 2-aminonaphthalene, has been found in both the air and the coal tar pitch used to fabricate process electrodes following an investigation in a Söderberg plant. During the present study, monitoring was conducted in a primary Söderberg aluminum smelter over a 3-week period using novel methods having very good specificity, reproducibility, and sensitivity. Results indicated that 1-aminonaphthalene and 2-aminonaphthalene and 1-nitronaphthalene and 2-nitronaphthalene were present at low parts-per-million levels in the coal tar pitch used to prepare the process electrodes. 1-aminonaphthalene and 2-aminonaphthalene were measured 40 cm above the electrolytic cells on days 1 and 2 of the investigation when the cells' ventilation systems had been shut down for repairs and maintenance. 2-aminonaphthalene was measured at concentrations ranging from 0.080 to 0.350 microg/m3. 1-nitronaphthalene and 2-nitronaphthalene, predominant in coal tar pitch, were not detected in any of the 43 air samples collected. A plausible explanation is their reduction to their respective amine during the electrolytic process. The routine screening of coal tar pitch used to prepare the process's electrode for both amino and nitro PAHs should be adopted by the aluminum industry as an effective means of controlling the presence of these carcinogenic pollutants in their workplace.

  10. Concentrations, source and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from midway atoll, north pacific ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyi Yang

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil samples collected from Midway Atoll and evaluate their potential risks to human health. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 3.55 to 3200 µg kg(-1 with a mean concentration of 198 µg kg(-1. Higher molecular weight PAHs (4-6 ring PAHs dominated the PAH profiles, accounting for 83.3% of total PAH mass. PAH diagnostic ratio analysis indicated that primary sources of PAHs in Midway Atoll could be combustion. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (BaPeq in most of the study area (86.5% was less than 40 µg kg(-1 BaPeq and total incremental lifetime cancer risks of PAHs ranged from 1.00×10(-10 to 9.20×10(-6 with a median value of 1.24×10(-7, indicating a minor carcinogenic risk of PAHs in Midway Atoll.

  11. A novel approach for apportionment between primary and secondary sources of airborne nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Qiu, Xinghua; Ma, Yiqiu; Wang, Junxia; Wu, Yusheng; Zeng, Limin; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-08-01

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) are strong environmental mutagens and carcinogens originating from both primary emissions and secondary reactions in the atmosphere. The sources and the toxicity of different NPAH species could vary greatly; therefore a specie-specific source apportionment is essential to evaluate their health risks and to formulate controlling regulations. However, few studies have reported source apportionment of NPAHs species to date. In this study, we developed an easy-to-perform method for the apportionment of primary versus secondary sources of airborne NPAHs based on the relationship between NPAHs and NO2. After log-transformation of both NPAHs and NO2 concentrations, a slope of β between these two variables was obtained by the linear regression. When β is significantly smaller than 1, it indicates primary emissions while β significantly greater than 1 suggests secondary formation. We have validated this method with data previously collected in Beijing. A good correlation, with R value of 0.57, was observed between results produced by this new method and by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The correlation could be further improved (R = 0.71) if the gas/particle partition of NPAHs is taken into consideration. This developed method enables the source apportionment for individual NPAHs species and could be used to validate the results of other receptor models.

  12. Levels, distribution, and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in four freshwater edible fish species from the Beijing market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Jing; Qin, Ning; He, Wei; He, Qi-Shuang; Ouyang, Hui-Ling; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2012-01-01

    We first estimated the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the brain, liver, bladder, roe, and muscle of four species of edible freshwater fish from the Beijing market. The distribution characteristics of PAHs in these tissues and organs were analyzed to determine their health risks to humans. The results showed that the residual levels of wet weight and lipid-normalized weight ∑PAHs in various tissues of these fish ranged from 0.51 ng·g(-1) to 28.78 ng·g(-1) and from 93.62 ng·g(-1) to 8203.43 ng·g(-1), respectively. The wet weight contents of ∑PAHs were relatively higher in the brain and lower in the liver and muscle. But the differences were not significant. And the differences of lipid-normalized weight PAHs were significant, which in the bighead carp were found significantly the highest, followed in crucian carp, and the lowest in grass carp and carp. The contents of ∑PAHs were the highest in the liver and the lowest in the brain. In the tissues with a higher lipid content, higher residual levels of PAHs were found. The carcinogenic risks for humans from residual ∑PAHs in the various fish tissues were far below 10(-5).

  13. Lagos lagoon sediment organic extracts and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce embryotoxic, teratogenic and genotoxic effects in Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogbanmu, Temitope O; Nagy, Eszter; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M; Otitoloju, Adebayo A; Bury, Nic R

    2016-07-01

    An expansion of anthropogenic activity around Lagos lagoon, Nigeria, has raised concerns over increasing contaminants entering the lagoon's ecosystem. The embryotoxicity, teratogenicity and genotoxicity of sediment organic extracts from four sampling zones around Lagos lagoon, Ilaje, Iddo, Atlas Cove and Apapa, as well as the dominant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) identified in water measured during the wet season (naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and a mixture of these), were assessed with Danio rerio embryos. Embryos were exposed to varying concentrations of toxicants from 0-72 h post-fertilization (hpf). Embryotoxicity at 72 hpf showed a dose-dependent increase in mortality upon exposure to extracts from all zones, except Atlas Cove. Similarly, higher levels of teratogenic effects, such as increased oedema, and haemorrhage and developmental abnormalities resulted from exposure to extracts from Ilaje, Iddo and Apapa zones. Treatment with single PAHs revealed that significant levels of detrimental effects were obtained only for phenanthrene. The modified comet assay revealed that the oxidative damage to DNA was generally low (<12 %) overall for all sediment extracts, but was significantly elevated with Ilaje and Iddo sediment extracts when compared with solvent controls. Oxidative damage was observed with the single PAHs, phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene, as well as with the PAH mixture. This study highlights that Lagos lagoon sediment extracts have teratogenic, embryotoxic and genotoxic properties, which are likely due to the high molecular weight PAHs present in the extracts, some of which are known or are suspected human carcinogens. PMID:27068906

  14. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in surface soil of coal stockpile sites in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizwar, Andy; Priatmadi, Bambang Joko; Abdi, Chairul; Trihadiningrum, Yulinah

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations, spatial distribution, and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in surface soils of three different coal stockpile, agricultural, and residential sites in South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Total PAHs concentration ranged from 4.69 to 22.67 mg kg(-1)-dw. PAHs concentrations in soil of coal stockpile sites were higher than those in agricultural and residential soil. A complex of petrogenic origin and pyrolytic sources was found within the study area, as suggested by the isomeric ratios of PAHs. The results of principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions (PCA/MLR) showed that three sources contributed to the PAHs in the study area, including biomass and coal combustion (48.46%), raw coal (35.49%), and vehicular emission (16.05%). The high value of total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (B[a]Peq) suggests that local residents are exposed to a high carcinogenic potential.

  15. Distribution, Levels, and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Some Water Bodies along the Coastal Belt of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kofi Essumang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and distribution of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in six water bodies along the coastal belt of Ghana using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC/FID. The average total PAHs recorded are from the Pra estuary, 6.3 μg/L; Benya lagoon, 7.5 μg/L; Sakumono lagoon, 10.1 μg/L; lower Volta estuary, 26.3 μg/L; Keta lagoon, 10.6 μg/L; and Narkwa lagoon, 16.1 μg/L.The 12 PAHs that were well distributed in all the coastal waters analyzed include naphthalene, pyrene, fluorene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, acephnaphthalene, acephnaphthene, 1-methylphenanthrene, 2,3,5-trimethylnaphthalene, chrysene, biphenyl, and phenanthrene. The presence of benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(aanthracene, and benzo(j,kfluoranthene in some of the water bodies is a source of concern as they have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA as probable human carcinogens. These water bodies are used for fishing and for some domestic purposes by the people living around them, thereby exposing them to some dangers and the risk of getting cancer. The human health cancer risk assessment carried out also indicates that there is the possibility of some users of the water bodies getting cancer in their lifetime.

  16. Levels, distribution, and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in four freshwater edible fish species from the Beijing market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Jing; Qin, Ning; He, Wei; He, Qi-Shuang; Ouyang, Hui-Ling; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2012-01-01

    We first estimated the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the brain, liver, bladder, roe, and muscle of four species of edible freshwater fish from the Beijing market. The distribution characteristics of PAHs in these tissues and organs were analyzed to determine their health risks to humans. The results showed that the residual levels of wet weight and lipid-normalized weight ∑PAHs in various tissues of these fish ranged from 0.51 ng·g(-1) to 28.78 ng·g(-1) and from 93.62 ng·g(-1) to 8203.43 ng·g(-1), respectively. The wet weight contents of ∑PAHs were relatively higher in the brain and lower in the liver and muscle. But the differences were not significant. And the differences of lipid-normalized weight PAHs were significant, which in the bighead carp were found significantly the highest, followed in crucian carp, and the lowest in grass carp and carp. The contents of ∑PAHs were the highest in the liver and the lowest in the brain. In the tissues with a higher lipid content, higher residual levels of PAHs were found. The carcinogenic risks for humans from residual ∑PAHs in the various fish tissues were far below 10(-5). PMID:23365511

  17. Levels, Distribution, and Health Risks of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Four Freshwater Edible Fish Species from the Beijing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jing Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We first estimated the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the brain, liver, bladder, roe, and muscle of four species of edible freshwater fish from the Beijing market. The distribution characteristics of PAHs in these tissues and organs were analyzed to determine their health risks to humans. The results showed that the residual levels of wet weight and lipid-normalized weight ∑PAHs in various tissues of these fish ranged from 0.51 ng·g−1 to 28.78 ng·g−1 and from 93.62 ng·g−1 to 8203.43 ng·g−1, respectively. The wet weight contents of ∑PAHs were relatively higher in the brain and lower in the liver and muscle. But the differences were not significant. And the differences of lipid-normalized weight PAHs were significant, which in the bighead carp were found significantly the highest, followed in crucian carp, and the lowest in grass carp and carp. The contents of ∑PAHs were the highest in the liver and the lowest in the brain. In the tissues with a higher lipid content, higher residual levels of PAHs were found. The carcinogenic risks for humans from residual ∑PAHs in the various fish tissues were far below 10−5.

  18. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Various Species of Fishes from Mumbai Harbour, India, and Their Dietary Intake Concentration to Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dhananjayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants which have caused worldwide concerns as toxic pollutant. This study reports the concentrations of 15 PAHs in 5 species of fish samples collected along the harbour line, Mumbai, between 2006 and 2008. Among 5 species of fish investigated, Mandeli, Coilia dussimieri, detected the maximum concentration of PAHs (P<0.05 followed by Doma, Otolithes ruber. The concentration of total and carcinogenic PAHs ranged from 17.43 to 70.44 ng/g wet wt. and 9.49 to 31.23 ng/g wet wt, respectively, among the species tested. The lower-molecular-weight PAHs were detected at highest levels. Estimated intakes of PAHs by fish consumption for the general population were ranged between 1.77 and 10.70 ng/kg body weight/day. Mandeli contributed to the highest intakes of PAHs. The toxic equivalents (TEQs of PAHs were calculated using a TEQ proposed in literature, and the intake ranged from 8.39 to 15.78 pg TEQ/kg body weight/d. The estimated excess cancer risk value (2.37×10−7–1.43×10−6 from fish consumption for the general population exceeded the guideline value (1.0 × 10−6 for potential cancer risk.

  19. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fugitive PM10 emissions from an integrated iron and steel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaparde, V V; Bhanarkar, A D; Majumdar, Deepanjan; Rao, C V Chalapati

    2016-08-15

    Fugitive emissions of PM10 (particles <10μm in diameter) and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were monitored in the vicinity of coking unit, sintering unit, blast furnace and steel manufacturing unit in an integrated iron and steel plant situated in India. Concentrations of PM10, PM10-bound total PAHs, benzo (a) pyrene, carcinogenic PAHs and combustion PAHs were found to be highest around the sintering unit. Concentrations of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs were recorded to be highest in the coking unit whereas 5-and 6-ring PAHs were found to be highest in other units. The following indicatory PAHs were identified: indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene, dibenzo (a,h) anthracene, benzo (k) fluoranthene in blast furnace unit; indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene, dibenzo (a,h) anthracene, chrysene in sintering unit; Anthracene, fluoranthene, chrysene in coking unit and acenaphthene, fluoranthene, fluorene in steel making unit. Total-BaP-TEQ (Total BaP toxic equivalent quotient) and BaP-MEQ (Total BaP mutagenic equivalent quotient) concentration levels ranged from 2.4 to 231.7ng/m(3) and 1.9 to 175.8ng/m(3), respectively. BaP and DbA (dibenzo (a,h) anthracene) contribution to total-BaP-TEQ was found to be the highest. PMID:27099996

  20. Plasma proteins as early biomarkers of exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J; Parmelee, D C; Benjamin, T; Sechi, S; Dooley, K L; Kadlubar, F F

    1994-12-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DG) has been used to study the changes induced in dog plasma polypeptides by the known urinary bladder carcinogens, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and 2-naphthylamine (2-NA). Treatment with 3-aminobiphenyl (3-ABP) and 1-naphthylamine (1-NA), both considered to be non-carcinogenic, were used as controls. The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine whether or not changes that occurred in the plasma protein patterns were specific to 4-ABP and/or other related carcinogenic arylamines; (2) to measure the time course in the changes of the major polypeptides during dosing and their resynthesis during a recovery period; and (3) to determine, by microsequencing, the biochemical identity of the affected proteins. The results indicate that only the most potent carcinogen, 4-ABP, had the effect of suppressing the expression of some proteins, while the other aromatic amines caused no discernible change in the 2DG patterns during a 12-week dosing period. The 4-ABP caused dramatic suppression of two sets of proteins. One set of three spots had an apparent molecular weight of 32.5 kDa, and a pI of 5.8-6.0. The major component in this group was identified as the beta-chain of haptoglobin. Expression of this protein decreased markedly during the first 2 weeks of treatment and recovered slowly after dosing stopped. Since haptoglobin functions to bind with free hemoglobin and facilitates its elimination from the blood stream, these results can be rationalized as a consequence of 4-ABP binding to hemoglobin in the erythrocyte, resulting in cell death and hemolysis. The 4-ABP modified hemoglobin then binds to haptoglobin and this tertiary complex is purged from the blood stream, resulting in the disappearance of free haptoglobin. A second set of spots (mol. wt., 65 kDa; pI, 6.5-6.6) disappeared much faster than the haptoglobin, and recovered more quickly. The major protein is about one-fifth the intensity of haptoglobin and appeared to be N

  1. Effect of interlayer cations of montmorillonite on the biodegradation and adsorption of crude oil polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-09-01

    Cation exchange capacity, surface acidity and specific surface area are surface properties of clay minerals that make them act as catalysts or supports in most biogeochemical processes hence making them play important roles in environmental control. However, the role of homoionic clay minerals during the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds is not well reported. In this study, the effect of interlayer cations of montmorillonites in the removal of some crude oil polycyclic aromatic compounds during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The homoionic montmorillonites were prepared via cation exchange reactions by treating the unmodified montmorillonite with the relevant metallic chloride. The study indicated that potassium-montmorillonite and zinc-montmorillonite did not enhance the biodegradation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons whereas calcium-montmorillonite, and ferric-montmorillonite enhanced their biodegradation significantly. Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was significant during biodegradation with potassium- and zinc-montmorillonite where there was about 45% removal of the polycyclic aromatic compounds by adsorption in the experimental microcosm containing 5:1 ratio (w/w) of clay to oil.

  2. Biotransformation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic compounds by vegetable and fruit cell extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo XIE; Jun YANG; Qing YANG

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from various vegetables and fruits were investigated for their abilities to reduce nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs).The extracts from grape and onion exhibited an interesting selectivity,yielding corresponding hydroxylamines or amines as major products under mild conditions of 30 ℃ and pH 7.0.Grape extracts reduced the 4-nitro-1,8-naphthalic anhydride with the highest conversion rate (>99%) and the highest ratio of hydroxylamine to amine (95:5).In contrast,the onion extracts reduced 4-nitro-1,8-naphthalic anhydride with a conversion rate of 94% and a ratio of hydroxylamine to amine of 8:92.The thiol-reducing agent,β-mercaptoethanol,and metal cations,Ca2+ and Mg2+,greatly increased the reductive efficiency.This work provides an alternative strategy for biotransformation of nitro-polycyclic compounds.

  3. Biodegradation of Various Aromatic Compounds by Enriched Bacterial Cultures: Part A-Monocyclic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Akashdeep Singh; Philip, Ligy; Bhallamudi, S Murty

    2015-08-01

    Present study focused on the screening of bacterial consortium for biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (MAH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Target compounds in the present study were naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene (PAHs), and benzene (MAH). Microbial consortia enriched with the above target compounds were used in screening experiments. Naphthalene-enriched consortium was found to be the most efficient consortium, based on its substrate degradation rate and its ability to degrade other aromatic pollutants with significantly high efficiency. Substrate degradation rate with naphthalene-enriched culture followed the order benzene > naphthalene > acenaphthene > phenanthrene. Chryseobacterium and Rhodobacter were discerned as the predominant species in naphthalene-enriched culture. They are closely associated to the type strain Chryseobacterium arthrosphaerae and Rhodobacter maris, respectively. Single substrate biodegradation studies with naphthalene (PAH) and benzene (MAH) were carried out using naphthalene-enriched microbial consortium (NAPH). Phenol and 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde were identified as the predominant intermediates during benzene and naphthalene degradation, respectively. Biodegradation of toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, phenol, and indole by NAPH was also investigated. Monod inhibition model was able to simulate biodegradation kinetics for benzene, whereas multiple substrate biodegradation model was able to simulate biodegradation kinetics for naphthalene.

  4. Current-voltage characteristics of a homologous series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Thilo; Simpson, Christopher D; Müllen, Klaus; Rabe, Jürgen P

    2007-01-01

    A novel alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with D(2h) symmetry and 78 carbon atoms in the aromatic core (C78) was synthesized, thereby completing a homologous series of soluble PAH compounds with increasing size of the aromatic pi system (42, 60, and 78 carbon atoms). The optical band gaps were determined by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy in solution. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) revealed diode-like current versus voltage (I-V) characteristics through individual aromatic cores in monolayers at the interface between the solution and the basal plane of graphite. The asymmetry of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics increases with the increasing size of the aromatic core, and the concomitantly decreasing HOMO-LUMO gap. This is attributed to resonant tunneling through the HOMO of the adsorbed molecule, and an asymmetric position of the molecular species in the tunnel junction. Consistently, submolecularly resolved STM images at negative substrate bias are in good agreement with the calculated pattern for the electron densities of the HOMOs. The analysis provides the basis for tailoring rectification with a single molecule in an STM junction. PMID:17579898

  5. Magnetic ionic liquids as non-conventional extraction solvents for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Nacham, Omprakash; Clark, Kevin D; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2016-08-31

    This work describes the applicability of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) in the analytical determination of a group of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Three different MILs, namely, benzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL A), methoxybenzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL B), and 1,12-di(3-benzylbenzimidazolium) dodecane bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)]imide bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL C), were designed to exhibit hydrophobic properties, and their performance examined in a microextraction method for hydrophobic analytes. The magnet-assisted approach with these MILs was performed in combination with high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. The study of the extraction performance showed that MIL A was the most suitable solvent for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and under optimum conditions the fast extraction step required ∼20 μL of MIL A for 10 mL of aqueous sample, 24 mmol L(-1) NaOH, high ionic strength content of NaCl (25% (w/v)), 500 μL of acetone as dispersive solvent, and 5 min of vortex. The desorption step required the aid of an external magnetic field with a strong NdFeB magnet (the separation requires few seconds), two back-extraction steps for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons retained in the MIL droplet with n-hexane, evaporation and reconstitution with acetonitrile. The overall method presented limits of detection down to 5 ng L(-1), relative recoveries ranging from 91.5 to 119%, and inter-day reproducibility values (expressed as relative standard derivation) lower than 16.4% for a spiked level of 0.4 μg L(-1) (n = 9). The method was also applied for the analysis of real samples, including tap water, wastewater, and tea infusion. PMID:27506350

  6. Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbon in interplanetary dust particles and meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Wopenka, B.

    1987-01-01

    Raman spectra of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteorites containing material similar to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) show features that are similar in position and relative strength to interstellar IR emission features attributable to vibrational transitions in free molecular-sized PAHs. In addition, these spectra sometimes show red photoluminescence that has elsewhere been attributed to PAHs, and a part of the carbonaceous phase in IDPs and meteorites contain a degree of deuterium enrichment anticipated in small, free PAHs that are exposed to ISM UV radiation. These observations suggest that some of the IDPs' carbonaceous material may have been produced in circumstellar dust shells, and only slightly modified in interstellar space.

  7. Assessment of concentration, bioaccumulation and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zooplankton of Chabahar Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaadini, Morteza; Mehdinia, Ali; Khaleghi, Leila; Nassiri, Mahmoud

    2016-06-15

    The amounts and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in the zooplankton community of Chabahar Bay were investigated. The highest amounts of total PAHs (tPAHs) in the water and zooplankton samples were 62.2ngL(-1) and 1478.6ngg(-1) dry weights, in near the Shahid Beheshti Port and desalination, respectively. The greatest amount of BAF (51,780) was obtained in the entry of Bay, and it was related to the phenanthrene accumulation. Using molecular ratio, the results showed that the major input source of PAH compounds in zooplankton of Chabahar Bay was pyrolytic (fuel) source. PMID:26944700

  8. Occurrence and sources of particulate nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, A.; Poulsen, M.W.B.; Nielsen, T.;

    2001-01-01

    The occurrence of selected nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) associated with atmospheric particulate matter has been investigated at an urban site and at a semi-rural site. For this purpose an analysis method based on gas chromatography and tandem ion trap mass spectrometry has...... been developed and applied. The nitro-PAK levels have been compared with levels of other air pollutants including unsubstituted PAHs, inorganic gases and particulate matter, as well as with meteorological parameters. Correlations and concentration ratios suggest that the dominant source of 9...

  9. Exposures to Particulate Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Oxidative Stress in Schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Sanghyuk; Pan, Xiao-Chuan; Kim, Su-Young; Park, Kwangsik; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2009-01-01

    Background Air pollution is known to contribute to respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the main mechanisms for these effects on health. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of exposure to particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in schoolchildren. Methods The study population co...

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fingerprints in the Pichavaram mangrove-estuarine sediments, southeastern India

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan, Rajesh Kumar; Routh, Joyanto; Ramanathan, A.L.; Klump, J. Val

    2012-01-01

    The sources and historical deposition of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in dated sediment cores from the Pichavaram mangrove–estuarine complex. The ΣPAH flux in mangrove and estuarine sediments was 0.064 ± 0.031 μg/cm2/yr and 0.043 ± 0.020 μg/cm2/yr, respectively. The PAH flux in sediments increased up-core, coinciding with rapid urbanization since the 1970s. The flux showed a decrease in recent years (since 1990), coinciding with less riverine discharge, and per...

  11. Structures and electronic properties of thin-films of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsume, Yutaka [Asahi-Kasei Corporation, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka (Japan)], E-mail: natsume.yc@om.asahi-kasei.co.jp; Minakata, Takashi; Aoyagi, Takeshi [Asahi-Kasei Corporation, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2009-03-02

    We report the fabrication and characterization of organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) using several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pentacene, ovalene, dibenzocoronene and hexabenzocoronene were deposited as organic semiconductors on silicon wafers with gold electrodes as the bottom-contact configuration of the TFTs. The pentacene TFT showed the highest field-effect mobility of more than 0.1 cm{sup 2}/Vs in comparison with the other PAHs. The results clarified that the high field-effect mobility of the pentacene thin film is due to large grain size and intrinsic electronic properties.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in urban soils of Greater London, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Vane, Christopher H.; Kim, Alexander W.; Beriro, Darren J.; Cave, Mark R.; Knights, Katherine; Moss-Hayes, Vicky; Nathanail, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Surface soils from a 19 km2 area in east London, UK were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (n = 76). ∑16 PAH ranged from 4 to 67 mg/kg (mean, 18 mg/kg) and ∑50 PAH ranged from 6 to 88 mg/kg (mean, 25 mg/kg). ∑7 PCB ranged from 1 to 750 μg/kg (mean, 22 μg/kg) and ∑tri-hepta PCB ranged 9 to 2600 μg/kg (mean, 120 μg/kg). Compared to other international cities concentrations were similar for PAH but higher for PCB. Normal background concentrat...

  13. Contamination of soils in the urbanized areas of Belarus with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukharchyk, T. I.; Khomich, V. S.; Kakareka, S. V.; Kurman, P. V.; Kozyrenko, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of urbanized areas, including the impact zones of Belarus, were studied. The concentrations of 16 PAHs in the soils were determined for individual and high-rise building zones, forests, and forest parks of Belarus. The levels of the PAH accumulation in the soils of different industrial enterprises and boiler stations were analyzed. Possible sources of soil contamination with PAHs were considered, and the structure of the PAHs in the soils was shown. The levels of the soil contamination were determined from the regulated parameters for individual compounds and the sum of 16 PAHs.

  14. A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein I. Abdel-Shafy

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss PAHs impact on the environmental and the magnitude of the human health risks posed by such substances. They also contain important information on concentrations, burdens and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmosphere. The main anthropogenic sources of PAHs and their effect on the concentrations of these compounds in air are discussed. The fate of PAHs in the air, their persistence and the main mechanisms of their losses are presented. Health hazards associated with PAH air pollution are stressed.

  15. Biotransformation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic compounds by vegetable and fruit cell extracts*

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Bo; Yang, Jun; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from various vegetables and fruits were investigated for their abilities to reduce nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs). The extracts from grape and onion exhibited an interesting selectivity, yielding corresponding hydroxylamines or amines as major products under mild conditions of 30 °C and pH 7.0. Grape extracts reduced the 4-nitro-1,8-naphthalic anhydride with the highest conversion rate (>99%) and the highest ratio of hydroxylamine to amine (95:5). In contrast, the oni...

  16. Characterization and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments from the Bohai Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihua; Hu, Ningjing; Shi, Xuefa

    2015-04-01

    Characterization and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments from the Bohai Sea, China Liu Jihua, Hu Ningjing, Shi Xuefa First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of ubiquitous organic contaminants in the environment. Indeed, 16 PAH compounds have been listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the European Union because of their potential toxicity to humans and ecosystems. As POPs are released or escape into the environment, their global accumulation in marine sediments generates a complex balance between inputs and outputs. Furthermore, PAHs in coastal sediments can serve as effective tracers of materials transport from land-to-sea (Fang et al., 2009). Hence, investigations of PAHs in sediments can provide useful information for further understanding of environmental processes and material transport. In this study, sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from a total of 112 surface sediment samples collected across the entire territory of the Bohai Sea. The detectable concentrations of PAHs ranged from 97.2 to 300.7 ng/g across all samples, indicating low contamination levels of PAHs compared with reported values for other coastal sediments in China and developed countries. The highest concentrations were found within three belts in the vicinity of Luan River Estuary-Qinhuangdao Harbor, the Cao River Estuary-Bohai Sea Center, and north of the Yellow River Estuary. The distribution patterns of PAHs and source identification implied that PAH contamination in the Bohai Sea mainly originates from offshore oil exploration, sewage discharge from rivers and shipping activities. Further Principal components analysis (PCA)/multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis suggested that the contributions of spilled oil products (petrogenic), coal combustion and traffic

  17. Oxygen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) and their parent-PAHs in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Bandowe, Benjamin Acham Musa

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the higher toxicity of oxygen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) than of their parent-PAHs, there are only a few studies of the concentrations, composition pattern, sources and fate of OPAHs in soil, the presumably major environmental sink of OPAHs. This is related to the fact that there are only few available methods to measure OPAHs together with PAHs in soil. rnThe objectives of my thesis were to (i) develop a GC/MS-based method to measure OPAHs and their paren...

  18. Distribution and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Vegetables Grown in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Mohammad W.; Syed Iqleem H. Taqvi; Solangi, Amber R.; Qureshi, Umair A.

    2013-01-01

    Distribution and risk assessment of eight priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents have been examined in different varieties of vegetables grown in Pakistan. The results showed that the total PAH contents were higher for root vegetables like potato and carrot (~13 μg/kg) and relatively lower for turnip (10.9 μg/kg), respectively while for the fruit vegetables, all the peels were found to be more contaminated than cores. The ratio of total PAH concentrations in peels with resp...

  19. Characteristics of wintertime polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon assemblage in aerosol of the Southern Adriatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, V. Ž.; Pfendt, P. A.; Filipović, A. J.

    2007-09-01

    Features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) assemblage in aerosol samples collected from the atmosphere of Herceg Novi during the winter months of two successive years were studied. The results showed almost the same concentration profiles of identified PAHs for samples from the two periods analyzed, generally suggesting a similar origin. Diagnostic ratios indicated combustion of wood and coal, emissions from petrol and diesel engines, and dust resuspension as sources that predominantly contributed to the atmospheric PAH concentrations. Statistical analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) in particular, allowed us to identify the impact of meteorological parameters on PAH abundance.

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon–DNA Adducts and Breast Cancer: A Pooled Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gammon, Marilie D.; Sagiv, Sharon K.; Eng, Sybil M.; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Gaudet, Mia M.; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Britton, Julie A.; Terry, Mary Beth; WANG, LIAN WEN; Wang, Qiao; STELLMAN, STEVE D.; Beyea, Jan; Hatch, Maureen; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Wolff, Mary S.

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts have been associated with breast cancer in several small studies. The authors’ pooled analysis included 873 cases and 941 controls from a population-based case-control study. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in peripheral mononuclear cells was conducted in 2 rounds, and results were pooled on the basis of round-specific quantiles. The odds ratio for breast cancer was elevated in relation to detectable PAH-DNA adducts (1.29 as comp...

  1. Laboratory studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the search for interstellar candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Joblin, C; Simon, A; Mulas, G

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered as a major constituent of interstellar dust. They have been proposed as the carriers of the Aromatic Infrared Bands (AIBs) observed in emission in the mid-IR. They likely have a significant contribution to various features of the extinction curve such as the 220 nm bump,the far-UV rise and the diffuse interstellar bands. Emission bands are also expected in the far-IR, which are better fingerprints of molecular identity than the AIBs. They will be searched for with the Herschel Space Observatory. Rotational emission is also expected in the mm range for those molecules which carry significant dipole moments. Despite spectroscopic studies in the laboratory, no individual PAH species could be identified. This emphasises the need for an investigation on where interstellar PAHs come from and how they evolve due to environmental conditions: ionisation and dissociation upon UV irradiation, interactions with electrons, gas and dust. There is also evidence for PAH ...

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition in soils and sediments of high altitude lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimalt, Joan O.; Drooge, Barend L. van; Ribes, Alejandra; Fernandez, Pilar; Appleby, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in lake sediments and nearby soils of two European high mountain regions, Pyrenees and Tatra, have been studied. Similar mixtures of parent PAH were observed in all cases, indicating predominance of airborne transported combustion products. Nevertheless, the composition of these atmospherically long-range transported PAH was better preserved in the superficial layers of soils than sediments. This difference points to significant PAH degradation process, e.g. during lake water column transport, before accumulation in the latter. Post-depositional transformation was also different in both types of environmental compartments. Thus, lake sediments exhibit higher preservation of the more labile PAH involving lower degree of post-depositional oxidation. However, they also show the formation of major amounts of perylene by diagenetic transformation in the deep sections. This compound is not formed in soils where downcore enrichments of phenanthrene are observed, probably as a consequence of diagenetic aromatization of diterpenoids.

  3. Comparison of three different in vitro mutation assays used for the investigation of cytochrome P450-mediated mutagenicity of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, W.A.; Och, F.M.M. van; Groene, E.M. de; Horbach, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Three different in vitro mutation assays were used to investigate the involvement of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the activation of the nitro- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitroPAHs) 1-nitropyrene and 2- nitrofluorene and their reduced metabolites amino-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (aminoPAHs

  4. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solution using plant residue materials as a biosorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Baoliang, E-mail: blchen@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Yuan Miaoxin; Liu Hao [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Graphical abstract: The structure-effect relationship provides a reference to select and modify plant residues as a biosorbent with high efficiency to tackle organic pollutants. Research highlights: {yields} Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are effectively removed by plant residues. {yields} Biosorption mechanism of plant residues to abate PAHs is a partitioning process. {yields} Partition coefficients are negatively related with sugar contents of biosorbent. {yields} The aromatic component and K{sub ow} exhibit positive effects on biosorption. {yields} The structure-effect relationship guides plant residue using as a biosorbent. - Abstract: To elucidate biosorption mechanism and removal efficiency of plant residues as a biosorbent to abate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wastewater, sorption of PAHs onto wood chips (WC), ryegrass roots (RR), orange peels (OP), bamboo leaves (BL), and pine needles (PN) were investigated. The structural characterization of the biosorbents was analyzed by elemental composition, BET-N{sub 2} surface area, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PAHs sorption to the selected biosorbents were compared and correlated with their structures. Biosorption isotherms fit well with Freundlich equation and the mechanism was dominated by partition process. The magnitude of phenanthrene partition coefficients (K{sub d}) followed the order of PN > BL > OP > RR > WC, ranged from 2484 {+-} 24.24 to 5306 {+-} 92.49 L/kg. Except the WC sample, the K{sub d} values were negatively correlated with sugar content, polar index [(N + O)/C] of the biosorbents, while the aromatic component exhibited positive effects. For a given biosorbent of bamboo leaves, the carbon-normalized partition coefficients (K{sub oc}) were linearly correlated with octanol-water partition coefficients (K{sub ow}) of PAHs, i.e., log K{sub oc} = 1.16 log K{sub ow} - 1.21. The structure-effect relationship provides a reference to select and modify plant residues as a

  5. Understanding Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon transfers at the catchment scale combining chemical and fallout radionuclide analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateuille, D.; Evrard, O.; Lefevre, I.; Moreau-Guigon, E.; Alliot, F.; Chevreuil, M.; Mouchel, J.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Reducing environmental contamination constitutes a major challenge for industrialized countries. Furthermore, in the European Union, Water Framework Directive (WFD; Directive 2000/60/EC) requires that the member state water bodies reach good ecological and chemical status by 2015. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants considered as priority pollutants because of their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. They are mostly emitted by human activities such as household heating or road traffic. Although emissions have decreased during the last decades, a large amount of PAHs have been released into the atmosphere for the last two centuries. In recent years, studies dealing with PAHs have grown in number but most of them were restricted to the measurement of PAHs concentrations in the different compartments of the environment (air, soil, sediment, water, etc.). In this context, there remains a lack of knowledge about the transfers and, consequently, about the persistence of these compounds in the environment. This question is particularly acute in the Seine River basin where very high concentrations in PAHs are reported in sediment, thereby compromising the achievement of the good chemical status required by WFD. Our study aims to quantify PAHs transfers at the catchment scale by combining chemical analysis with gamma spectrometry. Atmospheric fallout, soil, river water and sediment samples were collected in two upstream sub-catchments of the Seine River basin during one year. Chemical analyses, restricted to 15 of the 16 PAHs selected by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were carried out to determine PAHs concentrations in all samples. Contamination spectra were used to outline the potential origin of pollution. Measurement of fallout radionuclides (Beryllium-7, Lead-210, Caesium-137) in both rainfall and river sediment provided a way to discriminate between freshly eroded sediment vs. material that

  6. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to the red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverdrup, L. E.; Krogh, P. H.; Nielsen, T.;

    2003-01-01

    The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After...... three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were determined. Exposure concentrations were veri.ed with chemical analysis. The substances tested were four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (.uoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene and .uorene), the N-, S-, and O...

  7. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverdrup, L.E.; Krogh, P.H.; Nielsen, T.;

    2003-01-01

    The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After...... three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were determined. Exposure concentrations were verified with chemical analysis. The substances tested were four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene), the N-, S-, and O...

  8. Evaluation of methods for predicting the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, W.; Barhoumi, R.; Burghardt, R.C. [and others] [Texas A & M University, College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health and Department of Civil Engineering

    2001-04-15

    Risk assessments of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures are hindered by a lack of reliable information on the potency of both mixtures and their individual components. This paper examines methods for approximating the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures. PAHs were isolated from a coal tar and then separated by ring number using HPLC. Five fractions (A-E) were generated, each possessing a unique composition and expected potency. The toxicity of each fraction was measured in the Salmonella/mutagenicity assay and the Chick Embryo Screening Test (CHEST). Their abilities to induce ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and to inhibit gap junction intercellular communication in rat liver Clone 9 cells were also measured. In the Salmonella/mutagenicity assay, fractions were predicted to have potencies in the order C {gt} E {gt} B {gt} A. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for fractions A-E were in the order E {ge} D {gt} C {gt} B {gt} A. TEF values were 20 652, 20 929, 441, 306 and 74.1 {mu}g of BaP equiv/g, respectively. A lack of agreement between assay-predicted potencies and chemical analysis-predicted potencies was observed with other assays and other methods of calculation. The results demonstrate the limitations of using a single method to predict the toxicity of a complex PAH mixture. 41 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban atmospheric particulate of NCR, Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwani, Saurabh; Amreen, Hassan; Khillare, P. S.

    2016-07-01

    The present study identifies the particulate Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their sources in ambient atmosphere of Delhi, India. PM10 (aerodynamic diameter, ≤10 μm) samples were collected weekly at two residential areas from July 2013 to January 2014. First sampling site was located in centre of the city, while other was at city's background (located in South-East direction of the Delhi). PM10 was collected on Whatman GF/A (8"x10") glass fibre filters using High-Volume sampler having a constant flow rate of 1.10 m3/min. A total of 55 samples, 27 from city centre and 28 from background site were collected during sampling period, covering two different seasons. The samples were analysed for determination of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system (Waters, USA). A source apportionment study using Molecular Diagnostic Ratio (MDR) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were conducted for both sampling sites in order to identify the potential PAHs sources in Delhi. MDR was used for the preliminary identification of sources and PCA was used for further confirmation of the PAH sources at both the sites in Delhi. Results indicated towards traffic and coal combustion related sources as dominant contributors of urban atmospheric PAHs in Delhi.

  10. Retention behavior of isomeric polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B; Sander, Lane C; de Alda, Miren Lopez; Lee, Milton L; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-08-26

    Retention indices for 70 polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) were determined using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) on a monomeric and a polymeric C18 stationary phase. Molecular shape parameters [length, breadth, thickness (T), and length-to-breadth ratio (L/B)] were calculated for all the compounds studied. Correlations between the retention on the polymeric C18 phase and PASH geometry (L/B and T) were investigated for six specific PASH isomer groups with molecular mass (MM) 184Da, 234Da, 258Da, 284Da, 334Da, and 384Da. Similar to previous studies for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PASH elution order on the polymeric C18 phase was generally found to follow increasing L/B values. Correlation coefficients for retention vs L/B ranged from r=0.45 (MM 184Da) to r=0.89 (MM 284Da). In the case of smaller PASHs (MM≤258Da), the location of the sulfur atom in the bay-region of the structure resulted in later than expected elution of these isomers based on L/B. In the case of the larger PASHs (MM≥284Da), nonplanarity had a significant influence on earlier than predicted elution based on L/B values. PMID:27481401

  11. Combined effect of urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and impaired lung function on diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jian; Sun, Huizhen; Xiao, Lili; Zhou, Yun; Yin, Wenjun; Xu, Tian; Cheng, Juan; Chen, Weihong; Yuan, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Associations of type 2 diabetes with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and reduced lung function have been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate effect of reduced lung function and exposure to background PAHs on diabetes. A total of 2730 individuals were drawn from the Wuhan-Zhuhai (WHZH) Cohort Study (n=3053). Participants completed physical examination, measurement of lung function and urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs). Risk factors for type 2 diabetes were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis, and the presence of additive interaction between levels of urinary OH-PAHs and lower lung function was evaluated by calculation of the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and attributable proportion due to interaction (AP). Urinary OH-PAHs levels was positively associated with type 2 diabetes among individuals with impaired lung function (pFEV1, odd ratio (OR): 0.664, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.491-0.900) and forced vital capacity (FVC, OR: 0.693, 95% CI: 0.537-0.893) were negatively associated with diabetes among individuals. Additive interaction of higher urinary levels of OH-PAHs and lower FVC (RERI: 0.679, 95% CI: 0.120-1.238); AP: 0.427, 95% CI: 0.072-0.782) was associated with diabetes. Exposure to background PAHs was related to diabetes among individuals with lower lung function. Urinary levels of OH-PAHs and reduced lung function had an additive effect on diabetes. PMID:27136672

  12. Sequential accelerated solvent extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with different solvents: performance and implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong; Gong, Jian; Chen, Diyun

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extracted by Soxhlet extraction (S-PAHs) with dichloromethane and routine accelerated solvent extraction (A-PAHs) with 1:1 toluene/methanol, respectively, were investigated in 24 soil samples from two cities in the center of the Pearl River Delta, South China. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, methylphenanthrene and perylene, in two soils, two sediments, and an immature oil shale were also sequentially extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. The A-PAHs' concentrations are 2.41 times the S-PAHs' concentrations. For sequential three ASEs, PAHs in the first extract account for 56 to 67% of their total concentrations in the sequential three extractions and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four solvents. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs in Soxhlet extraction, routine ASE, and sequential ASE with each solvent for a given sample are very similar, suggesting their identical petrogenic and pyrogenic sources in the soils and sediments. But the PAH ratios for the shale have an obvious petrogenic origin. The perylene/5-ring PAH ratios indicate a diagenetic source, especially in the shale and sediments. The correlation analysis shows that A-PAHs/S-PAHs is better associated with the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) than those of black carbon (BC). The above results indicate the significant petrogenic origin of PAHs and the important effect of organic matter on their extraction and distribution in the investigated field soils/sediments. PMID:21284305

  13. Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using partially purified laccase from residual compost of agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayolo-Deloisa, K. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Center for Biotechnology-FEMSA, Monterrey Institute of Technology, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Machin-Ramirez, C. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rito-Palomares, M. [Center for Biotechnology-FEMSA, Monterrey Institute of Technology, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Trejo-Hernandez, M.R. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Laccase partially purified from residual compost of Agaricus bisporus by an aqueous two-phase system (Lac ATPS) was used in degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: fluorene (Flu), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and benzo[a]anthracene (BaA). The capacity of the enzyme to oxidize polyaromatic compounds was compared to that of the crude laccase extract (CE). After treatment of 72 h, Lac ATPS and CE were not capable of oxidizing Flu and Phe, while Ant, BaP, and BaA were oxidized, resulting in percentages of oxidation of 11.2 {+-} 1, 26 {+-} 2, and 11.7 {+-} 4 % with CE, respectively. When Lac ATPS was used, the following percentages of oxidation were obtained: 11.4 {+-} 3 % for Ant, 34 {+-} 0.1 % for BaP, and 13.6 {+-} 2 % for BaA. The results reported here demonstrate the potential application of Lac ATPS for the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Assessment of atmospheric distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using polyparameter model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk-Sekulić Maja M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of partial or total destruction of industrial plants, military targets, infrastructure, uncontrolled fires and explosions during the conflict period from 1991 to 1999, at the area of Western Balkans, were large amounts of hazardous organic matter that have been generated and emitted in the environment. In order to assess gas/particle partition of seven EPA polychlorinated biphenyls and sixteen EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, twenty air samples have been collected at six urban, industrial and highly contaminated localities in Vojvodina. Hi-Vol methodology has been used for collecting ambiental air samples, that simultaneously collects gaseous and particulate phase with polyurethane foam filters (PUF and glass fiber filters (GFF. PUF and GFF filters have been analyzed, and concentration levels of gaseous PCBs and PAHs molecules in gaseous and particulate phase were obtained, converted and expressed through fraction of individual compounds sorbed onto particulate phase of the sample, in total detected quantity. Experimentally gained gas/particle partitioning values of PCBs and PAHs molecules have been compared with PP-LFER model estimated values. Significant deviation has been noticed during comparative analysis of estimated polyparameter model values for complete set of seven PCBs congeners. Much better agreement of experimental and estimated values is for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, especially for molecules with four rings. These results are in a good correlation with literature data where polyparameter model has been used for predicting gas/particle partition of studied group of organic molecules.

  15. Differential scanning calorimetry method for purity determination: A case study on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chloramphenicol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestens, V., E-mail: vikram.KESTENS@ec.europa.eu [European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium); Zeleny, R.; Auclair, G.; Held, A.; Roebben, G.; Linsinger, T.P.J. [European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2011-09-20

    Highlights: {yields} Purity assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chloramphenicol by DSC. {yields} DSC results compared with traditional purity methods. {yields} Different methods give different results, multiple method approach recommended. {yields} DSC sensitive to impurities that have similar structures as main component. - Abstract: In this study the validity and suitability of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the purity of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chloramphenicol has been investigated. The study materials were two candidate certified reference materials (CRMs), 6-methylchrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, and two different batches of commercially available highly pure chloramphenicol. The DSC results were compared with those obtained by other methods, namely gas and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, liquid chromatography with diode array detection, and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The purity results obtained by these different analytical methods confirm the well-known challenges of comparing results of different method-defined measurands. In comparison with other methods, DSC has a much narrower working range. This limits the applicability of DSC as purity determination method, for instance during the assignment of the purity value of a CRM. Nevertheless, this study showed that DSC can be a powerful technique to detect impurities that are structurally very similar to the main purity component. From this point of view, and because of its good repeatability, DSC can be considered as a valuable technique to investigate the homogeneity and stability of candidate purity CRMs.

  16. Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions of particles of various sizes from smoldering incense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T T; Lin, T S; Wu, J J; Jhuang, F J

    2012-02-01

    Release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particles of various sizes from smoldering incenses was determined. Among the three types of incense investigated, yielding the total PAH emission rate and factor ranges for PM0.25 were 2,139.7-6,595.6 ng/h and 1,762.2-8,094.9 ng/g, respectively. The PM0.25/PM2.5 ratio of total PAH emission factors and rates from smoldering three incenses was greater than 0.92. This study shows that total particle PAH emission rates and factors were mainly incenses. The benzo[a]pyrene accounted for 65.2%-68.0% of the total toxic equivalency emission factor of PM2.5 for the three incenses. Experimental results clearly indicate that the PAH emission rates and factors were influenced significantly by incense composition, including carbon and hydrogen content. The study concludes that smoldering incense with low atomic hydrogen/carbon ratios minimized the production of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of both PM2.5 and PM0.25.

  17. City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Larsen, J.C.;

    1996-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3) in ...... was estimated to be 40%. Four different approaches to evaluate the health effects are discussed. The direct effect of PAH air pollution, and other mutagens, is considered to be a maximum of five lung cancer cases each year out of one million people.......The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3...

  18. Contamination of Runoff Water at Gdańsk Airport (Poland) by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Namieśnik; Anna Maria Sulej; Żaneta Polkowska

    2011-01-01

    Airport runoff can contain high concentrations of various pollutants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the environmental levels of which have to be monitored. Airport runoff water samples, collected at the Gdańsk-Rębiechowo Airport from 2008 to 2009, were analysed for PAHs and PCBs by gas chromatography. The aromatic fractions were separated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by GC/MS. Total PAH concentrations were 295–6,758 ng/...

  19. Kekulé-based Valence Bond Model.Ⅱ. Diels-Alder Reactivity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Jing(马晶); LI,Shu-Hua(黎书华); JIANG,Yuan-Sheng(江元生)

    2002-01-01

    The Kekule-based valence bond ( VB ) method was employed to study the ground state properties of 52 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The reactivity indices defined upon our VB calculations were demonstrated to be capable of quantitatively interpreting the secnd order rate constants of the Diels-Alder reactions. The qualitative trends of the reactivities of many homologous series can be also explained based on the local aromaticity index defined in this work.

  20. Application of a quantitative structure retention relationship approach for the prediction of the two-dimensional gas chromatography retention times of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycle compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieleciak, Rafal; Hager, Darcy; Heshka, Nicole E

    2016-03-11

    Information on the sulfur classes present in petroleum is a key factor in determining the value of refined products and processing behavior in the refinery. A large part of the sulfur present is included in polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs), which in turn are difficult to desulfurize. Furthermore, some PASHs are potentially more mutagenic and carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs. All of this calls for improved methods for the identification and quantification of individual sulfur species. Recent advances in analytical techniques such as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) have enabled the identification of many individual sulfur species. However, full identification of individual components, particularly in virgin oil fractions, is still out of reach as standards for numerous compounds are unavailable. In this work, a method for accurately predicting retention times in GC×GC using a QSRR (quantitative structure retention relationship) method was very helpful for the identification of individual sulfur compounds. Retention times for 89 saturated, aromatic, and polyaromatic sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds were determined using two-dimensional gas chromatography. These retention data were correlated with molecular descriptors generated with CODESSA software. Two independent QSRR relationships were derived for the primary as well as the secondary retention characteristics. The predictive ability of the relationships was tested by using both independent sets of compounds and a cross-validation technique. When the corresponding chemical standards are unavailable, the equations developed for predicting retention times can be used to identify unknown chromatographic peaks by matching their retention times with those of sulfur compounds of known molecular structure.

  1. Metabolic activation of N-hydroxy arylamines, N-hydroxy heterocyclic amines and ring-hydroxymethyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by human sulfotransferases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    Arylamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are two major classes of chemical carcinogens. N-Hydroxylation of arylamines is regarded to be a necessary process for their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, while alkyl-hydroxylation is the major metabolic pathway for alkyl-substituted PAHs. Evidence has been presented that sulfation of several N-hydroxy arylamines and hydroxymethyl PAHs is an important pathway leading to the formation of ultimate carcinogens in experiment animals. Sulfation of these chemicals forms putative sulfuric acid ester intermediates that can rearrange to electrophilic nitrenium or carbenium ions capable of forming covalent adducts with important cellular macromolecules. In order to study the metabolic activation by sulfotransferase(s) in various human tissue preparations an in vitro enzymatic assay was established. A metabolic phenotyping method was also developed for thermostable phenolsulfotransferase (TS-PST) in platelet homogenates (correlated with TS-PST activity in other tissues) based on a simple colorimetric assay using 2-naphthol as substrate. By using a PAPS-regenerating system to supply the activated sulfate and calf thymus DNA to trap the reactive metabolites, we found that N-hydroxy derivatives of the carcinogens, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), 4,4[prime]-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido [1,2-1:3[prime],2[prime]-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) were metabolically activated by human TS-PST. On the other hand, three methyl-hydroxylated derivatives (7-OH, 12-OH, and 7,12-diOH) of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) were metabolically activated by human steroid sulfotransferase. Human sulfotransferase(s)-mediated activation of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) or 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was not observed.

  2. Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarettes smoked by the participants of the Shanghai Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yershova, Katrina; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wang, Renwei; Valentin, Liza; Watson, Clifford; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hecht, Stephen S; Stepanov, Irina

    2016-09-15

    Our recent studies on tobacco smoke carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers and cancer risk among male smokers in the Shanghai Cohort Study showed that exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is prospectively associated with the risk of cancer. These findings support the hypothesis that the smokers' cancer risk is a function of the dose of select tobacco carcinogens and highlight the importance of understanding the factors that affect the intake of these carcinogens by smokers. Given that tobacco constituent exposures are driven, at least in part, by the levels of these constituents in cigarette smoke, we measured mainstream smoke TSNA and PAH levels in 43 Chinese cigarette brands that participants of the Shanghai Cohort Study reported to smoke. In all brands analyzed here, mainstream smoke levels of NNN and NNK, the two carcinogenic TSNA, were generally relatively low, averaging (±SD) 16.8(±25.1) and 14.2(±9.5) ng/cigarette, respectively. The levels of PAH were comparable to those found in U.S. cigarettes, averaging 15(±9) ng/cigarette for benzo[a]pyrene, 119(±66) ng/cigarette for phenanthrene and 37(±19) ng/cigarette for pyrene. Our findings indicate that the generally low levels of NNN and NNK are most likely responsible for the relatively low levels of the corresponding biomarkers in the urine of the Shanghai Cohort Study participants as compared to those found in the U.S. smokers, supporting the role of the levels of these constituents in cigarette smoke in smokers' exposures. Our findings also suggest that, in addition to smoking, other sources contribute to Chinese smokers' exposure to PAH. PMID:27163125

  3. Determination and source identification of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5 in Taiyuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Xie, Jingfang; Wang, Zhentao; Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Hong; Li, Meng

    2016-09-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in PM2. 5 were analyzed in 2012 in Taiyuan (China) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence and ultraviolet detectors. The average daily mass concentrations of ΣPAHs in different seasons ranged from 10.36 ng/m3 to 215.93 ng/m3 and had strong seasonal variation, with highest values in winter and lowest in summer. Over the whole year, PAHs appeared in the following order of frequency: 4-ring > 6-ring > 5-ring > 3-ring; in winter, the percentage of 4-ring PAHs was the highest (62.68%), while in summer, the percentages of 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs (cumulative total of 50.57%) were higher. The ratio method was employed to investigate potential source categories of PAHs in PM2.5 in Taiyuan, with data suggesting that the main PAH sources are coal and wood combustion and vehicle emissions. Finally, a risk assessment of PAHs was performed based on benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) values and individual cancer risk ratios, with results suggesting that the toxicity of PAHs was high during winter and spring time in Taiyuan. The values of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) induced by whole year inhalation exposure(Ri) for all age groups were larger than 10- 6 in spring and winter, while Ri values for male and female adults in summer and autumn were also larger than 10- 6, indicating high potential carcinogenic risk. During the same season, the ILCR of adults was greater than that of other age groups and that of females was a little higher than of males. With respect to the season, the ranking of ILCR in decreasing order was as follows: winter, spring, autumn, and summer.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric PM2.5 around 2013 Asian Youth Games period in Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuxu; Kong, Shaofei; Yin, Yan; Li, Li; Yuan, Liang; Li, Qi; Xiao, Hui; Chen, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 collected near the Nanjing Olympic Sports Center across the Asian Youth Games (AYG) period (from August 2 to August 28, 2013) were analyzed using GC-MS. Their levels, sources and health risks to human were discussed. Results showed that the total concentrations of PAHs in PM2.5 were 9.43, 7.21 and 8.83 ng m- 3 for pre- (August 3-15), during- (August 16-24) and post- (August 25-28) AYG periods, respectively. They were dominated by 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs. Total PAHs concentrations in PM2.5 during AYG period decreased by 24%, when compared with those for pre-AYG period. For combustion-derived PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs, they decreased by 26% and 21%, respectively. It implied that the pollution control measures implemented during the AYG can effectively reduce the emission of PAHs from various sources. The poor correlations between PAHs and meteorological parameters also favored that the variations of PAHs were raised by the changes of emission sources. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis revealed that vehicle emission and coal combustion were the predominant contributors, with minimal effects from biomass burning and petroleum. The health risks for human exposed to PAHs in PM2.5 were quantitatively assessed by BaP equivalent concentration (BaPeq) and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The estimated ILCR value of PAHs during the AYG periods decreased by 23% and 27% for children and adults when compared with those for the pre-AYG, respectively. It indicated that the pollution control measures reduced the risks of PAHs to sportsmen or human gathered around the Olympic Sport Center.

  5. Content determination and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in fish tissue samples from Perhentian Island, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in three fish species with different feeding habits and habitat for examples Lolong (Selar boops), Kerisi (Nemipterus peronii) dan Mengkarong (Trachinocephalus myops) from offshore of Perhentian Island, Malaysia was determined. Three individuals from each species were taken at random and the PAHs contents were determined in the muscles. Ten PAH compounds, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(e)pyrene and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene were determined. PAH in fish tissues was extracted using Soxhlet method and detected using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The level of PAH in fish tissue ranged from 17.89 - 42.18 ng/ g wet weight and 393.98 - 511.07 ng/ g lipid weight. The order of PAH concentration in wet weight was Kerisi (511.07 ng/ g)> Mengkarong (409.50 ng/ g)> Lolong (393.98 ng/ g) but in terms of lipid weight, the order was Kerisi (511.07 ng/ g)> Mengkarong (409.50 ng/ g)> Lolong (393.98 ng/ g). Kerisi has the lowest lipid content of 3.5 % compared to Lolong (6.5 %) and Mengkarong (10.3 %). No obvious significant difference (p > 0.05) of PAH levels in three fish species was observed (ANOVA, p > 0.05). There was no significant relationship between lipid content and PAH accumulation in fish. Based on fish consumption rate of 142.2 g/ day, the Potency Equivalent Concentration (PEC), which is a carcinogenic potency value for PAH, was found to be ranged from 0.41 - 0.63 ng/ g wet weight in all three species of fish. This value is below the limit set by USEPA, which is 0.67 ng/ g wet weight for human consumption. (author)

  6. Exposure to environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Influences on cellular susceptibility to DNA damage (sampling Kosice and Sofia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate a possible influence of occupational exposure to carcinogenic environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) on cellular susceptibility to the induction of the DNA damage. Monitoring was performed and blood samples were collected from two groups of male subjects: occupationally exposed and matched controls. The group exposed to c-PAHs (average age of 35.1 years) consisted of 52 policemen from Kosice and 26 policemen and 25 bus drivers (51 altogether) from Sofia. The control group (average age of 36.4 years) consisted of 54 unexposed subjects from Kosice and 24 from Sofia. In the investigated groups 52.5% of exposed subjects and 45.3% of control were current smokers. A challenging dose of X-rays (3 Gy) and an alkaline version of the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, known as Comet assay, were used to evaluate levels of induced DNA damage and repair kinetics in isolated human blood lymphocytes. DNA damage detected in lymphocytes prior to or after irradiation did not differ significantly between exposed and unexposed subjects. A significant decrease in repair efficiency due to exposure to PAHs was observed in the exposed individuals from Kosice and Sofia, when analysed separately or together. A negative influence of tobacco smoking on the efficiency of DNA repair was observed. Statistically significant differences were found between subgroups stratified according to education level in Sofia: the half times for DNA repair declined with the increasing level of education. These results confirm that environmental exposure to c-PAHs can alter the ability of blood lymphocytes to repair DNA damage and, as a result could potentially lead to effects that are hazardous to human health

  7. Status, source and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in street dust of an industrial city, NW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yufeng; Hu, Xuefei; Yves, Uwamungu J; Zhan, Huiying; Wu, Yingqin

    2014-08-01

    The status, source and health risk of street-dust-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Lanzhou of Northwest China were investigated. The total level of the 21 PAHs ranged from 1470 to 13,700 µg kg(-1) and that of the 16 priority PAHs from 1240 to 10,700 µg kg(-1). Higher levels of PAHs were mainly distributed in the Chengguan and Qilihe districts at Lanzhou central areas, and the lower levels were in Anning and Xigu districts. The level of seven potential carcinogenic PAHs generally accounted for 35-40 percent of total PAHs, and the PAHs contained two to four rings, mainly phenanthrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and fluoranthene. The total level of PAHs increased with the decreasing particle size in the street dust. The correlation analysis suggested that the total organic carbon (TOC) was only slightly affected the PAH accumulation in street dust. The isomer ratios and principal component analysis indicated that the dust-borne PAHs in the dust were derived primarily from the combustion of biomass, coal and petroleum emission. The toxic equivalent concentrations (BaP(eq)) of dust-borne PAHs ranged from 115 to 827 µg BaP(eq) kg(-1), with a mean of 300 µg BaP(eq) kg(-1). The 95 percent upper confidence limit of Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk due to human exposure to urban surface dust-borne PAHs in Lanzhou urban area was 2.031 × 10(-6) for children and 1.935 × 10(-6) for adults.

  8. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of regulated air pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under engine durability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 80,000-km durability test was performed on two engines using diesel and biodiesel (methyl ester of waste cooking oil) as fuel in order to examine emissions resulting from the use of biodiesel. The test biodiesel (B20) was blended with 80% diesel and 20% methyl ester derived from waste cooking oil. Emissions of regulated air pollutants, including CO, HC, NOx, particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at 20,000-km intervals. The identical-model engines were installed on a standard dynamometer equipped with a dilution tunnel used to measure the pollutants. To simulate real-world driving conditions, emission measurements were made in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) FTP transient cycle guidelines. At 0 km of the durability test, HC, CO and PM emission levels were lower for the B20 engine than those for diesel. After running for 20,000 km and longer, they were higher. However, the deterioration coefficients for these regulated air pollutants were not statistically higher than 1.0, implying that the emission factors do not increase significantly after 80,000 km of driving. Total (gaseous+particulate phase) PAH emission levels for both B20 and diesel decreased as the driving mileage accumulated. However, for the engine using B20 fuel, particulate PAH emissions increased as engine mileage increased. The average total PAH emission factors were 1097 and 1437 μg bhp h-1 for B20 and diesel, respectively. For B20, the benzo[a]pyrene equivalence emission factors were 0.77, 0.24, 0.20, 7.48, 5.43 and 14.1 μg bhp h-1 for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-ringed and total PAHs. Results show that B20 use can reduce both PAH emission and its corresponding carcinogenic potency. (author)

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration levels, pattern, source identification and soil toxicity assessment in urban traffic soil of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Swapnil; Sinha, Alok; Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Present study was carried out to assess and understand potential health risk and to examine the impact of vehicular traffic on the contamination status of urban traffic soils in Dhanbad City with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eight urban traffic sites and two control/rural site surface soils were analyzed and the contents of 13 priority PAHs was determined. Total PAH concentration at traffic sites ranged from 1.019 μg g(-1) to 10.856 μg g(-1) with an average value of 3.488 μg g(-1). At control/rural site, average concentration of total PAHs was found to be 0.640 μg g(-1). PAH pattern was dominated by four- and five-ring PAHs (contributing >50% to the total PAHs) at all the eight traffic sites. On the other hand, rural soil showed a predominance of low molecular weight three-ring PAHs (contributing >30% to the total PAHs). Indeno[123-cd]pyrene/benz[ghi]perylene (IP/BgP) ratio indicated that PAH load at the traffic sites is predominated by the gasoline-driven vehicles. The ratio of Ant/(Ant+Phe) varied from 0.03 to 0.44, averaging 0.10; Fla/(Fla+Pyr) from 0.39 to 0.954, averaging 0.52; BaA/(BaA+Chry) from 0.156 to 0.60, averaging 0.44; and IP/(IP+BgP) from 0.176 to 0.811, averaging 0.286. The results indicated that vehicular emission was the major source for PAHs contamination with moderate effect of coal combustion and biomass combustion. Carcinogenic potency of PAH load in traffic soil was nearly 6.15 times higher as compared to the control/rural soil.

  10. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coking wastewater treatment plant residual by an O3/ultraviolet fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chong; Zhang, Wanhui; Yuan, Mengyang; Feng, Chunhua; Ren, Yuan; Wei, Chaohai

    2014-09-01

    Coking wastewater treatment plant (CWWTP) represents a typical point source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the water environment and threatens the safety of drinking water in downstream regions. To enhance the removal of residual PAHs from bio-treated coking wastewater, a pilot-scale O3/ultraviolet (UV) fluidized bed reactor (O3/UV FBR) was designed and different operating factors including UV irradiation intensity, pH, initial concentration, contact time, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were investigated at an ozone level of 240 g h(-1) and 25 ± 3 °C. A health risk evaluation and cost analysis were also carried out under the continuous-flow mode. As far as we know, this is the first time an O3/UV FBR has been explored for PAHs treatment. The results indicated that between 41 and 75 % of 18 target PAHs were removed in O3/UV FBR due to synergistic effects of UV irradiation. Both increased reaction time and increased pH were beneficial for the removal of PAHs. The degradation of the target PAHs within 8 h can be well fitted by the pseudo-first-order kinetics (R (2) > 0.920). The reaction rate was also positively correlated with the initial concentrations of PAHs. The health risk assessment showed that the total amount of carcinogenic substance exposure to surface water was reduced by 0.432 g day(-1). The economic analysis showed that the O3/UV FBR was able to remove 18 target PAHs at a cost of US$0.34 m(-3). These results suggest that O3/UV FBR is efficient in removing residuals from CWWTP, thus reducing the accumulation of persistent pollutant released to surface water.

  11. Regulation of p53-targeting microRNAs by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Implications in the etiology of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael W; Yan, Fang; Zhong, Xiaoming; Mazumder, Pranab Behari; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Zou, Dehui; Young, Ken H; Ramos, Kenneth S; Li, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a common and deadly cancer of blood plasma cells. A unique feature of MM is the extremely low somatic mutation rate of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, in sharp contrast with about half of all human cancers where this gene is frequently mutated. Eleven miRNAs have been reported to repress p53 through direct interaction with the 3' untranslated region. The expression of nine of them is higher in MM plasma cells than in healthy donor counterparts, suggesting that miRNA overexpression is responsible for p53 inactivation in MM. Here, we report that the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) upregulated the expression of seven p53-targeting miRNAs (miR-25, miR-15a, miR-16, miR-92, miR-125b, miR-141, and miR-200a), while 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-ρ-dioxin (TCDD) upregulated two of them (miR-25 and miR-92) in MM cells. The miR-25 promoter was activated by both BaP and TCDD, and this response was mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We screened 727 compounds that inhibit MM cell survival and down-regulate the expression of p53-targeting miRNAs. We found that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a constituent of green tea and a major component of the botanical drug Polyphenon® E, reduced the expression of four p53-targeting miRNAs, including miR-25, miR-92, miR-141, and miR-200a. Collectively, these data implicate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and AhR in the regulation of p53-targeting miRNAs in MM and identify a potential therapeutic and preventive agent to combat this deadly disease. PMID:24798859

  12. Distribution of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between water, sediment and common eels (Anguilla angillae) in the urban stretch of Tevere River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research has focused the attention on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water, sediment and common eels (Angilla anguillae) in the urban area of Tevere River. These compounds can derived from point (E.g.oil spill) or non-point (e.g. atmospheric deposition) sources and are one of the most widespread organic pollutants. (Author)

  13. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused solica capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silice capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (author). 3 figs., 17 refs

  14. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons I. Determination by gas chromatography with glass and fused silica capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column. The limitations and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation efficiency, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 17 refs

  15. Accumulation of Trace Metals, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Marine Copepods from the Arabian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    El-Din, N.M. Nour; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, zooplankton samples were collected from the coastal waters of Qatar during winter and summer 1998 to assess the impact of growing industrialization on the bioaccumulation of trace metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in copepods, the dominant zooplankton group and main food for fish in the Arabian Gulf.

  16. Breast cancer and urinary biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and oxidative stress in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ji, Bu-Tian; YANG, Gong; Blair, Aaron; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Wei; Chow, Wong-Ho; Kang, Daehee

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures and oxidative stress from such and other exposures have been associated with breast cancer in some studies. To further evaluate the role of PAH metabolites and oxidative stress on the development of breast cancer, we conducted a nested case-control study in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS).

  17. Novel magnetic nanoparticles coated by benzene- and β-cyclodextrin-bearing dextran, and the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Eunae; Tahir, Muhammad Nazir; Min Choi, Jae;

    2015-01-01

    , the potential for removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as phenanthrene and pyrene by sorption onto the nanomaterials was assessed. In the sorption, pi-stacking interactions of the benzene-derivatized dextran and host–guest chemistry of the β-cyclodextrin-derivatized dextran were considered...

  18. The occupational exposure of dermatology nurses to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - evaluating the effectiveness of better skin protection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Houtum, J.L.M. van; Anzion, R.B.M.; Champmartin, C.; Hertsenberg, S.; Bos, R.P.; Valk, P. van der

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We studied the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in nurses who apply ointments containing coal tar to patients and investigated the effectiveness of skin protection methods. METHODS: We determined gas-phase PAH on XAD-2 and particle-associated PAH on filters. We also used

  19. Charge migration in dicationic electrophiles and its application to the synthesis of aza-polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Kindelin, Patrick J; Klumpp, Douglas A

    2006-03-16

    [reaction: see text] Superacid-promoted reactions of dicationic electrophiles have been studied, and the positive charge centers are found to migrate apart in a predictable manner. Using isotopic labeling the charge migration is found in one system to occur through successive deprotonation-reprotonation steps. The charge migration chemistry is the basis for new general synthetic route to aza-polycyclic aromatic compounds.

  20. Theory and application of landfarming to remediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil-contaminated sediments: beneficial reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, J.; Rulkens, W.H.; Sims, R.C.; Rijtema, P.E.; Zweers, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    When applying landfarming for the remediation of contaminated soil and sediment, a fraction of the soil-bound contaminant is rapidly degraded; however, a residual concentration may remain, which slowly degrades. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mineral oil can be described

  1. Impact of polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sequestration in sediment on bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moermond, C.T.A.; Roessink, I.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Meijer, T.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    It is not clear whether sequestration or aging of organic chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) limits accumulation in higher levels of aquatic food chains. Therefore, the effect of aging on accumulation was studied in 1-m3 model ecosystems that

  2. Geochemical markers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solvent extracts from diesel engine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiańska, Monika; Kozielska, Barbara; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Woodburn, Joseph; Konieczyński, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust particulate from compression ignition (CI) engines running on engine and chassis dynamometers was studied. Particulate dichloromethane extracts were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biomarkers by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PAH group profiles were made and the PAH group shares according to the number of rings (2 or 3; 4; 5 or more) as well as diagnostic indices were calculated. Values of geochemical ratios of selected biomarkers and alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons were compared with literature values. A geochemical interpretation was carried out using these values and biomarker and alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon distributions. It has been shown that geochemical features are unequivocally connected to the emission of fossil fuels and biofuels burned in CI engines. The effect of the exothermic combustion process is limited to low-molecular-weight compounds, which shows that the applied methodology permits source identification of PAHs coexisting in the particulate emitted. PMID:26728284

  3. Microsomal biotransformation of benzo[ghi]perylene, a mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon without a "classic" bay region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Karl L; Grupe, Stefanie

    2005-04-01

    Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), e.g., benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), possess a bay region comprising an ortho-fused benzene ring. Benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) represents the group of PAHs lacking such a "classic" bay region and hence cannot be metabolically converted like BaP to bay region dihydrodiol epoxides considered as ultimate mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolites of PAH. BghiP exhibits bacterial mutagenicity in strains TA98 (1.3 his(+)-revertant colonies/nmol) and TA100 (4.3 his(+)-revertant colonies/nmol) of Salmonella typhimurium after metabolic activation by the postmitochondrial hepatic fraction of CD rats treated with 3-methylcholanthrene. Inhibition of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) with 1,1,1-trichloro-2-propene oxide raised the bacterial mutagenicity of BghiP in TA98 almost 4-fold indicating arene oxides as ultimate mutagens. To confirm this assumption, the biotransformation of BghiP was elucidated. Incubation of BghiP with liver microsomes of CD rats treated with Aroclor 1254 yielded 17 ethyl acetate extractable metabolic products. Twelve metabolites were identified by a combination of chromatographic, spectroscopic, and biochemical methods. The microsomal biotransformation of BghiP proceeds by two pathways: Pathway I starts with the monooxygenase attack at the 7-position leading to the 7-phenol, which is transformed to the 7,8- and 7,10-diphenols followed by oxidation to the 7,8- and 7,10-quinones. On pathway II, the K regions of BghiP are successively converted to arene oxides yielding the indirectly identified 3,4-oxide and the 3,4,11,12-bisoxides. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the 3,4-oxide leads to the trans-3,4-dihydrodiol, which is oxidized to the 3,4-quinone. Similarly, the trans-3,4-trans-11,12-bisdihydrodiols and the trans-3,4-dihydrodiol 11,12-quinone are generated from the 3,4,11,12-bisoxides. The trans-3,4-dihydrodiol and the trans-3,4-trans-11,12-bisdihydrodiols are preferentially formed as R,R and R,R,R,R enantiomers

  4. Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particle size in dated core sediments in Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Li; Zang, Shuying, E-mail: zsy6311@163.com

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric particle associated with pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses serious threats to human health by inhalation exposure, especially in semiarid areas. Hence, the distributions of PAHs and particle size in two core sediments collected from Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China were studied. The sediments were dated radiometrically, and particle size distribution and PAH concentration were evaluated and potential human health risk was assessed. From 1980 to 2007, the dominant PAHs in the two cores were 2- and 3-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3–6 ring PAHs gradually increased from the early 1990s. Diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs were the main sources of PAHs which changed over time from combustions of wood and coal to liquid fossil fuel sources. Fine particles (< 65 μm) were the predominant particle size (56–97%). Lacustrine source (with the peak towards 200–400 μm) and eolian sources derived from short (2.0–10 and 30–65 μm) and long (0.4–1.0 μm) distance suspension were indentified from frequency distribution pattern of particle size. Significant correlations between 3–6 ring PAHs (especially carcinogenic 5–6 ring PAHs) and 10–35 μm particulate fractions indicated that eolian particles played an important role in adsorbing pyrogenic PAHs. Petroleum source of PAHs was only identified during the 1980s in one core sediments, in which positive correlations between 2-ring PAHs and particulate fractions of > 125 μm were found. Future research should focus on the seven carcinogenic pyrogenic PAHs due to a rapidly increasing trend since 1995 based on the assessment of toxic equivalency factors. - Highlights: • PAHs and particle size in core sediments were used to evaluate the role of eolian particles in delivering pyrogenic PAHs. • Changes of PAH sources closely followed local historical socioeconomic development since 1980s. • Changes of particulate sources from eolian to lacustrine reflected the

  5. Seasonal Variations in Health Hazards from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Bound to Submicrometer Particles at Three Characteristic Sites in the Heavily Polluted Polish Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kozielska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particles with aerodynamic diameters not greater than 1 μm (PM1 were sampled at the urban background; regional background; and urban traffic points in southern Poland. In total, 120 samples were collected between 2 August 2009 and 27 December 2010. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in each sample. The samples were collected with a high volume sampler (Digitel. Afterwards, they were chemically analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (Perkin Elmer Clarus 500. The mean concentration values of the PAH sum (ΣPAH and particular PAHs; the percentages of carcinogenic PAHs in total PAHs (ΣPAHcarc/ΣPAH; carcinogenic equivalent (CEQ; mutagenic equivalent (MEQ; and TCDD-toxic equivalent (TEQ were much higher in the winter (heating season than in the summer (non-heating one. For both periods, the resulting average values obtained were significantly higher (a few; and sometimes a several dozen times higher in the researched Polish region than the values observed in other areas of the world. Such results indicate the importance of health hazards resulting from PM1 and PM1-bound PAHs in this Polish area.

  6. Assessment of the toxic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affecting Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) harvested from waters impacted by the BP Deepwater Horizon Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gregory M; Meyer, Buffy M; Portier, Ralph J

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil and gas were released into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill. This resulted in the possible contamination of marine organisms with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), USEPA identified constituents of concern. To determine the impact of the DWH oil spill, Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), a commercially harvested and significant trophic grazing species, was sampled from two Louisiana coastal regions between the years 2011-2013. Tissue extraction and GC/MS analysis demonstrated measurable concentrations of PAH within menhaden. Analysis yielded total PAHs, carcinogenic equivalents (BaP-TEQ), and mutagenic equivalents (BaP-MEQ) which provided an initial toxic potential assessment of this GoM Fishery. Gulf menhaden contained less total PAH concentrations in 2012 and significantly less in 2013 as compared to 2011 (p reduced (p MEQs between 2011 and 2013 indicates a diminished input of new source PAHs along with a reduction of carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs in menhaden populations. The use of Gulf menhaden was successful in determining the acute toxic potential of PAHs contaminating the GoM in the years directly following the DWH spill event. PMID:26692508

  7. Influence of smoking parameters on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Danish smoked fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, J. H.; Højgård, A.;

    2010-01-01

    smoking, and for other fish species direct smoking leads to higher sigma PAH25 than indirect smoking. Also, the usage of common alder increases the PAH contamination compared with beech. The effects of smoking time, combustion temperatures, and two types of smoke-generating material on the Sigma PAH25......A new method for the analysis of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in fish was developed, validated, and used for the quantification of PAHs in 180 industrially smoked fish products. The method included pressurized liquid extraction, gel-permeation chromatography (Bio-beads S-X3...... concentrations were obtained for indirectly smoked trout (26 mu g kg-1). Principal component analysis was used to correlate processing parameters to PAH concentrations and to identify the effects of these parameters. The analysis showed that for salmon hot-smoking conditions lead to higher sigma PAH25 than cold...

  8. Microbial degradation of street dust polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in microcosms simulating diffuse pollution of urban soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R; de Lipthay, Julia R; Sørensen, Søren J;

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of topsoil in urban regions has caused increasing concerns in recent years. We simulated diffuse pollution of soil in microcosms by spiking sandy topsoil (A-horizon) and coarse, mineral subsoil (C-horizon) with street dust (PM63......) isolated from municipal street sweepings from central Copenhagen. The microbial communities adapted to PAH degradation in microcosms spiked with street dust in both A-horizon and C-horizon soils, in spite of low PAH-concentrations. The increased potential for PAH degradation was demonstrated on several...... levels: by slowly diminishing PAH-concentrations, increased mineralization of 14C-PAHs, increasing numbers of PAH degraders and increased prevalence of nah and pdo1 PAH degradation genes, i.e. the microbial communities quickly adapted to PAH degradation. Three- and 4-ring PAHs from the street dust were...

  9. Overview of established and emerging treatment technologies for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at wood preserving facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination of soil and groundwater by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is common to wood preserving facilities and manufactured gas plants. Since the inception of RCRA and CERCLA, much attention has been focused upon the remediation of both active and defunct wood preserving facilities. The experiences gleaned from the use of proven technologies, and more importantly, the lessons being learned in the trials of emerging technologies on creosote-derived PAH clean-ups at wood preserving sites, should have direct bearing on the clean-up of similar contaminants at MGP sites. In this paper, a review of several remedial actions using waste removal/disposal, on-site incineration, and bioremediation will be presented. Additionally, emerging technologies for the treatment of PAH-contaminated soil and water will be reviewed. Lastly, recent information on risk assessment results for creosote sites and treated PAH waste will be discussed

  10. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Khuzestan province, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Josephine; Poulsen, Kristoffer Gulmark; Knudsen, Sofie B.;

    2016-01-01

    Khuzestan, Iran is heavily industrialised with petrochemical and refinery companies. Herein, sediment and soil samples were collected from Hendijan coast, Khore Mosa and Arvandroud River. The CHEMSIC (CHEmometric analysis of Selected Ion Chromatograms) method was used to assign the main sources...... of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. A four-component principal component analysis (PCA) model was obtained. While principal component 1 (PC1) was related to the total concentration of PAHs, the remaining PCs described three distinct sources: PC2 and PC3 collectively differentiate between...... weathered petrogenic and pyrogenic, and PC4 is indicative for a diagenetic input. The sources of PAHs in the Arvandroud River were mainly relatively fresh oil with some samples corresponding to a weathered oil input. Further, perylene (indicator for diagenetic source) was identified. Samples from Khore Mosa...

  11. Role of volcanic dust in the atmospheric transport and deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracquadanio, Milena; Dinelli, Enrico; Trombini, Claudio

    2003-12-01

    The role of volcanic ash as scavenger of atmospheric pollutants, in their transport and final deposition to the ground is examined. Attention is focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and on particulate mercury (Hgp). The ash-fall deposits studied belong to the 2001 and 2002 eruptive activity of Mount Etna, Southern Italy, and were investigated at three (2001) and four (2002) sites downwind of the major tephra dispersal pattern. The dry deposition of mercury and PAHs was determined, and, in particular, a downward flux to the ground of PAHs (approximately 7.29 microg m(-2) per day) and mercury (750 ng m(-2) per day) was estimated in Catania from October 26 to October 28, 2002. Finally, evidence on the anthropogenic origin of PAHs scavenged from the troposphere by volcanic ash is supported by the analysis of PAH compositions in granulometrically homogeneous fractions.

  12. Biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene in the marine polychaete Nereis virens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Glessing, Anders M B; Rasmussen, Lene Juel;

    2005-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro biotransformation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene was investigated in the marine polychaete Nereis virens. Assays were designed to characterize phase I and II enzymes isolated from gut tissue. High-pressure liquid chromatography measurement of 1......-hydroxypyrene, pyrene-1-glucuronide, pyrene-1-sulfate, and pyrene-1-glucoside appeared to be a sensitive method for estimating the activity of pyrene hydroxylase, glucuronosyl transferase, and sulfotransferase. Total pyrene in gut tissue after a 5-d exposure to 10 microg/g dry weight pyrene constituted 65....... Apparent kinetic parameters for pyrene hydroxylase activity were changed after induction with pyrene. Induced worms showed increased Vmax(a)) and decreased Km(a) compared to noninduced worms, indicating that the relative amount of the cytochrome P450 enzyme(s) responsible for pyrene hydroxylation...

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons alter the structure of oceanic and oligotrophic microbial food webs

    KAUST Repository

    Cerezo, Maria Isabel

    2015-11-01

    One way organic pollutants reach remote oceanic regions is by atmospheric transport. During the Malaspina-2010 expedition, across the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, we analyzed the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) effects on oceanic microbial food webs. We performed perturbation experiments adding PAHs to classic dilution experiments. The phytoplankton growth rates were reduced by more than 5 times, being Prochlorococcus spp. the most affected. 62% of the experiments showed a reduction in the grazing rates due to the presence of PAHs. For the remaining experiments, grazing usually increased likely due to cascading effects. We identified changes in the slope of the relation between the growth rate and the dilution fraction induced by the pollutants, moving from no grazing to V-shape, or to negative slope, indicative of grazing increase by cascade effects and alterations of the grazers\\' activity structure. Our perturbation experiments indicate that PAHs could influence the structure oceanic food-webs structure.

  14. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  15. Effects and uptake of polycyclic aromatic compounds in snails (Helix aspersa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdrup, Line Emilie; De Vaufleury, Annette; Hartnik, Thomas; Hagen, Snorre B; Loibner, Andreas Paul; Jensen, John

    2006-07-01

    The International Standardization Organization recently launched a soil toxicity test with snails (Helix aspersa). We assessed the sensitivity of this test for seven polycyclic aromatic compounds. Control animals had 100% survival and low variability for growth measurements. Maximum exposure concentrations of 2800 mg/kg (4000 mg/kg for acridine) had no effect on survival. Similarly, growth (biomass and shell size) was not affected by pyrene, fluoranthene, fluorene, carbazole, phenanthrene, or acridine, whereas dibenzothiophene gave a 10% effect concentration of 1600 mg/kg. Measured internal concentrations of carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and acridine increased with increasing soil concentrations, but biota-soil accumulation factors were low (0.002-0.1). Compared to previously tested organisms, with all being exposed in the same soil type and under similar test conditions, the H. aspersa test was relatively insensitive to all substances.

  16. Estimation and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from magnesium metallurgy facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Liu, Feng; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2014-11-01

    Field monitoring was conducted to develop a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission inventory for the magnesium (Mg) metallurgy industry in China. PAH emissions in stack gas and fly/bottom ash samples from different smelting units of a typical Mg smelter were measured and compared. Large variations of concentrations, congener patterns, and emission factors of PAHs during the oxidation and reduction stages in the Mg smelter were observed. The measured average emission factor (166,487 μg/t Mg) was significantly higher than those of other industrial sources. Annual emission from Mg metallurgy in 2012 in China was estimated at 116 kg (514 g BaPeq) for PAHs. The results of this study suggest that PAH emission from Mg industries should be considered by local government agencies. These data may be helpful for understanding PAH levels produced by the Mg industry and in developing a PAH inventory.

  17. Trapping of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by amphiphilic cyclodextrin functionalized polypropylene nonwovens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholdt, Ludmilla; Nielsen, Ronnie Bo Højstrup; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    Recently, there has been an augmented focus on the increasing amount of pesticides, drug residues and endocrine disruptors present in waste and drinking water1. These pollutants represent a challenge in water purification since they may be hazardous to human health even in low doses2. Cyclodextrins...... of the textile fibers. In this study we present the ability of amphiphilic CD coated polypropylene nonwovens to trap 8 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/endocrine disruptors from aqueous solutions thus demonstrating the potential of using the amphiphilic cyclodextrins for water purification....... (CDs) are known to be able to form inclusion complexes with a large range of the unwanted pollutantse.g. 3 but in order to utilise this ability to purify water, the CDs must be immobilised on a surface, for instance, a membrane filter. We have developed a simple and fast method...

  18. Distribution and origin sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in sediment of Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkyl and parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds in marine sediment sample collected from ten locations along Sarawak coastal areas were extracted and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The source identification of PAH pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas were identify by ratios technique of An/ An+phen, Fl/ Fl +Py, B[a]A/ (B[a]A+Chry) and total Methyl Phen/ Phen. The total alkyl and parent PAHs concentration varies from 36.5 - 277.4 ng/ g dry weight (d.w.) with a mean concentration of 138.2 ng/ g d.w. The ratio values of PAHs pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas are clearly indicating the PAHs pollutions are originated from petroleum (petrogenic) and petroleum combustion (pyrolytic). However, the origin sources of PAHs pollution in a few stations were uncertain due to mixing sources of PAHs. (author)

  19. Use of antioxidant enzymes of clam Ruditapes philippinarum as biomarker to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, Ying; Sui, Yadong; Xiao, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The typical organic pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) anthracene was selected as a contaminant to investigate its effects on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The results show that SOD, CAT and GSH-Px had diff erent induction and inhibition reactions to anthracene stress, and that three diff erent organs in R. philippinarum (visceral mass, muscle tissue and mantle) had diff erent sensitivities to anthracene stress. This study suggest that SOD activities of the visceral mass, CAT activitities of the mantle and the visceral mass, and GSH-Px activity of the muscle tissue could be used as sensitive indicators of anthracene stress in R. philippinarum.

  20. Qualitative TLC determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sugar-beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILJANA D. SKRBIC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of polycyclic or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in sugar-beet from a local sugar factory in the district of Vojvodina. The sugar-beet was cultivated on areas near roads with intensive traffic. The procedure for the preparation and determination of these compounds included saponification of the sample, several liquid–liquid extraction systems and a silica gel column clean-up. The purified sample solution was analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC on silica gel with cyclohexane as the developing solvent. Benzo(bfluoranthene and benzo(aanthracene and/or benzo(apyrene were detected at concentrations greater than the allowed limits in food.

  1. Enhanced diffusion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in artificial and natural aqueous solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Fernqvist, M.M.; Christensen, P.S.;

    2007-01-01

    Uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds into organisms is often limited by the diffusive transport through a thin boundary layer. Therefore, a microscale diffusion technique was applied to determine the diffusive mass transfer of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through water, air, surfactant...... solutions, humic acid solutions, aqueous soil and horse manure extracts, digestive fluid of a deposit-feeding worm, and root exudates from willow plants. In most cases the diffusive mass transfer of PAHs was much higher through the tested media than through water, and the enhancement factors increased...... with increasing hydrophobicity of the PAHs. The diffusive flux of benzo[a]pyrene was for instance enhanced 74 times through gut fluid of a deposit-feeding worm when compared to water. These findings demonstrate that a wide variety of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at environmental levels can enhance diffusive...

  2. On-line database of the spectral properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Malloci, G; Mulas, G; 10.1016/j.chemphys.2007.01.001

    2009-01-01

    We present an on-line database of computed molecular properties for a large sample of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in four charge states: -1, 0, +1, and +2. At present our database includes 40 molecules ranging in size from naphthalene and azulene (C10H8) up to circumovalene (C66H20). We performed our calculations in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) and the time-dependent DFT to obtain the most relevant molecular parameters needed for astrophysical applications. For each molecule in the sample, our database presents in a uniform way the energetic, rotational, vibrational, and electronic properties. It is freely accessible on the web at http://astrochemistry.ca.astro.it/database/ and http://www.cesr.fr/~joblin/database/.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in blood related to lower body mass in common loons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruk, James D; Adams, Evan M; Uher-Koch, Hannah; Kovach, Kristin A; Long, Darwin; Perkins, Christopher; Schoch, Nina; Evers, David C

    2016-09-15

    We captured 93 wintering adult and subadult Common Loons (Gavia immer) in coastal Louisiana from 2011 to 2015 following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We tested blood samples for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and measured physiological variables including hematocrit, hemoglobin and total blood protein. PAH concentrations in loon blood differed from year to year and by age class. High PAH concentrations were significantly related to lower body masses in both adult and subadult birds and higher serum protein levels in adults only. PAH concentrations had marginal relations with both hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. The types of PAHs detected also underwent a major shift over time. The PAHs detected in 2011, 2012, and 2015 were primarily low molecular weight (three carbon rings); however, in 2013, most detected PAHs were high molecular weight (four carbon rings). It is unclear what events led to the increase in PAH concentrations and the shift in type of PAHs over time. PMID:27177142

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total extractable particulate organic matter in the Arctic aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of total suspended particulate matter were collected in March and August 1979 at Barrow, Alaska, a remote site in the Arctic. Ambient concentrations of extractable particulate organic matter (POM), of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and of 210Pb were determined. The samples were also examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Average concentrations of POM and PAH were similar to those reported for other remote sites in the northern hemisphere, but the concentrations were considerably higher in March than in August. The presence of fly ash in the samples collected during the March sampling period, as well as seasonal differences in the concentrations of the organic species and 210Pb and in meteorology indicate that the principal source of POM and PAH was fossil fuel combustion in the mid-latitudes during the March sampling period. (author)

  5. Compost-mediated removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasek, V; Bhatt, M; Cajthaml, T; Malachová, K; Lednická, D

    2003-04-01

    Compost-assisted remediation of a manufactured-gas plant soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed in thermally insulated composting chamber using mushroom compost consisting wheat straw, chicken manure, and gypsum. The degradation of individual PAHs was in range of 20-60% at the end of 54 days of composting followed by further increase of PAH removal (37-80%) after another 100 days of maturation. Both chemical analysis of the contaminated soil for PAHs and ecotoxicity tests on bioluminescent bacteria, earthworms, and plant seeds were performed before and after the composting. After the composting, inhibition of bioluminescence decreased, whereas no significant change in toxicity was observed for earthworm survival and seed germination. Using bacterial culture of Escherichia coli K12 genotoxicity tests were performed on samples taken from different parts of the composting pile; after the composting the decrease in genotoxicity was observed only in the sample taken from upper part of the composted pile.

  6. Application of random forests method to predict the retention indices of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, N; Shahsavani, D; Emadi-Gandaghi, F; Chamjangali, M Arab

    2014-03-14

    In this work, a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) investigation was carried out based on the new method of random forests (RF) for prediction of the retention indices (RIs) of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. The RIs of these compounds were calculated using the theoretical descriptors generated from their molecular structures. Effects of the important parameters affecting the ability of the RF prediction power such as the number of trees (nt) and the number of randomly selected variables to split each node (m) were investigated. Optimization of these parameters showed that in the point m=70, nt=460, the RF method can give the best results. Also, performance of the RF model was compared with that of the artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques. The results obtained show the relative superiority of the RF method over the MLR and ANN ones.

  7. Relationship of polycyclic aromatic sulfur compounds and gold enrichment in the Kupferschiefer from Poland and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The contents of polycyclic aromatic sulfur compounds (PASCs) in the Kupferschiefer varied from sample to sample. Twenty PASCs were determined in the Kupferschiefer from Poland and Germany. Gold enrichment was only observed in samples with higher PASC contents. At the same time, all the samples with gold enrichment originated from areas close to the redox boundary (the front section of Rote Faule) that was formed by oxidizing brines in contact with the reducing Kupferschiefer. It is proposed that the gold-bearing solutions encountered PASCs in the Kupferschiefer. PASCs could easily displace chloride ions from aurous chloride complexes to form stable gold S-chelates. Subsequent oxidation of these gold organic compounds could destroy the organic components and lead to the formation of metallic gold.

  8. Epigenetic modulation of Chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris) on exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mihi; Youn, Je-In; Kim, Seung Joon; Park, Jong Y

    2015-11-01

    DNA methylation in promoter region can be a new chemopreventive marker against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We performed a randomized, double blind and cross-over trial (N=12 healthy females) to evaluate chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris)-induced epigenetic modulation on exposure to PAHs. The subjects consumed 4 tablets of placebo or chlorella supplement (total chlorophyll ≈ 8.3mg/tablet) three times a day before meals for 2 weeks. When the subjects consumed chlorella, status of global hypermethylation (5-methylcytosine) was reduced, compared to placebo (p=0.04). However, DNA methylation at the DNMT1 or NQO1 was not modified by chlorella. We observed the reduced levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a typical metabolite of PAHs, by chlorella intake (pchlorella-induced changes in global hypermethylation and urinary 1-OHP (pchlorella works for PAH-detoxification through the epigenetic modulation, the interference of ADME of PAHs and the interaction of mechanisms.

  9. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of Karoon River, Khuzestan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Mokhtarzadeh, Zeinab; Moore, Farid; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmadreza; Rostami, Soqra; Kaabi, Helena

    2015-12-01

    Karoon is the longest river in Iran and provides water for industries located along its banks, such as metal, petrochemical, and oil industries. It is also the source of drinking water for cities such as Ahwas, Abadan, and Khorramshahr. In this study, 34 and 18 surface sediment samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The measured concentrations of heavy metals were compared with US EPA sediment quality guidelines, and the results showed that Cu concentration was above the threshold effect level (TEL) in 65.67% of the samples and Hg concentration was above the effect range median (ERM) in some samples. The results revealed that Hg was severely enriched (5 factory and Abadan petrochemical complex. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis also revealed the relationships between the studied parameters and identified their probable sources. PMID:26233736

  10. Potential of non-ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation of chlorinated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2015-12-25

    In previous decades, white-rot fungi as bioremediation agents have been the subjects of scientific research due to the potential use of their unspecific oxidative enzymes. However, some non-white-rot fungi, mainly belonging to the Ascomycota and Zygomycota phylum, have demonstrated their potential in the enzymatic transformation of environmental pollutants, thus overcoming some of the limitations observed in white-rot fungi with respect to growth in neutral pH, resistance to adverse conditions and the capacity to surpass autochthonous microorganisms. Despite their presence in so many soil and water environments, little information exists on the enzymatic mechanisms and degradation pathways involved in the transformation of hydrocarbons by these fungi. This review describes the bioremediation potential of non-ligninolytic fungi with respect to chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and also shows known conversion pathways and the prospects for future research.

  11. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked fish using pressurized liquid extraction with integrated fat removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mette; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, Jan H.

    2009-01-01

    extraction with fat retention in one single analytical step. The PLE parameters: type of fat retainer, flush volume, solvent composition, fat-to-fat retainer ratio (FFR), and the dimensions of the extraction cells were the most important factors for obtaining fat-free extracts with high recoveries of PAHs. A...... 100 mL extraction cell filled with 18 g activated silica gel, dichloromethane:hexane (15:85, v/v) as extraction solvent, FFR of 0.025 and 100% flush volume was the best analytical setup for integrated extraction and fat retention. The one-step procedure provided a more rapid and cost......Quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish products often requires multiple clean-up steps to remove fat and other compounds that may interfere with the chemical analysis. We present a novel pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method that integrates exhaustive...

  12. THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS WITH SOME OR ALL HYDROGEN ATOMS REMOVED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ricca, Alessandra, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov, E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    The loss of one hydrogen from C{sub 96}H{sub 24} does not significantly affect the infrared spectra of the neutral, cation, or anion. Excluding a very weak C-C stretching band at 5.1 μm, the loss of two adjacent duo hydrogens does not significantly affect the spectra compared with the parent. Removing all of the hydrogen atoms significantly increases the intensity of the new C-C stretching band, and, for the cation, shifts it to a longer (5.2 μm) wavelength. Observations show a feature near 5.25 μm, which has been attributed to overtone and combination bands from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This current work suggests that dehydrogenated PAHs might also contribute to this band, but its weakness implies that fully dehydrogenated cationic or dicationic species are very rare.

  13. Estimation of cytogenetic risk among coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Shanmugam; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Devi, Subramaniam Mohana; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Karthickkumar, Alagamuthu; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanian; Sankar, Kathannan; Mustaqahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan; Dharwadkar, Shanwaz N; Sasikala, Keshavarao; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) result from the incomplete combustion of natural or synthetic organic materials. The working environment at a coke plant can negatively affect the employed workers who were exposed to coke oven emissions containing PAHs, which formed and released into the environment by the process of pyrolysis of coke. This study aims to analyze the relationship between the exposure of PAHs and the risk of genetic damages such as chromosomal alteration (CA), micronucleus (MN), and DNA damage (PCR-RFLP) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 27 coke oven workers and equal number of control subjects. The exposed subjects and controls were divided into two groups based on their age (group Icoke oven workers under risk should be monitored for adverse effects of the any long-term exposure. PMID:24040626

  14. Problems in the fingerprints based polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons source apportionment analysis and a practical solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yonghong; Wang, Lixia; Christensen, Erik R

    2015-10-01

    This work intended to explain the challenges of the fingerprints based source apportionment method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the aquatic environment, and to illustrate a practical and robust solution. The PAH data detected in the sediment cores from the Illinois River provide the basis of this study. Principal component analysis (PCA) separates PAH compounds into two groups reflecting their possible airborne transport patterns; but it is not able to suggest specific sources. Not all positive matrix factorization (PMF) determined sources are distinguishable due to the variability of source fingerprints. However, they constitute useful suggestions for inputs for a Bayesian chemical mass balance (CMB) analysis. The Bayesian CMB analysis takes into account the measurement errors as well as the variations of source fingerprints, and provides a credible source apportionment. Major PAH sources for Illinois River sediments are traffic (35%), coke oven (24%), coal combustion (18%), and wood combustion (14%). PMID:26208321

  15. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout.

  16. A 25-year record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils amended with sewage sludges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Sappin-Didier, Valérie; Denaix, Laurence;

    2005-01-01

    We studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crop soils amended with 1000 tonnes dry weight of sewage sludges per 10,000 m(2) from 1974 to 1992, then after sludges addition from 1993 to 1999. The absence of variations of total PAHs levels of control soils, averaging at 123 mu g/Kg, shows...... the absence of horizontal contamination. During sludges addition, the total PAHs levels in amended soils increased from 232 to 402 mu g/Kg. Seven years after sludges addition, it decreased to 275 mu g/Kg, which is still more than twice the levels of control soils. This finding shows that sludges PAHs...... are preserved in crop soils for long periods of time, on a human scale....

  17. The phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a theoretical study of excited states and correlation to experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betowski, Leon D; Enlow, Mark; Riddick, Lee

    2002-06-01

    Investigators using models to determine the phototoxic effects of sunlight on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have invoked the excited states of the molecule as important in elucidating the mechanism of these reactions. Energies of actual excited states were calculated for ten PAHs by several ab initio methods. The main method used for these calculations was the Configuration Interaction approach, modeling excited states as combinations of single substitutions out of the Hartree-Fock ground state. These calculations correlate well with both experimentally measured singlet and triplet state energies and also previous HOMO-LUMO gap energies that approximate the singlet state energies. The excited state calculations then correlate well with general models of photo-induced toxicity based for the PAHs.

  18. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout. PMID:1785054

  19. [Symptoms of atopy in persons exposed to chronic immunosuppression of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczeklik, J; Kowalczyk, E; Gałuszka, Z

    1995-01-01

    The frequency of the atopy symptoms was estimated in 126 coke oven workers chronically exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The assessment was based on questionnaire, point skin tests with the allergens of dust, feathers, mould grass as well as on the measurements of total blood serum IgE concentration. The control group was consisted of 75 men, workers of cold rolling mill division where the environmental conditions were much better. It was observed that positive questionnaire data and positive skin tests were significantly less frequent in men exposed to PAHs. The men serum IgE values were not statistically different in both group workers although in coke oven workers the tendency to higher IgE values was observed. It is rather suggested that more useful method might be the measurement of specific serum IgE.

  20. Cyclodextrin-promoted Diels Alder reactions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon under mild reaction conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sauradip; Phelan, Tyler; Levine, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is the effect of cyclodextrins on the rates of aqueous Diels Alder reactions of 9-anthracenemethanol with a variety of N-substituted maleimides. These reactions occurred under mild reaction conditions (aqueous solvent, 40 °C), and were most efficient for the reaction of N-cyclohexylmaleimide with a methyl-β-cyclodextrin additive (94% conversion in 24 hours). These results can be explained on the basis of a model wherein the cyclodextrins bind the hydrophobic substituents on the maleimides and activate the dienophile via electronic modulation of the maleimide double bond. The results reported herein represent a new mechanism for cyclodextrin-promoted Diels Alder reactions, and have significant potential applications in the development of other cyclodextrin-promoted organic transformations. Moreover, the ability to deplanarize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) under mild conditions, as demonstrated herein, has significant applications for PAH detoxification. PMID:26692588

  1. High-resolution IR absorption spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the realm of anharmonicity

    CERN Document Server

    Maltseva, Elena; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J; Tielens, Alexander G G M; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2015-01-01

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3 micron CH stretching region of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold (~4K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions enhanced with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilises intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination ...

  2. Development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X; Xu, X; Cui, W; Xi, Z

    2001-08-01

    The development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material (CRM) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is described; this is the first natural matrix CRM for organic environmental analysis in China. The homogeneity and stability of this material have been tested by HPLC. The concentrations of several PAH were determined by use of two independent, different methods--solvent extraction-HPLC analysis with UV detection coupled with fluorescence detection (FLD) and solvent extraction, isolation with a silica column, and GC analysis with flame ionization detection (FID). Five certified values were determined: phenanthrene 7.1 +/- 2.6 microg g(-1), anthracene 2.0 +/- 0.8 microg g(-1), fluoranthene 7.4 +/- 1.9 microg g(-1), pyrene 7 +/- 2 microg g(-1), and benzo[a]pyrene 1.3 +/- 0.3 microg g(-1). Reference values for several other PAH are also suggested. PMID:11583083

  3. Evaluating emission levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from organic materials by analytical pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Daniele; Vassura, Ivano [Laboratory of Chemistry, C.I.R.S.A., University of Bologna, via S. Alberto 163, I-48100 Ravenna (Italy)

    2006-03-01

    A procedure in off-line analytical pyrolysis was investigated for the rapid determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) evolved from thermal degradation of organic materials. Samples spiked with perdeuterated PAHs were pyrolysed at 1000{sup o}C for 60s by means of a resistively heated filament pyrolyser inserted into a glass chamber connected to a cartridge with a sorbent (XAD-2 resin). PAHs trapped onto the resin were extracted with dichloromethane and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytical performance of the overall procedure (precision, recovery, effect of experimental parameters) was evaluated by pyrolysing a bituminous coal certified reference material (CRM). Emission levels of naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, acenaphtylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene were determined for bituminous and anthracite coals, tyre, and cellulose. Despite some limitations, the method was adequate to the purpose of quantitatively measuring the tendency of various materials to release volatile PAHs upon heating. (author)

  4. Toxicity assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from European high mountain lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Roberto; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Pilar

    2010-05-01

    Sediment quality guidelines and toxic equivalent factors have been used for assessment of the toxicity of sedimentary long-range atmospherically transported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the organisms living in high mountain European lakes. This method has provided indices that are consistent with experimental studies evaluating in situ sedimentary estrogenic activity or physiological response to AhR binding in fish from the same lakes. All examined lakes in north, central, west, northeast and southeast European mountains have shown sedimentary PAH concentrations that are above thresholds of no effect but only those situated in the southeast lakes district exhibited concentrations above the indices of probable effects. These mountains, Tatras, are also those having PAH concentrations of highest activity for AhR binding. Chrysene+triphenylene, dibenz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene are the main compounds responsible for the observed toxic effects.

  5. A molecular dynamics study on slow ion interactions with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecule anthracene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic collisions with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules are astrophysically particularly relevant for collision energies of less than 1 keV. In this regime, the interaction dynamics are dominated by elastic interactions. We have employed a molecular dynamics simulation based on analytical interaction potentials to model the interaction of low energy hydrogen and helium projectiles with isolated anthracene (C14H10) molecules. This approach allows for a very detailed investigation of the elastic interaction dynamics on an event by event basis. From the simulation data the threshold projectile kinetic energies above which direct C atom knock out sets in were determined. Anthracene differential energy transfer cross sections and total (dissociation) cross sections were computed for a wide range of projectile kinetic energies. The obtained results are interpreted in the context of PAH destruction in astrophysical environments.

  6. The follow-up study of ras P21 oncoprotein in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons%多环芳烃接触者P21蛋白跟踪研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs),first determined as a sort of chemical carcinogen, can exist in chemical substance such as coal tar pitch (CTP) and coke oven volatiles (COV). The carcinogenesis of PAHs has been confirmed by epidemiological studies among high risk population and animal experiments. The excessive mortality of lung cancer has been found in workers exposed to CTP and COV. Lung cancer can be induced in rats or mice with CTP by inspiring CTP fog or intratracheal instillations. The latest advance in the study of molecular biology has been applied to the fields of occupational cancer prevention and diagnosis. The study of the amount, effect, and injury of carcinogen with biomarkers has become one of the imporant methods for the early detection for occupational lung cancer.

  7. Gas-particle concentration, distribution, and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a traffic area of Giza, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Salwa Kamal; Khoder, M I

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric particulate and gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) samples were collected from an urban area in Dokki (Giza) during the summer of 2007 and the winter of 2007-2008. The average concentrations of PAHs were 1,429.74 ng/m(3) in the particulate phase, 2,912.56 ng/m(3) in the gaseous phase, and 4,342.30 ng/m(3) in the particulate + gaseous phases during the period of study. Dokki has high level concentrations of PAH compounds compared with many polluted cities in the world. The concentrations of PAH compounds in the particulate and gaseous phases were higher in the winter and lower in the summer. Total concentrations of PAHs in the particulate phase and gaseous phase were 22.58% and 77.42% in summer and 36.97% and 63.03% in winter of the total (particulate + gaseous) concentrations of PAHs, respectively. The gaseous/particulate ratios of PAHs concentration were 3.43 in summer and 1.71 in winter. Significant negative correlation coefficients were found between the ambient temperature and concentrations of the total PAHs in the particulate and gaseous phases. The distribution of individual PAHs and different categories of PAHs based on aromatic ring number in the particulate and gaseous phases during the summer and winter were nearly similar, indicating similar emission sources of PAHs in both two seasons. Benzo(b)fluoranthene in the particulate phase and naphthalene in the gaseous phase were the most abundant compounds. Diagnostic concentration ratios of PAH compounds indicate that these compounds are emitted mainly from pyrogenic sources, mainly local vehicular exhaust emissions. Health risks associated with the inhalation of individual PAHs in particulate and gaseous phases were assessed on the basis of its benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration. Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene in the particulate phase and benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(a)anthracene in the gaseous phase were the greatest contributors to the total health risks. The

  8. A novel cloud-point extraction process for preconcentrating selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, D.; Li, J.; Chen, S.B.; Chen, B.-H. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2001-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released in such processes as incomplete coal combustion and during the disposal of coal tar, are subject to strict emission controls in which the determination of PAHs has to be addressed. PAHs have low aqueous solubility which necessitates preconcentration prior to the analytical determination of PAHs. A novel but simple cloud-point extraction (CPE) process is developed to preconcentrate the trace of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with the use of the readily biodegradable nonionic surfactant of secondary ethyoxylated alcohol Tergitol 15-S-7 as extractant. The concentrations of PAHs, mixtures of naphthalene and phenanthrene as well as pyrene in the spiked samples were determined with the new CPE process at ambient temperature (23{degree}C) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. More than 80% of phenanthrene and pyrene, respectively, and 96% of naphthalene initially present in the aqueous solutions with concentrations near or below their aqueous solubilities were recovered using this new CPE process. Importantly Tergitol 15-S-7 does not give any fluorometric signal to interfere with fluorescence detection of PAHs in the UV range. No special washing step is, thus, required to remove surfactant before HPLC analyses. Different experimental conditions were studied. The optimum conditions for the preconcentration and determination of these selected PAHs at ambient temperature have been established as the following: (1) 3 wt% surfactant; (2) addition of 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}; (3) 10 min for equilibration time; and (4) 3000 rpm for centrifugal speed with duration of 10 min. 50 refs., 7 figs.

  9. [Improving Agricultural Safety of Soils Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by In Situ Bioremediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-huan; Pan, Jian-gang; Xu, Shena-jun; Bai, Zhi-hui; Wang, Dong; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the risk of enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crops, reduce the potential hazards of food-sourced PAHs to human and increase the agricultural safety of PAHs contaminated soils, the bio-augmented removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated through in situ remediation by introducing Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS) into the agricultural soil contaminated by PAHs. The 50-times diluted RS was sprayed on leaf surface (in area B) or irrigated to roots (in area D). The treatment of spraying water of the equal amount was taken as the control (A) and the wheat field without any treatment as the blank (CK). Treatments were conducted since wheat seeding. Soil and wheat samples were collected in the mature period to analyze the changes of community structure of the soil microorganisms and the concentration of PAHs in soils and investigate the strengthening and restoration effects of RS on PAHs contaminated soils. Compared to the CK Area, the areas B and D revealed that the variation ratio of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) that were the biomarker of soil microorganisms was 29.6%, and the ratio of total PAHs removed was increased 1.59 times and 1.68 times, respectively. The dry weight of wheat grain of 50 spikes was increased by 8.95% and 12.5%, respectively, and the enrichment factor of total PAHs was decreased by 58.9% and 62.2% respectively in the wheat grains. All the results suggested that RS reduced enrichment of PAHs in wheat grains and increased wheat yield, which had great exploitation and utilization potentiality in repairing and improving the agricultural safety of the soils contaminated with PHAs.

  10. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed to biochar amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malev, O; Contin, M; Licen, S; Barbieri, P; De Nobili, M

    2016-02-01

    Biochar has a charcoal polycyclic aromatic structure which allows its long half-life in soil, making it an ideal tool for C sequestration and for adsorption of organic pollutants, but at the same time raises concerns about possible adverse impacts on soil biota. Two biochars were tested under laboratory-controlled conditions on Eisenia andrei earthworms: a biochar produced at low temperature from wine tree cuttings (WTB) and a commercial low tar hardwood lump charcoal (HLB). The avoidance test (48-h exposure) showed that earthworms avoid biochar-treated soil with rates higher than 16 t ha(-1) for HLB and 64 t ha(-1) for WTB. After 42 days, toxic effects on earthworms were observed even at application rates (100 t ha(-1)) that are generally considered beneficial for most crops. The concentration of HLB and WTB required to kill half of earthworms' population (LC50; 95% confidence limits) in the synthetic OECD soil was 338 and 580 t ha(-1), respectively. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in earthworms exposed to the two biochar types at 100 t ha(-1) was tested in two soils of different texture. In biochar-treated soils, the average earthworm survival rates were about 64% in the sandy and 78% clay-loam soils. PAH accumulation was larger in the sandy soil and largest in soils amended with HLB. PAH with less than four rings were preferentially scavenged from the soil by biochars, and this behaviour may mask that of the more dangerous components (i.e. four to five rings), which are preferentially accumulated. Earthworms can accumulate PAH as a consequence of exposure to biochar-treated soils and transfer them along the food chain. Soil type and biochar quality are both relevant in determining PAH transfer. PMID:26490928

  11. Enhanced dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of fresh plant residues and their extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using fresh plant residues and their extracts to stimulate the bio-dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were highlighted. Wood chip, bamboo leave, orange peel and their water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) were chosen as amendment materials. Effect of WEOM on bio-dissipation (bioaccumulation and biodegradation) of phenanthrene and pyrene from water by two bacteria were investigated. Orange peel extract demonstrated the highest efficiency for stimulating PAHs removal by bacterium B1 (Pseudomonas putida), while bamboo leave extract was the best one to enhance PAHs bio-dissipation by bacterium B2 (unidentified bacterium isolated from PAHs-contaminated soil). Amended the actual contaminated soil with 1% plant residues, PAHs dissipation were increased by 15–20%, 20–39%, 14–24%, 12–23% and 17–26%, respectively, for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs via stimulating indigenous microbial degradation activity. Bamboo leave exhibited the most effective one to stimulate dissipation of PAHs in contaminated soil. - Graphical abstract: Enhanced bio-dissipation of 15 PAHs in soil amended with fresh plant residues of wood chip (WC), orange peel (OP), and bamboo leave (BL). The individual symbol of AC, EC and BC is the abiotic sterile control, evaporation control and blank control. Highlights: ► The addition of fresh plant extracts significantly enhance PAHs bio-dissipation from water. ► Bioaccumulation and biodegradation contribute to the bio-dissipation of PAHs in solution. ► The added fresh plant residues promotes 15 PAHs dissipation in PAHs-contaminated soil. ► Stimulating indigenous microbial degradation activity contributes to PAHs dissipation. ► Bamboo leave exhibits the most effective one to stimulate dissipation of PAHs in soil. - It is feasible to amend fresh plant residues and their extracts to stimulate the bio-dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the contaminated environment.

  12. Effects of climatic modalities on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) availability and attenuation in historically contaminated Technosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagois, Robin; Schwartz, Christophe; Faure, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Since the decline of industrial activities in France, large areas of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)-contaminated soils have remained derelict. Thus, the fate of PAHs in such soils through natural attenuation process needs to be assessed. On the long-term scale (10-100 years), climate will greatly contribute to the evolution of soil physico-chemical properties and by consequences PAHs availability. In our study, we examined the effect of three contrasted climatic conditions (freeze-thawing, wetting-drying and high temperature) on soil aging processes of 11 historically contaminated soils and consequences on the availability of polycyclic aromatic compounds (including the 16 priority pollutants PAHs). Batch experiments were set-up for each modality; freeze-dried soil underwent variation of humidity and/or temperature. In a first step, PACs availability was roughly evaluated, with a water-extraction method using a H2O2 + CaCl2 solution. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was measured in these extracts before and after applying the climatic modalities. Difference in DOC indicated an effect of the climatic modality on PACs availability. If an effect was noticed, available PACs was then accurately measured using (i) an hydrogen-peroxide oxidation on the soils followed (ii) a dichloromethane (DCM) extraction and a Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) quantification of the remaining PACs (i.e. unavailable). Variation of PACs availability will greatly help to understand the mechanisms associated between PACs desorption/sequestration and the abiotic influence of climate. Results of this work will further help understanding and predict the rate of natural attenuation of PACs in contaminated soils for the incoming decades.

  13. First results from the oil sands passive air monitoring network for polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Harner, Tom; Su, Ky; Mihele, Cristian; Eng, Anita

    2015-03-01

    Results are reported from an ongoing passive air monitoring study for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the Athabasca oil sands region in Alberta, Canada. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers were deployed for consecutive 2-month periods from November 2010 to June 2012 at 17 sites. Samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, dibenzothiophene and its alkylated derivatives (DBTs). Relative to parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs and DBTs are enriched in bitumen and therefore considered to be petrogenic markers. Concentrations in air were in the range 0.03-210 ng/m(3), 0.15-230 ng/m(3) and 0.01-61 ng/m(3) for ∑PAHs, ∑alkylated PAHs and ΣDBTs, respectively. An exponential decline of the PAC concentrations in air with distance from mining areas and related petrogenic sources was observed. The most significant exponential declines were for the alkylated PAHs and DBTs and attributed to their association with mining-related emissions and near-source deposition, due to their lower volatility and greater association with depositing particles. Seasonal trends in concentrations in air for PACs were not observed for any of the compound classes. However, a forest fire episode during April to July 2011 resulted in greatly elevated PAH levels at all passive sampling locations. Alkylated PAHs and DBTs were not elevated during the forest fire period, supporting their association with petrogenic sources. Based on the results of this study, an "Athabasca PAC profile" is proposed as a potential source marker for the oil sands region. The profile is characterized by ∑PAHs/∑Alkylated PAHs = ∼0.2 and ∑PAHs/∑DBTs = ∼5.

  14. AIR LEVELS OF CARCINOGENIC POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS FOLLOWING THE WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The catastrophic collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, created an immense dust cloud followed by fires that emitted soot into the air of New York City (NYC) well into December. The subsequent cleanup used diesel equipment that further polluted the air un...

  15. Human bronchus-mediated mutagenesis of mammalian cells by carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    Cultured human bronchial explants activated benzo[alpha]pyrene (BzaP) into electrophilic metabolites that bind to DNA in bronchial epithelial cells. Promutagenic and mutagenic metabolites of BzaP were also released into the culture medium. An increase in mutation frequency for ouabain resistance ...

  16. Attributing risk burden of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to major emission sources: Case study in Guangzhou, south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingqing; Gao, Bo; Li, Guanghui; Zhang, Yanli; He, Quanfu; Deng, Wei; Huang, Zhonghui; Ding, Xiang; Hu, Qihou; Huang, Zuzhao; Wang, Yujun; Bi, Xinhui; Wang, Xinming

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted an increasing concern in China's megacities. However, rare information is available on the spatial and seasonal variations of inhalation cancer risk (ICR) due to PAH exposure and their relations to specific sources. In this study, year-round PM2.5 samples were collected from 2013 to 2014 by high-volume samplers at four sites (one urban, two rural and one roadside station) in Guangzhou in the highly industrialized and densely populated Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and analyzed for 26 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) together with molecular tracers including levoglucosan, hopanes and elemental carbon. Higher molecular weight PAHs (5-ring or above) accounted for 64.3-87.5% of total PAHs. Estimated annual averages of benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent carcinogenic potency (BaPeq) were 1.37, 2.31 and 1.56 ng/m3 at urban SZ, rural JL and rural WQS, respectively, much higher than that at the roadside station YJ in an urban street canyon. ICR of PAHs in wintertime reached 2.2 × 10-4, nearly 3 times that in summer; and cancer risk of PAHs was surprisingly higher at the rural site than at other sites. Source contributions by positive matrix factorization (PMF) in the aid of molecular tracers revealed that overall coal combustion and biomass burning altogether contributed 73.8% of total PAHs and 85.2% of BaPeq, and particularly in winter biomass burning became the most significant source of total PAHs and BaPeq (51.8% and 52.5%), followed by coal combustion (32.0% and 39.1%) and vehicle emission (16.2% and 8.4%). The findings of this work suggest that even in China's megacities like Guangzhou, limiting biomass burning may benefit PAHs pollution control and cancer risk reduction.

  17. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from organic solvents by ashes wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be formed during the refinery processes of crude petroleum. Their removal is of great importance. The same happens with other organic solvents used for the extraction of PAHs (hexane, acetonitrile...), which can be polluted with PAHs. Kinetic and equilibrium batch sorption tests were used to investigate the effect of wood ashes wastes as compared to activated carbon on the sorption of three representative PAHs from n-hexane and acetonitrile. Mussel shell ashes were discarded for batch sorption experiments because they were the only ashes containing PAHs. The equilibrium time was reached at 16 h. Physical sorption caused by the aromatic nature of the compounds was the main mechanism that governed the PAHs removal process. Our investigation revealed that wood ashes obtained at lower temperature (300 deg. C) did not show any PAHs sorption, while ashes obtained at higher temperature (>500 deg. C) have adsorbent sites readily available for the PAH molecules. An increase in the molecular weight of PAHs has a strong effect on sorption wood ashes wastes. As low the wood ashes particle size as high the sorption of PAHs, as a result of differences in adsorbent sites. The performance of wood ash wastes vs. activated carbon to remove 10 PAHs from organic solvents is competitive in price, and a good way for waste disposal.

  18. Physico-chemical properties and toxicity of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Joong; Lee, So-Young; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2016-07-15

    Crude oil and refined petroleum products contain many polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in particular, alkylated PAHs. Although alkylated PAHs are found in significantly higher quantities than their corresponding unsubstituted PAHs, the most studies on the physico-chemical properties and toxicities of these compounds have been conducted on unsubstituted PAHs. In this study, we measured crucial physico-chemical properties (i.e., water solubility, partition coefficients between polydimethylsiloxane and water (KPDMSw), and partition coefficient between liposomes and water (Klipw)) of selected alkylated PAHs, and evaluated their toxicity using the luminescence inhibition of Aliivibrio fischeri and growth inhibition of Raphidocelis subcapitata. In general, the logarithms of these properties for alkylated PAHs showed good linear correlations with log Kow, as did those for unsubstituted PAHs. Changes in molecular symmetry on the introduction of alkyl groups on aromatic ring structure significantly altered water solubility. The inhibition of bacterial luminescence and algal growth by alkylated PAHs can be explained well by the baseline toxicity hypothesis, and good linear relationships between log Kow or log Klipw and log (1/EC50) were found.

  19. Retention mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in reversed-phase liquid chromatography with monomeric stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Jake L; Siepmann, J Ilja; Schure, Mark R

    2011-12-23

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is the foremost technique for the separation of analytes that have very similar chemical functionalities, but differ only in their molecular shape. This ability is crucial in the analysis of various mixtures with environmental and biological importance including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and steroids. A large amount of effort has been devoted to studying this phenomenon experimentally, but a detailed molecular-level description remains lacking. To provide some insight on the mechanism of shape selectivity in RPLC, particle-based simulations were carried out for stationary phases and chromatographic parameters that closely mimic those in an experimental study by Sentell and Dorsey [J. Chromatogr. 461 (1989) 193]. The retention of aromatic hydrocarbons ranging in size from benzene to the isomeric PAHs of the formula C(18)H(12) was examined for model RPLC systems consisting of monomeric dimethyl octadecylsilane (ODS) stationary phases with surface coverages ranging from 1.6 to 4.2 μmol/m(2) (i.e., stationary phases yielding low to intermediate shape selectivity) in contact with a 67/33 mol% acetonitrile/water mobile phase. The simulations show that the stationary phase acts as a very heterogeneous environment where analytes with different shapes prefer different spatial regions with specific local bonding environments of the ODS chains. However, these favorable retentive regions cannot be described as pre-existing cavities because the chain conformation in these local stationary phase regions adapts to accommodate the analytes.

  20. Determination of polycyclic aromatic compounds and heavy metals in sludges from biological sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzek, D; Janoszka, B; Dobosz, C; Warzecha, L; Bodzek, M

    1997-07-11

    The procedure of the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives in the sludges from biological sewage treatment plants has been worked out. The analysis included isolation of organic matter from sludges, separation of the extract into fractions of similar chemical character, qualitative-quantitative analysis of individual PAHs and their nitrogenated and oxygenated derivatives. Liquid-solid chromatography, solid-phase extraction and semipreparative band thin-layer chromatography techniques were used for the separation. Capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the separated fractions enabled identification of more than 21 PAHs, including hydrocarbons which contained 2-6 aromatic rings as well as their alkyl derivatives, 10 oxygen derivatives, 9 nitroarenes, aminoarenes and over 20 azaarenes and carbazoles. Using the capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detection technique the content of 17 dominant PAHs was determined. The content of heavy metals was determined in investigated sludges with the use of atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations of the respective metals could be ranked in the order Cd coal mine wastes, taking into consideration the contents of toxic organic pollutants and heavy metals. PMID:9253190

  1. High-Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: The Realm of Anharmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2016-01-01

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3 micrometers CH stretching region of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold ((is) approximately 4K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions enhanced with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilizes intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination bands as possible candidates to resolve remaining discrepancies. The anharmonic spectra as calculated with SPECTRO lead to predictions of the main modes that fall within 0.5% of the experimental frequencies. The implications for the Aromatic Infrared Bands, specifically the 3-m band are discussed.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of the western Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumard, P.; Budzinski, H.; Garrigues, P. [Univ. Bordeaux I, Talence (France)

    1998-05-01

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated in superficial sediments and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the western Mediterranean sea. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The PAH concentrations ranged from 1 to 20,500 ng/g in the sediments. Different molecular indices allowed differentiation between the different pollutant sources. On the French coast, PAHs originated mainly from incomplete combustion of organic matter (pyrolytic origin), whereas for some sites in Corsica and Sardinia an overimposition of petrogenic PAHs occurred. The mussel PAH concentrations ranged from 25 to 390 ng/g. The total and individual PAH bioaccumulation factors were calculated. The correlation between sediment and mussel PAH content was discussed in terms of bioavailability. It was possible to distinguish different absorption routes for the xenobiotics according to their physicochemical properties. Because the mussel distribution of phenanthrene and anthracene seems to be governed by their water solubility, these compounds were probably mainly absorbed as the water-dissolved form, whereas the heavier molecular weight PAHs (more than four aromatic rings), whose sediment and mussel concentrations are correlated with higher correlation coefficients than for phenanthrene and anthracene, were probably mainly absorbed as adsorbed on particles. Furthermore, a possible preferential biotransformation of benzo[a]pyrene over benzo[e]pyrene is discussed.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Recent lake sediments—I. Compounds having anthropogenic origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeham, Stuart G.; Schaffner, Christian; Giger, Walter

    1980-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediment cores from Lake Lucerne, Lake Zürich, and Greifensee, Switzerland, and Lake Washington, northwest U.S.A., have been isolated, identified and quantified by glass capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Surface sediment layers are greatly enriched in PAH—up to 40 times—compared to deeper layers. In addition, concentration increases in upper sediments generally correspond to increasing industrialization and urbanization in the catchment basins of the lakes. Few PAH could be detected in pre-industrial revolution sediments, indicating that background levels for most PAH in aquatic sediments are extremely low. These results are consistent with an anthropogenic source for most of the aromatic hydrocarbons present in the modern sediments. A comparison of PAH distributions in the sediments and in possible source materials shows that urban runoff of street dust may be the most important PAH input to these lacustrine sediments. There is evidence that a significant contribution to the PAH content of street dust comes from material associated with asphalt.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Wu, Chunfei, E-mail: c.wu@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Onwudili, Jude A. [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Meng, Aihong [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yanguo, E-mail: zhangyg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  5. Random mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon spectra match interstellar infrared emission

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Marissa J F; Boersma, Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    The mid-infrared (IR; 5-15~$\\mu$m) spectrum of a wide variety of astronomical objects exhibits a set of broad emission features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3 and 12.7 $\\mu$m. About 30 years ago it was proposed that these signatures are due to emission from a family of UV heated nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), causing them to be referred to as aromatic IR bands (AIBs). Today, the acceptance of the PAH model is far from settled, as the identification of a single PAH in space has not yet been successful and physically relevant theoretical models involving ``true'' PAH cross sections do not reproduce the AIBs in detail. In this paper, we use the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database, which contains over 500 quantum-computed spectra, in conjunction with a simple emission model, to show that the spectrum produced by any random mixture of at least 30 PAHs converges to the same 'kernel'-spectrum. This kernel-spectrum captures the essence of the PAH emission spectrum...

  6. Physico-chemical properties and toxicity of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Joong; Lee, So-Young; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2016-07-15

    Crude oil and refined petroleum products contain many polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in particular, alkylated PAHs. Although alkylated PAHs are found in significantly higher quantities than their corresponding unsubstituted PAHs, the most studies on the physico-chemical properties and toxicities of these compounds have been conducted on unsubstituted PAHs. In this study, we measured crucial physico-chemical properties (i.e., water solubility, partition coefficients between polydimethylsiloxane and water (KPDMSw), and partition coefficient between liposomes and water (Klipw)) of selected alkylated PAHs, and evaluated their toxicity using the luminescence inhibition of Aliivibrio fischeri and growth inhibition of Raphidocelis subcapitata. In general, the logarithms of these properties for alkylated PAHs showed good linear correlations with log Kow, as did those for unsubstituted PAHs. Changes in molecular symmetry on the introduction of alkyl groups on aromatic ring structure significantly altered water solubility. The inhibition of bacterial luminescence and algal growth by alkylated PAHs can be explained well by the baseline toxicity hypothesis, and good linear relationships between log Kow or log Klipw and log (1/EC50) were found. PMID:27037474

  7. Phototoxicity of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum to marine invertebrate larvae and juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phototoxicity resulting from photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been reported in the literature for a variety of freshwater organisms. The magnitude of increase in PAH toxicity often exceeds a factor of 100. In the marine environment phototoxicity to marine organisms has not been reported for individual or complex mixtures of PAHs. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis, and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, were exposed to individual known phototoxic PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene), as well as the water-accommodated fractions of several petroleum products (Fuel Oil number-sign 2, Arabian Light Crude, Prudhoe Bay Crude, Fuel Oil number-sign 6) containing PAHs. Phototoxicity of individual PAHs was 12 to >50,000 times that of conventional toxicity. Three of the petroleum products demonstrated phototoxicity while the lightest product, Fuel Oil number-sign 2, was not phototoxic at the concentrations tested. The phototoxicity of petroleum products appears to be dependent on the composition and concentrations of phototoxic PAHs present: lighter oils have fewer multiple aromatic ring, phototoxic compounds while heavier oils have higher levels of these types of molecules. This study shows that phototoxicity can occur in marine waters to marine species. Further, the occurrence of oil in marine waters presents the additional risk of phototoxicity not routinely assessed for during oil spills

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (pah) In The Bulk Precipitation of The Seine Estuary, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motelay-Massei, A.; Ollivon, D.; Garban, B.; Chevreuil, M.

    The evolution of industry and the rising of population have resulted in deep changes in the quality of the environment. Nowadays much more often the attention of analysts is focused on the presence of organic pollutants in precipitation, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or pesticides. Atmospheric inputs play a significant role in semivolatile chemicals cycling and alter so the hydrological cycle. PAHs are semi- volatile organic contaminants of great environmental concern because of their car- cinogenic properties. PAHs are produced primarily during incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and wood. Major sources of PAHs to urban atmosphere include au- tomobile traffic, home heating, municipal incinerators and industrial emissions. De- spite their production in urban and industrial sites, PAHs occur at high concentra- tions in rural areas due to their persistence and ability to be transported over long distances. The aim of this investigation was to obtain information about occurrence of organic trace components in precipitation in the Seine Estuary. It was also of in- terest to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of PAHs in the bulk (wet and dry) deposition occurring in the estuary region and to estimate PAH deposition flux on watershed (urban, industrial or rural). Precipitation samples were collected at four locations in the Seine Estuary: the first is an industrial site (Le Havre), two are urban sites (Rouen, representative of urban area influenced by heavy traffic and Notre-Dame de Gravenchon, near from an industrial center) and the last one is ru- ral (Evreux). Each of the sites is located close to a meteorological station. Sam- pling is performed weekly since March 2001. In our analytical conditions, "total PAH" includes 15 compounds: naphthalene (NAP), acenaphtene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), anthracene (ANT), fluoranthene (FTH), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (Bk

  9. Antitumor and antiparasitic activity of novel ruthenium compounds with polycyclic aromatic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserachs, Helena Guiset; Cipriani, Micaella; Grau, Jordi; Vilaseca, Marta; Lorenzo, Julia; Medeiros, Andrea; Comini, Marcelo A; Gambino, Dinorah; Otero, Lucía; Moreno, Virtudes

    2015-09-01

    Five novel ruthenium(II)-arene complexes with polycyclic aromatic ligands were synthesized, comprising three compounds of the formula [RuCl(η(6)-p-cym)(L)][PF6], where p-cym = 1-isopropyl-4-methylbenzene and L are the bidentate aromatic ligands 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione, 1, 5-amine-1,10-phenanthroline, 4, or 5,6-epoxy-5,6-dihydro-phenanthroline, 5. In the other two complexes [RuCl2(η(6)-p-cym)(L')], the metal is coordinated to a monodentate ligand L', where L' is phenanthridine, 2, or 9-carbonylanthracene, 3. All compounds were fully characterized by mass spectrometry and elemental analysis, as well as NMR and IR spectroscopic techniques. Obtained ruthenium compounds as well as their respective ligands were tested for their antiparasitic and antitumoral activities. Even though all compounds showed lower Trypanosoma brucei activity than the free ligands, they also resulted less toxic on mammalian cells. Cytotoxicity assays on HL60 cells showed a moderate antitumoral activity for all ruthenium compounds. Compound 1 was the most potent antitumoral (IC50 = 1.26±0.78 μM) and antiparasitic (IC50 = 0.19 ± 0.05 μM) agent, showing high selectivity towards the parasites (selectivity index >100). As complex 1 was the most promising antitumoral compound, its interaction with ubiquitin as potential target was also studied. In addition, obtained ruthenium compounds were found to bind DNA, and they are thought to interact with this macromolecule mainly through intercalation of the aromatic ligand.

  10. CHARACTERIZING THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF SMALL, NEUTRAL, FULLY DEHYDROGENATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, C. J.; Peeters, E.; Cami, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bauschlicher, C. W. Jr., E-mail: mackie@strw.leidenuniv.nl [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present the results of a computational study to investigate the infrared spectroscopic properties of a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and their fully dehydrogenated counterparts. We constructed a database of fully optimized geometries for PAHs that is complete for eight or fewer fused benzene rings, thus containing 1550 PAHs and 805 fully dehydrogenated aromatics. A large fraction of the species in our database have clearly non-planar or curved geometries. For each species, we determined the frequencies and intensities of their normal modes using density functional theory calculations. Whereas most PAH spectra are fairly similar, the spectra of fully dehydrogenated aromatics are much more diverse. Nevertheless, these fully dehydrogenated species show characteristic emission features at 5.2 μm, 5.5 μm, and 10.6 μm; at longer wavelengths, there is a forest of emission features in the 16-30 μm range that appears as a structured continuum, but with a clear peak centered around 19 μm. We searched for these features in Spitzer-IRS spectra of various positions in the reflection nebula NGC 7023. We find a weak emission feature at 10.68 μm in all positions except that closest to the central star. We also find evidence for a weak 19 μm feature at all positions that is not likely due to C{sub 60}. We interpret these features as tentative evidence for the presence of a small population of fully dehydrogenated PAHs, and discuss our results in the framework of PAH photolysis and the formation of fullerenes.

  11. Health effects of combustion-generated soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Progress report, May 1, 1979-April 30, 1980. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thilly, W. G.

    1980-05-01

    Mutagen studies on soot and soot components are reported in aspects dealing from quantitative chemical analyses of samples and mutagenesis of cells and microorganisms exposed to mutagens, to bioassay developments and techniques. Several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are characterized and discussed.

  12. Analysis of Parent/Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Particulate Matter 2.5 Based on Femtosecond Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itouyama, Noboru; Matsui, Taiki; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Imasaka, Tomoko; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), collected from ambient air in Fukuoka City, was analyzed by gas chromatography combined with multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry using an ultraviolet femtosecond laser (267 nm) as the ionization source. Numerous parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs) were observed in a sample extracted from PM2.5, and their concentrations were determined to be in the range from 30 to 190 pg/m(3) for heavy PPAHs. Standard samples of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) were examined, and the limits of detection were determined to be in the picogram range. The concentration of NPAH adsorbed on PM2.5 in the air was less than 900-1300 pg/m(3). Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26419772

  13. Source Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Diagnostic Ratios and Positive Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorska, A.; Jarkovsky, J.; Lammel, G.; Klanova, J.

    2009-04-01

    Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are also of natural origin, in many regions their environmental concentrations have strongly increased due to human activities. These semivolatile organic compounds are generally formed during incomplete combustion. Other sources include volatilization from unburned petroleum or tire abrasion in road traffic. Among all pollutants PAHs pose the highest human health hazard in Europe (WHO, 2003). A multivariate statistical method, positive matrix factorization (PMF; Paatero, 1997), and diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs (e.g. Yunker et al., 2002) are used for PAH source identification in central Europe. To minimise confounding factors such as differences in volatility, water solubility, adsorption etc., diagnostic ratios should be restricted to PAHs of similar molecular mass (Readman et al., 1987). Furthermore, different reactivities are limiting. Nevertheless, the application of PAH diagnostic ratios is often inconclusive, because substance patterns (profiles) have not been reported for all sources and ranges for various sources overlap. The complete profiles are made use of by statistical methods such as factor analysis, UNMIX and PMF (Tauler et al., 2006). However, these methods can be unreliable, because of incomplete knowledge of source profiles and the analysis' sensitivity to the data distribution. A unique 12-year data set of concentrations of PAHs (16 individual substances, 2 phases, weekly) in air, measured at the regional observatory Košetice, Czech Republic, is examined, together with shorter time series from Leipzig (urban background) and Schwartenberg (subalpine mountain background), Germany. Also, retene and coronene as specific source markers measured in Košetice from 2006 on are included into the analysis. An extensive literature search on PAH emission profiles was conducted. This data set was accomplished by measurements at sites in the Zlínsko region, Czech Republic, which are strongly dominated

  14. Diversity of organotrophic bacteria, activity of dehydrogenases and urease as well as seed germination and root growth Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum and Sinapis alba under the influence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska, Aneta; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Kucharski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds with highly toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties, which adversely affect the basic biological parameters of the soil, including the count of microorganisms, and the enzymatic activity. In addition to disturbances to the biological activity of the soil, PAHs may also exhibit toxic effects on plants. In view of the above, the study involved testing aimed at the determination of the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a form of naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene on the count, colony development (CD) index, ecophysiological (EP) diversity index of organotrophic bacteria, and the activity of soil dehydrogenases and soil urease. Moreover, an attempt was made to determine the soil's resistance based on the activity of the above-listed enzymes, and the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on seed germination and root growth was assessed by Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum, and Sinapis alba. In addition, the species of bacteria found in a soil subjected to strong pressure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were isolated. The experiment was performed in a laboratory on samples of loamy sand. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were introduced into the soil in an amount of 0, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg kg(-1) of soil dry matter. Germination and growth of cress (L. sativum), white mustard (S. alba), and sweet sorghum (S. saccharatum) were determined using Phytotoxkit tests. It was found that the tested PAHs increased the average colony counts of organotrophic soil bacteria; pyrene did so to the greatest extent (2.2-fold relative to non-contaminated soil), phenanthrene to the smallest extent (1.4-fold relative to non-contaminated soil). None of the PAHs changed the value of the bacterial colony development (CD) index, while anthracene and pyrene increased the value of the eco-physiological (EP) diversity indicator. PAHs lowered the activity of the tested enzymes. The activity of

  15. Biochar characterization for its environmental and agricultural utilization. Occurrence, distribution and fate of labile organic carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Rombola', Alessandro Girolamo

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the potential risks associated to the application of biochar in soil as well the stability of biochar were investigated. The study was focused on the potential risks arising from the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biochar. An analytical method was developed for the determination of the 16 USEPA-PAHs in the original biochar and soil containing biochar. The method was successfully validated with a certified reference material for the soil matrix and comp...

  16. Equilibrium passive sampling as a tool to study polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Baltic Sea sediment pore-water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Susann-Cathrin; Hursthouse, Andrew; Mayer, Philipp;

    2015-01-01

    Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) was applied to provide the first large scale dataset of freely dissolved concentrations for 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Baltic Sea sediment cores. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated glass fibers were used for ex-situ equilibrium sampling followe...... to cause narcosis to benthos organisms. The SPME method is a very sensitive tool that opens new possibilities for studying the PAHs at trace levels in marine environments....

  17. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Automobile Exhaust by Means of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    1979-01-01

    A chromatographic method has been developed and applied to the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter in automobile exhaust, in petrols, and in crankcase oils. The PAHs were purified from other organic compounds by thin-layer chromatography, separated by high-performance...... liquid chromatography, and measured by means of on-line fluorescence detection. The identities of the PAHs were verified by comparing the emission spectra obtained by a stop-flow technique with those of standard PAHs...

  18. Health Risk Assessment for Trace Metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water of Cankiri, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Caylak, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    Lifetime exposure to trace metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), trihalomethanes (THMs), and the other chemicals in drinking water through ingestion, and dermal contact may pose risks to human health. In this study, drinking water samples were collected from 50 sampling sites from Cankiri and its towns during 2010. The concentrations of all pollutants were analyzed, and then compared with permissible limits set by Turkish and WHO. For health risk assessment of trace met...

  19. An in situ intercomparison exercise on passive samplers for monitoring metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in surface waters

    OpenAIRE

    Miège, C.; Mazzella, N.; Schiavone, S.; Dabrin, A.; Berho, C.; Ghestem, J.P.; Gonzalez, C.; Gonzalez, J L; Lalere, B.; Lardy Fontan, S.; Lepot, B.; Munaron, D.; Tixier, C.; Togola, A.; Coquery, M.

    2012-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise on passive samplers (PSs) was organized in summer 2010 for the measurement of selected metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides in surface waters. Various PSs were used and compared at 2 rivers sites and one marine lagoon. A total of 24 laboratories participated. We present selected significant outputs from this exercise, including discussion on quality assurance and quality control for PSs, the interlaboratory variability of field blanks, tim...

  20. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the proliferation of ectopic thyroid tissue in Poecilia formosa the Amazon molly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Setlow, R.B.; Pond, V.

    1982-01-01

    A single intraperitoneal injection of any one of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons given to young Amazon mollies induces massive enlargement of the spleen. This enlargement is the result of splenic tissue being partially or wholly replaced by proliferating thyroid tissue. The pharyngeal thyroid gland is stimulated but to a lesser degree. No exuberant thyroid tissue is found at any other extrapharyngeal site. We discuss the possible causes of this finding.

  1. Effect of Surface Chemistry and Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes on the Adsorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Aqueous Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramzan, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption behavior of seven different carbon nanotubes (CNTs) towards polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied in moderately hard reconstituted water (MHRW) with and without dissolved natural organic matter (NOM). At one concentration, adsorption of phenanthrene towards these CNTs was determined using negligible depletion solid phase micro extraction (nd-SPME) followed by GC-MS analysis. The single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) showed much higher adsorption than all other CNTs....

  2. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue, Miao; Zhao, Jingyu; Zhang, Na; Wang, Rong; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336...

  3. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals in ashes released from a forest fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, I.; Abrantes, N.; Pereira, P.; Vale, C.; Ferreira, A.; Keizer, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    Wildfires have become a permanent source of environmental and societal concerns. Whilst the impacts of wildfire on hydrological and erosion processes are well documented, the stocks and export of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals have received considerably less research attention. The ashes produced by wildfires, which include polluting substances such as PAHs and metals, are subject to transport processes by wind and especially by overland flow and water infiltrating into the soil and possibly reaching ground water bodies. In the framework of the FIRECNUTS project, we are studying the stocks of PAHs and selected metals in recently burnt forest stands in north-central Portugal, and their subsequent export by overland flow. The present work, however, will focus on the stocks in the ashes, both immediately after wildfire and three months later. These ashes were collected at two burnt slopes with contrasting forest types, i.e. a eucalypt and a maritime pine stand, the two pre-dominant forest types in the study region. The sixteen PAHs identified by US EPA as priority contaminants were analysed by gas chromatograph, after extraction and column clean up. The contents of vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after an acid digestion, while mercury (Hg) was analysed by pyrolysis atomic absorption spectrometry with gold amalgamation. The total concentration of PAHs immediately after the wildfire ranged from 314 ng/g dry weight in the maritime pine stand to 597 ng/g dry weight in the eucalypt stand. Three months later, the total concentration has decreased with 33% in the pine stand but only half (16%) in the eucalypt stand. The composition the PAHs by ring size was dominated by three-rings PAHs. This was true for all samples. The concentrations of various metals differed for the two sampling

  4. Spatiotemporal analysis and human exposure assessment on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air, settled house dust, and diet: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuning; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-11-01

    This review summarizes the published literature on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in indoor air, settled house dust, and food, and highlights geographical and temporal trends in indoor PAH contamination. In both indoor air and dust, ΣPAH concentrations in North America have decreased over the past 30 years with a halving time of 6.7±1.9years in indoor air and 5.0±2.3 years in indoor dust. In contrast, indoor PAH concentrations in Asia have remained steady. Concentrations of ΣPAH in indoor air are significantly (pAmerica. In studies recording both vapor and particulate phases, the global average concentration in indoor air of ΣPAH excluding naphthalene is between 7 and 14,300 ng/m(3). Over a similar period, the average ΣPAH concentration in house dust ranges between 127 to 115,817ng/g. Indoor/outdoor ratios of atmospheric concentrations of ΣPAH have declined globally with a half-life of 6.3±2.3 years. While indoor/outdoor ratios for benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalents (BaPeq) declined in North America with a half-life of 12.2±3.2 years, no significant decline was observed when data from all regions were considered. Comparison of the global database, revealed that I/O ratios for ΣPAH (average=4.3±1.3), exceeded significantly those of BaPeq (average=1.7±0.4) in the same samples. The significant decline in global I/O ratios suggests that indoor sources of PAH have been controlled more effectively than outdoor sources. Moreover, the significantly higher I/O ratios for ΣPAH compared to BaPeq, imply that indoor sources of PAH emit proportionally more of the less carcinogenic PAH than outdoor sources. Dietary exposure to PAH ranges from 137 to 55,000 ng/day. Definitive spatiotemporal trends in dietary exposure were precluded due to relatively small number of relevant studies. However, although reported in only one study, PAH concentrations in Chinese diets exceeded those in diet from other parts of the world, a pattern consistent with

  5. Mass spectrometric analysis of 7-sulfoxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene and related electrophilic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Andreas F; Horn, Jamie; Flesher, James W

    2004-11-01

    The Meso-region theory of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) carcinogenesis predicts that the development of pronounced carcinogenicity depends on the introduction of a good leaving group on alkyl side-chains attached to the exceptionally reactive meso-anthracenic or L-region positions of PAHs. Thus, the first step in carcinogenesis by methylated PAHs such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) would be the hydroxylation of the L-region methyl groups, particularly the 7-methyl group. The second would be the formation of a metabolite, e.g. a sulfate ester, which is expected to be a good leaving group capable of generating a highly reactive benzylic carbocation. 7-Hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-HMBA) is a metabolite of DMBA, and sulfation of 7-HMBA to a 7-sulfoxymethyl metabolite (7-SMBA) is a known Phase II metabolic process designed to facilitate excretion, but actually enabling more destructive side-reactions. These side-reactions occur with generation of an electrophilic 7-methylene carbonium ion, and/or by in vivo halide exchange to provide neutral side-products more capable of entering cells, especially those of DMBA target tissues. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) enabled us to visualize 7-SMBA as an intact m/z 351 conjugate anion by negative mode, and as a released m/z 255 carbonium ion by positive mode. Upon prolonged refrigeration, 7-SMBA accumulated an m/z 383 photooxide, which appeared capable of re-evolving the starting material as visualized by tandem quadrupole MS, or MS/MS. The 7-SMBA carbonium ion provided interpretable fragments when studied by fragment ion MS/MS, including those representing the loss of up to several protons. Subtle differences in this property were encountered upon perturbing 7-SMBA, either by warming it at 37 degrees C for 2 h or by substituting the initial sulfoxy group with an iodo group. Side-reactions accounting for such proton losses are proposed, and are of interest whether they occur in the

  6. Mass spectrometric analysis of 7-sulfoxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene and related electrophilic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Andreas F; Horn, Jamie; Flesher, James W

    2004-11-01

    The Meso-region theory of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) carcinogenesis predicts that the development of pronounced carcinogenicity depends on the introduction of a good leaving group on alkyl side-chains attached to the exceptionally reactive meso-anthracenic or L-region positions of PAHs. Thus, the first step in carcinogenesis by methylated PAHs such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) would be the hydroxylation of the L-region methyl groups, particularly the 7-methyl group. The second would be the formation of a metabolite, e.g. a sulfate ester, which is expected to be a good leaving group capable of generating a highly reactive benzylic carbocation. 7-Hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-HMBA) is a metabolite of DMBA, and sulfation of 7-HMBA to a 7-sulfoxymethyl metabolite (7-SMBA) is a known Phase II metabolic process designed to facilitate excretion, but actually enabling more destructive side-reactions. These side-reactions occur with generation of an electrophilic 7-methylene carbonium ion, and/or by in vivo halide exchange to provide neutral side-products more capable of entering cells, especially those of DMBA target tissues. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) enabled us to visualize 7-SMBA as an intact m/z 351 conjugate anion by negative mode, and as a released m/z 255 carbonium ion by positive mode. Upon prolonged refrigeration, 7-SMBA accumulated an m/z 383 photooxide, which appeared capable of re-evolving the starting material as visualized by tandem quadrupole MS, or MS/MS. The 7-SMBA carbonium ion provided interpretable fragments when studied by fragment ion MS/MS, including those representing the loss of up to several protons. Subtle differences in this property were encountered upon perturbing 7-SMBA, either by warming it at 37 degrees C for 2 h or by substituting the initial sulfoxy group with an iodo group. Side-reactions accounting for such proton losses are proposed, and are of interest whether they occur in the

  7. [Distribution Characteristics and Source Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Surface Dust of Xi'an City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wang, Li-jun; Shi, Xing-min; Lu, Xin-wei

    2016-04-15

    A total of 58 surface dust samples were collected from Xi'an city. The concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). At the same time, the distribution and sources of PAHs in surface dust were studied. The results showed that the concentrations of individual PAH ranged from 14.69 to 6370. 48 microg x kg(-1), and the total concentrations of 16 PAHs (∑16 PAHs) ranged from 5039.67 to 47,738.50 microg x kg(-1), with a mean of 13,845.82 microg x kg(-1). Compared to the Y PAHs levels of other cities, the ∑16 PAHs in surface dust of Xi'an belonged to a relatively higher level. PAHs in surface dust were mainly dominated by high molecular weight PAHs with 4-6 rings and the concentration of 7 carcinogenic PAHs (1 CPAHs) accounted for 46.08% of 3 16PAHs. The mean of ∑16 PAHs in surface dust had the highest concentration at industrial area; followed by the educational area, traffic area, business and traffic area; residential area and parks showed relatively lower concentration. The average content of ∑16 PAHs in surface dust presented an increasing trend along the main urban area--the second ring road--the third ring road. ∑16 PAHs in surface dust had higher concentrations at the industrial areas of the east and west suburbs of Xi'an, the south suburb and the north section of the second ring road; ∑16 PAHs concentrations in the main urban area, north suburb and southeast part of Xi'an were relatively lower. The results of ratio, cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed that PAHs in surface dust were mainly originated from the combustion of fossil fuels and coal combustion. Among them, diesel combustion reached 36.07%, gasoline combustion accounted for 32.31%, and coal combustion was resposbe for 23.40% PMID:27548947

  8. Indoor air-assessment: Indoor concentrations of environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the report, indoor concentration data are presented for the following general categories of air pollutants: radon-222, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), asbestos, gas phase organic compounds, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides, and inorganic compounds. These pollutants are either known or suspect carcinogens (i.e., radon-222, asbestos) or more complex mixtures or classes of compounds which contain known or suspect carcinogens. Concentration data for individual carcinogenic compounds in complex mixtures are usually far from complete. The data presented for complex mixtures often include compounds which are not carcinogenic or for which data are insufficient to evaluate carcinogenicity. Their inclusion is justified, however, by the possibility that further work may show them to be carcinogens, cocarcinogens, initiators or promotors, or that they may be employed as markers (e.g., nicotine, acrolein) for the estimation of exposure to complex mixtures

  9. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Trichoderma species: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2015-12-01

    Fungi belonging to Trichoderma genus are ascomycetes found in soils worldwide. Trichoderma has been studied in relation to diverse biotechnological applications and are known as successful colonizers of their common habitats. Members of this genus have been well described as effective biocontrol organisms through the production of secondary metabolites with potential applications as new antibiotics. Even though members of Trichoderma are commonly used for the commercial production of lytic enzymes, as a biological control agent, and also in the food industry, their use in xenobiotic biodegradation is limited. Trichoderma stands out as a genus with a great range of substrate utilization, a high production of antimicrobial compounds, and its ability for environmental opportunism. In this review, we focused on the recent advances in the research of Trichoderma species as potent and efficient aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms, as well as aimed to provide insight into its potential role in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with heavy hydrocarbons. Several Trichoderma species are associated with the ability to metabolize a variety of both high and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. PAH-degrading species include Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma virens, and Trichoderma asperellum using alternate enzyme systems commonly seen in other organisms, such as multicooper laccases, peroxidases, and ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Within these species, T. asperellum stands out as a versatile organism with remarkable degrading abilities, high tolerance, and a remarkable potential to be used as a remediation agent in polluted soils.

  10. From Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Ice to the Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Twenty years ago the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed at, the concept of ices in dense molecular clouds ignored, and the notion of large, abundant, gas phase, carbon rich molecules widespread throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today the composition of dust in the diffuse ISM is reasonably well constrained to cold refractory materials comprised of amorphous and crystalline silicates mixed with an amorphous carbonaceous material containing aromatic structural units and short, branched aliphatic chains. In the dense ISM, the birthplace of stars and planets, these cold dust particles are coated with mixed molecular ices whose composition is very well constrained. Lastly, the signature of carbon-rich polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), shockingly large molecules by early interstellar chemistry standards, is widespread throughout the Universe. The first part of this talk will describe how infrared studies of interstellar space, combined with laboratory simulations, have revealed the composition of interstellar ices (the building blocks of comets) and the high abundance and nature of interstellar PAHs. The laboratory database has now enabled us to gain insight into the identities, abundances, and physical state of many interstellar materials. Within a dense molecular cloud, and especially in the presolar nebula, the materials frozen into the interstellar/precometary ices are photoprocessed by ultraviolet light and produce more complex molecules. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the photochemical evolution of these materials and the possible role of these compounds on the to the carbonaceous components of micrometeorites, they are likely to have been important sources of complex materials on the early

  11. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Trichoderma species: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2015-12-01

    Fungi belonging to Trichoderma genus are ascomycetes found in soils worldwide. Trichoderma has been studied in relation to diverse biotechnological applications and are known as successful colonizers of their common habitats. Members of this genus have been well described as effective biocontrol organisms through the production of secondary metabolites with potential applications as new antibiotics. Even though members of Trichoderma are commonly used for the commercial production of lytic enzymes, as a biological control agent, and also in the food industry, their use in xenobiotic biodegradation is limited. Trichoderma stands out as a genus with a great range of substrate utilization, a high production of antimicrobial compounds, and its ability for environmental opportunism. In this review, we focused on the recent advances in the research of Trichoderma species as potent and efficient aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms, as well as aimed to provide insight into its potential role in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with heavy hydrocarbons. Several Trichoderma species are associated with the ability to metabolize a variety of both high and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. PAH-degrading species include Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma virens, and Trichoderma asperellum using alternate enzyme systems commonly seen in other organisms, such as multicooper laccases, peroxidases, and ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Within these species, T. asperellum stands out as a versatile organism with remarkable degrading abilities, high tolerance, and a remarkable potential to be used as a remediation agent in polluted soils. PMID:26498812

  12. Risk assessment for the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the ingestion of cockle (Anadara granosa) and exposure to contaminated water and sediments along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seiedeh Aghileh Mirsadeghi; Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria; Chee Kong Yap; Azadeh Shahbazi

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) present in the sediment and water of Peninsular Malaysia as well as in the cockle Anadara granosa was investigated. Samples were extracted and analysed with gas chromatographymass spectrometry. The concentrations of total carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (t-PAHs) were measured between 0.80 ± 0.04 to 162.96 ± 14.74 ng/g wet weight (ww) in sediment, between 21.85 ± 2.18 to 76.2 ± 10.82 ng/L in water samples and between 3.34 ± 0.77 to 46.85 ± 5.50 ng/g ww in the cockle tissue. The risk assessment of probable human carcinogens in the Group B2 PAHs was calculated and assessed in accordance with the standards of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Case Ⅰ in the toxicity assessment analysed the cancer risk to consumers of Malaysian blood cockle. Case Ⅱ assessed the risk of cancer from exposure to PAHs from multiple pathways. The average cancer risk of case Ⅰ and case Ⅱ were found to be classifiable as unsafe according to the US EPA standard. The cancer risk due to c-PAHs acquired by the ingestion of blood cockle was (8.82 ± 0.54) × 10-6 to (2.67 ± 0.06) × 10-2, higher than the US EPA risk management criterion. The non-cancer risks associated with multiple pathways in Kuala Gula, Kuala Juru and Kuala Perlis were higher than the US EPA safe level, but the non-cancer risk for eating blood cockle was below the level of US EPA concern.

  13. Risk assessment for the daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the ingestion of cockle (Anadara granosa) and exposure to contaminated water and sediments along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsadeghi, Seiedeh Aghileh; Zakari, Mohamad Pauzi; Yap, Chee Kong; Shahbazi, Azadeh

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) present in the sediment and water of Peninsular Malaysia as well as in the cockle Anadara granosa was investigated. Samples were extracted and analysed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of total carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (t-PAHs) were measured between 0.80 +/- 0.04 to 162.96 +/- 14.74 ng/g wet weight (ww) in sediment, between 21.85 +/- 2.18 to 76.2 +/- 10.82 ng/L in water samples and between 3.34 +/- 0.77 to 46.85 +/- 5.50 ng/g ww in the cockle tissue. The risk assessment of probable human carcinogens in the Group B2 PAHs was calculated and assessed in accordance with the standards of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Case I in the toxicity assessment analysed the cancer risk to consumers of Malaysian blood cockle. Case II assessed the risk of cancer from exposure to PAHs from multiple pathways. The average cancer risk of case I and case II were found to be classifiable as unsafe according to the US EPA standard. The cancer risk due to c-PAHs acquired by the ingestion of blood cockle was (8.82 +/- 0.54) x 10-6 to (2.67 +/- 0.06) x 10(-2), higher than the US EPA risk management criterion. The non-cancer risks associated with multiple pathways in Kuala Gula, Kuala Juru and Kuala Perlis were higher than the U.S. EPA safe level, but the non-cancer risk for eating blood cockle was below the level of U.S. EPA concern. PMID:21517010

  14. Field effect transistors based on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for the detection and classification of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayn, Alona; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Haick, Hossam

    2013-04-24

    We show that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) based field effect transistor (FET) arrays can serve as excellent chemical sensors for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under confounding humidity conditions. Using these sensors, w/o complementary pattern recognition methods, we study the ability of PAH-FET(s) to: (i) discriminate between aromatic and non-aromatic VOCs; (ii) distinguish polar and non-polar non-aromatic compounds; and to (iii) identify specific VOCs within the subgroups (i.e., aromatic compounds, polar non-aromatic compounds, non-polar non-aromatic compounds). We further study the effect of water vapor on the sensor array's discriminative ability and derive patterns that are stable when exposed to different constant values of background humidity. Patterns based on different independent electronic features from an array of PAH-FETs may bring us one step closer to creating a unique fingerprint for individual VOCs in real-world applications in atmospheres with varying levels of humidity.

  15. Ultimate carcinogenic metabolites from aromatic and heterocyclic aromatic amines: a computational study in relation to their mutagenic potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borosky, Gabriela L

    2007-02-01

    The formation of nitrenium ions from their precursors was examined by density functional theory (DFT) calculations in order to analyze the role of these electrophilic intermediates on the mutagenic activity of the parent amines. The relative reactivities for N-O bond dissociation from the N-hydroxy, N-acetoxy and N-sulfate derivatives of aniline were evaluated. Furthermore, the N-acetoxy esters from a set of 17 aromatic and heteroaromatic amines of diverse structure were considered, and correlations were sought between the calculated properties and the reported mutagenic potencies. The mutagenic activity was found to increase when a more negative charge developed at the exocyclic nitrogen of the nitrenium ion (qN) and with nitrenium ion stability. Different functional correlations were observed for the amine derivatives grouped according to their classification as aromatic (Ar), imidazo-carbocyclic (Imi-C), and imidazo-heterocyclic (Imi-H). The formation of N-acetyl nitrenium ions from aromatic amides was also considered and found to be less favorable than nitrenium ion generation from the corresponding amines. PMID:17261035

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at selected burning grounds at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B.W.; Minor, L.K.M.; Flucas, B.J.

    1998-02-01

    A commercial immunoassay field test (IFT) was used to rapidly assess the total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil at selected burning grounds within the explosives corridor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Results were compared with analyses obtained from LANL Analytical Laboratory and from a commercial laboratory. Both used the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Methods 8270 and 8310. EPA`s Method 8270 employs gas chromatography and mass spectral analyses, whereas EPA`s Method 8310 uses an ultraviolet detector in a high-performance liquid chromatography procedure. One crude oil sample and one diesel fuel sample, analyzed by EPA Method 8270, were included for references. On an average the IFT results were lower for standard samples and lower than the analytical laboratory results for the unknown samples. Sites were selected to determine whether the PAHs came from the material burned or the fuel used to ignite the burn, or whether they are produced by a high-temperature chemical reaction during the burn. Even though the crude oil and diesel fuel samples did contain measurable quantities of PAHs, there were no significant concentrations of PAHs detected in the ashes and soil at the burning grounds. Tests were made on fresh soil and ashes collected after a large burn and on aged soil and ashes known to have been at the site more than three years. Also analyzed were twelve-year-old samples from an inactive open burn cage.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in traditional smoked dairy products from Campania (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cirillo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The smoked mozzarella and caciocavallo cheeses occupy a significant area among the traditional products in the Campania region. Smoked and non-smoked mozzarella and caciocavallo cheeses were screened for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Total PAH concentration in non-smoked mozzarella ranged from 59.11 to 160.05 ìg kg-1 wet weight (w.w. and in that smoked from 67.49 to 399.90 ìg kg-1 w.w.
    The total PAH content in non-smoked caciocavallo was between 36.70 and 248.59 ìg kg-1 w.w.; in the smoked cheese, it varied from 72.52 to 1643.18 ìg kg-1 w.w. The benzo(apyrene (BaP values in all cheeses smoked by liquid smoke were higher than the permissible limit for BaP of 0.03 ìg kg-1 for foods aromatised with liquid smoke.

  18. Evaluation of ginkgo as a biomonitor of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Abe, Maho; Kakumoto, Yoriko; Kawano, Hiromi; Fukasawa, Hiroko; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2012-07-01

    The utility of ginkgo leaves as biomonitors of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated. We investigated PAH concentrations among tree species, the effect of variations in leaf position in a tree, tissue distributions, correlations between ginkgo leaves and air, and seasonal variations. Among the five species examined (Ginkgo biloba L., Zelkova serrata Makino, Liriodendron tulipifera L., Prunus yedoensis Matsum, and Magnolia kobus DC.), ginkgo accumulated the greatest amount of PAHs from roadside air. Most PAHs (˜80%) were accumulated in the wax fraction, and most of the remainder (17%) penetrated the inner tissues of the leaves. PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves decreased with increasing height and distance from the road, reflecting the derivation of PAHs from vehicle emissions. Seasonal time-series sampling showed that PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves increased with time, attributable to the effects of temperature and accumulation through long-term exposure. Concentrations in ginkgo leaves collected from various roads showed a strong and significant correlation with those in air collected by a high-volume air sampler (r2 = 0.68, P Ginkgo leaf data clearly showed a dramatic decrease in the ratio of low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs to high-molecular-weight PAHs from 2001 or 2002 to 2006, indicating that on-road diesel emission regulations effectively reduced LMW PAH concentrations in air.

  19. The Luminous Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features: Applications to High Redshift Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Heath V.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, significant work has been applied to calibrating emission from the ultra-violet, nebular emission lines, far-infrared, X-ray and radio as tracers of the star-formation rate (SFR) in distant galaxies. Understanding the exact rate of star-formation and how it evolves with time and galaxy mass has deep implications for how galaxies form. The co-evolution of star-formation and supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion is one of the key problems in galaxy formation theory. But, many of these SFR indicators are influenced by SMBH accretion in galaxies and result in unreliable SFRs. Utilizing the luminous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features, I provide a new robust SFR calibration using the luminosity emitted from the PAHs at 6.2μm, 7.7μm and 11.3μm to solve this. The PAH features emit strongly in the mid-infrared (mid-IR; 5-25μm) mitigating dust extinction, containing on average 5-10% of the total IR luminosity in galaxies. I use a sample of 105 star-forming galaxies covering a range of total IR luminosity, LIR = L(8-1000μm) = 109 - 1012 L⊙ and redshift 0 blackhole accretion contemporaneously in a galaxy.

  20. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from the Daliao River watershed, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Xiangchun; TANG Qian; HE Mengchang; YANG Zhifeng; LIN Chunye; GUO Wei

    2009-01-01

    The Daliao River, as an important water system in Northeast China, was reported to be heavily polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Aerobic biodegradations of four selected PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene and anthracene) alone or in their mixture in fiver sediments from the Daliao River water systems were studied in microcosm systems. Effects of additional carbon source, inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus, temperature variation on PAHs degradation were also investigated. Results showed that the degradation of phenanthrene in water alone system was faster than that in water-sediment combined system. Degradation of phenanthrene in sediment was enhanced by adding yeast extract and ammonium, but retarded by adding sodium acetate and not significantly influenced by adding phosphate. Although PAHs could also be biodegraded in sediment under low temperature (5℃), much lower degradation rate was observed. Sediments from the three main streams of the Daliao River water system (the Hun River, the Taizi River and the Daliao River) demonstrated different degradation capacities and patterns to four PAHs. Average removal rates (15 or 19 d) of naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene and anthracene by sediment were in the range of 0.062-0.087, 0.005-0.066, 0.008-one. In multiple PAHs systems, the interactions between PAHs influenced each PAH biodegradation.

  1. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites as biomarkers to woodsmoke exposure - results from a controlled exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Trinidad, Debra; Pittman, Erin N; Riley, Erin A; Sjodin, Andreas; Dills, Russell L; Paulsen, Michael; Simpson, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Woodsmoke contains harmful components - such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - and impacts more than half of the global population. We investigated urinary hydroxylated PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) as woodsmoke exposure biomarkers in nine non-smoking volunteers experimentally exposed to a wood fire. Individual urine samples were collected from 24-h before to 48-h after the exposure and personal PM2.5 samples were collected during the 2-h woodsmoke exposure. Concentrations of nine OH-PAHs increased by 1.8-7.2 times within 2.3-19.3 h, and returned to baseline approximately 24 h after the exposure. 2-Naphthol (2-NAP) had the largest post-exposure increase and exhibited a clear excretion pattern in all participants. The level of urinary OH-PAHs, except 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR), correlated with those of PM2.5, levoglucosan and PAHs in personal PM2.5 samples. This finding suggests that several urinary OH-PAHs, especially 2-NAP, are potential exposure biomarkers to woodsmoke; by contrast, 1-PYR may not be a suitable biomarker. Compared with levoglucosan and methoxyphenols - two other urinary woodsmoke biomarkers that were measured in the same study and reported previously - OH-PAHs might be better biomarkers based on sensitivity, robustness and stability, particularly under suboptimal sampling and storage conditions, like in epidemiological studies carried out in less developed areas. PMID:25605446

  2. Determining produced water originating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in North Sea waters: comparison of sampling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was carried out in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea during May and June 1997. The purpose was to measure the concentration of produced water originating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in seawater and to compare different sampling techniques for use in future monitoring programs. Three methods were used for direct water sampling: (1) in situ large volume sampling of particulate and dissolved hydrocarbons onto filters and XAD resins, (2) solid phase extraction (SPE) using polystyrene-divinylbenzene disks, (3) whole bulk water sampling. In addition, sampling by semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) was used to obtain a 4 weeks average of the concentration of the target compounds in seawater. The samples were processed and analysed by GC-MS for determination of PAH concentrations. The measured concentrations were generally found to be low, and in many cases below the limits of detection. The comparison of sampling techniques showed that blue mussels and SPMDs are suitable for measuring PAH in both near-and far-field seawater. In situ large volume water sampling was also suitable for a wide range of PAH concentrations, but this technique was limited by high break-through of the low-molecular weight compounds, such as naphthalenes. The small sampling volumes limited the SPE and whole water sampling techniques, resulting in potential detection limit problems These grab-sampling techniques may, however, be suitable for monitoring in the near-field areas around the platforms. (Author)

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Residues in Serum Samples of Autopsied Individuals from Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramandla Ramesh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in human blood sera samples (n = 650 obtained at autopsy from individuals who died of drug abuse, alcohol toxicity, homicide, suicide and other unknown causes. The analyzed samples from decedents revealed the presence of PAHs of which B(aP was the most predominant one, followed by benzo(bfluoranthene and benzo(kfluoranthene. The other PAHs detected sporadically and measured were benzo(g,h,iperylene, acenaphthene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene The mean concentrations of PAHs were greater in the twenties to fifties age groups compared to others. The PAH residue levels detected were high in African Americans compared to Caucasians, Asians, and Hispanics. It appears that environmental exposure, dietary intake and in some cases occupational exposure may have contributed to the PAH body burden. While the PAH residue concentrations measured fall within the range of those reported for healthy adults elsewhere, in isolated cases, the concentrations detected were high, calling the need for a reduction in PAH emissions and human biomonitoring studies for purposes of risk assessment.

  4. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR OUTFLOWS OF CARBON STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Cesar S.; Salama, Farid, E-mail: cesar.contreras@nasa.gov, E-mail: Farid.Salama@nasa.gov [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The formation and destruction mechanisms of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hydrocarbon molecular precursors are studied in the laboratory. We used the newly developed facility COSmIC, which simulates interstellar and circumstellar environments, to investigate both PAHs and species that include the cosmically abundant atoms O, N, and S. The species generated in a discharge plasma are detected, monitored, and characterized in situ using highly sensitive techniques that provide both spectral and ion mass information. We report here the first series of measurements obtained in these experiments which focus on the characterization of the most efficient molecular precursors in the chemical pathways that eventually lead to the formation of carbonaceous grains in the stellar envelopes of carbon stars. We compare and discuss the relative efficiencies of the various molecular precursors that lead to the formation of the building blocks of carbon grains. We discuss the most probable molecular precursors in terms of size and structure and the implications for the expected growth and destruction processes of interstellar carbonaceous dust.

  5. The Role of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ultraviolet Extinction. I. Probing small molecular PAHs

    CERN Document Server

    Clayton, G C; Witt, A N; Allamandola, L J; Martin, P G; Salama, F; Snow, T P; Whittet, D C B; Wolff, M J; Smith, T L; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Gordon, Karl D.; Witt, Adolf N.; Martin, Peter G.; Wolff, Michael J.; Smith, Tracy L.

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained new STIS/HST spectra to search for structure in the ultraviolet interstellar extinction curve, with particular emphasis on a search for absorption features produced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The presence of these molecules in the interstellar medium has been postulated to explain the infrared emission features seen in the 3-13 $\\mu$m spectra of numerous sources. UV spectra are uniquely capable of identifying specific PAH molecules. We obtained high S/N UV spectra of stars which are significantly more reddened than those observed in previous studies. These data put limits on the role of small (30-50 carbon atoms) PAHs in UV extinction and call for further observations to probe the role of larger PAHs. PAHs are of importance because of their ubiquity and high abundance inferred from the infrared data and also because they may link the molecular and dust phases of the interstellar medium. A presence or absence of ultraviolet absorption bands due to PAHs could be a definitive te...

  6. High-resolution record of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ana Lúcia C; Eglinton, Timothy I; Reddy, Christopher M

    2003-01-01

    A high-resolution record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) deposition in Rhode Island over the past approximately 180 years was constructed using a sediment core from the anoxic Pettaquamscutt River basin. The record showed significantly more structure than has hitherto been reported and revealed four distinct maxima in PAH flux. The characteristic increase in PAH flux at the turn of the 20th century was captured in detail, leading to an initial maximum prior to the Great Depression. The overall peak in PAH flux in the 1950s was followed by a maximum that immediately preceded the 1973 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) oil embargo. During the most recent portion of the record, an abrupt increase in PAH flux between 1996 and 1999 has been found to follow a period of near constant fluxes. Because source-diagnostic ratios indicate that petrogenic inputs are minor throughout the record, these trends are interpreted in terms of past variations in the magnitude and type of combustion processes. For the most recent PAH maximum, energy consumption data suggest that diesel fuel combustion, and hence traffic of heavier vehicles, is the most probable cause for the increase in PAH flux. Systematic variations in the relative abundance of individual PAHs in conjunction with the above changes in flux are interpreted in relation to the evolution of combustion processes. Coronene, retene, and perylene are notable exceptions, exhibiting unique down-core profiles. PMID:12542290

  7. Polystyrene plastic: a source and sink for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Manzano, Carlos; Hentschel, Brian T.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Hoh, Eunha

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on virgin polystyrene (PS) and PS marine debris led us to examine PS as a source and sink for PAHs in the marine environment. At two locations in San Diego Bay, we measured sorption of PAHs to PS pellets, sampling at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. We detected 25 PAHs using a new analytical method with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Several congeners were detected on samples before deployment. After deployment, some concentrations decreased (1,3-dimethylnaphthalene and 2,6-methylnaphthalene) while most increased (2-methylanthracene and all parent PAHs (PPAHs) except fluorene and fluoranthene), suggesting PS debris is a source and sink for PAHs. When comparing sorbed concentrations of PPAHs on PS to the five most common polymers (polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP)), PS sorbed greater concentrations than PP, PET and PVC, similar to HDPE and LDPE. Most strikingly, at 0 months, PPAHs on PS ranged from 8-200 times greater than on PET, HDPE, PVC, LDPE, and PP. The combination of greater PAHs in virgin pellets and large sorption suggests that PS may pose a greater risk of exposure to PAHs upon ingestion. PMID:24341360

  8. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and lead during Chinese mid-autumn festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chung-Yih; Lee, Hong-Shen; Lai, Jeang-Hung

    2006-07-31

    The emission factors of total particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), BaP-equivalent doses (BaP(eq)) and Pb for burning three kinds of charcoal were investigated in this study: fast-lighting charcoal, Taiwanese, and Indonesian charcoal (the latter two of which are not fast-lighting). Compared to the burning of Taiwanese and Indonesian charcoal, the burning of fast-lighting charcoal can emit much larger amounts of total PAHs, BaP(eq) and Pb into the atmosphere. The emission factors of total PAHs, BaP and BaP(eq) for broiling meat were noticeably higher than those for broiling vegetables and non-fish seafood. When using Indonesian charcoal to broil meat, the total emission factors of particulate PAHs and BaP were about 15.7 and 0.39 mg/kg, respectively. The total amounts of particulate PAHs and Pb emitted from cookouts during Mid-Autumn Festival were 2881 and 120 g, respectively. Total PAHs and BaP(eq) in PM(10) aerosols on Mid-Autumn Festival nights increased about 1.6 and 1.5 times, respectively, higher than those on non-festival nights. The mean concentration of Pb on the nights of Mid-Autumn Festival increases to about 2.8 times that of non-festival nights.

  9. Recent Advances in Laboratory Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAHs in the Far Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioda, Andrew L.; Ricca, Alessandra; Tucker, Jonathan; Boersma, Christiaan; Bauschlicher, Charles, Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Over 25 years of observations and laboratory work have shown that the mid-IR spectra of a majority of astronomical sources are dominated by emission features near 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.2 microns, which originate in free polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. PAHs dominate the mid-IR emission from many galactic and extragalactic objects. As such, this material tracks a wide variety of astronomical processes, making this spectrum a powerful probe of the cosmos Apart from bands in the mid-IR, PAHs have bands spanning the Far-IR (FIR) and emission from these FIR features should be present in astronomical sources showing the Mid-IR PAH bands. However, with one exception, the FIR spectral characteristics are known only for a few neutral small PAHs trapped in salt pellets or oils at room temperature, data which is not relevant to astrophysics. Furthermore, since most emitting PAHs responsible for the mid-IR astronomical features are ionized, the absence of any experimental or theoretical PAH ion FIR spectra will make it impossible to correctly interpret the FIR data from these objects. In view of the upcoming Herschel space telescope mission and SOFIA's FIR airborne instrumentation, which will pioneer the FIR region, it is now urgent to obtain PAH FIR spectra. This talk will present an overview recent advances in the laboratory spectroscopy of PAHs, Highlighting the FIR spectroscopy along with some quantum calculations.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban green spaces of Beijing: concentration, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Jianzhi; Liu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the levels, spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban green space soils of Beijing, China, was conducted, and the potential human health risks associated with the levels observed were addressed. The objective of this study was to determine concentration, spatial distribution, and health risk of 15 PAHs in 121 surface soil (0-5 cm) samples collected from four types of green space, such as park green space (PGS), roadside green space (RDS), residential green space (RGS), and attached green space (AGS). Results showed that the highest concentrations of 15 PAHs was in soils of RDS, followed by RGS, PGS, and AGS. The level of PAHs pollution was seriously and mainly distributed in the central and southwest of the city. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) associated with exposures to PAHs in soil was calculated separately for children and adults under normal and extreme conditions. The results showed that ILCRs for urban green space soil of Beijing were low under normal conditions. But individual samples are seriously polluted, and its potential health risks cannot be ignored. PMID:27502522

  11. Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Mercury in Oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae from Two Brazilian Estuarine Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo J. Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organisms are increasingly being used in biomonitoring to assess bioavailability and bioaccumulation of contaminants. This approach can use both native and transplanted organisms in order to accomplish this task. In Brazil, most of the studies related to bioaccumulation of contaminants in oysters deal with metals. The present work employs this kind of test in Brazilian coastal estuaries (Santos and Paranaguá to evaluate total mercury and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in sediments and oysters (native and caged Crassostrea rhizophorae. The methodologies employed were based on known USEPA methods. Results have shown a significant contamination in Santos sediments and consequent bioavailability of organisms. Paranaguá sediments presented lower contamination in sediments, but native oysters were able to accumulate total Hg. The experiments done with caged oysters did not show significant bioaccumulation of Hg and PAHs in the Paranaguá site, but proved to be an excellent tool to assess bioavailability in the Santos estuary since they were able to bioaccumulate up to 1,600% of total PAH in the samples from the inner part of this estuary when compared to control organisms. Multivariate statistical analyses employed to these results have separated the sites evaluated and the most contaminated samples from the least contaminated.

  12. Recalcitrance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil contributes to background pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posada-Baquero, Rosa [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), C.S.I.C., Apartado 1052, E-41080 Seville (Spain); Ortega-Calvo, Jose-Julio, E-mail: jjortega@irnase.csic.es [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), C.S.I.C., Apartado 1052, E-41080 Seville (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    The microbial accessibility of native phenanthrene and pyrene was determined in soils representing background scenarios for pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The soils were selected to cover a wide range of concentrations of organic matter (1.7-10.0%) and total PAHs (85-952 {mu}g/kg). The experiments included radiorespirometry determinations of biodegradation with {sup 14}C-labeled phenanthrene and pyrene and chemical analyses to determine the residual concentrations of the native compounds. Part of the tests relied on the spontaneous biodegradation of the chemicals by native microorganisms; another part also involved inoculation with PAH-degrading bacteria. The results showed the recalcitrance of PAHs already present in the soils. Even after extensive mineralization of the added {sup 14}C-PAHs, the concentrations of native phenanthrene and pyrene did not significantly decrease. We suggest that aging processes operating at background concentrations may contribute to recalcitrance and, therefore, to ubiquitous pollution by PAHs in soils. - Highlights: > Background PAHs in soils are highly resistant to biodegradation. > Recalcitrance occurs even after inoculation with specialized microorganisms. > Recalcitrance is caused by a low bioaccessibility and aging. > Time (aging) seems a relevant factor causing recalcitrance. > Recalcitrance can explain ubiquitous PAH background pollution. - Background soil PAHs are highly resistant to biodegradation.

  13. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aged-contaminated soil using cyclodextrins: Experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viglianti, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Centre Sciences, Information et Technologies pour l' Environnement (SITE) - ENS de Mines de Saint Etienne, 158 cours Fauriel - 42023 Saint Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Hanna, Khalil [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: khalilhanna@hotmail.com; Brauer, Christine de [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Germain, Patrick [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2006-04-15

    The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil using water as flushing agent is relatively ineffective due to their low aqueous solubility. However, addition of cyclodextrin (CD) in washing solutions has been shown to increase the removal efficiency several times. Herein are investigated the effectiveness of cyclodextrin to remove PAH occurring in industrially aged-contaminated soil. {beta}-Cyclodextrin (BCD), hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (MCD) solutions were used for soil flushing in column test to evaluate some influent parameters that can significantly increase the removal efficiency. The process parameters chosen were CD concentration, ratio of washing solution volume to soil weight, and temperature of washing solution. These parameters were found to have a significant and almost linear effect on PAH removal from the contaminated soil, except the temperature where no significant enhancement in PAH extraction was observed for temperature range from 5 to 35 {sup o}C. The PAHs extraction enhancement factor compared to water was about 200. - An innovative method using a biodegradable and non-toxic flushing agent for the depollution of industrially aged-contaminated soil.

  14. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aged-contaminated soil using cyclodextrins: experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophe Viglianti; Khalil Hanna; Christine de Brauer; Patrick Germain [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France)

    2006-04-15

    The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil using water as flushing agent is relatively ineffective due to their low aqueous solubility. However, addition of cyclodextrin (CD) in washing solutions has been shown to increase the removal efficiency several times. Herein are investigated the effectiveness of cyclodextrin to remove PAH occurring in industrially aged-contaminated soil. {beta}-Cyclodextrin (BCD), hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (MCD) solutions were used for soil flushing in column test to evaluate some influent parameters that can significantly increase the removal efficiency. The process parameters chosen were CD concentration, ratio of washing solution volume to soil weight, and temperature of washing solution. These parameters were found to have a significant and almost linear effect on PAH removal from the contaminated soil, except the temperature where no significant enhancement in PAH extraction was observed for temperature range from 5 to 35{sup o}C. The PAHs extraction enhancement factor compared to water was about 200.

  15. Source identification of Malaysian atmosphere polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons nearby forest fires using molecular and isotopic compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Takada, Hideshige [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Kumata, Hidetoshi [Tokyo Univ. of Pharmacy and Life Sciences (Japan); Zakaria, M.P. [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Ishiwatari, Ryoshi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Hachioji (Japan). Graduate School of Science

    2002-07-01

    We report measurements of molecular and carbon isotopic compositions of Malaysian atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoke haze from the 1997 Indonesian forest fire. Comparison of the carbon isotopic compositions ({sup {delta}}1{sup 3C}) of individual PAHs from the smoke haze, with those from other PAHs sources (soot collected from gasoline and diesel vehicle muffler, woodburning smoke), enables us to discriminate among the diverse sources of atmospheric PAHs. Soot PAHs extracted from gasoline and diesel vehicles show heavy isotopic signatures with a large inter-species {sup {delta}}1{sup 3C} variation from {sup -}12.9 per mille to {sup -}26.6 per mille, compared to soot PAHs extracted from woodburning smoke which are isotopically light, and have a small inter-species {sup {delta}}{sup 13}C variation from {sup -}26.8 per mille to -31.6 per mille. Values from -17.7 per mille to -27.9 per mille were obtained for the corresponding PAHs extracted from the smoke haze, indicating that they are derived mainly from automotive exhaust. Molecular and isotopic compositions of PAHs extracted from smoke haze were similar to those extracted from non-haze aerosol. Quantitative estimation shows that woodburning contribution to Malaysian atmospheric PAHs ranges from 25% to 35% with no relation to haze intensity, while automotive contribution ranges from 65% to 75%. These results suggest that the major contributor of PAHs in Malaysian air is automotive exhaust whether smoke haze is observed or not. (Author)

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in rain and street runoff in Amman, Jordan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anwar. G. Jiries; Helmi. H. Hussein; Jutta Lintelmann

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) were determined in the rain and street runoff samples from two sites in the vicinity of Amman City during the pluvial period 1999-2000. The results showed that elevated levels of PAHs were detected in the city center(site 1 ) than the residential area(site 2) and that the levels were higher in street runoff than rain samples of the same sites.The highest concentration of PAHs in both street runoff and rain samples were observed in the first rainy month( November 1999) which indicated a wash out effect of PAHs originating from vehicular emission accumulated during the long dry summer season before sampling. Within the investigated cold winter seasons, fluctuations in PAHs concentration were observed. The variation was attributed to the fossil combustion for heating purposes and to intervals between rainfalls: as the longer the intervals between rains were, the higher the PAH concentration were.Removal of PAHs from the atmosphere through precipitation over the investigated period varied with time and places depending on the amount of rainfall where higher rainfall removed higher amount of PAHs from the atmosphere. The amount of PAHs washed out through precipitation was estimated to be around 14.8 mg/m2 and 21.1 mg/m2 for sites 1 and 2 respectively.

  17. [Distribution and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban rainfall runoff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zi-Lan; Yang, Yi; Liu, Min; Lu, Min; Yu, Ying-Peng; Wang, Qing; Zheng, Xin

    2014-11-01

    Runoff samples were collected from traffic roads, campus, residential road and roof in a typical rain event. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in both dissolved and particle phases were investigated at impervious surfaces. The PAHs wash-off process at different monitoring sites was analyzed. The scatters of first flush were conducted in a method of fitting power function to quantitatively assess the magnitude of first flush effect (FFE). The sources of PAHs were identified using factor analysis. The results showed that PAHs concentrations in runoff samples varied from 317.21 ng x L(-1) to 10364.3 ng x L(-1) with the maximal and minimal contents of PAHs found on Longwu Road and campus, respectively. The values of event mean concentration ( EMC) varied considerably at different sampling sites. The concentration of washed-off pollutant generally decreased with runoff duration, which showed an obvious attenuation trend. The runoff process indicated the occurrence of FFE at different levels. PAHs mainly came from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, oil leakage and coking, and the contribution of each source was different in accordance with various surfaces.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ionization as a tracer of gas flows through protoplanetary disk gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Maaskant, K M; Waters, L B F M; Tielens, A G G M

    2014-01-01

    Planet-forming disks of gas and dust around young stars contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We aim to characterize how the charge state of PAHs can be used as a probe of flows of gas through protoplanetary gaps. In this context, our goal is to understand the PAH spectra of four transitional disks. In addition, we want to explain the observed correlation between PAH ionization (traced by the 6.2/11.3 feature ratio) and the disk mass (traced by the 1.3 mm luminosity). We implement a model to calculate the charge state of PAHs in the radiative transfer code MCMax. The emission spectra and ionization balance are calculated. A benchmark modeling grid is presented that shows how PAH ionization and luminosity behave as a function of star and disk properties. The PAH ionization is most sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the electron density. In optically thick disks, where the UV field is low and the electron density is high, PAHs are predominantly neutral. Ionized PAHs trace low-density optical...

  19. Epitaxial composite layers of electron donors and acceptors from very large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorí, Paolo; Severin, Nikolai; Simpson, Christopher D; Müllen, Klaus; Rabe, Jürgen P

    2002-08-14

    Large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be considered as nanographenes, whose electron donating or accepting properties are controlled by their size and shape as well as functionalities in their periphery. Epitaxial thin films of them are targets for optoelectronic applications; however, large PAHs are increasingly difficult to process. Here we show that epitaxial layers of very large unsubstituted PAHs (C(42)H(18) and C(132)H(34)), as well as a mixed layer of C(42)H(18) with an electron acceptor, can be obtained by self-assembly from solution. The C(132)H(34) is by far the largest nanographene that up to now has been processed into ordered thin films; due to its size it cannot be sublimed in a vacuum. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies reveal that the interaction with the substrate induces a strong perturbation of the electronic structure of the pure donor in the first epitaxial monolayer. In a second epitaxial layer with a donor acceptor stoichiometry of 2:1 the molecules are unperturbed.

  20. Soil pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A comparison of two Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Ma; Yongzhang Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Soil samples from Huizhou and Zhanjiang,China were analyzed for 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with harmonized sampling,sample extraction and analysis quantification methods.The concentrations and sources of PAHs in soil samples of the two cities were compared.Almost all of the PAH components were detectable in 103 soil samples.The concentrations of ΣPAHs ranged from 35.40 to 534.5 μg/kg in soil samples from Huizhou,and ranged from 9.50 to 6618.00 μg/kg in samples from Zhanjiang.Evident differences of concentrations,compositions and sources of PAHs in soils were observed between the two cities.The average concentrations of individual component and the sum of a group of PAHs in soil samples from Zhanjiang were significantly higher than those in Huizhou (P < 0.05).Phe,Flu,Pyr,Bbf and Ban were the dominant PAH components both in soil samples from Huizhou and Zhanjiang.Except for these five components,Bap,Ilp,Daa and Bgp were also the dominant PAH components in soil samples from Zhanjiang.Coal combustion and liquid fossil fuel combustion were the same sources of PAHs in the two cities with different contributions,and petroleum played a key role in PAHs release in Zhanjiang.

  1. Soil pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a comparison of two Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin; Zhou, Yongzhang

    2011-01-01

    Soil samples from Huizhou and Zhanjiang, China were analyzed for 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with harmonized sampling, sample extraction and analysis quantification methods. The concentrations and sources of PAHs in soil samples of the two cities were compared. Almost all of the PAH components were detectable in 103 soil samples. The concentrations of sigmaPAHs ranged from 35.40 to 534.5 microg/kg in soil samples from Huizhou, and ranged from 9.50 to 6618.00 microg/kg in samples from Zhanjiang. Evident differences of concentrations, compositions and sources of PAHs in soils were observed between the two cities. The average concentrations of individual component and the sum of a group of PAHs in soil samples from Zhanjiang were significantly higher than those in Huizhou (P PAH components both in soil samples from Huizhou and Zhanjiang. Except for these five components, Bap, I1p, Daa and Bgp were also the dominant PAH components in soil samples from Zhanjiang. Coal combustion and liquid fossil fuel combustion were the same sources of PAHs in the two cities with different contributions, and petroleum played a key role in PAHs release in Zhanjiang. PMID:22432289

  2. Factors affecting spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface soils in North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilong; Zuo, Qian; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Wenxin; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2012-10-01

    The spatial variation in concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface soils in the North China Plain and the influential factors were examined in the present study. High concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (∑PAH(16) ) appeared in cities and their surrounding areas. Emissions and soil organic carbon (SOC) content significantly regulated spatial differentiation of PAH contamination in soils in the study area. Compared with emissions, concentrations of individual and total PAHs in soils were more closely controlled by the SOC content. Furthermore, concentrations of PAH species with lower molecular weight (e.g., two- or three-ring) in surface soils were more strongly correlated with the SOC content in comparison with those of higher molecular weight (e.g., five- or six-ring), mainly because of their higher saturated vapor pressure, thus higher mobility. The spatial variation of PAH species in soils in the North China Plain tended to be larger with increasing benzene ring numbers, and the difference in physicochemical properties of PAH species determined their distinct spatial distribution characteristics. The present study highlights the relative importance of emissions and SOC content in spatial variation of PAHs and the dependence of the spatial distribution characteristics of PAH species in surface soils on their physicochemical properties at a regional scale. Results of the present work are helpful for regional risk assessment of the contaminants tested. PMID:22847656

  3. Assessing the Ecological Risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments at Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Nasher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism-related activities such as the heavy use of boats for transportation are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbons that may harm the ecosystem of Langkawi Island. The contamination and toxicity levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH in the sediments of Langkawi were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs and toxic equivalent factors. Ten samples were collected from jetties and fish farms around the island in December 2010. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID was used to analyse the 18 PAHs. The concentration of total PAHs was found to range from 869 ± 00 to 1637 ± 20 ng g−1 with a mean concentration of 1167.00 ± 24 ng g−1, lower than the SQG effects range-low (3442 ng g−1. The results indicated that PAHs may not cause acute biological damage. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis suggested that the PAHs were likely to originate from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 76.3 to 177 ng TEQ/g d.w., which is lower compared to similar studies. The results of mean effects range-median quotient of the PAHs were lower than 0.1, which indicate an 11% probability of toxicity effect. Hence, the sampling sites were determined to be the low-priority sites.

  4. QSAR for Predicting Biodegradation Rates of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Aqueous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiang; LI Xian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between chemical structures and biodegradation rates (k b) of 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied using density functional theory (DFT) and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis (SMLR) method.The equilibrium geometries and vibration frequency have been investigated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level by thinking Solvent effects using a selfconsistent reaction field (SCRF) based on the polarizable continuum model (PCM).It was concluded that the biodegradation rate was closely related to its molecular structure,and there is one high correlation coefficient between the in-plane bending vibration frequency of the conjugated ring of PAHs (Freq) and k b.By means of regression analysis,the main factors affecting the biodegradation rate were obtained and the equation of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was successfully established kb =-0.653+0.001Freq+0.068CQ+0.049N1.Statistical evaluation of the developed QSAR showed that the relationships were statistically significant and the model had good predictive ability.The fact that a bending frequency is more important than the HOMO or LUMO energies in predicting k b suggests that the bending of benzene ring might play an important role in the enzymatic catalysis of the initial oxidation step.

  5. Reconstruction of metabolic networks in a fluoranthene-degrading enrichments from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Kang; Li, Xiao-Ming; Ai, Guo-Min; Deng, Ye; Liu, Shuang-Jiang; Jiang, Cheng-Ying

    2016-11-15

    Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is the primary process of removing PAHs from environments. The metabolic pathway of PAHs in pure cultures has been intensively studied, but cooperative metabolisms at community-level remained to be explored. In this study, we determined the dynamic composition of a microbial community and its metabolic intermediates during fluoranthene degradation using high-throughput metagenomics and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. Subsequently, a cooperative metabolic network for fluoranthene degradation was constructed. The network shows that Mycobacterium contributed the majority of ring-hydroxylating and -cleavage dioxygenases, while Diaphorobacter contributed most of the dehydrogenases. Hyphomicrobium, Agrobacterium, and Sphingopyxis contributed to genes encoding enzymes involved in downstream reactions of fluoranthene degradation. The contributions of various microbial groups were calculated with the PICRUSt program. The contributions of Hyphomicrobium to alcohol dehydrogenases were 62.4% in stage 1 (i.e., when fluoranthene was rapidly removed) and 76.8% in stage 3 (i.e., when fluoranthene was not detectable), respectively; the contribution of Pseudomonas were 6.6% in stage 1 and decreased to 1.2% in subsequent stages. To the best of the author's knowledge, this report describes the first cooperative metabolic network to predict the contributions of various microbial groups during PAH-degradation at community-level. PMID:27415596

  6. Assessing Photoinduced Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Urbanized Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Walker

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Increases in contaminants associated with urban sprawl are a particular concern in the rapidly developing coastal areas of the southeastern United States. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are contaminants associated with vehicle emissions and runoff from impervious surfaces. Increased vehicular traffic and more impervious surfaces lead to an increased loading of PAHs into coastal estuarine systems. The phototoxic effect of PAH-contaminated sediments on a sediment-dwelling meiobenthic copepod, Amphiascus tenuiremis, was estimated in Murrells Inlet, a small, high-salinity estuary with moderate urbanization located in Georgetown and Horry Counties, South Carolina, USA. Field-determined solar ultraviolet radiation (UV and UV extinction coefficients were incorporated into laboratory toxicity experiments, and a model was developed to predict areas of specific hazard to A. tenuiremis in the estuary. The model incorporated laboratory toxicity data, UV extinction coefficients, and historical sediment chemistry and bathymetric data within a spatial model of sedimentary areas of the estuary. The model predicted that approximately 8–16% of the total creek habitat suitable for meiobenthic copepods is at risk to photoinduced PAH toxicity. This area is in the northern, more developed part of Murrells Inlet.

  7. Solubilization properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enhanced solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by saponin, a plant-derived non-ionic biosurfactant, was investigated. The results indicated that the solubilization capabilities of saponin for PAHs were greater than some representative synthetic non-ionic surfactants and showed strong dependence on solution pH and ionic strength. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin for phenanthrene was about 3-6 times of those of the synthetic non-ionic surfactants, and decreased by about 70% with the increase of solution pH from 4.0 to 8.0, but increased by approximately 1 times with NaCl concentration increased from 0.01 to 1.0 M. Heavy metal ions can enhance saponin solubilization for phenanthrene and the corresponding MSR values increased by about 25% with the presence of 0.01 M of Cd2+ or Zn2+. Saponin is more effective in enhancing PAHs solubilization than synthetic non-ionic surfactants and has potential application in removing organic pollutants from contaminated soils. - Highlights: → The enhanced solubilization of PAHs by saponin was investigated in this study. → Saponin showed great solubilization capability for PAHs. → Saponin is more effective in enhancing HOCs solubilization at lower solution pH. → Increasing ionic strength can enhance HOCs solubilization in saponin solution. → Heavy metal ions can also enhance phenanthrene solubilization in saponin solution. - Saponin showed different solubilization properties for PAHs from the synthetic non-ionic surfactants and anionic rhamnolipid biosurfactants.

  8. Solubilization properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by saponin, a plant-derived biosurfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Wenjun, E-mail: wenjunzhou@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Yang Juanjuan; Lou Linjie [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The enhanced solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by saponin, a plant-derived non-ionic biosurfactant, was investigated. The results indicated that the solubilization capabilities of saponin for PAHs were greater than some representative synthetic non-ionic surfactants and showed strong dependence on solution pH and ionic strength. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) of saponin for phenanthrene was about 3-6 times of those of the synthetic non-ionic surfactants, and decreased by about 70% with the increase of solution pH from 4.0 to 8.0, but increased by approximately 1 times with NaCl concentration increased from 0.01 to 1.0 M. Heavy metal ions can enhance saponin solubilization for phenanthrene and the corresponding MSR values increased by about 25% with the presence of 0.01 M of Cd{sup 2+} or Zn{sup 2+}. Saponin is more effective in enhancing PAHs solubilization than synthetic non-ionic surfactants and has potential application in removing organic pollutants from contaminated soils. - Highlights: > The enhanced solubilization of PAHs by saponin was investigated in this study. > Saponin showed great solubilization capability for PAHs. > Saponin is more effective in enhancing HOCs solubilization at lower solution pH. > Increasing ionic strength can enhance HOCs solubilization in saponin solution. > Heavy metal ions can also enhance phenanthrene solubilization in saponin solution. - Saponin showed different solubilization properties for PAHs from the synthetic non-ionic surfactants and anionic rhamnolipid biosurfactants.

  9. Mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of fumes from heated cooking oils produced in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Tai-An; Ko, Ying-Chin [Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China); Wu, Pei-Fen [Department of Industrial Safety and Hygiene, Tajen Junior College of Pharmacy, Ping-Tung (Taiwan, Province of China); Wang, Li-Fang [School of Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China); Lee, Huei [Department of Biochemistry, Chung San Medical and Dental College, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Lee, Chien-Hung [School of Public Health, Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1997-11-28

    According to epidemiologic studies, exposure of women to fumes from cooking oils appears to be an important risk factor for lung cancer. Fume samples from three different commercial cooking oils frequently used in Taiwan were collected and analyzed for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from the samples and identified by HPLC chromatography. Extracts from three cooking oil fumes were found to be mutagenic in the presence of S9 mix. All samples contained dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DB(a,h)A) and benz(a)anthracene (B(a)A). Concentration of DB(a,h)A and B(a)A were 1.9 and 2.2 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in fumes from lard oil, 2.1 and 2.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in soybean oil, 1.8 and 1.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in peanut oil, respectively. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was identified in fume samples of soybean and peanut oil, in concentrations of 19.6 and 18.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, in this order. These results provide experimental evidence and support the findings of epidemiologic observations, in which women exposed to the emitted fumes of cooking oils are at increased risk of contracting lung cancer

  10. Mycelia promote active transport and spatial dispersion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Shoko; Foss, Susan; Wild, Ed; Jones, Kevin C; Semple, Kirk T; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y

    2012-05-15

    To cope with heterogeneous subsurface environments mycelial microorganisms have developed a unique ramified growth form. By extending hyphae, they can obtain nutrients from remote places and transport them even through air gaps and in small pore spaces, repectively. To date, studies have been focusing on the role that networks play in the distribution of nutrients. Here, we investigated the role of mycelia for the translocation of nonessential substances, using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model compounds. We show that the hyphae of the mycelial soil oomycete Pythium ultimum function as active translocation vectors for a wide range of PAHs. Visualization by two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) demonstrated the uptake and accumulation of phenanthrene (PHE) in lipid vesicles and its active transport by cytoplasmic streaming of the hyphae ('hyphal pipelines'). In mycelial networks, contaminants were translocated over larger distances than by diffusion. Given their transport capacity and ubiquity, hyphae may substantially distribute remote hydrophobic contaminants in soil, thereby improving their bioavailability to bacterial degradation. Hyphal contaminant dispersal may provide an untapped potential for future bioremediation approaches. PMID:22559873

  11. Identification of products formed during the heterogeneous nitration and ozonation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Richard E.; Jeong, Haewoo; Haddadi, Shokouh; Fisseha Derseh, Rebeka; Gowan, Alexandra; Beránek, Josef; Kubátová, Alena

    2016-03-01

    The 3- and 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the most abundant of PAHs in air particulate matter (PM). Thus we have investigated heterogeneous oxidation of 3- and 4-ring PAHs in a small-scale flow reactor using quartz filter as a support. Four representative PAHs, anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene, were exposed to either NO2, O3 or NO2+O3 (NO3/N2O5) with a goal to identify and attempt quantification of major product distribution. A combination of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with/without derivatization and liquid chromatography with high resolution MS (LC-HRMS) was used for identification. For the first time, a comprehensive characterization of a broad range of products enabled identifying ketone/diketone, aldehyde, hydroxyl, and carboxylic acid PAH derivatives. Exposure to NO3/N2O5 (formed by reacting NO2 with O3, a more powerful reactant than either O3 or NO2) produced additional compounds not observed with either oxidant alone. Multiple isomers of nitrofluoranthene and, for the first time, nitrophenanthrene were identified. In addition hydroxy-nitro-PAH derivatives were observed for the reaction of anthracene with NO3/N2O5. Monitoring of specific common ions such as those of 176 and 205 m/z attributed to carbonyl phenanthrene and deprotonated phenanthrene ions respectively was shown to be a useful tool for identification of multiple pyrene oxidation products.

  12. Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by graphene and graphene oxide nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Zaiming; Chen, Baoliang

    2014-05-01

    The adsorption of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene onto graphene (GNS) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was investigated to probe the potential adsorptive sites and molecular mechanisms. The microstructure and morphology of GNS and GO were characterized by elemental analysis, XPS, FTIR, Raman, SEM, and TEM. Graphene displayed high affinity to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), whereas GO adsorption was significantly reduced after oxygen-containing groups were attached to GNS surfaces. An unexpected peak was found in the curve of adsorption coefficients (Kd) with the PAH equilibrium concentrations. The hydrophobic properties and molecular sizes of the PAHs affected the adsorption of G and GO. The high affinities of the PAHs to GNS are dominated by π-π interactions to the flat surface and the sieving effect of the powerful groove regions formed by wrinkles on GNS surfaces. In contrast, the adsorptive sites of GO changed to the carboxyl groups attaching to the edges of GO because the groove regions disappeared and the polar nanosheet surfaces limited the π-π interactions. The TEM and SEM images initially revealed that after loading with PAH, the conformation and aggregation of GNS and GO nanosheets dramatically changed, which explained the observations that the potential adsorption sites of GNS and GO were unusually altered during the adsorption process.

  13. Parent and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rice and implications for human health in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice is the staple food for approximate two thirds of the Chinese population. However, human exposure to parent and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via rice consumption is still not clear for Chinese people so far. The goals of this work are to assess human exposure to PAHs and halogenated PAHs (HPAHs) via rice ingestion and the cancer risk for Chinese population. 16 PAHs and eight HPAHs were determined in rice samples collected from 18 provinces in China. In general terms, the general population in China was exposed to higher levels of PAHs via rice ingestion in comparison to that via cereals for other countries. The cancer risk values induced by exposure to PAHs and HPAHs for male and female on each age group were between the priority risk level (10−4) and the acceptable risk level (10−6). Children faced the highest cancer risk, followed by adolescents and adults. - Highlights: ► Dietary exposure to PAHs via rice ingestion for Chinese population was higher than that via cereals in other countries. ► The cancer risk induced by PAHs and HPAHs intakes via rice consumption were between 10−6 and 10−4. ► Children faced the highest cancer risk, followed by adolescents and adults. ► Given all exposure routes were considered, the real cancer risk for Chinese people would be greater. - Human exposure to parent and halogenated PAHs via rice ingestion and the cancer risk for Chinese population were assessed.

  14. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater wet detention ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istenic, Darja; Arias, Carlos A; Matamoros, Víctor; Vollertsen, Jess; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded with sand filters and other means to improve the removal of micropollutants. The concentrations of sigmaPAH in the sediments varied between 6 +/- 5 and 2,222 +/- 603 ng g(-1) dry weight (mean +/- standard deviation), and were highest in the ponds with lower pond volume per catchment area and did not clearly reflect different activities in the catchments. In general, the concentrations of PAHS in the sediments decreased from inlet to outlet, especially in the systems with good conditions for sedimentation such as systems with flow perpendicular sand dikes and extensive submerged vegetation. High molecular weight PAHs were predominant in the sediments indicating the pyrogenic origin of the PAHS. There was no correlation between PAH species concentrations in water or sediments and their hydrophobicity (log K(ow)). PAH concentrations in water fluctuated in response to intensity and frequency of rain events, whereas concentrations in the sediments integrated the pollutant load over time. Pond systems expanded with sand filters and other technologies to enhance removal of micropollutants consistently had concentrations of PAHS in the effluents below the detection level. PMID:22097066

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation and extracellular enzyme secretion in agitated and stationary cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The extracellular enzyme secretion and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in agitated and shallow stationary liquid cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Veratryl alcohol and Tween80 were added to cultures as lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) inducer, respectively. Shallow stationary cultures were suitable for the production of enzyme, whereas agitated cultures enhanced overall biodegradation by facilitating interphase mass transfer of PAH into aqueous phases. The use of a LiP stimulator, veratryl alcohol, did not increase PAH degradation but significantly enhanced LiP activity. In contrast, Tween80 increased both MnP secretion and PAH degradation in shallow stationary cultures. On the other hand, high PAH degradation was observed in agitated cultures in the absence of detectable LiP and MnP activities. The results suggested that extracellular peroxidase activities are not directly related to the PAH degradation, and the increased solubility rather than enzyme activity may be more important in the promotion of PAH degradation.

  16. Variations in the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial and agricultural soils after bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meixia; Gong, Zongqiang; Allinson, Graeme; Tai, Peidong; Miao, Renhui; Li, Xiaojun; Jia, Chunyun; Zhuang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the variations in bioavailability remaining in industrial and agricultural soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after bioremediation. After inoculation of Mycobacterium sp. and Mucor sp., PAH biodegradation was tested on a manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil and an agricultural soil. PAH bioavailability was assessed before and after biodegradation using solid-phase extraction (Tenax-TA extraction) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) to represent bioaccessibility and chemical activity of PAHs, respectively. Only 3- and 4-ring PAHs were noticeably biodegradable in the MGP soil. PAH biodegradation in the agricultural soil was different from that in the MGP soil. The rapidly desorbing fractions (F(rap)) extracted by Tenax-TA and the freely dissolved concentrations of 3- and 4-ring PAHs determined by SPME from the MGP soil decreased after 30 days biodegradation; those values of the 5- and 6-ring PAHs changed to a lesser degree. For the agricultural soil, the F(rap) values of the 3- and 4-ring PAHs also decreased after the biodegradation experiment. The Tenax-TA extraction and the SPME have the potential to assess variations in the bioavailability of PAHs and the degree of biodegradation in contaminated MGP soils. In addition, Tenax-TA extraction is more sensitive than SPME when used in the agricultural soil.

  17. Heavy metal-immobilizing organoclay facilitates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in mixed-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Mandal, Asit; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-11-15

    Soils contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose toxic metal stress to native PAH-degrading microorganisms. Adsorbents such as clay and modified clay minerals can bind the metal and reduce its toxicity to microorganisms. However, in a mixed-contaminated soil, an adsorption process more specific to the metals without affecting the bioavailability of PAHs is desired for effective degradation. Furthermore, the adsorbent should enhance the viability of PAH-degrading microorganisms. A metal-immobilizing organoclay (Arquad(®) 2HT-75-bentonite treated with palmitic acid) (MIOC) able to reduce metal (cadmium (Cd)) toxicity and enhance PAH (phenanthrene) biodegradation was developed and characterized in this study. The MIOC differed considerably from the parent clay in terms of its ability to reduce metal toxicity (MIOC>unmodified bentonite>Arquad-bentonite). The MIOC variably increased the microbial count (10-43%) as well as activities (respiration 3-44%; enzymatic activities up to 68%), and simultaneously maintained phenanthrene in bioavailable form in a Cd-phenanthrene mixed-contaminated soil over a 21-day incubation period. This study may lead to a new MIOC-assisted bioremediation technique for PAHs in mixed-contaminated soils.

  18. Contribution of biomass burning to atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at three European background sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolis Mandalakis; Oerjan Gustafsson; Tomas Alsberg; Anna-Lena Egebaeck; Christopher M. Reddy; Li Xu; Jana Klanova; Ivan Holoubek; Euripides G. Stephanou [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM)

    2005-05-01

    Radiocarbon analysis of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from three background areas in Sweden, Croatia, and Greece was performed to apportion their origin between fossil and biomass combustion. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs implied that wood and coal combustion was relatively more important in the northern European site, while combustion of fossil fuels was the dominant source of PAHs to the two central-southern European background sites. The radiocarbon content ({Delta}{sup 14}C) of atmospheric PAHs in Sweden ranged between -388{per_thousand} and -381{per_thousand}, while more depleted values were observed for Greece (-914{per_thousand}) and Croatia (-888{per_thousand}). Using a 14C isotopic mass balance model it was calculated that biomass burning contributes nearly 10% of the total PAH burden in the studied southern European atmosphere with fossil fuel combustion making up the 90% balance. In contrast, biomass burning contributes about 50% of total PAHs in the atmosphere at the Swedish site. Results suggest that the relative contributions of biomass burning and fossil fuels to atmospheric PAHs may differ considerably between countries, and therefore, different national control strategies might be needed if a further reduction of these pollutants is to be achieved on a continental-global scale. 54 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The total and freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content in residues from biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-01-01

    In the situation of increasing agricultural utilization of residues from biogas production (RBP) it is important to determine the concentration of contaminants, which could occur in these materials. The group of contaminants that requires special attention are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The objective of the study was to determine the total and freely dissolved (Cfree) of PAHs in RBP from 6 different biogas plants operating under various temperature conditions and without or with the separation into the solid and liquid fractions. The freely dissolved PAHs were determined using polyoxymethylene (POM method). The total content of the Σ16 PAHs in RBP varied from 449 to 6147 μg/kgdw, while that of Cfree PAHs was at the level from 57 to 653 ng/L. No significant differences were noted in the content of the Σ16 PAHs (total) between the solid and the liquid fractions. This indicates that in the course of the separation, the PAHs are distributed proportionally between the fractions. However in the case of Cfree, PAHs content in the solid fraction was over twice as high as in the liquid fraction. This was probably due to the greater affinity of the particles present in the liquid fraction to the analysed PAHs than to the particles of the solid fraction. Higher affinity to liquid fraction was also confirmed by the distribution coefficients KTOC determined on the basis of Cfree.

  20. Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Isolates to Contribute to Soil Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bello-Akinosho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH- polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates’ partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA production. A total of 44 isolates were obtained and belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. Data analysed by principal component analysis showed the Bacillus and Ochrobactrum isolates displayed outstanding IAA production. Generalized linear modelling statistical approaches were applied to evaluate the contribution of the four most represented genera (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus to soil fertility. The Pseudomonas isolates were the most promising in all three soil fertility enhancement traits evaluated and all isolates showed potential for one or more of the attributes evaluated. These findings demonstrate a clear potential of the isolates to participate in restorative bioremediation of polluted soil, which will enhance sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection.

  1. Potential of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Isolates to Contribute to Soil Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirima, George Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH-) polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates' partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA) production. A total of 44 isolates were obtained and belong to the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Microbacterium, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Rhodococcus, and Stenotrophomonas. Data analysed by principal component analysis showed the Bacillus and Ochrobactrum isolates displayed outstanding IAA production. Generalized linear modelling statistical approaches were applied to evaluate the contribution of the four most represented genera (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, and Rhodococcus) to soil fertility. The Pseudomonas isolates were the most promising in all three soil fertility enhancement traits evaluated and all isolates showed potential for one or more of the attributes evaluated. These findings demonstrate a clear potential of the isolates to participate in restorative bioremediation of polluted soil, which will enhance sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection. PMID:27774456

  2. NATO Advanced Research and CNRS Workshop on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    d’Hendecourt, L; Boccara, N

    1987-01-01

    The near Infra-Red emission of the Interstellar Medium is a very puzzling subject. In the brightest regions, where spectroscopic observa­ tions are possible from the ground, several bands (3.3 - 3.4 - 6.2 - 7.7 - 8.6 - 11.3 ~m) have been observed since 1973. The absence of satisfying explanation was so obvious that they were called "Unidenti­ fied IR Emission Bands". The puzzle still increased when were known the first results of the general IR sky survey made by the satellite IRAS. On a large scale, the near IR emission of the Interstellar medium was expected to be very small but it was observed to be about one third of the total IR emission for our own galaxy ..• The situation has moved in 1984 when it was suggested that a class of stable organic molecules, the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH's) could be at the origin of this near IR emission. Initially based on the required refractory character of particules that should be heated to high temperature without subliming, this hypothesis leads to a s...

  3. Assessing the ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments at Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasher, Essam; Heng, Lee Yook; Zakaria, Zuriati; Surif, Salmijah

    2013-01-01

    Tourism-related activities such as the heavy use of boats for transportation are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbons that may harm the ecosystem of Langkawi Island. The contamination and toxicity levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in the sediments of Langkawi were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) and toxic equivalent factors. Ten samples were collected from jetties and fish farms around the island in December 2010. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to analyse the 18 PAHs. The concentration of total PAHs was found to range from 869 ± 00 to 1637 ± 20 ng g⁻¹ with a mean concentration of 1167.00 ± 24 ng g⁻¹, lower than the SQG effects range-low (3442 ng g⁻¹). The results indicated that PAHs may not cause acute biological damage. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis suggested that the PAHs were likely to originate from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The toxic equivalent concentrations of the PAHs ranged from 76.3 to 177 ng TEQ/g d.w., which is lower compared to similar studies. The results of mean effects range-median quotient of the PAHs were lower than 0.1, which indicate an 11% probability of toxicity effect. Hence, the sampling sites were determined to be the low-priority sites. PMID:24163633

  4. Toxicokinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta) using spiked soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, T.; Anton Sanchez, F.A.; Muijs, B.; Velde, E.G. van der; Posthuma, L.

    2000-04-01

    The accumulation of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ([PAHs]; phenanthrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) was tested in the earthworm Eisenia andrei in a spiked artificial soil medium. A typical peak in the body residues was observed for all PAHs around day 7, which could not be explained from changes in the total soil concentration. It is argued that the most likely cause of this peak is a decrease in the concentration in pore water, the main bioavailable phase for earthworms. The decrease is caused by biodegradation while the low rate of mass transfer from the solid state precludes replenishment. To describe the data, bioavailability was assumed to decline exponentially in time, but the shape of the accumulation curves suggests a more abrupt change. Estimates of the uptake rate (k{sub 1}) are similar for all PAHs when expressed on soil solution basis (approximately 2,000 L/kg/d); the elimination rate (k{sub 2}) shows a decrease with K{sub ow} as expected, but the values tend to be slightly lower than literature data. The dynamic bioconcentration factors (k{sub 1}/k{sub 1}) agree well with an equilibrium partitioning between soil water and the phases inside the organism.

  5. Characterizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon build-up processes on urban road surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, An; Li, Dunzhu; Zhang, Lixun; Guan, Yuntao

    2016-07-01

    Reliable prediction models are essential for modeling pollutant build-up processes on urban road surfaces. Based on successive samplings of road deposited sediments (RDS), this study presents empirical models for mathematical replication of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) build-up processes on urban road surfaces. The contaminant build-up behavior was modeled using saturation functions, which are commonly applied in US EPA's Stormwater Management Model (SWMM). Accurate fitting results were achieved in three typical urban land use types, and the applicability of the models was confirmed based on their acceptable relative prediction errors. The fitting results showed high variability in PAH saturation value and build-up rate among different land use types. Results of multivariate data and temporal-based analyses suggested that the quantity and property of RDS significantly influenced PAH build-up. Furthermore, pollution sources, traffic parameters, road surface conditions, and sweeping frequency could synthetically impact the RDS build-up and RDS property change processes. Thus, changes in these parameters could be the main reason for variations in PAH build-up in different urban land use types. PMID:27086074

  6. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from inorganic clay mineral: Bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Baskaya, Hüseyin S; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2016-01-01

    There has been limited study of the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from inorganic clay minerals. Determining the amount of PAH removal is important in predicting their environmental fate. This study was carried out to the degradation and evaporation of PAHs from bentonite, which is an inorganic clay mineral. UV apparatus was designed specifically for the experiments. The impacts of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2), and diethylamine (DEA) on PAH removal were determined. After 24 h, 75 and 44 % of ∑12 PAH in the bentonite were removed with and without UV rays, respectively. DEA was more effective as a photocatalyst than TiO2 during UV application. The ∑12 PAH removal ratio reached 88 % with the addition of DEA to the bentonite. It was concluded that PAHs were photodegraded at high ratios when the bentonite samples were exposed to UV radiation in the presence of a photocatalyst. At the end of all the PAH removal applications, higher evaporation ratios were obtained for 3-ring compounds than for heavier ones. More than 60 % of the amount of ∑12 PAH evaporated consisted of 3-ring compounds.

  7. Association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and human rectal tumor or liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohong Jiang; Limin Lun; Liyuan Cong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rectal carcinoma and hepatocarcinoma genesis. Methods: The PAHs in the human rectal cancer and liver cancer tissues, the adjacent tissues and homologous tissues without rectal cancer or liver cancer were extracted by ultrasonic wave. The extracts were then cleaned up and enriched by solid phase extraction, analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence spectroscopy. Results: Four kinds of PAHs were detected in human rectal and hepatic tissues. The contents of pyrene, 2-methylanthracene and benzo (a) pyrene in both rectal cancer tissues and adjacent homologous tissues were higher than rectal tissues without rectal cancer, the differences were statistically significant (P 0.05). The differences of the content of each PAHs between rectal cancer and adjacent tissue were not significant (P > 0.05). The contents of the four PAHs in the three kinds of liver tis-sues were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: PAHs are found in human rectal tissues or hepatic tissues. The contents of PAHs in human rectal tissue may have an effect on the occurrence of human rectal cancer while the contents of PAHs in human hepatic tissues may have not ones.

  8. Gas-Phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Absorption toward Protostellar Sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Jesse D.; Temi, Pasquale

    2001-06-01

    One of the major criticisms of identifying the infrared emission bands with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules has been the lack of a match between laboratory spectra of individual PAHs and the emission features. Part of the difficulty arises from the complexity of modeling the emission mechanism with an a priori unknown mixture of ionized and neutral PAHs. A direct comparison between laboratory spectra of PAHs and astronomical sources is possible for absorption spectra. However, because of poor atmospheric transmission, ground-based spectra of the PAH absorption band in the C-H stretch region are too noisy to make a detailed comparison with laboratory spectra. In this paper we show that ISO Short Wavelength Spectrometer spectra of a few protostars that show a 3.25 μm absorption band can be well matched by laboratory absorption spectra of a mixture of isolated PAHs. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom), with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  9. Investigation of sample treatment steps for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ground coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houessou, Justin Koffi; Delteil, Corine; Camel, Valérie

    2006-10-01

    Sample treatment procedures were tested for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ground coffee. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), under different conditions, was combined with several cleanup methods, namely in situ purification, C18-silica solid-phase extraction (SPE), silica SPE, acid digestion, and alkaline saponification. Soxhlet extraction and direct alkaline saponification were also tested. Best results were obtained using PLE with hexane/acetone 50:50 (v/v) under 150 degrees C. Alkaline saponification followed by cyclohexane extraction and silica SPE was required to eliminate interferent compounds. Finally, 11 PAHs could be quantified in ground coffee with limits of detection in the range of 0.11-0.18 microg kg(-1). Application to ground Arabica coffee lots from Colombia revealed the presence of several PAHs, giving an overall toxicity equivalence in the range of 0.16-0.87 microg kg(-1). PAH identification was performed using both high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. PMID:17002402

  10. Modeling the formation of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during the roasting of Arabica coffee samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houessou, Justin Koffi; Goujot, Daniel; Heyd, Bertrand; Camel, Valerie

    2008-05-28

    Roasting is a critical process in coffee production, as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. At the same time, roasting may lead to the formation of nondesirable compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, Arabica green coffee beans from Cuba were roasted under controlled conditions to monitor PAH formation during the roasting process. Roasting was performed in a pilot-spouted bed roaster, with the inlet air temperature varying from 180 to 260 degrees C, for roasting conditions ranging from 5 to 20 min. Several PAHs were determined in both roasted coffee samples and green coffee samples. Different models were tested, with more or less assumptions on the chemical phenomena, with a view to predict the system global behavior. Two kinds of models were used and compared: kinetic models (based on Arrhenius law) and statistical models (neural networks). The numbers of parameters to adjust differed for the tested models, varying from three to nine for the kinetic models and from five to 13 for the neural networks. Interesting results are presented, with satisfactory correlations between experimental and predicted concentrations for some PAHs, such as pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and anthracene. PMID:18433138

  11. Application of various methods for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from synthetic solid matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from synthetic solid matrices with various methods was investigated. PAH removal experiments were conducted in a specifically designed UV apparatus for this study. Polyurethane foams (PUF) cartridges were used to remove PAHs from the incoming air and to capture PAHs from the evaporated gases. Sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) was used as a synthetic solid matrices. The effects of temperature, UV radiation, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethylamine (DEA) dose on the PAH removal were determined. TiO2and DEA were added to the Na2SO4 sample at the rate of 5% and 20% of dry weight of samples. PAHs' removal from the Na2SO4 enhanced with increasing temperature. Sigma12 PAH content in the Na2SO4 reduced up to 95% during UV light application. Moreover, the Sigma12 PAH removal ratio was calculated as 95% with using 5% of TiO2, and increasing of TiO2 dose negatively affected PAH removal. PAH concentration in the samples decreased by 93% and 99% with addition of 5% and 20% DEA, respectively. Especially, 3- and 4-ring PAH compounds evaporated during the PAH removal applications. As expected, evaporation mechanism became more effective at high temperature for light PAH compounds. It was concluded that PAHs can successfully be removed from synthetic solid matrices such as Na2 SO4 with the applications of UV light and UV-photocatalysts.

  12. Bioremediation a potential approach for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norzila Othman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs represent a group of priority pollutants which are present at high concentration in soils of many industrially contaminated sites. Standards and criteria for the remediation of soils contaminated with PAHs vary widely between countries. Bioremediation has gained preference as a technology for remediation contaminated sites as it is less expensive and more environmental friendly. Bioremediation utilizes microorganisms to degrade PAHs to less toxic compounds. This technology degrades contaminants through natural biodegradation mechanisms or enhanced biodegradation mechanism and can be performed in-situ or ex-situ under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The purpose of this paper is to highlight potential of using isolated strains from municipal sludge on soil remediation. Several indigenous bacteria from municipal sludge namely genus Micrococus, Sphingomonas, and Corynebacterium demonstrated a high removal rate of PAHs with more than 80% of lower molecular weight of PAHs degraded after one week incubation. Laboratory studies had established that these genus able to degrade PAHs on contaminated soil. The successful application of bacteria to the bioremediation of PAHs contaminated sites requires a deeper understanding of how microbial PAH degradation proceeds. An overview of research focusing on biodegradation of PAHs will be presented.

  13. Health hazards involved with an environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Rusin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are compounds which belong to persistent organic pollutants group; some of which produce mutagenic and cancerogenic effects. These xenobiotics showed proven, negative effects on health preterm births and low infant birth weight. PAHs penetrate into the human body by three exposure pathways: inhalation, ingestion and skin contact, of which the skin contact pathway is the least important in the case of environmental exposure. Transport, and industrial and municipal sections are also an important source of these compounds. The level of benzo(apyrene (BaP has been monitored in all the Polish provinces since 2005 in the air. BaP is a determinant of the level of all PAHs’ compounds. Despite of the permanent lowering of the level of BaP in the air since the 90s, the limit level (1 ng/m3 has been exceeded in most provinces of the country. In 2010 this situation concerned all Polish agglomerations and the biggest excess has been observed in the province of Silesia in the area of rybnicko-jastrzębska agglomeration. Of sixteen Polish provinces only Lublin and Podlasie provinces did not exceed the limit level, of BaP in the air in 2012. These data shows that a serious health risk may occur due to environmental pollution caused by PAHs compounds. It is necessary to take preventative action to limit a human exposure to these compounds.

  14. Polar metabolites of polycyclic aromatic compounds from fungi are potential soil and groundwater contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Johnsen, Anders R; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the sorption to soil of water-soluble metabolites from polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). The soil fungus Cunninghamella elegans was used to produce PAC metabolites from two un-substituted PACs (phenanthrene, pyrene), three alkyl-substituted PACs (2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylphenanthrene, 1-methylpyrene), and one sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC (dibenzothiophene). Fifty-eight metabolites were tentatively identified; metabolites from the un-substituted PACs were hydroxylated and sulfate conjugated, whereas metabolites from alkyl-substituted PACs were sulfate conjugated and either hydroxylated or oxidized to carboxylic acids at the methyl group. The metabolism of the sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAC resulted in sulfate conjugates. The sorption of the PAC metabolites to three soils was determined using a batch equilibrium method, and partition coefficients (Kd's) were calculated for fourteen representative metabolites. Sulfate conjugated metabolites displayed Kd's below 70 whereas the metabolites with both a sulfate and a carboxylic acid group had Kd's below 2.8. The low Kd's of water-soluble PAC metabolites indicate high mobility in soil and a potential for leaching to surface- and groundwaters.

  15. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten PAH (Σ10 PAH) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total PAH content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in PAH levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of PAHs increased, their removal rates also increased. Total PAH level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. PAH removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage. PMID:23485234

  16. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in maternal serum and risk of neural tube defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jin, Lei; Ren, Aiguo; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Jufen; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Le; Yi, Deqing; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu; Finnell, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, and have been reported to be a risk factor for human neural tube defects (NTDs). We investigated the relationship between PAH concentrations in maternal serum and NTD risk in offspring using a case-control study design, and explored the link between PAH concentrations to household energy usage characteristics and life styles. One hundred and seventeen women who had NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 121 women who delivered healthy infants (controls) were recruited in Northern China. Maternal blood samples were collected at pregnancy termination or at delivery. Twenty-seven PAHs were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of 13 individual PAHs detected were significantly higher in the cases than in the controls. Clear dose-response relationships between concentrations of most individual PAHs and the risk of total NTDs or subtypes were observed, even when potential covariates were adjusted for. High-molecular-weight PAHs (H-PAHs) showed higher risk than low-molecular-weight PAHs (L-PAHs). No associations between PAH concentrations and indoor life styles and energy usage characteristics were observed. It was concluded that maternal exposure to PAHs was associated with an increased risk of NTDs, and H-PAHs overall posed a higher risk for NTDs than L-PAHs. PMID:25488567

  17. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in soils in the Region of Valasske Mezirici, the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rümmeli Mark H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination of urban, agricultural and forest soil samples was investigated from samples obtained in the surroundings of Valasske Mezirici. Valasske Mezirici is a town located in the north-east mountainous part of the Czech Republic, where a coal tar refinery is situated. 16 PAHs listed in the US EPA were investigated. Organic oxidizable carbon was also observed in the forest soils. The PAH concentrations ranged from 0.86-10.84 (with one anomalous value of 35.14 and 7.66-79.39 mg/kg dm in the urban/agricultural and forest soils, respectively. While the PAH levels in the urban/agricultural soils are within the range typically found in industrialized areas, the forest soils showed elevated PAH concentrations compared to other forest soils in Western and Northern Europe. The PAH concentrations and their molecular distribution ratios were studied as functions of the sample location and the meteorological history. The soils from localities at higher altitudes above sea level have the highest PAH concentrations, and the PAH concentrations decrease with increasing distance from the town.

  18. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon influx and sediment contamination in an urbanized estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marina R; Mirlean, Nicolai; Baisch, Paulo R; Caramão, Elina B

    2010-09-01

    Sediments from the Patos Lagoon Estuary in Southern Brazil and sludge from incoming effluents were assessed for the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Shallow sediments adjoining the City of Rio Grande were found to be contaminated by PAHs mainly near urban effluent discharge, as well as in the port area. Effluents clustered into four groups according to their sources (sewage, industrial, runoff, and mixed), with each demonstrating different contributions of PAHs to the estuary. There was a predominance of runoff and mixed sources. Navigation activity was the second most important source of PAHs to sediments. The PAHs ratio identified the origin of these contaminants as essentially pyrolytic. The impact of PAHs as a result of uncontrolled disposal or accidental discharge of PAH-rich residues was suggested for several points. These points were primarily near gas stations and motor workshops. In about 30% of sampled sediments, the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene surpassed the Threshold Effects Level adopted for marine environments. PMID:19672685

  19. Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice. PMID:26681325

  20. The anharmonic quartic force field infrared spectra of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, Cameron J., E-mail: mackie@strw.leidenuniv.nl; Candian, Alessandra; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Huang, Xinchuan [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, California 94043 (United States); Maltseva, Elena; Buma, Wybren Jan [University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Petrignani, Annemieke [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Radboud University, FELIX Laboratory, Toernooiveld 7, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Oomens, Jos [Radboud University, FELIX Laboratory, Toernooiveld 7, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lee, Timothy J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035-1000 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Current efforts to characterize and study interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) rely heavily on theoretically predicted infrared (IR) spectra. Generally, such studies use the scaled harmonic frequencies for band positions and double harmonic approximation for intensities of species, and then compare these calculated spectra with experimental spectra obtained under matrix isolation conditions. High-resolution gas-phase experimental spectroscopic studies have recently revealed that the double harmonic approximation is not sufficient for reliable spectra prediction. In this paper, we present the anharmonic theoretical spectra of three PAHs: naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene, computed with a locally modified version of the SPECTRO program using Cartesian derivatives transformed from Gaussian 09 normal coordinate force constants. Proper treatments of Fermi resonances lead to an impressive improvement on the agreement between the observed and theoretical spectra, especially in the C–H stretching region. All major IR absorption features in the full-scale matrix-isolated spectra, the high-temperature gas-phase spectra, and the most recent high-resolution gas-phase spectra obtained under supersonically cooled molecular beam conditions in the CH-stretching region are assigned.