WorldWideScience

Sample records for carcinogenic food contaminants

  1. Risk Assessment Approaches for Carcinogenic Food Contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Zoe; Pulido, Olga; Vavasour, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Health Canada has identified the need for a standardized department-wide approach for the risk assessment of carcinogens in foods (e.g., pesticides, food chemical contaminants, veterinary therapeutics). A standardized approach would better facilitate and inform risk management strategies for the control of human exposure to food sources of carcinogens. Within the post- market regulatory context, directly DNA-reactive carcinogens are of most concern because any exposure is theoretically assume...

  2. A review of biosensing techniques for detection of trace carcinogen contamination in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanming; Yu, Yue; Li, Zhiliang; Wu, Tao

    2015-04-01

    Carcinogen contaminations in the food chain, for example heavy metal ions, pesticides, acrylamide, and mycotoxins, have caused serious health problems. A major objective of food-safety research is the identification and prevention of exposure to these carcinogens, because of their impossible-to-reverse tumorigenic effects. However, carcinogen detection is difficult because of their trace-level presence in food. Thus, reliable and accurate separation and determination methods are essential to protect food safety and human health. This paper summarizes the state of the art in separation and determination methods for analyzing carcinogen contamination, especially the advances in biosensing methods. Furthermore, the application of promising technology including nanomaterials, imprinted polymers, and microdevices is detailed. Challenges and perspectives are also discussed.

  3. Food derived carcinogenic amnoimidazoazaarenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik

    Carcinogenic aminoimidazoazaarenes are formed during cooking of meat and fish. Important factors for the formation of these compounds are meat type, cooking temperature and time. The compounds are genotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. In animal feeding studies the compounds tested so far were...... of the exocyclic amino group. Estimations of human cancer risk have indicated that ingestion of food containing aminoimidazoazaarenes are of importance....

  4. Mutagens and carcinogens in foods. Epidemiologic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Hislop, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence that diet contributes to the development of cancer is strengthening. This paper examines mutagens and carcinogens, such as naturally occurring substances, products of cooking and food processing, intentional and unintentional additives, and contaminants, found in foods. Such substances are present in minute quantities in the diets of average Canadians. Indication of health risk is largely limited to experimental laboratory evidence.

  5. Mutagens and carcinogens in foods. Epidemiologic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, T. G.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence that diet contributes to the development of cancer is strengthening. This paper examines mutagens and carcinogens, such as naturally occurring substances, products of cooking and food processing, intentional and unintentional additives, and contaminants, found in foods. Such substances are present in minute quantities in the diets of average Canadians. Indication of health risk is largely limited to experimental laboratory evidence. PMID:8499796

  6. [Risk assessment of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects in the use of food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, O A; Karpova, M V

    2012-01-01

    Application of methodology for assessing the risk of diseases associated with consumption of contaminated foods, is aimed at predicting possible changes in the future and helps to create a framework for the prevention of negative effects on public health. The purpose of the study is assessment of health risks formed under the influence of chemical contaminants that pollute the food. Exponential average daily dose of receipt of chemicals in the body, non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were calculated.

  7. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  8. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, Susan; Schlatter, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a 'margin of exposure' approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  9. Risk assessment of carcinogens in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Susan; Schlatter, Josef

    2010-03-01

    Approaches for the risk assessment of carcinogens in food have evolved as scientific knowledge has advanced. Early methods allowed little more than hazard identification and an indication of carcinogenic potency. Evaluation of the modes of action of carcinogens and their broad division into genotoxic and epigenetic (non-genotoxic, non-DNA reactive) carcinogens have played an increasing role in determining the approach followed and provide possibilities for more detailed risk characterisation, including provision of quantitative estimates of risk. Reliance on experimental animal data for the majority of risk assessments and the fact that human exposures to dietary carcinogens are often orders of magnitude below doses used in experimental studies has provided a fertile ground for discussion and diverging views on the most appropriate way to offer risk assessment advice. Approaches used by national and international bodies differ, with some offering numerical estimates of potential risks to human health, while others express considerable reservations about the validity of quantitative approaches requiring extrapolation of dose-response data below the observed range and instead offer qualitative advice. Recognising that qualitative advice alone does not provide risk managers with information on which to prioritise the need for risk management actions, a "margin of exposure" approach for substances that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic has been developed, which is now being used by the World Health Organization and the European Food Safety Authority. This review describes the evolution of risk assessment advice on carcinogens and discusses examples of ways in which carcinogens in food have been assessed in Europe.

  10. How many food additives are rodent carcinogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F M

    2002-01-01

    One generally assumes that chemical agents added to foods are reasonably free of risks to human health, and practically everyone consumes some additives in his or her food daily throughout life. In the United States, the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 requires food manufacturers to demonstrate the safety of food additives to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Amendment contains a provision that prohibits approval of an additive if it is found to cause cancer in humans or animals. In the present study, data from the National Toxicology Program rodent bioassay (NTPRB) were used to identify a sample of approximately 50 rodent-tested additives and other chemicals added to food that had been evaluated independently of the FDA/food industry. Surprisingly, the sample shows more than 40% of these food chemicals to be carcinogenic in one or more rodent groups. If this percentage is extrapolated to all substances added to food in the United States, it would imply that more than 1000 of such substances are potential rodent carcinogens. The NTP and FDA test guidelines use similar, though not necessarily identical, rodent test procedures, including near lifetime exposures to the maximum tolerated dose. The FDA specifies that test chemicals should be administered by the oral route. However, the oral route includes three methods of delivering chemicals, that is, mixed in the food or water or delivered by stomach tube (gavage). The NTP data show only 1 of 18 food chemicals mixed in the food are rodent carcinogens, but 16 of 23 gavage-administered food chemicals are carcinogenic to rodents. The distribution suggests that among orally delivered chemicals, those administered in the feed will more likely prove to be noncarcinogens than chemicals given by gavage. The rodent data also reveal that effects may vary according to dose and genotype, as well as by route of administration, to further complicate extrapolation to humans

  11. Cooking methods employing natural anti-oxidant food additives effectively reduced concentration of nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acids in contaminated food grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Chan, Chi-Kong; Wong, Yee-Lam; Chan, K K Jason; Chan, Ho Wai; Chan, Wan

    2018-10-30

    Emerging evidence suggests that aristolochic acids (AA) produced naturally by a common weed Aristolochia clematitis in the cultivation fields is contaminating the food products in Balkan Peninsula and acting as the etiological agent in the development of Balkan endemic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the combined use of natural anti-oxidative "food additives" and different cooking methods to find a solution for the widespread contamination of AA in food products. The results indicated that the addition of healthy dietary supplements (such as cysteine, glutathione, ascorbic acid, citric acid and magnesium) during cooking, is a highly efficient method in lowering the concentration of AA in the final food products. Because previous observation indicated one of the toxicological mechanisms by which AA exert its toxicity is to induce oxidative stress in internal organs, it is anticipated that these added anti-oxidants will also help to attenuate the nephrotoxicity of AA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...... contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation....

  13. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid; Pedreschi, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation.

  14. Uptake and Accumulation of Nephrotoxic and Carcinogenic Aristolochic Acids in Food Crops Grown in Aristolochia clematitis-Contaminated Soil and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Hu, Qin; Chan, Wan

    2016-01-13

    Emerging evidence has suggested aristolochic acids (AAs) are linked to the development of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), a chronic renal disease affecting numerous farmers living in the Balkan peninsula. However, the pathway by which AAs enter the human food chain and cause kidney disease remains poorly understood. Using our previously developed analytical method with high sensitivity and selectivity (Chan, W.; Lee, K. C.; Liu, N.; Cai, Z. J. Chromatogr. A 2007, 1164, 113-119), we quantified AAs in lettuce, tomato, and spring onion grown in AA-contaminated soil and culture medium. Our study revealed that AAs were being taken up from the soil and bioaccumulated in food crops in a time- and dose-dependent manner. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to identify one of the possible pathways by which AAs enter our food chain to cause chronic food poisoning. Results also demonstrated that AAs were resistant to the microbial activity of the soil/water.

  15. Analysis of food contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, John

    1984-01-01

    ... quantification methods used in the analysis of mycotoxins in foods - Confirmation and quantification of trace organic food contaminants by mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring - Chemiluminescence...

  16. Foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myöhänen, Kirsi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and function. Although human placental perfusion has been used extensively to study the transplacental transfer of drugs, the information on food and environmental carcinogens is much more limited. This review deals with the foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings. In particular, human transplacental transfer of the food carcinogens such as acrylamide, glycidamide and nitrosodimethylamine are in focus. Because these carcinogens are genotoxic, the functional capacity of human placenta to induce DNA adduct formation or metabolize these above mentioned CYP2E1 substrates is of interest in this context. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  17. Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, A M; Williams, G M

    2005-09-01

    Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food requires knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in the target organ which results from the competition between DNA adduct formation and repair. Estimates of DNA adduct levels can be made by direct measurement or indirectly as a consequence of their presence, for example, by tumor formation in animal models or exposed populations epidemiologically. Food-borne DNA-reactive carcinogens are present from a variety of sources. They are generally not intrinsically DNA-reactive but require bioactivation to DNA-reactive metabolites a process which may be modulated by the compound itself or the presence of other xenobiotics. A single DNA reactant may form several distinct DNA adducts each undergoing different rates of repair. Some DNA reactants may be photochemically activated or produce reactive oxygen species and thus indirect oxidative DNA damage. The levels of DNA adducts arising from exposures influenced by variations in the doses, the frequency with which an individual is exposed, and rates of DNA repair for specific adducts. Each adduct has a characteristic efficiency with which it induces mutations. Based on experience with the well-studied DNA-reactive food carcinogen aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), a limit of 20 ppb or approximately 30 microg/day has been set and is considered a tolerable daily intake (TDI). Since AFB(1) is considered a potent carcinogen, doses of carcinogens is made.

  18. Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, A.M.; Williams, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food requires knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in the target organ which results from the competition between DNA adduct formation and repair. Estimates of DNA adduct levels can be made by direct measurement or indirectly as a consequence of their presence, for example, by tumor formation in animal models or exposed populations epidemiologically. Food-borne DNA-reactive carcinogens are present from a variety of sources. They are generally not intrinsically DNA-reactive but require bioactivation to DNA-reactive metabolites a process which may be modulated by the compound itself or the presence of other xenobiotics. A single DNA reactant may form several distinct DNA adducts each undergoing different rates of repair. Some DNA reactants may be photochemically activated or produce reactive oxygen species and thus indirect oxidative DNA damage. The levels of DNA adducts arising from exposures influenced by variations in the doses, the frequency with which an individual is exposed, and rates of DNA repair for specific adducts. Each adduct has a characteristic efficiency with which it induces mutations. Based on experience with the well-studied DNA-reactive food carcinogen aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ), a limit of 20 ppb or ∼30 μg/day has been set and is considered a tolerable daily intake (TDI). Since AFB 1 is considered a potent carcinogen, doses of 32 P-postlabeling or the use of surrogates such as hemoglobin adducts, together with approaches to evaluate the results. A discussion of approaches to estimating possible threshold effects for DNA-reactive carcinogens is made

  19. The influence of thresholds on the risk assessment of carcinogens in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Iona; Barlow, Susan; Kleiner, Juliane; Larsen, John Christian

    2009-08-01

    The risks from exposure to chemical contaminants in food must be scientifically assessed, in order to safeguard the health of consumers. Risk assessment of chemical contaminants that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic presents particular difficulties, since the effects of such substances are normally regarded as being without a threshold. No safe level can therefore be defined, and this has implications for both risk management and risk communication. Risk management of these substances in food has traditionally involved application of the ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle, however ALARA does not enable risk managers to assess the urgency and extent of the risk reduction measures needed. A more refined approach is needed, and several such approaches have been developed. Low-dose linear extrapolation from animal carcinogenicity studies or epidemiological studies to estimate risks for humans at low exposure levels has been applied by a number of regulatory bodies, while more recently the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach has been applied by both the European Food Safety Authority and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. A further approach is the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), which establishes exposure thresholds for chemicals present in food, dependent on structure. Recent experimental evidence that genotoxic responses may be thresholded has significant implications for the risk assessment of chemicals that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic. In relation to existing approaches such as linear extrapolation, MOE and TTC, the existence of a threshold reduces the uncertainties inherent in such methodology and improves confidence in the risk assessment. However, for the foreseeable future, regulatory decisions based on the concept of thresholds for genotoxic carcinogens are likely to be taken case-by-case, based on convincing data on the Mode of Action indicating that the rate limiting variable for the development of cancer

  20. Chemistry of mutagens and carcinogens in broiled food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, S

    1986-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, the following subjects are important areas in studies on mutagens and carcinogens in broiled foods. In addition to heterocyclic amines which need microsomal activation, the structural elucidation of more labile direct-acting mutagens is necessary. It is known that there are still various unknown minor mutagens in broiled foods. Although the structural characterization of such compounds is more difficult, it is important since they might be hazardous in spite of their low mutagenicity. A more feasible and easier method for quantitative analysis of mutagens, in addition to HPLC and GC/MS methods presently employed, must be developed. The mechanism of formation of mutagens by broiling of food should be studied. An effective chemical method to prevent formation of mutagens or to destroy them, once formed, should be developed. PMID:3757944

  1. [Regional features of food standards and health risks associated with chemical contamination of food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikov, O V; Khatuaev, R O; Istomin, A V; Rumyantseva, L A

    In the article there are presented results of a study of the balance of food consumption by the population of the Voronezh region, the assessment of the level of contamination of food products and both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic and public health risk caused by this contamination. There was evaluated the level of nutrition-dependent diseases. A special feature of this study is a comparative analysis of data obtained during the two five-year periods of 1995-1999 and 2010-2014, that permitted to reveal changes in food consumption, the dynamics of morbidity rate associated with the nutritional factor.

  2. Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-Part B: Working papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Toxic substances in food information systems: design and management; (2) Assessment of carcinogenic risks from PCBs in food; (3) Economic analysis of alternative action levels in the regulation of environmental contaminants in food; (4) Analysis of foods for radioactivity; (5) Approaches to monitoring environmental contaminants in food; (6) Analytical systems for the determination of metals in food and water supplies; (7) Assessment of methods for regulating 'unavoidable' contaminants in the food supply; and (8) Consumer risk from environmental contaminants in food

  3. Identification of Radiation Effects on Carcinogenic Food Estimated by Ames Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, M.; Eid, I.; El - Nagdy, M.; Zaher, R.; Abd El-Karem, H.; Abd EL Karim, A.

    2016-01-01

    A major concern in studies related to carcinogenesis is the exposure to the exogenous carcinogens that may occur in food in both natural and polluted human environments. The purpose of the present study is to examine some of food products by Ames test to find out if food products carcinogenic then expose food to gamma radiation to find out the effect of radiation on it as a treatment. In this study, the food samples were examined by Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity test) to find out that a food product could be carcinogenic or highly mutated. Testing of chemicals for mutagenicity is based on the knowledge that a substance which is mutagenic in the bacterium is more likely than not to be a carcinogen in laboratory animals, and thus , by extension, present a risk of cancer to humans. After that food products that showed mutagenicity exposed to gamma radiation at different doses to examine the effect of gamma radiation on food products. This study represent γ radiation effect on carcinogenic food by using Ames test in the following steps: Detect food by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains in which the colony count /plate for each food sample will show if food is slightly mutated or highly mutated or carcinogenic. If food is highly mutated or carcinogenic with high number of colonies /plate, then the carcinogenic food or highly mutated food exposed to different doses of radiation The applied doses in this study were 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 (KGy). Detect the radiation effect on food samples by Ames test after irradiation. The study shows that mutated and carcinogenic food products estimated by Ames test could be treated by irradiation

  4. Field ecology, fungal sex and food contamination involving Aspergillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species within the genus Aspergillus are capable of producing a myriad of toxic secondary metabolites, with aflatoxin being of most concern. These fungi happen to colonize important agricultural commodities, thereby having the potential to contaminate our food with carcinogenic aflatoxins. P...

  5. [Perceived risks of food contaminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Lohmann, Mark; Epp, Astrid; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-07-01

    Food contaminants can pose a serious health threat. In order to carry out adequate risk communication measures, the subjective risk perception of the public must be taken into account. In this context, the breadth of the topic and insufficient terminological delimitations from residues and food additives make an elaborate explanation of the topic to consumers indispensable. A representative population survey used language adequate for lay people and a clear definition of contaminants to measure risk perceptions with regard to food contaminants among the general public. The study aimed to assess public awareness of contaminants and the perceived health risks associated with them. In addition, people's current knowledge and need for additional information, their attitudes towards contaminants, views on stakeholder accountability, as well as compliance with precautionary measures, such as avoiding certain foods to reduce health risks originating from contaminants, were assessed. A representative sample of 1001 respondents was surveyed about food contaminants via computer-assisted telephone interviewing. The majority of respondents rated contaminants as a serious health threat, though few of them spontaneously mentioned examples of undesirable substances in foods that fit the scientific or legal definition of contaminants. Mercury and dioxin were the most well-known contaminants. Only a minority of respondents was familiar with pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The present findings highlight areas that require additional attention and provide implications for risk communication geared to specific target groups.

  6. Ochratoxin A Contamination of Food from Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraica, Maja; Flajs, Dubravka; Domijan, Ana-Marija; Ivić, Dario; Cvjetković, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus moulds under different climatic conditions. Humans and animals are exposed to this compound mainly via ingestion of contaminated food. In Croatia, research on mycotoxins focused on OTA when the mycotoxin theory of endemic nephropathy (EN) was postulated. Ochratoxin A was more frequent and at higher concentration in foods from EN than those from the control regions. Subsequently, OTA concentrations were determined in some commodities intended for human consumption such as maize, wheat, beans and wine. Samples from all parts of Croatia were analyzed and OTA was found in all types of commodities. It was frequently found together with other mycotoxins (fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2 and zearalenone). In general, OTA concentration in foods from Croatia is low, but the frequency of positive samples shows considerable variations from year to year depending also on sampling location. Although low levels of OTA were found in a large proportion of analyzed food samples, its persistent co-occurrence with other significant mycotoxins should raise serious public health concerns as there interactions may be synergistic or additive in causing toxicity in humans and animals. There is need to establish control measures through which such contaminations in foods can be managed. PMID:22069674

  7. Human health risk due to consumption of vegetables contaminated with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sardar [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Inst. of Urban Environment; Peshawar Univ. (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Science; Cao, Qing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environemntal Sciences

    2012-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent, toxic, and carcinogenic contaminants present in soil ecosystem globally. These pollutants are gradually accumulating in wastewater-irrigated soils and lead to the contamination of vegetables. Food chain contamination with PAH is considered as one of the major pathways for human exposure. This study was aimed to investigate the concentrations of PAH in soils and vegetables collected from wastewater-irrigated fields from metropolitan areas of Beijing, China. Origin of PAH, daily intake, and health risks of PAH through consumption of contaminated vegetables were studied. Soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-20 cm) of both wastewater-irrigated and reference sites and sieved (<2 mm mesh) and then followed by freeze-drying at -50 C and 123 {+-} 2 Pa. Standing vegetables were also collected from the same sites used for soil sampling and divided into roots and shoots, thoroughly washed with deionized water, and freeze-dried. PAH were extracted using the Soxhlet method with 200 mL DCM for 24 h, and the extracts were cleaned with silica adsorption chromatography prepared with silica gel, alumina, and capped with anhydrous sodium. The final concentrated extracts (soil and vegetable) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Agilent 6890). Bioaccumulation factors, daily intake of PAH, and carcinogenicity of PAH were calculated by different statistical equations. Results indicate that the soils and grown vegetables were contaminated with all possible carcinogenic PAH (declared by USEPA 2002) except indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. The highest concentration (242.9 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) was found for benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), while lowest (79.12 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The emission sources of PAH were both pyrogenic and petrogenic in nature. However, the total concentrations of PAH were lower than the permissible limits set by different countries like Canada, Denmark and Germany

  8. Determination of potentially carcinogenic compounds in food : trace analysis of vinylchloride, vinylidenechloride, acrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin and diethylpyrocarbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lierop, van J.B.H.

    1979-01-01

    Toxicological evidence shows that some monomers present in packaging materials may be carcinogenic. These monomers, notably vinylchloride, vinylidenechloride, acrylonitrile and epichlorohydrin, may migrate from the packaging material into the food. Therefore, severe limits are set to the contents of

  9. Approaches to the risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in food: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J; Renwick, A G; Constable, A; Dybing, E; Müller, D J G; Schlatter, J; Slob, W; Tueting, W; van Benthem, J; Williams, G M; Wolfreys, A

    2006-10-01

    The present paper examines the particular difficulties presented by low levels of food-borne DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens, some of which may be difficult to eliminate completely from the diet, and proposes a structured approach for the evaluation of such compounds. While the ALARA approach is widely applicable to all substances in food that are both carcinogenic and genotoxic, it does not take carcinogenic potency into account and, therefore, does not permit prioritisation based on potential risk or concern. In the absence of carcinogenicity dose-response data, an assessment based on comparison with an appropriate threshold of toxicological concern may be possible. When carcinogenicity data from animal bioassays are available, a useful analysis is achieved by the calculation of margins of exposure (MOEs), which can be used to compare animal potency data with human exposure scenarios. Two reference points on the dose-response relationship that can be used for MOE calculation were examined; the T25 value, which is derived from linear extrapolation, and the BMDL10, which is derived from mathematical modelling of the dose-response data. The above approaches were applied to selected food-borne genotoxic carcinogens. The proposed approach is applicable to all substances in food that are DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens and enables the formulation of appropriate semi-quantitative advice to risk managers.

  10. The gamma contamination food factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukoc, A.H.; Anicin, I.V.; Adzic, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    We suggest that radioactive food contamination, as determined solely by a quantitative gamma-ray spectroscopic measurement, may, apart from the total activity per unit mass, be for quick reference conveniently characterized by another single figure which we call the ''Gamma Contamination Food Factor'' (GCFF). This factor may be defined as the ratio of the total specific activity of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides in the food sample (except that of 40 K) to the specific activity of 40 K either in the sample itself or in an ''average man''. We discuss briefly the meaning and advantages of these definitions. (author)

  11. Radioactive contamination in imported foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Kimiko; Maki, Toshio; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawai, Yuka; Kobayashi, Maki; Shioda, Hiroko; Nishima, Taichiro

    1990-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, explosion occurred in Chernobyl nuclear power station in USSR, and radioactivity contamination was brought about in almost all countries in the world. In European countries, crops were contaminated directly with radioactive fallout to high concentration. Also in Japan, after one week the radioactivity higher than usual was detected in environment, and also in vegetables, milk, tea leaves and others. Thereafter, in order to cope with the import of contaminated foods, inspection and watch system was strengthened by deciding the interim limit of radioactive concentration. However the cases of exceeding the interim limit were often reported. In order to remove the harmful foods due to radioactive contamination and to meet the fear of consumers, the authors measured the radioactive concentration in foods distributed in Tokyo and investigated the actual state of contamination. The samples were 920 imported foods. The experimental method, the preparation of samples, the method of analysis and the results are reported. The samples in which the radioactive concentration exceeding 50 Bq/kg was detected were 25 cases. The food having the high frequency of detection was flavors. (K.I.)

  12. Radioactive food and environment contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Food and Environment Control Centre of Abu Dhabi Municipality with the help of IAEA has established facilities for regular monitoring of food and environmental samples for radioactive contamination. The Centre is now capable of measuring gamma, beta as well as alpha activity in different types of samples. The main activities in the area of food monitoring are as follows: General monitoring of food gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Determination of specific gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Radiochemical determination of Sr-90 using liquid scintillation analyzer or by gas flow proportional counter; Measurement of gross alpha activity in drinking water

  13. Food contamination : lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, F.

    1987-01-01

    This brief survey of radioactive contamination of food suggests at least four areas in which action needs to be taken so that we might be better prepared to respond to any possible future nuclear accident. More research is needed on the way that radiation enters the food chain, and the measures that can be taken to counter the health hazards posed by fallout. A second clear need is for a global radioactivity monitoring system. Third, international standards need to be established for methods of sampling, analysis and reporting of the radioactive levels in foods. Finally, an effort must be made to inform the public so it can distinguish between the real and the imaginary hazards posed by radioactively contaminated foods

  14. Fungi and mycotoxins: Food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi on food causes physical and chemical changes which, further affect negatively the sensory and nutritive quality of food. Species from genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternariа, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Emericella are usually found. Some of them are potentially dangerous for humans and animals, due to possible synthesis and excretion of toxic secondary metabolites - mycotoxins into the food. Their toxic syndroms in animals and humans are known as mycotoxicoses. The pathologic changes can be observed in parenhimatic organs, and in bones and central nervous system also. Specific conditions are necessary for mycotoxin producing fungi to synthetize sufficient quantities of these compounds for demonstration of biologic effects. The main biochemical paths in the formation of mycotoxins include the polyketide (aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, citrinine, patulin, terpenic (trichothecenes, aminoacid (glicotoxins, ergotamines, sporidesmin, malformin C, and carbonic acids path (rubratoxins. Aflatoxins are the most toxigenic metabolites of fungi, produced mostly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus species. Aflatoxins appear more frequently in food in the tropic and subtropic regions, while the food in Europe is more exposed to also very toxic ochratoxin A producing fungi (A. ochraceus and some Penicillium species. The agricultural products can be contaminated by fungi both before and after the harvest. The primary mycotoxicoses in humans are the result of direct intake of vegetable products contaminated by mycotoxins, while the secondary mycotoxicoses are caused by products of animal origin. The risk of the presence of fungi and mycotoxin in food is increasing, having in mind that some of them are highly thermoresistent, and the temperatures of usual food sterilization is not sufficient for their termination. The paper presents the review of most important mycotoxins, their biologic effects

  15. Approaches to the risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in food: a critical appraisal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Brien, J; Renwick, A G; Constable, A; Dybing, Erik; Müller, D J G; Schlatter, J; Slob, Wout; Tueting, W; Benthem, Jan van; Williams, G M; Wolfreys, A

    2006-01-01

    The present paper examines the particular difficulties presented by low levels of food-borne DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens, some of which may be difficult to eliminate completely from the diet, and proposes a structured approach for the evaluation of such compounds. While the ALARA approach is

  16. Mutagenicity of food-derived carcinogens and the effect of antioxidant vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Beverly A; Murphy, Jessica; Chen, James J; Desai, Varsha G; McGarrity, Lynda; Morris, Suzanne M; Casciano, Daniel A; Aidoo, Anane

    2002-01-01

    The food-derived heterocyclic amines (HCAs) 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are mutagenic in the Ames test and produce tumors in laboratory animals, including monkeys. These HCAs have also been shown to induce gene mutations in vivo. To assess the antimutagenic effects of dietary antioxidant vitamins, beta-carotene, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), on food-borne mutagenes/carcinogens, we evaluated the mutagenic activity of the compounds alone or combined with antioxidant vitamins. We utilized the rat lymphocyte mutation assay at the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) locus. Female Fischer 344 rats treated with different doses (0, 2.5, 5.0, 25.0, and 50.0 mg/kg) of the carcinogens were sacrificed 5 wk after mutagen treatment. Although IQ and MeIQ slightly increased mutation frequency (MF) at some doses, a significant (P carcinogen metabolism would be affected by ingestion of vitamins. The activities of endogenous detoxification enzymes, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were thus examined. Intake of beta-carotene and vitamin C without the carcinogen resulted in an increase (P food or taken as supplements could, in part, counteract such mutagenic activities.

  17. The use of dose-response data in a margin of exposure approach to carcinogenic risk assessment for genotoxic chemicals in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Diane J

    2016-05-01

    Genotoxic substances are generally not permitted for deliberate use in food production. However, an appreciable number of known or suspected genotoxic substances occur unavoidably in food, e.g. from natural occurrence, environmental contamination and generation during cooking and processing. Over the past decade a margin of exposure (MOE) approach has increasingly been used in assessing the exposure to substances in food that are genotoxic and carcinogenic. The MOE is defined as a reference point on the dose-response curve (e.g. a benchmark dose lower confidences limit derived from a rodent carcinogenicity study) divided by the estimated human intake. A small MOE indicates a higher concern than a very large MOE. Whilst the MOE cannot be directly equated to risk, it supports prioritisation of substances for further research or for possible regulatory action, and provides a basis for communicating to the public. So far, the MOE approach has been confined to substances for which carcinogenicity data are available. In the absence of carcinogenicity data, evidence of genotoxicity is used only in hazard identification. The challenge to the genetic toxicology community is to develop approaches for characterising risk to human health based on data from genotoxicity studies. In order to achieve wide acceptance, it would be important to further address the issues that have been discussed in the context of dose-response modelling of carcinogenicity data in order to assign levels of concern to particular MOE values, and also whether it is possible to make generic conclusions on how potency in genotoxicity assays relates to carcinogenic potency. © Crown copyright 2015.

  18. Colon preneoplasia after carcinogen exposure is enhanced and colonic serotonergic system is suppressed by food deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannen, Vinicius; Fernandes, Cleverson R; Stopper, Helga; Zanette, Dalila L; Ferreira, Frederico R; Frajacomo, Fernando T; Carvalho, Milene C; Brandão, Marcus L; Elias Junior, Jorge; Jordão Junior, Alceu Afonso; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Garcia, Sérgio B

    2013-10-04

    Calorie restriction regimens usually promote health and extend life-span in mammals. This is partially related to their preventive effects against malignancies. However, certain types of nutritional restriction failed to induce beneficial effects. The American Institute of Nutrition defines calorie restriction as diets which have only 40% fewer calories, but provide normal amounts of necessary food components such as protein, vitamins and minerals; whereas, food restriction means 40% less of all dietary ingredients plus 40% less calories. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that the latter type of food deprivation (40% less food than consumed by standard fed rats) might increase cancer risk instead of reducing it, as is generally assumed for all dietary restrictive regimens. Since the endogenous modulation of the colon serotonergic system has been observed to play a role during the early steps of carcinogenesis we also investigated whether the serotoninergic system could be involved in the food intake modulation of cancer risk. For this, rats were exposed to a carcinogen and subjected to food deprivation for 56 days. Triglyceride levels and visceral adipose tissue were reduced while hepatic and colonic lipid peroxidation was increased. This dietary restriction also decreased serotonin levels in colon, and gene expression of its intestinal transporter and receptors. Finally, the numbers of preneoplastic lesions in the colon tissue of carcinogen-exposed rats were increased. Our data suggest that food deprivation enhances formation of early tumorigenic lesions by suppressing serotonergic activity in colon tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and Myrcene-Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2017-03-11

    For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new evidence from animal and human studies. Furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene are potential human carcinogens due to be evaluated. The major source of furfuryl alcohol in foods is thermal processing and ageing of alcoholic beverages, while β-myrcene occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of plants such as hops, lemongrass, and derived products. This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages using literature review data. Additionally, results of furfuryl alcohol occurrence from our own nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis are included. The highest content of furfuryl alcohol was found in coffee beans (>100 mg/kg) and in some fish products (about 10 mg/kg), while among beverages, wines contained between 1 and 10 mg/L, with 8 mg/L in pineapple juice. The content of β-myrcene was highest in hops. In conclusion, the data about the occurrence of the two agents is currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment. The results of this study point out the food and beverage groups that may be considered for future monitoring of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene.

  20. The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and Myrcene—Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex O. Okaru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new evidence from animal and human studies. Furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene are potential human carcinogens due to be evaluated. The major source of furfuryl alcohol in foods is thermal processing and ageing of alcoholic beverages, while β-myrcene occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of plants such as hops, lemongrass, and derived products. This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages using literature review data. Additionally, results of furfuryl alcohol occurrence from our own nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis are included. The highest content of furfuryl alcohol was found in coffee beans (>100 mg/kg and in some fish products (about 10 mg/kg, while among beverages, wines contained between 1 and 10 mg/L, with 8 mg/L in pineapple juice. The content of β-myrcene was highest in hops. In conclusion, the data about the occurrence of the two agents is currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment. The results of this study point out the food and beverage groups that may be considered for future monitoring of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene.

  1. Radioactive contamination in imported foods (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Kimiko; Maki, Toshio; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawai, Yuka; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Maki; Shioda, Hiroko; Nishima, Taichiro

    1991-01-01

    Five years have elapsed since the Chernobyl accident, but the effect of radioactivity contamination to foods has continued. Also in Japan, the imported foods which were ordered by the Ministry of Health and Welfare to be sent back due to radioactivity contamination do not cease. In fiscal year 1990, three cases occurred: tea from Albania, mushrooms from Yugoslavia and spices from france. If those are not checked at quarantines, it is feared that such foods are distributed in Japan. Among the foods which were ordered to be sent back in the past, there were those from Brazil and Hong Kong where the effect of the Chernobyl accident is little, and the foods contaminated with radioactivity spread worldwide through import and export. Therefore, attention must be paid to the foods from the countries where radioactivity contamination is little. Also it is feared that Japanese foods may be contaminated by being cultivated with imported feed, soil and fertilizer, for which there is no regulation. In this report, the radioactivity contamination of imported foods in fiscal year 1990 is described, and the experimental method and the results are reported. (K.I.)

  2. The use of plants containing genotoxic carcinogens as foods and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Gerhard; Nogemane, Noluyolo; Street, Renee

    2018-04-05

    In many developing countries, populations rely on traditional medicine for primary health care, which have infiltrated commercial markets globally as natural remedies are generally regarded as safe. Traditional and natural remedies are adapted and expanded in commercial products and product ranges to provide alternatives for various diseases and illnesses. These products resemble very little of the traditional use and application and adverse effects are observed in several cases. Some of the herbs and botanical formulations therefore, are not as safe as are commonly contemplated. This paper discusses some plants that are used as food or medicine. These plants are known to contain chemical components that have been identified as genotoxic carcinogens. Often contradictory results are obtained with beneficial and adverse effects reported. The concentration, biotransformation and metabolism of these compounds, as well as the matrix effect, affect the outcome of these results, therefore not providing a clear picture of the risk associated with the use and consumption of these plants. This paper focuses on plants that are accepted as healthy, however contain compounds that are genotoxic and carcinogenic. We further highlight the risks in use of these plants where thorough studies have been conducted in various food and plant products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of certain contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various contaminants or groups of contaminants in food. The first part of the report contains a brief description of general considerations addressed at the meeting, including updates on matters of interest to the work of the Committee. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and/or dietary exposure data for six contaminants or groups of contaminants (aflatoxins, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, fumonisins, glycidyl esters, 3-MCPD esters and 3-MCPD, sterigmatocystin) as well as an evaluation of co-exposure of fumonisins with aflatoxins. Annexed to the report is a summary of the toxicological and dietary exposure information as well as the Committee’s recommendations on the contaminants and groups of contaminants considered at this meeting.

  4. Residues of carcinogenic animal drugs in food: difficulties in evaluation of human safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A

    1979-01-01

    The indisputable need to intensify animal production in order to provide an adequate food supply for the world population involves the use of substances that are highly potent pharmacologically and toxicologically. The history of regulatory action with regard to such additives is similar to that for other substances: first, no regulation; next, an over-reaction; and now decisions based on judicious evaluation of scientific facts. One factor that differentiates the chemicals used in animal production from other food additives is that both the parent compounds and their metabolites appear in edible products, posing problems both for the analytical detection and safety evaluation of such residues. It would be unrealistic to propose 'zero' tolerances for these additives, even if they are carcinogenic. The benefits gained from drugs that cure and prevent infections and parasitic diseases in food-producing animals, and the fact that analytical methods can now detect very small quantities make the presence of low levels of these substances in food unobjectionable.

  5. Review of PAH contamination in food products and their health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vasudha; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Public concern over the deleterious effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has grown rapidly due to recognition of their toxicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity. The aim of this review is to describe the status of PAH pollution among different food types, the route of dietary intake, measures for its reduction, and legislative approaches to control PAH. To this end, a comprehensive review is outlined to evaluate the status of PAH contamination in many important food categories along with dietary recommendations. Our discussion is also extended to describe preventive measures to reduce PAH in food products to help reduce the risks associated with human intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spectral imaging for contamination detection in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Jens Michael

    application of the technique is finding anomalies I supposedly homogeneous matter or homogeneous mixtures. This application occurs frequently in the food industry when different types of contamination are to be detected. Contaminants could be e.g. foreign matter, process-induced toxins, and microbiological...... spoilage. Many of these contaminants may be detected in the wavelength range visible to normal silicium-based camera sensors i.e. 350-1050 nm with proper care during sample preparation, sample presentation, image acquisition and analysis. This presentation will give an introduction to the techniques behind...

  7. 75 FR 79320 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... carcinogenic concern used in food-producing animals. Specifically, the Agency is clarifying the definition of ``S o '' and revising the definition of ``S m '' so that it conforms to the clarified definition of S... to induce cancer in man or animals. However, each clause contains an exception, termed the...

  8. Impact of beta-naphthoflavone on genotoxicity of food-derived carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodek, Petr; Krizkova, Jitka; Frei, Eva; Singh, Rajinder; Arlt, Volker M; Stiborova, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are carcinogens, which frequently occur in the human diet. Their metabolic activation to reactive species binding to DNA is mediated by cytochromes P450 (CYPs) 1A1 and 1A2. Thus, levels and activities of these CYPs are crucial for initiation of BaP- and PhPI-mediated carcinogenesis. Here, the effect of CYP1A1/2 induction due to their prototype flavonoid inducer, β-naphthoflavone (BNF), on BaP- and PhPI-derived DNA adduct formation in rats was examined. Male rats pretreated with BNF were treated with a single dose of either carcinogen by oral gavage. Nuclease P1 version of 32P-postlabeling assay and online column-switching liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry were used to detect and quantify covalent DNA adducts formed by BaP and PhIP in-vivo, respectively. Expression of CYP1A1/2 enzymes was examined by Western blot. Enzymatic activities of CYP1A1/2 were assessed using their marker substrates (ethoxyresorufin and methoxyresorufin). Treatment of rats with a single dose of BNF produced an increase in levels CYP1A1/2 and CYP1A1 proteins in liver and small intestine, respectively. An increase in CYP1A1 protein expression found in both organs correlated well with specific activities of these CYPs. The CYP1A1 expression levels and its specific activity in small intestine decreased along the length of the organ, being highest in its proximal part and lowest in its distal part. The BNF induction of CYP1A1/2 resulted in a significant increase in the formation of BaP- and PhIP-DNA adducts in liver and in the distal part of the small intestine, respectively. Thus, pretreatment of rats with BNF did not prevent the PhIP and BaP activation, but vice versa, enhanced their genotoxicity. The results of this study demonstrate that the administration of only a single dose of CYP-inducing flavonoid prior to the intake of food carcinogens may increase the risk of a tumor

  9. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and a food contaminant with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for seven food additives (advantame; glucoamylase from Trichoderma reesei expressed in Trichoderma reesei; glycerol ester of gum rosin; glycerol ester of tall oil rosin; glycerol ester of wood rosin; nisin; and octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic) and an assessment of dietary exposure to cadmium from cocoa and cocoa products. Specifications for the following food additives were revised: annatto extracts (solvent-extracted bixin and solvent-extracted norbixin); Benzoe tonkinensis; food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon; mineral oil (medium viscosity); modified starches; paprika extract; phosphates (analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus and revision of specifications); 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; potassium aluminium silicate; and potassium aluminium silicate-based pearlescent pigments. Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of the food additives and contaminant considered.

  10. Reduction of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole in a caramel model system: influence of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seulgi; Ka, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-07-09

    The effect of various food additives on the formation of carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole (4-MI) in a caramel model system was investigated. The relationship between the levels of 4-MI and various pyrazines was studied. When glucose and ammonium hydroxide were heated, the amount of 4-MI was 556 ± 1.3 μg/mL, which increased to 583 ± 2.6 μg/mL by the addition of 0.1 M of sodium sulfite. When various food additives, such as 0.1 M of iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, tryptophan, and cysteine were added, the amount of 4-MI was reduced to 110 ± 0.7, 483 ± 2.0, 460 ± 2.0, 409 ± 4.4, and 397 ± 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The greatest reduction, 80%, occurred with the addition of iron sulfate. Among the 12 pyrazines, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine with 4-MI showed the highest correlation (r = -0.8239).

  11. Real and perceived risks for mycotoxin contamination in foods and feeds: challenges for food safety control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Dragan R; Skrinjar, Marija; Baltić, Tatjana

    2010-04-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic compounds, produced by the secondary metabolism of toxigenic moulds in the Aspergillus, Alternaria, Claviceps, Fusarium, Penicillium and Stachybotrys genera occurring in food and feed commodities both pre- and post-harvest. Adverse human health effects from the consumption of mycotoxins have occurred for many centuries. When ingested, mycotoxins may cause a mycotoxicosis which can result in an acute or chronic disease episode. Chronic conditions have a much greater impact, numerically, on human health in general, and induce diverse and powerful toxic effects in test systems: some are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, estrogenic, hemorrhagic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, dermotoxic and neurotoxic. Although mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products still occurs in the developed world, the application of modern agricultural practices and the presence of a legislatively regulated food processing and marketing system have greatly reduced mycotoxin exposure in these populations. However, in developing countries, where climatic and crop storage conditions are frequently conducive to fungal growth and mycotoxin production, much of the population relies on subsistence farming or on unregulated local markets. Therefore both producers and governmental control authorities are directing their efforts toward the implementation of a correct and reliable evaluation of the real status of contamination of a lot of food commodity and, consequently, of the impact of mycotoxins on human and animal health.

  12. Analytical strategies for organic food packaging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, Yovana; Yusà, Vicent; Coscollà, Clara

    2017-03-24

    In this review, we present current approaches in the analysis of food-packaging contaminants. Gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection have been widely used in the analysis of some relevant families of these compounds such as primary aromatic amines, bisphenol A, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and related compounds, UV-ink photoinitiators, perfluorinated compounds, phthalates and non-intentionally added substances. Main applications for sample treatment and different types of food-contact material migration studies have been also discussed. Pressurized Liquid Extraction, Solid-Phase Microextraction, Focused Ultrasound Solid-Liquid Extraction and Quechers have been mainly used in the extraction of food contact material (FCM) contaminants, due to the trend of minimising solvent consumption, automatization of sample preparation and integration of extraction and clean-up steps. Recent advances in analytical methodologies have allowed unequivocal identification and confirmation of these contaminants using Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) through mass accuracy and isotopic pattern applying. LC-HRMS has been used in the target analysis of primary aromatic amines in different plastic materials, but few studies have been carried out applying this technique in post-target and non-target analysis of FCM contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary factors, food contamination and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; He, X.Z.; Liu, L.Z.; Lai, H.; Chen, W.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States). Occupational & Environmental Epidemiology Branch

    2008-09-15

    In rural Xuanwei County, China, the high incidence of lung cancer is attributable largely to burning smoky coal indoors for heating and cooking without adequate ventilation. Such burning generates very high levels of indoor air pollutants, including carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which could contaminate foodstuffs in the home. Thus, residents could be exposed to carcinogenic coal emissions not only via inhalation but also via ingestion of these foodstuffs. A population-based case-control study of 498 lung cancer patients and 498 controls was conducted from 1985 through 1990 in Xuanwei. The interviewer-administered study questionnaire queried the frequency of food items commonly consumed in this region. Overall and sex-specific multiple logistic regression models were constructed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for consumption of these foods. Intake of rice, green vegetables, mushrooms and fresh meat was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. In contrast, intake of corn, buckwheat, radishes, peppers, melons, pickled vegetables, and salt-preserved meats was associated with reduced risk. The detrimental. effect of ingesting green vegetables (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.28-4.48) is consistent with previous reports. These findings suggest that in Xuanwei, food contamination by environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may be an important risk factor for lung cancer, and that differential contamination of foods by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons possibly explained the different associations with lung cancer risk.

  14. Contamination of foods by radioactive rains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obo, F; Wakamatsu, C; Nakae, Y; Higasayama, S

    1955-01-01

    The radioactivities of various vegetable foods contaminated by radioactive rains in May, 1954, in the Kagoshima Area were detected. Tea showed especially high radioactivities which could be extracted with hot water. Radioactive Nb, Zr, Hf, Ce, Y, Pr, and La were detected in the hot water extractions of tea by ion-exchange chromatography. The partial contribution of /sup 40/K in these radioactive vegetables was critically examined.

  15. Arsenic contamination in food chain: Thread to food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar Azad Kashyap, Chandra; Singh, Swati

    2017-04-01

    The supply of good quality food is a necessity for economic and social health welfare of urban and rural population. Over the last several decades groundwater contamination in developing countries has assumed dangerous levels as a result millions of people are at risk. This is so particularly with respect to arsenic that has registered high concentration in groundwater in countries like India and Bangladesh. The arsenic content in groundwater varies from 10 to 780 µg/L, which is far above the levels for drinking water standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently arsenic has entered in food chain due to irrigation with arsenic contaminated water. In the present study reports the arsenic contamination in groundwater that is being used for irrigating paddy in Manipur and West Bengal. The arsenic content in irrigation water is 475 µg/L and 780 µg/L in Manipur and West Bengal, respectively. In order to assess the effect of such waters on the rice crop, we collected rice plant from Manipur and determined the arsenic content in roots, stem, and grain. The arsenic content in grain varies from 110 to 190 mg/kg while the limit of arsenic intake by humans is 10 mg/kg (WHO). This problem is not confine to the area, it spread global level, and rice being cultivated in these regions is export to the other countries like USA, Middle East and Europe and will be thread to global food security.

  16. Arsenic contamination in food chain: Thread to global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is a necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population. Over the last several decades groundwater contamination in developing countries has assumed dangerous levels as a result millions of people are at risk. This is so particularly with respect to arsenic that has registered high concentration in groundwater in countries like India and Bangladesh. The arsenic content in groundwater varies from 10 to 780 µg/L, which is far above the levels for drinking water standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently arsenic has entered in food chain due to irrigation with arsenic contaminated water. In the present study reports the arsenic contamination in groundwater that is being used for irrigating paddy in Manipur and West Bengal. The arsenic content in irrigation water is 475 µg/L and 780 µg/L in Manipur and West Bengal, respectively. In order to assess the effect of such waters on the rice crop, we collected rice plant from Manipur and determined the arsenic content in roots, stem, and grain. The arsenic content in grain varies from 110 to 190 mg/kg while the limit of arsenic intake by humans is 10 mg/kg (WHO). This problem is not confine to the area, it spread global level, and rice being cultivated in these regions is export to the other countries like USA, Middle East and Europe and will be thread to global food security.

  17. Potential contaminants in the food chain: identification, prevention and issue management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Francis P

    2007-01-01

    Contaminants are a vast subject area of food safety and quality. They are generally divided into chemical, microbiological and physical classes and are present in our food chain from raw materials to finished products. They are the subject of international and national legislation that has widened to cover more and more contaminant classes and food categories. In addition, consumers have become increasingly aware of and alarmed by their risks, whether rightly or not. What is the food industry doing to ensure the safety and quality of the products we feed our children? This is a valid question which this article attempts to address from an industrial viewpoint. Chemical food safety is considered a complex field where the risk perception of consumers is often the highest. The effects of chronic or acute exposure to chemical carcinogens may cause disease conditions long after exposure that can be permanently debilitating or even fatal. It is also a moving target, as knowledge about the toxicity and occurrence data of new chemical contaminants continues to be generated. Their identification, prevention and management are challenges to the food industry as a whole. A reminder of the known chemical hazards in the food chain will be presented with an emphasis on the use of early warning to identify potential new contaminants. Early warning is also a means of prevention, anticipating food safety concerns before they become issues to manage. Current best management practices including Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points relating to the supply chain of baby foods and infant formulae will be developed. Finally, key lessons from a case study on recent contamination issues in baby food products will be presented.

  18. Heavy metal contamination in canned foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, W.A.; Flex, H.; Allan, K.F.; Mahmoud, R.M.; Abdel-Haleem, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The work carried out in this paper aims to the study of contamination of different foodstuffs, that are consumed frequently in our daily life, such as tomatoes concentrate, jam, tuna, and bean, as a result of canning in glass or tin cans. The effect of the storage time on the contamination of the aforementioned foods with heavy metals was also investigated. The technique used for the simultaneous determination of these elements was the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique was selected due to its high accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity. In the light of the obtained results it was suggested that tin cans is the best choice for canning jam and it is suitable also for preserving tuna. On the other hand, glass utensils were found to be the most suitable for preserving tomatoes concentrate. detailed studies are needed to throw more light on the effect of canning material on the concentration level of both essential and toxic trace elements in bean

  19. Development of irradiation technique on controlling food contamination residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Xiong Shanbai; Xiong Guangquan; Cheng Wei; Chen Yuxia; Liao Tao; Li Xin; Lin Ruotai

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the researches of irradiation technology on controlling food mycotoxin, pesticide, veterinary drugs and fishery drugs residue was summarized. And the degradation rate, mechanism, products and toxicities of food contamination were expatiated. The free radical from irradiation attack the site of weaker bond, and the less or more toxic substances were produced, which lead to the degradation of the food contamination. The limitations and future application of irradiation technique on controlling food contamination were also analyzed. (authors)

  20. Radioactive contamination in environment and food in Poland in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Muszynski, W.; Petrykowska, M.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Wilgos, J.

    1993-01-01

    The level analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environment and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1992. The results were compared to the data from 1985-1991 period. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been stated. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tap and surface water were at the level of 1985. Still higher contamination level of cesium isotopes in soil has been reported and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly the animal food. Actually, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. The average effective dose equivalent, due to the contaminated food consumption, was estimated at the level 15 μSv for a Pole in 1992. (author). 13 refs, 6 figs, 20 tabs

  1. Effects of processing techniques on the radioactive contamination of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Delmas, J.; Grauby, A.

    Following contamination of cultures of rice, grapes and various vegetables by 90 Sr and 137 Cs, the effect of processing and cooking techniques on the contamination of the food-stuff was investigated [fr

  2. An estimation of the carcinogenic risk associated with the intake of multiple relevant carcinogens found in meat and charcuterie products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Almeida-González, Maira; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valeron, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between excessive meat consumption and the incidence of various cancers, especially colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that environmental carcinogens present in meat might be related to the increased risk of cancer associated with this food. However, there are no studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of meat in relation to its content of carcinogens. Our purpose was to emphasize the relevance of environmental carcinogens existing in meat as a determinant of the association between cancer and meat consumption. Because within Europe, Spain shows high consumption of meat and charcuterie, we performed this study focusing on Spanish population. Based on the preferences of consumers we acquired 100 samples of meat and charcuterie that reflect the variety available in the European market. We quantified in these samples the concentration of 33 chemicals with calculated carcinogenic potential (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCBs). The carcinogenic risk of these contaminants was assessed for each food using a risk ratio based on the current consumption of meat and charcuterie and the maximum tolerable intake of these foods depending on the level of contamination by the carcinogens they contain. Our results indicate that the current consumption of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and "chorizo", represents a relevant carcinogenic risk for consumers (carcinogenic risk quotient between 1.33 and 13.98). In order to reduce carcinogenic risk, the study population should halve the monthly consumption of these foods, and also not to surpass the number of 5 servings of beef/pork/chicken (considered together). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine ...

  4. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on nitrofurans and their metabolites in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    and carcinogenic and, also, have non-neoplastic effects in animals. Margins of exposure (MOEs) were calculated at 2.0 × 105 or greater for carcinogenicity and at 2.5 × 103 or greater for non-neoplastic effects. The CONTAM Panel concluded that it is unlikely that exposure to food contaminated with nitrofuran marker...... metabolites at or below 1.0 µg/kg is a health concern. A scenario in which foods are considered to be contaminated with semicarbazide, from use of carrageenan as a food additive, at 1 µg/kg was used to assess whether it is appropriate to apply the RPA to foods of non-animal origin; MOEs of greater than 104......Nitrofurans are antimicrobial agents not authorised for use in food-producing animals in the European Union. Nitrofurans are rapidly metabolised, occurring in animal tissues as protein-bound metabolites. The European Commission requested EFSA to provide a scientific opinion on the risks to human...

  5. Critical effective methods to detect genotoxic carcinogens and neoplasm-promoting agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Weisburger, J H; Williams, G M

    1991-01-01

    Neoplasia in fish can result from contamination of waters with carcinogens and promoters. Cancer in fish, therefore, is a possible indicator of cancer risk to man and serves as a guide to the need for preventive approaches involving improved means of waste disposal and environmental hygiene. Moreover, cancer in fish indicates that this important food source may be contaminated. Detection of genotoxic carcinogens to which fish are exposed can be achieved quickly and efficiently by carefully se...

  6. Heavy metals contamination: implications for health and food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulieth C. Reyes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contamination by heavy metals in water resources, soil and air poses one of the most severe problems that compromise food safety and public health at global and local level. In this review, the specific problem of contamination by mercury (Hg, arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in the environment and food is presented. A description of the sources of contamination, exposure in living beings, accumulation and retention in food and consumer products is carried out. Study cases and results in some countries included Colombia are discussed.

  7. Food Safety and Chemical Contaminants: An Overview a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is a major consumer’s concern worldwide. Although several incidences of food poisoning have placed microbial contamination on the forefront during recent years, health risks due to chemical contamination still remain high. The most often cited chemical contaminants are derived from a variety of sources such as pesticides, environmental chemicals (PCBs. dioxin, heavy metals including lead, mercury, chemical contaminants as a result of food processing (acrylamide, nitrosamines etc., naturally occurring toxicants (glycoalkaloids, mycotoxins, antinutritives etc, chemicals migrating from packaging materials, veterinary drugs and other chemical residues. In addition to the presence of unintentional contaminants, the quality and safety of foods could also be compromised by the addition of certain food additives, phytonutrients, exposure to irradiation and other substances. Food processors and the regulatory and enforcement agencies are facing an ever-increasing challenge to meet the consumer’s demands for safe foods that do not pose health risks or alter their lifestyle. As the food trade expands throughout the world, food safety has become a shared concern among both the developed and developing countries. Although food control systems do exist in the countries of Gulf region, in most of the cases they are not in line with national and international needs and are not able to cope with the new challenges of the modern era. The most appropriate methods to ensure the safety of food supplies are the strengthening of regular surveillance systems, developing methods for the systematic application of risk analysis, risk assessment and risk management strategies, and timely communication of information to develop and enforce the appropriate food safety laws globally as well as the development of international and national cooperation. This paper reviews issues, challenges and solutions to achieve food safety with respect to chemical

  8. The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belpomme, D.; Irigaray, P.; Hardell, L.; Clapp, R.; Montagnier, L.; Epstein, S.; Sasco, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We have recently proposed that lifestyle-related factors, screening and aging cannot fully account for the present overall growing incidence of cancer. In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). We thus analyze the carcinogenic effect of microorganisms (including viruses), radiations (including radioactivity, UV and pulsed electromagnetic fields) and xenochemicals. Chemicals related to environmental pollution appear to be of critical importance, since they can induce occupational cancers as well as other cancers. Of major concerns are: outdoor air pollution by carbon particles associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; indoor air pollution by environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds such as benzene and 1,3 butadiene, which may particularly affect children, and food pollution by food additives and by carcinogenic contaminants such as nitrates, pesticides, dioxins and other organochlorines. In addition, carcinogenic metals and metalloids, pharmaceutical medicines and cosmetics may be involved. Although the risk fraction attributable to environmental factors is still unknown, this long list of carcinogenic and especially mutagenic factors supports our working hypothesis according to which numerous cancers may in fact be caused by the recent modification of our environment

  9. Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nleya

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries with very little information with regards to mycotoxin contamination of its food commodities, both on the market and at household levels. Even though evidence of multitoxin occurrence in some food commodities such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON, trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA. Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing for mycotoxin contamination in food commodities being done voluntarily or upon request. Therefore, the country needs to tighten its legislation as well as adopt stricter standards that will improve the food safety and security of the masses.

  10. Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nleya, Nancy; Adetunji, Modupeade Christianah; Mwanza, Mulunda

    2018-05-03

    Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem. Zimbabwe is one of the African countries with very little information with regards to mycotoxin contamination of its food commodities, both on the market and at household levels. Even though evidence of multitoxin occurrence in some food commodities such as maize and other staple foods exist, available published research focuses only on Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins, namely aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone (ZEA). Occurrence of mycotoxins in the food chain has been mainly associated with poor agricultural practices. Analysis of mycotoxins has been done mainly using chromatographic and immunological methods. Zimbabwe has adopted European standards, but the legislation is quite flexible, with testing for mycotoxin contamination in food commodities being done voluntarily or upon request. Therefore, the country needs to tighten its legislation as well as adopt stricter standards that will improve the food safety and security of the masses.

  11. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1998. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1997. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 33% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 13 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1998. (author)

  12. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.; Wilgos, J.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1997. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1996. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 35% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose equivalent, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 13 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1997. (author)

  13. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.; Wilgos, J.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1996. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1995. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 40% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose equivalent, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 14 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1996. (author)

  14. Protection against radioactive contamination of food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Due to contaminating effects from nuclear explosions and nuclear power plants, the systematic investigation of environmental radioactive contamination is absolutely necessary. In order to reduce the artificial radiation dose to which the human body is exposed, isotope content of foods and agricultural products should be known. The authors evaluate the decontamination possibilities of food produced from vegetable and animal products, starting from the contamination of some products. For vegetable product decontamination the use of suitable fertilizers, thorough scrubbing in excess water and, for cereals, milling is proposed. As the most effective preventive measure of radiation contamination of food products of animal origin, appropriate packing is proposed. The storage and preservation problems are emphasized for short half-life radiation contamination. (P.J.)

  15. Radioactive contamination of food and the intake by man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frissel, M.J.; Blaauboer, R.O.; Koester, H.W.; Leenhouts, H.P.; Stoutjesdijk, J.F.; Vaas, L.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the different pathways by which food is contaminated after a release of radionuclides into the environment. Equations to calculate the contamination level, as well as the most important parameters used in these equations, are included. Thereupon is explained how the radiation dose can be calculated from the intake of radioactivity. The principles which are used to derive criteria for the amounts of radioactivity which are allowed in food are described. (author)

  16. Radio contamination control on imported food. The bilberry case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappa, S.; Calabrese, M.; Stancher, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper was pointed out the European regulation concerning the permissible limits of 137 Cs contamination in food importation, from countries affected by the consequences of the Chernobyl accident of 1986. A discussion about the control systems is lead and original data concerning the importation of the fruits of bilberry, a species particularly sensitive to radio contamination, are reported [it

  17. Cross-contamination of foods and implications for food allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L

    2010-07-01

    Cross-contamination presents a risk of unknown magnitude for food allergic consumers. Published cases likely represent the tip of a rather large iceberg. Cross-contamination can occur in homes, restaurants, food manufacturing plants, and on farms. The frequency of cross-contamination as the cause of accidental exposures to allergenic foods is unknown. Food allergic individuals can react to ingestion of trace levels of the offending food, although a highly variable range of threshold doses exist among populations of food allergic individuals. The magnitude of the risk posed to food allergic consumers by cross-contamination is characterized by the frequency of exposure to cross-contaminated foods, the dose of exposure, and the individual's threshold dose. The food and food service industry (and food preparers in homes as well) have the responsibility to provide and prepare foods that are safe for food allergic consumers, but quality of life may be improved with the recognition that safe (though very low) thresholds do exist.

  18. Effective sampling strategy to detect food and feed contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouzembrak, Yamine; Fels, van der Ine

    2018-01-01

    Sampling plans for food safety hazards are aimed to be used to determine whether a lot of food is contaminated (with microbiological or chemical hazards) or not. One of the components of sampling plans is the sampling strategy. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three

  19. Contamination of Ethiopian paper currency notes from various food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contamination rate of Ethiopian paper currency notes handled by various food handlers with E. coli and antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed. A total of 384 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) notes were randomly sampled from meat handlers at butchers, bread and the related food handlers at cafeteria, fruit and vegetables handlers ...

  20. Contaminants in food supplements and associated health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary

    Through the increasing use and availability of food supplements on the market, safety Aconcerns relating to the safety of these food supplements are growing as well. The aim of the present PhD thesis was to investigate the presence and actual levels of contaminants of

  1. Protection against radioactive contamination of foods and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Methods suitable for diminishing radioactive contamination of foods and agricultural products and reducing at the same time the irradiation hazards for the human organism are dealt with. The possibilities for the decontamination of foods vegetal and of animal origin are discussed separately. (author)

  2. A review of mammalian carcinogenicity study design and potential effects of alternate test procedures on the safety evaluation of food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A W; Dayan, A D; Hall, W C; Kodell, R L; Williams, G M; Waddell, W D; Slesinski, R S; Kruger, C L

    2011-06-01

    Extensive experience in conducting long term cancer bioassays has been gained over the past 50 years of animal testing on drugs, pesticides, industrial chemicals, food additives and consumer products. Testing protocols for the conduct of carcinogenicity studies in rodents have been developed in Guidelines promulgated by regulatory agencies, including the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration), the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) for the EU member states and the MAFF (Ministries of Agriculture, Forestries and Fisheries) and MHW (Ministry of Health and Welfare) in Japan. The basis of critical elements of the study design that lead to an accepted identification of the carcinogenic hazard of substances in food and beverages is the focus of this review. The approaches used by entities well-known for carcinogenicity testing and/or guideline development are discussed. Particular focus is placed on comparison of testing programs used by the US National Toxicology Program (NTP) and advocated in OECD guidelines to the testing programs of the European Ramazzini Foundation (ERF), an organization with numerous published carcinogenicity studies. This focus allows for a good comparison of differences in approaches to carcinogenicity testing and allows for a critical consideration of elements important to appropriate carcinogenicity study designs and practices. OECD protocols serve as good standard models for carcinogenicity testing protocol design. Additionally, the detailed design of any protocol should include attention to the rationale for inclusion of particular elements, including the impact of those elements on study interpretations. Appropriate interpretation of study results is dependent on rigorous evaluation of the study design and conduct, including differences from standard practices. Important considerations are differences in the strain of animal used, diet and housing practices, rigorousness

  3. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  4. Radioactive contamination of the biosphere and consequences for food supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with all aspects of radioactive contamination of the biosphere and corresponding consequences for food supply. In particular, releases of radioactivity by nuclear weapon tests in the early 60's and nuclear accidents in recent years are discussed. Contamination of food in the Federal Republic of Germany by these events and corresponding ingestion dose are demonstrated using examples. Furthermore diffusion of radionuclides and their transfer through the food chains to man are described. Suitable methods of decontamination at different production steps and their viability are discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Dietary Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Bruce N.

    1983-01-01

    Describes 16 mutagens/carcinogens found in plant food and coffee as well as several anticarcinogens also found in such food. Speculates on relevant biochemical mechanisms, particularly the role of oxygen radicals and their inhibitors in the fat/cancer relationship, promotion, anticarcinogenesis, and aging. (JN)

  6. Estimation of the furan contamination across the Belgian food chain

    OpenAIRE

    Scholl , Georges; Scippo , Marie-Louise; Eppe , Gauthier; De Pauw , Edwin; Saegerman , Claude

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The current paper provides the estimate of the furan content in Belgian foods. The objective of the study was to achieve the best food chain coverage with a restrictive number of samples (n=496). The geographic distribution, the different market chains and labels, but also the consumption frequencies were taken into account for the sampling plan construction. Weighting factors on contamination levels, consumption frequency and diversity of food items were applied to set ...

  7. Modeling Chronic Versus Acute Human Risk from Contaminants in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Carriquiry, Alicia L.; Jensen, Helen H.; Nusser, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of policies and regulations to address food safety concerns depends critically on appropriate assessment of health risk in foods. This paper evaluates the methods for assessing the population's exposure to a hazardous substance or contaminant in food and some aspects of the quantification of risk. We review current federal programmatic approaches to risk assessment and potential problems with these approaches. After developing procedures for estimating exposures of individuals...

  8. Lifetime excess cancer risk due to carcinogens in food and beverages: Urban versus rural differences in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheasley, Roslyn; Keller, C Peter; Setton, Eleanor

    2017-09-14

    To explore differences in urban versus rural lifetime excess risk of cancer from five specific contaminants found in food and beverages. Probable contaminant intake is estimated using Monte Carlo simulations of contaminant concentrations in combination with dietary patterns. Contaminant concentrations for arsenic, benzene, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) were derived from government dietary studies. The dietary patterns of 34 944 Canadians from 10 provinces were available from Health Canada's Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, Nutrition (2004). Associated lifetime excess cancer risk (LECR) was subsequently calculated from the results of the simulations. In the calculation of LECR from food and beverages for the five selected substances, two (lead and PERC) were shown to have excess risk below 10 per million; whereas for the remaining three (arsenic, benzene and PCBs), it was shown that at least 50% of the population were above 10 per million excess cancers. Arsenic residues, ingested via rice and rice cereal, registered the greatest disparity between urban and rural intake, with LECR per million levels well above 1000 per million at the upper bound. The majority of PCBs ingestion comes from meat, with values slightly higher for urban populations and LECR per million estimates between 50 and 400. Drinking water is the primary contributor of benzene intake in both urban and rural populations, with LECR per million estimates of 35 extra cancers in the top 1% of sampled population. Overall, there are few disparities between urban and rural lifetime excess cancer risk from contaminants found in food and beverages. Estimates could be improved with more complete Canadian dietary intake and concentration data in support of detailed exposure assessments in estimating LECR.

  9. New considerations on hydrogen peroxide and related substances as food additives in view of carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, R

    1982-01-01

    The use of hydrogen peroxide as a labile and safe food preservative in fish cake and boiled noodles has recently been restricted by the Japanese government, since hyperplasia has been found in the duodenum of mice after long-term peroral study. The action of compounds with resembling mode of action, potassium bromate as an improving agent in bread, and sodium chlorate as a weed killer are discussed in this paper in view of developmental and environmental pharmacology.

  10. Study on the interaction of chemopreventive compounds and food born carcinogens with cytochrome P450 enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Brabencová, Eliška

    2013-01-01

    The use of food supplements containing natural chemopreventive compounds increased in recent years. Some of the most popular chemopreventive compounds are flavonoids. Due to their natural origin, flavonoids are generally accepted as safe compounds. They exert antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. However, flavonoids should be considered as foreign compounds (xenobiotics). Flavonoids interact with many enzymes, among the most important belong cytochromes P450 (CYPs), key e...

  11. Formation and reduction of carcinogenic furan in various model systems containing food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Sil; Her, Jae-Young; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to analyse and reduce furan in various model systems. Furan model systems consisting of monosaccharides (0.5M glucose and ribose), amino acids (0.5M alanine and serine) and/or 1.0M ascorbic acid were heated at 121°C for 25 min. The effects of food additives (each 0.1M) such as metal ions (iron sulphate, magnesium sulphate, zinc sulphate and calcium sulphate), antioxidants (BHT and BHA), and sodium sulphite on the formation of furan were measured. The level of furan formed in the model systems was 6.8-527.3 ng/ml. The level of furan in the model systems of glucose/serine and glucose/alanine increased 7-674% when food additives were added. In contrast, the level of furan decreased by 18-51% in the Maillard reaction model systems that included ribose and alanine/serine with food additives except zinc sulphate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of plastic scintillator based food radioactivity contamination monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parihar, A.; Sahani, R.M.; Mahala, V.K.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactivity is naturally present in soil, water and food stuffs. Food can be contaminated after discharge of radioactivity into the environment from industries that concentrate natural radionuclide and from civil or military nuclear operations. The contamination can be in three ways; by direct deposition, through the food chain and induced radioactivity due to exposure of high neutron flux. The health effects on human depend on the type of radionuclide and the length of time people are exposed to it. The studies of fission product behaviour in the food chain have revealed radionuclide Strontium-90, Caesium 137 and Iodine-131 are of major concern. Plastic scintillator is already developed indigenously at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur. Efforts has been made to develop a portable field instrument using plastic scintillator for assessment of beta ( 90 Sr) and gamma ( 137 Cs and 131 I) radioactivity in food

  13. The Control of Food Contaminants - Improving Food Safety, Protecting Consumers and Facilitating Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasanya, James

    2014-01-01

    People need safe and wholesome food and the joint FAO/IAEA Division recognizes this basic requirement in its work with Member Countries. This feature article discusses this issue in terms of the Food and Environmental Protection (FEP) section and laboratory in the area of food contaminants, using examples from our work with countries in the Latin America and the Caribbean region

  14. Traditional and modern Greenlandic food - dietary composition, nutrients and contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Dyerberg, Jørn; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2007-01-01

    , the phenomenon has been known as "The Arctic Dilemma". However, both the fatty acid composition and the contaminant levels vary in Greenlandic food items. Thus in principle it is possible to compose a diet where the benefits and risks are better balanced. Our objectives of this study were to compare traditional......, the intakes of vitamin A, vitamin D, and iron were extremely high and borderline toxic. The levels of contaminants such as organochlorins and heavy metals were also strongly correlated with the relative content of local food in the diet. The best balance between potentially beneficial and harmful substances...... resulting in less adequate nutrient coverage but at the same time lower contaminant load. Thus, we recommend not to increase the consumption of local products beyond the present level but rather to improve the quality of the imported food. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct-1...

  15. Estimation of furan contamination across the Belgian food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, G; Scippo, M-L; De Pauw, E; Eppe, G; Saegerman, C

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of the furan content of Belgian foods. The objective of the study was to achieve the best food chain coverage with a restricted number of samples (n = 496). The geographic distribution, different market chains and labels, and consumption frequencies were taken into account in the construction of the sampling plan. Weighting factors such as contamination levels, consumption frequency and the diversity of food items were applied to set up the model. The very low detection capabilities (CC(β)) of the analytical methods used (sub-ppb) allowed reporting of 78.2% of the overall dataset above CC(β) and, in particular, 96.7% for the baby food category. The highest furan levels were found in powdered roasted bean coffee (1912 µg kg(-1)) with a mean of 756 µg kg(-1) for this category. Prepared meat, pasta and rice, breakfast cereals, soups, and baby food also showed high mean furan contents ranging from 16 to 43 µg kg(-1). Comparisons with contamination surveys carried out in other countries pointed out differences for the same food group and therefore contamination levels are related to the geographical origin of food items.

  16. Smoking out carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, David; Griffiths, Huw; Parker, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Smoked foods are becoming increasingly popular and are being produced by large and small food operations, artisan producers, chefs and consumers themselves. Epidemiological studies conducted over a number of decades have linked the consumption of smoked foods with various cancers and these findings have been supported by animal testing. Smoke contains a group of dangerous carcinogens that are responsible for lung cancer in cigarette smokers and implicated as causative agents for colorectal an...

  17. Listeria monocytogenes in Food-Processing Facilities, Food Contamination, and Human Listeriosis: The Brazilian Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Woodward, Joshua John; Call, Douglas Ruben; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2017-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that contaminates food-processing environments and persists within biofilms on equipment, utensils, floors, and drains, ultimately reaching final products by cross-contamination. This pathogen grows even under high salt conditions or refrigeration temperatures, remaining viable in various food products until the end of their shelf life. While the estimated incidence of listeriosis is lower than other enteric illnesses, infections caused by L. monocytogenes are more likely to lead to hospitalizations and fatalities. Despite the description of L. monocytogenes occurrence in Brazilian food-processing facilities and foods, there is a lack of consistent data regarding listeriosis cases and outbreaks directly associated with food consumption. Listeriosis requires rapid treatment with antibiotics and most drugs suitable for Gram-positive bacteria are effective against L. monocytogenes. Only a minority of clinical antibiotic-resistant L. monocytogenes strains have been described so far; whereas many strains recovered from food-processing facilities and foods exhibited resistance to antimicrobials not suitable against listeriosis. L. monocytogenes control in food industries is a challenge, demanding proper cleaning and application of sanitization procedures to eliminate this foodborne pathogen from the food-processing environment and ensure food safety. This review focuses on presenting the L. monocytogenes distribution in food-processing environment, food contamination, and control in the food industry, as well as the consequences of listeriosis to human health, providing a comparison of the current Brazilian situation with the international scenario.

  18. Carcinogenic Substances Naturrally Occuring in the Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogos Viorel T.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oncogenesis is a result of the combined action of numerous factors peculiar to the body and the environment (the latter are more effective. Among dietary factors directly implied in the occurrence of malignant tumors we can mention: food additives, contaminated food, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines and some components which are naturally present in food. Moreover, food-related malignancies are a consequence of the increased consumption of fats, proteins, alcohol in parallel with decreases in the consumption of dietary fibers and some micronutrients. Carcinogenic substances naturally present in food are of a particular interest for both nutritionist’s and patient’s, usually not being perceived as being harmful.

  19. Long interspersed element-1 is differentially regulated by food-borne carcinogens via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudaira, N; Okamura, T; Tamura, M; Iijma, K; Goto, M; Matsunaga, A; Ochiai, M; Nakagama, H; Kano, S; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y; Ishizaka, Y

    2013-10-10

    A single human cell contains more than 5.0 × 10(5) copies of long interspersed element-1 (L1), 80-100 of which are competent for retrotransposition (L1-RTP). Recent observations have revealed the presence of de novo L1 insertions in various tumors, but little is known about its mechanism. Here, we found that 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), food-borne carcinogens that are present in broiled meats, induced L1-RTP. This induction was dependent on a cellular cascade comprising the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a mitogen-activated protein kinase, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β. Notably, these compounds exhibited differential induction of L1-RTP. MeIQx-induced L1-RTP was dependent on AhR nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1), a counterpart of AhR required for gene expression in response to environmental pollutants. By contrast, PhIP-induced L1-RTP did not require ARNT1 but was dependent on estrogen receptor α (ERα) and AhR repressor. In vivo studies using transgenic mice harboring the human L1 gene indicated that PhIP-induced L1-RTP was reproducibly detected in the mammary gland, which is a target organ of PhIP-induced carcinoma. Moreover, picomolar levels of each compound induced L1-RTP, which is comparable to the PhIP concentration detected in human breast milk. Data suggest that somatic cells possess machineries that induce L1-RTP in response to the carcinogenic compounds. Together with data showing that micromolar levels of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) were non-genotoxic, our observations indicate that L1-RTP by environmental compounds is a novel type of genomic instability, further suggesting that analysis of L1-RTP by HCAs is a novel approach to clarification of modes of carcinogenesis.

  20. Ptaquiloside, the major carcinogen of bracken fern, in the pooled raw milk of healthy sheep and goats: an underestimated, global concern of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, Antonella; Sinisi, Annamaria; Russo, Valeria; Gerardo, Salvatore; Santoro, Adriano; Galeone, Aldo; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Roperto, Franco

    2015-05-20

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is a worldwide plant containing toxic substances, which represent an important chemical hazard for animals, including humans. Ptaquiloside, 1, a norsesquiterpenoid glucoside, is the major carcinogen of bracken detected in the food chain, particularly in the milk from farm animals. To date, ptaquiloside has been shown in the milk of cows feeding on a diet containing bracken fern. This is the first study that shows the systematic detection of ptaquiloside, 1, and reports its direct quantitation in pooled raw milk of healthy sheep and goats grazing on bracken. Ptaquiloside, 1, was detected by a sensitive method based on the chemical conversion of ptaquiloside, 1, into bromopterosine, 4, following gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The presence of ptaquiloside, 1, possibly carcinogenic to humans, in the milk of healthy animals is an unknown potential health risk, thus representing a harmful and potential global concern of food safety.

  1. Escherichia Coli Food Contamination on Three Type of Food Establishment in South Jakarta, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    I Made Djaja

    2008-01-01

    Food with its nutrient constituencies is important and needed by all biological organisms including human live. On theaters hand through food could transfer some of diseases agent that could cause gastro-intestinal disorder and food intoxication. Food contamination prevalence is still height (by E. coli 65.5%) and diarrhea cases 116.075 in 1995, food out break intoxication 31.919 occur in 1997, and with CFR 0.15%. Prospective study has been done in order to identify the E. coli food contamina...

  2. Hygiene intervention reduces contamination of weaning food in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Sirajul; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Gope, Partha Sarathi; Zaman, Rokon Uz; Hossain, Zakir; Islam, Mohammad Shafiqul; Mondal, Dinesh; Sharker, Mohammad Abu Yushuf; Islam, Khairul; Jahan, Hasin; Bhuiya, Abbas; Endtz, Hubert P; Cravioto, Alejandro; Curtis, Valerie; Touré, Ousmane; Cairncross, Sandy

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to measure the impact of a hygiene intervention on the contamination of weaning food in Bangladesh. Sixty households were selected: 30 study and 30 control households. Samples of weaning food were collected from all the 60 households at baseline and examined for faecal coliforms (FC), faecal streptococci (FS) and Clostridium perfringens (CP) following standard procedures. After cooking, food samples were collected on three occasions before feeding. Following Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) procedures, critical control points were determined. The mothers in the 30 study households were then trained for 4 weeks in how to attain the control point conditions. Then, again the food samples were collected and analysed. At baseline, weaning foods from study and control households were heavily contaminated with FC and FS. The FC and FS counts were 1.84 log(10) and 1.92 log(10) colony-forming unit (cfu)/g, respectively, in the study households, and 0.86 log(10) and 1.33 log(10)  cfu/g, respectively, in the control households in the first feeding. After the intervention, the FC and FS counts in study households had dropped to 0.10 log(10) and 0.09 log(10)  cfu/g, respectively, a statistically significant reduction (P food hygiene. A hygiene intervention following the HACCP approach reduced the weaning food contamination significantly. Awareness building among mothers about weaning food hygiene could be an important intervention for preventing weaning food-related diarrhoea in Bangladesh. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF FOOD BORNE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION IN SOME EGYPTIAN FOOD food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Selim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of food borne bacterial contamination in some Egyptian food. Total viable bacteria and total coliform bacteriawere isolated from different sources of food; carbohydrates (bread, flour and basbousa, vegetables (outer and inner tissues of potato and outer and inner tissues of cucumber and proteins (mincedmeat, cheese and milk. The study resulted in maximum value of total viable bacteria found in outer tissue of potato 68X104±1.0, while the minimum value found in inner tissues of potato andcucumber. The study resulted in total coliform was maximum value in minced meat 6.4X103±0.3. Basbousa and inner tissue of potato and cucumber were free from coliforms. The ability of isolatesto producing proteolytic enzymes was tested, we found that 326 isolate (63.92% from all isolates had this ability, thus we selected most 2 potent proteolytic isolates. The two isolates were identifiedas Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. The identification confirmed by microlog 34.20 system and 16SrRNA for two isolates and the same result was founded. Sensitivity tested for the most potentproteolytic species to 12 of the most commonly used antibiotics in the Egyptian pharmacy. The results showed that all species were sensitive to most of antibiotics, except B. cereus which was strongly susceptible to azteronam and ceftazidim. The data showed that raw meat, cooked food products, and raw milk were most commonly contaminated with foodborne pathogens and many pathogens were resistant to different antibiotics. The study provided useful information for assessment of the possible risk posed to consumers, which has significant public health impact.

  4. The Relationships between Selection and Processing Food with Escherichia coli Contaminant on Food Stall Serving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tris Eryando

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli in food stalls surrounding the X Campuss in Depok, year 2012. The research conducted to examine food safety, which were served in surrounding the campus X in Depok. Escherichia coli (E. coli existence was used to indicate the quality of hygiene and sanitation of the food that was served. Using the cross sectional method, the research examined the persons who served the food to be sold in the food stalls in the campus. There were 173 food servers chosen as the respondents from 10 different food stalls around the university. The existence of E. coli examined in the microbiology laboratory in the Faculty of Public Health. Using the most probable number (MPN method found that 59.54% of the food served in the campus were contaminated E. coli. Factors affecting the existence of E. coli were the raw materials (vegetables treated and the length of cooking of the materials (rice/beens. The improper treatment such as washing with no running water or even unwashed vegetables had 5 times risk of the E. coli contamination. Cooking less than 15 minutes was also more risky than cooking more than 15 minutes. As a result, this is very important to find a method to improve knowledge and to increase practical skills in food safety. Furthermore, in this research area may give contribution to avoid E. coli contamination which will prevent unnecessary illness among students in the campus.

  5. Intentional and inadvertent chemical contamination of food, water, and medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCKay, Charles; Scharman, Elizabeth J

    2015-02-01

    Numerous examples of chemical contamination of food, water, or medication have led to steps by regulatory agencies to maintain the safety of this critical social infrastructure and supply chain. Identification of contaminant site is important. Environmental testing and biomonitoring can define the nature and extent of the event and are useful for providing objective information, but may be unavailable in time for clinical care. Clinical diagnosis should be based on toxidrome recognition and assessment of public health implications. There are several resources available to assist and these can be accessed through regional poison control centers or local/state public health departments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preventing intentional food contamination: a survey to assess restaurant preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Kanwat, C P; Qu, Haiyan; Smith, Lillian U; Patterson, Nathaniel J; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    In the age of preparedness, public health agencies are concerned with intentional acts of food contamination in restaurants, in addition to food safety. Food safety consists of applying standard norms of practice and infrastructure, which, if violated, cause food-borne illness. In contrast, food defense requires an institutionalized mindset of informed alertness to unusual variations from the norms, combined with preemptive practices best suited to each restaurant. Therefore, while food safety lends itself to regulation to ensure standard practices, food defense is best served by advisory guidelines for autonomous application, preserving the restaurant industry's core values of hospitality and customer service. To address this challenge, public health agencies need survey tools that can yield action-relevant data on the knowledge and practice gaps in food defense preparedness and on educational messages and support services to be developed for maximum impact potential. This article presents a mail survey instrument, developed using qualitative research to ensure content and face validity. Instrument development involved drafting the survey on the basis of expert consultations, validating its content by using focus groups (representing all restaurant categories and geographic regions), and ensuring face validity through cognitive interviews. The resulting survey remains sensitive to the hospitality industry while encompassing all vulnerable points.

  7. Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, A; Lauwerys, R R

    1980-11-01

    Occupational exposure represents the main source of human contamination by chromium. For non-occupationally exposed people the major environmental exposure to chromium occurs as a consequence of its presence in food. Chromium must be considered as an essential element. Its deficiency impairs glucose metabolism. Trivalent chromium salts are poorly absorbed through the gastro-intestinal and respiratory tracts because they do not cross membranes easily. Hexavalent chromium can be absorbed by the oral and pulmonary routes and probably also through the skin. After its absorption, hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to the trivalent form which is probably the only form to be found in biological material. Epidemiological studies have shown that some chromium salts (mainly the slightly soluble hexavalent salts) are carcinogens. Lung cancers have, indeed, often been reported among workers in chromate-producing industry and, to a lesser extent, in workers from the chrome-pigment industry. The first attempts to produce cancers in experimental animals by inhalation or parenteral introduction gave negative or equivocal results but, from 1960, positive results have been obtained with various chromium compounds. As for the carcinogenic activity, the mutagenicity of chromium has mainly been found with hexavalent salts. In the majority of assay systems used, trivalent chromium appears inactive. It can be considered as evident, however, that the ultimate mutagen which binds to the genetic material is the trivalent form produced intracellularly from hexavalent chromium, the apparent lack of activity of the trivalent form being due to its poor cellular uptake.

  8. The role of biomarkers in evaluating human health concerns from fungal contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul C; Flannery, Brenna; Isitt, Catherine; Ali, Mariyam; Pestka, James

    2012-06-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites that globally contaminate an estimated 25 % of cereal crops and thus exposure is frequent in many populations. Aflatoxins, fumonisins and deoxynivalenol are amongst those mycotoxins of particular concern from a human health perspective. A number of risks to health are suggested including cancer, growth faltering, immune suppression and neural tube defects; though only the demonstrated role for aflatoxin in the aetiology of liver cancer is widely recognised. The heterogeneous distribution of mycotoxins in food restricts the usefulness of food sampling and intake estimates; instead biomarkers provide better tools for informing epidemiological investigations. Validated exposure biomarkers for aflatoxin (urinary aflatoxin M(1), aflatoxin-N7-guaunine, serum aflatoxin-albumin) were established almost 20 years ago and were critical in confirming aflatoxins as potent liver carcinogens. Validation has included demonstration of assay robustness, intake v. biomarker level, and stability of stored samples. More recently, aflatoxin exposure biomarkers are revealing concerns of growth faltering and immune suppression; importantly, they are being used to assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies. For fumonisins and deoxynivalenol these steps of development and validation have significantly advanced in recent years. Such biomarkers should better inform epidemiological studies and thus improve our understanding of their potential risk to human health.

  9. Safeguarding food and food products from radiological contamination through gammametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racho, Joseph Michael D.; Bautista, Angel T.VII; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman DS.; Cuyco, Danilo A.; Jimenez, Gloria R.; Bucal, Camille Grace D.; Morco, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate gammametric analysis in safeguarding food and food products from radioactive contamination caused by a nuclear accident. Different food and food products submitted for analysis from March 2011 to September 2011 were analyzed for Cesium-137, Cesium 134, and Iodine-131 radioactivity levels using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector gamma spectrometer system. Radioactivity levels of the said samples were found to be less than 1-4 Bq/Kg for both Cs-137 and Cs-134, and less than 0.2 - 2 Bq/Kg for I-131, and were found to below the Codex Alimentarius Commission Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Foods Following Accidental Nuclear Contamination for Use in International Trade limits of 1,000 Bq/Kg for the sum of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in feeding stuffs, and that of 100 Bq/Kg for the sum of all isotopes of iodine notably I-131 in feeding stuff. (author)

  10. Design and development of food radioactivity contamination monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Bohra, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Radioactivity has been part and parcel of living being since the existence of the earth. It is available everywhere in our environment and being responsible for evolution of life on earth at some extent. However, the radioactivity in excess of the natural radioactive can have harmful effects on living being. The radiation exposure can be of external or internal origin or of both. The main route of internal radiation exposure is through the contaminated food chains. The concentration of natural radioactivity in food varies in range of 40-600 Bq/kg. 40 K being the single major radionuclide of food with typical radioactivity; 50 Bq/kg in milk, 420 Bq/kg in milk powder, 165 Bq/kg in potatoes, and 125 Bq/kg in beef is also the main contributor of natural radiation doses to human being. Measurement of radioactivity in food items and drinks is thus very important in controlling the internal exposure to human being especially in case of nuclear disaster. Though, the methods and techniques for food radioactivity measurement already existing, the need of portable instrument is warranted to measure the radioactivity in food items in raw form. Measurement of radioactivity may help in quick and mass screening of food items in case of nuclear emergencies. Any enhanced level of radioactivity in food items especially in case of nuclear emergency need to be evaluated for controlling its spread and restriction of consumption by the public. This way, it may help in managing internal radioactivity contamination to human being

  11. Strategies for the detection of food pathogens and contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hearty, Stephen; Leonard, Paul; Sheehan, Alfredo Darmanin

    2006-01-01

    We routinely use Biacore for affinity ranking and kinetic characterisation of diverse panels of hybridoma-derived and recombinant antibodies against a wide range of different clinically relevant antigens for diagnostic applications. Generally the analytes of interest are haptens or defined protei...... to date with using Biacore for analysis of food contaminants and in particular the challenges associated with large analyte detection...... molecules and once suitably high affinity antibodies have been isolated, it is relatively straightforward to design and optimise concentration-based assays using SPR. Recently we have investigated the potential of applying Biacore technology to routine food analysis. Our experiences have shown...... that molecular contaminants such as microbial toxins and drug/pesticide residues translate well onto Biacore-based assay formats. However, larger and more complex entities such as spores and whole bacterial cells represent an altogether more difficult challenge. Here, we present an overview of our experiences...

  12. Strategies for the detection of food pathogens and contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We routinely use Biacore for affinity ranking and kinetic characterisation of diverse panels of hybridoma-derived and recombinant antibodies against a wide range of different clinically relevant antigens for diagnostic applications. Generally the analytes of interest are haptens or defined protei...... to date with using Biacore for analysis of food contaminants and in particular the challenges associated with large analyte detection...... molecules and once suitably high affinity antibodies have been isolated, it is relatively straightforward to design and optimise concentration-based assays using SPR. Recently we have investigated the potential of applying Biacore technology to routine food analysis. Our experiences have shown...... that molecular contaminants such as microbial toxins and drug/pesticide residues translate well onto Biacore-based assay formats. However, larger and more complex entities such as spores and whole bacterial cells represent an altogether more difficult challenge. Here, we present an overview of our experiences...

  13. Control System Radioactive Contamination in Food Samples in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The analyses of the level of radioactive contamination in food samples are carried out by the Service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination (SMRC) in Poland. The Service was brought into existence in 1961. The Service comprises of a network of measurement stations and the Centre of Radioactive Contamination Measurements (CRCM). The duty of the Centre is being executed by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLRP). The uniform methods of sampling are used in measurement stations. All important foodstuff: milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals are controlled in the Service stations. The radiochemical and spectrometric methods are used to determine the activity of radioactive isotopes. The standard equipment of the measurement station is the measurement system type SAPOS-90 and multichannel analyser with scintillation or germanium detector. The structure of the Service, kinds of samples tested by each station, program of sampling in normal and during accident situation are presented in this paper. (author)

  14. MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD ECBC-TR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mass Spectrometry Proteomics Method as a Rapid Screening Tool for Bacterial Contamination of Food 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...the MSPM to correctly classify whether or not food samples were contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Newport in this blinded pilot study

  15. Bacteriophages safely reduce Salmonella contamination in pet food and raw pet food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Abuladze, Tamar; Woolston, Joelle; Li, Manrong; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Heyse, Serena; Charbonneau, Duane; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella -free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes. At least 2 phage preparations (SalmoFresh® and Salmonelex™) targeting Salmonella are already FDA cleared for commercial applications to improve the safety of human foods. However, similar preparations are not yet available for pet food applications. Here, we report the results of evaluating one such preparation (SalmoLyse®) in reducing Salmonella levels in various raw pet food ingredients (chicken, tuna, turkey, cantaloupe, and lettuce). Application of SalmoLyse® in low (ca. 2-4×10 6 PFU/g) and standard (ca. 9×10 6 PFU/g) concentrations significantly ( P contamination in all raw foods examined compared to control treatments. When SalmoLyse®-treated (ca. 2×10 7 PFU/g) dry pet food was fed to cats and dogs, it did not trigger any deleterious side effects in the pets. Our data suggest that the bacteriophage cocktail lytic for Salmonella can significantly and safely reduce Salmonella contamination in various raw pet food ingredients.

  16. Evaluation of sugar-cane bagasse as bioadsorbent in the textile wastewater treatment contaminated with carcinogenic congo red dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sartório Raymundo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A methodology involving sugar cane bagasse bioadsorbent was developed in order to remove the carcinogenic congo red dye from aqueous medium. The results showed high efficiency with retention of 64 ± 6% in synthetic congo red solution and 94 ± 5% in effluent enriched with congo red, at 10.0 g of the bioadsorbent. The adsorption system provided a maximum adsorption capacity of 4.43 mg/g. Tests showed independence adsorption properties, when compared with the column flow rates. The treatment units could be operated with flexibility. From the results, it was possible to conclude that sugar cane bagasse could be an adequate bioadsorbent.Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma metodologia de remoção do corante carcinogênico congo red de sistemas aquosos. Os resultados mostraram uma elevada eficiência de remoção sendo de 64 ± 6% para soluções sintéticas de vermelho congo, e 94 ± 5% para efluente industrial enriquecido com vermelho congo utilizando 10 g de bioadsorvente. A capacidade máxima adsotiva encontrada foi de 4,43 mg/g. Os testes de percolação revelaram independência das porcentagens adsortivas em relação às vazões das colunas. Estes resultados indicam viabilidade de uso do bagaço de cana-de-açucar no tratamento de efluentes contendo o congo red.

  17. Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlovsky, Petr; Suman, Michele; Berthiller, Franz; De Meester, Johan; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Perrin, Irène; Oswald, Isabelle P; Speijers, Gerrit; Chiodini, Alessandro; Recker, Tobias; Dussort, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products. Physical removal of mycotoxins is very efficient: manual sorting of grains, nuts, and fruits by farmers as well as automatic sorting by the industry significantly lowers the mean mycotoxin content. Further processing such as milling, steeping, and extrusion can also reduce mycotoxin content. Mycotoxins can be detoxified chemically by reacting with food components and technical aids; these reactions are facilitated by high temperature and alkaline or acidic conditions. Detoxification of mycotoxins can also be achieved enzymatically. Some enzymes able to transform mycotoxins naturally occur in food commodities or are produced during fermentation but more efficient detoxification can be achieved by deliberate introduction of purified enzymes. We recommend integrating evaluation of processing technologies for their impact on mycotoxins into risk management. Processing steps proven to mitigate mycotoxin contamination should be used whenever necessary. Development of detoxification technologies for high-risk commodities should be a priority for research. While physical techniques currently offer the most efficient post-harvest reduction of mycotoxin content in food, biotechnology possesses the largest potential for future developments.

  18. Capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of contaminants in emerging food safety issues and food traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2010-07-01

    This review presents an overview of the applicability of CE in the analysis of chemical and biological contaminants involved in emerging food safety issues. Additionally, CE-based genetic analyzers' usefulness as a unique tool in food traceability verification systems was presented. First, analytical approaches for the determination of melamine and specific food allergens in different foods were discussed. Second, natural toxin analysis by CE was updated from the last review reported in 2008. Finally, the analysis of prion proteins associated with the "mad cow" crises and the application of CE-based genetic analyzers for meat traceability were summarized.

  19. 77 FR 50591 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... is calculated from tumor data of the cancer bioassays using a statistical extrapolation procedure... regulated as a carcinogen, FDA will analyze the data submitted using either a statistical extrapolation... million. * * * * * 0 3. In Sec. 500.84, revise paragraph (c) introductory text to read as follows: Sec...

  20. Consumer contribution to food contamination in Brazil: modelling the food safety risk in the home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Paulo Olinto da Motta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are among the most widespread public health issues, killing about 2.2 million people annually, and costing hundreds of billions of US dollars for governments, companies, families and consumers (WHO, 2007. In Brazil, foodborne diseases acquired in the home account for 55% of notified outbreaks (BRASIL, 2012. Several studies have investigated aspects of consumer behaviour concerning food poisoning, mapping practices in the home, but it remains a challenge to obtain a full picture of the consumer contribution to food contamination (REDMOND and GRIFFITH, 2003. This study aimed to assess the risks of food contamination in the home. A questionnaire containing 140 questions concerning food safety knowledge, handling practices, personal hygiene and basic health care, covering the stages when the food is under the control of the consumer, was developed and used to gather data for analysis. Appropriate scores were attributed to the questions (consequences to food safety and answers (likelihood of food contamination. A risk estimate algorithm and an appropriate risk ranking scale were used to assess the results. From August 2011 to March 2012, survey questionnaires were collected from 2,775 consumers in Brazil across 19 out of 27 state capitals. The study found risky practices with the potential to lead to food poisoning occurrences in the domestic environment in the following handling steps: food transportation, food preparation, cooking and the handling of leftovers. The personal hygiene, age, formal education, family income and basic health care habits represented the factors most related to the risky practices of consumers, which could orientate food safety educational campaigns for the Brazilian population.

  1. Fingerprinting food: current technologies for the detection of food adulteration and contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David I; Brewster, Victoria L; Dunn, Warwick B; Allwood, J William; Golovanov, Alexander P; Goodacre, Royston

    2012-09-07

    Major food adulteration and contamination events seem to occur with some regularity, such as the widely publicised adulteration of milk products with melamine and the recent microbial contamination of vegetables across Europe for example. With globalisation and rapid distribution systems, these can have international impacts with far-reaching and sometimes lethal consequences. These events, though potentially global in the modern era, are in fact far from contemporary, and deliberate adulteration of food products is probably as old as the food processing and production systems themselves. This review first introduces some background into these practices, both historically and contemporary, before introducing a range of the technologies currently available for the detection of food adulteration and contamination. These methods include the vibrational spectroscopies: near-infrared, mid-infrared, Raman; NMR spectroscopy, as well as a range of mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, amongst others. This subject area is particularly relevant at this time, as it not only concerns the continuous engagement with food adulterers, but also more recent issues such as food security, bioterrorism and climate change. It is hoped that this introductory overview acts as a springboard for researchers in science, technology, engineering, and industry, in this era of systems-level thinking and interdisciplinary approaches to new and contemporary problems.

  2. Regularities of food stuffs and ration contamination with radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhudarov, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Modelling of the process of contamination of food stuffs and rations as a whole in the case of aerial and soil ways of administration of 90 Sr and 137 Cs long-living radionuclides is presented. A modified formula which takes into account radionuclide content in the soil in the previous year and levels of precipitation for 2 years is given. A modified equation of 137 Cs content in soils and fallouts expressed through the value of the initial stratospheric reservoir is given. It is shown that since 1972 137 Cs has come in the ration as a whole and in milk primarily through the aerial way, while 137 Cs has come in bread and bakery products by a soil way in a practically equal amount. The data presented are mean values in the country. 137 Cs contamination in recent years occurs mainly by the soil way

  3. Predicted effects of countermeasures on radiation doses from contaminated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Nielsen, S.P.; Nielsen, F.

    1993-02-01

    Quantitative assessments of the effects on radiation-dose reductions from nine typical countermeasures against accidental fod contamination have been carried out with dynamic radioecological models. The foodstuffs are assumed to be contaminated with iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137 after a release of radioactive materials from the Ringhals nuclear power station in Sweden resulting from a hypothetical core melt accident. The release of activity of these radionuclides is assumed at 0.07% of the core inventory of the unit 1 reactor (1600 TBq of I-131, 220 TBq of Cs-134 and 190 TBq of Cs-137). Radiation doses are estimated for the 55,000 affected inhabitants along the south-eastern coast of Sweden eating locally produced foodstuffs. The average effective dose equivalent to an individual in the critical group is predicted to be 2.9 mSv from food consumption contaminated with I-131. An accident occurring during winter is estimated to cause average individual doses of 0.32 mSv from Cs-134 and 0.47 mSv from Cs-137, and 9.4 mSv and 6.8 mSv from Cs-134 and Cs-137, respectively, for an accident occurring during summer. Doses from the intake of radioiodine may be reduced by up to a factor of 60 by rejecting contaminated food for 30 days. For the doses from radiocaesium, the largest effect is found form deep ploughing which may reduce the dose by up to a factor of 80. (au) (12 tabs., 6 ills., 19 refs.)

  4. Traditional and modern Greenlandic food - Dietary composition, nutrients and contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutch, Bente; Dyerberg, Jorn; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Aschlund, Ejner; Hansen, Jens C.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: High levels of n-3 fatty acids and other nutrients in traditional Inuit food appear to provide some protection against the typical diseases of affluent industrialized societies: cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. An increased intake of imported food among Inuits will probably increase their frequency of these diseases. However, since the 1970s it has become evident that the marine-based Inuit diet also contains high levels of potentially toxic lipophilic organic pollutants and heavy metals. Since these two food related opposing health effects appear to be inseparable, the phenomenon has been known as 'The Arctic Dilemma'. However, both the fatty acid composition and the contaminant levels vary in Greenlandic food items. Thus in principle it is possible to compose a diet where the benefits and risks are better balanced. Our objectives of this study were to compare traditional and modern meals in Greenland concerning the dietary composition, nutrients, and health indicators among the consumers. Study design: The present study was a cross-sectional dietary survey as part of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment, Human Health Programme (AMAP). These results were compared with older dietary surveys in Greenland. Methods: Dietary components, fatty acids, and nutrients in 90 local meals collected by duplicate portion method in Uummannaq town, north Greenland 2004 and in Narsaq, south Greenland 2006, were compared with 177 duplicate meals sampled in the village of Igdslorsuit, Uummannaq, district, 1976 and also compared with other dietary studies in Greenland 1953-1987. Anthropometric measures (weight, height, and body mass index, BMI) and blood lipids were measured as health indicators among the participants. Results: Between the traditional foods sampled or analysed 30-50 years ago and the modern food from 2004 to 2006, significant differences were found in the dietary composition. The percentage of local food had decreased, to a present average of

  5. Traditional and modern Greenlandic food - Dietary composition, nutrients and contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutch, Bente [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, Aarhus University, Building 260, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark)], E-mail: bd@mil.au.dk; Dyerberg, Jorn [Capio Diagnostic, a.s., Nygaardsvej 32, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Pedersen, Henning Sloth [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, Aarhus University, Building 260, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark); Centre of Primary Health Care, Box 1001, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Aschlund, Ejner; Hansen, Jens C. [Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, Aarhus University, Building 260, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, DK-8000, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2007-10-01

    Objectives: High levels of n-3 fatty acids and other nutrients in traditional Inuit food appear to provide some protection against the typical diseases of affluent industrialized societies: cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. An increased intake of imported food among Inuits will probably increase their frequency of these diseases. However, since the 1970s it has become evident that the marine-based Inuit diet also contains high levels of potentially toxic lipophilic organic pollutants and heavy metals. Since these two food related opposing health effects appear to be inseparable, the phenomenon has been known as 'The Arctic Dilemma'. However, both the fatty acid composition and the contaminant levels vary in Greenlandic food items. Thus in principle it is possible to compose a diet where the benefits and risks are better balanced. Our objectives of this study were to compare traditional and modern meals in Greenland concerning the dietary composition, nutrients, and health indicators among the consumers. Study design: The present study was a cross-sectional dietary survey as part of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment, Human Health Programme (AMAP). These results were compared with older dietary surveys in Greenland. Methods: Dietary components, fatty acids, and nutrients in 90 local meals collected by duplicate portion method in Uummannaq town, north Greenland 2004 and in Narsaq, south Greenland 2006, were compared with 177 duplicate meals sampled in the village of Igdslorsuit, Uummannaq, district, 1976 and also compared with other dietary studies in Greenland 1953-1987. Anthropometric measures (weight, height, and body mass index, BMI) and blood lipids were measured as health indicators among the participants. Results: Between the traditional foods sampled or analysed 30-50 years ago and the modern food from 2004 to 2006, significant differences were found in the dietary composition. The percentage of local food had decreased, to a present

  6. The food processing contaminant glyoxal promotes tumour growth in the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Camilla; Høie, Anja Hortemo; Alexander, Jan; Murkovic, Michael; Husøy, Trine

    2016-08-01

    Glyoxal is formed endogenously and at a higher rate in the case of hyperglycemia. Glyoxal is also a food processing contaminant and has been shown to be mutagenic and genotoxic in vitro. The tumourigenic potential of glyoxal was investigated using the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse model, which spontaneously develops intestinal tumours and is susceptible to intestinal carcinogens. C57BL/6J females were mated with Min males. Four days after mating and throughout gestation and lactation, the pregnant dams were exposed to glyoxal through drinking water (0.0125%, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%) or regular tap water. Female and male offspring were housed separately from PND21 and continued with the same treatment. One group were only exposed to 0.1% glyoxal from postnatal day (PND) 21. There was no difference in the number of intestinal tumours between control and treatment groups. However, exposure to 0.1% glyoxal starting in utero and at PND21 caused a significant increase in tumour size in the small intestine for male and female mice in comparison with respective control groups. This study suggests that glyoxal has tumour growth promoting properties in the small intestine in Min mice. Copyright © 2016 Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of risk information exposure on consumers' responses to foods with insect contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Magariyama, Yukio; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Shichiri, Kumiko; Masuda, Tomohiro; Wada, Yuji

    2014-02-01

    This study explores the impact that scientific information about insect contamination of food has on consumer perceptions. Participants (n = 320, Japanese consumers) were randomly assigned to 1 of 8 information-type conditions: (1) information about insect type, (2) information about contamination processes, (3) information about the safety of contaminated food, (4, 5, 6) combinations of 2 of (1), (2), and (3) above, (7) all information, and (8) no-information, and asked to rate their valuation, behavioral intention, and attitude toward food with insect contamination. Results demonstrated that some combinations of scientific information that include the safety of the contaminated food are effective to reduce consumers' compulsive rejection of insect contamination in food, whereas the single presentation of information about insect type increases consumers' explicit rejection of both the contaminated product and the manufacturer. These findings have implications for the coordination of risk communication strategies. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie

    1990-01-01

    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).

  9. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M. (Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie)

    1990-01-01

    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).

  10. [Food borne outbreak caused by the well water contaminated norovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokutake, Yumi; Kobayashi, Masato; Akiyama, Miho; Aiki, Chikako; Nishio, Osamu

    2006-05-01

    In May 2004, 65 people from 18 groups of visitors to guesthouse (a traditional Japanese guesthouse) in the Nagano Prefecture, Japan developed acute gastroenteritis. Although these cases originally attributed to food poisoning, based on epidemiological and dietary surveys, there was nothing that is associated as a cause food. The same wall water was used throughout the guesthouse except in the kitchen, so testing was conducted on this water. Lordsdale variant strain of Norovirus was detected from both of the well water and the feces of patients and staff. The well supplying to the guesthouse was only 10 meters deep and fecal coliform group was also detected in the well water from the guesthouse. This suggested that the water source was contaminated by human feces.

  11. Contaminated Non-Food Products. Regulatory Deficit Regarding Contaminated Non-Food Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    An INES 7 event in Europe will generate tremendous amounts of class 7 goods. From roofing tile to motor cycle, everything becomes a surface contaminated object and therefore a dangerous good. Along with the classification as a dangerous good goes the classification as waste. Who would buy a commodity that cannot be shipped without special care? Thus, ADR/RID induce a de facto dose limit for commodities, whether intended or not. Within the present ADR/RID this regulatory checkmate can hardly be avoided. National exemptions are impossible and with a view to the European internal market even pointless. Here we present a harmonised description of this particular checkmate. We discuss two specific scenarios and the corresponding regulatory issues

  12. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling of immune, reproductive and carcinogenic effects from contaminant exposure in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) across the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Rune; Gustavson, Kim; Sonne, Christian; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Rigét, Frank F; Pavlova, Viola; McKinney, Melissa A; Letcher, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) consume large quantities of seal blubber and other high trophic marine mammals and consequently have some of the highest tissue concentrations of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) among Arctic biota. In the present paper we carried out a risk quotient (RQ) evaluation on OHC-exposed polar bears harvested from 1999 to 2008 and from 11 circumpolar subpopulations spanning from Alaska to Svalbard in order to evaluate the risk of OHC-mediated reproductive effects (embryotoxicity, teratogenicity), immunotoxicity and carcinogenicity (genotoxicity). This RQ evaluation was based on the Critical Body Residue (CBR) concept and a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling (PBPK) approach using OHC concentrations measured in polar bear adipose or liver tissue. The range of OHC concentrations within polar bear populations were as follows for adipose, sum polychlorinated biphenyls ∑PCBs (1797-10,537 ng/g lw), sum methylsulphone-PCB ∑MeSO2-PCBs (110-672 ng/g lw), sum chlordanes ∑CHLs (765-3477 ng/g lw), α-hexachlorocyclohexane α-HCH (8.5-91.3 ng/g lw), β-hexachlorocyclohexane β-HCH (65.5-542 ng/g lw), sum chlorbenzenes ∑ClBzs (145-304 ng/g lw), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane ∑DDTs (31.5-206 ng/g lw), dieldrin (69-249 ng/g lw), polybrominated diphenyl ethers ∑PBDEs (4.6-78.4 ng/g lw). For liver, the perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) concentrations ranged from 231-2792 ng/g ww. The total additive RQ from all OHCs ranged from 4.3 in Alaska to 28.6 in East Greenland bears for effects on reproduction, immune health and carcinogenicity, highlighting the important result that the toxic effect threshold (i.e. RQ>1) was exceeded for all polar bear populations assessed. PCBs were the main contributors for all three effect categories, contributing from 70.6% to 94.3% of the total risk and a RQ between 3.8-22.5. ∑MeSO2-PCBs were the second highest effect contributor for reproductive and immunological effects (0.17polar bears. We therefore

  13. Radioactive contamination of food in Slovenia after Chernobyl incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milohnoja, M [Veterinary College, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1986-07-01

    This review of the situation and of measures on veterinary inspection is confined to Slovenia (the most northern republic of SFR Yugoslavia). First analysis of grass and rain-water made on 30 April 1986 showed that Slovenian agricultural superficies are contaminated with J-131 and Cs-137. A program of monitoring grass, rain-water, milk, meat of slaughter animals and game, fish, eggs and other food (vegetables) was made. The degree of contamination of milk with J-131 was very high in the first 10 days of month May, then rapidly lowered. All dairy cattle kept indoors, fed with old feeding stuff and watered with drinking water had milk with less than 60 Bq/l J-131. After 10 May the degree of contamination of milk with Cs-137 and Cs-134 began slowly to increase, but in June to decrease, so that most of the examined samples had less than 100 Bq/l Cs-137 and Cs-134. All milk (from the areas) with more than 200 Bq/l J-131 was sent to milk powder factory or to cheese-dairies. Analyses (made in July and August) of this milk powder showed that J-131 has almost 'disappeared', the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 varied from 504 to 1150 Bq/l (i.e. 63 to 144 Bq/l in reconstituted milk); in cheese the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 was lower than 100 Bq/kg.

  14. Radioactive contamination of food in Slovenia after Chernobyl incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milohnoja, M.

    1986-01-01

    This review of the situation and of measures on veterinary inspection is confined to Slovenia (the most northern republic of SFR Yugoslavia). First analysis of grass and rain-water made on 30 April 1986 showed that Slovenian agricultural superficies are contaminated with J-131 and Cs-137. A program of monitoring grass, rain-water, milk, meat of slaughter animals and game, fish, eggs and other food (vegetables) was made. The degree of contamination of milk with J-131 was very high in the first 10 days of month May, then rapidly lowered. All dairy cattle kept indoors, fed with old feeding stuff and watered with drinking water had milk with less than 60 Bq/l J-131. After 10 May the degree of contamination of milk with Cs-137 and Cs-134 began slowly to increase, but in June to decrease, so that most of the examined samples had less than 100 Bq/l Cs-137 and Cs-134. All milk (from the areas) with more than 200 Bq/l J-131 was sent to milk powder factory or to cheese-dairies. Analyses (made in July and August) of this milk powder showed that J-131 has almost 'disappeared', the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 varied from 504 to 1150 Bq/l (i.e. 63 to 144 Bq/l in reconstituted milk); in cheese the content of Cs-137 and Cs-134 was lower than 100 Bq/kg

  15. 78 FR 13313 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Practice for Weed Control to Prevent and Reduce Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Contamination in Food and Feed... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service [Docket No. FSIS-2013-0011] Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods AGENCY: Office of the Under...

  16. Isolation and Identification of Carcinogen Acenaphthene-Degrading Endemic Bacteria from Crude Oil Contaminated Soils around Abadan Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Kafilzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: PAHs are non-polar organic compounds consisting of two or more fused benzene multi-rings. Among these compounds, acenaphthene is a multi-ring hydrocarbon that occurs abundantly in nature. Use of microorganisms to clean the contaminations of soil can be cheap and effective. The most important acenaphthene-degrading bacteria are pseudomonas, micrococcus, and Bacillus. The goal of this study was to isolate and identify the bacteria which degrade acenaphthene in soils around Abadan Refinery and to investigate the relation between the levels of environmental pollution with acenaphthene. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were collected from three areas around Abadan Refinery. The number of the bacteria was counted on the nutrient agar culture with and without acenaphthene. Isolation of the bacteria was done by culturing the samples on acenaphthene broth with a mineral-salt medium, and on an acenaphthene agar medium. Then, the bacteria were identified via biochemical diagnostic tests. Results: The logarithm average of the bacteria was 4.786 ± 0.073 at a medium with acenaphthene, which was 6.671 ± 0.073 less than that of the control medium. The maximum number of degrading bacteria was 7.089 ± 0.089 at Station C, and the minimum number of the degrading bacteria was 4.485 ± 0.089 at Station B. In this study, Bacillus sp, Micrococcus Luteus, Corynebacterium sp, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas sp bacteria were isolated and identified in terms of frequency, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the soil around Abadan Refinery contained a great number of acenaphthene degrading bacteria, especially Bacillus and Micrococcus.

  17. Radiation doses from contaminated food after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Oehlenschlaeger, M.

    1991-03-01

    This report presents estimates of radiation doses from contaminated food after a hypothetical accident at a nuclear power plant. The calculations are made from assumptions intended to represent Swedish conditions. The accident scenario is based on a hypothetical core melt in a nuclear power reactor followed by a release to the atmosphere of iodine and caesium corresponding to 0.6% of the Forsmark unit 3 core inventory. The results are expressed in terms of average effective doses from contaminated food to individuals in the critical group living near the power plant, 2 km from the point of release, and living from locally produced foodstuffs. The calculations are made for a winter release and a summer release, and for dry and rainy conditions. Dynamic radioecological models are used, which have been developed from Danish experience with readioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and with fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The accidental release is estimated to cause doses in the summer season from 131 I of circa 200 mSv to children and circa 30 mSv to adults based on a deposition during dry conditions of 11 MBq 131 I m -2 . The dosed from 134 Cs and 137 Cs are estimated at circa 20 mSv to children and adults in case of winter release and circa 160 mSv in case of summer release based on a deposition during dry conditions of 0.5 MBQ 134 Cs and 0.4 MBq 137 Cs m -2 . The main reason for the large difference between the winter and the summer releases is the high sensitivity of cerals to direct contamination on month prior to harvest. In case of precipitation the doses are estimated at twice those for dry conditons. (author) 8 tabs., 16 ills., 13 refs

  18. The Sources of Chemical Contaminants in Food and Their Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Irfan A.; Koh, Wee Yin; Paek, Woon K.; Lim, Jeongheui

    2017-01-01

    Food contamination is a matter of serious concern, as the high concentration of chemicals present in the edibles poses serious health risks. Protecting the public from the degrees of the harmfulness of contaminated foods has become a daunting task. This article highlights the causes, types, and health implications of chemical contamination in food. The food contamination could be due to naturally occurring contaminants in the environment or artificially introduced by the human. The phases of food processing, packaging, transportation, and storage are also significant contributors to food contamination. The implications of these chemical contaminants on human health are grave, ranging from mild gastroenteritis to fatal cases of hepatic, renal, and neurological syndromes. Although, the government regulates such chemicals in the eatables by prescribing minimum limits that are safe for human consumption yet measures still need to be taken to curb food contamination entirely. Therefore, a variety of food needs to be inspected and measured for the presence of chemical contaminants. The preventative measures pertaining about the food contaminants problems are pointed out and discussed. PMID:29204118

  19. The Sources of Chemical Contaminants in Food and Their Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan A. Rather

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Food contamination is a matter of serious concern, as the high concentration of chemicals present in the edibles poses serious health risks. Protecting the public from the degrees of the harmfulness of contaminated foods has become a daunting task. This article highlights the causes, types, and health implications of chemical contamination in food. The food contamination could be due to naturally occurring contaminants in the environment or artificially introduced by the human. The phases of food processing, packaging, transportation, and storage are also significant contributors to food contamination. The implications of these chemical contaminants on human health are grave, ranging from mild gastroenteritis to fatal cases of hepatic, renal, and neurological syndromes. Although, the government regulates such chemicals in the eatables by prescribing minimum limits that are safe for human consumption yet measures still need to be taken to curb food contamination entirely. Therefore, a variety of food needs to be inspected and measured for the presence of chemical contaminants. The preventative measures pertaining about the food contaminants problems are pointed out and discussed.

  20. Not to confuse 'contaminated' food and 'irradiated' or 'ionised' food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Food contamination corresponds to the undesired presence of radioactive products in food, while irradiation is a process to which food can be deliberately submitted to improve its preservation or hygiene. This publication explains this difference. It describes the process, physical effects and health impacts of radioactive contamination of food. It briefly describes irradiation or ionisation processes, their objectives, doses of ionising radiations used on food products, undesired and harmful effects. It also indicates food products concerned by these irradiation processes, and the associated legal framework, evokes the lack of information of consumers regarding such practices, briefly evokes risks associated with irradiation installations, and indicates where these installations are located in France

  1. Chromium carcinogenicity: California strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeff, G V; Satin, K; Painter, P; Zeise, L; Popejoy, C; Murchison, G

    1989-10-01

    Hexavalent chromium was identified by California as a toxic air contaminant (TAC) in January 1986. The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) concurred with the findings of the International Agency for Research on Cancer that there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate the carcinogenicity of chromium in both animals and humans. CDHS did not find any compelling evidence demonstrating the existence of a threshold with respect to chromium carcinogenesis. Experimental data was judged inadequate to assess potential human reproductive risks from ambient exposures. Other health effects were not expected to occur at ambient levels. The theoretically increased lifetime carcinogenic risk from a continuous lifetime exposure to hexavalent chromium fell within the range 12-146 cancer cases per nanogram hexavalent chromium per cubic meter of air per million people exposed, depending on the potency estimate used. The primary sources found to contribute significantly to the risk of exposure were chrome platers, chromic acid anodizing facilities and cooling towers utilizing hexavalent chromium as a corrosion inhibitor. Evaluation of genotoxicity data, animal studies and epidemiological studies indicates that further consideration should be given to the potential carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium via the oral route.

  2. Presence of heterocyclic amine carcinogens in home-cooked and fast-food camel meat burgers commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan Khan, Mohammad; Naushad, Mu; Abdullah Alothman, Zeid

    2017-05-10

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are formed by cooking protein-rich foods, for instance, meat and fish, and are listed as possible human carcinogens. In the present study, the presence of five potential HCAs (IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP) in cooked camel meat burgers was analyzed for the first time. The analysis was performed in home-cooked and fast-food burger samples containing food additives. The applied cooking technique for the home-cooked samples was pan frying for a controlled cooking time and temperature. In the control cooked meat samples (samples that contained no food additives), the concentrations of MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP ranged from 2.47 ng/g to 4.89 ng/g, whereas IQ and MeIQ were found to be below the limit of quantification. The concentrations contents of MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP in the home-cooked and fast-food samples ranged from 1.52 ng/g to 2.13 ng/g and 1.85 ng/g to 3.46 ng/g, respectively. IQ and MeIQ were not detected in either type of sample. In comparison to the control samples, the home-cooked and fast-food samples produced lower levels of HCAs. Such observations could result from the existence of antioxidants in incorporated food additives, which induce pro-oxidative effects with the successive formation and/or scavenging of free radicals.

  3. Food Adulteration and Bio-magnification of Environmental Contaminants: A Comprehensive Risk Framework for Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehreen eMajed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article thoroughly investigates the severity of the prevailing environmental conditions and evaluates the resulting threats to food intake and public health in Bangladesh by establishing relationship among different contaminant transfer mechanisms to human. It describes the potential of certain contaminants to get bio-magnified through the food chain. A database was prepared on a number of contaminants in the study area that are responsible for rendering different foods vulnerable to produce long term or short-term health effects. Contaminants that have been identified in the food sources were categorized in a continuum based on their allowable daily intake. A protocol has been developed which will enable the assessment of the potential of a contaminant to bio-magnify through food chain to understand the contribution of a contaminant on different levels of food chain. The study also provides a detailed assessment of the public health risks associated with direct ingestion of adulterated foods and intake of contaminants through food chain or water intake. Their intake to human body was quantified, which provides an indication of the toxicity level of the contaminants and possible impact on human health. The traditional four steps of risk assessment technique have been employed for some model contaminants (including metals, organic contaminants and food adulterants. Additionally, existing rules and regulations of Bangladesh were identified with possible limitations that can play significant role in controlling the food adulteration practices and concentration of contaminants in the environment and human body. Finally, a holistic approach to necessary interventions has been prescribed at policy, treatment and evaluation level to prevent the water pollution and food adulteration. Thus, a much-needed comprehensive framework is prescribed in this study to promote safety in food handling, preserve environment and improve health-based strategies in

  4. Microbial behaviour and cross contamination between cargoes in containerized transportation of food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abban, Stephen

    Transportation is central to the global food and feed supply chain. Thus issues of safety, especially cross contamination with pathogens during food transit should be important in food handling operations. A large proportion of the worlds’ food cargo is moved using intermodal cargo containers...... chain, its role in food safety cannot be ignored. Unfortunately not much effort has been put, scientifically, into understanding the role of the various features of the transportation links in food cross contamination (compared to studies for homes, processing factories and farm yards). The PhD project...... has attempted to shed light on containerized food transport and some of its important attributes as regards hygiene and cross contamination. The overall aim of the study was to ‘identify possible microbial hazards and ways of cross contamination during containerized transportation of foods...

  5. Improving the control of aflatoxin-contaminated foods in Haiti | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They are regularly found among staple food commodities such as peanuts, ... Factors influencing the adoption of control methods by farmers, harvesters, ... viable non-food/feed-related value chain for rejected aflatoxin-contaminated peanuts.

  6. Strategies for the detection of food pathogens and contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hearty, Stephen; Leonard, Paul; Sheehan, Alfredo Darmanin

    molecules and once suitably high affinity antibodies have been isolated, it is relatively straightforward to design and optimise concentration-based assays using SPR. Recently we have investigated the potential of applying Biacore technology to routine food analysis. Our experiences have shown......We routinely use Biacore for affinity ranking and kinetic characterisation of diverse panels of hybridoma-derived and recombinant antibodies against a wide range of different clinically relevant antigens for diagnostic applications. Generally the analytes of interest are haptens or defined protein...... that molecular contaminants such as microbial toxins and drug/pesticide residues translate well onto Biacore-based assay formats. However, larger and more complex entities such as spores and whole bacterial cells represent an altogether more difficult challenge. Here, we present an overview of our experiences...

  7. Printed paper and board food contact materials as a potential source of food contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bossuyt, Melissa; Van Hoeck, Els; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Mertens, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are estimated to be the largest source of food contamination. Apart from plastics, the most commonly used FCM are made of printed paper and board. Unlike their plastic counterparts, these are not covered by a specific European regulation. Several contamination issues have raised concerns towards potential adverse health effects caused by exposure to substances migrating from printed paper and board FCM. In the current study, an inventory combining the substances which may be used in printed paper and board FCM, was created. More than 6000 unique compounds were identified, the majority (77%) considered non-evaluated in terms of potential toxicity. Based on a preliminary study of their physicochemical properties, it is estimated that most of the non-evaluated single substances have the potential to migrate into the food and become bioavailable after oral intake. Almost all are included in the FACET tool, indicating that their use in primary food packaging has been confirmed by industry. Importantly, 19 substances are also present in one of the lists with substances of concern compiled by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). To ensure consumer safety, the actual use of these substances in printed paper and board FCM should be investigated urgently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk governance on radionuclide contamination in food in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekizawa, Jun

    2012-01-01

    A large scale nuclear power plant accident happened after the great earthquake in Fukushima in March 2011. There was several critical mismanagement of the accident which resulted in the radio-nuclides release in the environment. Furthermore the information delay and the lack in delivery of clear and comprehensible explanation of the risk have been causing huge anxieties and worries among people living near to the site, and also people in the nation. Risk assessment appeared not to meet appropriately requests of risk management authorities and also people. Author has been trying to straighten the large amounts of data on radionuclide contamination in foods so as for people to easily understand the real situation with succinct messages explaining risk and to take appropriate actions in facing the risk. Appropriate responses and coordination among the risk managing authorities are indispensable especially in this kind of huge accident which may entail vast scale and long lasting risk and a new paradigm of the food safety governance is required in Japan. (author)

  9. A survey on Bacterial Contamination of Food Supply in the West of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehereh Faramarzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Transfer of food born diseases is a common problem in hygiene and public health. The bacteria are the most important factors of food contamination and intoxications. The aim of this study is to determine the bacterial contamination of food supply in the west of Tehran supermarkets. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 642 samples of foods were taken randomly from west of Tehran supermarkets. The levels of bacterial contamination of the foods were assessed in the department of food and drug microbiology of lab, affiliated to Iran University of medical science. Results: Salads were the most (50% and protein products (6.36% the least rate in terms of mesophilic bacteria contamination. Also, sweets (13.46% and protein products (1.73% in terms of Coliforms. Salads (58.33% and dairy products (9.84% with respect to Escherichia coli, sweets (4.81% and salads (0% in terms of Staphylococcus aureus, sweets (4.81% and dairy products (0.39% with respect to Bacillus cereus, were the most and least contaminated foods, respectively. Conclusion: In overall, salads had the most contamination percentage with respect to mesophilic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus (P . According to our study, we conclude that training of dealers and food suppliers are necessary and healthy principals should be followed. Also supervision on food packing and storage should be considered to prevent food microbial contamination.

  10. Bacteriophages reduce Yersinia enterocolitica contamination of food and kitchenware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jin Woo; Park, Se Chang; Wicklund, Anu; Skurnik, Mikael

    2018-04-20

    Yersinia enterocolitica, the primary cause of yersiniosis, is one of the most important foodborne pathogens globally and is associated with the consumption of raw contaminated pork. In the current study, four virulent bacteriophages (phages), one of Podoviridae (fHe-Yen3-01) and three of Myoviridae (fHe-Yen9-01, fHe-Yen9-02, and fHe-Yen9-03), capable of infecting Y. enterocolitica were isolated and characterized. fHe-Yen9-01 had the broadest host range (61.3% of strains, 65/106). It demonstrated a latent period of 35 min and a burst size of 33 plaque-forming units/cell, and was found to have a genome of 167,773 bp with 34.79% GC content. To evaluate the effectiveness of phage fHe-Yen9-01 against Y. enterocolitica O:9 strain Ruokola/71, we designed an experimental model of the food market environment. Phage treatment after bacterial inoculation of food samples, including raw pork (4 °C, 72 h), ready-to-eat pork (26 °C, 12 h), and milk (4 °C, 72 h), prevented bacterial growth throughout the experiments, with counts decreasing by 1-3 logs from the original levels of 2-4 × 10 3  CFU/g or ml. Similarly, when artificially contaminated kitchen utensils, such as wooden and plastic cutting boards and knives, and artificial hands, were treated with phages for 2 h, bacterial growth was effectively inhibited, with counts decreasing by 1-2 logs from the original levels of ca 10 4  CFU/cm 2 or ml. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful application of phages for the control of Y. enterocolitica growth in food and on kitchen utensils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical carcinogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Searle, Charles E

    1976-01-01

    Cancer causing agents are now known to exist throughout the environment-in polluted air and tobacco smoke, in various plants and foods, and in many chemicals that are used in industry and laboratories...

  12. [Analysis on contamination of aflatoxins in food samples in Shaanxi Province from 2012-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiawei; Tian, Li; Wang, Caixia; Qiao, Haiou; Wang, Minjuan

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the contamination of aflatoxins in food in Shaanxi Province, and provide the basic data of dietary intakes of aflatoxins for food safety assessment. In year 2012- 2015, 1007 food samples of eight kinds of food including grains, beans, vegetable oil, nuts and seeds, condiment, liquor, tea and infants' food were collected randomly from ten cities, and determined with UPLC. 1007 samples were detected aflatoxins and the total detection rate was 10. 7%. The detection range was 0. 070- 323 μg / kg, with the mean value of 2. 34 μg / kg. Among all food samples, only peanut products were more seriously polluted than other kinds of foods. The overall level of aflatoxins contamination in market food is low, but peanut products might be the contaminated foods with aflatoxins in Shaanxi Province, and should be given more attention.

  13. Attractiveness of food and avoidance from contamination as conflicting stimuli to habitat selection by fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Rodríguez, Elizabeth N V; Salvatierra, David; Cedeño-Macias, Luis A; Vera-Vera, Victoria C; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Ribeiro, Rui

    2016-11-01

    Habitat selection by fish is the outcome of a choice between different stimuli. Typically, the presence of food tends to attract organisms, while contamination triggers an avoidance response to prevent toxic effects. Given that both food and contaminants are not homogeneously distributed in the environment and that food can be available in contaminated zones, a key question has been put forward in the present study: does a higher availability of food in contaminated areas interfere in the avoidance response to contaminants regardless of the contamination level? Tilapia fry (Oreochromis sp.; 2.5-3.0 cm and 0.5-0.8 g) were exposed to two different effluent samples, diluted along a free-choice, non-forced exposure system simulating a contamination gradient. Initially, avoidance to the effluents was checked during a one hour exposure. Afterwards, food was added to the system so that the availability of food increased with the increase in the level of contamination, and the avoidance response to contamination was checked during another hour. Results clearly showed a concentration-dependent avoidance response for both effluents during the first hour (i.e., with no food). However, in presence of the food, the avoidance pattern was altered: organisms were propelled to intermittently move towards contaminated areas where food availability was higher. The incursions were taken regardless of the potential risk linked to the toxic effects. In conclusion, even when the risk of toxicity was imminent, tilapia fry were more intensively stimulated by the attractiveness of the food than by repulsion to the contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary intake of food contaminants in the Netherlands (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, J.H.; Dokkum, W. van; Paauw, C.G. van der; Vos, R.H. de; Kort, W.L.A.M. de; Löwik, M.R.H.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the level of exposure to food contaminants (cadmium, lead, PCBs, DDT, hexachlorobenzene, nitrate and malathion) a total-diet study was carried out. A total of 226 food products were analysed individually; the concentration of contaminants in products not selected for analysis was estimated

  15. Raman spectroscopy-based detection of chemical contaminants in food powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman spectroscopy technique has proven to be a reliable method for qualitative detection of chemical contaminants in food ingredients and products. For quantitative imaging-based detection, each contaminant particle in a food sample must be detected and it is important to determine the necessary sp...

  16. Technical University of Denmark Microbiological contaminants in food in the European Union in 2004-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Korsgaard, Helle; Grønlund, Anne Christine Jørgensen

    (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, Yersinia, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC), Brucella)and non-zoonotic microbiological contaminants (histamine, Enterobacter sakazakii and staphylococcal enterotoxins) in food to the zoonoses database at the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Norway...... also been excluded from the detailed analyses of the microbiological contaminants in Chapter 3. Initially, 86% of the reported samples were assumed to be representative of the occurrence of microbiological contaminants in domestically produced food. However, when samples without specific sampling unit...... and figures alone. For some foodstuffs, the occurrence of microbiological contaminants increased along the food production chain, which indicates either cross-contamination during production or microbiological growth during shelf-life. For other foodstuffs, the occurrence of microbiological contaminants...

  17. Neuronal and non-neuronal signals regulate Caernorhabditis elegans avoidance of contaminated food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alexandra; McMullan, Rachel

    2018-07-19

    One way in which animals minimize the risk of infection is to reduce their contact with contaminated food. Here, we establish a model of pathogen-contaminated food avoidance using the nematode worm Caernorhabditis elegans We find that avoidance of pathogen-contaminated food protects C. elegans from the deleterious effects of infection and, using genetic approaches, demonstrate that multiple sensory neurons are required for this avoidance behaviour. In addition, our results reveal that the avoidance of contaminated food requires bacterial adherence to non-neuronal cells in the tail of C. elegans that are also required for the cellular immune response. Previous studies in C. elegans have contributed significantly to our understanding of molecular and cellular basis of host-pathogen interactions and our model provides a unique opportunity to gain basic insights into how animals avoid contaminated food.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Evolution of pathogen and parasite avoidance behaviours'. © 2018 The Authors.

  18. Lead-contaminated health food. Association with lead poisoning and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, W.H.

    1977-06-13

    A doctor prescribed a dietary supplement prepared from powdered animal bone for a young woman with dysmenorrhea. Severe lead poisoning developed while she was taking the powder, which was shown to be contaminated with lead. The diagnosis eluded more than 20 physicians and was finally made by the patient herself. The Food and Drug Administration, informed of the contamination, declined to take action, stating that a food supplement is neither a food nor a drug and, besides, there are no maximal limits for heavy-metal contamination of foods and drugs.

  19. Influence of food condiments on the formation of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in cooked chicken and determination by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are known to be suspected human carcinogens produced by high-temperature cooking of protein-rich foods such as meat and fish. In the present study, the influence of numerous food condiments on the formation of HCAs in cooked chicken was investigated. Chicken samples were subjected to pan-frying under controlled temperature. The levels of HCAs DMIP, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, harman and norharman were found to be between 0.93 and 27.52 ng g(-1), whereas IQ, MeIQ, AαC, MeAαC, Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 were found either below the limit of quantification or not detected in the control sample. Nevertheless, for samples cooked using food condiments, the amounts of HCAs (DMIP, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx and PhIP) were between 0.14 and 19.57 ng g(-1); harman and norharman were detected at higher concentrations up to 17.77 ng g(-1) while IQ and MeIQ were at levels below the limit of quantification; and AαC, MeAαC, Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 were not detected in any of the samples. The outcomes revealed that the formation of HCAs (except harman and norharman) diminished after the addition of food condiments. Edible oil contributed to the highest levels of HCA formation, followed by garlic, paprika, pepper and tomato.

  20. Eww she sneezed! Contamination context affects children's food preferences and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJesus, Jasmine M; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2015-04-01

    Does contextual information about disgust influence children's food consumption and subjective experience of taste? Three- to eight-year-old children (N = 60) were presented with two identical foods, yet children were led to believe that one food had been contaminated by sneezing and licking, while the other was clean. When given the opportunity to eat the foods, 5- to 8-year-old children consumed more clean food and rated the clean food's taste more positively; younger children did not distinguish between the foods. The relation between contamination and subjective taste held even among children who ate both foods and had direct evidence that they were identical. These data indicate that children's consumption behavior and food preferences are influenced by information external to foods themselves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Climate change-contaminant interactions in marine food webs: Toward a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alava, Juan José; Cheung, William W L; Ross, Peter S; Sumaila, U Rashid

    2017-10-01

    Climate change is reshaping the way in which contaminants move through the global environment, in large part by changing the chemistry of the oceans and affecting the physiology, health, and feeding ecology of marine biota. Climate change-associated impacts on structure and function of marine food webs, with consequent changes in contaminant transport, fate, and effects, are likely to have significant repercussions to those human populations that rely on fisheries resources for food, recreation, or culture. Published studies on climate change-contaminant interactions with a focus on food web bioaccumulation were systematically reviewed to explore how climate change and ocean acidification may impact contaminant levels in marine food webs. We propose here a conceptual framework to illustrate the impacts of climate change on contaminant accumulation in marine food webs, as well as the downstream consequences for ecosystem goods and services. The potential impacts on social and economic security for coastal communities that depend on fisheries for food are discussed. Climate change-contaminant interactions may alter the bioaccumulation of two priority contaminant classes: the fat-soluble persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as well as the protein-binding methylmercury (MeHg). These interactions include phenomena deemed to be either climate change dominant (i.e., climate change leads to an increase in contaminant exposure) or contaminant dominant (i.e., contamination leads to an increase in climate change susceptibility). We illustrate the pathways of climate change-contaminant interactions using case studies in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. The important role of ecological and food web modeling to inform decision-making in managing ecological and human health risks of chemical pollutants contamination under climate change is also highlighted. Finally, we identify the need to develop integrated policies that manage the

  2. Sentinel Wraps: Real-Time Monitoring of Food Contamination by Printing DNAzyme Probes on Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Hanie; Ali, M Monsur; Su, Hsuan-Ming; Filipe, Carlos D M; Didar, Tohid F

    2018-04-24

    Here, we report the development of a transparent, durable, and flexible sensing surface that generates a fluorescence signal in the presence of a specific target bacterium. This material can be used in packaging, and it is capable of monitoring microbial contamination in various types of food products in real time without having to remove the sample or the sensor from the package. The sensor was fabricated by covalently attaching picoliter-sized microarrays of an E. coli-specific RNA-cleaving fluorogenic DNAzyme probe (RFD-EC1) to a thin, flexible, and transparent cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) film. Our experimental results demonstrate that the developed (RFD-EC1)-COP surface is specific, stable for at least 14 days under various pH conditions (pH 3-9), and can detect E. coli in meat and apple juice at concentrations as low as 10 3 CFU/mL. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our sensor is capable of detecting bacteria while still attached to the food package, which eliminates the need to manipulate the sample. The developed biosensors are stable for at least the shelf life of perishable packaged food products and provide a packaging solution for real-time monitoring of pathogens. These sensors hold the potential to make a significant contribution to the ongoing efforts to mitigate the negative public-health-related impacts of food-borne illnesses.

  3. Determination and risk assessment of naturally occurring genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in nutmeg-based plant food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Malahmeh, Amer J.; Alajlouni, Abdul; Ning, Jia; Wesseling, Sebas; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    A risk assessment of nutmeg-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing different alkenylbenzenes was performed based on the alkenylbenzene levels quantified in a series of PFS collected via the online market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the alkenylbenzenes amounted to 0.3 to 312μg kg-1

  4. The Knowledge, Attitude & Practice of Women Referred to Health Centers of Yazd on Moldy Food Contaminated with Aflatoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soltani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites produced by certain fungi in/on foods and feeds. The damage they do to DNA can be mutagenic, and also carcinogenic with liver cancer. The aim of this study was to The effect of education on knowledge, attitude & practice of women referred to health centers of Yazd on moldy food contaminated with aflatoxin. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross sectional-descriptive study that was done in 2014. One hundred and fifty - two women were selected among women who were referred to health centers of Yazd. The Sampling was conducted in multi stages. The data was collected by a researcher-developed questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire have been confirmed by content validity, face validity and equivalent reliability. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS20. Results: 107 (70% of the patients studied to the poor knowledge of aflatoxins and Only 6.2% of them were relatively good knowledge. The performance levels were a 38 (25%, good performance, 108 (1/71%, moderate performance and 6 (9/3% had poor performance. 0.25%, 74.3% and 0.7% Participant to the hazards food contaminated with aflatoxins were moldy and positive, average and negative attitude, respectively. Conclusions: Based on our findings, Poor knowledge of participants to aflatoxin, and the average of the attitudes and performance of most of the participants. Is necessary to provide strategies to increase public awareness in order to increase the level of attitude and function and reduce exposure to aflatoxin.

  5. Studies of food thickeners in Nigeria for contamination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... Food thickeners or thickening agents are used in food to absorb the fluid of the ... used in beverages, gravies, sauces and stews. The use of food ... Furthermore, it has also not been possible to develop effective management.

  6. Ridascreen® fast peanut, a rapid and safe tool to determine peanut contamination in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immer, U.; Reck, B.; Lindeke, S.; Koppelman, S.

    2004-01-01

    During the last years allergenic substances in food have gained more and more attention. Stricter rules for a peanut free food labelling demand a peanut contamination less than 5 ppm. The maintenance of a high quality of food products with regards to allergenic exposure is preferable warranted with

  7. Oxidative inactivation of the endogenous antioxidant protein DJ-1 by the food contaminants 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrke, Thorsten; Voss, Linn; Briese, Anja; Stephanowitz, Heike; Krause, Eberhard; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2018-01-01

    3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and 2-chloro-1,3-propanediol (2-MCPD) are heat-induced food contaminants being present either as free substances or as fatty acid esters in numerous foods. 3-MCPD was classified to be possibly carcinogenic to humans (category 2B) with kidney and testis being the primary target organs according to animal studies. A previous 28-day oral feeding study with rats revealed that the endogenous antioxidant protein DJ-1 was strongly deregulated at the protein level in kidney, liver, and testis of the experimental animals that had been treated either with 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD or their dipalmitate esters. Here we show that this deregulation is due to the oxidation of a conserved, redox-active cysteine residue (Cys106) of DJ-1 to a cysteine sulfonic acid which is equivalent to loss of function of DJ-1. Irreversible oxidation of DJ-1 is associated with a number of oxidative stress-related diseases such as Parkinson, cancer, and type II diabetes. It is assumed that 3-MCPD or 2-MCPD do not directly oxidize DJ-1, but that these substances induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which in turn trigger DJ-1 oxidation. The implications of 3-MCPD/2-MCPD-mediated ROS formation in vivo for the ongoing risk assessment of these compounds as well as the potential of oxidized DJ-1 to serve as a novel effect biomarker for 3-MCPD/2-MCPD toxicity are being discussed.

  8. Escherichia coli contamination of babies' food-serving utensils in a district of West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Aria; Eryando, Tris; Susanna, Dewi

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of baby's complementary food may occur with Escherichia coli from several sources including unclean utensils. We examined the relationship between socio-economic conditions, environmental factors, characteristics of food handlers and contamination of babies food-serving utensils with E. coli. The study was conducted in 21 villages of the Community Health Centre (CHC) Selayo in Indonesia. A cross-sectional design was used. A sample of 142 households, which had a 6-12 month-old baby on complementary food, was chosen randomly using midwives' registration books. Respondents were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Check-lists were used for observations. Standard laboratory methods were used for collection of specimen and confirmation of contamination with E. coli. More than half of the respondents (59.2%) used water that had high risk of contamination and 61.3% of the latrines did not meet the criteria of a healthy latrine. Waste management practices of nearly all respondents (97.9%) were below the standards set by the Ministry of Health. More than half of the respondents (68.3%) did not wash their hands with soap for 20 seconds and 52.1% did not use flowing water for washing hands. Majority of the respondents' hands (57%, 81/142) and 72.2% (104/142) of the eating utensils were found to be contaminated by E. coli. Contaminated hands of food handlers were more likely to contaminate the babies food-serving utensils (OR: 3.7; 95%CI: 1.62-8.46, p 0.002). Contamination of the hands of food handler was associated with contamination of babies food-serving utensils by E. coli. Hence, food handlers should be trained on proper hand washing methods.

  9. Food and pharmaceuticals. Lessons learned from global contaminations with melamine/cyanuric acid and diethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C A; Brown, S A

    2010-01-01

    Recently, contamination of pharmaceuticals with diethylene glycol (DEG) and food with melamine and cyanuric acid has demonstrated the impact of globalization on drug and food safety. By examining the details of these outbreaks, some important lessons can be learned. Toxicoses from contaminated food and drugs are often identified only when large numbers of people or animals are affected and numerous deaths result. Populations most at risk are those repeatedly exposed to a single product. Toxicoses may be complex, involving synergism among relatively nontoxic co-contaminants. Although some contamination may occur inadvertently, practices of deliberate contamination of food and drug ingredients may be widespread but escape detection in poorly regulated markets. If this deliberate contamination is motivated by personal financial gain, it is likely to recur and be concealed. The contaminated raw material produced in a poorly regulated market may cross national boundaries and be used in manufacturing processes for numerous products, sometimes in more well-regulated markets. Once in the production chain, contaminated raw materials may be widely disseminated. It is not clear that regulatory organizations have the capacity to identify significant contaminations despite their best efforts. The veterinary and medical communities, in cooperation with regulatory agencies, should develop cooperative programs designed to detect and limit these global outbreaks. Although addressing regional or national outbreaks remains an important role for regulatory agencies, the veterinary and medical communities must develop proactive global approaches to this global problem.

  10. Chernobyl and its effects in terms of food contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The contamination of plant surfaces and roots is gone into. There is a continuous decrease in contamination as a result of washout and dilution from plant growth. In animals, contamination decreases as a result of biological secretion. The isotopes I-131, Cs-137, and Sr-90 were investigated. To avoid high radiation, the author recommends to banish mushrooms, game, goat's meat, and mutton from the table. (PW) [de

  11. Expression profile of human cells in culture exposed to glycidamide, a reactive metabolite of the heat-induced food carcinogen acrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, Flurina C.; Dip, Ramiro; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2007-01-01

    Recent findings of acrylamide in many common foods have sparked renewed interest in assessing human health hazards and the long-term risk associated with exposure to vinyl compounds. Acrylamide is tumorigenic at high doses in rodents and has been classified as a probable human carcinogen. However, cancer risk projections in the population remain problematic because the molecular pathogenesis of acrylamide at the low level of dietary uptake is not understood. In particular, the question of whether specific transcriptional responses may amplify or mitigate the known genotoxicity of acrylamide has never been examined. Here, we used high-density DNA microarrays and PCR validations to assess genome-wide messenger profiles induced by glycidamide, the more reactive metabolite of acrylamide. The expression changes resulting from glycidamide treatment of human epithelial cells are characterized by the induction of detoxification enzymes, several members of the glutathione system and antioxidant factors. Low-dose experiments indicate that the up-regulation of epoxide hydrolase 1 represents the most sensitive transcriptional biomarker of glycidamide exposure. At higher concentrations, glycidamide induces typical markers of tumor progression such as steroid hormone activators, positive regulators of nuclear factor-κB, growth stimulators and apoptosis inhibitors. Concomitantly, growth suppressors and cell adhesion molecules are down-regulated. The main implication of these findings for risk assessment is that low concentrations of glycidamide elicit cytoprotective reactions whereas transcriptional signatures associated with tumor progression may be expected only at doses that exceed the range of ordinary dietary exposures

  12. Covalent binding of food carcinogens MeIQx, MeIQ and IQ to DNA and protein in microsomal incubations and isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, H.; Holme, J.A.; Alexander, J.

    1992-01-01

    The metabolic activation of 14 C-labelled food carcinogens 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx),2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline(MeIQ) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) to macromolecular bound species was studied in microsomal and hepatocellular incubations. Several data indicated that the covalent binding was dependent on P450 enzymes: It was dependent on NADPH, it was induced many times by the P450 IA1 and IA2 upregulators β-naphthoflavone and polychlorinated biphenyls, and was inhibited by the P450 IA1 and IA2 inhibitor α-naphtoflavone. In both hepatocellular and microsomal incubations the three compounds bound with similar efficiency, with IQ being somewhat more potent compared to MeIQx and MeIQ. The binding appeared to follow saturation kinetics with K m values less than 20 μM. In incubations with hepatocytes the compounds bound to both cellular DNA and to bovine serum albumin in the medium. The fact that 13-26% of total adducts were formed with bovine serum albumin, indicates that reactive metabolites of the compounds may be transported and react at distant sites from their formation without any further activation. (au)

  13. Microarray technology for major chemical contaminants analysis in food: current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  14. Food toxicology. Residues and contaminants: Risks and consumer protection; Lebensmitteltoxikologie. Rueckstaende und Kontaminanten: Risiken und Verbraucherschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nau, H. [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover, ZA Lebensmitteltoxikologie (Germany); Steinberg, P. [Potsdam Univ., Inst. fuer Ernaehrungswissenschaft (Germany); Kietzmann, M. (eds.) [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover, Inst. fuer Pharmakologie, Toxikologie/Pharmazie (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In a detailed introduction, the basic methods of risk assessment for potentially toxic food constituents are presented as well as the analytical methods applied for measuring even very small concentrations of contaminants. The main classes of substances relevant in foods ar represented, i.e. animal drugs, fungicides and herbicides, natural toxins, contaminants, prions from BSE-infested animals and residues of 'new' proteins and 'new' DNA from genetically modified foods. New legislation in Germany and Europe is presented including the National Residue Monitoring Plant which is to enable annual monitoring of residue concentrations in foods derived from animals. (orig.)

  15. Pathways and factors for food safety and food security at PFOS contaminated sites within a problem based learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; D'Hollander, Wendy; Oliaei, Fardin; Stahl, Thorsten; Weber, Roland

    2015-06-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and related substances have been listed in Annex B of the Stockholm Convention. The implementation requires inventories of use, stockpiles, and environmental contamination including contaminated sites and measures for (risk) reduction and phase out. In most countries monitoring capacity is not available and therefore other approaches for assessment of contaminated sites are needed. Available informations about PFOS contamination in hot spot areas and its bio-accumulation in the food webs have been merged to build up a worst-case scenario We model PFOS transfer from 1 to 100ngL(-1) range in water to extensive and free-range food producing animals, also via the spread of contaminated sludges on agriculture soils. The modeling indicates that forages represented 78% of the exposure in ruminants, while soil accounted for >80% in outdoor poultry/eggs and pigs. From the carry-over rates derived from literature, in pork liver, egg, and feral fish computed concentration falls at 101, 28 and 2.7ngg(-1), respectively, under the 1ngL(-1) PFOS scenario. Assuming a major consumption of food produced from a contaminated area, advisories on egg and fish, supported by good agriculture/farming practices could abate 75% of the human food intake. Such advisories would allow people to become resilient in a PFOS contaminated area through an empowerment of the food choices, bringing the alimentary exposure toward the current Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 150ngkg(-1)bodyweightd(-1) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Control of radioactive contamination of food in the country Somogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, E.; Viragh, I.

    1980-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of spinach, sorrel, lettuce, animal bones, milk and fish was determined in the period 1961-1978. Peak values were measured in 1963 and 1976. The contamination of plants reached higher levels, however, it did not exceed 25 pCi per g dry weight. (L.E.)

  17. Carcinogenicity study of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) administered by drinking water to B6C3F1 mice showed no carcinogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jayoung; Han, Beom Seok; Cho, Wan-Seob; Choi, Mina; Ha, Chang-Su; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Kim, Yong-Bum; Son, Woo-Chan; Kim, Choong-Yong

    2010-09-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (or 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol, 3-MCPD) is a well-known food processing contaminant found in a wide range of foods and ingredients. It has been classified as non-genotoxic carcinogen but its carcinogenic potential in the rodents has been controversial. The carcinogenicity to B6C3F1 mice by drinking water administration was assessed over a period of 104 weeks. Three groups, each comprising 50 male and 50 female mice received 3-MCPD at dosages of 30, 100 or 300 ppm up to Day 100 and 200 ppm onward (4.2, 14.3 and 33.0 mg/kg for males; 3.7, 12.2, and 31.0 mg/kg for females), were allocated. Survival was good, with at least 80% of males and 72% of females in each group surviving 104 weeks. Body weights and body weight gain were decreased in males and females receiving 200 ppm. Water and food consumptions of both sexes at 300/200 ppm were lowered. Emaciated or crouching position was observed for animals of both sexes exposed to 200 ppm. There were some differences in hematology and serum biochemistry compared with controls, although there was no histopathological evidence to support those changes. Histopathological examination did not reveal any neoplastic or non-neoplastic findings attributable to treatment with 3-MCPD. It is concluded that drinking water administration of 3-MCPD for 104 weeks revealed no evidence of carcinogenic potential.

  18. Substitution of carcinogenic solvent dichloromethane for the extraction of volatile compounds in a fat-free model food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayot, Nathalie; Lafarge, Céline; Bou-Maroun, Elias; Cayot, Philippe

    2016-07-22

    Dichloromethane is known as a very efficient solvent, but, as other halogenated solvents, is recognized as a hazardous product (CMR substance). The objective of the present work is to propose substitution solvent for the extraction of volatile compounds. The most important physico-chemical parameters in the choice of an appropriate extraction solvent of volatile compounds are reviewed. Various solvents are selected on this basis and on their hazard characteristics. The selected solvents, safer than dichloromethane, are compared using the extraction efficiency of volatile compounds from a model food product able to interact with volatile compounds. Volatile compounds with different hydrophobicity are used. High extraction yields were positively correlated with high boiling points and high Log Kow values of volatile compounds. Mixtures of solvents such as azeotrope propan-2-one/cyclopentane, azeotrope ethyl acetate/ethanol, and mixture ethyl acetate/ethanol (3:1, v/v) gave higher extraction yields than those obtained with dichloromethane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Decision aiding handbooks for managing contaminated food production systems, drinking water and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Brown, J.; Howard, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three handbooks have been developed, in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders to assist in the management of contaminated food production systems, inhabited areas and drinking water following a radiological incident. The handbooks are aimed at national and local authorities, central...... government departments and agencies, emergency services, radiation protection experts, the agriculture and food production sectors, industry and others who may be affected. The handbooks include management options for application in the different phases of an incident. Sources of contamination considered...

  20. Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. Data sheet based countermeasure evaluation for radioactively contaminated Nordic food-producing areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Rosen, K.; Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L.

    2002-01-01

    A Nordic expert group has identified and critically evaluated the countermeasures that may potentially be implemented in connection with major nuclear accident situations contaminating Nordic food-producing areas. This paper demonstrates how the derived technical information can be applied by decision-makers to identify practicable and cost-effective means for mitigation of the impact of contamination. (au)

  2. Data sheet based countermeasure evaluation for radioactively contaminated Nordic food-producing areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Rantavaara, A. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland); Rosen, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway)

    2002-04-01

    A Nordic expert group has identified and critically evaluated the countermeasures that may potentially be implemented in connection with major nuclear accident situations contaminating Nordic food-producing areas. This paper demonstrates how the derived technical information can be applied by decision-makers to identify practicable and cost-effective means for mitigation of the impact of contamination. (au)

  3. Determination and risk assessment of naturally occurring genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in nutmeg-based plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malahmeh, Amer J; Alajlouni, Abdalmajeed M; Ning, Jia; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-10-01

    A risk assessment of nutmeg-based plant food supplements (PFS) containing different alkenylbenzenes was performed based on the alkenylbenzene levels quantified in a series of PFS collected via the online market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of the alkenylbenzenes amounted to 0.3 to 312 μg kg -1 body weight (bw) for individual alkenylbenzenes, to 1.5 to 631 μg kg -1 bw when adding up the alkenylbenzene levels assuming equal potency, and to 0.4 to 295 μg kg -1 bw when expressed in safrole equivalents using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). The margin of exposure approach (MOE) was used to evaluate the potential risks. Independent of the method used for the intake estimate, the MOE values obtained were generally lower than 10000 indicating a priority for risk management. When taking into account that PFS may be used for shorter periods of time and using Haber's rule to correct for shorter than lifetime exposure it was shown that limiting exposure to only 1 or 2 weeks would result in MOE values that would be, with the presently determined levels of alkenylbenzenes and proposed uses of the PFS, of low priority for risk management (MOE > 10000). It is concluded that the results of the present paper reveal that nutmeg-based PFS consumption following recommendations for daily intake especially for longer periods of time raise a concern. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Criminal Protection of the Consumer of Irradiated food and Consumer Protection Against Contaminated Food with Radioactive Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baroudy, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    The widespread peaceful applications of atomic energy in food and agriculture had various positive and negative impacts on the economies of food and its production. Food is positively affected through either its treatment by ionizing radiation to preserve and reduce losses in it or by using mutations treated by ionizing radiation for improving their productivity. On the other hand, negative effects of nuclear energy on food are caused by nuclear explosions in nuclear weapons testing as well as by different nuclear energy applications and the wastes formed as a result of it. These activities can cause different contamination levels of the environment and particularly, the arable land. This in turn leads to the production of contaminated food with radioactive isotopes. Consequently, the present work which is subdivided into two parts, involves a study of both the positive and negative effects of ionizing radiations and radioactive isotopes on food. The first part deals with the legal protection of food treated by ionizing radiations to preserve it, explaining the related different legal and regulatory aspects. Food irradiation processes should be carried out in a framework of the national control regulations and in a way that is consistent with the reference standards adopted internationally for the safety and hygiene of food

  5. Dioxin contamination in food - Bayreuth, Germany, from September 28 to October 1, 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchert, Arne; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Dyke, P.

    2001-01-01

    for the design of monitoring programs, analytical methods, and quality assurance. Though data from Northern Europe shows that the general population exposure to dioxin and PCB has decreased during the last ten years these compounds continue to be a risk of accidental contamination of the food chain. The most...... to be supplemented by measures to prevent direct contamination of feeding stuff or food to reduce general population exposure further.......Dioxin and PCB monitoring programs for food and feeding stuff in most countries of the world, including many European Countries are currently inadequate. Better control of food production lines and food processing procedures is needed to minimize entry of dioxin to the food chain and will help...

  6. Investigations on caesium 134 and 137 contamination of game hunted for food in Hessia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, R.M.; Harju, H.; Sattler, E.L.; Wagner, G.

    1990-01-01

    The amount of caesium 134 and 137 in Hessian game hunted for food (556 animals) after the reactor accident at Chernobyl was investigated. Comparisons have been made before and after the accident. Although there was only a very low level of contamination, the contamination rate of different species varied; on average, the Red Deer showed the highest activity (130 Bq/kg). The level of caesium contamination was mostly influenced by the permanent habitat of the animals. The main influence was due to regional, geographical and meteorological conditions. The influence of age or sex could not be determined. The contamination rate was shown to decrease with time [de

  7. From Acceptance to Rejection: Food Contamination in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classroom exercise to explain design and measurement principles in methodology and statistics courses. This demonstration which involves measurement of a shift from food acceptance to food rejection produces meaningful data sets. The realism of the exercise gives students a view of problems that emerge in research. (KO)

  8. The level of Escherichia coli contamination in foods and drinks sold at canteens campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Susanna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial contamination is a common phenomenon in foods served in campus canteens and my cause physical illness which will affect academic activity. The aim of this study was to rank the level of Escherichia coli contamination in food and drink in campus canteens.Methods: Forty nine (49 foods and 24 types of drink were examined using conventional agar broth method for calculation of most probable number (MPN. The steps of the mothod were presumptive test for coliforms, fecal coliforms and E. coli, confirmes test for coliforms, fecal coli and E. coli and then completed test for E. coli. An analysis for contamination by E. coli in meals, utensils, and on the hands of the server was also undertaken. The data analyzed in percentage and rank all type of foods and drinks, also rank based on the location.Results: Almost all type of meals was contaminated. Meals with chili sauce were the most risky from the contamination of E. coli (90.15 %, then followed by dry meals (38.89%, while the wet meals were the the most unrisky meals. In  drinks, the highest was lacy juice, followed by jambu (guava juice, then Sirsak and Orange juices on the third rank, while the mango juice was the lowest contamination. Melon juice, cappucino and fruit-coctail did not have E. coli  contamination.Conclusion: The contamination in the top three rank of contamination could be from the utensils used and foodhandler. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:66-70Keywords: campus, canteen, drink, Escherichia coli, food

  9. Consumer risk perception, attitudes and behaviour related to food affected by radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, J.

    1999-01-01

    The paper focuses on consumer attitudes to the countermeasures being taken to reduce radioactivity levels in food. Data is collected from a 1998 survey of 1003 Norwegian and 200 Scottish consumers on their fear of experiencing ill health due to radioactive contamination of food products, their risk averting behaviour connected to the Chernobyl accident of 1986, and their willingness to pay (WTP) for untreated food

  10. Sources of calicivirus contamination in foodborne outbreaks, Denmark, 2005-2011 - the role of the asymptomatic food handler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franck, Kristina T.; Lisby, Morten; Fonager, Jannik

    2015-01-01

    Background. Norovirus is the predominant cause of foodborne disease outbreaks. Virus contamination may occur during all steps of food processing from production to preparation and serving. The relative importance of these different routes of contamination is unknown. Methods. The purpose...... of contamination. Results. In 64 (34%) of the outbreaks, contamination from food handlers took place during preparation or serving of food. In the majority of these outbreaks (n=41; 64%), the food handlers were asymptomatic during food handling. Some had been in contact with ill household members before handling...... the food and remained asymptomatic; others developed symptoms shortly after or were post-symptomatic. In 51 (27%) of the outbreaks, contamination occurred during production of the food and in 55 (29%) of the outbreaks, contamination had supposedly occurred after serving via a guest at a self-serving buffet...

  11. Comparative characteristics of contamination levels of food stuffs of the same type in the USSR and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    Studied is the contamination of similar food stuffs obtained in different distant regions which have similar geographical latitude, amounts of atmospheric fallouts, altitude above the sea level. The contamination of initial raw food stuffs deoends on other conditions, among them the main one for vegetable raw materials being sorption properties of a given plant. The mechanism is more difficult in the case of a soil way of food stuffs contamination. Food stuffs can have various degrees of contamination due to differences in the technology of processing the initial food stuffs in different countries. The data showing the differences in the contamination of similar food stuffs are presented. Differences in most cases are constant. The data presented allow to make a conclusion that food stuffs contamination in the USSR takes place in the framework of variations observed in separate countries of northern hemisphere

  12. Sporulation of Bacillus spp. within biofilms: a potential source of contamination in food processing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faille, C; Bénézech, T; Midelet-Bourdin, G; Lequette, Y; Clarisse, M; Ronse, G; Ronse, A; Slomianny, C

    2014-06-01

    Bacillus strains are often isolated from biofilms in the food industries. Previous works have demonstrated that sporulation could occur in biofilms, suggesting that biofilms would be a significant source of food contamination with spores. In this study, we investigated the properties of mono-species and mixed Bacillus biofilms and the ability of Bacillus strains to sporulate inside biofilms. Bacillus strains were able to form mono-species biofilms on stainless steel coupons, with up to 90% spores after a 48 h-incubation. These spores were highly resistant to cleaning but were easily transferred to agar, mimicking the cross-contamination of food, thereby suggesting that biofilms would be of particular concern due to a potential for Bacillus spore food contamination. This hypothesis was strengthened by the fact that Bacillus strains were able to form mixed biofilms with resident strains and that sporulation still occurred easily in these complex structures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recalls of foods due to microbiological contamination classified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, fiscal years 2003 through 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Manashi; Mayo, Jonathan A; Saville, Deborah; Wolyniak, Cecilia; Klontz, Karl C

    2013-06-01

    Recalls of foods contaminated with pathogens help reduce the transmission of infectious diseases. Here, we summarize the number and nature of foods recalled as a result of microbiological contamination, classified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the period 1 October 2002 through 30 September 2011. Microbiological contamination accounted for 1,395 (42%) of 3,360 recalls of food during this period. Nuts and edible seeds, followed by fishery-seafood products and spices, were the types of products most commonly recalled for microbiological contamination. Salmonella contamination accounted for the greatest number of food products recalled due to microbiological contamination, and was the pathogen most often linked to reported outbreaks involving recalled food products.

  14. Cross-ecosystem impacts of stream pollution reduce resource and contaminant flux to riparian food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Walters, David; Wanty, Richard B.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Wolf, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aquatic contaminants are propagated across ecosystem boundaries by aquatic insects that export resources and contaminants to terrestrial food webs; however, the mechanisms driving these effects are poorly understood. We examined how emergence, contaminant concentration, and total contaminant flux by adult aquatic insects changed over a gradient of bioavailable metals in streams and how these changes affected riparian web-building spiders. Insect emergence decreased 97% over the metal gradient, whereas metal concentrations in adult insects changed relatively little. As a result, total metal exported by insects (flux) was lowest at the most contaminated streams, declining 96% among sites. Spiders were affected by the decrease in prey biomass, but not by metal exposure or metal flux to land in aquatic prey. Aquatic insects are increasingly thought to increase exposure of terrestrial consumers to aquatic contaminants, but stream metals reduce contaminant flux to riparian consumers by strongly impacting the resource linkage. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding the contaminant-specific effects of aquatic pollutants on adult insect emergence and contaminant accumulation in adults to predict impacts on terrestrial food webs.

  15. Food processing as an agricultural countermeasure after an accidental contamination event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igreja, Eduardo; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Prado, Nadya M.P.D.; Silva, Diogo N.G.

    2013-01-01

    Food processing allows significant reduction in the radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs. The effects of processing on contaminated food depend on the radionuclide, the type of foodstuff and the method of processing. The effectiveness of radionuclide removal from raw material during processing can vary widely; however, processing of raw materials of vegetable and animal origin is often considered one of the most effective countermeasures for reducing the radioactive contamination of the foodstuff to or below permissible levels, and can be applied both domestically and in industrial processing of food. The food processing retention factor, Fr, is the fraction of radionuclide activity that is retained in the food after processing; it is obtained by the product of two quantities, the processing efficiency, Pe, that is the ratio of the fresh weight of the processed food to the weight of the original raw material, and the processing factor, Pf, that is the ratio of the radionuclide activity concentrations in the processed and in the raw material. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the reduction in dose due to food processing after a nuclear or radiological accident. Radionuclides considered were Cs-137, Sr-90 and I-131. The effect on total diet of individuals was investigating for a typical diet of the Southeast region, where the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants are located. The effect was analyzed considering the use of the processing technologies after contamination events occurring in different seasons of the year. (author)

  16. Biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and early effects.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarise the current situation regarding the types and uses of biomarkers of exposure and effect for the main classes of food-derived genotoxic carcinogens, and to consider some aspects of the intercomparison between these biomarkers. The biomarkers of exposure and early effects of carcinogens that have been most extensively developed are those for genotoxic agents and for compounds that generate hydroxyl radicals and other reactive radical species, and it is...

  17. Food contamination with salmonella and human health in Kinshasa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-10-31

    Oct 31, 2015 ... Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the level of salmonella contamination of fish and meat from public markets, meat from ... Material and sampling: Seventy-two samples of fresh fish, 120 samples of meat (beef, ..... prevalence and number of. Salmonella in sausages and their destruction.

  18. Community Level Stressors and Their Impacts on Food Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research is needed to understand a community’s food resources, utilization of those resources, and how the built and natural environment impact access to resources and potential chemical exposures. This research will identify stressors, relationships between those stressors...

  19. The delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic food web: Why sea ice matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pucko, M.; Stern, Gary; Macdonald, Robie

    2015-01-01

    For decades sea ice has been perceived as a physical barrier for the loading of contaminants to the Arctic Ocean. We show that sea ice, in fact, facilitates the delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic marine food web through processes that: 1) are independent of contaminant physical......–chemical properties (e.g. 2–3-fold increase in exposure to brine-associated biota), and 2) depend on physical–chemical properties and, therefore, differentiate between contaminants (e.g. atmospheric loading of contaminants to melt ponds over the summer, and their subsequent leakage to the ocean). We estimate...... risk of increased exposures through melt pond loading and drainage due to the high ratio of melt pond water to seawater concentration (Melt pond Enrichment Factor, MEF), which ranges from 2 for dacthal to 10 for endosulfan I. Melt pond contaminant enrichment can be perceived as a hypothetical ‘pump...

  20. The Child's Conception of Food: The Development of Food Rejections with Special Reference to Disgust and Contamination Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, April E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reports the results of structured interviews with mothers of 29 children three and one-half to 12 years of age, documenting the development of four categories of food rejection based on distaste, danger, disgust, and inappropriateness. Suggests that lack of contamination sensitivity in younger children is due to their belief that chemical…

  1. Relative importance of dissolved and food pathways for lead contamination in shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, F.; Cotret, O.; Teyssie, J.-L.; El-Baradeie, M.; Fowler, S.W.

    2003-01-01

    The relative importance of dissolved and food pathways and the influence of food type in the bioaccumulation and retention of lead in the shrimp Palaemonetes varians were examined using a radiotracer method. Shrimp were exposed to 210 Pb-labelled seawater or fed two types of 210 Pb-labelled food, viz. mussels or worms. The amount of radiotracer accumulated by shrimp was examined over a 7-day period, followed by a 1-month and a 7-day depuration period for the dissolved and food source, respectively. Steady state in the uptake was reached after 2 days exposure to dissolved lead, with a resultant estimated concentration factor of 98 ± 3. Transfer factors following ingestion of contaminated mussels and worms were lower than unity for both food types, with lead transfer from worms being significantly higher than that from mussels. Accumulation of dissolved Pb by shrimp was found to occur mainly through adsorption on the exoskeleton with a minor accumulation in the internal tissues probably resulting from the intake of seawater for osmoregulation. In contrast, lead taken up from contaminated food was readily absorbed and bound in the internal tissues of P. varians. Although the transfer of lead to P. varians through the ingestion of contaminated food was low (TF < 1%), it still represented 4 to 8% of the lead content in the prey which is a significant additional contribution of lead to the shrimp body burden. Independent of food type, following ingestion of contaminated food, approximately 23-27% of total lead accumulated in shrimp was located in the edible parts (e.g. muscle). Therefore, the food pathway is suggested to be a significant contributor to the lead transfer to humans through ingestion of contaminated shrimp. After exposure to contaminated food, lead loss kinetics were described by a two-component model, whereas Pb loss following direct uptake from seawater was best described by a three-component model. The additional compartment representing 64% of total Pb

  2. Relative importance of dissolved and food pathways for lead contamination in shrimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisson, F.; Cotret, O.; Teyssie, J.-L.; El-Baradeie, M.; Fowler, S.W

    2003-12-01

    The relative importance of dissolved and food pathways and the influence of food type in the bioaccumulation and retention of lead in the shrimp Palaemonetes varians were examined using a radiotracer method. Shrimp were exposed to {sup 210}Pb-labelled seawater or fed two types of {sup 210}Pb-labelled food, viz. mussels or worms. The amount of radiotracer accumulated by shrimp was examined over a 7-day period, followed by a 1-month and a 7-day depuration period for the dissolved and food source, respectively. Steady state in the uptake was reached after 2 days exposure to dissolved lead, with a resultant estimated concentration factor of 98 {+-} 3. Transfer factors following ingestion of contaminated mussels and worms were lower than unity for both food types, with lead transfer from worms being significantly higher than that from mussels. Accumulation of dissolved Pb by shrimp was found to occur mainly through adsorption on the exoskeleton with a minor accumulation in the internal tissues probably resulting from the intake of seawater for osmoregulation. In contrast, lead taken up from contaminated food was readily absorbed and bound in the internal tissues of P. varians. Although the transfer of lead to P. varians through the ingestion of contaminated food was low (TF < 1%), it still represented 4 to 8% of the lead content in the prey which is a significant additional contribution of lead to the shrimp body burden. Independent of food type, following ingestion of contaminated food, approximately 23-27% of total lead accumulated in shrimp was located in the edible parts (e.g. muscle). Therefore, the food pathway is suggested to be a significant contributor to the lead transfer to humans through ingestion of contaminated shrimp. After exposure to contaminated food, lead loss kinetics were described by a two-component model, whereas Pb loss following direct uptake from seawater was best described by a three-component model. The additional compartment representing 64

  3. Application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to organic chemical contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-03-01

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards that was developed as an effective alternative to conventional end-point analysis to control food safety. It has been described as the most effective means of controlling foodborne diseases, and its application to the control of microbiological hazards has been accepted internationally. By contrast, relatively little has been reported relating to the potential use of HACCP, or HACCP-like procedures, to control chemical contaminants of food. This article presents an overview of the implementation of HACCP and discusses its application to the control of organic chemical contaminants in the food chain. Although this is likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP, that is, more effective, efficient, and economical hazard management, a number of areas are identified that require further research and development. These include: (1) a need to refine the methods of chemical contaminant identification and risk assessment employed, (2) develop more cost-effective monitoring and control methods for routine chemical contaminant surveillance of food, and (3) improve the effectiveness of process optimization for the control of chemical contaminants in food.

  4. Microbial source tracking: a tool for identifying sources of microbial contamination in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ling-Lin; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The ability to trace fecal indicators and food-borne pathogens to the point of origin has major ramifications for food industry, food regulatory agencies, and public health. Such information would enable food producers and processors to better understand sources of contamination and thereby take corrective actions to prevent transmission. Microbial source tracking (MST), which currently is largely focused on determining sources of fecal contamination in waterways, is also providing the scientific community tools for tracking both fecal bacteria and food-borne pathogens contamination in the food chain. Approaches to MST are commonly classified as library-dependent methods (LDMs) or library-independent methods (LIMs). These tools will have widespread applications, including the use for regulatory compliance, pollution remediation, and risk assessment. These tools will reduce the incidence of illness associated with food and water. Our aim in this review is to highlight the use of molecular MST methods in application to understanding the source and transmission of food-borne pathogens. Moreover, the future directions of MST research are also discussed.

  5. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. Eightieth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives and contaminants and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a brief description of general considerations addressed at the meeting, including updates on matters of interest to the work of the Committee. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and/or dietary exposure data for seven food additives (benzoates; lipase from Fusarium heterosporum expressed in Ogataea polymorpha; magnesium stearate; maltotetraohydrolase from Pseudomonas stutzeri expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; mixed β-glucanase, cellulase and xylanase from Rasamsonia emersonii; mixed β-glucanase and xylanase from Disporotrichum dimorphosporum; polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)- polyethylene glycol (PEG) graft copolymer) and two groups of contaminants (non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and pyrrolizidine alkaloids). Specifications for the following food additives were revised or withdrawn: advantame; annatto extracts (solavnt extracted bixin, ad solvent-extracted norbixin); food additives containing aluminium and/or silicon (aluminium silicate; calcium aluminium silicate; calcium silicate; silicon dioxide, amorphous; sodium aluminium silicate); and glycerol ester of gum rosin. Annexed to the report are tables or text summarizing the toxicological and dietary exposure information and information on specifications as well as the Committees recommendations on the food additives and contaminants considered at this meeting.

  6. Food safety of milk and dairy product of dairy cattle from heavy metal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlia, E.; Rahmah, KN; Suryanto, D.

    2018-01-01

    Food safety of milk and dairy products is a prerequisite for consumption, which must be free from physical, biological and chemical contamination. Chemical contamination of heavy metals Pb (Plumbum/Lead) and Cd (Cadmium) is generally derived from the environment such as from water, grass, feed additives, medicines and farm equipment. The contamination of milk and dairy products can affect quality and food safety for human consumption. The aim of this research is to investigate contamination of heavy metals Pb and Cd on fresh milk, pasteurized milk, and dodol milk compared with the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL). The methods of this researched was through case study and data obtained analyzed descriptively. Milk samples were obtained from Bandung and surrounding areas. The number of samples used was 30 samples for each product: 30 samples of fresh milk directly obtained from dairy farm, 30 samples of pasteurized milk obtained from street vendors and 30 samples of dodol milk obtained from home industry. Parameters observed were heavy metal residues of Pb and Cd. The results showed that: 1) approximately 83% of fresh milk samples were contaminated by Pb which 57% samples were above MRL and 90% samples were contaminated by Cd above MRL; 2) 67% of pasteurized milk samples were contaminated by Pb below MRL; 3) 60% of dodol milk samples were contaminated by Pb and Cd above MRL.

  7. The comparative estimation of the radiation and chemical carcinogenic risk induced by the atmosphere contamination due to releases from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Komleva, V.A.; Shandala, N.K.

    1992-01-01

    In experiments with 1000 white mongrel mice which inhaled benzo (a) pyrene (BP) and fly coal ash for a long time, these agents increased significantly lung tumour incidence, with the latent period shortened. BP is found to be 10-1000 fold more carcinogenic then fly coal ash. The BP inhalation at a sanitary standard level (0.1 μg/100m 3 ) appeared to be equivalent, in murine risk, to the whole-body exposure to a total gamma dose of about 2 Sv. The coal ash inhalation in a concentration of 0.05 mg/m 3 caused the same risk as a dose of 0.05 Sv. (author)

  8. A 12-Month Study of Food Crops Contaminated by Heavy Metals, Lusaka, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, J. A.; Malamud, B. D.; Chishala, B. H.; Kapungwe, E.; Volk, J.; Harpp, K. S.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate heavy-metal contamination of irrigation water used for urban agriculture and subsequent contamination of food crops in Chunga, NW Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Inhabitants of the Chunga area rely on urban agriculture as both a major source of income and food. From August 2004 to July 2005, monthly samples of irrigation water used and edible portions of food crops were taken from a farmer's plot at Chunga. The food crops (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, pumpkin leaves, rape, sweet potato leaves and tomatoes) are grown using irrigation throughout the year. Irrigation water samples and digested food crop samples were analysed using ICP-MS at the Department of Geology, Colgate University, USA for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, and U. We find heavy-metal concentrations present in both irrigation water and food crop samples. Zambian sample concentrations were compared to Zambian and international legislative and guideline limits for concentrations of heavy metals in industrial effluent, heavy metals in irrigation water and heavy metals in foods. In irrigation water samples recommended national and/or international legislative limits for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Hg, Pb and U were exceeded. Limits for Hg were exceeded by up to 130 times. There were heavy-metal concentrations above recommended limits in food crops for Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb throughout the different food crops grown and throughout the year. In all 14 samples recommended limits for Cr, Fe and Hg were exceeded. Zambian legislated limits for food crops were exceeded by up to 16 times for Pb and 58 times for Hg. The results of this study show that heavy metal contamination is present in irrigation water used and food crops grown in urban agriculture in Chunga, Lusaka, Zambia. Recommended maximum limits for heavy metals in irrigation water and food are exceeded in some samples indicating there may be a risk to health.

  9. Effect of aflatoxin-B1 doses simulating natural food contamination reproductive steroid hormones in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamal, M.H.; EL-Banna, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic metabolite synthesized by aspergillus flavus. The mycotoxins was found to be endemic contaminant in underdeveloped countries and in egypt was documented as a pollutant of a wide variety of products for human and animal nutrition. Carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of AFB1 has been investigated extensively, while very scare information is available about other possible endocrine effects of the toxin which might precedes carcinogenic effects. This study was performed to investigate the effects of in vivo administration of AFB1 via intraperitoneal injection (I.P) in adult male rats to show its effects on rat reproductive function and to illucidate the effects of acute, chronic and sub toxic (endimomemitic) AFB1 doses on male rat steroid function. Intraperitoneal injection (I.P) of AFB 1 doses in adult male rats revealed that AFB1 caused significant decrease in serum testosterone and cortisol (early), while a significant increase was observed in progesterone (P 4 ) and Estrodial (E 2 ) (late)

  10. Prevalence and contamination levels of listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojima, Yukako; Ida, Miki; Nakama, Akiko; Nishino, Yukari; Fukui, Rie; Kuroda, Sumiyo; Hirai, Akihiko; Kai, Akemi; Sadamasu, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We surveyed prevalence and contamination levels of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods between 2000 and 2012 in Tokyo. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 52 (1.7%) out of 2,980 samples. Comparing the prevalence in the study period, 2.2% were positive in the former period (2000-2005) and 1.2% in the latter (2006-2012). Using the most probable number (MPN) technique, 32 samples were contaminated with fewer than 0.3 L. monocytogenes/g, 10 samples with 0.3-1.0/g and 4 samples with more than 1.0/g (the maximum was 2.3/g). The most common serovar was 1/2a, followed by 1/2b, 4b and 1/2c. We revealed that ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo were contaminated with L. monocytogenes, although the contamination levels were low.

  11. Escherichia coli contamination of child complementary foods and association with domestic hygiene in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Sarker Masud; Kwong, Laura; Rahman, Musarrat Jabeen; Ercumen, Ayse; Pickering, Amy J; Ghosh, Probir K; Rahman, Md Zahidur; Das, Kishor Kumar; Luby, Stephen P; Unicomb, Leanne

    2017-05-01

    To determine the frequency and concentration of Escherichia coli in child complementary food and its association with domestic hygiene practices in rural Bangladesh. A total of 608 households with children 4 h (APR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.5, 4.2), in compounds where water was unavailable in the food preparation area (APR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.6, 4.2), where ≥1 fly was captured in the food preparation area (APR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.6), or where the ambient temperature was high (>25-40 °C) in the food storage area (APR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5, 4.4). Interventions to keep stored food covered and ensure water availability in the food preparation area would be expected to reduce faecal contamination of complementary foods. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) for evaluation of food contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, A.E.S.; Brienza, S.M.B.; Moreira, S.; Zucchi, O.L.A.; Nascimento Filho, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF) for the determination of metals and other elements in food available to the population in commercial establishments, in order to evaluate the risks of contamination by these products. The analyzed species were vegetables, leafy vegetables, fruits, cereal and grain. The results indicated that some species were contaminated by Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb with concentrations much higher than the reference values. (author)

  13. The presence of Chernobil contamination in food chain in autumn 1986. In Brezhice-Krshko region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklavzhicj, U.; Korun, M.; Zhele, M.; Fedina, Sh.; Juzhnich, K.; Brajnik, D.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of Chernobyl contamination in food chain measured in autumn 1986 in Bezhice-Krshko region is discussed and compared with the depth distribution of contaminating radionuclei in uncultivated and cultivated soil. It is felt that foliage transfer of resuspended Cs-137, Cs-134 still depositing at average rate of 30 Bq.m-2/month at the end of the year, could retain some future importance. (author). 3 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Potential for occupational and environmental exposure to ten carcinogens in Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, P. [ToxProbe Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted in which several contaminants were assessed for their toxicological properties, potencies and occupational and environmental exposures in the city of Toronto. The contaminants included 1,3-butadiene, asbestos, benzene, cadmium, chromium, dioxins, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and Health Canada have classified 9 of the 10 substances as human carcinogens. Tetrachloroethylene was classified as a probable human carcinogen. It was noted that there is no level of exposure for these chemicals that is without some risk. The information on the levels of selected contaminants in the workplace were obtained from existing literature. The sectors with the highest number of potentially exposed workers to these contaminants include the textiles industry, footwear manufacturing, wood products manufacturing, rubber products manufacturing, non-metallic mineral products manufacturing, fabricated metal products manufacturing, construction, land transport, and household services. The report discussed sources of emissions, routes and pathways of exposures and environmental levels, including outdoor air levels water concentrations, soil concentrations, and food concentrations. The report does not estimate the actual risk to Toronto residents due to environmental exposure to these carcinogens because data are insufficient to conduct such an assessment. However, some previous studies have indicated that exposure from ambient and indoor air has the greatest impact on human health. It is recommended that the city of Toronto remain up to date on the regulatory status of these chemicals. refs., tabs., figs., appendices.

  15. Case report of Salmonella cross-contamination in a food laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasschaert, Geertrui; De Reu, K; Heyndrickx, M; Herman, L

    2016-03-10

    This paper describes a case of Salmonella cross-contamination in a food laboratory. In 2012, chocolate bars shipped from Belgium to the USA were prevented from entering the USA because a Salmonella Rissen strain had been isolated from one of the chocolate bars in a Belgian food laboratory. However, a retrospective study of the Salmonella isolates sent from the laboratory to the Belgian National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella revealed that 7 weeks prior, a Salmonella Rissen strain has been isolated from fish meal in the same food laboratory. The chocolate bars were not expected to be contaminated with Salmonella because the ingredients all tested negative during the production process. Furthermore, because Salmonella Rissen is only rarely isolated from food, it was hypothesized that the two Salmonella Rissen isolates belonged to the same strain and that the second isolation event in this laboratory was caused by cross-contamination. To confirm this hypothesis, both Salmonella Rissen isolates were fingerprinted using different molecular techniques. To evaluate the discriminatory power of the techniques used, 11 other Salmonella Rissen isolates from different origins were included in the comparison. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, repetitive element palindromic PCR and three random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR assays were used. Repetitive element palindromic PCR and random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR assays were insufficiently discriminatory, whereas pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using the combination of two restriction enzymes showed sufficient discrimination to confirm the hypothesis. Although cross-contamination in food laboratories are rarely reported, cross-contamination can always occur. Laboratories should therefore always be aware of the possibility of cross-contamination, especially when enrichment is used in the microbiological analysis. Furthermore, it is advised that results showing isolates of the same serotype isolated in a short time frame

  16. Dip-strip method for monitoring environmental contamination of aflatoxin in food and feed: use of a portable aflatoxin detection kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidhar, R B

    1993-10-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed have gained global significance due to its deleterious effect on human and animal health and its importance in the international trade. The potential of aflatoxin as a carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen, and immunosuppressive agent is well documented. The problem of aflatoxin contamination of food and feed has led to the enactment of various legislation. However, meaningful strategies for implementation of this legislation is limited by nonavailability of simple, cost-effective method for screening and detection of aflatoxin under field conditions. Keeping in mind the analytical constraints in developing countries, a simple-to-operate, rapid, reliable, and cost-effective portable aflatoxin detection kit has been developed. The important components of the kit include a hand-held UV lamp (365 nm, 4 W output), a solvent blender (12,000 rpm) for toxin extraction, and adsorbent-coated dip-strips (polyester film) for detecting and quantifying aflatoxin. Analysis of variance indicates that there were no significant differences between various batches of dip-strips (p > 0.05). The minimum detection limit for aflatoxin B1 was 10 ppb per spot. The kit may find wide application as a research tool in public health laboratories, environmental monitoring agencies, and in the poultry industry.

  17. Metamorphosis alters contaminants and chemical tracers in insects: implications for food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M; Walters, David M; Wesner, Jeff S; Stricker, Craig A; Schmidt, Travis S; Zuellig, Robert E

    2014-09-16

    Insects are integral to most freshwater and terrestrial food webs, but due to their accumulation of environmental pollutants they are also contaminant vectors that threaten reproduction, development, and survival of consumers. Metamorphosis from larvae to adult can cause large chemical changes in insects, altering contaminant concentrations and fractionation of chemical tracers used to establish contaminant biomagnification in food webs, but no framework exists for predicting and managing these effects. We analyzed data from 39 studies of 68 analytes (stable isotopes and contaminants), and found that metamorphosis effects varied greatly. δ(15)N, widely used to estimate relative trophic position in biomagnification studies, was enriched by ∼ 1‰ during metamorphosis, while δ(13)C used to estimate diet, was similar in larvae and adults. Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly lost during metamorphosis leading to ∼ 2 to 125-fold higher larval concentrations and higher exposure risks for predators of larvae compared to predators of adults. In contrast, manufactured organic contaminants (such as polychlorinated biphenyls) were retained and concentrated in adults, causing up to ∼ 3-fold higher adult concentrations and higher exposure risks to predators of adult insects. Both food web studies and contaminant management and mitigation strategies need to consider how metamorphosis affects the movement of materials between habitats and ecosystems, with special regard for aquatic-terrestrial linkages.

  18. Effect of tanniniferous food from Bauhinia pulchella on pasture contamination with gastrointestinal nematodes from goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Suzana G; Barros, Lilyan B G; Louvandini, Helder; Abdalla, Adibe L; Costa Junior, Livio M

    2016-02-24

    Tannin-rich plants have been examined as an alternative for controlling the gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. In vivo assays typically examine the anthelmintic activity in female fecundity and/or the adult worm burden, without considering other life-cycle stages or the impact on pasture contamination. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of tanniniferous food from Bauhinia pulchella in goats and the potential impact on pasture contamination with the infective larval stage of gastrointestinal nematodes. Sixteen cross breed Boer goats that were naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were fed tanniniferous concentrate from the leaves of B. pulchella and compared to a separate paddock of control animals without condensed tannin supplementation. A range of parasite characteristics were monitored throughout the 63 days of experimentation, including faecal egg count (FEC), egg hatching and relative numbers of hatched helminth larvae on herbage. Worm free tracer animals were used to assess the infective larval stage load of the contaminated pasture. The tanniniferous food did not reduce the combined FEC values, but egg hatching was significantly affected (p food from B. pulchella showed reduced contamination through infective larval stages. Tracer goats maintained in paddocks grazed with animals fed with tanniniferous food had lower numbers of Trichostrongylus colubriformis than did those in the control group (86 % reduction). Condensed tannin from B. pulchella showed anthelmintic activity, affected egg viability and reduced pasture contamination, which led to the reduced infection of the animals by T. colubriformis.

  19. Flow cytometric analysis of microbial contamination in food industry technological lines--initial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józwa, Wojciech; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2012-04-02

    Flow cytometry constitutes an alternative for traditional methods of microorganisms identification and analysis, including methods requiring cultivation step. It enables the detection of pathogens and other microorganisms contaminants without the need to culture microbial cells meaning that the sample (water, waste or food e.g. milk, wine, beer) may be analysed directly. This leads to a significant reduction of time required for analysis allowing monitoring of production processes and immediate reaction in case of contamination or any disruption occurs. Apart from the analysis of raw materials or products on different stages of manufacturing process, the flow cytometry seems to constitute an ideal tool for the assessment of microbial contamination on the surface of technological lines. In the present work samples comprising smears from 3 different surfaces of technological lines from fruit and vegetable processing company from Greater Poland were analysed directly with flow cytometer. The measured parameters were forward and side scatter of laser light signals allowing the estimation of microbial cell contents in each sample. Flow cytometric analysis of the surface of food industry production lines enable the preliminary evaluation of microbial contamination within few minutes from the moment of sample arrival without the need of sample pretreatment. The presented method of fl ow cytometric initial evaluation of microbial state of food industry technological lines demonstrated its potential for developing a robust, routine method for the rapid and labor-saving detection of microbial contamination in food industry.

  20. Detection of seal contamination in heat-sealed food packaging based on active infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'huys, Karlien; Saeys, Wouter; De Ketelaere, Bart

    2015-05-01

    In the food industry packaging is often applied to protect the product from the environment, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the material used and the closure (seal). The material is selected based on the specific needs of the food product to be wrapped. However, proper closure of the package is often harder to achieve. One problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of food particles between the seal. Seal contamination can cause a decreased seal strength and thus an increased packaging failure risk. It can also trigger the formation of microchannels through which air and microorganisms can enter and spoil the enclosed food. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal-contaminated packages from the production chain is essential. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heat of the sealing bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. The cooling profile of contaminated seals was recorded. The detection performance of four processing methods (based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profile, pulsed phase thermography and a matched filter) was compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify contamination. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter of 0.63 mm) and the lowest processing time (0.42 s per sample) were obtained for the method based on a single frame. Presumably, practical limitations in the recording stage prevented the added value of active thermography to be fully reflected in this application.

  1. Critical effective methods to detect genotoxic carcinogens and neoplasm-promoting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburger, J H; Williams, G M

    1991-01-01

    Neoplasia in fish can result from contamination of waters with carcinogens and promoters. Cancer in fish, therefore, is a possible indicator of cancer risk to man and serves as a guide to the need for preventive approaches involving improved means of waste disposal and environmental hygiene. Moreover, cancer in fish indicates that this important food source may be contaminated. Detection of genotoxic carcinogens to which fish are exposed can be achieved quickly and efficiently by carefully selected batteries of complementary in vitro and in vivo bioassays. One such battery consists of the Ames test, a reverse mutation assay in prokaryotic Salmonella typhimurium, and the Williams test, involving DNA repair in freshly explanted metabolically highly competent liver cells from diverse species, including humans. Determination of DNA-carcinogen adducts by varied techniques, including 32P-postlabeling, as well as DNA breakage, mammalian cell mutagenicity, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, or cell transformation represent additional approaches, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. More research is needed on systems to apprehend neoplasm promoters, but tests to determine interruption of intercellular communications through gap junctions appear promising. Other approaches rely on measurement of enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase and protein kinase C. Approaches to the definition of risk to fish or humans require characterization of the genotoxic or nongenotoxic properties of a chemical, relative potency data obtained in select, limited rodent bioassays, and knowledge of prevailing environmental concentrations of specific carcinogens.

  2. Long-term trend of radioactive contamination of food products in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirov, K.; Marinov, V.; Naidenov, M.

    1997-01-01

    Results which characterize the dynamics for the power of radioactive contamination of foods in the Bulgaria with Cesium radionuclides from May 1986 to December 1995 are presented. It was done for motivation of some conclusions during the progress of radiation situation in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident. The data are compared with Maximum residues limits (MRL) of our country as well as that of international organizations. They are compared with the background contamination of foods descended from regions affected after experimental nuclear explosion till 1963 too

  3. Considerations of food hygiene in the case of mussels accidentally contaminated by iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battani, N.; Chambost, Marie-Daniel; Leandri, Marcel

    1969-09-01

    As the transfer to mankind of radioactive pollution by food chains is a matter of concern, the authors report the study of the use of mussels contaminated by iodine 131 in a food preparation in order to follow the evolution of this radionuclide. After their contamination in seawater, mussels are prepared either with or without their shell. Counting is performed after cooking. Results are discussed in terms of presence of the radionuclide in the different parts of the crude or cooked mussels (shell, body, liquid) [fr

  4. Contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes sampled from food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Izani, N J; Zulaikha, A R; Mohamad Noor, M R; Amri, M A; Mahat, N A

    2012-03-01

    The use of ice cubes in beverages is common among patrons of food outlets in Malaysia although its safety for human consumption remains unclear. Hence, this study was designed to determine the presence of faecal coliforms and several useful water physicochemical parameters viz. free residual chlorine concentration, turbidity and pH in ice cubes from 30 randomly selected food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. Faecal coliforms were found in ice cubes in 16 (53%) food outlets ranging between 1 CFU/100mL to >50 CFU/ 100mL, while in the remaining 14 (47%) food outlets, in samples of tap water as well as in commercially bottled drinking water, faecal coliforms were not detected. The highest faecal coliform counts of >50 CFU/100mL were observed in 3 (10%) food outlets followed by 11-50 CFU/100mL and 1-10 CFU/100mL in 7 (23%) and 6 (20%) food outlets, respectively. All samples recorded low free residual chlorine concentration (contamination by faecal coliforms was not detected in 47% of the samples, tap water and commercially bottled drinking water, it was concluded that (1) contamination by faecal coliforms may occur due to improper handling of ice cubes at the food outlets or (2) they may not be the water sources used for making ice cubes. Since low free residual chlorine concentrations were observed (food outlets, including that of ice cube is crucial in ensuring better food and water for human consumption.

  5. Restaurant industry preparedness against intentional food contamination: results of a South Carolina survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Kanwat, C P; Smith, Lillian U; Li, Yi-Jhen; Sros, Lekhena; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Food safety and food defense are both responsibilities of public health agencies. Food safety practices within restaurants are regulated by state and local public health laws based on the US Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code. However, little is known about preemptive practices against intentional food-borne outbreaks within restaurants. The researchers administered a survey to a 50 percent random sample of South Carolina's restaurants, a state that relies heavily on tourism and the restaurant industry for its economic well-being. The survey received a response rate of 15 percent. The food defense practice items fall under three functional categories: employee management and training practices; vendor and delivery-related practices; and physical facilities and operational security practices. This study presents the results, classified by geographic region. Findings indicate some key areas of vulnerability that need attention to protect the public from mass food outbreaks due to intentional contamination. Of concern, there is much variation in practices by geographic region. On the basis of the survey, recommendations are made to improve restaurant preparedness against food-borne outbreaks from terrorism and malevolent contamination.

  6. An investigation of selected chemical contaminants in commercial pet foods in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elhakim, Yasmina M; El Sharkawy, Nabela I; Moustafa, Gihan G

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to identify the levels of various contaminants in both wet and dry commercial pet foods in Egypt. A total of 20 local and imported pet food products (3 samples each) were screened for heavy metals by atomic absorption spectroscopy, for mycotoxins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and for nitrate and nitrite levels by nitrate-nitrite spectrophotometry. Cat food, on average, had greater concentrations of the metals cadmium, chromium, lead, and tin than dog food. Of the investigated metals, only tin concentration exceeded the safe level compared with the standards of the National Research Council and the European Commission for the dog and cat. According to the guidelines of the Association of American Feed Control Officials for canned pet foods, the nitrate and nitrite contents of examined foods greatly exceeded the recommended level. No total aflatoxins were detected in the surveyed samples. None of the samples analyzed had levels above international limits established by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations for ochratoxin, and only 1 sample exceeded the level for aflatoxin B1. Of the 20 samples analyzed for zearalenone, 4 samples had higher levels than the FAO maximum tolerable levels. These results indicate that pet foods marketed in Egypt, especially cat foods, occasionally contain contaminants that could result in adverse effects in pets. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Estimating baseline risks from biouptake and food ingestion at a contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.; Woytowich, K.; Blunt, D.; Picel, M.

    1993-01-01

    Biouptake of contaminants and subsequent human exposure via food ingestion represents a public concern at many contaminated sites. Site-specific measurements from plant and animal studies are usually quite limited, so this exposure pathway is often modeled to assess the potential for adverse health effects. A modeling tool was applied to evaluate baseline risks at a contaminated site in Missouri, and the results were used to confirm that ingestion of fish and game animals from the site area do not pose a human health threat. Results were also used to support the development of cleanup criteria for site soil

  8. Aspects of chronic ingestion of contaminated food in cattle and game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, H.; Jandl, J.; Jirasek, V.; Francova, J.; Sekera, K.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, meat of grazing stock and of game was contaminated via the food chain. 134 Cs and 137 Cs, in the acute phase also iodine isotopes were measured in various samples of meat, milk, feeds and soil. The samples were first counted using a well-type large-volume NaI(Tl) detector and then by gamma spectrometric analysis using a semiconductor Ge/Li or HPGe detector. Contamination exceeding the international derived action level was only observed in game. Untilled meadows and forests are a long-term source of contamination. (M.D.). 5 figs., 3 tabs., 7 refs

  9. Application of the Margin of Exposure (MoE) Approach to Substances in Food that are Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Example: Benzo[a]pyrene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the work of an expert group established by the International Life Sciences Institute - European branch (ILSI Europe) to follow up the recommendations of an international conference on "Risk Assessment of Compounds that are both Genotoxic and Carcinogenic: New ...

  10. A survey of traditional Iranian food products for contamination with toxigenic Clostridium botulinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Tavakoli

    Full Text Available Summary: This study aimed to determine the rate of Clostridium botulinum contamination in some traditional Iranian food products (cheese, kashk and salted fish and evaluate the efficacy of the mouse bioassay method in detection of C. botulinum toxins in these foods. A total of 131 samples (57 cheese, 11 kashk and 63 salted fish were collected and examined to determine the rate of contamination by C. botulinum. Standard monovalent anti-toxins were used to determine the types of toxin. C. botulinum bacteria were detected in 4.58% of the examined samples (1.52% of cheese and 3.06% of salted fish samples. While no contamination was detected in the kashk samples, C. botulinum types A and E were found to be dominant in cheese and salted fish samples, respectively. These results indicate—some traditional Iranian foods may be contaminated with different types of C. botulinum, and the consumption of these products, either raw or cooked, may contribute to food-borne intoxications. Keywords: Clostridium botulinum, Botulinum toxin, Traditional foods

  11. Challenging conventional risk assessment with respect to human exposure to multiple food contaminants in food: A case study using maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R; Connolly, L; Frizzell, C; Elliott, C T

    2015-10-01

    Mycotoxins and heavy metals are ubiquitous in the environment and contaminate many foods. The widespread use of pesticides in crop production to control disease contributes further to the chemical contamination of foods. Thus multiple chemical contaminants threaten the safety of many food commodities; hence the present study used maize as a model crop to identify the severity in terms of human exposure when multiple contaminants are present. High Content Analysis (HCA) measuring multiple endpoints was used to determine cytotoxicity of complex mixtures of mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides. Endpoints included nuclear intensity (NI), nuclear area (NA), plasma membrane permeability (PMP), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial mass (MM). At concentrations representing legal limits of each individual contaminant in maize (3ng/ml ochratoxin A (OTA), 1μg/ml fumonisin B1 (FB1), 2ng/ml aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 100ng/ml cadmium (Cd), 150ng/ml arsenic (As), 50ng/ml chlorpyrifos (CP) and 5μg/ml pirimiphos methyl (PM), the mixtures (tertiary mycotoxins plus Cd/As) and (tertiary mycotoxins plus Cd/As/CP/PM) were cytotoxic for NA and MM endpoints with a difference of up to 13.6% (p≤0.0001) and 12% (p≤0.0001) respectively from control values. The most cytotoxic mixture was (tertiary mycotoxins plus Cd/As/CP/PM) across all 4 endpoints (NA, NI, MM and MMP) with increases up to 61.3%, 23.0%, 61.4% and 36.3% (p≤0.0001) respectively. Synergy was evident for two endpoints (NI and MM) at concentrations contaminating maize above legal limits, with differences between expected and measured values of (6.2-12.4% (p≤0.05-p≤0.001) and 4.5-12.3% (p≤0.05-p≤0.001) for NI and MM, respectively. The study introduces for the first time, a holistic approach to identify the impact in terms of toxicity to humans when multiple chemical contaminants are present in foodstuffs. Governmental regulatory bodies must begin to contemplate how to safeguard the population when

  12. Accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern in food crops-part 2: Plant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Katherine C; Blaine, Andrea C; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Arid agricultural regions often turn to using treated wastewater (reclaimed water) to irrigate food crops. Concerns arise, however, when considering the potential for persistent contaminants of emerging concern to accumulate into plants intended for human consumption. The present study examined the accumulation of a suite of 9 contaminants of emerging concern into 2 representative food crops, lettuce and strawberry, following uptake via the roots and subsequent distribution to other plant tissues. Calculating accumulation metrics (concentration factors) allowed for comparison of the compartmental affinity of each chemical for each plant tissue compartment. The root concentration factor was found to exhibit a positive linear correlation with the pH-adjusted octanol-water partition coefficient (DOW ) for the target contaminants of emerging concern. Coupled with the concentration-dependent accumulation observed in the roots, this result implies that accumulation of these contaminants of emerging concern into plant roots is driven by passive partitioning. Of the contaminants of emerging concern examined, nonionizable contaminants, such as triclocarban, carbamazepine, and organophosphate flame retardants displayed the greatest potential for translocation from the roots to above-ground plant compartments. In particular, the organophosphate flame retardants displayed increasing affinity for shoots and fruits with decreasing size/octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW ). Cationic diphenhydramine and anionic sulfamethoxazole, once transported to the shoots of the strawberry plant, demonstrated the greatest potential of the contaminants examined to be then carried to the edible fruit portion. © 2015 SETAC.

  13. State of contamination of French food produces by artificial radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boursier, B.; Guiard, A.; Tesolin, B.; Janin, F.

    1994-01-01

    This study presents the results of 40236 recorded levels of caesium 134 Cs and 137 Cs activities carried out on French food. These controls, performed through gamma-spectrometry, have been carried out in France by the Veterinary Services and the CNEVA-LCHA (Centre National d'Etudes Veterinaires - Laboratoire Central d'Hygiene Alimentaire), as part of a radionuclides survey after the Chernobyl accident. The results have been collected by the CNEVA-LCHA, and show in 1992 that 99.6% of the radioactivity levels in the French food are below 50 Bq/kg. The present situation seems to be satisfying. However, very small amounts of 137 Cs residues were noticed in some mushroom species, such as Cantharellus tubaeformis. (authors). 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Interconnection between precipitation density, soil contamination levels and 90Sr and 137Cs content in food stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Petukhova, Eh.V.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the data dynamically characterizing the density of radioactive fallout, contamination of soil and the main kinds of food stuffs with 137 Cs and 90 Sr. It is shown that 90 Sr contamination of bakery products in the country within the whole period of observation is in direct dependence on the density of atmospheric fallouts as a whole in the northern hemisphere. In the reverse, 90 Sr potato contamination primarily correlates with nuclide content in the soil. The dependence between milk contamination and fallout density has an intermediate character as compared with the above types of food stuffs. The same is true for 137 Cs, but a clear tendency to a faster decrease in the level of food stuffs contamination is observed. The importance of the soil way in food stuffs contamination and peculiarities of nuclide migration in food stuffs from various types of soil are considered

  15. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 8. Gloves as barriers to prevent contamination of food by workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Greig, Judy D; Smith, Debra; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-09-01

    The role played by food workers and other individuals in the contamination of food has been identified as an important contributing factor leading to foodborne outbreaks. To prevent direct bare hand contact with food and food surfaces, many jurisdictions have made glove use compulsory for food production and preparation. When properly used, gloves can substantially reduce opportunities for food contamination. However, gloves have limitations and may become a source of contamination if they are punctured or improperly used. Experiments conducted in clinical and dental settings have revealed pinhole leaks in gloves. Although such loss of glove integrity can lead to contamination of foods and surfaces, in the food industry improper use of gloves is more likely than leakage to lead to food contamination and outbreaks. Wearing jewelry (e.g., rings) and artificial nails is discouraged because these items can puncture gloves and allow accumulation of microbial populations under them. Occlusion of the skin during long-term glove use in food operations creates the warm, moist conditions necessary for microbial proliferation and can increase pathogen transfer onto foods through leaks or exposed skin or during glove removal. The most important issue is that glove use can create a false sense of security, resulting in more high-risk behaviors that can lead to cross-contamination when employees are not adequately trained.

  16. Evaluation of microbial contamination of ready-to-eat foods (pizza, frankfurters, sausages) in the city of Ilam

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Eslami; Zeinab Gholami; Shokofeh Nargesi; Bahareh Rostami; Moayed Avazpour

    2017-01-01

    Background: Today in the world, disease resulting from food is considered one of the most important problems in public health. This study aimed to determine the bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat foods, i.e. fast food, in Ilam city. Methods: In this cross-sectional, analytical study, 270 samples of ready-to-eat food, including pizza, frankfurters, and sausages, were randomly collected and tested for contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Salmonell...

  17. Determination of contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Vanermen, Guido; Servaes, Kelly; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Fierens, Tine

    2014-10-01

    As numerous studies have indicated that food ingestion is the most important exposure pathway to several phthalates, this study aimed to determine possible contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market. To do this, concentrations of eight phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) were determined in 591 foods and 30 packaging materials. In general, the four most prominent phthalates in Belgian food products were DEHP, DiBP, DnBP and BBP. Special attention was given to the origin of these phthalates in bread, since high phthalate concentrations (especially DEHP) were determined in this frequently consumed food product. Phthalates seemed to occur in Belgian bread samples due to the use of contaminated ingredients (i.e. use of contaminated flour) as well as due to migration from phthalate containing contact materials used during production (e.g. coated baking trays). Also the results of the conducted concentration profiles of apple, bread, salami and two cheese types revealed the important role of processing - and not packaging - on phthalate contents in foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Contamination with genetically modified maize MON863 of processed foods on the market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgiya, Yoko; Sakai, Masaaki; Miyashita, Taeko; Yano, Koichi

    2009-06-01

    Genetically modified maize MON863 (MON863), which has passed a safety examination in Japan, is commercially cultivated in the United States as a food and a resource for fuel. Maize is an anemophilous flower, which easily hybridizes. However, an official method for quantifying the content of MON863 has not been provided yet in Japan. We here examined MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that had no labeling indicating of the use of genetically modified maize.From March 2006 to July 2008, we purchased 20 frozen maize products, 8 maize powder products, 7 canned maize products and 4 other maize processed foods. Three primer pairs named MON 863 primer, MON863-1, and M3/M4 for MON863-specific integrated cassette were used for qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A primer pair "SSIIb-3" for starch synthase gene was used to confirm the quality of extracted DNA. The starch synthase gene was detected in all samples. In qualitative tests, the MON863-specific fragments were detected in 7 (18%) maize powder products out of the 39 processed foods with all the three primer pairs.We concluded that various maize processed foods on the market were contaminated with MON863. It is important to accumulate further information on MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that have no label indication of the use of genetically modified maize.

  19. Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-part a: working papers. I. Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs. II. Five case studies of environmental food contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs; and (2) Five case studies of environmental food contamination

  20. The food contaminant deoxynivalenol, decreases intestinal barrier permeability and reduces claudin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinton, Philippe; Nougayrede, Jean-Philippe; Del Rio, Juan-Carlos; Moreno, Carolina; Marin, Daniela E.; Ferrier, Laurent; Bracarense, Ana-Paula; Kolf-Clauw, Martine; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2009-01-01

    'The gastrointestinal tract represents the first barrier against food contaminants as well as the first target for these toxicants. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereals and causes various toxicological effects. Through consumption of contaminated cereals and cereal products, human and pigs are exposed to this mycotoxin. Using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we investigated the effects of DON on the intestinal epithelium. We demonstrated that, in intestinal epithelial cell lines from porcine (IPEC-1) or human (Caco-2) origin, DON decreases trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increases in a time and dose-dependent manner the paracellular permeability to 4 kDa dextran and to pathogenic Escherichia coli across intestinal cell monolayers. In pig explants treated with DON, we also observed an increased permeability of intestinal tissue. These alterations of barrier function were associated with a specific reduction in the expression of claudins, which was also seen in vivo in the jejunum of piglets exposed to DON-contaminated feed. In conclusion, DON alters claudin expression and decreases the barrier function of the intestinal epithelium. Considering that high levels of DON may be present in food or feed, consumption of DON-contaminated food/feed may induce intestinal damage and has consequences for human and animal health.

  1. A review of public concerns and reactions about food safety following a release of food contaminants (radioactive or otherwise)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, B.

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out, by questionnaire and personal interview, to assess the extent of the public's knowledge of the procedures employed by MAFF, and other agencies following a food contamination incident involving radioactive contamination. It was also designed to gauge the public's perception of relative risk from routine discharges into the environment and other agents. The study populations were located in 5 locations - 3 near nuclear facilities, and 2 control groups (1 close to a potential chemical polluting plant). The study was not intended to be rigorous (in terms of sex, age and socio-economic group) in random selection of subjects for interview but it was judged that a fairly representative selection of views was obtained from about 50 people at each location. Overall, and importantly, although about 60% claimed that some their diet was locally grown, most people even in these rural areas purchased nearly all of their food and milk in supermarkets. It was difficult to get the interviewees to take the concept of a large incident involving food bans seriously but they seemed to expect the local authority and the police to be prominent in announcing the news. They did not seem to have much confidence in the broadcast media but, when prompted, thought that a MAFF 'hot-line' would be of greatest use in obtaining on-going information. House to house leaf letting was also mentioned as an effective means of disseminating information. Every-one seemed to want more clear information about food contamination in advance of it becoming a real problem - although how they would react to this information was not clear. All groups were fairly conservative when asked about personal risk but became more extreme over risks to society as a whole, particularly in relation to transport and the environment. Overall, as expected, the public perception of relative risk was somewhat divorced from reality. Because of their geographical location and confidents, the study group

  2. The prevalence of Listeria spp. food contamination in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidiyan, Negar; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Rezaei, Zeynab; Dehghani-Tafti, Roohollah; Akrami-Mohajeri, Fateme

    2018-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can cause circling disease, encephalitis, meningitis, septicemia, and mastitis in dairy cattle. Contamination from the environment can contaminate foods with Listeria spp. Consumption of foods containing L. monocytogenes can lead to listeriosis in susceptible people (adults with a compromised immune system), pregnant women, and infants. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in various foods in Iran. We searched PubMed, Science direct, Scopus, Google scholar, and Iranian local databases including Iranian scientific information database and Magiran for relevant studies up to May 2015 using related keywords. In our preliminary search, we retrieved 1344 articles. After removing duplicates and reviewing titles/abstracts, 117 articles were considered, out of which, 75 articles had sufficient quality for inclusion in this meta-analysis. The prevalence of Listeria spp. contamination was about 18.3% in poultry, 8.5% in raw meat, 14.6% in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, 10% in sea foods, 7.3% in traditional dairy, 3.2% in commercial dairy, and 0.1% in eggs. The findings showed that L. monocytogenes was most prevalent in ready to eat (9.2%), seafood (5.1%), poultry (5%), traditional dairy (4%), raw meat (2.6%), commercial dairy (1.4%), and egg (0.2%), respectively. Furthermore, the presence of L. monocytogenes particularly in RTE foods (that are consumed without further heat processing) and under-cooked products could be a potential risk for public health. So, contamination should be controlled at all levels of the food chain. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Using the Melamine Contamination of Foods to Enhance the Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Doris Renate; Jensen, Anna Chick

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the chemistry of the triazine compound, melamine, is presented as well as a brief discussion of the health impacts on humans and pets when melamine contaminates milk products and pet food. Melamine has repeatedly been in the news, and its topical nature provides an excellent springboard for applications of a variety of chemical…

  4. Prevalence of food contamination with Listeria spp. in Kermanshah, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akya, A; Najafi, A; Moradi, J; Mohebi, Z; Adabagher, S

    2013-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a human pathogen causing serious diseases. We aimed to determine food contamination with Listeria spp. in Kermanshah, Islamic Republic of Iran. Samples (185 dairy, 187 meat products and 158 ready-to-eat foods such as salads) were randomly collected from markets. After processing, samples were cultured in half-Fraser and Fraser broth followed by cultivation on PALCAM and Oxford media. Confirmatory tests including carbohydrate utilization were performed on isolates to determine species. Bacteria were isolated from 66/530 samples (12.5%). Meat products showed the highest (27.2%) and dairy products the lowest (3.8%) contamination rates. L. innocua was found in 56 (10.6%) samples, but L. monocytogenes was only found in 3 samples (0.6%). The results indicate that the rate of contamination with L. monocytogenes, even for ready-to-eat foods, was low but for other Listeria spp., in particular strains of L. innocua, the rate of contamination was higher, suggesting that more control on food sanitation is required.

  5. Awareness and Prevalence of Mycotoxin Contamination in Selected Nigerian Fermented Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njobeh, Patrick; Obadina, Adewale

    2017-01-01

    Fermented food samples (n = 191) including maize gruel (ogi), sorghum gruel (ogi-baba), melon seed (ogiri), locust bean (iru) and African oil bean seed (ugba) from Southwest Nigeria were quantified for 23 mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and sterigmatocystin (STE) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The practices, perceived understanding and health risks related to fungal and mycotoxin contamination amongst fermented food sellers was also established. Data obtained revealed that 82% of the samples had mycotoxins occurring singly or in combination. FB1 was present in 83% of ogi-baba samples, whereas 20% of ugba samples contained AFB1 (range: 3 to 36 µg/kg) and STE was present in 29% of the ogi samples. In terms of multi-mycotoxin contamination, FB1 + FB2 + FB3 + STE + AFB1 + alternariol + HT-2 co-occurred within one sample. The awareness study revealed that 98% of respondents were unaware of mycotoxin contamination, and their education level slightly correlated with their level of awareness (p contaminated these food commodities, coupled with the poor perception of the population under study on fungi and mycotoxins, justifies the need to enact fungal and mycotoxin mitigation strategies along the food chain. PMID:29117141

  6. Detecting contaminating microorganism in human food and water from Raman mapping through biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detecting microbial growth can help experts determine how to prevent the outbreaks especially if human food or water has been contaminated. Biofilms are a group of microbial cells that can either grow on living surfaces or surrounding themselves as they progress. Biofilms are not necessarily uniform...

  7. Exposure assessment of process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Dussort, P.; Günther, Helmut; Hanlon, Paul; Honda, Hiroshi; Mally, Angela; O’Hagan, Sue; Scholz, Gabriele; Seidel, Albrecht; Swenberg, James; Teeguarden, Justin; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile,

  8. ARCTOX: a pan-Arctic sampling network to track mercury contamination across Arctic marine food webs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fort, Jerome; Helgason, Halfdan; Amelineau, Francoise

    and is still a source of major environmental concerns. In that context, providing a large-scale and comprehensive understanding of the Arctic marine food-web contamination is essential to better apprehend impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of Arctic species and humans to Hg....... In 2015, an international sampling network (ARCTOX) has been established, allowing the collection seabird samples all around the Arctic. Seabirds are indeed good indicators of Hg contamination of marine food webs at large spatial scale. Gathering researchers from 10 countries, ARCTOX allowed......Arctic marine ecosystems are threatened by new risks of Hg contamination under the combined effects of climate change and human activities. Rapid change of the cryosphere might for instance release large amounts of Hg trapped in sea-ice, permafrost and terrestrial glaciers over the last decades...

  9. Listeria monocytogenes cross-contamination of cheese: risk throughout the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauders, B D; D'Amico, D J

    2016-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been the most common microbial cause of cheese-related recalls in both the United States and Canada in recent years. Since L. monocytogenes is inactivated by pasteurization, the majority of these cases have been linked to environmental and cross-contamination of fresh-soft, soft-ripened, and semi-soft cheeses. Cross-contamination of foods with L. monocytogenes is a continuous risk throughout the food supply chain and presents unique challenges for subsequent illness and outbreak investigations. Reports on outbreaks of listeriosis attributed to cross-contamination downstream from primary processing help highlight the critical role of epidemiological investigation coupled with coordinated molecular subtyping and surveillance in the recognition and investigation of complex foodborne outbreaks. Despite their complexity, environmental sampling throughout the supply chain coupled with improved genotyping approaches and concomitant analysis of foodborne illness epidemiological exposure data are needed to help resolve these and similar cases more rapidly and with greater confidence.

  10. Evaluation of nitrite contamination in baby foods and infant formulas marketed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkekoglu, Pinar; Baydar, Terken

    2009-05-01

    Nitrites are responsible for methemoglobinemia, to which infants younger than 6 months are thought to be the most susceptible population. This study aimed to detect whether there was any nitrite contamination in infant formulas and baby foods marketed in Turkey and to estimate possible toxicological risks in this sensitive physiological period. For this purpose, the samples were randomly collected and divided into four groups: milk-based, cereal-based, vegetable-based, and fruit-based. An easy and reliable spectrophotometric method was used by modifying the Griess method. The average nitrite contamination was found to be 204.07+/-65.80 microg/g in 42 samples, with 1,073 microg/g maximum. According to the results, baby and infant formulas include various nitrite levels; nitrite contamination might come from several sources during manufacturing, and so extreme attention must be given throughout the manufacturing process of food for infants.

  11. Survey of physicochemical characteristics and microbial contamination in selected food locally vended in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Mdegela, Robinson Hammerthon; Mutakyawa, Eliud; Nyahinga, Gabriel Busungu; William, Robert; Mwadini, Mtumwa Mohd

    2015-11-26

    Raw milk, raw fruit juice and raw fish are enriched with essential nutrients for human diet but are prone to microbial contamination along the value chain. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and microbial quality of raw milk, fruit juice and fish from food vendors in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. The physicochemical assessment of food samples was done by smell, colour, presence of debris, turbidity, consistence, pH and clot on alcohol test. Hygiene of food containers, personnel and the vending environment was also assessed. Qualitative and quantitative microbial assessment of food was done using standard laboratory protocols as described by Tanzania Bureau of Standards and International Systems of Standards. Raw milk sold in Morogoro was of poor quality since was adulterated with water, contained sediments and clotted on alcohol test. Up to 63 % of the milk samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli and 60 % had higher total viable count (TVC) than the recommended values. Raw fruit juice was stored in dirty containers and sold under unhygienic environment. Seventy-three percent of juice samples had TVC beyond the recommendations while E. coli contamination rate was 63.3 %. The raw fish samples had started spoiling as depicted through sensory evaluation. E. coli contamination rate was 55 % and that of Campylobacter jejuni was 0.5 %. The mean TVC of raw fish was 8.1 (Log cfu/g) and 96.2 % of the fish samples had TVC beyond the recommended limits of 5.0 Log cfu/g. The physicochemical characteristics of food vended in Morogoro Municipality were of poor quality. The food had high bacterial contaminations. This situation poses health risks to the public and losses to food vendors due to spoilage. Stakeholders in food value chain should be educated on safe production and good hygienic practices. Routine quality and safety assessment of locally vended food, inspection of selling premises and regular health check-up of

  12. Contamination of soil and food with radionuclides from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.; Conkic, Lj.; Krmar, M.

    2004-01-01

    The results of systematic gamma spectroscopic analyses of fission products performed on the territory of SAP Vojvodina after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Samples of soil grass and food were periodically taken at 5 representative locations and the regions of highest activity concentration are identified on the basis of the results obtained. In the controlled chain soil-plants (feeds)-cow's (milk) on three characteristic locations (soil with different physico-chemical and mechanical properties) the activity concentration of fission radionuclides was determined and transfer factors for soil-plants; feed-milk were calculated. At the territory of hunting sites of SAP Vojvodina, artificial radionuclides were determined in meat and bones of fallow-deer, deer, boar and wild hare; and the highest content of radionuclides was found in meat and bones of boar. (author)

  13. Longer Contact Times Increase Cross-Contamination of Enterobacter aerogenes from Surfaces to Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Robyn C; Schaffner, Donald W

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial cross-contamination from surfaces to food can contribute to foodborne disease. The cross-contamination rate of Enterobacter aerogenes on household surfaces was evaluated by using scenarios that differed by surface type, food type, contact time (food types were watermelon, bread, bread with butter, and gummy candy. Surfaces (25 cm 2 ) were spot inoculated with 1 ml of inoculum and allowed to dry for 5 h, yielding an approximate concentration of 10 7 CFU/surface. Foods (with a 16-cm 2 contact area) were dropped onto the surfaces from a height of 12.5 cm and left to rest as appropriate. Posttransfer, surfaces and foods were placed in sterile filter bags and homogenized or massaged, diluted, and plated on tryptic soy agar. The transfer rate was quantified as the log percent transfer from the surface to the food. Contact time, food, and surface type all had highly significant effects (P food, while the least bacteria transferred to gummy candy (∼0.1 to 62%). Transfer of bacteria to bread (∼0.02 to 94%) was similar to transfer of bacteria to bread with butter (∼0.02 to 82%), and these transfer rates under a given set of conditions were more variable than with watermelon and gummy candy. The popular notion of the "five-second rule" is that food dropped on the floor and left there for foods (watermelon, bread, bread with butter, and gummy candy), four different contact times (food and the surface, are of equal or greater importance. Some transfer takes place "instantaneously," at times of <1 s, disproving the five-second rule. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Using lytic bacteriophages to eliminate or significantly reduce contamination of food by foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Bacteriophages (also called 'phages') are viruses that kill bacteria. They are arguably the oldest (3 billion years old, by some estimates) and most ubiquitous (total number estimated to be 10(30) -10(32) ) known organisms on Earth. Phages play a key role in maintaining microbial balance in every ecosystem where bacteria exist, and they are part of the normal microflora of all fresh, unprocessed foods. Interest in various practical applications of bacteriophages has been gaining momentum recently, with perhaps the most attention focused on using them to improve food safety. That approach, called 'phage biocontrol', typically includes three main types of applications: (i) using phages to treat domesticated livestock in order to reduce their intestinal colonization with, and shedding of, specific bacterial pathogens; (ii) treatments for decontaminating inanimate surfaces in food-processing facilities and other food establishments, so that foods processed on those surfaces are not cross-contaminated with the targeted pathogens; and (iii) post-harvest treatments involving direct applications of phages onto the harvested foods. This mini-review primarily focuses on the last type of intervention, which has been gaining the most momentum recently. Indeed, the results of recent studies dealing with improving food safety, and several recent regulatory approvals of various commercial phage preparations developed for post-harvest food safety applications, strongly support the idea that lytic phages may provide a safe, environmentally-friendly, and effective approach for significantly reducing contamination of various foods with foodborne bacterial pathogens. However, some important technical and nontechnical problems may need to be addressed before phage biocontrol protocols can become an integral part of routine food safety intervention strategies implemented by food industries in the USA. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Study design Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Methods Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n =262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently. PMID:22456047

  16. Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hlimi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck. Study design: Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q. Methods: Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n = 262 responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a Do you eat game? (b How often do you eat game? (c How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany, 2005 (Peawanuck, 2006 (Attawapiskat, 2007 (Moose Factory and 2009 (Kashechewan. Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results: Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion: The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently.

  17. The Importance of Endospore-Forming Bacteria Originating from Soil for Contamination of Industrial Food Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyndrickx, M

    2011-01-01

    Specific endo spore formers have become important contaminants in industrial food processing. The direct or indirect soil route of contamination or dispersal is the start of events or processes in the agrofood chain that eventually leads to important problems or concerns for food safety and/or quality. Three important food sectors are discussed in this paper. In the dairy sector, Bacillus cereus, the most important pathogen or spoilage organism in this sector, and Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the most important spoiler in certain cheeses, both contaminate pasteurized milk through the faecal and/or (at least for B. cereus) the direct soil route. In the fruit juice industry, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, present on raw fruits, has become a major quality-target organism. In the ready-to-eat food sector, B. cereus and other aerobic endo spore formers are introduced via vegetables, fruits, or herbs and spices, while anaerobic spore formers like non proteolytic Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium estertheticum pose safety and spoilage risks in chilled packaged foods, respectively

  18. The Importance of Endospore-Forming Bacteria Originating from Soil for Contamination of Industrial Food Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Heyndrickx

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific endospore formers have become important contaminants in industrial food processing. The direct or indirect soil route of contamination or dispersal is the start of events or processes in the agrofood chain that eventually leads to important problems or concerns for food safety and/or quality. Three important food sectors are discussed in this paper. In the dairy sector, Bacillus cereus, the most important pathogen or spoilage organism in this sector, and Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the most important spoiler in certain cheeses, both contaminate pasteurized milk through the faecal and/or (at least for B. cereus the direct soil route. In the fruit juice industry, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, present on raw fruits, has become a major quality-target organism. In the ready-to-eat food sector, B. cereus and other aerobic endospore formers are introduced via vegetables, fruits, or herbs and spices, while anaerobic spore formers like nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium estertheticum pose safety and spoilage risks in chilled packaged foods, respectively.

  19. Glyphosate: environmental contamination, toxicity and potential risks to human health via food contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Ogbourne, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate has been the most widely used herbicide during the past three decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies glyphosate as 'practically non-toxic and not an irritant' under the acute toxicity classification system. This classification is based primarily on toxicity data and due to its unique mode of action via a biochemical pathway that only exists in a small number of organisms that utilise the shikimic acid pathway to produce amino acids, most of which are green plants. This classification is supported by the majority of scientific literature on the toxic effects of glyphosate. However, in 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) reported that glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are of potential toxicological concern, mainly as a result of accumulation of residues in the food chain. The FAO further states that the dietary risk of glyphosate and AMPA is unlikely if the maximum daily intake of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) is not exceeded. Research has now established that glyphosate can persist in the environment, and therefore, assessments of the health risks associated with glyphosate are more complicated than suggested by acute toxicity data that relate primarily to accidental high-rate exposure. We have used recent literature to assess the possible risks associated with the presence of glyphosate residues in food and the environment.

  20. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil using Candida catenulata and food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Hung-Soo; Ndegwa, Pius M.; Shoda, Makoto; Phae, Chae-Gun

    2008-01-01

    Even though petroleum-degrading microorganisms are widely distributed in soil and water, they may not be present in sufficient numbers to achieve contaminant remediation. In such cases, it may be useful to inoculate the polluted area with highly effective petroleum-degrading microbial strains to augment the exiting ones. In order to identify a microbial strain for bioaugmentation of oil-contaminated soil, we isolated a microbial strain with high emulsification and petroleum hydrocarbon degradation efficiency of diesel fuel in culture. The efficacy of the isolated microbial strain, identified as Candida catenulata CM1, was further evaluated during composting of a mixture containing 23% food waste and 77% diesel-contaminated soil including 2% (w/w) diesel. After 13 days of composting, 84% of the initial petroleum hydrocarbon was degraded in composting mixes containing a powdered form of CM1 (CM1-solid), compared with 48% of removal ratio in control reactor without inoculum. This finding suggests that CM1 is a viable microbial strain for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil with food waste through composting processes. - Enhancement on degradation ability of petroleum hydrocarbon by the microbial strain in the composting process with food waste

  1. Application of the International Life Sciences Institute Key Events Dose-Response Framework to food contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A

    2012-12-01

    Contaminants are undesirable constituents in food. They may be formed during production of a processed food, present as a component in a source material, deliberately added to substitute for the proper substance, or the consequence of poor food-handling practices. Contaminants may be chemicals or pathogens. Chemicals generally degrade over time and become of less concern as a health threat. Pathogens have the ability to multiply, potentially resulting in an increased threat level. Formal structures have been lacking for systematically generating and evaluating hazard and exposure data for bioactive agents when problem situations arise. We need to know what the potential risk may be to determine whether intervention to reduce or eliminate contact with the contaminant is warranted. We need tools to aid us in assembling and assessing all available relevant information in an expeditious and scientifically sound manner. One such tool is the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Key Events Dose-Response Framework (KEDRF). Developed as an extension of the WHO's International Program on Chemical Safety/ILSI mode of action/human relevance framework, it allows risk assessors to understand not only how a contaminant exerts its toxicity but also the dose response(s) for each key event and the ultimate outcome, including whether a threshold exists. This presentation will illustrate use of the KEDRF with case studies included in its development (chloroform and Listeriaonocytogenes) after its publication in the peer-reviewed scientific literature (chromium VI) and in a work in progress (3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol).

  2. Exposure assessment of process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Dussort, P; Günther, Helmut; Hanlon, Paul; Honda, Hiroshi; Mally, Angela; O'Hagan, Sue; Scholz, Gabriele; Seidel, Albrecht; Swenberg, James; Teeguarden, Justin; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a fundamental part of the risk assessment paradigm, but can often present a number of challenges and uncertainties. This is especially the case for process contaminants formed during the processing, e.g. heating of food, since they are in part highly reactive and/or volatile, thus making exposure assessment by analysing contents in food unreliable. New approaches are therefore required to accurately assess consumer exposure and thus better inform the risk assessment. Such novel approaches may include the use of biomarkers, physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling-facilitated reverse dosimetry, and/or duplicate diet studies. This review focuses on the state of the art with respect to the use of biomarkers of exposure for the process contaminants acrylamide, 3-MCPD esters, glycidyl esters, furan and acrolein. From the overview presented, it becomes clear that the field of assessing human exposure to process-related contaminants in food by biomarker monitoring is promising and strongly developing. The current state of the art as well as the existing data gaps and challenges for the future were defined. They include (1) using PBK modelling and duplicate diet studies to establish, preferably in humans, correlations between external exposure and biomarkers; (2) elucidation of the possible endogenous formation of the process-related contaminants and the resulting biomarker levels; (3) the influence of inter-individual variations and how to include that in the biomarker-based exposure predictions; (4) the correction for confounding factors; (5) the value of the different biomarkers in relation to exposure scenario's and risk assessment, and (6) the possibilities of novel methodologies. In spite of these challenges it can be concluded that biomarker-based exposure assessment provides a unique opportunity to more accurately assess consumer exposure to process-related contaminants in food and thus to better inform risk assessment.

  3. The delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic food web: why sea ice matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pućko, Monika; Stern, Gary A; Macdonald, Robie W; Jantunen, Liisa M; Bidleman, Terry F; Wong, Fiona; Barber, David G; Rysgaard, Søren

    2015-02-15

    For decades sea ice has been perceived as a physical barrier for the loading of contaminants to the Arctic Ocean. We show that sea ice, in fact, facilitates the delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic marine food web through processes that: 1) are independent of contaminant physical-chemical properties (e.g. 2-3-fold increase in exposure to brine-associated biota), and 2) depend on physical-chemical properties and, therefore, differentiate between contaminants (e.g. atmospheric loading of contaminants to melt ponds over the summer, and their subsequent leakage to the ocean). We estimate the concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in melt pond water in the Beaufort Sea, Canadian High Arctic, in 2008, at near-gas exchange equilibrium based on Henry's law constants (HLCs), air concentrations and exchange dynamics. CUPs currently present the highest risk of increased exposures through melt pond loading and drainage due to the high ratio of melt pond water to seawater concentration (Melt pond Enrichment Factor, MEF), which ranges from 2 for dacthal to 10 for endosulfan I. Melt pond contaminant enrichment can be perceived as a hypothetical 'pump' delivering contaminants from the atmosphere to the ocean under ice-covered conditions, with 2-10% of CUPs annually entering the Beaufort Sea via this input route compared to the standing stock in the Polar Mixed Layer of the ocean. The abovementioned processes are strongly favored in first-year ice compared to multi-year ice and, therefore, the dynamic balance between contaminant inventories and contaminant deposition to the surface ocean is being widely affected by the large-scale icescape transition taking place in the Arctic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of dietary exposure to food contaminants on the risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Bech, Sára

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of Parkinson's disease (PD) with dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a community with increased exposure levels. A total of 79 clinically verified idiopathic PD cases and 154 controls matched by sex and a...... in adult life was significantly associated with PD, thus suggesting a positive association between previous exposure to marine food contaminants and development of PD......., pesticides and metals also suggested an increased risk for PD. Current serum concentrations of summation operator PCB and related contaminants suggested slightly increased ORs, although only beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) was statistically significant. Increased intake of whale meat and blubber...

  5. Data assimilation for assessing the radioactive food contamination in the late phase after a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, K.; Mueller, H.; Gering, F.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: As a result of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the need for decision support for the management of nuclear emergencies became evident. Therefore, the Real-Time Online Decision Support RODOS was developed and installed in many European countries. It contains, among other modules, a Food Chain and Dose Module (FDMT), which calculates the activity concentrations of plant and animal products. The outcome of the food chain model is used to estimate ingestion doses and influences the countermeasures to be taken for the protection of the population. Although the food chain model is considered to give valuable predictions of the magnitude of food contamination, these results are associated with considerable uncertainties due to uncertain input data, i.e. deposited activities and activity concentrations in air, as well as due to the uncertainty of the model. Thus, uncertainty of the activity concentrations forecasted by the model hampers decision making. In order to overcome this difficulty a Food Monitoring Module (FoMM) is under development in the framework of the DAONEM project. The Food Monitoring Module uses measurements of feed and foodstuffs' contamination to correct the predicted activity concentrations and to reduce their uncertainty. For the purpose of quantifying the uncertainty of model predictions in the Food Monitoring Module a thorough revision of the model parameter values has been carried out. A probability density function has been assigned to each model parameter describing its uncertainty. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to identify those parameters an which the food chain model output mostly depends. The data assimilation is carried out with the Kalman filter. An appropriate type of the Kalman filter had to be selected which is able to handle high-dimensional nonlinear models. By considering on the one hand the uncertainty of the model parameters and input data and, on the other hand, the uncertainty of the measurements, updated values

  6. Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja; Broesboel-Jensen, B.

    2012-01-01

    By-products are secondary or discarded products from manufacturing. Contamination of by-products used for feed may result in carryover to animal food products and hence have impact on either animal health or food safety. Feed by-products from bioethanol production include, for example, 'dried...... distillers grain' (DDG) and 'dried distillers grain with solubles' (DDGS) from generation bioethanol production, C5-molasses from generation bioethanol production and glycerol from biodiesel production. By-products from food industry may comprise discarded or downgraded food and food surplus or secondary...... products such as peels, pulpettes, molasses, whey, mask, oil cakes, etc. Contamination of by-products and possible impacts are presented....

  7. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio

    2017-07-03

    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  8. Clostridium difficile from food and surface samples in a Belgian nursing home: an unlikely source of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C; Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Avesani, V; Van Broeck, J; Brach, P; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the contamination of foods and surfaces with Clostridium difficile in a single nursing home. C. difficile PCR-ribotype 078 was found in one food sample and in none of the tested surfaces. These results indicate that food and surfaces are an unlikely source of C. difficile infection in this setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel approach for the detection of potentially hazardous pepsin stable hazelnut proteins as contaminants in chocolate-based food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C.; Stephan, Oliver; Hefle, Susan L.; Aalberse, Rob C.; van Ree, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Contamination of food products with pepsin resistant allergens is generally believed to be a serious threat to patients with severe food allergy. A sandwich type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure pepsin resistant hazelnut protein in food products. Capturing and

  10. Sensitive Monitoring of Enterobacterial Contamination of Food Using Self-Propelled Janus Microsensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, M; Jurado-Sánchez, B; Escarpa, A

    2018-02-20

    Food poisoning caused by bacteria is a major cause of disease and death worldwide. Herein we describe the use of Janus micromotors as mobile sensors for the detection of toxins released by enterobacteria as indicators of food contamination. The micromotors are prepared by a Pickering emulsion approach and rely on the simultaneous encapsulation of platinum nanoparticles for enhanced bubble-propulsion and receptor-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) for selective binding with the 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid target in the endotoxin molecule. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Salmonella enterica were used as target endotoxins, which upon interaction with the QDs induce a rapid quenching of the native fluorescence of the micromotors in a concentration-dependent manner. The micromotor assay can readily detect concentrations as low as 0.07 ng mL -1 of endotoxin, which is far below the level considered toxic to humans (275 μg mL -1 ). Micromotors have been successfully applied for the detection of Salmonella toxin in food samples in 15 min compared with several hours required by the existing Gold Standard method. Such ultrafast and reliable approach holds considerable promise for food contamination screening while awaiting the results of bacterial cultures in a myriad of food safety and security defense applications.

  11. Intervention strategies for the reduction of microbiological contamination on the hands of food handlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naína Lopes de JESUS

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate intervention strategies for the reduction of microbiological contamination on the hands of food handlers. The study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2014 at a food and nutrition company in Curitiba, Brazil. Samples from the hands of 877 handlers were collected for microbiological analysis. The intervention strategies applied during each year were: 2009, substitute the use of odorless liquid soap and an antiseptic product by one product; 2010, was increasing the staff of technical supervisors and conducting biannual training; 2011 was to move the lavatories for handwashing, and the use of 70% alcohol gel; 2012, was to increase the frequency of the training of food handlers; 2013, was new weekly monitoring, to evaluation of the use of bactericide soap; 2013 and 2014 was implemented an internal program to verify food production. The intervention introduced in 2011 the 2012 and 2013 the 2014 reduced the contamination of the hands of food handlers. The use of 70% alcohol gel, the moving of the location of the lavatories, weekly monitoring of the use of bactericide soap and implementation of the internal program, were the strategies that contributed the most to the reduction of the microbial.

  12. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again.

  13. MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION OF STREET VENDED FOODS FROM A UNIVERSITY CAMPUS IN BANGLADESH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sufia; Nasrin, Nishat; Rizwan, Farhana; Nahar, Lutfun; Bhowmik, Adity; Esha, Sayma Afrin; Talukder, Kaisar Ali; Akter, Mahmuda; Roy, Ajoy; Ahmed, Muniruddin

    2015-05-01

    The microbiological quality of street vended food samples from Dhaka, Bangladesh was evaluated. The objective of the study was to identify the presence of common pathogens (Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Salmonella and Vibrio spp) and to describe the molecular characterization of E coli, a commonly found pathogen in various street foods. Fifty food samples were collected from fixed and mobile vendors from two sampling locations (Mohakhali and Aftabnagar) in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The tested samples included deep fried and fried snacks; quick lunch items; pickles; fruit chutney; baked items; spicy, sour and hot snacks etc: Juices, tamarind water and plain drinking water were also tested. Sterile polythene bags were used for collecting 200 g of each category of samples. They were tested for the presence of microorganisms following conventional microbiological processes. Biochemical tests followed by serology were done for the confirmation of Shigella and Salmonella. Serological reaction was carried out for confirmation of Vibrio spp. DNA was isolated for the molecular characterization to detect the pathogenic E. coli by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of 50 food samples, six (12%) were confirmed to contain different species of E. coli and Shigella. Molecular characterization of E. coli revealed that three samples were contaminated with enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and one was contaminated with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Shigellaflexneri X variant was detected in one food item and Shigella flexneri 2a was found in drinking water. All these enteric pathogens could be the potential cause for foodborne illnesses.

  14. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. The recent accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment from the Chernobyl accident, demonstrated the need for veterinary, ecological, physical and medical sciences to be prepared to respond to an incident in order to protect the environment, food chain, other agricultural assets and humans from the adverse effects of radionuclides. Several presentations suggested that even with the best technologies, national and regional commitment, and relatively unrestricted resource levels, nuclear incidents can cross international boundaries and can contaminate the environment to the extent that the integrity of various food and water supplies can be at risk. Speakers and subsequent discussers tended to concentrate on the issues associated with lessening future environmental impacts if similar types of incidents should occur again

  15. Some radioactivity concentrations and ingestion dose projections arising from consumption of food containing Chernobyl contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, L.R. de la; Palattao, M.V.; Estacio, J.F.L.; Anden, A.

    1987-04-01

    Doses arising from the ingestion of radioactive contamination coming from Chernobyl accident are calculated using various radioactivity limits adopted by different organizations after the accident. These are compared with that allowed in the Philippines. Projected concentrations of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in various food items in the affected countries, one month and one year after the accident are calculated using a model proposed by Boone, Ng and Palms. Except for food produced in one or two hot spots, the projected concentrations after one year are expected to return to within the range of pre-Chernobyl values. (Auth.) 12 refs.; 13 tabs.; 6 figs

  16. Finnish stakeholder engagement in the restoration of a radioactively contaminated food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantavaara, A; Wallin, H; Hasunen, K; Härmälä, K; Kulmala, H; Latvio, E; Liskola, K; Mustonen, I; Nieminen, I; Tainio, R

    2005-01-01

    An expert group was established in 2001 representing various organisations and authorities responsible for primary production, food processing, the distribution and consumption of foodstuffs, food safety and availability, catering and extension services, nature conservation, research into environmental impacts, and the media. The aim was to strengthen networking and improve the stakeholder response to accidental radioactive contamination of rural areas through participation in the FARMING network project. A hypothetical contamination of a large milk-producing area provided a suitable framework for evaluation of actions ensuring clean feeding of dairy cows during grazing. The following year the group received a compilation of rural countermeasures and waste disposal methods, described by the STRATEGY project. The robust, uncomplicated approach of the evaluation meetings was fruitful and efficient, and the multidisciplinary group was capable of taking shared views on various measures after updating their knowledge together. High priority was given to measurements of radioactivity and the provision of information and advice to a wider audience.

  17. Finnish stakeholder engagement in the restoration of a radioactively contaminated food supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Wallin, H.; Hasunen, K.; Haermaelae, K.; Kulmala, H.; Latvio, E.; Liskola, K.; Mustonen, I.; Nieminen, I.; Tainio, R.

    2005-01-01

    An expert group was established in 2001 representing various organisations and authorities responsible for primary production, food processing, the distribution and consumption of foodstuffs, food safety and availability, catering and extension services, nature conservation, research into environmental impacts, and the media. The aim was to strengthen networking and improve the stakeholder response to accidental radioactive contamination of rural areas through participation in the FARMING network project. A hypothetical contamination of a large milk-producing area provided a suitable framework for evaluation of actions ensuring clean feeding of dairy cows during grazing. The following year the group received a compilation of rural countermeasures and waste disposal methods, described by the STRATEGY project. The robust, uncomplicated approach of the evaluation meetings was fruitful and efficient, and the multidisciplinary group was capable of taking shared views on various measures after updating their knowledge together. High priority was given to measurements of radioactivity and the provision of information and advice to a wider audience

  18. Life cycle of PCBs and contamination of the environment and of food products from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roland; Herold, Christine; Hollert, Henner; Kamphues, Josef; Ungemach, Linda; Blepp, Markus; Ballschmiter, Karlheinz

    2018-06-01

    This report gives a summary of the historic use, former management and current release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Germany and assesses the impact of the life cycle of PCBs on the contamination of the environment and of food products of animal origin. In Germany 60,000 t of PCBs were used in transformers, capacitors or as hydraulic oils. The use of PCB oils in these "closed applications", has been banned in Germany in 2000. Thirty to 50% of these PCBs were not appropriately managed. In West Germany, 24,000 t of PCBs were used in open applications, mainly as additive (plasticiser, flame retardant) in sealants and paints in buildings and other construction. The continued use in open applications has not been banned, and in 2013, an estimated more than 12,000 t of PCBs were still present in buildings and other constructions. These open PCB applications continuously emit PCBs into the environment with an estimated release of 7-12 t per year. This amount is in agreement with deposition measurements (estimated to 18 t) and emission estimates for Switzerland. The atmospheric PCB releases still have an relevant impact on vegetation and livestock feed. In addition, PCBs in open applications on farms are still a sources of contamination for farmed animals. Furthermore, the historic production, use, recycling and disposal of PCBs have contaminated soils along the lifecycle. This legacy of contaminated soils and contaminated feed, individually or collectively, can lead to exceedance of maximum levels in food products from animals. In beef and chicken, soil levels of 5 ng PCB-TEQ/kg and for chicken with high soil exposure even 2 ng PCB-TEQ/kg can lead to exceedance of EU limits in meat and eggs. Areas at and around industries having produced or used or managed PCBs, or facilities and areas where PCBs were disposed need to be assessed in respect to potential contamination of food-producing animals. For a large share of impacted land, management measures

  19. Microbiological and chemical contamination in different types of food of non-European origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the markets of the European Union (EU the presence of food imported from non-European countries such as Asia, Africa and America is increasingly more widespread. Non-European countries, indeed, are much more competitive in terms of prices compared to European countries. For these reasons, EU has issued important laws. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of these regulations, estimating the levels of microbiological and chemical contamination of food samples of 91 different matrices imported from third countries. The microbiological methods used are those required by the UNI EN ISO, while for the determination of chemical parameters validated methods according to the Standard UNI EN ISO 16140:2003 were used. Our investigation revealed qualitative or quantitative microbial contamination in 23 out of 91 samples analysed (25.2%. We found high total microbial loads in alimentary conserves, multiple bacterial contamination (Salmonella thiphymurium, Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus and viral contamination (Norovirus in shellfish of the species Cassostrea gigas, and the presence of other pathogens in various products such as hamburgers (Yersinia enterocolitica, frozen fish (Listeria monocytogenes and honey (Bacillus cereus. With regard to chemical contamination, 24 samples of different food products were analysed. In 9 samples (37.5%, the levels of the following substances exceeded the permitted limits: histamine (fish conserves, mercury (crab meat, cadmium (crab meat and fish conserves, lead (cheese and honey and polyphosphates (chicken meat. Despite the limited number of samples analysed, these data prompt reflection on the need to implement a more detailed and rigorous activity of monitoring and control in order to guarantee adequate levels of safety with regard to the consumption of foodstuffs imported into the EU from non-European countries.

  20. Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division

    1994-12-31

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

  1. Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priore, Ryan J.; Olkhovyk, Oksana; Drauch, Amy; Treado, Patrick; Kim, Moon; Chao, Kaunglin

    2009-05-01

    The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin industry, has recently been used to increase the apparent protein content of animal feed, of infant formula, as well as powdered and liquid milk in the dairy industry. Such contaminants, even at regulated levels, pose serious health risks. Chemical imaging technology provides the ability to evaluate large volumes of agricultural products before reaching the consumer. In this presentation, recent advances in chemical imaging technology that exploit Raman, fluorescence and near-infrared (NIR) are presented for the detection of contaminants in agricultural products.

  2. Flow cytometric analysis of microbial contamination in food industry technological lines – initial study

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Czaczyk; Wojciech Juzwa

    2012-01-01

    Background. Flow cytometry constitutes an alternative for traditional methods of microorganisms identifi cation and analysis, including methods requiring cultivation step. It enables the detection of pathogens and other microorganisms contaminants without the need to culture microbial cells meaning that the sample (water, waste or food e.g. milk, wine, beer) may be analysed directly. This leads to a signifi cant reduction of time required for analysis allowing monitoring of production process...

  3. Radioactive contamination of food and forage in SR Serbia after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, G; Popovic, D; Smelcerovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro); Petrovic, B [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beograd, (Serbia and Montenegro); Djujic, I [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-07-01

    The results of some important radionuclide contents evaluation in food and forage in Serbia after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The results indicate that the distribution of the radionuclides was not uniform and that three main zones of radioactive contamination could be established. The sheep breeding and the cattle breeding was the most endangered, while alfalfa and oleaceous plant were the most endangered among plant cultures (author)

  4. The system for measurements of radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.

    1990-01-01

    The service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination comprises a network of 152 measuring stations. They are carrying out continuous measurements of gamma radiation dose rates and radioactivity measurements of 24 hours samples of air (aerosols) and total fallout. On the territory of each province there are selected points for sampling of environmental materials and food. Frequency of sampling depends on material being collected. 1 tab., 2 figs. (A.S.)

  5. Radioactive contamination of food and forage in SR Serbia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric, G.; Popovic, D.; Smelcerovic, M.; Petrovic, B.; Djujic, I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of some important radionuclide contents evaluation in food and forage in Serbia after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The results indicate that the distribution of the radionuclides was not uniform and that three main zones of radioactive contamination could be established. The sheep breeding and the cattle breeding was the most endangered, while alfalfa and oleaceous plant were the most endangered among plant cultures (author)

  6. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil using Candida catenulata and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hung-Soo; Ndegwa, Pius M; Shoda, Makoto; Phae, Chae-Gun

    2008-12-01

    Even though petroleum-degrading microorganisms are widely distributed in soil and water, they may not be present in sufficient numbers to achieve contaminant remediation. In such cases, it may be useful to inoculate the polluted area with highly effective petroleum-degrading microbial strains to augment the exiting ones. In order to identify a microbial strain for bioaugmentation of oil-contaminated soil, we isolated a microbial strain with high emulsification and petroleum hydrocarbon degradation efficiency of diesel fuel in culture. The efficacy of the isolated microbial strain, identified as Candida catenulata CM1, was further evaluated during composting of a mixture containing 23% food waste and 77% diesel-contaminated soil including 2% (w/w) diesel. After 13 days of composting, 84% of the initial petroleum hydrocarbon was degraded in composting mixes containing a powdered form of CM1 (CM1-solid), compared with 48% of removal ratio in control reactor without inoculum. This finding suggests that CM1 is a viable microbial strain for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil with food waste through composting processes.

  7. The simulation of the LANFOS-H food radiation contamination detector using Geant4 package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor; Casolino, Marco; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Higashide, Kazuhiro

    2015-02-01

    Recent incident in the Fukushima power plant caused a growing concern about the radiation contamination and resulted in lowering the Japanese limits for the permitted amount of 137Cs in food to 100 Bq/kg. To increase safety and ease the concern we are developing LANFOS (Large Food Non-destructive Area Sampler)-a compact, easy to use detector for assessment of radiation in food. Described in this paper LANFOS-H has a 4 π coverage to assess the amount of 137Cs present, separating it from the possible 40K food contamination. Therefore, food samples do not have to be pre-processed prior to a test and can be consumed after measurements. It is designed for use by non-professionals in homes and small institutions such as schools, showing safety of the samples, but can be also utilized by specialists providing radiation spectrum. Proper assessment of radiation in food in the apparatus requires estimation of the γ conversion factor of the detectors-how many γ photons will produce a signal. In this paper we show results of the Monte Carlo estimation of this factor for various approximated shapes of fish, vegetables and amounts of rice, performed with Geant4 package. We find that the conversion factor combined from all the detectors is similar for all food types and is around 37%, varying maximally by 5% with sample length, much less than for individual detectors. The different inclinations and positions of samples in the detector introduce uncertainty of 1.4%. This small uncertainty validates the concept of a 4 π non-destructive apparatus.

  8. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the analysis of chemical food contaminants in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Hooijerink, H.; Zomer, P.; Mol, J.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction, desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) has been mainly applied in pharmaceutical and forensic analysis. We expect that DESI will find its way in many different fields, including food analysis. In this review, we summarize DESI developments aimed at

  9. Contamination of Ethiopian paper currency notes from various food handlers with E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiko, Adem; Abdata, Kasahun; Muktar, Yimer; Woyesa, Mezene; Mohammed, Abdela

    2016-01-01

    Contamination rate of Ethiopian paper currency notes handled by various food handlers with Escherichia coli and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was assessed. A total of 384 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) notes were randomly sampled from meat handlers at butchers, bread and the related food handlers at cafeteria, fruit and vegetables handlers at supermarket, and milk sellers both at open market and dairy station. Fifty control new currencies were also sampled from Commercial Bank of Ethiopia. Both surfaces of the currency were swabbed using wet sterile cotton. The swab was overnight incubated in buffered peptone water. A loop full was streaked on eosin methylene blue agar and followed by biochemical test on presumptive E. coli colonies. Randomly selected isolates were exposed to chloramphenicol (C-30 µg), neomycin (N-30 µg), oxytetracycline (OT-30 µg), polymyxin-B (PB-300 IU) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT-1.25/23.75/µg) susceptibility using disc diffusion techniques. E. coli was not isolated from currency used as control. A total of 288 (75 %) currency notes were found carrying E. coli. E. coli prevalence was ranges from 67.2 % at open market milk sellers to 87.2 % at dairy station milk sellers; from 64.8 % on ETB 100 to 82.9 % on ETB 1. Differences were not observed in E. coli prevalence on currency notes from among almost all food handlers (P > 0.05). Susceptibility of tested isolates to each chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 100 %, and to polymyxin-B was 97.3 %. High resistance (83.7 %) was observed to neomycin. The finding indicates, contaminated food can be a source of E. coli for further contamination of currency which again transfer through various foods ready for consumption.

  10. Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Przybylski, Maria C; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-09-15

    Alcoholic beverages have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As alcoholic beverages are multicomponent mixtures containing several carcinogenic compounds, a quantitative approach is necessary to compare the risks. Fifteen known and suspected human carcinogens (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, lead, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, ochratoxin A and safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages were identified based on monograph reviews by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for comparative risk assessment. MOE compares a toxicological threshold with the exposure. MOEs above 10,000 are judged as low priority for risk management action. MOEs were calculated for different drinking scenarios (low risk and heavy drinking) and different levels of contamination for four beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The lowest MOEs were found for ethanol (3.1 for low risk and 0.8 for heavy drinking). Inorganic lead and arsenic have average MOEs between 10 and 300, followed by acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate between 1,000 and 10,000. All other compounds had average MOEs above 10,000 independent of beverage type. Ethanol was identified as the most important carcinogen in alcoholic beverages, with clear dose response. Some other compounds (lead, arsenic, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde) may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants, but from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the focus should be on reducing alcohol consumption in general rather than on mitigative measures for some contaminants that contribute only to a limited extent (if at all) to the total health risk. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  11. Hierarchical Bayesian models to assess between- and within-batch variability of pathogen contamination in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commeau, Natalie; Cornu, Marie; Albert, Isabelle; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Parent, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Assessing within-batch and between-batch variability is of major interest for risk assessors and risk managers in the context of microbiological contamination of food. For example, the ratio between the within-batch variability and the between-batch variability has a large impact on the results of a sampling plan. Here, we designed hierarchical Bayesian models to represent such variability. Compatible priors were built mathematically to obtain sound model comparisons. A numeric criterion is proposed to assess the contamination structure comparing the ability of the models to replicate grouped data at the batch level using a posterior predictive loss approach. Models were applied to two case studies: contamination by Listeria monocytogenes of pork breast used to produce diced bacon and contamination by the same microorganism on cold smoked salmon at the end of the process. In the first case study, a contamination structure clearly exists and is located at the batch level, that is, between batches variability is relatively strong, whereas in the second a structure also exists but is less marked. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Active Infrared Thermography for Seal Contamination Detection in Heat-Sealed Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlien D’huys

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Packaging protects food products from environmental influences, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the quality of the packaging material and of the closure or seal. A common problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of seal contamination, which can cause a decreased seal strength, an increased packaging failure risk and leak formation. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal contaminated packages from the production chain is crucial. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heated seal bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. Thermal image sequences of contaminated seals were recorded shortly after sealing. The detection performances of six thermal image processing methods, based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profiles, thermal signal reconstruction, pulsed phase thermography, principal component thermography and a matched filter, were compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify seal contamination, and processed thermal images were mapped to these references. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter 0.60 mm was obtained for the method based on a fit of the cooling profiles. Moreover, the detection performance of this method did not depend strongly on the time after sealing at which recording of the thermal images was started, making it a robust and generally applicable method.

  13. Evaluation of microbial contamination of ready-to-eat foods (pizza, frankfurters, sausages in the city of Ilam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Eslami

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today in the world, disease resulting from food is considered one of the most important problems in public health. This study aimed to determine the bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat foods, i.e. fast food, in Ilam city. Methods: In this cross-sectional, analytical study, 270 samples of ready-to-eat food, including pizza, frankfurters, and sausages, were randomly collected and tested for contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella arizonae, and Enterococcus faecalis. After examination, the collected data was analyzed using SPSS 20 software and logistic regression. Results: From a total of 270 samples of ready-to-eat food, 27.77% was contaminated with E. coli, 21.48% with S. aureus, 13.33% with S. sonnei, 14.44% with S. arizonae, and 5.9% with E. faecalis. The results showed higher rates of E. coli and S. aureus contamination in pizza, frankfurters, and sausages. Also, a higher percentage of frankfurters were contaminated with microbial species than pizza or sausages. There were significant differences in microbial contamination rates (P < 0.05 among the three groups of food. In addition, factors such as indicators (health, sanitation, and lack of hygiene, age, gender, and education level of the operating staff had no effect on the results. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat foods is significantly high in the city of Ilam; therefore, it is suggested that the examination of food in various stages of production and distribution can help reduce bacterial contamination, and training for the operators of shopping centers’ ready-to-eat food shops and controlling pathogens are essential.

  14. Evaluation of microbial contamination of ready-to-eat foods (pizza, frankfurters, sausages in the city of Ilam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Eslami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today in the world, disease resulting from food is considered one of the most important problems in public health. This study aimed to determine the bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat foods, i.e. fast food, in Ilam city. Methods: In this cross-sectional, analytical study, 270 samples of ready-to-eat food, including pizza, frankfurters, and sausages, were randomly collected and tested for contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella arizonae, and Enterococcus faecalis. After examination, the collected data was analyzed using SPSS 20 software and logistic regression. Results: From a total of 270 samples of ready-to-eat food, 27.77% was contaminated with E. coli, 21.48% with S. aureus, 13.33% with S. sonnei, 14.44% with S. arizonae, and 5.9% with E. faecalis. The results showed higher rates of E. coli and S. aureus contamination in pizza, frankfurters, and sausages. Also, a higher percentage of frankfurters were contaminated with microbial species than pizza or sausages. There were significant differences in microbial contamination rates (P < 0.05 among the three groups of food. In addition, factors such as indicators (health, sanitation, and lack of hygiene, age, gender, and education level of the operating staff had no effect on the results. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat foods is significantly high in the city of Ilam; therefore, it is suggested that the examination of food in various stages of production and distribution can help reduce bacterial contamination, and training for the operators of shopping centers’ ready-to-eat food shops and controlling pathogens are essential.

  15. [Reduction of 137caesium contamination in wild boars by supplementing offered food with ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, P; Reddemann, J; Schungel, P; Kienzle, E

    2014-01-01

    This replication study investigated whether the 137caesium (137Cs) contamination of wild boars could be relevantly reduced under field conditions by adding ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate (AFCF; Prussian blue) to the food. In 285 wild boars that had been shot in six Bavarian hunting territories during the season (November until May) between 01 November 2010 and 10 December 2011 137Cs contamination was analysed. Thirty-five animals originated from two hunting territories in which offered food had been supplemented with 1250 mg AFCF per kilogram food. The control animals showed a mean 137Cs contamination of 522 Bq/kg lean skeletal muscle meat. Direct (univariable) comparisons of the two experimental territories with the four control territories yielded a mean reduction in 137Cs contamination due to Prussian bluefeeding by -211 Bq/kg (p contamination by -380 Bq/kg due to the feeding of Prussian blue in other territories.

  16. Food additives, contaminants and other minor components: effects on human gut microbiota-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Mendez-Vilabrille, Veronica; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Nebot, Carolina; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; Franco, Carlos M; Cepeda, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Gut bacteria play an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases, such as obesity and accompanying co-morbidities, such as fatty liver disease, insulin resistance/diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Among other factors, dietary patterns, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and non-dietary factors, such as stress, age, exercise, and climatic conditions, can dramatically impact the human gut microbiota equilibrium and diversity. However, the effect of minor food constituents, including food additives and trace contaminants, on human gut microbiota has received less attention. Consequently, the present review aimed to provide an objective perspective of the current knowledge regarding the impacts of minor food constituents on human gut microbiota and consequently, on human health.

  17. Consumer perceptions of risks of chemical and microbiological contaminants associated with food chains: A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kher, S.V.; Jonge, de J.; Wentholt, M.T.A.; Deliza, R.; Cunha de Andrade, J.; Cnossen, H.J.; Lucas Luijckx, N.B.; Frewer, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of effective systems to identify vulnerabilities in food chains to chemical and microbiological contaminants must take account of consumer priorities and preferences. The present investigation attempted to understand consumer perceptions associated with chemical

  18. Portable gliadin-immunochip for contamination control on the food production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriacò, Maria Serena; de Feo, Francesco; Primiceri, Elisabetta; Monteduro, Anna Grazia; de Benedetto, Giuseppe Egidio; Pennetta, Antonio; Rinaldi, Ross; Maruccio, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common digestive disorders caused by an abnormal immune reaction to gluten. So far there are no available therapies, the only solution is a strict gluten-free diet, which however could be very challenging as gluten can be hidden in many food products. Furthermore an additional problem is related to cross-contamination of nominal gluten-free foods with gluten-based ones during manufacturing. Here we propose a lab on chip platform as a powerful tool to help food manufacturers to evaluate the real amount of gluten in their products by an accurate in-situ control of the production chain and maybe to specify the real gluten content in packages labeling. Our portable gliadin-immunochips, based on an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy transduction method, were first calibrated and then validated for both liquid and solid food matrixes by analyzing different beers and flours. The high specificity of our assay was also demonstrated by performing control experiments on rice and potatoes flours containing prolamin-like proteins. We achieved limit of quantification of 0.5 ppm for gliadin that is 20 times lower than the worldwide limit established for gluten-free food while the method of analysis is faster and cheaper than currently employed ELISA-based methods. Moreover our results on food samples were validated through a mass spectrometry standard analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Advancements and application of immunosensors in the analysis of food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. SHOFIUL AZAM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Azam MS, Rahman MRT, Lou Z, Tang Y, Raqib SM, Jothi JS. 2014. Advancements and application of immunosensors in the analysis of food contaminants. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 186-195. Immunosensors are affinity ligand-based biosensor solid-state devices in which the immunochemical reaction is coupled to a transducer. The fundamental basis of all immunosensors is the specificity of the molecular recognition of antigens by antibodies to form a stable complex. This is similar to the immunoassay methodology. Immunosensors can be categorized based on the detection principle applied. The main developments are electrochemical, optical, and microgravimetric immunosensors. In contrast to immunoassay, modern transducer technology enables the label-free detection and quantification of the immune complex. The analysis of trace substances in environmental science, pharmaceutical and food industries is a challenge since many of these applications demand a continuous monitoring mode. The use of immunosensors in these applications is most appropriate. Food chemists should take advantage of immunosensors in food and clinical diagnostics. There are many recent developments in the immunosensor field which have potential impacts. The future role of this technique in intra-laboratory, as well as bedside testing, will become even more important as the food laboratory is faced with increasing pressure to contain costs. Objective of this paper is to give a general overview of the possible application of immunosensors to the food analysis field.

  20. Biomagnification of persistent chlorinated and brominated contaminants in food web components of the Yellow Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Gyo-Hyuk; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Hwang, Jeomshik; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs were analyzed for 32 marine species in the Yellow Sea. • Their bioaccumulation potentials were assessed in combination with stable isotopes. • Pelagic and benthic food-chain components were separated by their δ 13 C values. • Pelagic food chain was a major bioaccumulation pathway for selected PCBs and OCPs. • The other compounds displayed low bioaccumulation potentials through food chains. -- Abstract: Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in 32 species inhabiting the Yellow Sea to assess their bioaccumulation potentials. The concentrations in these samples were lower than those reported for other countries or locations. Relatively high levels of BDE 209 in biota suggest an ongoing source of deca-BDE technical mixing within the Yellow Sea. The accumulation profiles of PCBs were uniform between species, but the concentrations of OCPs and PBDEs varied widely. Pelagic and benthic food-chain components were separated by their δ 13 C values. Significant positive correlations between δ 15 N and PCB 153, PCB 138, p,p′-DDE, oxy-chlordane, and trans-nonachlordane were found only for pelagic consumers, indicating that the pelagic food chain is an important bioaccumulation pathway for selected PCB and OCP compounds. The other compounds did not show any biomagnification through benthic and pelagic food chains, suggesting the lower bioaccumulation potentials of these contaminants

  1. Technical Report, Outcome of the public consultation on the draft Scientific Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Contaminants on the Food Chain (CONTAM) on acrylamide in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) has endorsed its draft Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of acrylamide (AA) in food. The opinion has undergone a public consultation from 1 July 2014 to 15 September 2014. Overall, EFSA has...

  2. Sources of Calicivirus contamination in foodborne outbreaks in Denmark, 2005-2011--the role of the asymptomatic food handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Kristina T; Lisby, Morten; Fonager, Jannik; Schultz, Anna C; Böttiger, Blenda; Villif, Annette; Absalonsen, Helle; Ethelberg, Steen

    2015-02-15

    Norovirus (NoV) is the predominant cause of foodborne disease outbreaks. Virus contamination may occur during all steps of food processing, from production to preparation and serving. The relative importance of these different routes of contamination is unknown. The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportions of outbreaks caused by asymptomatic and symptomatic food handlers (FHs). Reports of foodborne NoV and sapovirus outbreaks (n=191) that occurred over a 7-year period were extracted, reviewed, and categorized according to the available evidence for source of contamination. In 64 (34%) of the outbreaks, contamination from FHs took place during preparation or serving of food. In the majority of these outbreaks (n=41; 64%), the FHs were asymptomatic during food handling. Some had been in contact with ill household members before handling the food and remained asymptomatic; others developed symptoms shortly after or were post-symptomatic. In 51 (27%) of the outbreaks, contamination occurred during production of the food, and in 55 (29%) of the outbreaks, contamination had supposedly occurred after serving a guest at a self-serve buffet. Guidelines regarding exclusion of FHs where household members suffer from gastroenteritis could limit the number of outbreaks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Evaluation and communication of potential risk of radionuclide contamination of foods after Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekizawa, Jun; Nakamura, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    A large scale nuclear power plant accident happened after the great earthquake with a huge tsunami in the Eastern part of Japan in March 2011. Potential risk from radionuclide contamination in foods after the nuclear power plant accident was estimated using data of radiological food contamination from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Data analyzed by combining nuclide, food, level of radiation detection, period, age-classified population, were compared to provisional index levels of radionuclides, and existing contamination levels in food by natural radioactive potassium. Health risk was shown to be very low or negligible considering presence of background radiological exposure from foods and the environment. Appropriate explanation of risk to various stakeholders of the society is imperative and results of trials were reported. (author)

  4. Dioxins contamination of food in Italy: an overview of the situation 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scortichini

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Istituto Zooprofilattico dell’Abruzzo e Molise ‘G. Caporale’ (IZS A&M has been monitoring contamination of food by the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDF as part of the National Surveillance Plan (NSP in Italy since 1999, on license from the Italian Ministry of Health. Between 1999 and 2000, 238 samples (including meat, fish, eggs, milk, fat, feedstuffs were analysed. The results of the tests were expressed in terms of international toxic equivalents (I-TEQs from NATO/CCMS, 1988 and World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs. These results showed contamination levels comparable to those detected in similar studies conducted in other European countries for products such as milk (mean: 0.81 pg I-TEQ/g fat, meat (mean: 0.73 pg I-TEQ/g fat and fat (mean: 0.51 pg I-TEQ/g fat. The highest dioxin content was found in fish (mean: 5.28 pg I-TEQ/g fat and fish feeds (mean 6.60 pg ITEQ/ g fat. These two matrices also showed complete duplication of contamination profiles. Other edible matrices (milk, meat, eggs revealed the presence of HpCDD and OCDD. This could be due to the introduction into Italy of the animal feed additive choline chloride contaminated by these congenerse.

  5. Storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberson, C E; Vogelnest, L J

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate contamination of unopened and opened stored sources of commercial dry dog food by viable storage mites. Prospective laboratory and field study. Samples were collected from nine brands of previously unopened bags (new bags) of dry food and 20 field sources of stored dry food in homes in Sydney and Canberra, Australia. All samples were initially examined for the presence of mites using a stereo-binocular microscope and then placed in separate filter-paper-sealed containers. Field samples were incubated at an average temperature of 29°C and 78% relative humidity (RH) for 5 weeks and then at average 26°C/83% RH for 8 weeks. Paired new-bag samples were stored under room conditions (average 23°C/47% RH) and controlled incubator conditions (average 26°C/80% RH) for 6 weeks. All samples were thoroughly examined for mites, mite eggs and visible mould once weekly using a stereo-binocular microscope. Storage mites were not visualised in any of the field samples or in new-bag samples stored at room temperature. Storage mites, identified as Tyrophagus putrescentiae, were visualised in increasing numbers in seven of nine new-bag samples after incubation, with first mites and then eggs evident after 3 weeks of incubation. We confirmed the presence of viable storage mites in a range of previously unopened commercial dry dog foods in Australia and confirmed the possibility of heavy storage mite contamination for dry food stored under conditions of moderate temperature and high humidity. These findings have relevance to storage mite and/or dust mite sensitivity in canine atopic dermatitis. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  6. Immobilizer-assisted management of metal-contaminated agricultural soils for safer food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Park, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Min-Suk; Owens, Gary; Youn, Gyu-Hoon; Lee, Jin-Su

    2012-07-15

    Production of food crops on metal contaminated agricultural soils is of concern because consumers are potentially exposed to hazardous metals via dietary intake of such crops or crop derived products. Therefore, the current study was conducted to develop management protocols for crop cultivation to allow safer food production. Metal uptake, as influenced by pH change-induced immobilizing agents (dolomite, steel slag, and agricultural lime) and sorption agents (zeolite and compost), was monitored in three common plants representative of leafy (Chinese cabbage), root (spring onion) and fruit (red pepper) vegetables, in a field experiment. The efficiency of the immobilizing agents was assessed by their ability to decrease the phytoavailability of metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn). The fruit vegetable (red pepper) showed the least accumulation of Cd (0.16-0.29 mgkg(-1) DW) and Pb (0.2-0.9 mgkg(-1) DW) in edible parts regardless of treatment, indicating selection of low metal accumulating crops was a reasonable strategy for safer food production. However, safer food production was more likely to be achievable by combining crop selection with immobilizing agent amendment of soils. Among the immobilizing agents, pH change-induced immobilizers were more effective than sorption agents, showing decreases in Cd and Pb concentrations in each plant well below standard limits. The efficiency of pH change-induced immobilizers was also comparable to reductions obtained by 'clean soil cover' where the total metal concentrations of the plow layer was reduced via capping the surface with uncontaminated soil, implying that pH change-induced immobilizers can be practically applied to metal contaminated agricultural soils for safer food production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Derivation of recommended limits for radionuclide contamination of foods by the FAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Mueller, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accident at Chernobyl, USSR, various countries defined limits for radioactive contamination of foods at different levels. These limits ranged from a few Bq iodine 131 or cesium 134 + 137/kg (Malaysia and Canada) to more than 1000 Bq/kg (Great Britain and France). These variations in limits hindered the movement of foods in international trade. For this reason the FAO convened an Expert Consultation to derive 'action levels' below which neither intervention nor constraint would be justified in terms of international movement and trade in food and drink. These limits are to find application in cases of widespread environmental contamination after an accidental release of radionuclides. They are not to be applied in cases of local release, e.g. in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. The derivation of 'action levels' by the FAO was based on the recommendations issued by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) in May 1985. According to this recommendation the committed dose equivalent for the whole body should not exceed 5 mSv in the first and 1 mSv in the consecutive years. For radionuclides that preferentially irradiate individual organs, e.g. I131 in the thyroid, the dose equivalent to a specified organ may be used to derive limiting values. For individual organs limiting doses of 50 mSv/a and 10 mSv/a respectively were chosen

  8. Derivation of recommended limits for radionuclide contamination of foods by the FAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, E; Mueller, M K [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Health Office, Neuherberg (Germany)

    1986-07-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accident at Chernobyl, USSR, various countries defined limits for radioactive contamination of foods at different levels. These limits ranged from a few Bq iodine 131 or cesium 134 + 137/kg (Malaysia and Canada) to more than 1000 Bq/kg (Great Britain and France). These variations in limits hindered the movement of foods in international trade. For this reason the FAO convened an Expert Consultation to derive 'action levels' below which neither intervention nor constraint would be justified in terms of international movement and trade in food and drink. These limits are to find application in cases of widespread environmental contamination after an accidental release of radionuclides. They are not to be applied in cases of local release, e.g. in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. The derivation of 'action levels' by the FAO was based on the recommendations issued by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) in May 1985. According to this recommendation the committed dose equivalent for the whole body should not exceed 5 mSv in the first and 1 mSv in the consecutive years. For radionuclides that preferentially irradiate individual organs, e.g. I131 in the thyroid, the dose equivalent to a specified organ may be used to derive limiting values. For individual organs limiting doses of 50 mSv/a and 10 mSv/a respectively were chosen.

  9. Effects of irradiation on the survival of bacterial contaminants in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary concern about microbial safety of irradiated food is the survival of pathogenic spore forming bacteria. Clostridium sporogenes was selected as the spore forming test organism for conducting inoculated pack studies for its similarities to the most toxigenic Cl. botulinum, in radiation resistance. Minimum radiation dose applied (45 kGy under cryogenic condition, in -790C was determined to eliminate Cl. sporogenes spores and other bacterial contaminants in different kind of Indonesian chicken and beef dishes. In separate studies, irradiation doses of 3 – 7 kGy at cryogenic condition was used to improve the microbiological safety of a number chilled prepared meals. The dishes or ready to eat foods were packaged in air impermeable pouches. Irradiation process was carried out after inoculation on chicken and beef dishes with certain amounts of Cl. sporogenes spores. The evaluation of colony count differences between the irradiated and unirradiated foods revealed the effect of radiation on the survival of bacterial spores or other bacterial contaminants. It was demonstrated that a minimum dose of 45 kGy under cryogenic condition eliminated the spore of Cl. sporogenes, Bacillus spp and Staphylococcus spp. Irradiation at doses 5-7 kGy significantly reduced some potential pathogenic microorganisms in samples without affecting quality up to 3 months of storage at the refrigeration temperature.

  10. Engineered Nanoparticles as Potential Food Contaminants and Their Toxicity to Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaomo; Nguyen, Trang H D; Lin, Mengshi; Mustapha, Azlin

    2016-08-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), such as metallic or metallic oxide nanoparticles (NPs), have gained much attention in recent years. Increasing use of ENPs in various areas may lead to the release of ENPs into the environment and cause the contamination of agricultural and food products by ENPs. In this study, we selected two important ENPs (zinc oxide [ZnO] and silver [Ag] NPs) as potential food contaminants and investigated their toxicity via an in vitro model using Caco-2 cells. The physical properties of ENPs and their effects on Caco-2 cells were characterized by electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS) techniques. Results demonstrate that a significant inhibition of cell viability was observed after a 24-h of exposure of Caco-2 cells to 3-, 6-, and 12-mM ZnO NPs or 0.5-, 1.5-, and 3-mM Ag NPs. The noticeable changes of cells include the alteration in cell shape, abnormal nuclear structure, membrane blebbing, and cytoplasmic deterioration. The toxicity of ZnO NPs, but not that of Ag NPs after exposure to simulated gastric fluid, significantly decreased. Scanning transmission electron microscopy shows that ZnO and Ag NPs penetrated the membrane of Caco-2 cells. EDS results also confirm the presence of NPs in the cytoplasm of the cells. This study demonstrates that ZnO and Ag NPs have cytotoxic effects and can inhibit the growth of Caco-2 cells. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Protective action guides for accidentally contaminated water and food. Proceedings of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The Workshop on Protective Action Guides for Accidentally Contaminated Water and Food was designed for those who have experience in planning for and responding to ingestion exposure scenarios. The objective was to identify and discuss all of the issues, problems, relevant experiences, and research that should be considered in the development of Protective Action Guides (PAGs) for water and food. The workshop proved to be very helpful for those responsible for developing PAGs for the ingestion exposure pathways. This workshop addressed the roles and responsibilities for the development of PAGs. EPA has the responsibility for development of PAGs, except in the case of PAGs for food for which the responsibility is shared with FDA. EPA participated in the development of the recommendations on PAGs for food and animal feed that FDA published in 1982, which are under revision. In the absence of PAGs specifically for water, past practice has been for EPA to provide ad hoc guidance when needed. EPA will be developing guidance for drinking water during the next fiscal year and, therefore, one of the working groups at the workshop was devoted to considering issues related to PAGs for water. It has not yet been determined whether PAGs for drinking water should be separate or included with those for food. These issues were discussed at the workshop and the recommendations included in this proceedings document will be used as resource in the development of PAGs for the ingestion pathway

  12. Protective action guides for accidentally contaminated water and food. Proceedings of a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-09-01

    The Workshop on Protective Action Guides for Accidentally Contaminated Water and Food was designed for those who have experience in planning for and responding to ingestion exposure scenarios. The objective was to identify and discuss all of the issues, problems, relevant experiences, and research that should be considered in the development of Protective Action Guides (PAGs) for water and food. The workshop proved to be very helpful for those responsible for developing PAGs for the ingestion exposure pathways. This workshop addressed the roles and responsibilities for the development of PAGs. EPA has the responsibility for development of PAGs, except in the case of PAGs for food for which the responsibility is shared with FDA. EPA participated in the development of the recommendations on PAGs for food and animal feed that FDA published in 1982, which are under revision. In the absence of PAGs specifically for water, past practice has been for EPA to provide ad hoc guidance when needed. EPA will be developing guidance for drinking water during the next fiscal year and, therefore, one of the working groups at the workshop was devoted to considering issues related to PAGs for water. It has not yet been determined whether PAGs for drinking water should be separate or included with those for food. These issues were discussed at the workshop and the recommendations included in this proceedings document will be used as resource in the development of PAGs for the ingestion pathway.

  13. Inspection system of radioactive contamination in foods and its results in Yokohama City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Masahiro

    1993-01-01

    Accompanying the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident occurred on April 26, 1986, the radioactive contamination of the foods imported from Europe became problems. Consequently, the Ministry of Health and Welfare stipulated the temporary limit of radioactive concentration in imported foods in terms of the total of Cs-134 and Cs-137 at less than 370 becquerel per 1 kg of foods in November, 1986, and the inspection system was tightened. In Yokohama, in view of securing the safety of foods and eliminating the anxiety of citizen, the measuring instruments for radioactivity were installed in the Hygiene Laboratory in 1986 and in the Food Hygiene Inspection Stations in Central Wholesale Market in 1987, and the inspection was begun. So far 720 subjects were inspected, but there was none that exceeds the temporary limit. The period and the method of executing the inspection and the results of nuclide analysis, screening inspection and so on are reported. It was judged that at the present point of time, there is not much influence to the life of citizen. (K.I.)

  14. Adaptation and mitigation options to manage aflatoxin contamination in food with a climate change perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wambui, J. M.; Karuri, E. G.; Ojiambo, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the impact of climate change remains vital for food safety and public health. Of particular importance is the influence of climatic conditions on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and production of their toxins. Nevertheless, little is known about the actual impact of climate change....... We used a systematic literature review of review and research articles, with limited searching but systematic screening to explore available qualitative and quantitative data. Projections from the data, showed that on average, a 58.9% increase of aflatoxin contamination in the Central and Western...... parts and a decrease of 44.6% in the Eastern and Southern parts is expected but with several possible scenarios. This makes the impact of climate change on aflatoxin contamination in Kenya complex. To protect the public and environment from the negative impact, a regulatory framework that allows...

  15. Trace contaminants of agriculture, fisheries and food with particular reference to isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1977-01-01

    Growing world population, industrilization and intensification of agricultural and fisheries practices have greatly increased the need during recent decades to protect the resources concerned, and the quality of food and agricultural environment. These trends have also resulted in a growing range of trace contaminants and excessive nutrient problems of agriculture and fisheries. Isotopic tracer and nuclear analytical techniques are powerful and often unique tools for the study and control of the problems, especially in relation to trace elements, nutrients and contaminants. In addition to the conventional use of radioactive and stable isotopes as tracers there appears to be considerable scope for the use of environmental or natural isotope ratio techniques and the use of labelled reagents and substrates as monitoring tools. Representative applications are described. (author)

  16. Environment contamination by mycotoxins and their occurrence in food and feed: Physiological aspects and economical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capcarova, Marcela; Zbynovska, Katarina; Kalafova, Anna; Bulla, Jozef; Bielik, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of food and feed by mycotoxins as toxic metabolites of fungi is a risk not only for consumers resulting in various embarrassment regarding health status and well-being, but also for producers, companies and export market on the ground of economic losses and ruined stability of economic trade. As it is given in historical evidence, the contamination of food by mycotoxins is a topic as old as a history of mankind, finding some evidence even in the ancient books and records. Nowadays, the mycotoxins are used in modern biotechnological laboratories and are considered an agent for targeting the specific cells (e.g., defected cells to eliminate them). However, this promising procedure is only the beginning. More concern is focused on mycotoxins as abiotic hazard agents. The dealing with them, systematic monitoring, and development of techniques for their elimination from agricultural commodities are worldwide issues concerning all countries. They can be found alone or in co-occurrence with other mycotoxins. Thus, this review aims to provide widened information regarding mycotoxins contamination in environment with the consequences on health of animals and humans. The inevitability for more data that correctly determine the risk points linked to mycotoxins occurrence and their specific reactions in the environment is demonstrated. This review includes various symptoms in animals and humans that result from mycotoxin exposure. For better understanding of mycotoxin's impact on animals, the sensitivities of various animal species to various mycotoxins are listed. Strategies for elimination and preventing the risks of mycotoxins contamination as well as economical approach are discussed. To complete the topic, some data from past as historical evidences are presented.

  17. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  18. Inactivation of possible microorganism food contaminants on packaging foils using nonthermal plasma and hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtz, V.; Khun, J.; Soušková, H.; Čeřovský, M.

    2015-01-01

    The inactivation effect of nonthermal plasma generated in electric discharge burning in air atmosphere with water or hydrogen peroxide aerosol for the application to the microbial decontamination of packaging foils is studied. The microbial inactivation is studied on two bacterial, two yeasts, and two filamentous micromycete species. The inactivation of all contaminating microorganisms becomes on the area of full 8.5 cm in diameter circular sample after short times of several tens of seconds. Described apparatus may present a possible alternative method of microbial decontamination of food packaging material or other thermolabile materials

  19. Inactivation of possible microorganism food contaminants on packaging foils using nonthermal plasma and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, V., E-mail: Vladimir.Scholtz@vscht.cz; Khun, J. [Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Department of Physics and Measurements, Faculty of Chemical Engineering (Czech Republic); Soušková, H. [Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Department of Computing and Control Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering (Czech Republic); Čeřovský, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Department of Food Preservation, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-15

    The inactivation effect of nonthermal plasma generated in electric discharge burning in air atmosphere with water or hydrogen peroxide aerosol for the application to the microbial decontamination of packaging foils is studied. The microbial inactivation is studied on two bacterial, two yeasts, and two filamentous micromycete species. The inactivation of all contaminating microorganisms becomes on the area of full 8.5 cm in diameter circular sample after short times of several tens of seconds. Described apparatus may present a possible alternative method of microbial decontamination of food packaging material or other thermolabile materials.

  20. Assessment of aflatoxin exposure of laboratory worker during food contamination analyses. Assessment of the procedures adopted by an A.R.P.A.L. laboratory (Liguria Region Environmental Protection Agency).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, A; Bassoli, Viviana; Cioè, A; Anselmo, Silvia; Ferro, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins derived from foodstuffs colonized by fungal species of the genus Aspergillus; they are common food contaminants with immunosuppressive, mutagenic and carcinogenic activity. Aflatoxins are heat-resistant and are thus easily transmitted along the food chain. They are hepatotoxic and have the potential to induce hepatocellular carcinoma. Agri-food industry workers are thus at risk of ingestion as well as transmucosal absorption or inhalation of toxins released during product preparation or processing. To measure the levels of airborne mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxins, in a laboratory analysing imported foodstuffs for mycotoxin contamination. The protocol used to analyse a batch of shelled peanuts from Vietnam, especially the grinding phase, which is held to be at the highest risk ofgenerating airborne toxins, was assessed at the A.R.PA.L. laboratory (Liguria Region Environmental Protection Agency) of Genoa, Italy, which participates in a European aflatoxin monitoring project. Wet grinding was performed to avoid production of large amounts of dust. Comparison of airborne concentrations before and after grinding with legal thresholds disclosed that the analytical procedures involved negligible aflatoxin levels for operators (environmental burden 0.11 pg/ m3). Given the toxicity of aflatoxins, worker protection measures should be consistently adopted and enforced. Threshold limit values for working environments should be introduced besides the existing ones for public health.

  1. Carcinogen risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelwoold, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the methods by which risk factors for carcinogenic hazards are determined and the limitations inherent in the process. From statistical and epidemiological studies, the major identifiable factors related to cancer in the United States were determined to be cigarette smoking, diet, reproductive and sexual behavior, infections, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and alcohol consumption. The incidence of lung cancer due to air pollutants was estimated to be less than 2%. Research needs were discussed

  2. Tracing salmon-derived nutrients and contaminants in freshwater food webs across a pronounced spawner density gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Demers, J Marc J; Kimpe, Lynda; Krümmel, Eva M; Macdonald, Robie W; Finney, Bruce P; Blais, Jules M

    2007-06-01

    Many have demonstrated that anadromous Pacific salmon are significant vectors of nutrients from the ocean to freshwaters. Recently. however, it has been recognized that salmon spawners also input significant quantities of contaminants. The objectives of this paper are to delineate the extent to which salmon-derived nutrients are integrated into the freshwater food web using delta(15)N and delta(13)C and to assess the influence of the salmon pathway in the accumulation of contaminants in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We found that the delta(15)N and delta(13)C of food web components were related positively and significantly to sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) spawner density. Contaminant concentrations in rainbow trout also positively and significantly were related to sockeye salmon spawner density. These data suggest that the anadromous salmon nutrient and contaminant pathways are related and significantly impact the contaminant burden of resident fish.

  3. Monitoring of radioactive contamination in food and the environment 1986-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liland, Astrid; Skuterud, Lavrans; Bergan, Tone; Forseth, Torbjoern; Gaare, Eldar; Hellstroem, Turid

    2001-01-01

    The results from the national monitoring of radioactive contamination in food and the environment 1986-1998 are presented. The average 137Cs concentration is decreasing in cow's and goat's milk, sheep, reindeer and fresh water fish. Pasture and fungi are, on the contrary, not showing a general decreasing trend. The radioactivity in food and humans has been decreasing since 1987. The effective dose from intake is estimated to 0.02 mSv for an average Norwegian in 1998. Vulnerable groups may have received doses up to 0.4 mSv. One cannot rule out the possibility that some individuals in these groups have received doses superior to 1 mSv/year. (Author)

  4. Non-targeted analysis of unexpected food contaminants using LC-HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzelmann, Marco; Winter, Martin; Åberg, Magnus; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik; Rosén, Johan

    2018-03-29

    A non-target analysis method for unexpected contaminants in food is described. Many current methods referred to as "non-target" are capable of detecting hundreds or even thousands of contaminants. However, they will typically still miss all other possible contaminants. Instead, a metabolomics approach might be used to obtain "true non-target" analysis. In the present work, such a method was optimized for improved detection capability at low concentrations. The method was evaluated using 19 chemically diverse model compounds spiked into milk samples to mimic unknown contamination. Other milk samples were used as reference samples. All samples were analyzed with UHPLC-TOF-MS (ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry), using reversed-phase chromatography and electrospray ionization in positive mode. Data evaluation was performed by the software TracMass 2. No target lists of specific compounds were used to search for the contaminants. Instead, the software was used to sort out all features only occurring in the spiked sample data, i.e., the workflow resembled a metabolomics approach. Procedures for chemical identification of peaks were outside the scope of the study. Method, study design, and settings in the software were optimized to minimize manual evaluation and faulty or irrelevant hits and to maximize hit rate of the spiked compounds. A practical detection limit was established at 25 μg/kg. At this concentration, most compounds (17 out of 19) were detected as intact precursor ions, as fragments or as adducts. Only 2 irrelevant hits, probably natural compounds, were obtained. Limitations and possible practical use of the approach are discussed.

  5. Genotoxic activities of the food contaminant 5-hydroxymethylfurfural using different in vitro bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Isabelle; Dumont, Coralie; Jondeau-Cabaton, Adeline; Graillot, Vanessa; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2010-02-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is known as an indicator of quality deterioration in a wide range of foods. 5-HMF is formed as an intermediate in the Maillard reaction and has been identified in a wide variety of heat-processed foods. In recent years, the presence of 5-HMF in foods has raised toxicological concerns: data have shown cytotoxic, genotoxic and tumoral effects but further studies suggest that 5-HMF does not pose a serious health risk. However the subject is still a matter of debate. We investigated the genotoxicity of the food-borne contaminant 5-HMF using the Ames test, the micronucleus (MN) and the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assays in the human metabolically active HepG2 cell line. Cytotoxic effect of 5-HMF was first assessed using Alamar Blue as a sensitive sub-lethal assay. 5-HMF did not induce any genic mutation in bacteria whatever the concentration in the Ames test. Furthermore, it does not induce clastogenic or aneugenic effects in the HepG2 cells. In contrast, 5-HMF induced HepG2 DNA damage at concentrations from 7.87 to 25 mM in the comet assay suggesting a weak genotoxic effect of 5-HMF in the HepG2 cells probably repaired. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing SVM and ANN based Machine Learning Methods for Species Identification of Food Contaminating Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgin, Halil; Bera, Tanmay; Ding, Hongjian; Semey, Howard G; Wu, Leihong; Liu, Zhichao; Barnes, Amy E; Langley, Darryl A; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Vyas, Himansu J; Tong, Weida; Xu, Joshua

    2018-04-25

    Insect pests, such as pantry beetles, are often associated with food contaminations and public health risks. Machine learning has the potential to provide a more accurate and efficient solution in detecting their presence in food products, which is currently done manually. In our previous research, we demonstrated such feasibility where Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based pattern recognition techniques could be implemented for species identification in the context of food safety. In this study, we present a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model which improved the average accuracy up to 85%. Contrary to this, the ANN method yielded ~80% accuracy after extensive parameter optimization. Both methods showed excellent genus level identification, but SVM showed slightly better accuracy  for most species. Highly accurate species level identification remains a challenge, especially in distinguishing between species from the same genus which may require improvements in both imaging and machine learning techniques. In summary, our work does illustrate a new SVM based technique and provides a good comparison with the ANN model in our context. We believe such insights will pave better way forward for the application of machine learning towards species identification and food safety.

  7. Prevalence of parasitic contamination in fast food salads in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Razavi Piranshahi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of parasitic contamination in fast food salads in Ahvaz city, southwest of Iran, in 2016. Methods: In the current study, 150 samples were randomly collected from 150 fast food shops in Ahvaz City, southwest of Iran. The samples were collected in a clean bucket containing deionized water and detergent. After three times washing, the resultant precipitate was examined in terms of parasites using physiological saline as well as the acid fast and the trichrome staining methods. Results: Of 150 samples, 17 (11.33% positive cases were observed, among which 8 (5.34%, 4 (2.66%, 2 (1.34%, 1 (0.67% and 2 (1.34% were observed positive for Entamoeba coli (E. coli, Cryptosporidium, Giardia lambelia, immature oocyst of Coccidia and mites, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed a relatively high prevalence of parasitic infections especially E. coli in fast food salads in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. Since the parasitic infections can cause malabsorption, severe diarrhea, intestinal obstruction, cholecystitis, liver inflammation, pulmonary and renal complications, health authorities must pay more attention to the health of fast food shops.

  8. Clenbuterol - regional food contamination a possible source for inadvertent doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddat, S; Fußhöller, G; Geyer, H; Thomas, A; Braun, H; Haenelt, N; Schwenke, A; Klose, C; Thevis, M; Schänzer, W

    2012-06-01

    The misuse of the sympathomimetic and anabolic agent clenbuterol has been frequently reported in professional sport and in the livestock industry. In 2010, a team of athletes returned from competition in China and regular doping control samples were taken within the next two days. All urine samples contained low amounts (pg/ml) of clenbuterol, drawing the attention to a well-known problem: the possibility of an unintended clenbuterol intake with food. A warning that Chinese meat is possibly contaminated with prohibited substances according to international anti-doping regulations was also given by Chinese officials just before the Bejing Olympic Games in 2008. To investigate if clenbuterol can be found in human urine, a study was initiated comprising 28 volunteers collecting urine samples after their return from China. For the quantification of clenbuterol at a low pg/ml level, a very sensitive and specific isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed using liquid/liquid re-extraction for clean-up with a limit of detection and quantification of 1 and 3 pg/ml, respectively. The method was validated demonstrating good precision (intra-day: 2.9-5.5 %; inter-day: 5.1-8.8%), accuracy (89.5-102.5%) and mean recovery (81.4%). Clenbuterol was detectable in 22 (79%) of the analyzed samples, indicating a general food contamination problem despite an official clenbuterol prohibition in China for livestock. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Opportunities for mitigating pathogen contamination during on-farm food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael P; Erickson, Marilyn C

    2012-01-16

    Fruits, vegetables, and meat are susceptible to contamination by foodborne pathogens at many points from production through preparation in the home. This review will largely highlight approaches and progress made in the last five years to address strategies to reduce pathogen contamination in animal production but will also touch on the emerging field of preharvest produce food safety. Mitigation strategies can be divided into those that address pathogen reduction in the environment and those that target reduction/elimination of pathogen contamination in animals or plants. The former strategy has been encompassed in studies evaluating sanitation treatments of facilities as well as in numerous epidemiologic risk assessment studies (both on-farm assessments and computer simulation models) that identify management practices that impact pathogen prevalence in animals. Interventions to significantly reduce pathogen exposure via feed or water are dependent on their role as a significant contributor to pathogen contamination in the animal production system. In addition, inconsistent results obtained with interventions of dietary additives or formulation modifications (grain versus forage; inclusion of distiller's grains) on pathogen prevalence in animals have been attributed to a range of factors including target organism, grain type, level of inclusion, the animal's health or stress level, and ability to survive the gastric acidic conditions. Recent attempts to microencapsulate organic acids or bacteriophage within feed have met with only marginal improvements in reducing pathogen carriage in animals but this approach may have greater potential with other antimicrobial additives (i.e., essential oils). Bacteriophage therapy, in general, can significantly reduce pathogen carriage in animals but based on its transient nature and the potential for development of phage-resistant subpopulations, this approach should be administered to animals just prior to slaughter and

  10. Radioactive contamination in human by polonium-210 in food from marine origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Gouvea, Rita de Cassia S.; Kelecom, Philippe Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Food from marine origin is considered as one of the sources that most contributes to internal radioactive contamination in humans by polonium-210 ( 210 Po). This work intended to check whether a single ingestion of the mussel Perna perna should result in a detectable increase of radioactive contamination in the consumer. The mussel was bought at a fish market localized in the city of Niteroi, RJ, Brazil. It was cooked as usually, and its content in 210 Po determined after acid mineralization, spontaneous electrodeposition on stainless steel disks and alpha counting. Non-smoking volunteers maintained for two weeks a normal diet, but completely avoiding fish and seafood. Then, they ate 200 g of cooked mussel, and collected total faeces and urine every day during ten days. 210 Po level in faeces samples showed a 900% increase at the first day after ingestion, and reached normal levels after 3-4 days. In urine samples, the increase of 210 Po was much lower (50%) and reached a maximum at the fifth day. Such data showed a short time permanence of 210 Po in the intestine. Most of ingested 210 Po (∼91%) was eliminated in up to 5 days through faeces. A small amount was absorbed (∼5-10%), part of it being eliminated in urine, and the remaining contaminated the human body. (author)

  11. Concentrations of environmental organic contaminants in meat and meat products and human dietary exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2017-09-01

    Meat and meat products is one of the most relevant food groups in an important number of human diets. Recently, the IARC, based on results of a number of epidemiological studies, classified the consumptions of red meat and processed meat as "probably carcinogenic to humans" and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. It was suggested that the substances responsible of the potential carcinogenicity would be mainly generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures. However, the exposure to environmental pollutants through meat consumption was not discussed. The purpose of the present paper was to review recent studies reporting the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PAHs in meat and meat products, as well as the human exposure to these pollutants through the diet. It is concluded that the health risks derived from exposure to carcinogenic environmental contaminants must be considered in the context of each specific diet, which besides meat and meat products, includes other foodstuffs containing also chemical pollutants, some of them with carcinogenic potential. Anyhow, meat and meat products are not the main food group responsible of the dietary exposure to carcinogenic (or probably carcinogenic) environmental organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trophic transfer of microplastics and mixed contaminants in the marine food web and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbery, Maddison; O'Connor, Wayne; Palanisami, Thavamani

    2018-06-01

    Plastic litter has become one of the most serious threats to the marine environment. Over 690 marine species have been impacted by plastic debris with small plastic particles being observed in the digestive tract of organisms from different trophic levels. The physical and chemical properties of microplastics facilitate the sorption of contaminants to the particle surface, serving as a vector of contaminants to organisms following ingestion. Bioaccumulation factors for higher trophic organisms and impacts on wider marine food webs remain unknown. The main objectives of this review were to discuss the factors influencing microplastic ingestion; describe the biological impacts of associated chemical contaminants; highlight evidence for the trophic transfer of microplastics and contaminants within marine food webs and outline the future research priorities to address potential human health concerns. Controlled laboratory studies looking at the effects of microplastics and contaminants on model organisms employ nominal concentrations and consequently have little relevance to the real environment. Few studies have attempted to track the fate of microplastics and mixed contaminants through a complex marine food web using environmentally relevant concentrations to identify the real level of risk. To our knowledge, there has been no attempt to understand the transfer of microplastics and associated contaminants from seafood to humans and the implications for human health. Research is needed to determine bioaccumulation factors for popular seafood items in order to identify the potential impacts on human health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern in food crops-part 1: Edible strawberries and lettuce grown in reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Katherine C; Blaine, Andrea C; Dickenson, Eric R V; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern present in domestic waste streams include a highly diverse group of potentially biologically active compounds that can be detected at trace levels in wastewater. Concerns about potential uptake into crops arise when reclaimed water is used in food crop production. The present study investigated how 9 contaminants of emerging concern in reclaimed water are taken up into edible portions of two food crops. Two flame retardant chemicals, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and several polar pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) accumulated in a linear, concentration-dependent manner in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) irrigated with reclaimed water, suggesting passive uptake of both neutral and ionizable chemical contaminants in lettuce. Furthermore, concentration-dependent accumulation of TCEP and TCPP from reclaimed water was also observed in strawberry fruits (Fragaria ananassa). Collectively, these data suggest that highly polar or charged contaminants can be taken up by crops from water bearing contaminants of emerging concern and can be accumulated in the edible portions. Using these data, however, estimates of human exposure to these contaminants from reclaimed water food crop accumulation suggest that exposure to the contaminants of emerging concern examined in the present study is likely substantially lower than current exposure guidelines. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. [Analysis on contamination of zearalenone and dietary exposure assessment in food samples of Shaanxi Province in 2013-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiawei; Wang, Caixia; Tian, Li; Wang, Minjuan; Guo, Rong; Qiao, Haiou

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the contamination of zearalenone in food in Shaanxi Province, and to assess the dietary zearalenone exposure and the health risk of intaking zearalenone from corn products for Shaanxi residents. In 2013-2016, samples of five kinds of food including grains, vegetable oil, liquor and infants' food were collected randomly from ten cities, and determined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary intake assessment of human exposure to zearalenone was carried out in combination of food consumption data with concentration of zearalenone. 1193 samples were detected zearalenone and the total detection rate was 17. 27%, with the mean value of 13. 5 μg/kg. Among all food samples, oil products were more seriously polluted than other kinds of foods, its detection rate was 79. 37%. And 12 samples of grain products exceed the standard, the exceeding standard rate was 1. 64%, which were all corn products. The level of zearalenone detected in wheat flour, rice, millet, beer and bakery products was low. The overall level of zearalenone contamination inmarket food is common, but corn products may be the severely contaminated foods with zearalenone in Shaanxi Province. The risk assessmentresult suggests that the current dietary intake of zearalenone from corn products in Shaanxi Province has no appreciable effect on health, however, the concentrations of zearalenone in corn products are relatively high, and need to be monitored in the future.

  15. Bacteriophages to combat foodborne infections caused by food contamination by bacteria of the Campylobacter genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Myga-Nowak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that each year more than 2 million people suffer from diarrheal diseases, resulting from the consumption of contaminated meat. Foodborne infections are most frequently caused by small Gram-negative rods Campylobacter. The hosts of these bacteria are mainly birds wherein they are part of the normal intestinal flora. During the commercial slaughter, there is a likelihood of contamination of carcasses by the bacteria found in the intestinal content. In Europe, up to 90% of poultry flocks can be a reservoir of the pathogen. According to the European Food Safety Authority report from 2015, the number of reported and confirmed cases of human campylobacteriosis exceeds 200 thousands per year, and such trend remains at constant level for several years. The occurrence of growing antibiotic resistance in bacteria forces the limitation of antibiotic use in the animal production. Therefore, the European Union allows only using stringent preventive and hygienic treatment on farms. Achieving Campylobacter free chickens using these methods is possible, but difficult to implement and expensive. Utilization of bacterial viruses – bacteriophages, can be a path to provide the hygienic conditions of poultry production and food processing. Formulations applied in the food protection should contain strictly lytic bacteriophages, be non-pyrogenic and retain long lasting biological activity. Currently, on the market there are available commercial bacteriophage preparations for agricultural use, but neither includes phages against Campylobacter. However, papers on the application of bacteriophages against Campylobacter in chickens and poultry products were published in the last few years. In accordance with the estimates, 2-logarithm reduction of Campylobacter in poultry carcases will contribute to the 30-fold reduction in the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans. Research on bacteriophages against Campylobacter have cognitive and economic

  16. Evaluation of Heavy Metal Contamination Ecological Risk in a Food-Producing Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohsen Mirzaei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: The consumption of agricultural products cultivated in soils contaminated with heavy metals is very health-threatening. Therefore, the implementation of an inclusive and multilateral assessment of the heavy metal risk on the verge of their entrance to the food chain is a matter of fundamental importance. Regarding this, the present study was conducted with the aim of monitoring the concentration of heavy metals in the surface soil of grape gardens and zoning the area in terms of geoaccumulation index (Igeo, contamination factor, degree of contamination, modified degree of contamination (MDC, pollution load index (PLI, and ecological risk index (RI. Methods: For the purpose of the study, 31 grape gardens were selected in Gahru region (i.e., the main center of grape production through simple random sampling technique. The surface soil samples were transferred to the laboratory for the analysis of the concentration of cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, and zinc. Results: According to the results, the concentration of the metals in the region was Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd with the mean total concentrations of 74.87, 55.31, 22.32, 9.81, and 0.91 mg/kg, respectively. Based on the results of the PLI, six grape gardens were classified as insignificantly contaminated (1≤PLI≤2, and the remaining gardens were classified as noncontaminated (PLI300, medium (150

  17. ICP OES Determination of Contaminant Elements Leached from Food Packaging Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder José dos Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Determination of potential contaminants elements in food packing films arising from contact with acidic aqueous foods was undertaken by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES in accordance with DIN EN 1186-1. Test sections from plastic films were totally immersed in 3% w/v CH3COOH used as the food simulant. Testing was conducted under three conditions: (1 10 days at 40 ºC; (2 30 min at 70 ºC and 10 days at 40 ºC; and (3 30 min at 100 ºC and 10 days at 40 ºC. These time and temperature conditions were considered to be the most severe situations likely to be encountered in practice. Several different containers were investigated, including a borosilicate glass beaker, a glass bottle used for food canning, as well as one of polystyrene. The glass bottle was selected for testing treatments according to procedure (3 and a polystyrene one was chosen for use with procedures (1 and (2. Limits of quantitation were adequate for the determination of Ag, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn by solution nebulization ICP OES and As by chemical vapor generation (CVG-ICP OES. Results for the analysis of AccuStandard certified reference materials as well as spike recoveries show good agreement with expected concentrations, demonstrating the accuracy and precision of the determinations. Eleven samples of food packing material were analyzed. The lead was present in the range 4.8 - 85.3 µg L-1 in 10 of 11 evaluated packing material, showing the importance of quality control measures.

  18. Salmonella contamination: a significant challenge to the global marketing of animal food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Plym, Forshell; Wierup, M

    2006-08-01

    Salmonellosis is the most common food-borne bacterial disease in the world. Salmonella is a significant pathogen for food-producing animals and these animals are the primary source of salmonellosis. It is estimated that herd prevalence varies between 0% and 90%, depending on the animal species and region. The pathogen is spread by trade in animals and non-heated animal food products. The emergence of strains that are resistant to antimicrobials, often as a result of antimicrobial usage in animals, is a public health hazard of great concern. It is increasingly accepted that the prevalence of Salmonella in animal production must be decreased and, in the European Union, plans to achieve this are currently being implemented. In this paper, the authors propose various risk mitigation strategies. Successful control must focus on a range of preventive actions because there is no simple 'silver bullet' solution to reduce Salmonella contamination. The authors conclude that the key to controlling Salmonella is to follow the general rules that have been successfully applied to other infectious diseases.

  19. Saline Agriculture in the 21st Century: Using Salt Contaminated Resources to Cope Food Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ladeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continue increase of the world population the requirements for food, freshwater, and fuel are bigger every day. This way an urgent necessity to develop, create, and practice a new type of agriculture, which has to be environmentally sustainable and adequate to the soils, is arising. Among the stresses in plant agriculture worldwide, the increase of soil salinity is considered the major stress. This is particularly emerging in developing countries that present the highest population growth rates, and often the high rates of soil degradation. Therefore, salt-tolerant plants provide a sensible alternative for many developing countries. These plants have the capacity to grow using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops producing food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products. In addition to their production capabilities they can be used simultaneously for landscape reintegration and soil rehabilitation. This review will cover important subjects concerning saline agriculture and the crop potential of halophytes to use salt-contaminated resources to manage food requirements.

  20. Toxic pyrrolizidinalkaloids as undesired contaminants in food and feed: degradation of the PAs from Senecio jacobaea in silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Jiminez, J; Kuschak, M; Roeder, E; Wiedenfeld, H

    2013-07-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) can show a hazardous potential for men and animals. They can act as cancerogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and fetotoxic agents. One pathway of a human intoxication is its occurence as contaminants in food and feed. Here, the contamination of cereals already led to severe and fatal intoxication episodes. Besides this, milk is of special concern as it is the main food for children which show a very high susceptibility for a PA intoxication. Milk can contain PAs in case the milk producing animals have access to contaminated feed. In this context it is of special interest whether the PA content of contaminated silage remains stable during the ensiling procedure or show a more or less high level of decomposition. We could show that ensiling will not lead to PA-free silage.

  1. The Correlation between Eating Utensils and Place of Sales in the Contamination of Escherichia coli in Food Sold at Campus Food Stalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Susanna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, in general, the safety of food that is sold at any canteens in the campuses, the eating utensils are handled and the food stalls are managed are still uncertain. This research was aimed to understand the correlation between the eating utensils handling and the contamination of Escherichia coli (E. coli in the food sold by the food vendors in the campus. The cross-sectional design research applied on the food stalls in the university campus in Depok with a total number of 173 consumers as respondents. The variables observed as independent variables were the sanitation of the eating utensils and the sanitation of the dining place. The examination method of the Most Probable Number (MPN for E. coli was conducted to assess the food’s hygiene. The data analyzed using the chi-square test and followed by the logistic regression. The result showed that more than half of the food samples (59.54% were contaminated by E. coli. The storage place of the eating utensils was most significantly correlated with the E. coli contamination of the served food with an OR=0.45 (0.21-0.87. Therefore, it is necessary to promote the awareness of this risk and reinforce supervision by the Health Authorities and by the management of the place of sales to provide guidance to the food vendors and to the consumers as well. Further research is recommended to observe the E. coli contamination through clean water, eating utensils, the hands of the consumers and the napkins used to wipe dry the eating utensils.

  2. Adverse analytical findings with clenbuterol among U-17 soccer players attributed to food contamination issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Lina; Geyer, Hans; Guddat, Sven; Dvorak, Jiri; Butch, Anthony; Sterk, Saskia S; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2013-05-01

    The illicit use of growth promoters in animal husbandry has frequently been reported in the past. Among the drugs misused to illegally increase the benefit of stock farming, clenbuterol has held a unique position due to the substance's composition, mechanism of action, metabolism, and disposition. Particularly clenbuterol's disposition in animals' edible tissues destined for food production can cause considerable issues on consumption by elite athletes registered in national and international doping control systems as demonstrated in this case-related study. Triggered by five adverse analytical findings with clenbuterol among the Mexican national soccer team in out-of-competition controls in May 2011, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) initiated an inquest into a potential food contamination (and thus sports drug testing) problem in Mexico, the host country of the FIFA U-17 World Cup 2011. Besides 208 regular doping control samples, which were subjected to highly sensitive mass spectrometric test methods for anabolic agents, 47 meat samples were collected in team hotels during the period of the tournament and forwarded to Institute of Food Safety, RIKILT. In 14 out of 47 meat samples (30%), clenbuterol was detected at concentrations between 0.06 and 11 µg/kg. A total of 109 urine samples out of 208 doping control specimens (52%) yielded clenbuterol findings at concentrations ranging from 1-1556 pg/ml, and only 5 out of 24 teams provided urine samples that did not contain clenbuterol. At least one of these teams was on a strict 'no-meat' diet reportedly due to the known issue of clenbuterol contamination in Mexico. Eventually, owing to the extensive evidence indicating meat contamination as the most plausible reason for the extraordinary high prevalence of clenbuterol findings, none of the soccer players were sanctioned. However, elite athletes have to face severe consequences when testing positive for a prohibited anabolic agent and

  3. Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.W.; Yan, B.R.; Chang, M.H.; Tseng, S.H.; Kao, Y.M.; Chen, J.C.; Lee, C.C.

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates strongly and adversely affect reproduction, development and liver function. We did a cumulative risk assessment for simultaneous exposure to nine phthalates using the hazard index (HI) and the levels of nine phthalates in 1200 foodstuff samples. DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) present the highest level (mean: 0.443 mg/kg) in 1200 samples, and the highest average daily dose (ADD) was found in DEHP, ΣDBP (i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) posed the highest risk potential of all the phthalates. In seven phthalates, the 95th percentiles of the ADDs for ΣDBP (i + n) in 0–6-yr-old children accounted for 91% (79–107%) of the tolerable daily intake, and the 95th percentiles of the HIs for the anti-androgenic effects of five phthalates in 0–3-yr-old children and 4–6-yr-old girls were >1. We conclude that the health of younger Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of phthalate-contaminated foods. - Graphical abstract: In seven phthalates, the 95th percentile of the average daily dose (ADD) for ΣDBP (i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) in 0–3-yr-old male (0–3 M) and female (0–3 F) children accounted for 97% and 84% of TDIs, respectively. For 4–6-yr-old and 7–12-yr-old males and 7–12-yr-old females, ADDs for ΣDBP (i + n) accounted for 79%, 72%, and 65% of TDIs, respectively. - Highlights: • A cumulative risk assessment of PAEs was used in a severe plasticizer-contaminated food episode. • ΣDBP (i + n) posed the highest risk potential of all the dietary phthalates. • Females 4–6 yr old had the highest risk for anti-androgenic effects. • Beverages, milk and dairy products were the major contributors to average daily dose of phthalate esters. - The health of young Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of plasticizer-contaminated food

  4. Synthesis of available information in Japan about the contamination of food products by radionuclides remaining in the environment after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report first proposes an overview of the general status of contamination of the land environment in Japan after the Fukushima accident (maps indicate level of Caesium 134 and 137). It outlines and comments that these radioactive caesium deposits are generally the reason of a persistent contamination of some food products. It describes the measures and arrangements implemented in Japan to control the contamination of food products and to restrict their marketing, comments the assessment of the contamination of food products according to results published in Japan since the accident for the different types of food products: agriculture, fishing, meat and milk, mushrooms, other land vegetal products

  5. Understanding the contamination of food with mineral oil: the need for a confirmatory analytical and procedural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spack, Lionel W; Leszczyk, Gabriela; Varela, Jesus; Simian, Hervé; Gude, Thomas; Stadler, Richard H

    2017-06-01

    The contamination of food by mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs) found in packaging is a long-running concern. A main source of MOHs in foods is the migration of mineral oil from recycled board into the packed food products. Consequently, the majority of food manufacturers have taken protective measures, e.g., by using virgin board instead of recycled fibres and, where feasible, introducing functional barriers to mitigate migration. Despite these protective measures, MOHs may still be observed in low amounts in certain food products, albeit due to different entry points across the food supply chain. In this study, we successfully apply gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to demonstrate, through marker compounds and the profile of the hydrocarbon response, the possible source of contamination using mainly chocolate and cereals as food matrices. The conventional liquid chromatography-one-dimensional GC coupled to a flame ionisation detector (LC-GC-FID) is a useful screening method, but in cases of positive samples it must be complemented by a confirmatory method such as, for example, GC-MS, allowing a verification of mineral oil contamination. The procedural approach proposed in this study entails profile analysis, marker identification, and interpretation and final quantification.

  6. Genotoxicity of 11 heavy metals detected as food contaminants in two human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, B; Zalko, D; Audebert, M

    2018-04-01

    Heavy metals, such as arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), germanium (Ge), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), tellurium (Te), and vanadium (V) are widely distributed in the environment and in the food chain. Human exposure to heavy metals through water and food has been reported by different international agencies. Although some of these heavy metals are essential elements for human growth and development, they may also be toxic at low concentrations due to indirect mechanisms. In this study, the genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of 15 different oxidation statuses of 11 different heavy metals were investigated using high-throughput screening (γH2AX assay) in two human cell lines (HepG2 and LS-174T) representative of target organs (liver and colon) for food contaminants. Base on their lowest observed adverse effect concentration, the genotoxic potency of each heavy metal in each cell line was ranked in decreasing order, NaAsO 2  > CdCl 2  > PbCl 2 (only in LS-174T cells) > As 2 O 5  > SbCl 3  > K 2 TeO 3  > As 2 O 3 . No significant genotoxicity was observed with the other heavy metals tested. Cell viability data indicate that several heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Ni, Sb, and Te) induce cytotoxicity at high concentrations, whereas an increase in the number of cells was observed for lead concentrations >100 µM in both cell lines tested, suggesting that lead stimulates cell growth. All these results highlight the possible human health hazards associated with the presence of heavy metals present in food. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:202-210, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Relationship between growth and total nucleic acids in juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, fed crude oil contaminated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiao, Y.; Lum, J.L.; Carls, M.G.; Rice, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    Total nucleic acids of junvenile pink salmon fed crude oil contaminated food were analyzed to deteremine if nucleic acid measurements can be used to evaluate growth of fish collected at oil spill sites. In general, the nucleic acid concentration (μg per mg dry weight) of salmon fry fed food contaminated with either 0.37 or 2.78 mg crude oil/g food was not significantly affected. However, RNA concentration of fry fed food contaminated with 34.83 mg/g was reduced whereas DNA concentration increased. Results over 8 weeks indicate decreased protein synthesis and cell content but maintenance of cell integrity in these fish. Growth was inversely related to the level of crude oil contamination in the food. The significant correlations between measured growth and RNA/DNA ratios and RNA contents (mg RNA per mm fork length) suggest that nucleic acid measurement can be used to compare growth of fish collected from the field. 23 refs., 4 figs

  8. The pivotal role of mass spectrometry in determining the presence of chemical contaminants in food raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Rayane; Guy, Philippe A

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, a rising interest from consumers and various governmental organizations towards the quality of food has continuously been observed. Human intervention across the different stages of the food supply chain can lead to the presence of several types of chemical contaminants in food-based products. On a normal daily consumption basis, some of these chemicals are not harmful; however, for those that present a risk to consumers, legislation rules were established to specify tolerance levels or in some cases the total forbiddance of these specific contaminants. Hence, the use of appropriate analytical tools is recommended to properly identify chemical contaminants. In that context, mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques coupled or not to chromatography offer a vast panel of features such as sensitivity, selectivity, quantification at trace levels, and/or structural elucidation. Because of the complexity of food-based matrices, sample preparation is a crucial step before final detection. In the present manuscript, we review the contribution and the potentialities of MS-based techniques to ensure the absence of chemical contaminants in food-based products. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Aflatoxin Contamination in Food and Body Fluids in Relation to Malnutrition and Cancer Status in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félicité M. Tchouanguep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus antigen in blood samples. Aflatoxin was found in eggs (45.2%, cow raw milk (15.9%, breast milk (4.8%, urine from kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor children (45.5%, and sera from primary liver cancer patients (63.9%; HbsAg was also detected in 69.4% of the serum samples, but there was no association between both factors. Both AF and hepatitis B virus seem to be risk factors that could increase the incidence and prevalence rates of malnutrition and cancer in Cameroon.

  10. Furan: A critical heat induced dietary contaminant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, María S.; Granby, Kit; Rozowski, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    The presence of furan in a broad range of heat processed foods (0-6000 μg kg-1) has received considerable attention due to the fact that this heat induced contaminant is considered as a "possible carcinogenic compound to humans". Since a genotoxic mode of action could be associated with furan...... of some critical factors such as heating conditions, pH and matrix microstructure are discussed in order to propose some potential methodologies for furan mitigation in a wide range of heated foods. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry....

  11. Long term survey on food pollution and contamination by radioactive fallout in Fukuoka, Japan (1961 - 1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishige, Toshiko; Ishinishi, Noburu; Cho, Tetsuji.

    1977-01-01

    The contamination and the pollution of foodstuffs by radioactive fallout have been investigated since 1961 in Fukuoka city and its suburban area. The results obtained were as follows. 1) Recently, the degree of the contamination of greens by radioactive fallout which fell on the leaves decreased to one thousandth in the early stage of the investigation (1961 - 1962). In the period of the investigation, the remarkable increase of the radioactivity of fallout was observed within a week after the Chinese nuclear bomb explosion in the atmosphere (1st, 2nd, 5th, 12th, 13th, and 15th). The radioactivity was 2 to 300 times higher than the usual level. 2) The radioactivity was not remarkable in vegetables which were washed with soap, but it decreased gradually year by year. The increase of the radioactivity was also observed a few days after the atmospheric nuclear explosion. 3) In milk, there were no remarkable yearly decreases of the radioactivity from the beginning of the investigation, but the seasonal variations of the radioactivity, such as higher in April and May, were observed. 4) The radioactivity in diets based on the standard food production in Japan was the highest in 1967. It decreased gradually from 1967 to 1971 and after that the remarkable variation of the activity was not observed. 5) 137 Cs contamination of foodstuffs has been observed quantitatively by the method of gamma spectrometry, while sometimes 95 Zr- 95 Nb, 103 Ru, and 131 I were also detected from the specimens obtained immediately after the nuclear explosions. (auth.)

  12. Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åhman, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their winter diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic

  13. Sampling the potential energy surface of a DNA duplex damaged by a food carcinogen: Force field parameterization by ab initio quantum calculations and conformational searching using molecular mechanics computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyang

    1999-07-01

    The heterocyclic amine 2-amino-3-methylimidazo (4, 5-f) quinoline (IQ) is one of a number of carcinogens found in barbecued meat and fish. It induces tumors in mammals and is probably involved in human carcinogenesis, because of great exposure to such food carcinogens. IQ is biochemically activated to a derivative which reacts with DNA to form a covalent adduct. This adduct may deform the DNA and consequently cause a mutation. which may initiate carcinogenesis. To understand this cancer initiating event, it is necessary to obtain atomic resolution structures of the damaged DNA. No such structures are available experimentally due to synthesis difficulties. Therefore, we employ extensive molecular mechanics and dynamics calculations for this purpose. The major IQ-DNA adduct in the specific DNA sequence d(5'G1G2C G3CCA3') - d(5'TGGCGCC3') with IQ modified at G3 is studied. The d(5'G1G2C G3CC3') sequence has recently been shown to be a hot-spot for mutations when IQ modification is at G3. Although this sequence is prone to -2 deletions via a ``slippage mechanism'' even when unmodified, a key question is why IQ increases the mutation frequency of the unmodified DNA by about 104 fold. Is there a structural feature imposed by IQ that is responsible? The molecular mechanics and dynamics program AMBER for nucleic acids with the latest force field was chosen for this work. This force field has been demonstrated to reproduce well the B-DNA structure. However, some parameters, the partial charges, bond lengths and angles, dihedral parameters of the modified residue, are not available in the AMBER database. We parameterized the force field using high level ab initio quantum calculations. We created 800 starting conformations which uniformly sampled in combination at 18° intervals three torsion angles that govern the IQ-DNA orientations, and energy minimized them. The most important structures are abnormal; the IQ damaged guanine is rotated out of its standard B

  14. Selenium in food and health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reilly, Conor

    2006-01-01

    ...) to be a carcinogen and banned as an additive in food. Selenium is considered by some to be a serious hazard to the environment and to animal health. Selenium-contaminated water has brought deformity and death to wildlife in nature reserves in western USA. There is even concern that because of selenium contamination of soil, crops supplied to the great cities of California could become unfit for human consumption. In large areas of China, endemic selenium toxicity is a hazard for locals who depend on cr...

  15. 3-MONOKLORO-1,2-PROPANDIOL PADA KEMASAN KERTAS DUPLEKS SERTA MIGRASINYA KE DALAM SIMULAN PANGAN [3-Monochoro-1,2-Propandiol in Duplex Paper Packaging and Its Migration Into Food Simulant

    OpenAIRE

    Ira Dwi Rachmani; Feri Kusnandar; Nancy Dewi Yuliana; Yane Regina; Muh. Yusram Massijaya; Slamet Budijanto

    2015-01-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) is a carcinogenic food contaminant. 3-MCPD is formed during food processing, and can also be derived from food contact packaging materials, including paper. Wet-strength resin is often added into paper food packaging to provide moisture resistance and thus enhancing food shelf-life and consumer usage. The wet-strength resins which are manufactured from epichlorohydrin-based starting materials, are known to initiate the formation of 3-MCPD. Thus, the object...

  16. Bacterial contamination of the hands of food handlers as indicator of hand washing efficacy in some convenient food industries in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aa, Lambrechts; Is, Human; Jh, Doughari; Jfr, Lues

    2014-07-01

    Hands of ready-to-eat food service employees have been shown to be vectors in the spread of foodborne disease, mainly because of poor personal hygiene and accounting for approximately 97% of food borne illnesses in food service establishments and homes. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hand washing practices and sanitation before commencing work among food handlers in the convenient food industry in Gauteng, South Africa. A total of 230 samples were collected, involving 100% of the food handlers, in 8 selected convenient food outlets with their main focus on preparing ready-to-eat foods. The workers' cleaned and disinfected dominant hands were sampled for Total Plate Count (TPC), Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacteria were isolated and counted using standard methods. The highest bacterial count from the hand samples was 7.4 x 10(3) cfu.cm(-2) and the lowest showed no detectable growth. Although hands with a count of 0 cfu.cm(-2) were found in all of the plants, the results indicated that all the plants exceeded the legal limit for food surfaces or hands of food handlers had no bacteria detectable on their hands. One sample tested positive for E. coli and S. aureus could not be detected on the hands of any of the food handlers. The study revealed that hand hygiene is unsatisfactory and may have serious implications for public health due to contamination of food from food handlers' hands. This therefore underlined the importance of further training to improve food handlers' knowledge of good hand washing practices.

  17. The food-contaminant deoxynivalenol modifies eating by targeting anorexigenic neurocircuitry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Girardet

    Full Text Available Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON, a trichothecene, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on contaminated cereals and its stability during processing and cooking explains its widespread presence in human food. DON has been implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and farm animals including weight loss. Here, we provide the first demonstration that DON reduced feeding behavior and modified satiation and satiety by interfering with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that during intoxication, DON reaches the brain where it modifies anorexigenic balance. In view of the widespread human exposure to DON, the present results may lead to reconsider the potential consequences of chronic DON consumption on human eating disorders.

  18. Study of Cs/sup 137/ contamination in soil and food samples of Jhangar valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, Z.S.; Khan, H.M.; Aslam, M.; Iqbal, S.; Orfi, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Chernobyl accident has been the main source of artificial radioactive contamination throughout the world and its effects have been found in Pakistan as well. In the present study, activities of an important anthropogenic radionuclide, Cs/sup 137/ in soil and food samples of Jhangar Valley of Pakistan have been determined using PC based gamma spectrometer. Soil-375 from IAEA was used as reference material. The soil samples were collected from the agricultural fields of the selected area while food samples, grown in the selected area, were collected from the fields or from local market. After proper treatment, the samples were analyzed using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The following values for average specific activity of Cs/sup 137/ were found: soil (range 1.3-46.8 Bq/kg) (12.0 Bq/kg), wheat (0.9 +- 0.05 Bq/kg), millet (1.5 +- 0.06 Bq/kg), lentils (2.0 +- 0.1 Bq/kg), potato (0.6 +- 0.03 Bq/kg) and cauliflower (0.6 +- 0.03 Bq/kg). The results have been discussed and compared with other data available in the literature. (author)

  19. Contamination of an arctic terrestrial food web with marine-derived persistent organic pollutants transported by breeding seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, Emily S.; Kimpe, Linda E.; Mallory, Mark L.; Smol, John P.; Blais, Jules M.

    2010-01-01

    At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with ΣPCB and ΣDDT (mean: 168, 106 ng/g ww) concentrations surpassing environmental guidelines for protecting wildlife. When examined collectively, PCB congeners and DDT in jewel lichen (Xanthoria elegans) were lower in samples taken farther from the seabird colony, and increased with increasing δ 15 N values. However, only concentrations of p'p-DDE:ΣDDT and PCB-95 were significantly correlated inversely with distance from the seabird cliffs. Linkages between marine-derived POPs and their concentrations in terrestrial mammals were less clear. Our study provides novel contaminant data for these species and supports biovector transport as a source of organic contaminants to certain components of the terrestrial food web. - This study provides evidence of contaminant transport by seabirds to a coastal Arctic food web.

  20. Reduction of 137caesium contamination in wild boars by supplementing offered food with ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfeld, P.; Kienzle, E.

    2014-01-01

    This replication study investigated whether the 137 caesium ( 137 Cs) contamination of wild boars could be relevantly reduced under field conditions by adding ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate (AFCF; Prussian blue) to the food. In 285 wild boars that had been shot in six Bavarian hunting territories during the season (November until May) between 01 November 2010 and 10 December 2011 137 Cs contamination was analysed. Thirty-five animals originated from two hunting territories in which offered food had been supplemented with 1250 mg AFCF per kilogram food. The control animals showed a mean 137 Cs contamination of 522 Bq/kg lean skeletal muscle meat. Direct (univariable) comparisons of the two experimental territories with the four control territories yielded a mean reduction in 137 Cs contamination due to Prussian bluefeeding by -211 Bq/kg (p < 0.001). Multivariable mo dels that took potential confounders into account (age, weight, sex, hunting date, territory) estimated the effect to be -344 Bq/kg (p < 0.05). This replication study confirmed the finding of Kienzle et al. (12) who described a statistically significant reduction in 137 Cs contamination by -380 Bq/kg due to the feeding of Prussian blue in other territories. [de

  1. Contamination of an arctic terrestrial food web with marine-derived persistent organic pollutants transported by breeding seabirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Emily S., E-mail: echoy087@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Kimpe, Linda E., E-mail: linda.kimpe@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@ec.gc.c [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Iqaluit, NU, X0A 0H0 (Canada); Smol, John P., E-mail: smolj@queensu.c [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Lab (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Blais, Jules M., E-mail: jules.blais@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with {Sigma}PCB and {Sigma}DDT (mean: 168, 106 ng/g ww) concentrations surpassing environmental guidelines for protecting wildlife. When examined collectively, PCB congeners and DDT in jewel lichen (Xanthoria elegans) were lower in samples taken farther from the seabird colony, and increased with increasing {delta}{sup 15}N values. However, only concentrations of p'p-DDE:{Sigma}DDT and PCB-95 were significantly correlated inversely with distance from the seabird cliffs. Linkages between marine-derived POPs and their concentrations in terrestrial mammals were less clear. Our study provides novel contaminant data for these species and supports biovector transport as a source of organic contaminants to certain components of the terrestrial food web. - This study provides evidence of contaminant transport by seabirds to a coastal Arctic food web.

  2. Survival of Salmonella Copenhagen in food bowls following contamination with experimentally inoculated raw meat: Effects of time, cleaning, and disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Weese, J Scott; Rousseau, J.

    2006-01-01

    There are concerns regarding the safety of feeding raw meat to household pets. This study demonstrated that Salmonella persists in food bowls that are inoculated with Salmonella-containing raw meat. Standard methods of cleaning and disinfection were minimally effective at eliminating Salmonella contamination.

  3. Evaluation of food contamination and health risks caused by radioactive fallout released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoko; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yoneda, Minoru; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Before Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, radionuclide like 137 Cs released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests and Chernobyl disaster has been transported worldwide in the environment and finally taken up by humans through various pathways. In this research, dietary intake of 137 Cs and the related health risks to Japanese caused by chronic global radioactive food contamination from 1945 to 2010 were evaluated by using the mathematical model for the evaluation of global distribution of 137 Cs with food ingestion and domestic and international food supply model. The results of this evaluation can show a background situation before Fukushima disaster and give important information for the risk assessment of this disaster. (author)

  4. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation and CYP1A induction by cooked food-derived carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in human HepG2 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Masashi; Sumi, Haruna; Hosaka, Takuomi; Umemura, Takashi; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Degawa, Masakuni

    2016-11-01

    The ability of nine cooked food-derived heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), such as 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), 2-amino-6-methylpyrido[12-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1), 2-amino-pyrido[12-a:3',2'-d]imidazole hydrochloride (Glu-P-2), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAαC), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), to activate human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (hAhR) was examined using a HepG2-A10 cell line, which has previously established from human hepatocarcinoma-derived HepG2 cells for use in hAhR-based luciferase reporter gene assays. Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, AαC, MeAαC, IQ and MeIQx showed a definite ability to induce not only luciferase (hAhR activation) in HepG2-A10 cells but also cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1/1A2 mRNAs in HepG2 cells, while such the ability of Glu-P-1, Glu-P-2, and PhIP was very low. In addition, all the HCAs examined, especially MeAαC and MeIQx, had a definite capacity for inhibiting the activity of ethoxyresorfin O-deethylase (CYP1As, especially CYP1A1). The present findings demonstrate that all the HCAs examined have the ability to activate hAhR and its target genes, and further confirm that these HCAs become good substrates for human CYP1A subfamily enzyme(s). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Lash, Lawrence H; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence forming the scientific bases for the IARC classification. Exposure to TCE from environmental sources (including hazardous waste sites and contaminated water) is common throughout the world. While workplace use of TCE has been declining, occupational exposures remain of concern, especially in developing countries. The strongest human evidence is from studies of occupational TCE exposure and kidney cancer. Positive, although less consistent, associations were reported for liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. TCE is carcinogenic at multiple sites in multiple species and strains of experimental animals. The mechanistic evidence includes extensive data on the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of TCE and its metabolites. Together, available evidence provided a cohesive database supporting the human cancer hazard of TCE, particularly in the kidney. For other target sites of carcinogenicity, mechanistic and other data were found to be more limited. Important sources of susceptibility to TCE toxicity and carcinogenicity were also reviewed by the Working Group. In all, consideration of the multiple evidence streams presented herein informed the IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenicity of TCE. © 2013.

  6. A comparative analysis of mycotoxin contamination of supermarket and premium brand pelleted dog food in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanil D; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2017-10-06

    Dry pelleted dog food in the South African market is available via supermarkets, pet stores (standard brands [SBs]) and veterinary channels (premium brands [PBs]). For the purpose of this study, the supermarket channel included the cheaper quality foods and PBs were sold via the veterinary channel (n = 20). These feeds were analysed for four main mycotoxins (aflatoxins [AF], fumonisin [FB], ochratoxin A [OTA] and zearalenone [ZEA]) using standard welldescribed extraction, characterisation and quantitation processes. Irrespective of the brand or marketing channel, all foods were contaminated with fungi (mainly Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus parasiticus) and mycotoxins (most prevalent being aflatoxins and fumonisins). This was observed in all 20 samples irrespective of the marketing channel or perceived quality. Also, many samples within each marketing channel failed the 10 ppb limit for aflatoxin set by regulations in South Africa. Although fumonisin was detected in all samples, a single sample failed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limit of 100 ppb. Both OTA and ZEA were found at low concentrations and were absent in some samples. This study suggested that higher priced dog food does not ensure superior quality or that it is free from contamination with fungi or mycotoxins. However, analysis of the more expensive PBs did reveal contamination concentrations lower than those of the SBs.

  7. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Cao, Q.; Zheng, Y.M.; Huang, Y.Z.; Zhu, Y.G.

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of food crops contaminated with heavy metals is a major food chain route for human exposure. We studied the health risks of heavy metals in contaminated food crops irrigated with wastewater. Results indicate that there is a substantial buildup of heavy metals in wastewater-irrigated soils, collected from Beijing, China. Heavy metal concentrations in plants grown in wastewater-irrigated soils were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.001) than in plants grown in the reference soil, and exceeded the permissible limits set by the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) in China and the World Health Organization (WHO). Furthermore, this study highlights that both adults and children consuming food crops grown in wastewater-irrigated soils ingest significant amount of the metals studied. However, health risk index values of less than 1 indicate a relative absence of health risks associated with the ingestion of contaminated vegetables. - Long-term wastewater irrigation leads to buildup of heavy metals in soils and food crops

  8. A comparative analysis of mycotoxin contamination of supermarket and premium brand pelleted dog food in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanil D. Singh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dry pelleted dog food in the South African market is available via supermarkets, pet stores (standard brands [SBs] and veterinary channels (premium brands [PBs]. For the purpose of this study, the supermarket channel included the cheaper quality foods and PBs were sold via the veterinary channel (n = 20. These feeds were analysed for four main mycotoxins (aflatoxins [AF], fumonisin [FB], ochratoxin A [OTA] and zearalenone [ZEA] using standard welldescribed extraction, characterisation and quantitation processes. Irrespective of the brand or marketing channel, all foods were contaminated with fungi (mainly Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus parasiticus and mycotoxins (most prevalent being aflatoxins and fumonisins. This was observed in all 20 samples irrespective of the marketing channel or perceived quality. Also, many samples within each marketing channel failed the 10 ppb limit for aflatoxin set by regulations in South Africa. Although fumonisin was detected in all samples, a single sample failed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA limit of 100 ppb. Both OTA and ZEA were found at low concentrations and were absent in some samples. This study suggested that higher priced dog food does not ensure superior quality or that it is free from contamination with fungi or mycotoxins. However, analysis of the more expensive PBs did reveal contamination concentrations lower than those of the SBs.

  9. [Study on rapid analysis method of pesticide contamination in processed foods by GC-MS and GC-FPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Otsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Sato, Chizuko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    A simple and rapid method using GC-MS and GC-FPD for the determination of pesticide contamination in processed food has been developed. Pesticides were extracted from a sample with ethyl acetate in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulfate, then cleaned up with a combination of mini-columns, such as macroporous diatomaceous earth, C18, GCB (graphite carbon black) and PSA. Recovery tests of 57 pesticides (known to be toxic or harmful) from ten kinds of processed foods (butter, cheese, corned beef, dried shrimp, frozen Chinese dumplings, grilled eels, instant noodles, kimchi, retort-packed curry and wine) were performed, and the recovery rates were mostly between 70% and 120%. This method can be used to judge whether or not processed foods are contaminated with pesticides at potentially harmful levels.

  10. Food Forensics: Using Mass Spectrometry To Detect Foodborne Protein Contaminants, as Exemplified by Shiga Toxin Variants and Prion Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Christopher J

    2018-06-13

    Food forensicists need a variety of tools to detect the many possible food contaminants. As a result of its analytical flexibility, mass spectrometry is one of those tools. Use of the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method expands its use to quantitation as well as detection of infectious proteins (prions) and protein toxins, such as Shiga toxins. The sample processing steps inactivate prions and Shiga toxins; the proteins are digested with proteases to yield peptides suitable for MRM-based analysis. Prions are detected by their distinct physicochemical properties and differential covalent modification. Shiga toxin analysis is based on detecting peptides derived from the five identical binding B subunits comprising the toxin. 15 N-labeled internal standards are prepared from cloned proteins. These examples illustrate the power of MRM, in that the same instrument can be used to safely detect and quantitate protein toxins, prions, and small molecules that might contaminate our food.

  11. Blood proteins as carcinogen dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, S.R.; Skipper, P.L.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of quantifying exposure to genotoxins in a given individual represents a formidable challenge. In this paper methods which rely on the covalent binding of carcinogens and their metabolites to blood proteins are described. That carcinogens interact with proteins as well as with DNA has been established, although whether protein-carcinogen adducts can result in genetic damage has not been established. It has been shown, however, that the amount of a protein carcinogen adduct formed may be used as a quantitative measure of exposure to a carcinogen. Such a measure presumably is reflective of the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of the compound in an exposed individual. Protein adduction may reflect exposure in a time-frame of weeks to months. Thus, protein adduct measurement is a form of human chemical dosimetry. Hemoglobin and albumin are promising candidates for such dosimeters. Hemoglobin has a lifetime of about 120 days in humans; thus, circulating levels of carcinogen-modified hemoglobin will reflect the level of carcinogen exposure during a period of nearly four months. It also possesses some metabolic competence, particularly, the ability to oxidize aromatic hydroxylamines to nitroso compounds which react quite efficiently with sulfhydryl groups. Albumin has a half-life of 20 to 25 days in man. This protein does not possess metabolic capacity other than, perhaps, some esterase activity. In contrast to hemoglobin, though, it is not protected by the erythrocyte membrane and might be the target for a greater number of carcinogens. It is present and is synthesized in the same cells in which the reactive metabolic intermediates of carcinogens are mostly formed - the hepatocytes. Also, albumin has a number of high-affinity binding sites for a broad spectrum of xenobiotics and endobiotics. 25 refs., 1 tab

  12. An Immunoassay for Quantification of Contamination by Raw Meat Juice on Food Contact Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-11-01

    Raw chicken products often are contaminated with Salmonella and Campylobacter , which can be transmitted from packages to contact surfaces. Raw meat juices from these packages also provide potential media for cross-contamination. There are limited quantitative data on the levels of consumer exposure to raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of chicken products. An exposure assessment is needed to quantify the levels of transmission and to assess the risk. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and validated for quantitative detection of raw meat juice on hands and various food contact surfaces. Analytical procedures were designed to maximize the recovery of raw meat juice from various surfaces: hands, plastic, wood, stainless steel, laminated countertops, glass, and ceramics. The ELISA was based on the detection of a soluble muscle protein, troponin I (TnI), in the raw meat juice. The assay can detect levels as low as 1.25 ng of TnI, which is equivalent to less than 1 μl of the raw meat juice. The concentrations of TnI in the raw meat juices from 10 retail chicken packages, as determined by ELISA, were between 0.46 and 3.56 ng/μl, with an average of 1.69 ng/μl. The analytical procedures, which include swabbing, extraction, and concentration, enable the detection of TnI from various surfaces. The recoveries of raw meat juice from surfaces of hands were 92%, and recoveries from other tested surfaces were from 55% on plastic cutting boards to 75% on laminated countertops. The ELISA developed has been used for monitoring the transfer of raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of raw chicken products in our studies. The assay also can be applied to other raw meat products, such as pork and beef.

  13. Carcinogenicity of soil extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbak, N P

    1970-01-01

    A total of 270 3-mo-old mice, hybrids of the C57BL and CBA strains which are highly susceptible to carcinogens, were painted on the skin (2-3 admin./week) with 3-4 drops of (1) a concentrated benzene extract of soil taken near a petroleum refinery with a 3,4 benzpyrene (BP) content of 0.22%; (2) a 0.22% soln of pure BP in benzene; (3) a concentrated benzene extract of soil taken from an old residential area of Moscow (BP content 0.0004%); (4) a 0.0004% BP soln in benzene; and (5) pure benzene. Only mice in the first 2 groups developed tumors. In group (1), 8 mice had papillomas, 46 had skin cancer, 1 had a sarcoma and 2 had plasmocytomas. In group (2) all 60 animals had skin cancer. Lung metastases were present at autopsy in 5 mice in group (1) and in 10 mice in group (2); in some cases, these tumors were multiple. Lymph node metastases were found in 6 mice in group (1) and in 10 mice in group (2). Tumors developed more slowly in group (1) than in group (2).

  14. Cat serum contamination by phthalates, PCBs, and PBDEs versus food and indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braouezec, Clélie; Enriquez, Brigitte; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc; Teil, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with semi-volatile properties are emitted to indoor air and, thus, humans might get exposed to these compounds. Pet cats spend the major part of their lifetime at home and might integrate indoor contamination so that they could mirror the human exposure. Three classes of EDCs, polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates (PAEs), were simultaneously considered and quantified in the serum of cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in the Paris area (France). The main compound concentrations by decreasing importance order were as follows: for PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (79,900 ng L(-1)) next di-iso-butyl phthalate (53,200 ng L(-1)), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (43,800 ng L(-1)), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (32,830 ng L(-1)); for PCBs, CB153 (1378 ng L(-1)) next CB52 (509 ng L(-1)), CB101 (355 ng L(-1)), CB110 (264 ng L(-1)), and CB118 (165 ng L(-1)); and for PBDEs, BDE 153/154 (35 ng L(-1)) next BDE47 (10.7 ng L(-1)). Total serum concentrations as mean ± standard deviation were 107 ± 98 μg L(-1) for ∑9PAEs, 2799 ± 944 ng L(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 56 ± 21 ng L(-1) for ∑9BDEs. The three chemical groups were found in cat food: 0.088 ng g(-1) for ∑9BDEs, 1.7 ng g(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 2292 ng g(-1) for ∑9PAEs and in indoor air: 0.063 ng m(-3) for ∑9BDEs, 1.5 ng m(-3) for ∑19PCBs, and 848 ng m(-3) for ∑9PAEs. Contaminant intake by food ingestion was approximately 100-fold higher than that by indoor air inhalation.

  15. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    acting as carcinogens) to health-protective effects (e.g., flavonoids ameliorating detrimental effects of mitochondrial oxidative stress). In particular, secondary plant metabolites along with vitamins, specific types of macronutrients and live bacteria (probiotics) as well as substances promoting.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines....... The supplements and contaminants can compete directly with drug oxidation, induce or suppress the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, change the bioavailability of drugs, and, in the case of live bacteria, bring in their own xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. In numerous...

  16. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehashi, Anna; Wei, Min; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P 450 inducers, such as phenobarbital, α-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate

  17. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakehashi, Anna; Wei, Min [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-Ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Shoji [Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2445 Hirasawa, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0015 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail: wani@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-Ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2013-10-28

    This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P{sub 450} inducers, such as phenobarbital, α-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.

  18. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Wanibuchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P450 inducers, such as phenobarbital, a-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.

  19. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Hung [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Pei-Hsin [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Pei-Jen, E-mail: chenpj@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-30

    Highlights: • We assess ecotoxicological impact of azole fungicides in the aquatic environment. • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic azoles show different CYP activities in medaka. • We compare azole-induced CYP expression and carcinogenesis between fish and rodents. • Liver CYP-enzyme induction is a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. • We suggest toxicity evaluation methods for azole fungicides using medaka fish. - Abstract: Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish

  20. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess ecotoxicological impact of azole fungicides in the aquatic environment. • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic azoles show different CYP activities in medaka. • We compare azole-induced CYP expression and carcinogenesis between fish and rodents. • Liver CYP-enzyme induction is a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. • We suggest toxicity evaluation methods for azole fungicides using medaka fish. - Abstract: Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish

  1. Performance of food safety management systems in poultry meat preparation processing plants in relation to Campylobacter spp. contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel A; Marcelis, Willem J; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the company's contextual factors, i.e., starting from raw materials (poultry carcasses) with possible high numbers and prevalence of pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., requires advanced core control and assurance activities in the FSMS to guarantee food safety. The level of the core FSMS activities differed between the companies, and this difference was reflected in overall microbial quality (mesophilic aerobic count), presence of hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), and contamination with pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. The food safety output expressed as a microbial safety profile was related to the variability in the prevalence and contamination levels of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations found in a Belgian nationwide study. Although a poultry meat processing company could have an advanced FSMS in place and a good microbial profile (i.e., lower prevalence of pathogens, lower microbial numbers, and less variability in microbial contamination), these positive factors might not guarantee pathogen-free products. Contamination could be attributed to the inability to apply effective interventions to reduce or eliminate pathogens in the production chain of (raw) poultry meat preparations.

  2. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, L.; Bradley, E.L.; Bas, R.C.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Driffield, M.; Harmer, N.; Castle, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The

  3. Heavy Metal Contamination of Foods by Refuse Dump Sites in Awka, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. C. Nduka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of heavy metals from refuse dumps on soil, food, and water qualities in Awka, Nigeria was studied. Soil samples (top and 1.35 m deep were collected from five refuse dumps digested with conc. HNO3 and HClO4. The heavy metals (lead, manganese, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, and nickel in vegetables (spinach, fluted pumpkin, root crop (cocoyam, and surface and ground water were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Chemical properties of the soil and bacteria were determined. Heavy metals were found to be more concentrated at a depth of 1.35 m. Manganese was high in shallow wells and borehole water samples with the highest levels as 0.538 and 0.325 mg/l, respectively. Nickel levels in the borehole sample ranged from 0.001 to 0.227 mg/l, whereas the highest level of lead was 0.01 mg/l. The Obibia stream had the highest levels of manganese and lead. Linear regression analyses showed that the relationship between soil heavy metals and farm produce heavy metals was strong. Taken together, we may conclude that the consumption of leafy vegetables and crops produced on contaminated soils may pose a health risk to those that reside around the refuse dumps.

  4. Recent Advances and Uses of Monolithic Columns for the Analysis of Residues and Contaminants in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Díaz-Bao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic columns are gaining interest as excellent substitutes to conventional particle-packed columns. These columns show higher permeability and lower flow resistance than conventional liquid chromatography columns, providing high-throughput performance, resolution and separation in short run times. Monoliths possess also great potential for the clean-up and preparation of complex mixtures. In situ polymerization inside appropriate supports allows the development of several microextraction formats, such as in-tube solid-phase and pipette tip-based extractions. These techniques using porous monoliths offer several advantages, including miniaturization and on-line coupling with analytical instruments. Additionally, monoliths are ideal support media for imprinting template-specific sites, resulting in the so-called molecularly-imprinted monoliths, with ultra-high selectivity. In this review, time-saving LC columns and preparative applications applied to the analysis of residues and contaminants in food in 2010–2014 are described, focusing on recent improvements in design and with emphasis in automated on-line systems and innovative materials and formats.

  5. Variations with age in the adrenocortical responses of Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) consuming petroleum-contaminated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsline, J.; Holmes, W.N.

    1982-01-01

    Mallard ducks were fed ad libitum a diet containing 3 ml South Louisiana crude oil per 100 gm dry food. Plasma samples were analyzed for corticosterone by radioimmunoassay and hepatic mixed function oxidase activity was determined in microsomal fractions from liver homogenates. Results show that birds in each age group, whether consuming either uncontaminated or contaminated food, showed no significant changes in body weight during the ten-day experimental period. Also, no significant differences were detected between the rates of food consumption by birds in the various age groups. The similar levels of total hepatic mixed function oxidase activity induced by the similar volumes of crude oil consumed by the individuals in each age class strongly suggests that the declines inplasma corticosterone concentration occurred in response to similar levels of systemic contamination. Since the decreases were larger in the younger birds than in the older birds, age seems to have been an important factor determining the degree of hypoadrenocorticalism developed following their exposure to contaminated food

  6. Microbial Contamination of the Food Materials for Manufacturing Korean Laver Roll (Kimbab) and the Effect of Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.P.; Kim, Y.H.; Lee, N.Y.; Jo, C.U.; Byun, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Microbial contamination of ready-to-eat ingredients for Kimbab manufacturing and the effect of irradiation to reduce the microbial contamination of the products were investigated. Among 9 food items tested, there were no viable cells in the ham, seasoned and cooked beef, imitation crab leg, fried egg, and seasoned burdoc. Cucumber, surimi gel, and seasoned and blanched spinach were counted at 5.07±0.97, 3.50±0.14, and 5.41±0.51 log CFU/g, respectively

  7. Advances in molecular and genomic research to safeguard food and feed supply from aflatoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide recognition that aflatoxin contamination of agricultural commodities by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is a global problem which has significantly benefitted from global collaboration for understanding the contaminating fungus as well as for developing and implementing solutions against the...

  8. Prevalence and evaluation strategies for viral contamination in food products: Risk to human health-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Cho, Hyunjeong; Kwon, O Jun; Chung, Soo Hyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2018-02-11

    Nowadays, viruses of foodborne origin such as norovirus and hepatitis A are considered major causes of foodborne gastrointestinal illness with widespread distribution worldwide. A number of foodborne outbreaks associated with food products of animal and non-animal origins, which often involve multiple cases of variety of food streams, have been reported. Although several viruses, including rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, parvovirus, and other enteroviruses, significantly contribute to incidence of gastrointestinal diseases, systematic information on the role of food in transmitting such viruses is limited. Most of the outbreak cases caused by infected food handlers were the source of 53% of total outbreaks. Therefore, prevention and hygiene measures to reduce the frequency of foodborne virus outbreaks should focus on food workers and production site of food products. Pivotal strategies, such as proper investigation, surveillance, and reports on foodborne viral illnesses, are needed in order to develop more accurate measures to detect the presence and pathogenesis of viral infection with detailed descriptions. Moreover, molecular epidemiology and surveillance of food samples may help analysis of public health hazards associated with exposure to foodborne viruses. In this present review, we discuss different aspects of foodborne viral contamination and its impact on human health. This review also aims to improve understanding of foodborne viral infections as major causes of human illness as well as provide descriptions of their control and prevention strategies and rapid detection by advanced molecular techniques. Further, a brief description of methods available for the detection of viruses in food and related matrices is provided.

  9. A novel approach for the detection of potentially hazardous pepsin stable hazelnut proteins as contaminants in chocolate-based food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C; Stephan, Oliver; Hefle, Susan L; Aalberse, Rob C; van Ree, Ronald

    2004-12-15

    Contamination of food products with pepsin resistant allergens is generally believed to be a serious threat to patients with severe food allergy. A sandwich type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure pepsin resistant hazelnut protein in food products. Capturing and detecting rabbit antibodies were raised against pepsin-digested hazelnut and untreated hazelnut protein, respectively. The assay showed a detection limit of 0.7 ng/mL hazelnut protein or food matrix and a maximum of 0.034% cross-reactivity (peanut). Chocolate samples spiked with 0.5-100 microg hazelnut/g chocolate showed a mean recovery of 97.3%. In 9/12 food products labeled "may contain nuts", hazelnut was detected between 1.2 and 417 microg hazelnut/g food. It can be concluded that the application of antibodies directed to pepsin-digested food extracts in ELISA can facilitate specific detection of stable proteins that have the highest potential of inducing severe food anaphylaxis.

  10. Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains — How biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents...... are outlined. Given the current scale of international trade any response need to be considered in an international context. Biotraceability (e.g the ability to use downstream information to point to processes or within a particular food chain that can be identified as the source of undesirable agents......) is crucial in any food-born outbreak and particular in the response to bioterrorism events. In the later case, tested and proven biotraceability improves the following; (i) international collaboration of validated tracing tools and detection methods, (ii) multi-disciplinary expertise and collaboration...

  11. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on acrylamide in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on acrylamide (AA) in food. AA has widespread uses as an industrial chemical. It is also formed when certain foods are prepared at temperatures above 120 °C and low moisture, especially in foods containing asparagine and reducing sugars. The CONTAM...... Panel evaluated 43 419 analytical results from food commodities. AA was found at the highest levels in solid coffee substitutes and coffee, and in potato fried products. Mean and 95th percentile dietary AA exposures across surveys and age groups were estimated at 0.4 to 1.9 µg/kg body weight (b.w.) per...

  12. SUDOQU: a new dose model to derive criteria for surface contamination of non-food (consumer) goods, containers and conveyances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dillen, Teun

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident (Japan, 11 March 2011) revealed the need for well-founded criteria for surface contamination and associated screening levels related to the import of non-food (consumer) goods, containers and conveyances. The only available European-harmonised criteria are those laid down in the IAEA transport regulations, but these criteria date back from the early 1960's and only apply to the safe transport of radioactive materials. The main problem is that a generic dose-assessment model for consumer products is missing. Therefore, RIVM (National Institute for Public Health and the Environment) developed a new methodology entitled SUDOQU (Surface Dose Quantification) to calculate the annual effective dose for both consumers and non-radiological workers, addressing issues of removability of surface contamination. The methodology can be used to derive criteria and screening levels for surface contamination and could serve as a useful tool for policy-makers and radiation-protection specialists. (authors)

  13. Carcinogenicity of methyl-tertiary butyl ether in gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlman, Myron A

    2002-12-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was added to gasoline on a nationwide scale in 1992 without prior testing of adverse, toxic, or carcinogenic effects. Since that time, numerous reports have appeared describing adverse health effects of individuals exposed to MTBE, both from inhalation of fumes in the workplace and while pumping gasoline. Leakage of MTBE, a highly water-soluble compound, from underground storage tanks has led to contamination of the water supply in many areas of the United States. Legislation has been passed by many states to prohibit the addition of MTBE to gasoline. The addition of MTBE to gasoline has not accomplished its stated goal of decreasing air pollution, and it has posed serious health risks to a large portion of the population, particularly the elderly and those with respiratory problems, asthma, and skin sensitivity. Reports of animal studies of carcinogenicity of MTBE began to appear in the 1990s, prior to the widespread introduction of MTBE into gasoline. These reports were largely ignored. In ensuing years, further studies have shown that MTBE causes various types of malignant tumors in mice and rats. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors' Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee met in December 1998 to consider listing MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." In spite of recommendations from Dr. Bailer, the primary reviewer, and other scientists on the committee, the motion to list MTBE in the report was defeated by a six to five vote, with one abstention. On the basis of animal studies, it is widely accepted that if a chemical is carcinogenic in appropriate laboratory animal test systems, it must be treated as though it were carcinogenic in humans. In the face of compelling evidence, NTP Committee members who voted not to list MTBE as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" did a disservice to the general public; this action may cause needless exposure of many to health risks

  14. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on risks for public health related to the presence of chlorate in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Following a request from the European Commission, the risks to human health related to the presence of chlorate in food were assessed by the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel). The presence of chlorate in food can arise from the use of chlorinated water for food processing...... and the disinfection of food-processing equipment. Inhibition of iodine uptake in humans was identified as the critical effect for chronic exposure to chlorate. A tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 3 µg chlorate/kg body weight (b.w.) was set by read-across from a TDI of 0.3 µg/kg b.w. derived for this effect...... with mild or moderate iodine deficiency. Mean and 95th percentile acute exposures were below the ARfD for all age groups indicating no concern. Based on the current practices in food industry, application of a hypothetical maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.7 mg/kg for all foodstuffs and drinking water would...

  15. Investigation on the level and movement of Mercury contaminants around storage areas and food processing factories in Hassahesa town, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, Nawal Ahmed Mohamed

    1999-11-01

    A total of 62 surface soil samples were taken from various sites in Hassahesa town and analyzed for total mercury level using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Sites were chosen to represent the soil of pesticide store, food processing factories (involved in using contaminated seeds as fuel), near stock of redundant cotton seeds and neighbouring cotton fields. Control soils were sampled from similar soil type south Hassahesa town. The results indicated an elevated mercury level in all samples analyzed far exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soil. The highest level of contamination was found in soil of the pesticide store (51ppm), followed by the tow food factories (24 ppm and 19 ppm). Horizontal movement of mercury contaminants at various rates from foci of area selected was noticed, wind direction and/ or topography apparently had some role in this movement. The level of total mercury in the control soil was exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soils reported from other places. Various aspects of levels of mercury contamination, their movements, transportation and toxicological impacts on various forms of life were discussed.(Author)

  16. Investigation on the level and movement of mercury contaminants around storage areas and food processing factories in Hassahesa town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, Nawal Ahmed Mohamed

    1999-11-01

    A total of 62 surface soil samples were taken from various sites in Hassahesa town and analyzed for total mercury level using x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Sites were chosen to represent the soil of pesticide store, food processing factories (involved in using contaminated seeds as fuel), nera stock of redundant cotton seeds and neighbouring cotton fields. Control soils were sampled from similar soil type south Hassahesa town. The results indicated an elevated mercury level in all samples analyzed far exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soil. The highest level of contamination was found in soil of pesticide store (51 ppm), followed by the two food factories (24 ppm and 19 ppm). Horizontal movement of mercury contaminants at various rates from foci of areas selected was noticed, wind direction and/or topography apparently had some role in this movement. The level of total mercury in the control soil was exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soils reported from other places. Various aspects of levels of mercury contamination, their movements, transportation and toxicological impacts on various forms of life were discussed. (Author)

  17. Implementation in laboratories of Latin America of procedures of harmonized essay for the determination of the radioactive contamination of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez G, I.M.; Iglicki, F.A.; Aguirre G, J.; Melo F, A.C. de; Tomicic M, I.J.; Loria M, L.G.; Diodati, J.M.; Vasquez B, L.R.; Alarcon S, F.A.; Civil, M.; Naut M, B.C.; Odino M, M.R.; Flores M, Y.R.; Rossbach, M.

    2006-01-01

    In Latin America, nowadays, it is not had harmonized essay procedures for the determination of radioactive contaminants in foods. Equally, the great diversity of institutions that in each country are devoted to carry out this control and the difference in the level that its possess the same ones in quality matter, its impose the necessity to implant a Quality Management System on the base of harmonized technical criteria that its help to obtain reliable analytical results. With this end, it was proposed and it was approved the ARCAL LXXIX regional project: 'Harmonization of the technical and specific requirements of quality for the control of the radioactive contamination of foods'. In this work the aspects more significant of the design and content of the Manual of technical procedures for the determination of radioactive contaminants in foods, elaborated in the marks of the one referred project are presented. The same one includes eight procedures for the previous treatment of the samples, the spectrometric determination of gamma emitters radionuclides, the determination of the alpha activity indexes and total beta, of 131 I, 89,90 Sr, 226 Ra, 238, 239 Pu and 3 H, using different methodologies validated in the region. The actions carried out to implement this Manual are also exposed. (Author)

  18. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer as an Antibody Substitution in Pseudo-immunoassays for Chemical Contaminants in Food and Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaochao; Luo, Jiaxun; Li, Chenglong; Ma, Mingfang; Yu, Wenbo; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhanhui

    2018-03-21

    The chemical contaminants in food and the environment are quite harmful to food safety and human health. Rapid, accurate, and cheap detection can effectively control the potential risks derived from these chemical contaminants. Among all detection methods, the immunoassay based on the specific interaction of antibody-analyte is one of the most widely used techniques in the field. However, biological antibodies employed in the immunoassay usually cannot tolerate extreme conditions, resulting in an unstable state in both physical and chemical profiles. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are a class of polymers with specific molecular recognition abilities, which are highly robust, showing excellent operational stability under a wide variety of conditions. Recently, MIPs have been used in biomimetic immunoassays for chemical contaminants as an antibody substitute in food and the environment. Here, we reviewed these applications of MIPs incorporated in different analytical platforms, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluorescent immunoassay, chemiluminescent immunoassay, electrochemical immunoassay, microfluidic paper-based immunoassay, and homogeneous immunoassay, and discussed current challenges and future trends in the use of MIPs in biomimetic immunoassays.

  19. CASCADE - Chemicals as contaminants in the food chain. A network of excellence for research, risk assessment, and education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeberg, M.; Haakansson, H. [Karolinska Institutet, Insitute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Pongratz, I.; Gustavsson, J.Aa. [Karolinska Institutet, Dept. of Biosciences, Huddinge (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Harmful effects of chemical contaminants in food are of major health concern in Europe today. Lack of integration between basic research, risk assessment, and education severely hampers the efforts to reach European excellence in this area. The research activities that are carried out are small in scale and are not well integrated into a coherent structure. To tackle the fragmentation problems and to achieve synergistic effects and full European research potential, the European Commission has initiated a Network of Excellence called CASCADE or ''Chemicals as contaminants in the food chain: a network of excellence for research, risk assessment, and education'' The contract is running for five years and is worth over 14 million with partners from eighteen research centres. The network has the potential and goal to be a world force in knowledge on health issues related to chemical contaminants in food. Focus is on chemical residues that act via and/or interfere with cell regulation at the level of nuclear receptors. The risk assessment integration parts of the network aim to increase the awareness among scientists and others of the need to bring multiple aspects of scientific information into use in risk assessment.

  20. Former food products safety: microbiological quality and computer vision evaluation of packaging remnants contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretola, M; Di Rosa, A R; Tirloni, E; Ottoboni, M; Giromini, C; Leone, F; Bernardi, C E M; Dell'Orto, V; Chiofalo, V; Pinotti, L

    2017-08-01

    The use of alternative feed ingredients in farm animal's diets can be an interesting choice from several standpoints, including safety. In this respect, this study investigated the safety features of selected former food products (FFPs) intended for animal nutrition produced in the framework of the IZS PLV 06/14 RC project by an FFP processing plant. Six FFP samples, both mash and pelleted, were analysed for the enumeration of total viable count (TVC) (ISO 4833), Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528-1), Escherichia coli (ISO 16649-1), coagulase-positive Staphylococci (CPS) (ISO 6888), presumptive Bacillus cereus and its spores (ISO 7932), sulphite-reducing Clostridia (ISO 7937), yeasts and moulds (ISO 21527-1), and the presence in 25 g of Salmonella spp. (ISO 6579). On the same samples, the presence of undesired ingredients, which can be identified as remnants of packaging materials, was evaluated by two different methods: stereomicroscopy according to published methods; and stereomicroscopy coupled with a computer vision system (IRIS Visual Analyzer VA400). All FFPs analysed were safe from a microbiological point of view. TVC was limited and Salmonella was always absent. When remnants of packaging materials were considered, the contamination level was below 0.08% (w/w). Of note, packaging remnants were found mainly from the 1-mm sieve mesh fractions. Finally, the innovative computer vision system demonstrated the possibility of rapid detection for the presence of packaging remnants in FFPs when combined with a stereomicroscope. In conclusion, the FFPs analysed in the present study can be considered safe, even though some improvements in FFP processing in the feeding plant can be useful in further reducing their microbial loads and impurity.

  1. Contamination of food with residues of antibiotics in the sulphonamide class, risk can be avoided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lidia Chitescu,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfaquinoxaline and sulfadiazine are the most common usedsulfonamides in veterinary practice. The recommended withdrawal periods if not observed before slaughteringof the medicated animals, the products may obtain from such animals may be contaminated with residue. Theinterest in having reliable methods able to detect low amounts of sulfonamides in food is very actual. In thisstudy, a multiresidue analysis was performed to simultaneously determine those four sulfonamides in chickenmuscle tissue by the Waters LC.Criteria of validation: specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and linearity,according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, show that the method can detect differentkinds of sulfonamides within one run, without mass spectrometry analyses, or Fluor metric derivatization ofanalyts.The method is accurate, simple, economical in both time and cost, capable of detecting sulfonamidesresidues below the maximum residue limits (MRL and easy to perform to routine samples, in normal conditionof laboratory.The sulfonamides were extracted with acetonitrile and acetone and dichloromethane. N-hexane wasadded for defeating the sample. Separation was carried out on a Zorbax SB- C18 analytical column, using asmobile phase a mixture of 75:25 = di-natrium-hydrogenphosphat solution 6 g/1000 ml (pH = 8.5 : methanol.The detection wavelength was set at: 254 nm Calibration graphs were linear with very good correlationcoefficients in the concentration range from 0.320 to 1.5μg /mL. The limits of quantification (LOQ for thesulfonamides were in the range of 6.6–0.34 μg /kg. The recovery for spiked chicken muscle with 50–150 μg/kg ranged more than 70%. The relative standard deviation (Reds of the sulfonamides for six measurementsat 50 go/kg, 100 μg /kg and 150 μg /kg was less then 15%.The applicability of the method to the analysis of chicken muscle tissue was

  2. Land management of bracken needs to account for bracken carcinogens - a case study from Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Donnelly, Eric; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    with ptaquiloside may be the cause. The aim of this study was to monitor the content of ptaquiloside in 20 bracken stands from Britain to obtain a better understanding of the ptaquiloside dynamics and to evaluate the environmental implications of using different cutting regimes in bracken management...... in bracken stands at any given time is difficult to predict and did not show any correlations with edaphic growth factors. The content of ptaquiloside turned out to be higher in fronds emerging after cutting compared to uncut fronds. Environmental risk assessment and bracken management must therefore......Bracken ferns are some of the most widespread ferns in the World causing immense problems for land managers, foresters and rangers. Bracken is suspected of causing cancer in Humans due to its content of the carcinogen ptaquiloside. Ingestion of bracken, or food and drinking water contaminated...

  3. Trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) within an Arctic marine food web from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; O'Hara, T.M.; Fisk, A.T.; Borgaa, K.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    The trophic status and biomagnification of persistent OCs within the near-shore Beaufort-Chukchi Seas food web from Barrow, AK is discussed. - Stable isotope values (δ 13 C, δ 15 N) and concentrations of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) were determined to evaluate the near-shore marine trophic status of biota and biomagnification of OCs from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas (1999-2000) near Barrow, AK. The biota examined included zooplankton (Calanus spp.), fish species such as arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), and fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), along with marine mammals, including bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus), beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). The isotopically derived trophic position of biota from the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas marine food web, avian fauna excluded, is similar to other coastal food webs in the Arctic. Concentrations of OCs in marine mammals were significantly greater than in fish and corresponded with determined trophic level. In general, OCs with the greatest food web magnification factors (FWMFs) were those either formed due to biotransformation (e.g. p,p'-DDE, oxychlordane) or considered recalcitrant (e.g. β-HCH, 2,4,5-Cl substituted PCBs) in most biota, whereas concentrations of OCs that are considered to be readily eliminated (e.g. γ-HCH) did not correlate with trophic level. Differences in physical-chemical properties of OCs, feeding strategy and possible biotransformation were reflected in the variable biomagnification between fish and marine mammals. The FWMFs in the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas region were consistent with reported values in the Canadian Arctic and temperate food webs, but were statistically different than FWMFs from the Barents and White Seas, indicating that the spatial variability of OC contamination in top-level marine Arctic predators is

  4. Estimation of Microbial Contamination of Food from Prevalence and Concentration Data: Application to Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Vegetables▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépet, Amélie; Albert, Isabelle; Dervin, Catherine; Carlin, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    A normal distribution and a mixture model of two normal distributions in a Bayesian approach using prevalence and concentration data were used to establish the distribution of contamination of the food-borne pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes in unprocessed and minimally processed fresh vegetables. A total of 165 prevalence studies, including 15 studies with concentration data, were taken from the scientific literature and from technical reports and used for statistical analysis. The predicted mean of the normal distribution of the logarithms of viable L. monocytogenes per gram of fresh vegetables was −2.63 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g, and its standard deviation was 1.48 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g. These values were determined by considering one contaminated sample in prevalence studies in which samples are in fact negative. This deliberate overestimation is necessary to complete calculations. With the mixture model, the predicted mean of the distribution of the logarithm of viable L. monocytogenes per gram of fresh vegetables was −3.38 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g and its standard deviation was 1.46 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g. The probabilities of fresh unprocessed and minimally processed vegetables being contaminated with concentrations higher than 1, 2, and 3 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g were 1.44, 0.63, and 0.17%, respectively. Introducing a sensitivity rate of 80 or 95% in the mixture model had a small effect on the estimation of the contamination. In contrast, introducing a low sensitivity rate (40%) resulted in marked differences, especially for high percentiles. There was a significantly lower estimation of contamination in the papers and reports of 2000 to 2005 than in those of 1988 to 1999 and a lower estimation of contamination of leafy salads than that of sprouts and other vegetables. The interest of the mixture model for the estimation of microbial contamination is discussed. PMID

  5. Deconjugation of N-glucuronide conjugated metabolites with hydrazine hydrate - Biomarkers for exposure to the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2007-01-01

    The metabolism of the carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) has been investigated in rabbit liver S9. Two phase I metabolites, N-2-OH-PhIP and 4'-OH-PhIP were identified based on UV and mass spectra and co-elution with reference standards. Fortification of the incubation...

  6. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol.II (Working papers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. Two volumes were produced; one a collection of all papers presented, and the other a compilation of the proceedings from each of the topic workshops. In order to rapidly distribute the Association's information to members, papers and other information were collated and disseminated as presented to the conference participants

  7. EURANOS. Generic handbook for assisting in the management of contaminated food production systems in Europe following a radiological emergency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Howard, B.J.; Jones, A.

    production sectors and others who may be affected. The handbook is a living document that requires updating from time to time to remain state-of-the-art and customisation of the generic handbook is an essential part of its use within individual countries. The handbook includes management options......The handbook for food production systems has been developed as a result of a series of UK and European initiatives involving a wide range of stakeholders. It is aimed at national and local authorities, central government departments and agencies, radiation protection experts, agriculture and food...... for application in the pre-release, emergency and longer term phases of an incident. Sources of contamination considered in the handbook are nuclear accidents, radiological dispersion devices and satellite accidents. Agricultural and domestic food production systems are considered, including the gathering of free...

  8. Report on international round table conference 'Accidental radiation contamination of food of animal origin'. Vol.II (Working papers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    The World Association of Veterinary Food Hygienists (WAVFH) held an international round table conference in Stockholm, Sweden, January 26-29, 1987. The topic of the conference was 'Accidental Radiation Contamination of Food of Animal Origin'. The agenda was divided into three major topic areas: 1. Ecological Science; 2. Veterinary Science - Live Animals; and 3. Veterinary Science - Food of Animal Origin. Experts and delegates from member countries presented papers, participated in discussions and workshops and produced a multidisciplinary report covering the topic areas. Two volumes were produced; one a collection of all papers presented, and the other a compilation of the proceedings from each of the topic workshops. In order to rapidly distribute the Association's information to members, papers and other information were collated and disseminated as presented to the conference participants.

  9. Evaluation of the Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filter for the Enumeration of Moulds and Yeasts in Naturally-Contaminated Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Tournas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 240 food samples from six food groups (tree nuts, grains and grain products, dried fruits, fresh produce, fruit juice, and dairy products were tested for levels of fungal contamination using the NEO-GRID hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF and the FDA official (BAM method. Results showed that HGMF performed very well for all tested commodities giving yeast and mould (YM counts similar to those of the BAM (reference method. Statistical analysis of the data (t-test revealed no significant differences between the two methods for all foods tested. Regression analysis showed that there was a good fit linear relationship between the two methods for most of the commodities examined. Some difficulties were encountered during counting of the colonies on HGMF since the size of the grid is very small and the number of possible colonies per plate can reach 1600.

  10. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulier, Leon; Bradley, Emma L; Bas, Richard C; Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Driffield, Malcolm; Harmer, Nick; Castle, Laurence

    2010-04-28

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The significant decay of BADGE was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of foodstuffs, that is, tuna, apple puree, and beer, spiked with BADGE before processing and storage. Life-science inspired analytical approaches were successfully applied to study the reactions of BADGE with food ingredients, for example, amino acids and sugars. An improved mass balance of BADGE was achieved by selective detection of reaction products of BADGE with low molecular weight food components, using a successful combination of stable isotopes of BADGE and analysis by LC coupled to fluorescence detection (FLD) and high-resolution mass spectrometric (MS) detection. Furthermore, proteomics approaches showed that BADGE also reacts with peptides (from protein digests in model systems) and with proteins in foods. The predominant reaction center for amino acids, peptides, and proteins was cysteine.

  11. Contaminants in Foods of Animal Origin in Cameroon: A One Health Vision for Risk Management "from Farm to Fork".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouokam, Guy B; Foudjo, B U Saha; Samuel, Chi; Yamgai, Philomina Fankam; Silapeux, A Kamda; Sando, Joel Taguemkam; Atonde, G Fankam; Frazzoli, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Foods of animal origin represent an important share in the diet of Cameroonian populations. Cameroon is known to be a food basket in the west and central Africa sub-region, and an important supplier of foods on the international markets. In the meantime, food importation is continuously increasing to meet the high demand of a more westernized segment of the population. Cereals, fish, sea products, eggs, honey, shrimps, chicken, and feed ingredients are important share in the international trade of agricultural products. Few controls are made on the quality and safety of these products. Certain safety standards do exist but are still yet to be enforced. Inspections done so far by regulatory authorities are partial and do not cover important hazards that require laboratory analysis. The increasing awareness of population, the burden of new types of disease, as well as the recurrence of food scandals have recently launched a scientific and population debate on the contribution of foods items, especially those of animal origin, to the toxic exposure of food producing animals and humans. This paper critically reviews the occurrence of toxicants in most consumed foods of animal origin in Cameroon. This study included the most consumed food of animal origin, identified during the national household budget survey and contributing to 8.1% of the total diet of an individual. Data evaluated suggest an important contamination by toxic metals, mycotoxins, veterinary drugs' residues, and pesticides. The current national legal framework is briefly analyzed to explore possible intervention measures in the frame of the One Health approach.

  12. Pooling raw shell eggs: Salmonella contamination and high risk practices in the United Kingdom food service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, F J; Little, C L; Murphy, N; de Pinna, E; McLauchlin, J

    2010-03-01

    Salmonella contamination of pooled raw shelled egg mix (RSEM) used as an ingredient in lightly cooked or uncooked foods and high-risk kitchen hygiene practices in United Kingdom food service establishments using RSEM were investigated. Samples were collected from 934 premises. Salmonella was found in 1 (0.13%) of 764 RSEM samples, 2 (0.3%) of 726 samples from surfaces where ready-to-eat foods were prepared, and 7 (1.3%) of 550 cleaning cloths. Poor RSEM storage and handling practices were highlighted. Workers in 40% of the premises sampled failed to use designated utensils when RSEM was added to other ingredients, workers in 17% of the premises did not clean surfaces and utensils thoroughly after use with RSEM and before preparing other foods, only 42% of workers washed and dried their hands after handling eggs or RSEM, workers in 41% of the premises did not store RSEM at refrigeration temperature before use, and workers in 8% of the premises added RSEM to cooked rice at the end of cooking when preparing egg fried rice. Take-away premises, especially those serving Chinese cuisine, were least likely to have a documented food safety management system and awareness of the key food safety points concerning the use of RSEM compared with other food service premises (P < 0.0001). Food service businesses using RSEM must be aware of the continuing hazard from Salmonella, must adopt appropriate control measures, and must follow advice provided by national food agencies to reduce the risk of Salmonella infection.

  13. Fungal dissemination by housefly (Musca domestica L.) and contamination of food commodities in rural areas of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoku, J Z; Barnard, T G; Potgieter, N; Dutton, M F

    2016-01-18

    Several insects that act as vectors, including houseflies (Musca domestica L.), are often considered to be an important source of fungal contamination in human foods. Houseflies are also involved in the transmission of bacterial pathogens that may pose a serious hazard to human health. Thus, the rural population of South Africa, as typified by that in the Gauteng Province investigated in this study, is at high risk from fungal exposure disseminated by houseflies and it is therefore important to assess the role of flies in contaminating various food commodities. Eighty four samples of houseflies (captured from households and pit toilets) were studied for their potential to carry fungal spores into food commodities. The fungi occurring in samples of raw maize (15) and porridge (19) were also assessed. Fungal isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics by conventional identification methods. Fifteen genera of fungi were isolated and identified, of which Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Moniliella and Mucor were the most prevalent in all three sample types analysed. The incidence rates of fungal contamination per total fungal count isolated in houseflies, maize and porridge were recorded with mean fungal load of 2×10(8) CFU/ml, 1×10(7)CFU/g and 2×10(7)CFU/g respectively. Additionally, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, P. verrucosum, P. aurantiogriseum and M. suaveolens were the most frequent fungal isolates in houseflies with incidence rate of 34%, 11%, 27%, 21%, 22%, 17% and 32% respectively. F. verticillioides, A. flavus, A. niger and P. oslonii were the most prevalent species contaminating porridge and maize with incidence rate of 23%, 32%, 16% and 28% in maize samples, while incidence rates of 59%, 15% and 29% were recorded in porridge samples with the exception of F. verticillioides. The prevalence of these genera of fungi may pose serious health risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Food poisoning. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askar, A.; Treptow, H.

    1982-01-15

    In the present study information about food poisoning is compared and reviewed. From the viewpoint of a food technologist the toxic substances are represented in four sections: 1. Residues of substances used by plants and animals: pesticides, antibiotics, sexual hormones and psychopharmaces. 2. Environmental contaminants: heavy metals, radionuclides and polycyclic hydrocarbons. 3. Substances developing during the manufacture: food additives, asbest, parts of packing materials, and residual solvents. 4. Substances arising from processing: smoked and roasted food, non enzymatic reaction, oxidized and heated fats and irradiated foods. The mere presence of toxic substances does not make food unsafe or poisonous. Dangerous, because of their toxic or carcinogenic effects are: Pesticides (especially chlorinated organic pesticides), heavy metals (especially lead, mercury and cadmium), polycyclic hydrocarbons (3,4-benzpyren), nitrosamines and vinyl chloride. The other components are only dangerous if they are present in large ammounts. A good and responsible practise of agriculture and food manufacture processes, a watchful and competent official food control and well informed consumers can limit the danger of food poisoning and human health.

  15. [Serial Food Poisoning Outbreaks Caused by Norovirus-Contaminated Shredded Dried Laver Seaweed Provided at School Lunch, Tokyo, 2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somura, Yoshiko; Kimoto, Kana; Oda, Mayuko; Okutsu, Yuta; Kato, Rei; Suzuki, Yasunori; Siki, Dai; Hirai, Akihiko; Akiba, Tetsuya; Shinkai, Takayuki; Sadamasu, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    In February 2017, four food poisoning outbreaks occurred in Tokyo, involving ten schools. Shredded dried laver seaweed processed by a single food manufacturer in December 2016 was provided in common for the school meals that caused all four outbreaks. Of 4,209 persons exposed, 1,193 (28.3%) had symptoms of gastroenteritis. Norovirus (NoV) GII was detected in 207 (78.1%) of 265 cases by real-time RT-PCR. Thirty-one shredded dried laver seaweed samples were examined and seven (22.6%) of them were positive for NoV GII. PCR fragments of NoV ORF1/2 junction region (302 bp) from seven shredded dried laver seaweed samples and 20 clinical samples derived from the four outbreaks were sequenced. All of them displayed complete homology, and the genotype was classified as GII.17. A nearly full-length sequence (7,420 bp) of NoV RNA derived from a case was obtained by next-generation sequencer analysis and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to the same cluster as Hu/GII/JP/2015/GII.P17_GII.17/Kawasaki308. Thus, our investigation elucidated that the causative agent of these four serial food poisoning outbreaks was NoV GII.17 and the infectious source was a single batch of shredded dried laver seaweed. The water activity of the shredded dried laver seaweed was found to be 0.119 to 0.129. It was epidemiologically clarified that NoV does not lose infectivity for about two months even in the dry state. We conclude that a large diffuse outbreak of food poisoning caused by NoV GII.17 contamination of shredded dried laver seaweed had occurred in Tokyo. Our elucidation of the causative agent indicated that the food poisoning outbreaks in multiple areas of Japan, including Tokyo, during January to February 2017 were caused by the same contaminated food.

  16. What Are We Putting in Our Food That Is Making Us Fat? Food Additives, Contaminants, and Other Putative Contributors to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amber L.; Schlezinger, Jennifer J.; Corkey, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    The “chemical obesogen” hypothesis conjectures that synthetic, environmental contaminants are contributing to the global epidemic of obesity. In fact, intentional food additives (e.g., artificial sweeteners and colors, emulsifiers) and unintentional compounds (e.g., bisphenol A, pesticides) are largely unstudied in regard to their effects on overall metabolic homeostasis. With that said, many of these contaminants have been found to dysregulate endocrine function, insulin signaling, and/or adipocyte function. Although momentum for the chemical obesogen hypothesis is growing, supportive, evidence-based research is lacking. In order to identify noxious synthetic compounds in the environment out of the thousands of chemicals that are currently in use, tools and models from toxicology should be adopted (e.g., functional high throughput screening methods, zebrafish-based assays). Finally, mechanistic insight into obesogen-induced effects will be helpful in elucidating their role in the obesity epidemic as well as preventing and reversing their effects. PMID:25045594

  17. Does temporal variation of mercury levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in global environmental contamination, or a modification of Arctic marine food web functioning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, Jérôme; Grémillet, David; Traisnel, Gwendoline; Amélineau, Françoise; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-01-01

    Studying long-term trends of contaminants in Arctic biota is essential to better understand impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of sensitive species and marine ecosystems. We concurrently measured temporal changes (2006–2014) in mercury (Hg) contamination of little auks (Alle alle; the most abundant Arctic seabird) and in their major zooplankton prey species (Calanoid copepods, Themisto libellula, Gammarus spp.). We found an increasing contamination of the food-chain in East Greenland during summer over the last decade. More specifically, bird contamination (determined by body feather analyses) has increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Conversely, bird exposure to Hg during winter in the northwest Atlantic (determined by head feather analyses) decreased over the study period (at a rate of 1.5% per year), although winter concentrations remained consistently higher than during summer. By combining mercury levels measured in birds and zooplankton to isotopic analyses, our results demonstrate that inter-annual variations of Hg levels in little auks reflect changes in food-chain contamination, rather than a reorganization of the food web and a modification of seabird trophic ecology. They therefore underline the value of little auks, and Arctic seabirds in general, as bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination. - Highlights: • We examined temporal trends of Hg in Arctic seabirds and major zooplankton species. • We investigated the role of underlying ecological drivers in seabird contamination. • Hg contamination of the East Greenland marine food web increased over the last decade. • Hg levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in the food-chain contamination. • Little auks are bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination. - Temporal increase of seabird exposure to Hg reflects changes in Arctic environmental contamination.

  18. Chemical identification of contaminants in paper and board food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtström, Linda

    Paper and board are used for a variety of food contact materials, such as baking paper, microwave popcorn bags and packaging for cereals as well as fast foods. Despite this extensive use, there are currently large data gaps about the chemical composition of different paper and board food contact...

  19. Modelling the formation of heat-induced contaminants during thermal processing of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Many of our food products have undergone a heat-treatment before consumption, either at home or at the food industry. Heat treatments not only bring out desired characteristics of the food products such as flavour, texture, taste and safety aspects but also leads to the formation of undesired

  20. The limits of two-year bioassay exposure regimens for identifying chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, James; Jacobson, Michael F; Davis, Devra Lee

    2008-11-01

    Chemical carcinogenesis bioassays in animals have long been recognized and accepted as valid predictors of potential cancer hazards to humans. Most rodent bioassays begin several weeks after birth and expose animals to chemicals or other substances, including workplace and environmental pollutants, for 2 years. New findings indicate the need to extend the timing and duration of exposures used in the rodent bioassay. In this Commentary, we propose that the sensitivity of chemical carcinogenesis bio-assays would be enhanced by exposing rodents beginning in utero and continuing for 30 months (130 weeks) or until their natural deaths at up to about 3 years. Studies of three chemicals of different structures and uses-aspartame, cadmium, and toluene-suggest that exposing experimental animals in utero and continuing exposure for 30 months or until their natural deaths increase the sensitivity of bioassays, avoid false-negative results, and strengthen the value and validity of results for regulatory agencies. Government agencies, drug companies, and the chemical industry should conduct and compare the results of 2-year bioassays of known carcinogens or chemicals for which there is equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity with longer-term studies, with and without in utero exposure. If studies longer than 2 years and/or with in utero exposure are found to better identify potential human carcinogens, then regulatory agencies should promptly revise their testing guidelines, which were established in the 1960s and early 1970s. Changing the timing and dosing of the animal bioassay would enhance protection of workers and consumers who are exposed to potentially dangerous workplace or home contaminants, pollutants, drugs, food additives, and other chemicals throughout their lives.

  1. Identification and risk assessment of unknown contaminants migrating from Food Contact Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieke, Eelco Nicolaas

    The exposure of humans to possibly thousands of chemical compounds through food poses a health risk that is questioning our ability to ensure high standards for food safety. Food contact materials (FCM) are a major source of extraneous chemical compounds in food, yet not much knowledge is available...... interpretations. Risk prioritization is successful in classifying estimated risk based on predicted exposure and predicted hazard, and is valuable for to preliminary RA studies. The overarching strategy in this study shows that explorative techniques are valuable tools to help ensure food safety in the future...

  2. Review of arsenic contamination and human exposure through water food in rural areas in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Celia

    2016-05-01

    The Red River Delta in Vietnam is one of the regions whose quaternary aquifers are polluted by arsenic. Chronic toxification by arsenic can cause severe illnesses such as cancer, skin lesions, developmental defects, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, and diabetes. In this study, a food processing craft village in the Red River Delta was investigated regarding the potential risk faced by the population due to arsenic. The potential sources of arsenic are the groundwater, the crops grown in the surroundings, and animal products from local husbandry. However, the occurrence of arsenic in nature is variable, and its bioavailability and toxicity depend very much on its specification: trivalent compounds are more toxic and often more mobile than pentavalent compounds, while inorganic species are generally more toxic than organic ones. Local conditions, such as the redox potential, strongly influence its specification and thus potential bioavailability. The introduction to this work elucidates the key factors which potentially cause human exposure to arsenic: the geological setting of the study area, land and water use patterns, and the current state of research regarding the mobilization, bioavailability and plant uptake of arsenic. Although the study area is located in a region where the groundwater is known to be moderately contaminated by arsenic, the level of arsenic in the groundwater in the village had not previously been determined. In this study, water use in the village was examined by a survey among the farmers and by water analyses, which are presented in the following chapters. Four main water sources (rain, river, tube well and a public municipal waterworks) are used for the different daily activities; the highest risk to human health was found to be the bore well water, which is pumped from the shallow Holocene aquifer. The water from the bore wells is commonly used for cleaning and washing as well as to feed the animals and for food processing

  3. Review of arsenic contamination and human exposure through water food in rural areas in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Celia

    2016-01-01

    The Red River Delta in Vietnam is one of the regions whose quaternary aquifers are polluted by arsenic. Chronic toxification by arsenic can cause severe illnesses such as cancer, skin lesions, developmental defects, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, and diabetes. In this study, a food processing craft village in the Red River Delta was investigated regarding the potential risk faced by the population due to arsenic. The potential sources of arsenic are the groundwater, the crops grown in the surroundings, and animal products from local husbandry. However, the occurrence of arsenic in nature is variable, and its bioavailability and toxicity depend very much on its specification: trivalent compounds are more toxic and often more mobile than pentavalent compounds, while inorganic species are generally more toxic than organic ones. Local conditions, such as the redox potential, strongly influence its specification and thus potential bioavailability. The introduction to this work elucidates the key factors which potentially cause human exposure to arsenic: the geological setting of the study area, land and water use patterns, and the current state of research regarding the mobilization, bioavailability and plant uptake of arsenic. Although the study area is located in a region where the groundwater is known to be moderately contaminated by arsenic, the level of arsenic in the groundwater in the village had not previously been determined. In this study, water use in the village was examined by a survey among the farmers and by water analyses, which are presented in the following chapters. Four main water sources (rain, river, tube well and a public municipal waterworks) are used for the different daily activities; the highest risk to human health was found to be the bore well water, which is pumped from the shallow Holocene aquifer. The water from the bore wells is commonly used for cleaning and washing as well as to feed the animals and for food processing

  4. Relationship between the 137Cs whole-body counting results and soil and food contamination in farms near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Sato, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    The authors measured the radioactivity in the soil and child food samples from farms near Mogilev (56--270 GBq km -2 137 Cs), Gomel (36--810 GBq km -2 137 Cs), and Klincy (59--270 GBq km -2 137 Cs), who had whole-body 137 Cs counting results measured as part of a health examination in the Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project. Soil contamination on the family farm seems to be the main source of human contamination because most of the people in the area live on small farms and they and their domestic animals eat crops from the farms. A clear correlation was found between the children's whole-body 137 Cs counting results and the radioactivity in their food (correlation coefficient: 0.76; confidence level of correlation: 3.2 x 10 -9 ). There were also significant correlations between the whole-body 137 Cs counting results and both the radioactivity of the soil samples (correlation coefficient: 0.22; confidence level of correlation: 0.0107) and the average contamination level of their current residence (correlation coefficient: 0.20; confidence level of correlation: 0.0174)

  5. A radiotracer technique for the migration of inorganic contaminants into dry food from packaging made from recycled paper and board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, D.S.J.; Parry, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A radiotracer method, initially developed to analyze migration from retail plastic food packaging into food simulants, has been developed to assess the measurement of inorganic contaminants migrating from recycled paper and board into real food. This new radiotracer method has been applied to the study of 10 food samples and their corresponding recycled paper and board packaging. Samples of paper and board were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 1.26 x 10 16 n x m -2 x s -1 for 15 hours to activate elements of interest. After a decay period of 10 days the paper and board was placed in contact with the corresponding foodstuff. The food was analyzed for any radioactivity migrating from the packaging by gamma-ray spectrometry. Samples were analyzed regularly during the 90 days contact time. Detection limits for the determination of migration was as low as a few μg/kg in the food. Results from the migration study have shown that, of the 60 elements measured, only Zn and Fe were detected in food, at concentrations of 0.012-0.25, and 0.045-0.11 mg/kg, respectively. This was despite the recycled paper and board samples being highly elevated in many other elements such as Cr (0.9-15.1 mg/kg) and Ba (3.3-75.4 mg/kg). The level of migration of Zn and Fe into food from packaging was insignificant compared to the UK recommended daily allowances of 15 mg, and, therefore, represented no hazard to human health. (author)

  6. Cancer and non-cancer health effects from food contaminant exposures for children and adults in California: a risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Rainbow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of current cumulative dietary exposure assessments, this analysis was conducted to estimate exposure to multiple dietary contaminants for children, who are more vulnerable to toxic exposure than adults. Methods We estimated exposure to multiple food contaminants based on dietary data from preschool-age children (2–4 years, n=207, school-age children (5–7 years, n=157, parents of young children (n=446, and older adults (n=149. We compared exposure estimates for eleven toxic compounds (acrylamide, arsenic, lead, mercury, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, chlordane, DDE, and dioxin based on self-reported food frequency data by age group. To determine if cancer and non-cancer benchmark levels were exceeded, chemical levels in food were derived from publicly available databases including the Total Diet Study. Results Cancer benchmark levels were exceeded by all children (100% for arsenic, dieldrin, DDE, and dioxins. Non-cancer benchmarks were exceeded by >95% of preschool-age children for acrylamide and by 10% of preschool-age children for mercury. Preschool-age children had significantly higher estimated intakes of 6 of 11 compounds compared to school-age children (p Conclusions Dietary strategies to reduce exposure to toxic compounds for which cancer and non-cancer benchmarks are exceeded by children vary by compound. These strategies include consuming organically produced dairy and selected fruits and vegetables to reduce pesticide intake, consuming less animal foods (meat, dairy, and fish to reduce intake of persistent organic pollutants and metals, and consuming lower quantities of chips, cereal, crackers, and other processed carbohydrate foods to reduce acrylamide intake.

  7. The use of radiochemical analysis for detecting biotracers of food radioactive contamination in Cherkasy Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvyijenko, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Stable biotracers of radioactive contamination according to the findings of analytical control of the foodstuffs was determined. The use of radiochemical analysis for determining the activity of the foodstuffs and water (Sr-90, Cs-137) was evaluated

  8. Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jiangping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: luoxiaoj@gig.ac.cn; Zhang Ying; Yu Mei [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen Shejun; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang Zhongyi [School of Life Sciences, SunYat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2009-03-15

    To evaluate the biomagnification extent of polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China, trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for 18 PBDE congeners and 53 PCB congeners were calculated. The TMF values ranged 0.26-4.47 for PBDEs and 0.75-5.10 for PCBs. Forty-five of 53 PCBs and BDEs 47, 100 and 154 had TMFs greater than one, suggesting their biomagnification in the present food web. The TMFs for PBDEs were generally smaller than those for PCBs with the same degree of halogenation, indicating a lower biomagnification potential for PBDEs compared to PCBs. For PCBs, it followed a parabolic relationship between TMFs and log K{sub OW} (octanol-water partition coefficient). However, this relationship was not significant for PBDEs, possibly due to the more complex behaviors of PBDEs in the food web (e.g., metabolism), compared to that of PCBs. - Forty-five of 53 PCBs magnified in the freshwater food web, while only BDEs 47, 100 and 154 significantly magnified in the same food web.

  9. Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiangping; Luo Xiaojun; Zhang Ying; Yu Mei; Chen Shejun; Mai Bixian; Yang Zhongyi

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the biomagnification extent of polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China, trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for 18 PBDE congeners and 53 PCB congeners were calculated. The TMF values ranged 0.26-4.47 for PBDEs and 0.75-5.10 for PCBs. Forty-five of 53 PCBs and BDEs 47, 100 and 154 had TMFs greater than one, suggesting their biomagnification in the present food web. The TMFs for PBDEs were generally smaller than those for PCBs with the same degree of halogenation, indicating a lower biomagnification potential for PBDEs compared to PCBs. For PCBs, it followed a parabolic relationship between TMFs and log K OW (octanol-water partition coefficient). However, this relationship was not significant for PBDEs, possibly due to the more complex behaviors of PBDEs in the food web (e.g., metabolism), compared to that of PCBs. - Forty-five of 53 PCBs magnified in the freshwater food web, while only BDEs 47, 100 and 154 significantly magnified in the same food web

  10. Food contamination and the general investigation of the environment of nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresson, G.; Lacourly, G.

    1975-01-01

    Three basic values allowing to assess the exposure of a population resulting from dietary contamination are analyzed: the activity found in the foodstuffs of the population of a region in order to assess the regional collective dose; the mean contamination of the same foodstuffs, in order to assess the mean individual dose of the population concerned; the overall dilution factor allowing to go from the activity in the raw produce to that in the foodstuffs at the consumption stage [fr

  11. Demonstration of generic handbooks for assisting in the management of contaminated food production systems and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Duranova, T.

    2010-01-01

    Two handbooks have been developed in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders that provide assistance in the management of contaminated food production systems and inhabited areas following a radiological incident. Emergency centres in Member States not involved in the development...... of these handbooks were invited to take part in demonstration activities to establish whether the handbooks would be useful for the purposes of contingency planning and accident management. Some eight centres took part. Emergency exercises or similar events based on scenarios involving contamination of the foodchain...... and inhabited areas were used. Feedback from all of the demonstrations was positive with constructive criticism given on how to improve the navigation, structure and format of the handbooks. All of the key improvements highlighted during the demonstrations were taken into account and included in version 2...

  12. Developing a national food defense guideline based on a vulnerability assessment of intentional food contamination in Japanese food factories using the CARVER+Shock vulnerability assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagawa, Yoshiyuki; Akahane, Manabu; Hasegawa, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Onitake, Kazuo; Takaya, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2014-12-01

    The awareness of food terrorism has increased following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City, United States, and many measures and policies dealing with this issue have been established worldwide. Suspected deliberate food-poisoning crimes have occurred in Japan, although they are not regarded as acts of food terrorism. One area of concern is that the small- to medium-sized companies that dominate Japan's food industry are extremely vulnerable to deliberate food poisoning. We conducted a literature research on food defense measures undertaken by the World Health Organization and in the United States and Europe. Using the Carver+Shock vulnerability assessment tool, eight food factories and related facilities in Japan were evaluated and we found the level of awareness of food defense to be low and the measures inappropriate. On the basis of this evaluation, we developed a set of guidelines that Japanese food companies can use to help develop their food defense strategies and to serve as a reference in considering specific measures.

  13. Synthetic risks, risk potency, and carcinogen regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscusi, W K; Hakes, J K

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes a comprehensive sample of over 350 chemicals tested for carcinogenicity to assess the determinants of the probability of regulation. Controlling for differences in the risk potency and noncancer risks, synthetic chemicals have a significantly higher probability of regulation overall: this is due to the greater likelihood of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation. Measures of risk potency increase the probability of regulation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have a somewhat weaker positive effect on regulation by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and decrease the likelihood of regulation by the FDA. The overall regulatory pattern is one in which the FDA targets synthetic chemicals and chemicals that pose relatively minor cancer risk. The EPA particularly performed more sensibly than many critics have suggested.

  14. Further European initiatives and regulations concerning radiation protection: drinking water guideline, maximum permissible contamination in food products and feeding stuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundigl, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The radiation protection community has observed intensively the development of basic safety standards concerning protection against hazards of ionizing radiation. The new core part of the European radiation protection legislation is complemented by several specialized regulations relevant for radiation protection. Besides the existing regulations in the field of emergency protection the European Commission initiated a drinking water guideline that will be published in the near future. Furthermore the European commission approved a revised regulation concerning the maximum permissible contamination limits for food products and feeding stuff in case of a future nuclear accident. Together with the new radiation protection basic standards a new complete, coherent and modernized European regulation package will be accomplished.

  15. Fusarium diseases of maize associated with mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products intended to be used for food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Höppner, Frank; Ellner, Frank; Weinert, Joachim

    2017-08-01

    Infections of maize with phytopathogenic and toxinogenic Fusarium spp. may occur throughout the cultivation period. This can cause different types of diseases in vegetative and generative organs of the plant. Along with these infections, mycotoxins are often produced and accumulated in affected tissues, which could pose a significant risk on human and animal health when entering the food and feed chain. Most important fungal species infecting European maize belong to the Fusarium sections Discolour and Liseola, the first being more prevalent in cooler and humid climate regions than the second predominating in warmer and dryer areas. Coexistence of several Fusarium spp. pathogens in growing maize under field conditions is the usual case and may lead to multi-contamination with mycotoxins like trichothecenes, zearalenone and fumonisins. The pathways how the fungi gain access to the target organs of the plant are extensively described in relation to specific symptoms of typical rot diseases regarding ears, kernels, rudimentary ears, roots, stem, leaves, seed and seedlings. Both Gibberella and Fusarium ear rots are of major importance in affecting the toxinogenic quality of grain or ear-based products as well as forage maize used for human or animal nutrition. Although rudimentary ears may contain high amounts of Fusarium toxins, the contribution to the contamination of forage maize is minor due to their small proportion on the whole plant dry matter yield. The impact of foliar diseases on forage maize contamination is regarded to be low, as Fusarium infections are restricted to some parts on the leaf sheaths and husks. Mycotoxins produced in rotted basal part of the stem may contribute to forage maize contamination, but usually remain in the stubbles after harvest. As the probability of a more severe disease progression is increasing with a prolonged cultivation period, maize should be harvested at the appropriate maturity stage to keep Fusarium toxin contamination as

  16. Fungal Contamination of Ready-to-Eat Cooked foods in Catering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi are ubiquitous and are found in a variety of habitats, either as transient or permanent dwellers. They grow in a wide range of substrates which may serve as vehicles for their spread to various other environments, including the human body. Ready-to-eat foods are those foods that are eaten without washing, cooking or ...

  17. High pressure processing and its application to the challenge of virus-contaminated foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure processing (HPP) is an increasingly popular non-thermal food processing technology. Study of HPP’s potential to inactivate foodborne viruses has defined general pressure levels required to inactivate hepatitis A virus, norovirus surrogates, and human norovirus itself within foods such...

  18. Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-12-21

    Abstract Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with \\'greenspace\\' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from \\'grow-your-own\\' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating \\'scares\\' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of \\'obesity and sloth\\' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of \\'grow-your-own\\' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide

  19. Influence of Soap Characteristics and Food Service Facility Type on the Degree of Bacterial Contamination of Open, Refillable Bulk Soaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W; Jensen, Dane; Gerba, Charles P; Shumaker, David; Arbogast, James W

    2018-02-01

    Concern has been raised regarding the public health risks from refillable bulk-soap dispensers because they provide an environment for potentially pathogenic bacteria to grow. This study surveyed the microbial quality of open refillable bulk soap in four different food establishment types in three states. Two hundred ninety-six samples of bulk soap were collected from food service establishments in Arizona, New Jersey, and Ohio. Samples were tested for total heterotrophic viable bacteria, Pseudomonas, coliforms and Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. Bacteria were screened for antibiotic resistance. The pH, solids content, and water activity of all soap samples were measured. Samples were assayed for the presence of the common antibacterial agents triclosan and parachlorometaxylenol. More than 85% of the soap samples tested contained no detectable microorganisms, but when a sample contained any detectable microorganisms, it was most likely contaminated at a very high level (∼7 log CFU/mL). Microorganisms detected in contaminated soap included Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia liquefaciens, Shigella sonnei, Enterobacter gergoviae, Serratia odorifera, and Enterobacter cloacae. Twenty-three samples contained antibiotic-resistant organisms, some of which were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Every sample containing less than 4% solids had some detectable level of bacteria, whereas no samples with greater than 14% solids had detectable bacteria. This finding suggests the use of dilution and/or low-cost formulations as a cause of bacterial growth. There was a statistically significant difference ( P = 0.0035) between the fraction of bacteria-positive samples with no detected antimicrobial agent (17%) and those containing an antimicrobial agent (7%). Fast food operations and grocery stores were more likely to have detectable bacteria in bulk-soap samples compared with convenience stores ( P food service establishments.

  20. Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Jonathan R; Adam-Bradford, Andrew; Rigby, Janette E

    2009-12-21

    Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with 'greenspace' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from 'grow-your-own' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating 'scares' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of 'obesity and sloth' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of 'grow-your-own' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide risk management in our

  1. Human food chain contamination. The case of meat in the EEC in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stemmelen, E.

    1984-04-01

    Cesium 137 levels in meat distributed for human consumption have been determined as a function of the contamination levels at production. The model considers product transformations and exchanges between EEC countries or areas. On the basis of the statistics available and with a number of economic assumptions the flows are estimated, thus allowing to calculate contamination transfers. Cattle, pork, fowl have been considered especially, the other meat more briefly. The initial levels are exogenous variates; various assumptions can thus be tested: real measures or arbitrary values. The model confirms that the final values for the ingested activities are low, but the difference between the levels before and after exchanges may be very large. Transfers occur usually within a country from rural to urban areas and sometimes from one country to another. In some little productive areas, the situation depends mostly on contaminations from external and even remote origin [fr

  2. A call to expand regulation to all carcinogenic fibrous minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, F.; Steele, I.; Ambrosi, J.; Carbone, M.

    2013-05-01

    The regulatory term "asbestos" groups only the six fibrous minerals that were commercially used among approximately 400. The carcinogenicity of these six regulated minerals has been largely demonstrated and is related to fiber structure, fiber length/diameter ratio, and bio-persistence. From a public perception, the generic term "asbestos" refers to the fibrous minerals that cause asbestosis, mesothelioma and other cancers. However, other non-regulated fibrous minerals are potentially as dangerous as the regulatory asbestos because they share similar physical and chemical properties, epidemiological studies have demonstrated their relationship with asbestos-related diseases, and both in vitro and in vivo experiments have established the toxicity of these minerals. For example, the non-regulated asbestiform winchite and richterite minerals that contaminated the vermiculite mined from Libby, Montana, (USA) were associated with mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis observed among the area's residents and miners. Many other examples of non-regulated carcinogenic fibrous minerals include, but are not limited to, antigorite, arfvedsonite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, erionite, fluoro-edenite, hornblende, mordenite, palygorskite, and sepiolite. To propose a regulatory definition that would provide protection from all carcinogenic fibers, we have conducted an interdisciplinary literature review to compare the characteristics of "asbestos" and of non-regulated mineral fibers that relate to carcinogenicity. We specifically studied two non-regulated fibrous minerals that are associated with asbestos-related diseases: the serpentine antigorite and the zeolite erionite. Both examples underscore the problem of regulation based on commercial, rather than scientific principles: 1) the occurrence of fibrous antigorite in materials used to pave roads has been correlated with high mesothelioma rates in New Caledonia. Antigorite was also the cause of asbestosis in Poland, and in

  3. Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity, Cytotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan L. Stegelmeier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically. Less is known about chronic poisoning that may result when plant populations are sporadic, used as tisanes or herbal preparations, or when DHPAs contaminate milk, honey, pollen, or other animal-derived products. Such subclinical exposures may contribute to the development of chronic disease in humans or may be cumulative and probably slowly progress until liver failure. Recent work using rodent models suggest increased neoplastic incidence even with very low DHPA doses of short durations. These concerns have moved some governments to prohibit or limit human exposure to DHPAs. The purpose of this review is to summarize some recent DHPA research, including in vitro and in vivo DHPA toxicity and carcinogenicity reports, and the implications of these findings with respect to diagnosis and prognosis for human and animal health.

  4. Elevated contaminants contrasted with potential benefits of ω-3 fatty acids in wild food consumers of two remote first nations communities in northern Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A Seabert

    Full Text Available Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3 than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N=72 from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs and hair (mercury. We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods.

  5. Whole-Body Counter(WBC) and food radiocesium contamination surveys in Namie, Fukushima Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Nomura, Kazuki; Tsushima, Eiki; Kudo, Kohsei; Noto, Yuka; Nishizawa, Yoshiko

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC) was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees. The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012) and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015) were analyzed and studied. The average radioactivity measured by WBC was approximately 5 Bq for Cs-134, and 20 Bq for Cs-137 and the average committed effective dose was approximately 1 μSv. The average for the residents with detectable radioactivity was 25 μSv, and the human health effects are considered to be extremely low risk. However, the radioactivity of the affected individuals showed a higher value than the theoretical attenuation rate. The majority (83.2%) of individuals exhibiting radioactivity were over 50 years old. The number of food products brought in for detection decreased as the study period progressed, but the number of food products with radioactivity had increased. While the items with a higher detection rate of radioactivity included fruits such as citron and persimmon, shiitake mushrooms exhibited the highest radioactivity. Moreover, the radioactivity of seven items in these 10 items decreased from fiscal 2012 to fiscal 2015. Mushrooms had high radioactivity and were produced over a wide area. We suggest that the elderly try to enjoy life and eat wild plants in moderation while inspecting food products. Therefore, we will continue to work in raising awareness of radiation and its potential presence in food products and thus the continuing necessity of monitoring radioactivity in food in the future.

  6. Whole-Body Counter(WBC and food radiocesium contamination surveys in Namie, Fukushima Prefecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Hosokawa

    Full Text Available This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees.The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012 and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015 were analyzed and studied.The average radioactivity measured by WBC was approximately 5 Bq for Cs-134, and 20 Bq for Cs-137 and the average committed effective dose was approximately 1 μSv. The average for the residents with detectable radioactivity was 25 μSv, and the human health effects are considered to be extremely low risk. However, the radioactivity of the affected individuals showed a higher value than the theoretical attenuation rate. The majority (83.2% of individuals exhibiting radioactivity were over 50 years old. The number of food products brought in for detection decreased as the study period progressed, but the number of food products with radioactivity had increased. While the items with a higher detection rate of radioactivity included fruits such as citron and persimmon, shiitake mushrooms exhibited the highest radioactivity. Moreover, the radioactivity of seven items in these 10 items decreased from fiscal 2012 to fiscal 2015. Mushrooms had high radioactivity and were produced over a wide area.We suggest that the elderly try to enjoy life and eat wild plants in moderation while inspecting food products. Therefore, we will continue to work in raising awareness of radiation and its potential presence in food products and thus the continuing necessity of monitoring radioactivity in food in the future.

  7. A novel method for the determination of migration of contaminants from food contact materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.; Parry, S.J.; Benzing, R.

    1996-01-01

    A neutron activation method has been developed for the analysis of high density polyethylene, low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate and polystyrene food contact plastics. The method provides determination of over 50 elements at concentrations below 1 mg kg -1 . This technique has now been extended to study migration from food contact materials into standard food simulants (olive oil, acetic acid, ethanol and water). Samples of plastic are irradiated in a thermal neutron flux to procedure radionuclides of the elements present in the plastic. (author). 5 refs., 7 tabs

  8. Modeling retrospective attribution of responsibility to hazard-managing institutions: an example involving a food contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B; Hallman, William K; Cuite, Cara L

    2015-03-01

    Perceptions of institutions that manage hazards are important because they can affect how the public responds to hazard events. Antecedents of trust judgments have received far more attention than antecedents of attributions of responsibility for hazard events. We build upon a model of retrospective attribution of responsibility to individuals to examine these relationships regarding five classes of institutions that bear responsibility for food safety: producers (e.g., farmers), processors (e.g., packaging firms), watchdogs (e.g., government agencies), sellers (e.g., supermarkets), and preparers (e.g., restaurants). A nationally representative sample of 1,200 American adults completed an Internet-based survey in which a hypothetical scenario involving contamination of diverse foods with Salmonella served as the stimulus event. Perceived competence and good intentions of the institution moderately decreased attributions of responsibility. A stronger factor was whether an institution was deemed (potentially) aware of the contamination and free to act to prevent or mitigate it. Responsibility was rated higher the more aware and free the institution. This initial model for attributions of responsibility to impersonal institutions (as opposed to individual responsibility) merits further development. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Monitoring of Radionuclide Contamination in Food Samples in Malaysia due to Daiichi Reactor Accident in Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurrul Assyikeen Mohd Jaffary; Wo, Y.M.; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2015-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a serious accident occurred in Daiichi nuclear reactor plant, Fukushima, Japan which caused radioactive materials been released into the atmosphere in the form of aerosols and dust particles. Sea water around the plant was also found contaminated with high radioactivity readings. These radioactive materials could be transported by the winds and ocean current across international borders and cannot be controlled by human. Thus, a continuous monitoring activity of radionuclide content in the air and sea water needs to be conducted by the authorities. In addition to radioactivity monitoring, Malaysia should also control the entry of contaminated food in order to prevent radionuclide ingestion by human. The radionuclide 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were used as a measure of pollution levels and counted with gamma spectrometry using standard analysis method suggested by AOAC International. In this paper, details description of the role of Radiochemical and Environment Group, Nuclear Malaysia who is responsible in analyzing the radioactivity in the food samples due to Fukushima Daiichi, Japan accident was included. The radioactivity limit adopted and analysis results from this monitoring were discussed. (author)

  10. Monitoring of Radionuclide Contamination in Food Samples in Malaysia due to Daiichi Reactor Accident in Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurrul Assyikeen Mohd Jaffary; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Wo, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, a serious accident occurred in Daiichi nuclear reactor plant, Fukushima, Japan which caused radioactive materials been released into the atmosphere in the form of aerosols and dust particles. Sea water around the plant was also found contaminated with high radioactivity readings. These radioactive materials could be transported by the winds and ocean current across international borders and cannot be controlled by human. Besides a continuous monitoring activity of radionuclide content in the air and sea water that need to be conducted by the authorities, Malaysia should also control the entry of radionuclide through contaminated food ingestion by human. Radionuclide I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 were used as a counter-measure of pollution levels and counted with gamma spectrometry using standard analysis method suggested by AOAC International. In this paper, details description of the role of Radiochemical and Environment Group, Nuclear Malaysia who's responsible in analyzing the radioactivity in the food samples due to Fukushima Daiichi, Japan accident was included. Also discussed are the radioactivity limit adopted and analysis results from this monitoring. (author)

  11. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  12. Fecal Contamination on Produce from Wholesale and Retail Food Markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Angela R; Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Unicomb, Leanne; Boehm, Alexandria B; Luby, Stephen; Davis, Jennifer; Pickering, Amy J

    2018-01-01

    Fresh produce items can become contaminated with enteric pathogens along the supply chain at the preharvest (e.g., irrigation water, soil, fertilizer) or postharvest (e.g., vendor handling or consumer handling) stages. This study assesses the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli , enterococci (ENT), and Bacteriodales on surfaces of carrots, eggplants, red amaranth leaves, and tomatoes obtained from both a wholesale market (recently harvested) and neighborhood retail markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We detected E. coli in 100% of carrot and red amaranth rinses, 92% of eggplant rinses, and 46% of tomato rinses. Using a molecular microbial source tracking assay, we found that 32% of produce samples were positive for ruminant fecal contamination. Fecal indicator bacteria were more likely to be detected on produce collected in retail markets compared with that in the wholesale market; retail market produce were 1.25 times more likely to have E. coli detected ( P = 0.03) and 1.24 times more likely to have ENT detected ( P = 0.03) as compared with wholesale market produce. Bacteriodales was detected in higher concentrations in retail market produce samples compared with wholesale market produce samples (0.40 log 10 gene copies per 100 cm 2 higher, P = 0.03). Our results suggest that ruminant and general fecal contamination of produce in markets in Dhaka is common, and suggest that unsanitary conditions in markets are an important source of produce fecal contamination postharvest.

  13. Mould Contamination of ready-to-eat cereal-based foods retailed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples belonging to four different brands (Instant Morvite™, E-Papa™, Ace Instant Porridge™ and Roasted Morvite™) of ready-to-eat fortified cereal-based foodstuffs imported from the Republic of South Africa were bought from different retail outlets in the Roma valley, Lesotho and examined for contamination with ...

  14. Oral anaphylaxis by ingestion of mite contaminated food in Panama City, 2011-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M Barrera

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The pancakes were the most incriminated food in the cases of OMA in our study. Suidasia pontifica and Blomia tropicalis seem to be the mites species of greater relevance related with this syndrome in our country.

  15. Evaluation of food contamination and health risks due to the radioactive fallout 90Sr before 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoko; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    Before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, radionuclides like 90 Sr released by atmospheric nuclear detonation tests and the Chernobyl accident have been transported worldwide in the environment and finally taken up by humans through various pathways. In this research, the health risks caused by the prolonged exposure to fallout 90 Sr through food ingestion pathways were evaluated age-dependently for the reference Japanese since 1945 until 2010, using the mathematical model for evaluating global distribution of 90 Sr with food ingestion considering the domestic and international food supply in Japan. The model estimates were compared with the monitoring data of 90 Sr in Japanese total diet and 90 Sr concentration in food to examine the model validity. The results of this evaluation would be useful for understanding the background situations without the Fukushima accident and give important knowledge for the radiological health risk assessment of this accident. (author)

  16. The effects of environmental chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzotti, A; Pulliero, A

    2014-07-01

    The first evidence that microRNA expression is early altered by exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens in still healthy organisms was obtained for cigarette smoke. To date, the cumulative experimental data indicate that similar effects are caused by a variety of environmental carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitropyrenes, endocrine disruptors, airborne mixtures, carcinogens in food and water, and carcinogenic drugs. Accordingly, the alteration of miRNA expression is a general mechanism that plays an important pathogenic role in linking exposure to environmental toxic agents with their pathological consequences, mainly including cancer development. This review summarizes the existing experimental evidence concerning the effects of chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery. For each carcinogen, the specific microRNA alteration signature, as detected in experimental studies, is reported. These data are useful for applying microRNA alterations as early biomarkers of biological effects in healthy organisms exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, microRNA alteration results in carcinogenesis only if accompanied by other molecular damages. As an example, microRNAs altered by chemical carcinogens often inhibits the expression of mutated oncogenes. The long-term exposure to chemical carcinogens causes irreversible suppression of microRNA expression thus allowing the transduction into proteins of mutated oncogenes. This review also analyzes the existing knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which environmental carcinogens alter microRNA expression. The underlying molecular mechanism involves p53-microRNA interconnection, microRNA adduct formation, and alterations of Dicer function. On the whole, reported findings provide evidence that microRNA analysis is a molecular toxicology tool that can elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms activated by environmental carcinogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of nickel in food and drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    EFSA received a request from the Hellenic Food Authority (EFET) for a scientific opinion on the risk to human health from the presence of nickel (Ni) in food, particularly in vegetables. The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) decided to extend the risk assessment also to drinking water. The reproductive and developmental toxicity in experimental animals was selected as the critical effect for the assessment of chronic effects of Ni. A tolerable daily intake of 2.8 µg ...

  18. Spatial analysis of radiocesium food contamination in rural settlements of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchko, K.; Makejchik, A.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of 53207 records of cesium 137 contents in 83 types of food products obtained in 1993 in Belarus was carried out. Internal exposure from intake of eight selected food components has been estimated. To map the non-uniformly distributed data, different geostatistical approaches are used. The results of spatial analysis of long term internal dose loads on populations under high radiation risk can be used in decision making. (authors). 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  19. Risk assessment for furan contamination through the food chain in Belgian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Georges; Huybrechts, Inge; Humblet, Marie-France; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Eppe, Gauthier; Saegerman, Claude

    2012-08-01

    Young, old, pregnant and immuno-compromised persons are of great concern for risk assessors as they represent the sub-populations most at risk. The present paper focuses on risk assessment linked to furan exposure in children. Only the Belgian population was considered because individual contamination and consumption data that are required for accurate risk assessment were available for Belgian children only. Two risk assessment approaches, the so-called deterministic and probabilistic, were applied and the results were compared for the estimation of daily intake. A significant difference between the average Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) was underlined between the deterministic (419 ng kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) day⁻¹) and the probabilistic (583 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹) approaches, which results from the mathematical treatment of the null consumption and contamination data. The risk was characterised by two ways: (1) the classical approach by comparison of the EDI to a reference dose (RfD(chronic-oral)) and (2) the most recent approach, namely the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach. Both reached similar conclusions: the risk level is not of a major concern, but is neither negligible. In the first approach, only 2.7 or 6.6% (respectively in the deterministic and in the probabilistic way) of the studied population presented an EDI above the RfD(chronic-oral). In the second approach, the percentage of children displaying a MoE above 10,000 and below 100 is 3-0% and 20-0.01% in the deterministic and probabilistic modes, respectively. In addition, children were compared to adults and significant differences between the contamination patterns were highlighted. While major contamination was linked to coffee consumption in adults (55%), no item predominantly contributed to the contamination in children. The most important were soups (19%), dairy products (17%), pasta and rice (11%), fruit and potatoes (9% each).

  20. Aflatoxins and fumonisins contamination of home-made food (weanimix) from cereal-legume blends for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi, J; Mitchell, N J; Asare, G A; Dotse, E; Kwaa, F; Phillips, T D; Ankrah, N-A

    2014-09-01

    Weanimix is an important food for children in Ghana. Mothers are trained to prepare homemade weanimix from beans, groundnuts and maize for their infants. Groundnuts and maize are prone to aflatoxin contamination while fumonisin contaminates maize. Aflatoxin, is produced by the Asperguillus fungi while fumonisin, is produced by Fusarium fungi. These mycotoxins occur in tropical areas worldwide due to favorable climate for their growth. The objective of the study was to determine the levels of aflatoxin and fumonisin in homemade weanimix in the Ejura-Sekyedumase district in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Thirty six homemade weanimix samples (50g each) were collected from households. Aflatoxin and fumonisin were measured using a fluorometric procedure described by the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC official method 993.31, V1 series 4). Aflatoxin and fumonisin were detected in all 36 samples, range 7.9-500ppb. Fumonisin levels range: 0.74-11.0ppm). Thirty (83.3%) of the thirty six samples were over the action limit of 20ppb for aflatoxin with an overall mean of 145.2 ppb whiles 58.3% of the samples had fumonisins above the action limit of 4 ppm with an overall mean of 4.7 ppm. There were significant aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of homemade weanimix. Children fed on this nutritional food were being exposed to unacceptable levels of aflatoxin and fumonisin. Therefore there is a critical need to educate mothers on the dangers of mycotoxin exposure and to develop strategies to eliminate exposure of children fed homemade weanimix to aflatoxin and fumonisin.

  1. The relevance of the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemical substances and its role in contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Busani, Luca; Tait, Sabrina; La Rocca, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Food may be contaminated with many chemical substances at any level along the production chain. Chemicals that may be found in food items can simultaneously be present in other matrices, as air, water, soil and dust; therefore, human exposure to chemicals via food has to be summed to the exposure through all the other possible routes. The role played by the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemicals assumes amplified proportions when considering contaminated sites. Indeed the link between environment and food production is undeniable and consequently, when population chemical exposure is considered, an integrated approach assessing the contribution of the different routes of exposure, including dietary exposure, is needed. Such integrated approach allows a realistic and comprehensive risk assessment of chemical substances in order to identify and deploy effective prevention and intervention measures to protect human health.

  2. Processing-Dependent and Clonal Contamination Patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in the Cured Ham Food Chain Revealed by Genetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Marina; Scaltriti, Erika; Cozzolino, Paolo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pierantoni, Marco; Foni, Emanuela; Pongolini, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    The quantitative and qualitative patterns of environmental contamination by Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in the production chain of dry-cured Parma ham. Standard arrays of surfaces were sampled in processing facilities during a single visit per plant in the three compartments of the food chain, i.e., ham production (19 plants) and postproduction, which was divided into deboning (43 plants) and slicing (25 plants) steps. The numbers of sampled surfaces were 384 in ham production, with 25 positive for L. monocytogenes, and 1,084 in postproduction, with 83 positives. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of contaminated surfaces showed that in ham production, contamination was higher at the beginning of processing and declined significantly toward the end, while in postproduction, prevalence rose toward the end of processing. Prevalence was higher in the deboning facilities than in slicing facilities and was dependent on the type of surface (floor/drainage > clothing > equipment). The qualitative pattern of contamination was investigated through an analysis of the survey isolates and a set of isolates derived from routine monitoring, including longitudinal isolations. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed a remarkable clonality of L. monocytogenes within plants, with the detection of 16 plant-specific clones out of 17 establishments with multiple isolates. Repeated detections of clonal isolates >6 months apart were also observed. Six was the maximum number of between-isolate differences in core SNPs observed within these clones. Based on the same six-SNP threshold, three clusters of clonal isolates, shared by six establishments, were also identified. The spread of L. monocytogenes within and between plants, as indicated by its clonal behavior, is a matter of concern for the hygienic management of establishments. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  3. Risk-based indicators of Canadians' exposures to environmental carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setton, Eleanor; Hystad, Perry; Poplawski, Karla; Cheasley, Roslyn; Cervantes-Larios, Alejandro; Keller, C Peter; Demers, Paul A

    2013-02-12

    Tools for estimating population exposures to environmental carcinogens are required to support evidence-based policies to reduce chronic exposures and associated cancers. Our objective was to develop indicators of population exposure to selected environmental carcinogens that can be easily updated over time, and allow comparisons and prioritization between different carcinogens and exposure pathways. We employed a risk assessment-based approach to produce screening-level estimates of lifetime excess cancer risk for selected substances listed as known carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Estimates of lifetime average daily intake were calculated using population characteristics combined with concentrations (circa 2006) in outdoor air, indoor air, dust, drinking water, and food and beverages from existing monitoring databases or comprehensive literature reviews. Intake estimates were then multiplied by cancer potency factors from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment to estimate lifetime excess cancer risks associated with each substance and exposure pathway. Lifetime excess cancer risks in excess of 1 per million people are identified as potential priorities for further attention. Based on data representing average conditions circa 2006, a total of 18 carcinogen-exposure pathways had potential lifetime excess cancer risks greater than 1 per million, based on varying data quality. Carcinogens with moderate to high data quality and lifetime excess cancer risk greater than 1 per million included benzene, 1,3-butadiene and radon in outdoor air; benzene and radon in indoor air; and arsenic and hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Important data gaps were identified for asbestos, hexavalent chromium and diesel exhaust in outdoor and indoor air, while little data were available to assess risk for substances in dust, food and beverages. The ability to

  4. Human food chain contamination. The case of seafoods in France in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, Jean; Garnier, Arlette; Herbecq, Jean-Marie.

    1980-06-01

    The global and individual levels of contamination by cesium 137 resulting from consumption of sea products (fish, crustaceans, molluscs) in France were determined. Statistical data are first presented: catches, transformations, distribution and consumption. The exchanges between some fishing and consumption areas were then quantified. Global and individual contaminations at the national and regional levels were then assessed. They are associated with various water concentrations of cesium 137 in the marine environment. Regional differences appear clearly; they are explained mainly by consumption habits and also by the choices of fishing areas and the features of market distribution. On an average, a factor of 3 is generally found between the lowest and highest individual ingested activity levels [fr

  5. Uncertainty of food contamination origin and liability rules: Implications for bargaining power

    OpenAIRE

    Boutouis, M. Z.; Benhassine, W.; Perito, Maria Angela

    2018-01-01

    We propose an industrial organization model to analyze the role of bargaining power and liability rules in creating incentives for downstream and upstream supply chain operators to invest in good practices. We investigate the case in which either upstream production practices or downstream distribution may cause product contamination resulting in noncompliance with the authorized thresholds of residues (maximum residue limit [MRL]). We provide a comparative analysis of the retailers' liabilit...

  6. Workshop on the first response in a radiological emergency. Contaminated food. Tabletop exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exercise is that the participants can apply their knowledge in a fire emergency. A terrorist group steal important documents from a meat plant because they suspected that the packaged were illegal and had contamination signs. A fire occurs suspiciously and the plant has to be evacuated. The first responder have to know who are the actors involved in the fire emergency

  7. EFFECTS OF FOOD CONTAMINATION WITH DIOXIN ON THE ROMANIAN MILK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk products contaminated with dioxin scandal is an example of how the milk market may be substantially affected by intense rumour in the media broadcast. Although the crisis was recorded at a multinational company, the lack of maturity of the local market and improper management led to significant loss in image, lower consumer confidence and substantial decrease in sales. The positive effects are increased consumer focus on buying, check the information contained on the label, check demanding products for children.

  8. Mycotoxins as human carcinogens-the IARC Monographs classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Toman, Jakub; Grosse, Yann

    2017-02-01

    Humans are constantly exposed to mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins), mainly via food intake of plant and animal origin. The health risks stemming from mycotoxins may result from their toxicity, in particular their carcinogenicity. In order to prevent these risks, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon (France)-through its IARC Monographs programme-has performed the carcinogenic hazard assessment of some mycotoxins in humans, on the basis of epidemiological data, studies of cancer in experimental animals and mechanistic studies. The present article summarizes the carcinogenic hazard assessments of those mycotoxins, especially aflatoxins (aflatoxin B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 and M 1 ), fumonisins (fumonisin B 1 and B 2 ) and ochratoxin A (OTA). New information regarding the genotoxicity of OTA (formation of OTA-DNA adducts), the role of OTA in oxidative stress and the identification of epigenetic factors involved in OTA carcinogenesis-should they indeed provide strong evidence that OTA carcinogenicity is mediated by a mechanism that also operates in humans-could lead to the reclassification of OTA.

  9. Blood biochemical disorders in gamma irradiated rats maintained on pesticide contaminated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hamid, F. M.

    1997-01-01

    The present work deals with the effect of 6.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation on male albino rats kept ether under normal environmental condition or subjected to either short or long term of internal contamination with the environmental chemical pollutant kelthane widely applied as organo chlorine miticide. This has need introduced either through daily oral administration at the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w. over 3 successive days, or through daily ingestion at the dose 200 mg/kg b.w. over feeding time periods of 3, 6, and 12 weeks. The results obtained demonstrated fluctuations in certain serum metabolites and minerals encountering increased levels serum glucose total lipids, cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine, and inorganic phosphorus. on the other hand, the serum levels of bilirubin, and total calcium tended to decrease. Most of these changes where significantly aggravated when radiation exposure has been undertaken following a prolonged internal contamination with the miticide. This potential risk should be carefully considered when addressing farmers from several areas exposed to pesticide contamination risks, to radiotherapy clinics or to occupational radiation practices

  10. 13. Italian-Hungarian Symposium on spectrochemistry: environmental contamination and food safety. Book of Abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottoni, P.; Caroli, S.

    2008-01-01

    This edition of the Symposium focuses primarily on the impact of environmental pollution on food safety. With about 90 contributions, equally distributed between oral and poster presentations, some of the major challenges posed by anthropic activities to food commodities are discussed. The role of modern analytical techniques in this context is highlighted particularly as regards the importance of reliable experimental information in the decision-making process. The Symposium features seven oral sessions, devoted, respectively, to basic research, manufacturers, water, soil and sediment, atmosphere, food and research in Antarctica. Presentations in the poster sessions are grouped likewise. The variety of issues dealt with in this conference give ample evidence of the progress made so far by analytical sciences in this field and set the stage for further innovative research [it

  11. The Genus Wallemia—From Contamination of Food to Health Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janja Zajc

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The fungal genus Wallemia of the order Wallemiales (Wallemiomycotina, Basidiomycota comprises the most xerotolerant, xerophilic and also halophilic species worldwide. Wallemia spp. are found in various osmotically challenged environments, such as dry, salted, or highly sugared foods, dry feed, hypersaline waters of solar salterns, salt crystals, indoor and outdoor air, and agriculture aerosols. Recently, eight species were recognized for the genus Wallemia, among which four are commonly associated with foods: W. sebi, W. mellicola, W. muriae and W. ichthyophaga. To date, only strains of W. sebi, W. mellicola and W. muriae have been reported to be related to human health problems, as either allergological conditions (e.g., farmer’s lung disease or rare subcutaneous/cutaneous infections. Therefore, this allergological and infective potential, together with the toxins that the majority of Wallemia spp. produce even under saline conditions, defines these fungi as filamentous food-borne pathogenic fungi.

  12. Legacy and emerging brominated flame retardants in China: A review on food and human milk contamination, human dietary exposure and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhixiong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning

    2018-05-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large group of widely used chemicals, which have been produced and used since 1970s. As a consequence of substantial and long-term usage, BFRs have been found to be ubiquitous in humans, wildlife, and abiotic matrices around the world. Although several reports have reviewed BFRs contamination in general, none have focused specifically on foods and human milk, and the corresponding dietary exposure. Foods (including human milk) have long been recognized as a major pathway of BFRs intake for non-occupationally exposed persons. This review summarizes most available BFRs data in foods and human milk from China in recent years, and emphasizes several specific aspects, i.e., contamination levels of legacy and emerging BFRs, dietary exposure assessment and related health concerns, comparison between various BFRs, and temporal changes in BFRs contamination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radioactive contamination of foods from fallout as a source of error in some animal experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C G

    1957-01-01

    Radioactivity in control animals since 1956 has increased so as to vitiate experiments. The activity of foods used was measured. The counts are given for rat cubes, milk, peas, sugar, flour, cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, salt, semolina, and water. The high count of the cabbage is probably from /sup 137/Cs present as 4 micromicrocuries/g.

  14. Comparison of room temperature and cyrogenic sample processing in the analysis of chemical contaminants in foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, analytical results were compared when using different approaches to bulk food sample comminution, consisting of a vertical chopper (Blixer) at room temperature and at dry ice cryogenic conditions, followed by further subsample processing (20 g) using liquid nitrogen cryogenic conditio...

  15. Random or systematic sampling to detect a localised microbial contamination within a batch of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenburger, I.; Reij, M.W.; Boer, E.P.J.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic microorganisms are known to be distributed heterogeneously in food products that are solid, semi-solid or powdered, like for instance peanut butter, cereals, or powdered milk. This complicates effective detection of the pathogens by sampling. Two-class sampling plans, which are deployed

  16. Does temporal variation of mercury levels in Arctic seabirds reflect changes in global environmental contamination, or a modification of Arctic marine food web functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Jérôme; Grémillet, David; Traisnel, Gwendoline; Amélineau, Françoise; Bustamante, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Studying long-term trends of contaminants in Arctic biota is essential to better understand impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the exposure of sensitive species and marine ecosystems. We concurrently measured temporal changes (2006-2014) in mercury (Hg) contamination of little auks (Alle alle; the most abundant Arctic seabird) and in their major zooplankton prey species (Calanoid copepods, Themisto libellula, Gammarus spp.). We found an increasing contamination of the food-chain in East Greenland during summer over the last decade. More specifically, bird contamination (determined by body feather analyses) has increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Conversely, bird exposure to Hg during winter in the northwest Atlantic (determined by head feather analyses) decreased over the study period (at a rate of 1.5% per year), although winter concentrations remained consistently higher than during summer. By combining mercury levels measured in birds and zooplankton to isotopic analyses, our results demonstrate that inter-annual variations of Hg levels in little auks reflect changes in food-chain contamination, rather than a reorganization of the food web and a modification of seabird trophic ecology. They therefore underline the value of little auks, and Arctic seabirds in general, as bio-indicators of long-term changes in environmental contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioelectronic Nose Using Odorant Binding Protein-Derived Peptide and Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistor for the Assessment of Salmonella Contamination in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Manki; Kim, Daesan; Kang, Jinkyung; Lim, Jong Hyun; Lee, Seung Hwan; Ko, Hwi Jin; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Tai Hyun

    2016-12-06

    Salmonella infection is the one of the major causes of food borne illnesses including fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and nausea. Thus, early detection of Salmonella contamination is important for our healthy life. Conventional detection methods for the food contamination have limitations in sensitivity and rapidity; thus, the early detection has been difficult. Herein, we developed a bioelectronic nose using a carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistor (FET) functionalized with Drosophila odorant binding protein (OBP)-derived peptide for easy and rapid detection of Salmonella contamination in ham. 3-Methyl-1-butanol is known as a specific volatile organic compound, generated from the ham contaminated with Salmonella. We designed and synthesized the peptide based on the sequence of the Drosophila OBP, LUSH, which specifically binds to alcohols. The C-terminus of the synthetic peptide was modified with three phenylalanine residues and directly immobilized onto CNT channels using the π-π interaction. The p-type properties of FET were clearly maintained after the functionalization using the peptide. The biosensor detected 1 fM of 3-methyl-1-butanol with high selectivity and successfully assessed Salmonella contamination in ham. These results indicate that the bioelectronic nose can be used for the rapid detection of Salmonella contamination in food.

  18. Animal Feces Contribute to Domestic Fecal Contamination: Evidence from E. coli Measured in Water, Hands, Food, Flies, and Soil in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercumen, Ayse; Pickering, Amy J; Kwong, Laura H; Arnold, Benjamin F; Parvez, Sarker Masud; Alam, Mahfuja; Sen, Debashis; Islam, Sharmin; Kullmann, Craig; Chase, Claire; Ahmed, Rokeya; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P; Colford, John M

    2017-08-01

    Fecal-oral pathogens are transmitted through complex, environmentally mediated pathways. Sanitation interventions that isolate human feces from the environment may reduce transmission but have shown limited impact on environmental contamination. We conducted a study in rural Bangladesh to (1) quantify domestic fecal contamination in settings with high on-site sanitation coverage; (2) determine how domestic animals affect fecal contamination; and (3) assess how each environmental pathway affects others. We collected water, hand rinse, food, soil, and fly samples from 608 households. We analyzed samples with IDEXX Quantitray for the most probable number (MPN) of E. coli. We detected E. coli in source water (25%), stored water (77%), child hands (43%), food (58%), flies (50%), ponds (97%), and soil (95%). Soil had >120 000 mean MPN E. coli per gram. In compounds with vs without animals, E. coli was higher by 0.54 log 10 in soil, 0.40 log 10 in stored water and 0.61 log 10 in food (p food increased with increasing E. coli in soil, ponds, source water and hands. We provide empirical evidence of fecal transmission in the domestic environment despite on-site sanitation. Animal feces contribute to fecal contamination, and fecal indicator bacteria do not strictly indicate human fecal contamination when animals are present.

  19. Chesapeake Bay fish–osprey (Pandion haliaetus) food chain: Evaluation of contaminant exposure and genetic damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Rattner, Barnett A.; McGowan, Peter C.; Hale, Robert C.; Karouna-Reiner, Natalie K.; Erickson, Richard A.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    From 2011 to 2013, a large-scale ecotoxicological study was conducted in several Chesapeake Bay (USA) tributaries (Susquehanna River and flats, the Back, Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco Rivers, Anacostia/ middle Potomac, Elizabeth and James Rivers) and Poplar Island as a mid-Bay reference site. Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) diet and the transfer of contaminants from fish to osprey eggs were evaluated. The most bioaccumulative compounds (biomagnification factor > 5) included p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and bromodiphenyl ether (BDE) congeners 47, 99, 100, and 154. This analysis suggested that alternative brominated flame retardants and other compounds (methoxytriclosan) are not appreciably biomagnifying. A multivariate analysis of similarity indicated that major differences in patterns among study sites were driven by PCB congeners 105, 128, 156, 170/190, and 189, and PBDE congeners 99 and 209. An integrative redundancy analysis showed that osprey eggs from Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco River and the Elizabeth River had high residues of PCBs and p,p′-DDE, with PBDEs making a substantial contribution to overall halogenated contamination on the Susquehanna and Anacostia/middle Potomac Rivers. The redundancy analysis also suggested a potential relation between PBDE residues in osprey eggs and oxidative DNA damage in nestling blood samples. The results also indicate that there is no longer a discernible relation between halogenated contaminants in osprey eggs and their reproductive success in Chesapeake Bay. Osprey populations are thriving in much of the Chesapeake, with productivity rates exceeding those required to sustain a stable population.

  20. Fate of selected microorganisms when introduced as cross-contamination inocula into simulated food trash compartment waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard; Hummerick, Mary; Richards, Jeffrey; Birmele, Michele; Roberts, Michael

    counts and general cultivation-based methods. Detection and enumeration of challenge microbes was accomplished by cultivation-based microbiological methods with specific selective media and by molecular methods using quantitative stocktickerPCR (qPCR) with stocktickerDNA primers specific for each challenge organism. stocktickerDNA was extracted and purified from residual wastes with a stocktickerDNA isolation kit (Mo Bio), and quantified (NanoDrop) from standard curves prepared from pure culture isolates of each challenge organism. QPCR was conducted on a Roche LightCycler 480 using the Roche stocktickerSYBR Green Master Mix Kit. The identity of all challenge microbes in recovered isolates was verified by stocktickerDNA sequencing (stocktickerABI 3130 Genetic Analyzer - Applied Biosystems). To date, concentrations of challenge microbial populations at concentrations ranging from ˜107 - 108 have been added to simulated food waste and extracted either immediately after mixing or after 1 week of storage. Cultivation-based counts indicated that 5 of 6 challenge microbes could be recovered from simulated food wastes after inoculation for both concentrations. Only S. enterica serovar typhimurium could not be detected at week 0 for the 107 inoculum. Between week 0 and 1, challenge microbes increased in density: S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa increasing up to 4 orders of magnitude from the 107 inoculum. Molecular results for the week 0 and week 1 stored samples indicated that the relative concentrations of target stocktickerDNA for the challenge microbes had increased between 1 and 3 orders of magnitude. These preliminary studies demonstrate that potential problems regarding pathogens as cross-contaminants from other waste streams could develop during storage of space mission solid wastes. Ongoing studies are examining longer storage times up to 6 weeks. The results can be used to determine requirements and criteria for waste treatment prior to storage and provides a

  1. Effects of mild cold stress on the survival of seawater-adapted mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) maintained on food contaminated with petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, W.N.; Gorsline, J.; Cronshaw, J.

    1979-01-01

    (1) Seawater-adapted Mallard ducks maintained in the laboratory will freely consume food that has been contaminated with either any one of a variety of crude oils or a petroleum derivative such as No. 2 fuel oil. (2) During a 100-day experimental period total masses of petroleum equivalent to 50% of the mean body weight were consumed by some birds and many showed no apparent symptoms of distress. (3) The consumption of petroleum-contaminated food was frequently accompanied by a persistent hyperphagia but no clear patterns of change in body weight were associated with this condition. (4) Among those birds that survived the 100-day experimental period only small changes in mean body weight were observed between successive weighings and in most instances these represented less than 10% of the previously recorded weight. (5) In all groups, including those maintained on uncontaminated food, most of the mortality occurred following exposure to continuous mild cold stress. The total number of deaths in the groups given petroleum-contaminated food, however, was always higher than that among birds given uncontaminated food. (6) The spate of mortality that occurred in groups given petroleum-contaminated food usually occurred earlier, lasted longer, and involved more birds than it did among groups fed uncontaminated food. (7) The pattern of each episode of mortality was sometimes quantitatively related to the concentration of petroleum in the food and a striking range of relative toxicities were observed among the crude oils from different geographic regions. (8) Throughout the experiment, the mean body weight of the birds that died was always significantly less than that of the survivors in the same group; in all instances most of the loss in weight occurred during the 2 weeks preceding death. (9) Autopsy revealed that adrenal hypertrophy and lymphoepithelial involution were characteristic in all of the birds that died, suggesting that a high level of adrenocortical

  2. Research on the contamination levels of norovirus in food facilities using groundwater in South Korea, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Su; Joo, In Sun; Ju, Si Yeon; Jeong, Min Hee; Song, Yun-Hee; Kwak, Hyo Sun

    2018-09-02

    Norovirus (NoV) is a major pathogenic virus that is responsible for foodborne and waterborne gastroenteritis outbreaks. Groundwater is an important source of drinking water and is used in agriculture and food manufacturing processes. This study investigated norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems at 1360 sites in seven metropolitan areas and nine provinces in 2015-2016. Temperature, pH, residual chlorine, and turbidity content were assessed to analyze the water quality. In 2015, six sites were positive for the presence of NoV (0.88%) and in 2016, two sites were positive (0.29%); in total, NoV was detected in 8 of the 1360 sample sites (0.59%) investigated. Identified genotypes of NoV in groundwater included GI.5, 9 and GII.4, 6, 13, 17, and 21. GII.17 was the most prevalent genotype in treated groundwater used in the food industry. This dominance of GII.17 was corroborated by NoV infection outbreak cases and the results of a survey of coastal waters in South Korea in 2014-2015. Although a low detection rate was observed in this study, NoV is a pathogen that can spread extensively. Therefore, it is necessary to periodically monitor levels of norovirus which is responsible for food poisoning in groundwater. This is a first report to reveal epidemic genotype shift of norovirus in groundwater treatment system of food facilities in South Korea. Our results may contribute to the enhancement of public health and sanitary conditions by providing molecular epidemiological information on groundwater NoV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Review of arsenic contamination, exposure through water and food and low cost mitigation options for rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Tjell, Jens Christian; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid found to be an important groundwater contaminant of mainly natural geogenic origin worldwide particularly in large deltas and along major rivers in poor regions of South- and East-Asia. Excessive and long-term human intake of toxic inorganic As with food and wate...... for lowering the human intake of As in rural areas are critically evaluated in terms of public acceptance, sustainability and impact on arsenicosis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....... is causing arsenicosis, which is disfiguring, disabling, and leading to potentially fatal diseases like skin- and internal cancers. It is estimated that more than 100. million people mainly in developing countries are at risk. The arsenicosis situation in affected countries has been named the largest...

  4. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination from Environment to Food Matrix by TXRF: The Case of Rice and Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabjola Bilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the chemical analysis of contaminated soils of India and the rice grown in the same area. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique for elemental chemical analysis of environmental samples, and it can be a useful tool to assess food safety. Metals uptake in rice crop grown in soils from different areas was studied. In this work soil, rice husk and rice samples were analyzed after complete solubilization of samples by microwave acid digestion. Heavy metals concentration detected in rice samples decreases in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. The metal content in rice husk was higher than in rice. This study suggests, for the first time, a possible role of heavy metals filter played by rice husk. The knowledge of metals sequestration capability of rice husk may promote some new management practices for rice cultivation to preserve it from pollution.

  5. Food contamination by PCBs and waste disposal crisis: Evidence from goat milk in Campania (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, M C; Fusco, G; Monnolo, A; Saggiomo, F; Guccione, J; Mercogliano, R; Clausi, M T

    2017-11-01

    The study aims at investigating whether, and if so, to what extent the strong presence of urban and industrial waste in a territory may cause PCB contamination in goat milk produced therein. We compared PCB concentrations in goat milk from three different locations in the Campania region (Italy). One of the three locations, together with its surrounding area, has long suffered from illegal waste disposal and burning mainly by the so-called Ecomafia. The other locations, not involved in these illegal activities, allowed us to create a control group of goats with characteristics very similar to those of main interest. In milk from the waste contaminated area we identified high PCB concentrations (six indicator PCBs amounted to 170 ng g -1 on lipid weight, on average), whereas there was an almost total absence of such pollutants in milk from the control group. Concentrations of the six indicator PCBs were above the current European maximum residue limit fixed by the EU. At the same time, we found a lower average value of lipid content and a negative relationship between lipid content and PCB concentrations. Evidence indicates the potential health risk for consumers living in areas involved in illegal dumping of waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inactivation of possible micromycete food contaminants using the low-temperature plasma and hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čeřovský, M.; Khun, J.; Rusová, K.; Scholtz, V.; Soušková, H.

    2013-01-01

    The inhibition effect of hydrogen peroxide aerosol, low-temperature plasma and their combinations has been studied on several micromycetes spores. The low-temperature plasma was generated in corona discharges in the open air apparatus with hydrogen peroxide aerosol. Micromycete spores were inoculated on the surface of agar plates, exposed solely to the hydrogen peroxide aerosol, corona discharge or their combination. After incubation the diameter of inhibition zone was measured. The solely positive corona discharge exhibits no inactivation effect, the solely negative corona discharge and solely hydrogen peroxide aerosol exhibit the inactivation effect, however their combinations exhibit to be much more effective. Low-temperature plasma and hydrogen peroxide aerosol present a possible alternative method of microbial decontamination of food, food packages or other thermolabile materials

  7. Inactivation of possible micromycete food contaminants using the low-temperature plasma and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čeřovský, M., E-mail: scholtz@aldebaran.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Department of Food Preservation, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology (Czech Republic); Khun, J. [Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Department of Physics and Measurements, Faculty of Chemical Engineering (Czech Republic); Rusová, K. [Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Department of Food Preservation, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology (Czech Republic); Scholtz, V. [Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Department of Physics and Measurements, Faculty of Chemical Engineering (Czech Republic); Soušková, H. [Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Department of Computing and Control Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-15

    The inhibition effect of hydrogen peroxide aerosol, low-temperature plasma and their combinations has been studied on several micromycetes spores. The low-temperature plasma was generated in corona discharges in the open air apparatus with hydrogen peroxide aerosol. Micromycete spores were inoculated on the surface of agar plates, exposed solely to the hydrogen peroxide aerosol, corona discharge or their combination. After incubation the diameter of inhibition zone was measured. The solely positive corona discharge exhibits no inactivation effect, the solely negative corona discharge and solely hydrogen peroxide aerosol exhibit the inactivation effect, however their combinations exhibit to be much more effective. Low-temperature plasma and hydrogen peroxide aerosol present a possible alternative method of microbial decontamination of food, food packages or other thermolabile materials.

  8. Identification and measurement of pesticide contaminants in food products by electron impact GC/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, Florina; Moldovan, Zaharie; Vlassa, Mircea

    2009-01-01

    The paper concern is determination of eight pesticides in food products samples. The target compounds are: Lindane, Heptachlor, Aldrin, o,p-DDE, Dieldrin, Endrin, p,p'-DDT, and Methoxychlor. The compounds quantities were performed from chromatographic area obtained in full scan GC/MS mode after baseline separation and by comparation with surrogate internal standard area (Diphenylamine). The samples were concentrated by extraction with organic solvents (acetone) by Solid-Liquid Extraction (SLE) procedures the recovery factors being better than 80% except for Heptachlors. The coefficient of correlation of detector response function was better than 0.913 and LOQ under 0.015 μg/g. The method enables to determine pesticides at low μg/g in food supplements.

  9. Mathematical programmes for calculator type PTK 1072 to calculate the radioactive contamination in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, E.; Visi, Gy.

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical programmes are given for calculator type PTK 1072 (Hungarian made), to make easier the lengthy calculations applied in examinations in laboratories for control of radioactive materials in food. Basic consideration of making a programme, the method, the mathematical formulae, the variations of calculation and control of program are shown by examples. Making programmes for calculators of other types, too, can be facilitated by adapting the basic consideration. (author)

  10. Geochemistry and mercury contamination in receiving environments of artisanal mining wastes and identified concerns for food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J., E-mail: amanda.reichelt-brushett@scu.edu.au [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Stone, Jane [School of Environment, Sc